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1

Mycotoxins in fungal contaminated samples of animal feed from western Canada, 1982-1994.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feed samples from 94 cases involving fungal contamination and suspected mycotoxicosis of farm animals in western Canada were examined during 1982-1994 to assess the incidence of mycotoxins. Samples were analyzed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, and the fungal estrogen zearalenone. Samples infected with Fusarium fungi were additionally assayed for nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-x, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin. Mycotoxins were found in 21 feed samples from 17 cases (18% of the reported cases), generally at levels far below those needed to induce symptoms under laboratory conditions. HT-2 toxin and other type-A trichothecenes were detected in 5 samples, deoxynivalenol and other type-B trichothecenes in 13, ochratoxin A in 5, and citrinin in 2. In 9 cases, symptoms observed in the animals were consistent with the known effects of the mycotoxin(s) found in the particular feed samples. PMID:9008801

Abramson, D; Mills, J T; Marquardt, R R; Frohlich, A A

1997-01-01

2

Mycotoxins in fungal contaminated samples of animal feed from western Canada, 1982-1994.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Feed samples from 94 cases involving fungal contamination and suspected mycotoxicosis of farm animals in western Canada were examined during 1982-1994 to assess the incidence of mycotoxins. Samples were analyzed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, and the fungal estrogen zearalenone. Samples infected with Fusarium fungi were additionally assayed for nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-x, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin. Mycotoxin...

Abramson, D.; Mills, J. T.; Marquardt, R. R.; Frohlich, A. A.

1997-01-01

3

Rapid and specific detection of Salmonella spp. in animal feed samples by PCR after culture enrichment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in these feed samples compared to DyNAzyme II, FastStart Taq, Platinum Taq, Pwo, rTth, Taq, and Tfl. The specificity of the Tth assay was confirmed by testing 101 Salmonella and 43 non-Salmonella strains isolated from feed and food samples. A sample preparation method based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water and DNA amplification with Tth DNA polymerase was developed. The probability of detecting small numbers of salmonellae in feed, in the presence of natural background flora, was accurately determined and foundto follow a logistic regression model. From this model, the probability of detecting I CFU per 25 g of feed in artificially contaminated soy samples was calculated and found to be 0.81. The PCR protocol was evaluated on 155 naturally contaminated feed samples and compared to an established culture-based method, NMKL-71. Eight percent of the samples were positive by PCR, compared with 3% with the conventional method. The reasons for the differences in sensitivity are discussed. Use of this method in the routine analysis of animal feed samples would improve safety in the food chain.

Löfström, Charlotta; Knutsson, R.

2004-01-01

4

Representative sampling of animal feed and mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sampling of grain, animal feeds (solid & liquid) including important mineral mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector is subject to an ongoing investigation with the objective of improving existing (sub-optimal) sampling procedures. Results from the first 6 months are presented here; the project will continue for two more years and will include international collaborators (Australia, Canada). The Danish authorities have instituted a system of control analysis, which contains a set of mandated sampling and analysis methods. From a preliminary survey it was concluded that in fact all of the existing sampling procedures are not optimized in the light of Pierre Gy’s Theory of Sampling (TOS).

Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

2005-01-01

5

Detection and Characterisation of Salmonella in Animal Feed Samples by PCR-Based Methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animal feed is a recognised source of Salmonella enterica for farm livestock and may also indirectly cause infection in people consuming foods of animal origin. It is therefore important to have rapid, reproducible and specific methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed, and for the characterisation of strains for further epidemiological investigations or to trace the source of contamination in a production facility. This study focuses on the development and validation of PCR-based methods for the detection and characterisation of Salmonella in the farm-to-fork chain and, particularly, in animal feed samples. The PCR performance of a 5' nuclease real-time PCR assay was studied to optimise the detection of pre-enriched Salmonella cells in buffered peptone water (BPW). Using rTth instead of AmpliTaq Gold resulted in an earlier detection during enrichment. A simple pre-PCR processing strategy to overcome inhibition by substances in the feed was developed, based on enrichment in BPW followed by PCR using Tth DNA polymerase, which was found to exhibit resistance to PCR-inhibitory feed samples. No DNA extraction or cell lysis was included in the pre-treatment. The probability of detecting Salmonella in feed samples was found to follow a logistic regression model and the probability of detecting 1 CFU/25 g feed in artificially contaminated soya samples was 0.81. The use of the PCR method for routine analysis of feed was validated in a study on 250 feed samples where no significant difference could be observed in the results obtained by the PCR method and the culture-based standard method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis, NMKL). By applying the PCR method the analysis time can be decreased from at least three days to 24 h. The PCR method was found to be superior to the NMKL method when analysing Salmonella in acidified feed samples due to failure to detect living but stressed Salmonella cells by NMKL while they were detected by PCR. The three genotyping methods automated ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were evaluated for the analysis of S. Senftenberg strains originating from long-term contamination in a feed mill, and in tracing the origin of an outbreak of salmonellosis connected to consumption of a fish gratin. It was found that the reproducibility of RAPD could be improved by the use of Tth DNA polymerase and that RAPD could be used as a screening method to select the isolates that should be further studied by the more expensive and time-consuming PFGE. PFGE was useful both in finding the source of contamination in the feed factory and in investigating the epidemiology behind the outbreak. Animal feed was suggested as the source of contamination in the outbreak associated with the consumption of fish gratin. In conclusion, the implementation of PCR-based methods for the detection and characterisation of Salmonella in the food chain from farm to fork can help improve food safety.

Löfström, Charlotta

2005-01-01

6

Validation of a Diagnostic PCR Method for Routine Analysis of Salmonella spp. in Animal Feed Samples  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As a part of a validation study, a comparative study of a PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL-71, for detection of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic validation organ for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) on 250 artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water followed by PCR using the DNA polymerase Tth and an internal amplification control. No significant difference was found between the two methods. The relative accuracy, relative sensitivity and relative specificity were found to be 96.0, 97.3, and 98.8%, respectively. PCR inhibition was observed for rape seed samples. For the acidified feed samples, more Salmonella-positive samples were found with the PCR method compared to the NMKL method. This study focuses on the growing demand for validated diagnostic PCR methods for routine analysis of animal feed and food samples to assure safety in the food production chain.

Löfström, Charlotta; Axelsson, Charlotta Engdahl

2008-01-01

7

Irradiation effect on animal feeds and feedstuffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of ?-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)

8

A Mycological Survey on Feed Ingredients and Mixed Animal Feeds in Ghom Province, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Feed contamination to fungi can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effects on animal health and production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mycoflora of 32 feed samples representing 10 types of animal feed ingredients, which included corn seed, corn silage, cottonseed meal, dried bread, barely, straw, hay, bran, mixed-feed and concentrate, in Ghom province, Iran during a one-year study. The most dominant species isolated of animal feed samples belonged to the gene...

Ali Reza Khosravi; Mohammad Dakhili; Hojjatollah Shokri

2008-01-01

9

21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for...Labeling Requirements § 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients. (a) An animal feed shall be exempt from the...

2010-04-01

10

Aflatoxins in animal feed in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and forty-six samples of animal feed (barley, n = 60; wheat bran, n = 22; wheat dry pulp, n = 29; and canola meal, n = 35) were collected in 2011 from Mashhad (Khorasan, Iran). Aflatoxins (AFs) were determined in these samples after immunoaffinity column clean-up by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination was found in 28 samples: in five of the barley samples (8.3%) at a mean level of 0.48 µg·kg(-1), in two wheat bran samples (9.0%) at a mean level of 0.88 µg·kg(-1), in 10 wheat dry pulp samples (34.5%) at a mean level of 0.30 µg·kg(-1) and in 11 canola meal samples (31.4%) at a mean level of 0.92 µg·kg(-1). AFB1 levels were below the maximum levels of Iran regulations (5 µg·kg(-1)) and the EU maximum limit (5 µg·kg(-1)). PMID:24779978

Beheshti, Hamed Reza; Asadi, Mohammad

2014-03-01

11

78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0253] Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms...revoking an advisory opinion on animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with...

2013-07-16

12

21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL...feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new...

2010-04-01

13

Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

14

Evaluation of PCDD/Fs characterization in animal feed and feed additives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safety control of feed and feed additives is necessary to have safe food of animal origin. Based on media reports, nine incidents regarding dioxins and/or PCBs contaminations occurred worldwide during the last decade. Korea is a country which imports feed and feed additives. In this study, various kinds of feed and feed additives were analyzed to monitor the contamination level of dioxins. The level of PCDD/Fs in fish oil was the highest with a concentration of 23.33ngkg(-1), which is equivalent to a toxicological concentration of 4.68ngWHO-TEQ/kg. Feed from animals origin such as chicken meal, animal fat, fish meal, fish oil, and shell powder showed relatively higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs. Feed from plants origin, minerals, and additives ranged from non-detects for bit pulp and ethoxyquin to 8.28ngkg(-1) for dl-methionine. From a toxicological point of view, the highest concentration in vitamins was 0.08ngWHO-TEQ/kg among the feed additives. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the dominant congener in samples of fish oil, fish meal, and shell powder. Animal fat showed that the pattern of PCDD/Fs depends on the sources of contamination. A sample of animal fat showed 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF and the other sample showed 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD as a primary congener. Generally, low levels of PCDDs were detected in feed additives. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in choline chloride were different with that in choline chloride from an incident in Europe in 2000. PMID:17604812

Kim, MeeKyung; Kim, Sooyeon; Yun, Seon Jong; Kwon, Jin-Wook; Son, Seong-Wan

2007-09-01

15

Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emphasis in recent years on livestock farming as a means of increasing the availability of animal protein in India has led to a spurt in the commercial production of a variety of cattle and poultry feeds. Adverse climatic conditions have posed problems of insect infestation and spoilage due to microorganisms, for which radiation treatment of prepacked feeds could provide a solution. The wholesomeness of an irradiated (0.2 and 2.5 Mrad) diet composed of wheat, shrimp, milk powder, vegetable and oil has been investigated in long term feeding studies involving five successive generations of rats. Growth, foodintake, longevity and mortality remained comparable between control and test groups of animals. Reproductive performance as judged by fertility index, litter size and weaning index were also similar. Examination of the animals sacrified at the age of 23-24 months for gross pathological manifestations including tumor incidence did not indicate any significant differences between the control and the test groups. Judged by a variety of parameters, the rearing of rats for upto five generations on an irradiated diet had no adverse influences on their health. (author)

16

Investigations on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in animal feeding-stuffs and cereals ; samples drawn in the Netherlands in 1995  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1995 investigations were carried out on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in grain for human consumption and in various types of fodder and grain for animal consumption. The sampled lots were intended for the Netherlands market. The samples tested originating from lots for human consumption comprised domestic and imported grains from a large commercial supplier of raw materials for the bakery industry. Ochratoxin A was found to occur at a concentration of 8,7 mug/kg i...

Ea, Sizoo; Hp, Egmond

2012-01-01

17

Microalgae for Biofuels and Animal Feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential of microalgae biomass production for low-cost commodities—biofuels and animal feeds—using sunlight and CO2 is reviewed. Microalgae are currently cultivated in relatively small-scale systems, mainly for high value human nutritional products. For commodities, production costs must be decreased by an order of magnitude, and high productivity algal strains must be developed that can be stably cultivated in large open ponds and harvested by low-cost processes. For animal feeds, the algal biomass must be high in digestible protein and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that can substitute for fish meal and fish oils. Biofuels will require a high content of vegetable oils (preferably triglycerides, hydrocarbons or fermentable carbohydrates. Many different cultivation systems, algal species, harvesting methods, and biomass processing technologies are being developed worldwide. However, only raceway-type open pond systems are suitable for the production of low-cost commodities.

John Benemann

2013-11-01

18

77 FR 24138 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2012-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin AGENCY: Food and Drug...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2012-04-23

19

77 FR 4228 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin AGENCY: Food and Drug...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2012-01-27

20

76 FR 60721 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin AGENCY...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2011-09-30

 
 
 
 
21

76 FR 79064 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin AGENCY: Food and Drug...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2011-12-21

22

75 FR 34361 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol AGENCY: Food and...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2010-06-17

23

76 FR 65109 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2011-10-20

24

75 FR 9334 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Chlortetracycline  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Chlortetracycline AGENCY: Food...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2010-03-02

25

75 FR 11451 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Zilpaterol  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Zilpaterol AGENCY: Food and...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2010-03-11

26

75 FR 7555 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bacitracin Zinc; Nicarbazin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bacitracin Zinc; Nicarbazin...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2010-02-22

27

75 FR 20917 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2010-04-22

28

75 FR 5887 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Ractopamine; Monensin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Ractopamine; Monensin AGENCY...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2010-02-05

29

75 FR 54019 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feed; Ractopamine  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feed; Ractopamine AGENCY: Food and...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 1. The authority citation...

2010-09-03

30

76 FR 16534 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol; Correction AGENCY...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Accordingly, 21 CFR part 558...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2011-03-24

31

77 FR 22667 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2012-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin AGENCY: Food and Drug...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2012-04-17

32

76 FR 76894 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tilmicosin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tilmicosin AGENCY: Food and...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2011-12-09

33

77 FR 58021 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2012-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin AGENCY: Food and Drug...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 3. The authority citation...

2012-09-19

34

21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510...approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. Each applicant shall...

2010-04-01

35

Corn Fiber Hulls as a Food Additive or Animal Feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber ...

C. Abbas, K. E. Beery, M. J. Cecava, P. H. Doane

2006-01-01

36

78 FR 79299 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2013-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins; Correction...The document amended the animal drug regulations to remove dairy...loose-mineral medicated feeds containing bambermycins...

2013-12-30

37

21 CFR 573.380 - Ethoxyquin in animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. 573.380 Section 573.380...Listing § 573.380 Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. Ethoxyquin (1,2-dihydro-6-ethoxy-2...4-trimethylquinoline) may be safely used in animal feeds, when incorporated therein...

2010-04-01

38

76 FR 17776 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0160] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 12. The authority...

2011-03-31

39

75 FR 55676 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 5. The authority citation...

2010-09-14

40

75 FR 24394 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 3. The authority citation...

2010-05-05

 
 
 
 
41

76 FR 16533 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Accordingly, 21 CFR part 558...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2011-03-24

42

21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL...reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new...

2010-04-01

43

75 FR 65565 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 7. The authority citation...

2010-10-26

44

76 FR 11330 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 5. The authority citation...

2011-03-02

45

78 FR 41401 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Draft Animal Feed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collection; Comment Request; Draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards...collection associated with the draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards...information technology. Draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program...

2013-07-10

46

Preservation of animal feed by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of insect infestation on food-stored products and animal feed were studied by using the combination treatments of chemical packaging and radiation treatments. The insecticide and fumigation treatments have been applied by chuwit (1981) but it was reinfested again during the marketing and storage then the radiation treatment in variation dosages have been used to kill all stages of insects. It was found that the dose of required 1 KGy can kill all stages of rice moth but the higher dose of 1.0-1.5 KGy was required Tenebroides sp., and irradiation dose of 0.5-1.0 KGy was required for redflour heetle, rice weevil. Thaneroclerus sp. and cigarette beetle. As Heemert C. V. (1979) mentioned the difference effect of irradiation dose was depended on sexes, sizes age, and species of the insect. As the same as the radiation effect on the type of Chromosome, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera which are carried holokinetic chromosomes in stead of monocentonic chromosome as Diptera then the higher dosage will be needed to damage the one who carried holokinetic chromosome. So a dose of 2 KGy would probably be sufficient because all of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera will be lethality within few days then the polypropylene at 0.02 m.m. thick will be needed to keep the feed free from insect reinfestation during storing. Salmonella sp. has been determined by the Standard method in ISO 3565 (1975)

47

77 FR 14272 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds  

Science.gov (United States)

...Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal...For increased rate of Feed continuously 000986 weight gain, improved as...

2012-03-09

48

Mass Spectrometric Monitoring of Animal Feed for BSE Spread  

Science.gov (United States)

The researchers in London have developed an emerging technology that utilizes mass spectrometry to detect processed animal protein (PAP) in animal feed. The amount of animal protein in the feed can be determined by the ratio of the hydrolyzed gelatine signal at m/z 1044 to an internal standard signal at m/z 556.

King, Angela G.

2004-01-01

49

Screening of mycotoxins in animal feed from the region of Vojvodina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper shows the results of screening of mycotoxins in animal feed originating from the region of Vojvodina. Permanent screening is needed on all levels of production and storage, as well as the use of known methods to reduce mould contamination or toxin content in feedstuffs and feed. A total of 56 representative samples were collected from feed companies from the region of Vojvodina. Samples were collected during February 2009. The collected samples included 41 samples of feedstuffs (so...

Koki? Bojana M.; ?abarkapa Ivana S.; Levi? Jovanka D.; Mandi? Anamarija I.; Mati? Jovana J.; Ivanov Dušica S.

2009-01-01

50

Bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the growth, the absorption and the dynamics of phosphorus and calcium phosphates of high fluorine content , triple superphosphates (TSP) and two sedimentary phosphates Riecito (RIO) and Monte Fresco (MONTE) vs dicalcium phosphate (DICAL), they were carried out two experiments with sheep. In the first one, with a duration of 360 days, the group (six animals) consumed DICAL, and at the 330 day of feeding it was divided in two groups, one under the same treatment and to the other one it was added 500 ppm of fluorine like NaF (DICAL+F). In this experiment the growth was evaluated, and at the end of the period, it was determined the phosphorus and calcium absorption and kinetics, the retention of fluorine in different sources, as well as the bony mineralization. In the second experiment, with a duration of 30 days, the phosphorus absorption and kinetics, as and the retention of fluorine in the sources under study, were determined. In both experiments, for the dynamic studies it was used the isotopic dilution technique, by means of the dosage, through jugular injection, of 200 uCi 32P and, for via oral, 200 uCi 45Ca. The weight gained (g / animal /day ) was 75, 87, 56 and 53 for DICAL, RIO, MONTE and TSP, respectively, with significant differences (P'0.05) in favor of DICAL and RIO. The true absorption of phosphorus (%), for the fed animals during 30 and 360 days, respectively, was 73 and 76 for DICAL, 40 and 57 for RIO, 36 and 57 for MONTE and, 79 and 71 for TSP, being significantly higher (P'0.05), for both periods, the values of DICAL and TSP. The evaluation of 12 months of absorption of RIVER and MONTE was higher than during the period of 30 days. The absorption of calcium at the 362 days was higher for DICAL and RIO in relation to MONTE and TSP. The addition of fluorine during 30 days didn't affect the calcium and phosphorus absorption. The run time to reach the maximum level of specific activity of calcium in blood was higher for RIO, MONTE and TSP. The run time corresponding to the mobilization of hematic phosphorus to the different compartments (inter, intracells and bony) were higher for RIO, MONTE and TSP, for the two times of feeding DICAL+F in relation to DICAL; while for calcium, DICAL went superior to RIO, MONTE, DICAL+F and TSP, in the same order, indicating that fluorine increased the half time for the absorption and diminished the half time for the compartamental mobilization. The bony mineralization (density: g / cc; ashes: %) was bigger for DICAL and TSP and minor for RIO and MONTE, without differences between DICAL and DICAL. The specific activity in bone was smaller for DICAL than for RIO, MONTE and TSP, as much for 32P than for 45Ca. The accumulation of fluorine (ppm) in the bony tissue was bigger (P'0.05) for TSP (3033) and MONTE (2100), in relation to RIO (1767), DICAL+F (1633) and DICAL (1333). It is concluded that the phosphates of RIO and MONTE have a smaller bioavailability in connection with DICAL and TSP, and that the addition of fluorine in DICAL doesn't modify the phosphorus absorption but the calcium kinetics at blood level and the specific activity in the bony tissue, indicating a possible effect on the absorption and metabolism of that element

51

Near infrared spectroscopy for enforcement of European legislation concerning the use of animal by-products in animal feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper summarises the work done in the framework of two R&D projects aimed to demonstrate the contribution of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to help the enforcement of the European legislation governing the use of animal by-products in animal feeds. Three different types of animal feed products were studied: compound feeds (CFs, animal protein byproducts meals (APBPs and animal fats by-products (AFBPs. The quantitative and qualitative chemometric models produced with a large collection of compound feed samples (n = 1005 ground and 523 unground have demonstrated, that NIRS can be used for the detection and quantification of the meat and bone meal (MBM added to compound feeds. Discriminant models produced with unground samples produced 100% of correctly classified samples in two cloned instruments placed in two different locations. The results also show that two dimensions NIR spectra of Animal By-Products (ABP, animal meals and fats may contain information about the animal species or group of species from which the ABPs were produced. However, further work is needed to enlarge the sample bank and the spectral libraries with well authenticated samples in order to increase the robustness of the quantitative and qualitative NIRS models. The paper opens expectations for using NIRS for the enforcement of legislation concerning the use of ABPs in animal feeds. More research and demonstration efforts have to be done in order to obtain more definitive and robust predictive models and for optimising its implementation either at-line, on-line and in-line in feed factories and inspection laboratories.

Martnez A.

2005-01-01

52

FDA's Regulation of Animal Feed: Labeling and Branding Shortcomings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Center for Veterinary Medicine (“CVMâ€), a division of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDAâ€), is responsible for administering the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act sections applicable to animal feed. The Association of American Feed Control Officials (“AAFCOâ€), an association of state, provincial, and national feed control officials, however, plays a large role in the regulation of anim...

Tibbetts, Cody

2002-01-01

53

Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement. Radiation treatment for disinfection of manure have been investigated on manure collected during the dry and rainy seasons. Total bacterial counts of non-irradiated dewatered manure with water content of around 13.44% were found to be 1.0x106 up to 1.4x108 per g during the dry season, and 2.0x105 up to 1.7x107 per g during the rainy season, while coliforms, enterobecteriacease, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pseudomonas were found to be 1.0x106 up to 1.4x108 per g, 1.0x104 up to 1.2x106 per g, 4.0x105 up to 2.2x107 per g, 1.8x103 per g, and 1.0x102 up to 5.4x103 per g, respectively. About 30% of the total coliforms were found to be escherichia coli. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy eliminated salmonella from all samples observed. No. Shigella Vibrio, and parasites were detected in the samples. Total nitrogen of the dewatered manure ranged between 1.87 and 2.33%, phosphorus between 1.25 and 4.38%, and potassium between 0.66 and 2.18%. Heavy metal elements were found only in very small amounts, hence the dewatered manure could be applied as animal feed or soil conditioner. A combination of irradiation at 4 kGy and storage for 3 months was synergistically effective to eliminate coliform, E. coli, and salmonella in the dewatered manure. From nutritional point of view, the manure is still acceptable for animal feed supplement. (author). 13 refs

54

NEW DIMENSION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANIMAL FEED  

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The medicinal plants and herbs have been used for many years in the treatment of various diseases in animals and human beings. Now-a-days, utilization of these medicinal plants is increasing. These are used in animal feed as the growth promoters. Due to prohibition of most of the antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feed because of their residual effects, plant extracts are becoming more popular. They act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal...

M A Tipu, M. S. Akhtar

2006-01-01

55

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions § 558...disease prevention. etc.) uses in animal feed of antibiotic and sulfonamide drugs...force on the use of antibiotics in animal feeds. All persons or firms...

2010-04-01

56

21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

...RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements...neither contain nor are food additives as defined...oats, rice, rye, and wheat. (4) Plant protein...flours, germ meals, gluten feeds, gluten...

2010-04-01

57

Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IN); Cecava, Michael J. (Decatur, IN); Doane, Perry H. (Decatur, IN)

2010-12-21

58

75 FR 15610 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of...

2010-03-30

59

RISK MANAGEMENT EVALUATION FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) developed a Risk Management Evaluation (RME) to provide information needed to help plan future research in the Laboratory dealing with the environmental impact of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Agriculture...

60

Sensitisation to enzymes in the animal feed industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES—To assess the prevalence of enzyme sensitisation in the animal feed industry.?METHODS—A cross sectional study was conducted in four animal feed factories, where several enzymes had been used in powder form for 7-9 years. Before this study, enzymes in liquid form had started to be used. Sensitisation to enzymes was examined by skin prick and radioallergosorbent (RAST) tests. Altogether 218 workers were tested; 140 people in various tasks in manufacturing, where exposure to v...

Vanhanen, M.; Tuomi, T.; Tiikkainen, U.; Tupasela, O.; Tuomainen, A.; Luukkonen, R.; Nordman, H.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for use in animal feed may be contaminated...contamination of such animal feeds having the potentiality...intended for animal feed and encountered...microorganisms: Bone meal, blood meal, crab meal...solubles, meat scraps, poultry meat meal,...

2010-04-01

62

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...Decisions § 500.35 Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...Act. Further, Salmonella contamination of such animal feeds having...

2010-04-01

63

21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES...use for the products may include animal feed. The term includes renderers...and that are intended for use in animal feed shall take the following...

2010-04-01

64

21 CFR 589.1 - Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed. 589.1 Section 589...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED General Provisions §...

2010-04-01

65

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...Rulings and Decisions § 500.35 Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with...

2010-04-01

66

40 CFR 406.70 - Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory. 406.70 Section...GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Animal Feed Subcategory § 406.70 Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

67

78 FR 52774 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Animal Feed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collection; Comment Request; Animal Feed Network (Pet Event Tracking Network...Prevent Spread of Pet Food and Animal Feed Related Diseases AGENCY: Food...paperwork burden to the public of the Animal Feed Network, which includes the...

2013-08-26

68

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. 500.35 Section...35 Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. (a) Investigations...animal feed may be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria, an organism...

2010-04-01

69

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals. 558...15 Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals. ...uses in animal feed of antibiotic and sulfonamide drugs whether granted by...

2010-04-01

70

[Animal feeding and feed legislation after the detection of the first indigenous BSE cases in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Great Britain, even the earliest tangible signs indicating the epidemiologic significance of meat and bone meal in the spreading of BSE soon gave rise to increasingly rigorous legislative measures regulating animal feedstuffs. In 1994 a ban on the feeding of animal proteins to ruminants was implemented throughout the entire EU. But until the first BSE cases were actually confirmed in locally raised cattle (November 2000), feeding practice and legislation more or less in Germany remained unaffected by the efforts undertaken in Great Britain. This situation was suddenly changed on 1 December, 2000, when the so-called "Verfütterungsverbot" was put into effect, a law which drastically extended bans regarding the feedstuffs (including fishmeal and animal fats) as well as the species concerned (all animals used in food production). In 2001 the "contamination" phenomenon (ingredients of animal origin were detected in mixed feeds) became a vital issue for the feed industry; through the media, the subject "feedstuff safety" gained a previously unseen level of public awareness. Those circles concerned with mixed feed production and animal husbandry were increasingly confronted with the consequences of the "Verfütterungsverbot" (availability and pricing of substitute ingredients; the demand for amino acids and inorganic sources of phosphorus; problems finding adequate substitutes for animal fats; poor digestibility of alternative components such as indigenous legumes or vegetable fats in calf diets; lower utilization rate of original phosphorus in mixed feeds with negative consequences for skeletal development). With the conditional approval of fishmeal (except in feeds for ruminants) the situation has eased again to a certain degree; on the EU level there are increasing signals pointing toward a political intention to reinstate the utilization of by-products of slaughtered animals qualified for human consumption (with the exception of fallen/dead animals and specific risk material) in poultry and swine feeding. In Germany, at least, the question of animal fat utilization for food-producing animals is still unsolved. PMID:12224466

Kamphues, J

2002-08-01

71

A study on radiation sterilization of SPF animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SPF animal feed could be infected with various microorganisms in the crushing or granulating process. Fumigation with chemicals is generally employed for sterilization of feeds, but owing to low permeability of the chemicals, this sterilization method is not very good, and there may be residual chemicals in the feed. Research results of sterilization by radiation show that irradiation by 60Co gamma rays will reduce infections for SPF animals. 8 kGy can kill microorganisms in the feed with satisfactory efficiency. After the irradiation treatment with different doses, the changes of nutrient components in the feeds, such as crude fats, coarse fibres, calcium, phosphorus, salts and amino acids, were not found to change in our tests. (author)

72

Salmonellae in foods and animal feeding stuffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the problem of Salmonella infections in foods and feeding stuffs is emphasized, an account is given of the current ways of manufacturing bone meal, meat meal, blood meal, fish meal, fish flour, egg products and coconut. The effectiveness in eliminating salmonellae and the chance and possible sources of recontamination are described for each production method. Besides heat treatment, fumigation by ethylene oxide and irradiation with gamma rays are considered. The bacteriological tests required to establish the effectiveness of treatment are also discussed, as well as the effect of the treatment on the nutritive value of the product. (author). 50 refs, 4 tabs

73

21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing...301 Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing...Records and reports of clinical and other experience with the new animal drug will...

2010-04-01

74

Traceability of processed animal proteins with varying texture in feed: determination with microscopic and polymerase Chain Reaction methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To test the traceability of different animal components that could enter the feed chain two methods for the determination of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed ? classical microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-analysis ? were applied in the following study. To determine PAPs of varying but defined structure different animal meals were produced artificially and analysed after spiking to a set of 13 compound feed samples. The aims of the study were (i) to compare the capacity a...

Hormisch D.E.

2004-01-01

75

Animal feed controls implemented in Japan for the eradication of bovine spongiform encephalopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in Japan in September 2001, the Japanese government introduced a series of animal feed control measures to reduce the risk of the spread of the disease from a feed source. To ensure the proper implementation of these measures, the Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Centre conducted audit inspections of feed importers, producers, distributors and end-users. The audit inspections include on-site inspection of the feed plants, warehouses, farms and other related premises and the laboratory analysis of feed samples taken from these premises to check for the presence of animal protein. The results of inspections conducted in recent years indicate good compliance with the feed control measures.

Katsuaki Sugiura

2009-06-01

76

NEW DIMENSION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANIMAL FEED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The medicinal plants and herbs have been used for many years in the treatment of various diseases in animals and human beings. Now-a-days, utilization of these medicinal plants is increasing. These are used in animal feed as the growth promoters. Due to prohibition of most of the antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feed because of their residual effects, plant extracts are becoming more popular. They act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal, anticoccidial and growth promoters. These plant extracts compete with the synthetic drugs. Majority of medicinal plants do not have the residual effects. Azadiracht indica, Zizyphus vulgaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Atlanta monophylla have the strong antibacterial activity, whereas ocimum plant has strong antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic and antipyretic properties. Leaves of Azadirachta indica are used for feeding and reducing the parasitic load of animals. The fruit of Azadirachta indica also has the anticoccidial activity for poultry.

M. A. TIPU, M. S. AKHTAR, M. I. ANJUM1 AND M. L. RAJA

2006-07-01

77

[Determination of the protein quality of food and animal feed].  

Science.gov (United States)

The estimated value of true digestibility of food and feed proteins is in dependence from the excretion of metabolic faecal nitrogen (MFN). Results of many authors showed that a high fibre content of the diet increase the MFN-excretion and lower the true digestibility of the diet protein. The exact estimation of MFN is only possible with isotopic methods. The labelling of feed proteins with isotopic nitrogen (15N) is possible in experiments with small animals. In big animals (pigs) the utilization of recycled 15N is too high following the long transit time of non digested 15N-labelled feed protein and the parallel 15N-labelling of MFN. The best method for the estimation of true digestibility of proteins is the method with 15N-labelled animals and the differentiation between nonlabelled undigested feed protein and the 15N-labelled MFN in faeces. The estimation of digestibility of essential amino acids at the end of the ileum as a measure for protein quality is not in advantage because the bacterial breakdown and synthesis of amino acids in the small intestine is unknown. The estimation of the biological value (BV) of proteins with the classical method is useful when the exact MFN was determined. The classic formula of BV [formula: see text] is only applicable in experiments with growing animals with nitrogen retention. This result of BV value is in agreement with the method only valid for growing animals with N-retention and not for animals or human beings in maintenance. The measurement of a BV of proteins with animals in maintenance is possible when the animals are labelled with 15N. The 15N-loss of the animal after the feeding of different protein sources is the smallest when the amino acid pattern of the protein is adapted to the need of amino acids for the maintenance metabolism of the animal. It was found that proteins with a high content of glutamic and aspartic acid (proteins of grains) are better proteins for the maintenance metabolism as animal proteins. Measurements with the method of the oxydation rate of essential amino acids showed that the amino acid pattern of wheat protein is in agreement with the need of amino acids for maintenance of the adult men. The evaluation of protein quality in animal nutrition for growing or lactating monogastric animals is in the present time the balance of essential amino acids in the feed protein and the need of this amino acids of the animals. PMID:7487479

Bergner, H

1994-01-01

78

21 CFR 510.7 - Consignees of new animal drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed. 510.7 Section 510.7...drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed. (a) A new animal drug intended for use in the manufacture of animal feed shall be deemed to be...

2010-04-01

79

Antibiotics in animal feed and their role in resistance development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animals and humans constitute overlapping reservoirs of resistance, and consequently use of antimicrobials in animals can impact on public health. For example, the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in food-animals is associated with the use of avoparcin, a glycopeptide antibiotic used as a feed additive for the growth promotion of animals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci and vancomycin resistance determinants can therefore spread from animals to humans. The bans on avoparcin and other antibiotics as growth promoters in the EU have provided scientists with a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the withdrawal of a major antimicrobial selective pressure on the occurrence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The data shows that although the levels of resistance in animals and food, and consequently in humans, has been markedly reduced after the termination of use, the effects on animal health and productivity have been very minor.

Wegener, Henrik Caspar

2003-01-01

80

21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. 589...Food or Feed § 589.2000 Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. (a) Definitions —(1) Protein derived from mammalian tissues...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS AND AMPHIBIAN DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations and Amphibian Development. Dumont, J. N.* and Slagle, S., Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, and Hutchins, S. R., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NRMRL/SPRD), Ada, OK. There is some evidence that confined anima...

82

The Possibilities of the Application of Feed Additives from Macroalgae in Sustainable Mineral Animal Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The idea of the application of biological material as mineral feed additives could constitute an innovative practice that would encourage environmental sustainability. The main idea of this study was to present the advantages of macroalgae enriched with microelements when compared to inorganic salts. Approach: In order to evaluate the potential participation of macroalgae in sustainable animal feeding, it was necessary to consider several concepts, such as: Waste Minimization (WM, Cleaner Production (CP and Pollution Prevention (PP, which were closely related to sustainable production. Special attention was also paid to the prevention of waste generation during production process of mineral feed additives from macroalgae. Results: This kind of feed additives could contribute to the minimization of nutrient excretion by animals, by optimizing nutrient availability and proportion in the animal diet. Conclusion: The application of macroalgae in animal feeding could be considered as preventive environmental strategy, which would reduce the risks of the excess of microelements in the environment and in the animal diet.

Izabela Michalak

2009-01-01

83

76 FR 72617 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Eprinomectin; N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone  

Science.gov (United States)

...and 556 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Eprinomectin; N- Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone...801-808. List of Subjects 21 CFR Part 500 Animal drugs, Animal feeds, Cancer, Labeling, Packaging and...

2011-11-25

84

77 FR 9528 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...Part 500 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; N-Methyl-2- Pyrrolidone...the URL. List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 500 Animal drugs, Animal feeds, Cancer, Labeling, Packaging and...

2012-02-17

85

Control tools to detect processed animal proteins in feed and in animal by-products: specificity and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AbstractThis paper reviews the current situation with regard to a total feed ban on the use of processed animal proteins in feed for meat producing animals within the EU. The scientific aspects surrounding the development of control tools are discussed. In particular, focus is given to methods for marking those materials prohibited in animal feeds and for the determination of species specificity in those proteins that are potentially allowed in animal feeds. The overall objective is that the ...

Sl, Woodgate; van den Hoven S.; Vaessen J.; Margry R.

2009-01-01

86

Salmonella species and serotypes isolated from farm animals, animal feed, sewage, and sludge in Saudi Arabia*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 264 salmonellae representing 65 different species and serotypes were isolated for the first time in Saudi Arabia, from various animal species, animal feed, sewage, and sludge. The six most frequently isolated Salmonella species or serotypes were: livingstone, concord, “S. schottmuelleri” (invalid), lille, S. typhimurium, and cerro.

Nabbut, N. H.; Barbour, E. K.; Al-nakhli, H. M.

1982-01-01

87

The Possibilities of the Application of Feed Additives from Macroalgae in Sustainable Mineral Animal Feeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The idea of the application of biological material as mineral feed additives could constitute an innovative practice that would encourage environmental sustainability. The main idea of this study was to present the advantages of macroalgae enriched with microelements when compared to inorganic salts. Approach: In order to evaluate the potential participation of macroalgae in sustainable animal feeding, it was necessary to consider several concepts, such as: Wa...

Izabela Michalak; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Peter Glavic

2009-01-01

88

Livestock feed for domestic animals in and around Rokkasho, Aomori  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides that will be released from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, which is now under construction in Rokkasho Village. The consumption rate of livestock feed eaten by domestic animals is an important factor for the estimation of radioactive material transfer to the animals. We surveyed the amount of livestock feed in and around Rokkasho Village by means of questionnaires to stockbreeding farmers. The questionnaires were distributed to 90 farmers who kept one of five kinds of domestic animals or poultry; milking cattle, beef cattle, hogs, broilers and laying hens. Several farming companies were also included as subjects. Recovery of the questionnaires was 59%. The hogs, broilers and laying hens were fed compound feeds consisting of imported materials. The feed for milking cattle and beef cattle consisted of grass, field corn and other concentrates. The consumption rates of grass and field corn for dairy cattle were 22.5 kg-fresh d-1 and 8.3 kg-fresh d-1, respectively. The grass and field corn consumption rate for beef cattle were 2.8 kg-fresh d-1 and 0.3 kg-fresh d-1, respectively. All of these rates were lower than those used for dose assessment of the reprocessing plant. (author)

89

Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy's extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative sampling directly from the large Tank Farm tanks is a difficult, if not unsolvable enterprise due to limi

90

Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy?s extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative sampling directly from the large Tank Farm tanks is a difficult, if not unsolvable enterprise due to li

Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

2013-10-29

91

Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals  

Science.gov (United States)

Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750?ppb). Forty-four out of 49 samples (90%) were contaminated with DON (median 222?ppb) and OTA (median 5?ppb). Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685?ppb), 42 samples (86%) with ZEA (median 50?ppb), and 38 samples (78%) with T2-toxin (median 50?ppb). Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety. PMID:25126610

Greco, Mariana Vanesa; Rico Golba, Silvia Laura; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Pose, Graciela Noemi

2014-01-01

92

Animation of Sample Loop HPLC Injections  

Science.gov (United States)

This site deals specifically with sample loop injections in liquid chromatography. The animations are short (one to two minutes) and can easily be shown in class as part of a lecture. They are extremely helpful in illustrating key components and concepts of chromatographic systems. Users are encouraged to explore the site and the other brief animations as well. Separate links to other simulations by the same company (TRSL) are listed below.

2011-05-04

93

Bio-processing of agro-byproducts to animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural and food-industry residues constitute a major proportion (almost 30%) of worldwide agricultural production. These wastes mainly comprise lignocellulosic materials, fruit and vegetable wastes, sugar-industry wastes as well as animal and fisheries refuse and byproducts. Agro-residues are rich in many bioactive and nutraceutical compounds, such as polyphenolics, carotenoids and dietary fiber among others. Agro residues are a major valuable biomass and present potential solutions to problems of animal nutrition and the worldwide supply of protein and calories, if appropriate technologies can be used for their valorization by nutrient enrichment. Technologies available for protein enrichment of these wastes include solid substrate fermentation, ensiling, and high solid or slurry processes. Technologies to be developed for the reprocessing of these wastes need to take account of the peculiarities of individual wastes and the environment in which they are generated, reprocessed, and used. In particular, such technologies need to deliver products that are safe, not just for animal feed use, but also from the perspective of human feeding. This review focuses on the major current applications of solid-state fermentation in relation to the feed sector. PMID:22380921

Ajila, C M; Brar, S K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Godbout, S; Valéro, J R

2012-12-01

94

Nitrite in feed: from animal health to human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low. PMID:21095201

Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Cottrill, Bruce; van Peteghem, Carlos; Dorne, Jean-Lou

2013-08-01

95

Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low

96

TEGA Sample Delivery and Analysis (Animation)  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows NASA's Phoenix Lander's Robotic Arm scoop delivering a sample to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and how samples are analyzed within the instrument. TEGA has eight tiny ovens for measuring constituents in the atmosphere and in the soil, including possible organic constituents and the melting point of ice. The scoop drops soil onto a fine mesh screen between TEGA's open doors. Some soil passes through the screen, which vibrates, into the throat of a funnel, where a spinning device called the 'whirligig' aids delivery into one half of a tiny oven. The soil sample is represented here by the white chip. The filled oven half then rotates and mates with the other oven half, closing the complete oven so sample heating can begin. The purple coil in this animation is the spring that moves the oven halves together. Heating occurs at successively higher temperatures over several days. The energy required to heat the sample is measured to discover its thermal properties. Gases driven off during sample heating pass through tubing to the mass spectrometer for analysis. Note that the exterior doors above the screen never close after sample delivery. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

97

Animation of TEGA Sample Delivery and Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows NASA's Phoenix Lander's Robotic Arm scoop delivering a sample to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and how samples are analyzed within the instrument. TEGA has eight tiny ovens for measuring constituents in the atmosphere and in the soil, including possible organic constituents and the melting point of ice. The scoop drops soil onto a fine mesh screen between TEGA's open doors. Some soil passes through the screen, which vibrates, into the throat of a funnel, where a spinning device called the 'whirligig' aids delivery into one half of a tiny oven. The soil sample is represented here by the white chip. The filled oven half then rotates and mates with the other oven half, closing the complete oven so sample heating can begin. The purple coil in this animation is the spring that moves the oven halves together. Heating occurs at successively higher temperatures over several days. The energy required to heat the sample is measured to discover its thermal properties. Gases driven off during sample heating pass through tubing to the mass spectrometer for analysis. Note that the exterior doors above the screen never close after sample delivery. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

98

Multiclass method for antimicrobial analysis in animal feeds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid multiclass method that covers 50 antimicrobials from 13 different families in animal feeds was developed. Samples were extracted using a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and a McIlvaine buffer combined with sonication. Feed extracts were simply diluted prior to injection, since the clean-up strategies that were tested, based on either solid-phase extraction or dispersive solid-phase extraction, were ineffective at minimizing matrix-related signal suppression/enhancement. Analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source operating in positive and negative modes. For the quantification, matrix-fortified standard calibration curves were used to compensate for matrix effects and losses in sample preparation. The method was validated in-house in pig, poultry and cattle feed matrices and showed satisfactory performance characteristics. Thus, the proposed approach was suitable for application in a routine high-throughput laboratory for the official control of feeds. PMID:23922055

Borràs, S; Companyó, R; Guiteras, J; Bosch, J; Medina, M; Termes, S

2013-10-01

99

Control tools to detect processed animal proteins in feed and in animal by-products: specificity and challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractThis paper reviews the current situation with regard to a total feed ban on the use of processed animal proteins in feed for meat producing animals within the EU. The scientific aspects surrounding the development of control tools are discussed. In particular, focus is given to methods for marking those materials prohibited in animal feeds and for the determination of species specificity in those proteins that are potentially allowed in animal feeds. The overall objective is that the advancements in science are utilized to achieve a partial relaxation of the total feed ban in the near future.

Woodgate SL.

2009-01-01

100

Treatment of animal feeds with ionizing radiation. VI. Technological and economic feasibility of poultry feed radicidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salmonella contamination of farm animals in Israel has increased significantly, particularly on poultry farms, and is causing severe losses and a high incidence of infected poultry products. EEC regulations regarding poultry meat require rejection of batches containing salmonella microorganisms. Feed flour is considered to be one of the principal sources of contamination and effective treatment of the feed is one of the most important steps in reducing flock contamination. The Israel authorities have passed a new regulation requiring breeders to buy only salmonella-free poultry feed. Salmonella-free poultry feed can be produced by pelletization or by treatment with ionizing radiation, using gamma or electron sources. From the view point of radicidation both types of radiation are equally effective. Both types of sources are suited to on-line treatment of products in feed mills, but each has its advantages and disadvantages in practice. Whereas gamma irradiation facilities will allow thick layers of product, they require considerable shielding and nearly continuous operation to be economically justifiable. The low energy electron accelerators allow treatment of flour only (pellets cannot be treated), but are easily adaptable to the fluctuating flow of products in a feed mill, at relatively low treatment cost. Breeders, contrary to broilers, require feed flour and not pellets. Hence electron irradiation would tend to yield a product more in compliance with the new regulduct more in compliance with the new regulation than pelletization, which requires crushing and which may leave Salmonella in the feed. The economic feasibility of an electron accelerator-based radicidation process in an existing feed mill is examined. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Treatment of Animal Feeds with Ionizing Radiation: VI. Technological and Economic Feasibility of Poultry Feed Radicidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salmonella contamination of farm animals in Israel has increased significantly, particularly on poultry farms, and is causing severe losses and a high incidence of infected poultry products. EEC regulations regarding poultry meat require rejection of batches containing salmonella microorganisms. Feed flour is considered to be one of the principal sources of contamination and effective treatment of the feed is one of the most important steps in reducing flock contamination. The Israel authorities have passed a new regulation requiring breeders to buy only salmonella-free poultry feed. Salmonella-free poultry feed can be produced by pelletization or by treatment with ionizing radiation, using gamma or electron sources. From the view point of radicidation both types of radiation are equally effective. Both types of sources are suited to on-line treatment of products in feed mills, but each has its advantages and disadvantages in practice. Whereas gamma irradiation facilities will allow thick layers of product, they require considerable shielding and nearly continuous operation to be economically justifiable. The low energy electron accelerators allow treatment of flour only (pellets cannot be treated), but are easily adaptable to the fluctuating flow of products in a feed mill, at relatively low treatment cost. Breeders, contrary to broilers, require feed flour and not pellets. Hence electron irradiation would tend to yield a product more in compliance with the new regulduct more in compliance with the new regulation than pelletization, which requires crushing and which may leave Salmonella in the feed. The economic feasibility of an electron accelerator-based radicidation process in an existing feed mill is examined. (author)

102

Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

2008-04-01

103

21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Trace minerals added to animal feeds. 582.80 Section 582.80 Food and...Provisions § 582.80 Trace minerals added to animal feeds. These substances added to animal feeds as nutritional dietary supplements...

2010-04-01

104

21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29 Section 500.29...29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug Administration...generally recognized as safe for use in animal feed and is a food additive...

2010-04-01

105

Validation and application of a robust yeast estrogen bioassay for the screening of estrogenic activity in animal feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Previously we described the construction and properties of a rapid yeast bioassay stably expressing human estrogen receptor ? (hER?) and yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein (yEGFP), the latter in response to estrogens. In the present study this yeast estrogen assay was validated as a qualitative screening method for the determination of estrogenic activity in animal feed. This validation was performed according to EC Decision 2002/657. Twenty blank animal feed sampl...

Bovee, T. F. H.; Bor, G.; Heskamp, H. H.; Hoogenboom, L. A. P.; Nielen, M. W. F.

2006-01-01

106

9 CFR 95.13 - Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry...use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry...use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals if such products are...

2010-01-01

107

76 FR 13638 - Ensuring the Safety of Imported Foods and Animal Feed: Comparability of Food Safety Systems and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Safety of Imported Foods and Animal Feed: Comparability of Food Safety...ensuring the safety of foods and animal feed imported into the United States...the safety of imported foods and animal feed and lessons learned through...

2011-03-14

108

21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.  

Science.gov (United States)

...resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section...resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food. Regulations...to packaging materials used for animal feed and pet food. [42 FR...

2010-04-01

109

21 CFR 2.35 - Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...shipment or storage of food and animal feed. 2.35 Section 2.35 Food...shipment or storage of food and animal feed. (a) Investigations...revealed practices whereby food and animal feed stored or shipped in...

2010-04-01

110

78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and...regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food to provide for the...Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food (21 CFR part...

2013-05-10

111

78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and...regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in the...regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in...

2013-06-10

112

21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section...packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations...to packaging materials used for animal feed and pet food. [42 FR...

2010-04-01

113

9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. ...products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. ...for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

2010-01-01

114

21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45...production, handling, and storage of animal feed. (a) Polychlorinated...PCB's have directly contaminated animal feeds as a result of industrial...

2010-04-01

115

76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments...pack, or hold human food or animal food/feed (including pet food)....

2011-11-01

116

21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Cattle materials prohibited in animal feed include: (i) The entire...otherwise effectively excluded from animal feed; (iv) Mechanically separated...Cattle materials prohibited in animal feed do not include: (A)...

2010-04-01

117

Fermented empty fruit bunch (FEFB) as feed for ruminant animal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5 - 1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

118

Screening of mycotoxins in animal feed from the region of Vojvodina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows the results of screening of mycotoxins in animal feed originating from the region of Vojvodina. Permanent screening is needed on all levels of production and storage, as well as the use of known methods to reduce mould contamination or toxin content in feedstuffs and feed. A total of 56 representative samples were collected from feed companies from the region of Vojvodina. Samples were collected during February 2009. The collected samples included 41 samples of feedstuffs (soybean, soybean meal, soybean grits, soybean cake, maize, sunflower meal, barley, wheat feed flour, rapeseed meal, dehydrated sugar beet pulps, alfalfa meal, yeast, dried whey, fish meal, meat-bone meal and 15 samples of complete feedingstuffs. The amounts of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol were determined. Screening method for the analysis was done using Neogen Veratox® testing kits. The test itself is a competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA. Mycotoxins were present in 71.4% of the samples, but the values determined were below the maximum allowed limits for both Serbian and EC reference values. Zearalenone was found with the highest incidence (57.1% of samples, followed by ochratoxin A (37.5%, fumonisin (33.9%, deoxynivalenol (14.3% and aflatoxins (3.6%.

Koki? Bojana M.

2009-01-01

119

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Decisions § 500.35 Animal feeds contaminated with...Health Service, the Animal Health Division of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department...meal, poultry meal, meat meal, tankage, and other animal byproducts intended...

2010-04-01

120

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Row Crops and their Relationship to Nitrate in Eastern Iowa Rivers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and fertilizer application to row crops may contribute to poor water quality in surface waters. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated nutrient concentrations and fluxes in four Eastern Iowa watersheds sampled between 1996-2004. We found that these watersheds contribute nearly 10% of annual nitrate flux entering the Gulf of Mexico, while representing only 1.5% of the contributing drainage basin. Mass budget analysis shows stream flow to be a major ...

Weldon, Mark B.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar...fertilizer or animal feed; requirements...ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... § 95.14 Blood meal, tankage, meat...fertilizer or animal feed;...

2010-01-01

122

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author).

Kume, Tamikazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

1994-01-01

123

Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb

Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben

2006-01-01

124

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author)

125

A novel PCR-based method to enumerate Salmonella in animal feed  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animal feed can serve as a reservoir for Salmonella in the food production chain. Therefore, it is important to have rapid and sensitive methods for detection and quantification. In this study, a novel approach for quantification of low numbers of Salmonella in feed samples was developed. The protocol included a PCR based method combined with an optimised most probable number (MPN) scheme. The PCR method included an enrichment step in buffered peptone water (BPW) at 37ºC for 18 ± 2 h, followed by centrifugation of a withdrawn 1-ml BPW aliquot. DNA was extracted by an automated procedure from the pellet and subjected to real-time PCR. The qualitative PCR method was compared to a reference culture method using modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassilades (MSRV) agar plates (ISO 6579, Amd D, 2007). Of 81 naturally or artificially contaminated samples tested (soya meal, rape seed meal, rape seed cake and pellets) only three gave results that differed between the PCR and MSRV methods. Ct values for naturally contaminated samples were higher compared to samples artificially contaminated with low numbers (approx. 2 CFU/25 g feed) of stressed Salmonella. To allow quantification of low numbers of Salmonella in feed the developed PCR method was combined with an MPN approach. The traditional MPN scheme was modified in order to make the procedure less laborious, time consuming and costly, as well as being better adjusted to enumerate Salmonella in feed samples. This was achieved using two different approaches: (i) the dilution scheme was adjusted to better enumerate the low numbers presumably found in feed and (ii) the selective enrichment steps were replaced by the qualitative PCR method. In conclusion, the developed PCR method can be used as an alternative method for detecting low numbers of Salmonella in feed samples. In combination with the novel MPN scheme, it can also be employed to generate quantitative data. Studies are in progress to further validate the performance on a larger number of naturally contaminated feed samples and to generate quantitative data on naturally contaminated feed.

Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

126

Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation. Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON is typically found in more than 50% of the samples and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins  and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.

Isabelle P. Oswald

2012-10-01

127

CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS AS A SOURCE OF EDCS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, there is an estimated 376,000 animal feed operations, generating approximately 128 billion pounds of waste each year. A facility is an animal feed operation (AFO) if animals are stabled/confined, or fed/maintained, for 45 days or more within any 12-month per...

128

19 CFR 123.27 - Feeding and watering animals in Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Feeding and watering animals in Canada. 123.27 Section 123.27 Customs...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.27 Feeding and...

2010-04-01

129

Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were use [...] d. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Luiz Vítor Oliveira, Vidal; Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Elias Nunes, Martins; Tadeu Orlandi, Xavier; Mariana, Michelato; Themis Sakaguti, Graciano.

130

Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were use [...] d. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Luiz Vítor Oliveira, Vidal; Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Elias Nunes, Martins; Tadeu Orlandi, Xavier; Mariana, Michelato; Themis Sakaguti, Graciano.

1346-13-01

131

Transmission of Aflatoxins from Animal Feeds to Raw and Pasteurized Milk in Shiraz City and its Suburbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: There are a lot of fungi in the air and our environment that grow and reproduce if the temperature and humidity are suitable. Aspergillus flavus and parasilicus are among the most important food contaminants which have a role in food poisoning. These fungi secrete poisons which contaminate animal feed as well as the milk we get from the animals fed with these foods. Methods: In this study, a total of 428 samples of raw, pasteurized milk and animal feeds were examined in differen...

Ghasemi, R.; Baho-aldini Baigi, F.; Ersali, A.

2009-01-01

132

Traceability of processed animal proteins with varying texture in feed: determination with microscopic and polymerase Chain Reaction methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To test the traceability of different animal components that could enter the feed chain two methods for the determination of processed animal proteins (PAPs in feed ? classical microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-analysis ? were applied in the following study. To determine PAPs of varying but defined structure different animal meals were produced artificially and analysed after spiking to a set of 13 compound feed samples. The aims of the study were (i to compare the capacity and the limits of both methods with respect to the determination of animal constituents of varying composition, (ii to verify a correct interpretation of the results from each method and (iii to determine an optimum application area for each method. Both methods complemented each other. The microscopic approach allowed a reproducible, high sensitive and quantitative determination of animal ingredients with morphological detectable structures, and in the presence of bone fragments a d i fferentiation between fish and terrestrial animals was possible simultaneously. The PCR-analysis provided the detection of animal ingredients in feed even in absence of visible structures but fishmeal was not detected in a sufficient manner by the chosen screening setup. However, the PCR-method enabled to differentiate between animal groups or species and to identify animal species. The methods complemented each other not only in the analytical features but also regarding the results produced by the detection of two different analytical targets of PAPs, morphological structures and gene sequences, r e s p e c t i v e l y. Suitable data regarding the presence of their analytical targets were produced by each method, but a combination of both methods enabled furthermore to report correct results regarding the presence of the artificially composed PAPs in the feed samples. It was concluded that a combination of microscopy and PCR-analysis is reasonable for special application purposes to determine PAPs in feed: while microscopy provides reliable results also in highly processed feed with wellpreserved morphological animal structures even with highly degraded genomic material, PCR provides applicable results in feed samples with preserved genomic animal material even after the separation of morphological structures. These specialties have to be considered for the choice of capable analytical methods and even for a correct evaluation of the results obtained from these methods in highly processed feed. An interpretation scheme based on the results of the study was proposed.

Hormisch D.E.

2004-01-01

133

Breeding and feeding for animal health and welfare in organic livestock systems (4th NAHWOA Workshop)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

content: Part A: Breeding for animal health and welfare in organic livestock systems Part B: Feeding for animal health and welfare in organic livestock systems Part C: Posters and additional papers The theme of the 4 th NAHWOA Workshop was Breeding and feeding for animal health and welfare in organic livestock systems . According to most organic certification body standards and the current EU legislation, breeding and feeding are the two cornerstones of health and welfare in or...

2001-01-01

134

IMEP-32: Determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin : A Collaborative Trial Report  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A collaborative study, IMEP-32, was conducted in accordance with international protocols to determine the performance characteristics of an analytical method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin. The method would support Directive No 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed [1] where it is indicated that "Upon request of the competent authorities, the responsible operator must perform an analysis to demonstrate that the content of inorganic arsenic is lower than 2 ppm". The method is based on solid phase extraction (SPE) separation of inorganic arsenic from organoarsenic compounds followed by detection with hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The collaborative study investigated different types of samples of marine origin, including complete feed (unspiked and spiked), fish meal (unspiked and spiked), fish fillet (spiked) and a lobster hepatopancreas (unspiked). In total seven samples were investigated within the concentration range of 0.07 – 2.6 mg kg-1. The test samples were dispatched to 23 laboratories in 12 different countries. Nineteen participants reported results. The performance characteristics are presented in this report. All method performance characteristics obtained in the frame of this collaborative trial indicates that the proposed SPE-HG-AAS standard method is fit for the intended analytical purpose.

Sloth, Jens JØrgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

2011-01-01

135

Co-Occurrence of Moulds and Mycotoxins in Corn Grains Used for Animal Feeds in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available About 80 corn grain samples used for animal feeds were collected from 10 states in Malaysia in order to determine the mycobiota using agar plate assay and mycotoxins (Aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins by ELISA. Aspergillus flavus (87%, A. niger (83%, F. verticillioides (47%, F. graminearum (43%, F. proliferatum (42%, F. equisieti (30% and Penicillium sp. (5% were the prevalent fungi in all corn samples. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 could be detected in 65 (81.2% corn samples ranging from 1.0-135 g kg-1. The 18 (22.5% samples, out of 80 had exceeded AFB1 above the international regulatory limits of animal feeds (>20 g kg-1 ranging from 20.6-135 g kg-1. Fumonisins were detected in all the corn samples (100% ranging from 261-2.420 g kg-1. Although, only 80 samples were analyzed, they were randomly collected from 10 states in Malaysia. Since there is a lack of information from Malaysia and such data are valuable.

B. Salleh

2011-01-01

136

Measures to be taken in case of environmental contamination by radionuclides - food and animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a recommendation on emergency plans under preparation by the Strahlenschutzkommission, methods are compiled which 1) prevent or reduce the contamination of animal feeds and food to be expected before, during or immediately after deposition; 2) influence the transfer of nuclides in animal feeds and food after deposition; 3) reduce contamination of animal feeds and food by treating the input materials, and 4) serve the alternative use or elimination if the maximum permissible values in animal feeds and food are exceeded. Method, feasbility, efficiency and decision-making foundations are represented in the form of tables. (orig./DG)

137

Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants.

Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit

2014-01-01

138

Multidetermination of four nitrofurans in animal feeds by a sensitive and simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the polyclonal antibody against furazolidone was produced with furazolidone coupling to protein carriers by a diazotization method and glutaraldehyde reaction, respectively. The antibody obtained showed good specificity toward furazolidone and various cross-reactivity toward nitrofurantoin, nitrofurazone, and furaltadone. Then, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the antibody was first developed for multidetermination of four nitrofurans in animal feeds. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.2-2.1 ng/g depending on the component. After simple extraction, the fortified swine and broiler chicken feed samples were detected with recovery ranges of 75.9-86.4%. Results obtained from ELISA were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. Analysis of the unknown feed samples indicates that ELISA can be a practical tool for screening of nitrofurans in animal feeds before confirmation by HPLC. PMID:19231897

Li, Jun; Liu, Ju Xiang; Wang, Jian Ping

2009-03-25

139

Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

140

75 FR 79320 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Part 500 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0612] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic...Register. List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 500 Animal drugs, Animal feeds, Cancer, Labeling, Packaging and...

2010-12-20

 
 
 
 
141

77 FR 50591 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Part 500 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0612] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic...0910-0032. List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 500 Animal drugs, animal feeds, Cancer, Labeling, Packaging and...

2012-08-22

142

Determination of aflatoxins B1 and M1 in animal feeds and liquid milk using thin layer chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal feed samples were collected from feeding troughs and analysed for levels of aflatoxins B1, a toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. When aflatoxin B1 is consumed by dairy cattle some of it is hydroxylated to form aflatoxin M1, which can appear in milk. Since aflatoxin M1, is also toxic and carcinogenic, it was determined in liquid milk. The determinations were carried out using thin-layer chromatography. Some of the feed samples were found to contain concentrations of aflatoxin B1 that were above maximum tolerated values in foods and feeds in various countries. Brewers grain and used poultry feed contained 133.4 ppb, while the barley husks had a maximum value of 27.4 ppb. The details of the experimental results and analytical methods used are presented.(author)

143

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...drug in feed on the salmonella reservoir in the target animal as compared to that...Failure to complete the salmonella studies for any of...the effect on the salmonella reservoir for any...subtherapeutic use in animal feeds. Drug...

2010-04-01

144

21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trace minerals added to animal feeds. 582.80 Section 582.80 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.80 Trace minerals added to animal feeds. These substances added to...

2010-04-01

145

Transmission of Aflatoxins from Animal Feeds to Raw and Pasteurized Milk in Shiraz City and its Suburbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: There are a lot of fungi in the air and our environment that grow and reproduce if the temperature and humidity are suitable. Aspergillus flavus and parasilicus are among the most important food contaminants which have a role in food poisoning. These fungi secrete poisons which contaminate animal feed as well as the milk we get from the animals fed with these foods. Methods: In this study, a total of 428 samples of raw, pasteurized milk and animal feeds were examined in different seasons of the year using ELISA or TLC method. Results: The results revealed that in 43.36% of the animal feed samples, the contamination level was above the permissible level of aflatoxin B1 (20ppb. In 38.03% of raw and 14.42% of pasteurized milk samples, the contamination level was above the permissible level (0.5 ppb. It was also found out that the contamination level was higher in summer and autumn than that in winter and spring. This could be due to higher humidity in autumn and higher temperature in summer. This study also showed that the percentage of contamination in corn was higher. A high percentage of contamination was also found in recycled bread in the samples of AL. The contamination level was low in Fal. Fa, bran and straw samples. Conclusion: Based on these findings, there seems to be a pressing need for controlling aflatoxin contamination in animal feeds and prevention of the use of contaminated animal feeds such as corn and recycled bread. Also rotten analysis of milk and its products is necessary to be performed periodically for detection of aflatoxin contamination.

R Ghasemi

2009-07-01

146

Statistical Methods and Tools for Hanford Staged Feed Tank Sampling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to technically evaluate the current approach to staged feed sampling of high-level waste (HLW) sludge to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for transfer from tank farms to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The current sampling and analysis approach is detailed in the document titled Initial Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria, 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014, Revision 0 (Arakali et al. 2011). The goal of this current work is to evaluate and provide recommendations to support a defensible, technical and statistical basis for the staged feed sampling approach that meets WAC data quality objectives (DQOs).

Fountain, Matthew S.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Peterson, Reid A.

2013-10-01

147

Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91, followed by S. Dublin (n = 82. There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97.

Tysen E

2003-12-01

148

Sampling feed for mycotoxins: acquiring knowledge from food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence and control of mycotoxins in feed and food are items of great interest to researchers, producers, manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In order to implement knowledge of control measures for mycotoxins in the entire food production chain, coordinated inspection programmes aimed to check the presence and concentration of mycotoxins in feedingstuffs are recommended by the Commission of the European Communities. Reliability of measured levels of mycotoxins in feed and food is greatly affected by the collection of representative samples. Because of the heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins, the variability associated with a mycotoxin test procedure usually depends heavily on the sampling plan. European legislation dealing with sampling plans for mycotoxins in foodstuffs has been recently revised. The aim of the following overview is to discuss the role of sampling in mycotoxin-contaminated feed by considering the evolution of legislation dealing with sampling plans for food. A sampling procedure is a multistage process and consists of three distinct phases: sampling, sample preparation and analysis. The variability associated with each step of a sampling procedure and the aspects related to feedstuffs, matrix/ mycotoxin combination and level of contamination are discussed.

Eleonora Fusi

2010-01-01

149

ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: BROILER LITTER FEEDING TRIALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of broiler litter as a feedstuff was evaluated on the basis of results of feeding trials reported in the literature. Although the method of preparing or processing the broiler litter as a feed constituent (drying, composting or ensiling) influences its value, this assessm...

150

The influence of selenium supplementation of animal feed on human selenium intake in Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of selenium as animal feed supplement in Serbia was approved in 1989 for some categories of pigs, sheep and poultry. From 2000 selenium in animal feed became a requirement for all categories of farm animals. The aim of this study was to determine the consumption of selenium by Serbian livestock and in poultry production between 1990-1991 and 2000-2008 and to analyze the selenium content of meat, milk and eggs sold on Serbian markets to gain insight ...

Pavlovi? Z.; Mileti? I.; Z?, Jokic?; Stevanovi? J.; Šobaji? S.; Bulat Z.

2013-01-01

151

Slurry feed variability in West Valley's melter feed tank and sampling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present plan for disposal of high-level wastes at West Valley is to vitrify the wastes for disposal in deep geologic repository. The vitrification process involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals and feeding the resulting slurry to a liquid-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the melter feed system to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. To investigate the mixing properties of the melter feed preparation system at West Valley, a statistically designed experiment was conducted using synthetic melter feed slurry over a range of concentrations. On the basis of the statistical data analysis, it was found that (1) a homogeneous slurry is produced in the melter feed tank, (2) the liquid-sampling system provides slurry samples that are statistically different from the slurry in the tank, and (3) analytical measurements are the major source of variability. A statistical quality control program for the analytical laboratory and a characterization test of the actual sampling system is recommended. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

152

Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in animal-feed production plant workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in animal-feed processing plants was assessed using binding of AFB to serum albumin. The albumin fraction was digested with pronase, and the digest was purified on a C18 Sepak column and an aflatest affinity column before quantification by ELISA. The level of detectability was 5 pg/mg albumin. The workers served as their own controls, as blood samples were taken upon return from vacation and after 4 weeks of work. A total of 7 of 45 samples were positive for AFB, with an estimated average daily intake of 64 ng AFB/kg body weight. The exposed workers had been disembarking cargos contaminated with AFB or working at places where the dust contained detectable amounts of AFB. The sera from the exposed workers had a significantly higher titer against an aflatoxin B1-epitope than a nonexposed Danish control group. The level of exposure could partly explain the increased risk of liver cancer in workers in the animal-feed processing industry. PMID:8319623

Autrup, J L; Schmidt, J; Autrup, H

1993-03-01

153

Radioimmunoassay determination of the effect on animal reproduction of alternative of feeding suplementation in dairy cows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal object of this trial was to evaluate the influence of three alternatives of feeding suplementation in dairy cows in the post-partum period in ecuadorian highlands. Thirty sic animals in fist lactation were used in this experiment and were divided in three groups according to the feed intake: Group A diet was 5 Kg. of a commercial concentrate mixture with 12 per cent of crude protein plus pasture ad libitum; Group B diet was green banans (Musa paradisiaca) and pasture and Group C diet was the control only pasture. Using Radioimmunoassay technique (RIA), progesterone values were determinated in milk from each cow. the sampling was sequential, two samples a week, starting 6 days after parturition, until the animal was pregnant or until the study was finished, 150 days after post-partum for each cow. This research allowed us to evaluate the ovaric post-partum activity of each group: Frequency and length of the oestrus cycles; efficiency of oestrus detection, calving-first, oestrus period, calving-conception length, conception rate, and services per conception. Additional datas were used in this study such as: milk production, palpations and treatments

154

POTENTIAL OF CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS (CAFOS) TO CONTRIBUTE ESTROGENS TO THE ENVIRONMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Confined Animal Feed Operations (CAFOs) are a growing industry, with a trend towards fewer operations with higher concentrations of animals. Animals are either fed and/or treated with many different types of pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics and hormones, which can end up in...

155

Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed : Animal Feed Contamination: Effects on Livestock and Food Safety  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary products such as peels, pulpettes, molasses, whey, mask, oil cakes, etc. Contamination of by-products and possible impacts are presented.

Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja

2012-01-01

156

Phytic phosphorus and phytase activity of animal Feed Ingredients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para determinar o fósforo total e fítico e, a atividade da fitase endógena de grãos de cereais e oleaginosas e seus subprodutos, avaliaram-se ingredientes alimentícios que se utilizam na produção animal nos trópicos. Estes foram; milho amarelo, sorgo, trigo duro e farelo de arroz; dos subprodutos de [...] cereais, a farinha de gérmen e farelo de milho desengordurado grosso e fino, farelo de trigo e polidura de arroz; das oleaginosas e subprodutos, a semente e farinha de algodão, e as farinhas de soja, palmiste e coco. O ácido fítico determinou-se, em cinco amostras, mediante um método colorimétrico e a atividade fitásica por um procedimento enzimático colorimétrico. Além disso, determinou-se, por métodos convencionais, a composição química e mineral dos materiais avaliados. O conteúdo (%) de proteína crua, extrato etéreo, cinzas e composição mineral foi similar aos valores resenhados nas tabelas de composição de alimentos de diferentes países. Os grãos de cereais e subprodutos apresentaram concentrações de fósforo total variando de 0,12 a 1,57%. Nos grãos de oleaginosas e seus subprodutos a concentração de fósforo total variou de 0,43 a 1,34%. A concentração de fósforo fítico (%) em cereais e oleaginosas variou de 0,08 a 0,49 e, para os subprodutos, de 0,24 a 1.13%. As equações de regressão entre o fósforo total e fítico foram positivas e significativas nos cereais e subprodutos e nas oleaginosas e subprodutos. As correlações foram significativas entre fósforo fítico e conteúdo de magnésio, potássio e cálcio, nos cereais e seus subprodutos. A atividade fitásica (U/kg) foi significativamente mais elevada para o trigo (1.565). O arroz, o farelo de trigo e a polidura de arroz, apresentaram atividades maiores de 100 U/kg. Os grãos e subprodutos restantes se consideram como materiais sem atividade fitásica. Abstract in spanish Para determinar fósforo total y fítico, y la actividad de fitasas endógenas de granos de cereales y oleaginosas y sus subproductos, se evaluaron ingredientes alimenticios utilizados en la producción animal en los trópicos. Los cereales y sus subproductos fueron maíz amarillo, sorgo, trigo duro, terc [...] erilla de arroz, harina de germen y afrecho de maíz desgrasado grueso y fino, afrecho de trigo y pulitura de arroz. Las oleaginosas y sus subproductos fueron semilla y harina de algodón, y harinas de soya, palmiste y coco. El ácido fítico se determinó mediante un método colorimétrico y la actividad fitásica por un procedimiento enzimático-colorimétrico. Además se determinó, por métodos convencionales, la composición química y mineral de los materiales evaluados. El contenido (%) de proteína cruda, extracto etéreo, cenizas y composición mineral fue similar a los valores de las tablas de composición de alimentos. La concentración de P total estuvo entre 0,12 y 1,57% en granos de cereales y sus subproductos, y entre 0,43 y 1,34% en granos de oleaginosas y sus subproductos. La concentración de P fítico en cereales y oleaginosas varió entre 0,08 y 0,49% y en sus subproductos entre 0,24 y 1,13%. Las ecuaciones de regresión entre P total y fítico fueron positivas y significativas en los cereales y subproductos, y en las oleaginosas y subproductos. Las correlaciones fueron significativas entre P fítico y contenido de Mg, K y Ca en los cereales y subproductos. La actividad fitásica (U/kg) fue significativamente mayor para el trigo (1565). Arroz, afrecho de trigo y pulitura de arroz presentaron actividades >100U/kg. Los restantes granos y subproductos se consideran como materiales sin actividad fitásica. Abstract in english To determine total and phytic phosphorus and endogenous phytase activity in cereals, oilseeds and by-products, feed ingredients used in animal production in the tropics were evaluated. The cereals and by-products were yellow corn, sorghum, hard wheat, broken rice, wheat bran, fine and gross defatted [...] corn germ and bran

Susmira, Godoy; Claudio, Chicco; François, Meschy; Fanny, Requena.

157

Phytic phosphorus and phytase activity of animal Feed Ingredients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para determinar o fósforo total e fítico e, a atividade da fitase endógena de grãos de cereais e oleaginosas e seus subprodutos, avaliaram-se ingredientes alimentícios que se utilizam na produção animal nos trópicos. Estes foram; milho amarelo, sorgo, trigo duro e farelo de arroz; dos subprodutos de [...] cereais, a farinha de gérmen e farelo de milho desengordurado grosso e fino, farelo de trigo e polidura de arroz; das oleaginosas e subprodutos, a semente e farinha de algodão, e as farinhas de soja, palmiste e coco. O ácido fítico determinou-se, em cinco amostras, mediante um método colorimétrico e a atividade fitásica por um procedimento enzimático colorimétrico. Além disso, determinou-se, por métodos convencionais, a composição química e mineral dos materiais avaliados. O conteúdo (%) de proteína crua, extrato etéreo, cinzas e composição mineral foi similar aos valores resenhados nas tabelas de composição de alimentos de diferentes países. Os grãos de cereais e subprodutos apresentaram concentrações de fósforo total variando de 0,12 a 1,57%. Nos grãos de oleaginosas e seus subprodutos a concentração de fósforo total variou de 0,43 a 1,34%. A concentração de fósforo fítico (%) em cereais e oleaginosas variou de 0,08 a 0,49 e, para os subprodutos, de 0,24 a 1.13%. As equações de regressão entre o fósforo total e fítico foram positivas e significativas nos cereais e subprodutos e nas oleaginosas e subprodutos. As correlações foram significativas entre fósforo fítico e conteúdo de magnésio, potássio e cálcio, nos cereais e seus subprodutos. A atividade fitásica (U/kg) foi significativamente mais elevada para o trigo (1.565). O arroz, o farelo de trigo e a polidura de arroz, apresentaram atividades maiores de 100 U/kg. Os grãos e subprodutos restantes se consideram como materiais sem atividade fitásica. Abstract in spanish Para determinar fósforo total y fítico, y la actividad de fitasas endógenas de granos de cereales y oleaginosas y sus subproductos, se evaluaron ingredientes alimenticios utilizados en la producción animal en los trópicos. Los cereales y sus subproductos fueron maíz amarillo, sorgo, trigo duro, terc [...] erilla de arroz, harina de germen y afrecho de maíz desgrasado grueso y fino, afrecho de trigo y pulitura de arroz. Las oleaginosas y sus subproductos fueron semilla y harina de algodón, y harinas de soya, palmiste y coco. El ácido fítico se determinó mediante un método colorimétrico y la actividad fitásica por un procedimiento enzimático-colorimétrico. Además se determinó, por métodos convencionales, la composición química y mineral de los materiales evaluados. El contenido (%) de proteína cruda, extracto etéreo, cenizas y composición mineral fue similar a los valores de las tablas de composición de alimentos. La concentración de P total estuvo entre 0,12 y 1,57% en granos de cereales y sus subproductos, y entre 0,43 y 1,34% en granos de oleaginosas y sus subproductos. La concentración de P fítico en cereales y oleaginosas varió entre 0,08 y 0,49% y en sus subproductos entre 0,24 y 1,13%. Las ecuaciones de regresión entre P total y fítico fueron positivas y significativas en los cereales y subproductos, y en las oleaginosas y subproductos. Las correlaciones fueron significativas entre P fítico y contenido de Mg, K y Ca en los cereales y subproductos. La actividad fitásica (U/kg) fue significativamente mayor para el trigo (1565). Arroz, afrecho de trigo y pulitura de arroz presentaron actividades >100U/kg. Los restantes granos y subproductos se consideran como materiales sin actividad fitásica. Abstract in english To determine total and phytic phosphorus and endogenous phytase activity in cereals, oilseeds and by-products, feed ingredients used in animal production in the tropics were evaluated. The cereals and by-products were yellow corn, sorghum, hard wheat, broken rice, wheat bran, fine and gross defatted [...] corn germ and bran

Susmira, Godoy; Claudio, Chicco; François, Meschy; Fanny, Requena.

2005-01-01

158

Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry.

Muzaffer Denli

2010-05-01

159

Evaluation of the effect of mycotoxin binders in animal feed on the analytical performance of standardised methods for the determination of mycotoxins in feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, the use of substances that can suppress or reduce absorption, promote the excretion of mycotoxins or modify their mode of action in feed, so-called mycotoxin binders, has been officially allowed in the European Union as technological feed additives. The influence of the addition of mycotoxin binders to animal feed on the analytical performance of the official methods for the determination of mycotoxins was studied and the results are presented. Where possible standardised methods for analysis were applied. Samples of 20 commercial mycotoxin binders were collected from various companies. The following mycotoxins were included in the study: aflatoxin B?, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B? and B?, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A binder (or binders combined in a group) was mixed with feed material containing the mycotoxin, and the feed material was analysed. For data evaluation, the mean values were compared by Student's t-test (an independent two-sample t-test with unequal sample sizes and equal variance). The repeatability standard deviation of each method was used as an estimate of method variability. No significant differences (p = 0.05) in mycotoxin levels between binder-free material and the material containing different binders were found. Further, the possible effects of binder addition in combination with processing (pelletising) on the amount of aflatoxin B? determined in feed were studied. Three commercial mycotoxin binders containing hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) as the main component were used in these experiments. Feed samples with and without mycotoxin binders were pelletised with and without steam treatment. After pelletising, materials were analysed for AFB?. Only the combination pelletising and a mixture of binders added at a total level of 1.2% had a significant effect (41% reduction) on the amount of AFB? determined. PMID:22971076

Kolosova, A; Stroka, J

2012-01-01

160

76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Request for Comments...pack, or hold human food or animal food/feed (including pet food). DATES...with respect to human food or animal food/feed (including pet food):...

2011-05-23

 
 
 
 
161

Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2. PMID:24634172

Meriç, S; Cak?r, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Ar?, S

2014-01-01

162

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs... General Provisions § 558.15 Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs...prevention. etc.) uses in animal feed of antibiotic and sulfonamide drugs whether...

2010-04-01

163

TITLE MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPACT OF CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS (CAFOS) ON SURFACE AND GROUND WATER QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract: This research will focus on the microbiological impact of concentrated animal feed operations (CAFOs) on surface and ground water quality. The specific sites of study will be Turkey Creek Watershed and Canton River in Northwestern Oklahoma. The microbiological source...

164

Animal feed controls implemented in Japan for the eradication of bovine spongiform encephalopathy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Japan in September 2001, the Japanese government introduced a series of animal feed control measures to reduce the risk of the spread of the disease from a feed source. To ensure the proper implementation of these measures, the Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Centre conducted audit inspections of feed importers, producers, distributors and end-users. The audit inspections include on-site inspection o...

Katsuaki Sugiura; Takashi Onodera; Hiroshi Hibino; Toyoko Kusama

2009-01-01

165

ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: CATTLE MANURE FEEDING TRIALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilization of 'as-collected' and processed beef cattle and dairy cow manure, manure screenings and anaerobically digested cattle manures was evaluated on the basis of the results of feeding trials reported in the literature. The maximum level of incorporating these manures i...

166

Determination of thyreostatics in animal feeds by CE with electrochemical detector.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple, rapid, reproducible and sensitive method based on CE with electrochemical detector was developed for the simultaneous determination of five thyreostatics including 2-thiouracil (TU), 6-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU), 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), 6-phenyl-2-thiouracil (PhTU) and methimazole (TAP) in animal feeds. A home-made wall-jet electrochemical detector with a 300 microm diameter platinum-disk-working electrode was equipped at the end of separation capillary and used to detect oxidation currents of these thyreostatics. Under the optimum experimental conditions, TU, MTU, PTU, PhTU and TAP could be well separated within 15 min at the separation voltage of 16 kV in 20 mmol/L sodium borate buffer (pH 9.2). The detection limits (S/N=3) of the five thyreostatics in animal feeds were found to be 7.6 microg/kg for TAP, 25 microg/kg for PTU, 15 microg/kg for PhTU, 18 microg/kg for TU and 20 microg/kg for MTU by the developed CE with electrochemical detector method coupled with solid-phase extraction sample pretreatment technique. PMID:19728303

Kong, Dexian; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Lichan; Dong, Yongqiang; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan

2009-10-01

167

Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

Katsuaki Sugiura

2009-09-01

168

Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

A. Priolo

2011-03-01

169

Mycotoxins in horse feed: Incidence of deoxynivalenol in oat samples from stud farms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reports concerning mycotoxins in horse feed are very rare and are typically restricted to fumonisins. As a non-ruminant monogastric species, horses may be more sensitive to adverse effects of mycotoxins, but the most severe effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1 in equines is that it causes fatal leucoencephalomalacia. In recent years, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has evaluated several mycotoxins as “undesirable substances in animal feed” with the aim of establishing guidance values for the feed industry. In its evaluation of deoxynivalenol (DON, EFSA concluded that this toxin exhibited toxic effects in all species, but that horses were more tolerant towards this toxin than pigs. According to the available data, a systematic survey on mycotoxins in horse feed in Serbia has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of mycotoxins in horse feed in Vojvodina. Samples of oats for horse consumption, collected in 2010, were analyzed by enzyme immunoassays (ELISA for deoxynivalenol contamination. Twelve samples of oats were taken from twelve horse studs, with sport, school and hobby horses.

Uroševi? Miroslav I.

2011-01-01

170

The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium and amino acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine, The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet; T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM; T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM; T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM; T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM; T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.

CMI Caires

2010-03-01

171

EVALUATION OF THE LEVELS OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN ANIMAL FEEDS  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to measure the levels of dioxin-like compounds in the feeds of terrestrial food animals - cattle, swine, and poultry - and to understand their contribution to the dioxin-like levels found in the animals. It is an ongoing effort involving several phase...

172

Sterilization by irradiation of feed for axenic or heteroxenic laboratory animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sterilization by irradiation of animal feeds is promising. The objective of experiments presented is to determine if integrated dose (44 kGy) has an influence on breeding performances and on animal behavior. Results show that not only nothing abnormal is constated but performances are better than those obtained with an autoclave in an important breeding center in conditions perfectly analyzed

173

USE OF SORGHUM IN FEEDING OF AGRICULTURAL ANIMALS AND POULTRY ????????????? ????? ? ????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ? ?????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of sorghum use in the rations for agricultural animals and poultry. Grain sorghum, the nutritious properties of which are same or exceed those of maize, can be the major crop in the structure of combined fodder for poultry

??n?n?n?? I. S.

2012-10-01

174

Animals and People First. Why good animal welfare is important for feeding people, for trade and for the future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractLivestock contributes to both the potential and the problems of agriculture. Meat and animal products are important in people’s diet and also valuable trade goods. However, manure can cause pollution. One other issue receiving increased attention is the welfare offarm animals: this is a matter of public concern in many countries, particularly in Europe2. This paper explains why attention to farm animal welfare can help agriculture to feed people, to promote trade and to prevent future problems such as pollution – and why ittherefore needs to be considered in the Agreement on Agriculture.

Dr Michael Appleby.

2007-12-01

175

Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline, with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage disease. Yet, we do not believe starling control should be used as a stand alone tool to reduce S. enterica infections. Rather starling control could be used as part of a comprehensive disease management plan for concentrated animal feeding operations.

Bodenchuk Michael J

2011-02-01

176

Content of Heavy Metals in Animal Feeds and Manures from Farms of Different Scales in Northeast China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the contents of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Cd and Pb in animal feeds and manures, 104 livestock feeds and 118 animal manure samples from farms of different herd size and located in northeast China were collected and their heavy metal concentrations were determined. The content of Cu, As and Cd ranged from 2.3–1,137.1 mg/kg dm, 0.02–13.03 mg/kg dm and non-detectable (nd?31.65 mg/kg dm in pig feeds, 2.88–98.08 mg Cu/kg dm, 0.02–6.42 mg As/kg dm and non-detectable (nd–8.00 mg Cd/kg dm in poultry feeds, and their content in cattle feeds was similar to that in poultry feeds. The typical content in pig manures was 642.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 8.6 mg As/kg dm, and 15.1 mg Cd/kg dm, which reflected the metal contents in feeds. The typical contents in poultry manures were 65.6 mg Cu/kg dm, 3.3 mg As/kg dm and 1.6 mg Cd/kg dm while the contents in cattle manures were 31.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 2.5 mg As/kg dm and 0.5 mg Cd/kg dm. Animal manure is an important source of heavy metals to the environment in Northeast China.

Wei Li

2012-07-01

177

Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury as undesirable substances in animal feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Toxic mineral elements occur naturally in the environment as a result of natural causes, as well as industrial and agricultural practices. Among existing toxic mineral elements, the most important are arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, which are harmful to animals’ health. This review provides evidence on the occurrence of these four toxic mineral elements in the environment and potentially in animal feeds, where considered as undesirable substances, as well as their bioavailability and their effects in animals.

Vasileios Anastasios Bampidis

2013-05-01

178

Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especiall...

Muzaffer Denli; Perez, Jose F.

2010-01-01

179

Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC, a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullets and laying hen, PKC can be used 30% and 20% respectively if supplemented with fat, methionine and lysine. PKC can be used 30% in diet for grower (30-60 kg and 50% in diet for finisher pigs (60-90 kg., respectively, if supplemented with lysine and cane molasses.

Kuprasert, S.

2001-11-01

180

78 FR 76059 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins  

Science.gov (United States)

...for which free-choice, loose-mineral...cattle under the food additive regulation for selenium...bambermycins free-choice, loose-mineral...However, the food additive regulation for selenium...mixtures for free-choice feeding (21...

2013-12-16

 
 
 
 
181

Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers. PMID:21215766

Dorne, J L C M; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Bertelsen, U; Renshaw, D W; Peltonen, K; Anadon, A; Feil, A; Sanders, P; Wester, P; Fink-Gremmels, J

2013-08-01

182

Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers

183

21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...as follows: (1) Animal protein products include one or more...products, marine products, and milk products. (2) Forage products...and wheat. (4) Plant protein products include one...

2010-04-01

184

Animal feed supplements with genetically modified soybeans and the influence of genotype on chicken productivity  

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Few experiments were carried out in which the influence of animal feed on the productivity had been studied; however there are no experiments of the influence of genotypes on the productivity. The broiler chickens of ROSS 208 line fed with various feed supplements with modified (GMO) soybeans and the influence of genotypes on their productivity were evaluated. 1000 broiler chickens were taken for the experiment. The analysis was carried out at Lithuanian Veterinary Academy and at Vytautas Mag...

Radziwilowicz, Julia

2008-01-01

185

Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof  

Science.gov (United States)

A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

Austin-Phillips, Sandra (Madison, WI); Koegel, Richard G. (Madison, WI); Straub, Richard J. (Brooklyn, WI); Cook, Mark (Madison, WI)

2001-01-01

186

Predicting the risks from climate change to forage and crop production for animal feed  

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Climate change is expected to bring warmer temperatures, changes to rainfall patterns, and increased frequency of extreme weather. Projections of climate impacts on feed crops show that there will likely be opportunities for increased productivity as well as considerable threats to crop productivity in different parts of the world over the next 20 to 50 years. On balance, we anticipate substantial risks to the volume, volatility, and quality of animal feed supply chains from climate change. ...

Wheeler, Tim; Reynolds, Chris

2013-01-01

187

Determining mycotoxins in baby foods and animal feeds using stable isotope dilution and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a stable isotope dilution assay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine multiple mycotoxins in baby foods and animal feeds. Samples were fortified with [(13)C]-uniformly labeled mycotoxins as internal standards ([(13)C]-IS) and prepared by solvent extraction (50% acetonitrile in water) and filtration, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Mycotoxins in each sample were quantitated with the corresponding [(13)C]-IS. In general, recoveries of aflatoxins (2-100 ng/g), deoxynivalenol, fumonisins (50-2000 ng/g), ochratoxin A (20-1000 ng/kg), T-2 toxin, and zearalenone (40-2000 ng/g) in tested matrices (grain/rice/oatmeal-based formula, animal feed, dry cat/dog food) ranged from 70 to 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) aflatoxins at ng/g concentrations and deoxynivalenol and fumonisins at low ?g/g concentrations in baby foods and animal feeds, without using conventional standard addition or matrix-matched calibration standards to correct for matrix effects. PMID:25153173

Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Trucksess, Mary W

2014-09-10

188

Techno-economic feasibility of animal feed production from empty fruit bunches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been shown in our laboratory that EFB has the potential to be converted into animal feeds through the process of fermentation; and also use as media for mushroom growing (1). Irradiation of EFB at doses above 10 kGy followed by fermentation can reduce crude fibre (CF) content to almost 20-30% and crude protein (CP) content elevated to 10-15% from 50% and 2% respectively (2)(3). The end-product of fermentation displayed all the characteristics of animal feed, and at these levels of CF and CP can be utilised for feeding ruminants. Further reduction of CF and raising of CP can result in the products suitable for feeding non-ruminants such as poultry and pigs. Following the successful conversion of raw EFB into foodstuff for ruminant in the laboratory, there is an urgent need to evaluate whether such products could be mass-produced economically at larger scale for further feeding-trials. Pilot plant has to be set up to simulate the actual commercial production process before any technology transfer can be undertaken. The main objective of this paper is to report firstly, the economic and financial feasibility of the production process at pilot level. Secondly, preliminary evaluation on the cost of production of animal feed from EFB

189

Application of gamma radiation on disinfestation feed grain based food for domestic animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed to realize a survey to identify the associated insects to feed the city Sao Paulo / SP and also to assess the effect of gamma radiation on food ration for domestic animals infested by pests. Samples of 20 stores, 'Pet Shop' in different regions in Sao Paulo / SP were subjected to trials of 1 and 45 days for collection of insects with the aid of plastic tray and screens of different sizes. The species Sitophilus zeamais, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Lasioderma serricorne and Oryzaephilus sp. showed a higher frequency. In assessing the effects of gamma radiation we used samples of maize, sunflower seeds and mix for rodents infested with adults of the species Sitophilus zeamais, Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, after the period of 7 to 10 days the insects were removed and samples subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation. The species Sitophilus zeamais and Lasioderma serricorne subjected doses from 0,25 to 1,50 kGy and species Plodia interpunctella doses from 0,10 to 2,0 kGy. After 40 days of irradiation was evaluated the number of insects emerged. The results of bioassays with Sitophilus zeamais and with Lasioderma serricorne demonstrated that doses starting at 0,5 kGy was sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and newly emerged larvae. The results with Plodia interpunctella from the 1,5 kGy, hasn't emerged adult insects, concluding that these doses were sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and larvae. (author)

190

The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments wit [...] h 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium) and amino acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine), The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet); T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM); T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM); T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM); T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM); T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.

CMI, Caires; EA, Fernandes; NS, Fagundes; AP, Carvalho; MP, Maciel; BR, Oliveira.

2010-03-01

191

The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments wit [...] h 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium) and amino acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine), The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet); T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM); T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM); T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM); T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM); T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.

CMI, Caires; EA, Fernandes; NS, Fagundes; AP, Carvalho; MP, Maciel; BR, Oliveira.

192

21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...follows: (1) Animal protein products include...Alfalfa meals, entire plant meals, hays, and...sorghums, maize (corn), oats, rice, rye, and wheat. (4) Plant protein products include...meal, linseed meals, peanut meals, safflower...

2010-04-01

193

Evaluation of Nigerian animal feeds by particle-induced X-ray emission.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is need to evaluate the locally available animal feeds in Nigeria so as to be able to combine them in acceptable proportions to the animals to achieve the desired growth rate. The technique of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was employed for the evaluation of these locally available animal feeds, which include Panicum maximum (Guinea grass), Cynodon plectostachyum (grass), Leucaena leucephala (legume), Calopogonium mucunoides (legume), Gliricidia sepium (legume), Euphorbia polychrome (legume), Pueraria phaseloides (legume), and Centrosema pubescens (legume). The proton beam delivered by the 2.5-MV AN 2,000 Van de Graaff accelerator at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy was used for the PIXE measurements. Twenty-one different elements were detected at various concentrations and their nutritional effects on different animals are discussed. PMID:16217142

Olabanji, S O; Olubunmi, P; Ceccato, D; Buoso, M C; De Poli, M; Moschini, G

2005-11-01

194

Nutritional and Health Implications of Mycotoxins in Animal Feeds: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycotoxins are harmful substances produced by fungi in various foods and are estimated to affect as much as 25% of the world`s crop each year. Most of these mytocoxins belong to the three genera of fungi: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Although over 300 mytocoxins are known, those of most concern based on their toxicity and occurrence, are aflatoxin, vomitoxin, ochratoxin, zearaleone, fumonisin and T-2 toxin. They are produced in cereal grains as well as forages before, during and after harvest in various environmental conditions. The presence of mycotoxins in feeds may decrease feed intake and affect animal performance. In addition, the possible presence of toxic residues in edible animal product such as milk, meat and eggs may have some detrimental effects on human health. Fungal contamination affects both the organoleptic characteristics and the alimentary value of feeds and entails a risk of toxicosis. The biological effects of mycotoxin depend on the ingested amounts, number of occurring toxins, duration of exposure to mycotoxin and animal sensitivity. Mycotoxins display a diversity of chemical structures, accounting for their different biological effects. Depending on their precise nature, these toxins may be carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic, immunosuppressive, tremor genic, hemorrhagic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic. Controlling mould growth and mycotoxin production is very important to the feed manufacturer and livestock producer. Control of mould growth in feeds can be accomplished by keeping moisture low, feed fresh, equipment clean and using mould inhibitors. In addition, control of mycotoxins in animal diets would reduce the likelihood that mycotoxin residues would appear in animal products destined for human consumption.

K.E. Akande

2006-01-01

195

[Progress in predicting animal feed intake of plant secondary compounds by spectral analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Study on feed intake of phytophagic animals is a key issue in promoting animal productivity and conservation of wild life. However, how to accurately predict the feed intake of grazing animal and wild life is a long remaining problem. Under the mechanism of co-evolution, plant produces secondary compounds such as phenolics, terpenoids and nitrogen-containing compounds to avoid or reduce animal herbivorous damage as a defensive strategy, while animal attained detoxification capacity of biotransforming and mineralizing the compounds by microbial activities and reactions such as hydrolysis and reduction. The attributes of feedstuff and the amount of a particular feed consumed by the animal affect directly the urinary excretion of secondary metabolites. Plant secondary compounds and their metabolites can be efficiently extracted, separated and structure-identified by spectroscopic analytic method. Then the feed intake of the animal can be accurately measured or predicted by the inference model of concentration-ratio that is based on the regression of correlating the secondary metabolites to the precursors in plant. Aromatic compounds, an universal occurrence in vascular plants, play an important role in predicting feed intake of ruminants. Progresses have been made all-around about the new method. Intensive studies have found that different species and developing stage of plant have varying kinds and levels of secondary compounds, and the age, gender and type of animal have different capacity of metabolizing the compounds. Increasing concentrations of the compounds in the diet led to a dose-dependent decrease in food intake best described as an exponential decay. Animals that had not previously been exposed to the compounds ate significantly more when first offered food containing the compound than on subsequent days. Advanced spectroscopic analytic method has been developed and widely applied in extraction (e. g. microwave assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction), separation and purification (e. g. paper chromatography, VLC, GC, HSCCC, Micro-LC and HPLC), and structure-identification (e. g. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) of plant secondary compounds and their metabolites. Studies suggest that some aromatic compounds like phenolic alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, lignin and N-alkane are suited internal markers and find that the method to predict animal feed intake of plant secondary compound by spectral analysis is quick, accurate and applicable. The further focus should be on selecting appropriate compounds and their fate in metabolizing and excretion, and the development of intelligentized spectroscopy equipments. PMID:18051526

Wang, Yuan-Su; Hong, Fu-Zeng; Wang, Kun

2007-09-01

196

The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp. as Animal Feed in the Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The different meal forms that can be extracted are golden snail meal (30 % calcium and 15 % crude protein, golden snail meat meal (62 % crude protein and 3336 kcal/kg and golden shell meal (35 % calcium. Feeding trials indicate that golden snail meal can be a part of swine and chicken layer diets up to 15 %. Golden snail meat meal can be a part of broiler chicken diet up to 12 %. Feeding fresh and ground golden snail to ducks can replace 50 % of their diet under total confinement system. Whereas, golden snail meat meal (75 % of the diet plus rice bran can be beneficially fed to tilapia. With the information collated, golden snail can be a promising animal feed in the Philippines.

Serra, AB.

1997-01-01

197

Assessment of animal productivity and methane production using an associative feeding strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methane production from ruminants is a loss of digestible energy thereby reducing animal productivity and is contributing to environmental pollution. In order to develop a beneficial strategy for improving animal productivity while conserving the environment the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a concentrate feeding strategy on the animal productivity and rumen methane production. In this experiment two feeding regimes, Diet-1 and Diet-2, were either fodder alone and with a 10% inclusion of concentrates in the forage diet feed as a phased sequence of 45 days of fodder alone and then 45 days of fodder plus concentrate. The diets were fed to four animal groups comprising of 5 animals in each. Throughout the experimental period, a fresh, chopped fodder of similar age (50-65 days age) was offered to the animals. Average dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ash and ether extract contents of the fodder were 21, 9.3, 31.7, 10.1 and 3.1%, respectively. Diet2 included a concentrate containing 88.0, 16.0, 8.1, 10.0, and 12.1% DM, CP, CF, Ash and EE, respectively. A decrease of 8.2 and 39.5% in group A and B with only minor a minor change in group C and D for feed intake was observed when the animals where feed Diet2. Weight gain for the four groups were 133, 422, 111 and 600 g per animal per day on Diet1 and 244, 688, 177 and 888 g per animal per day on Diet2 for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. With supplementation feeding strategy, th With supplementation feeding strategy, there was an increase of 45.4, 38.7, 3.7 and 32.4% in weigh gain over fodder alone diet for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. This was associated with an improvement of 49.7, 62.9, 38.5 and 32% in feed to gain ratio for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. The DM digestibility was 22.9, 4.6, 4.7 and 8.4% higher in groups A, B, C and D, respectively when the groups were feed the fodder diets supplemented with concentrates. On fodder alone, the molar concentration of acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate was 68, 15, 11 and 23% and when concentrates were included 66, 18, 10 and 1.9% for fistulated cattle. Similarly, acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate were 62, 19, 13 and 3% on Diet1 and 60, 23, 12 and 2.8 on Diet2 for buffaloes. Concentrate supplementation reduced the acetate to propionate ratio in both cattle and buffaloes. Estimated methane production of 350, 300 g methane per animal/day in cattle and 312 and 278g per animal/day in buffalo on Diet1 and Diet2, respectively. It is concluded that methane losses from various classes of livestock could be minimized with integrated approach to nutrition as well as resulting in a better feed to gain ratio. (author)

198

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n = 650 were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n = 71 were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%, followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n = 14 were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxa-zole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline, whereas 80.3% (n = 57 were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprim-suflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

Godwin P. Kaaya

2012-06-01

199

Determination of lasalocid sodium in animal feeds and premixes by reversed-phase liquid chromatography: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the analysis of lasalocid sodium in premixes, complete animal feeds, and trace-level feeds was collaboratively studied. The method employs a 0.5% HCI acidified methanol extraction followed by 20 min sonication in a water bath heated to 40 degrees C. Samples are then shaken on a mechanical shaker for 1 h and stored overnight, followed by an additional 10 min shaking the following morning. Sample extracts are diluted if necessary with extractant, filtered, and injected onto an LC system. Determination of all lasalocid homologs is by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection at 314 nm excitation and 418 nm emission. Eight samples of drug premixes, medicated feeds, and mineral supplements, along with 2 samples for trace-level analysis were sent to 20 collaborators in the United States, Canada, and The Netherlands. Study data were returned by 17 laboratories. Two additional supplemental trace-level samples and a blank feed were provided to 15 of the collaborating laboratories, and test data were received from all 15 participants. For the drug premixes, medicated feeds, and mineral supplements, RSDr values (within-laboratory repeatability) ranged from 1.2 to 19.9%, RSDR values (among-laboratory reproducibility) ranged from 3.4 to 32.3%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.35 to 3.73. For the trace-level samples, only lasalocid A, the predominant homolog comprising > 90% of the sum of all homolog peak area, was quantified. All laboratories correctly identified the analyte. Although some instrument response was reported by a number of laboratories for the blank feed, all but one laboratory's results were well below the 1 mg/kg limit of quantification. RSDr values for the initial 2 trace-level samples were excessive, ranging from 51.6 to 64.4%. RSDR values ranged from 51.6 to 75.7%, and HorRat values ranged from 3.6 to 4.0. Data for the initial trace-level samples indicated that the test samples were improperly prepared to ensure homogeneity, and a new set of supplemental samples was provided to collaborators, with significantly improved results. RSDr values for the 2 supplemental trace-level samples ranged from 1.6 to 2.5%, RSDR values ranged from 5.6 to 9.2%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.43 to 0.62. PMID:18567291

Focht, Charles

2008-01-01

200

ENDOCRINE MODULATING EFFECTS OF LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS ON AMPHIBIANS  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocrine Modulating Effects of Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations on Amphibians. Weber, L.P.*1, Dumont, J.N.1, Selcer, K.W.2, Hutchins, S.R.3, and Janz, D.M.1 1Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 2Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA, 3U.S. Environmenta...

 
 
 
 
201

MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPACT OF CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS (CAFOS) ON SURFACE AND GROUND WATER QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation seeks to determine the microbiological impact of agricultural activities and confined animal feed operations (CAFOs) on surface and ground water in the Northwest Central Oklahoma. The first phase of the investigation will be carried on in collaboration with U...

202

Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994-2012  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a “crushing plant” which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. We report the successful control of Salmonella from 1994 to 2012 in a Norwegian crushing plant producing soybean meal from imported soy beans. The results are based on an officially supervised HACCP based program including annual testing of around 4000 samples. Results During the 19-year period, 34% of samples collected during unloading of ships delivering soybeans yielded Salmonella; the proportion of samples from ships that yielded Salmonella varied from 12-62% each year. Dust samples from all shiploads from South America yielded Salmonella. In total 94 serovars of Salmonella were isolated, including nine (90%) of the EU 2012 top ten serovars isolated from clinical cases of salmonellosis in humans, including major animal pathogenic serovars like Spp. Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The effectiveness of the HACCP based control was indicated by a low prevalence of Salmonella contamination in the clean area of the plant, which is considered to be the main reason for the successful prevention of Salmonella in the end product. Despite extensive testing, no sample from the finished soybean meal product was found to be Salmonella contaminated. Conclusions This study shows that a HAACP-based control program in a soybean crushing plant can produce Salmonella free soybean meal despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soybeans. That approach is suggested as an effective way to minimize the risk of Salmonella exposure of the animal feed mills and contamination of the subsequent animal feed chain. PMID:25011553

2014-01-01

203

Silkworm feeding as the source of the animal protein for human  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlled Ecological Life-Support System CELSS which is also called Bioregenerative Life Support System has been considered now as the most advanced and complicated Closed Ecological System in the world Based on the construction principle of the CELSS the resources could be permanently regenerated so the flexibility and security for long-term spaceflight and lunar-base missions could be improved The cost could be also decreased CELSS is more appropriated for long-term manned spaceflight and applied for the possibility of long-term space missions or planetary probe in the lower cost The increasing closure and reliability is considered as the development and integrality direction of Life-Support System LSS The LSS closure and configuration is mainly depended on the human space diet composition Vast researches have been carried on this aspect but these researches mainly concentrate on the space vegetable protein exploitation The animal protein supply is still a problem the solution should be found and the LSS constitution analysis also deserves being explored Many animals have been taken into account to provide the animal proteins nowadays world-wide animals selection mainly focus on the poultry for instance sheep chicken fish etc But the poultry feeding exist many problems such as the long growth periods low efficiency complex feeding procedures and capacious feeding space and these animals also cause the water and air pollution The complete food composition is often depended on the features of the nation diet habit Chinese have

Yunan, Y.; Tang, L.; Liu, H.

204

ANIMAL NUTRITION. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION UNITS, ANIMAL NUTRITION, FEED CHARACTERISTICS, VITAMINS, MINERALS. FINAL REPORT NUMBER 12.  

Science.gov (United States)

PRINCIPLES AND FACTS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE ANIMAL NUTRITION PRACTICES WERE IDENTIFIED BY EXAMINATION OF RECENT SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. UTILIZING THIS INFORMATION, THE AUTHOR INVOLVED 16 VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL USE OF A UNIT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS. INSTRUCTIONAL RESULTS WERE NOT AVAILABLE AT THE…

LONG, GILBERT A.

205

32P detection in animal and plant samples using Cerenkov  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P detection methodology in animal and plant tissue using the Cerenkov effect, liquid scintillation and Geiger-Muller techniques is studied. The Cerenckov effect shows to be more satisflying as to sensitivity, sample preparation, back ground and negligible cost per sample. Comparing the detection by means of Cerenkov effect with that by GM, the relative counting efficiency is about 100 times and 1,5 to 4 comparing to liquid scintillation detection

206

Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations  

Science.gov (United States)

Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 ??g/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

2002-01-01

207

Bioassay based screening of steroid derivatives in animal feed and supplements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Receptor binding transcription activation bioassays are valuable tools for the screening of steroid hormones in animal feed and supplements. However, steroid derivatives often lack affinity for their cognate receptor and do not show any direct hormonal activity by themselves. These compounds are thus not detected by these kinds of bioassays and need a bioactivation step in order to become active, both in vivo and in vitro. In this study a comparison was made between different in vitro activation methods for hormone esters and hormone glycosides. Testosterone acetate and testosterone decanoate were chosen as model compounds for the hormone esters, representing the broad range of steroid esters of varying polarities, while genistin was used as a substitute model for the steroid-glycosides. Concerning bioactivation of the steroids esters, the efficiency for alkaline hydrolysis was 90-100% and much better as compared to enzymatic deconjugation by esterase. As a result 1 ?g testosterone ester per gram of animal feed could easily be detected by a yeast androgen bioassay. When comparing different enzyme fractions for deglycosilation, genistin was shown to be deconjugated most efficiently by ?-glucuronidase/aryl sulfatase from Helix pomatia, resulting in a significant increase of estrogenic activity as determined by a yeast estrogen bioassay. In conclusion, chemical and enzymatic deconjugation procedures for ester and glycoside conjugates respectively, resulted in a significant increase in hormonal activity as shown by the bioassay readouts and allowed effective screening of these derivatives in animal feed and feed supplements. PMID:21742131

Rijk, Jeroen C W; Ashwin, Helen; van Kuijk, Sandra J A; Groot, Maria J; Heskamp, Henri H; Bovee, Toine F H; Nielen, Michel W F

2011-08-26

208

21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Colphen (Germany); and Kanaclor (Japan). PCB's are highly stable...commensurate with current good manufacturing practices, be replaced with a heat exchange fluid...commensurate with current good manufacturing practices from the animal feed producing establishment...commensurate with current good manufacturing practices from the animal feed producing...

2010-04-01

209

Occurrence of trenbolone acetate metabolites in simulated confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) runoff.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolites of androgenic synthetic growth promoters used at confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) pose a demonstrated ecological risk. To evaluate the transport of trenbolone acetate (TBA) metabolites from beef cattle CAFOs, rainfall simulation experiments were conducted at the University of California, Davis, research CAFO. Steroid concentrations in solid and aqueous samples from the research CAFO and solids samples from a commercial CAFO were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The data indicate that 17?-trenbolone (17?-TBOH), 17?-trenbolone (17?-TBOH), and trendione (TBO), the three primary TBA metabolites, occur in soils and runoff. Soils at the research CAFO contained up to 8.2 (±1.1) ng/g-dw of 17?-TBOH and 1.2 (±0.1) ng/g-dw of 17?-TBOH, with slightly higher (~20 ng/g-dw) 17?-TBOH concentrations observed in commercial CAFO soils. In simulated runoff, 17?-TBOH concentrations of 1-350 ng/L and TBO concentrations from 1-170 ng/L were observed. The metabolite 17?-TBOH intermittently occurred in runoff samples at 5-26 ng/L and may be correlated to anaerobic soils. Metabolite concentrations observed in CAFO runoff correspond to 5-15% of potential maximum steroid concentrations predicted by mass balances. First order transformation rates of 0.028/day (25 day half-life) were estimated for 17?-TBOH in CAFO soils. Results suggest that ecologically relevant concentrations of TBA metabolites can be mobilized from CAFO surfaces in storm runoff and may lead to receiving water concentrations at or above ecological effects thresholds for a very limited number of discharge scenarios. PMID:22404689

Webster, Jackson P; Kover, Stephanie C; Bryson, Reid J; Harter, Thomas; Mansell, D Scott; Sedlak, David L; Kolodziej, Edward P

2012-04-01

210

Removal of Metallic Objects from Animal Feeds: Development and Studies on a new machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple machine was designed by the authors to remove different metallic objects from animal feed stuff. A series of experiments were conducted to judge the efficiency of the machine whose results revealed that the device could remove almost 100% of magnetic metallic objects and 50-62% of non-magnetic metallic material from different feed stuffs. Metallic objects were more efficiently removed from wheat, barley and alfalfa than hay. The rate of removal of nails and wire pieces was higher than that of needles.

S. Jafari Shoorijeh

2008-08-01

211

Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine–cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine–uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ? Melamine in food and feed. ? Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ? Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ? Recent EFSA risk assessment. ? Animal and human health

212

Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

213

ANALYSIS OF THE SALT FEED TANK CORE SAMPLE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) immobilizes and disposes of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Low-level waste (LLW) streams from processes at SRS are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the SPF for treatment and disposal. The Salt Feed Tank (SFT) at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) holds approximately 6500 gallons of low level waste from Tank 50 as well as drain water returned from the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. Over the past several years, Saltstone Engineering has noted the accumulation of solids in the SFT. The solids are causing issues with pump performance, agitator performance, density/level monitoring, as well as taking up volume in the tank. The tank has been sounded at the same location multiple times to determine the level of the solids. The readings have been 12, 25 and 15 inches. The SFT is 8.5 feet high and 12 feet in diameter, therefore the solids account for approximately 10 % of the tank volume. Saltstone Engineering has unsuccessfully attempted to obtain scrape samples of the solids for analysis. As a result, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with developing a soft core sampler to obtain a sample of the solids and to analyze the core sample to aid in determining a path forward for removing the solids from the SFT. The source of the material in the SFT is the drain water return system where excess liquid from the Saltstone disposal vaults is pumped back to the SFT for reprocessing. It has been shown that fresh grout from the vault enter the drain water system piping. Once these grout solids return to the SFT, they settle in the tank, set up, and can't be reprocessed, causing buildup in the tank over time. The composition of the material indicates that it is potentially toxic for chromium and mercury and the primary radionuclide is cesium-137. Qualitative measurements show that the material is not cohesive and will break apart with some force.

Reigel, M.; Cheng, W.

2012-01-26

214

Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state [Pu(VI) vs. Pu(IV)] and administration medium (bicarbonate vs. nitrate vs. citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. (author)

215

[Probiotics--possibilities and limitations of their application in food, animal feed, and in pharmaceutical preparations for men and animals].  

Science.gov (United States)

Probiotics are cultures of special microorganisms, which have been used as feed additives since the seventies of the past century and already since the twenties in food specimen and in pharmaceuticals. The definition of "Probioticum" was formulated in 1974 simultaneously with the use of living cultures in feed for various animals in order to substitute the application of nutritive antibiotics or chemotherapeutics. In the meantime probiotics are applied not only as feed supplements or pharmaceuticals but increasingly in suitable food specimens such as dairy products, fruit juices, chocolates, and even meat products. Of course, heating of such products prior to consumption or application must be ruled out. The selection of a suitable strain of a microorganism can be regarded as the primary requirement for the use as a probiotic. These cultures must be able to pass the stomach-duodenum barrier in a viable state and to multiply at the site of destination in the intestine. Additionally, they must be capable of producing antagonistic metabolites against a dominating saprophytic microflora resulting in a competitive growth. These abilities are common among lactic acid bacteria, e.g. lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Yet, intended autochthonous species do not possess very good technological features for the enrichment in food specimens, because their viability will decrease rapidly under unfavourable conditions as it is the case with mineral supplements in feed or with low acidity in fermented dairy products. Therefore, some other microorganisms like spore-forming species or yeast cultures were introduced as probiotic components. These possess some similar features which render them suitable for probiotic use. But their physiological and ecological traits do not qualify them as probiotics of first choice. The special efficacy of probiotics must be strictly verified in animal nutrition due to restrictive EC-regulations, in pharmacy due to legal restraints, and in food applications in accordance with food law regulations. Safety aspects are considered very restrictively in feed applications, in the food and pharmaceutical sector they should be in accordance with the intended purpose of "fulfilling health claims". In the presented review the different requirements for the application of probiotics in animal nutrition, in food, and in pharmaceuticals will be provided. The special effect of competitive exclusion of pathogenetic and toxinogenic microorganisms in fowl performance are mentioned and even the application of probiotics as marine aquacultures of fish and Crustaceae will be included. Furthermore, the safety aspects resulting from the tremendous amount of industrially produced cultures which are distributed into the environment will be discussed. In conclusion it may be pointed out that probiotics may serve to partially replace the presently reduced or even prohibited application of nutritive antibiotics or chemotherapeutics in animal nutrition and in fulfillment of health claims in man and animals. Economic and environmental aspects will reduce the overall application of probiotics world-wide. Restrictions of use and controls of efficacy and safety are essential and must be implemented periodically. PMID:11766268

Reuter, G

2001-01-01

216

Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals, and the effect of radiation inactivation of the microorganisms were investigated. The contamination of animal feeds was remarkable, and the number of total count in the mash for chicken and other animals was from 5.3 x 104 to 2.2 x 106 per gram. The number of coliforms was from 5.1 x 103 to 6.8 x 105 per gram and they were mainly Enterobacter and Klebsiella. The number of osmophilic moulds was from 9.6 x 102 to 4.5 x 105 per gram. In case of the mixed feeds in pellets, the total count was from 5.3 x 103 to 1.0 x 106 per gram. The contamination of fish meals was not remarkable, and only mixed fish meals were contaminated largely by faecal coliforms and others. The species of bacteria in the total count of mixed feeds were Bacilli, Micrococci, Enterobacteria and Klebsiellas, and the osmophilic moulds were Aspergilus glaucus group, A. gracilis and A. candidus. As the result, it seemed to be necessary to prevent the damage to feed stuff caused by the growth of moulds and insects and to eliminate pathogens. Osmopholic moulds are sensitive to radiation, and ere eliminated to below the identification limit by 0.2 Mrad irradation. Coliforms were more resistant to radiation, and eliminated by up to 0.8 Mrad of radiation. But some bacteria survived up to 1.5 Mrad dose. The irradiation at 0.5 Mrad seemed to be enhe irradiation at 0.5 Mrad seemed to be enough to reduce the total count to below 103 per gram, and to eliminate faecal coliforms from mixed feeds. (Kako, I.)

217

Background for protective action recommendations: accidental radioactive contamination of food and animal feeds. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides background material for the development of FDA's Protective Action Recommendations: Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Food and Animal Feeds. The rationale, dosimetric and agricultural transport models for the Protective Action Guides are presented, along with information on dietary intake. In addition, the document contains a discussion of field methods of analysis of radionuclides deposited on the ground or contained in milk and herbage. Various protective actions are described and evaluated, and a cost-effectiveness analysis for the recommendations performed

218

Sampling feed for mycotoxins: acquiring knowledge from food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The occurrence and control of mycotoxins in feed and food are items of great interest to researchers, producers, manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In order to implement knowledge of control measures for mycotoxins in the entire food production chain, coordinated inspection programmes aimed to check the presence and concentration of mycotoxins in feedingstuffs are recommended by the Commission of the European Communities. Reliability of measured levels of mycotoxins in feed and food is gr...

Eleonora Fusi; Vittorio Dell'Orto; Anna Campagnoli; Luciano Pinotti; Federica Cheli

2010-01-01

219

The impact of feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of moving from conventional to precision feeding systems in growing-finishing pig operations on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition was studied. Fifteen animals per treatment for a total of 60 pigs of 41.2 (SE = 0.5) kg of BW were used in a performance trial (84 d) with 4 treatments: a 3-phase (3P) feeding program obtained by blending fixed proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); a 3-phase commercial (COM) feeding program; and 2 daily-phase feeding programs in which the blended proportions of feeds A and B were adjusted daily to meet the estimated nutritional requirements of the group (multiphase-group feeding, MPG) or of each pig individually (multiphase-individual feeding, MPI). Daily feed intake was recorded each day and pigs were weighed weekly during the trial. Body composition was assessed at the beginning of the trial and every 28 d by dual-energy X-ray densitometry. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion was estimated as the difference between retention and intake. Organ, carcass, and primal cut measurements were taken after slaughter. The COM feeding program reduced (P < 0.05) ADFI and improved G:F rate in relation to other treatments. The MPG and MPI programs showed values for ADFI, ADG, G:F, final BW, and nitrogen and phosphorus retention that were similar to those obtained for the 3P feeding program. However, compared with the 3P treatment, the MPI feeding program reduced the standardized ileal digestible lysine intake by 27%, the estimated nitrogen excretion by 22%, and the estimated phosphorus excretion by 27% (P < 0.05). Organs, carcass, and primal cut weights did not differ among treatments. Feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques is an effective approach to reduce nutrient excretion without compromising pig performance or carcass composition. PMID:25057024

Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Lovatto, P A; Radünz Neto, J

2014-09-01

220

Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

1998-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

222

The environmental and public health risks associated with arsenical use in animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arsenic exposures contribute significantly to the burden of preventable disease worldwide, specifically related to increased risks of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Most exposures are associated with natural contamination of groundwater, which is difficult to mitigate when these sources are used for drinking water. An anthropogenic source of arsenic exposure stems from the widespread use of arsenical drugs in food-animal production in the United States and China, among many countries. This use results in residual contamination of food products from animals raised with the drugs, as well as environmental contamination associated with disposal of wastes from these animals. Land disposal of these wastes can contaminate surface and ground water, and the conversion of animal wastes into fertilizer pellets for home use as well as the introduction of animal waste incinerators may increase opportunities for exposure. As an intentional additive to animal feed, use of arsenical drugs is a preventable source of human exposure. The domestic practice of using these drugs in poultry production has been the subject of media attention and limited research, though the use of these drugs in domestic swine production and in the rapidly growing foreign animal production industry remains largely uncharacterized. This continued expansion of arsenical drug use may likely increase the burden of global human arsenic exposure and risk. PMID:18991934

Silbergeld, Ellen K; Nachman, Keeve

2008-10-01

223

Potential use of stevia rebaudiana in animal feeds / Empleo potencial de stevia rebaudiana en alimentación animal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se estudió el perfil nutricional de hojas y tallos de Stevia rebaudiana y su potencial empleo en un modelo animal. Las hojas y tallos de Stevia rebaudiana tienen 16% y 6,7% de proteína bruta y bajo contenido de grasa (2,6 y 1,1%) respectivamente. La grasa extraída mostró un predominio de ácidos gras [...] os insaturados (65,8% y 71,4% para hojas y tallos respectivamente). El ácido graso más abundante en la hoja fue el linolénico (36%) y en el tallo, el linoleico (38%). La fibra bruta sobre materia seca desgrasada supuso el 6,8% para hojas y 45,4% para tallo. El contenido de K de hojas y tallos fue similar, la concentración de Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn fue mayor en las hojas y al contrario para Na. Las pruebas con broilers establecieron que los valores de energía aparente, corregida para N y metabolizable verdadera, fueron 2113, 2098 y 2223 kcal/kg en hojas, y 1573, 1554 y 1675 kcal/kg en tallos respectivamente. La retención de proteína foliar y de los tallos por los broilers fue 63 y 65,7% respectivamente. El contenido de esteviósido de las hojas fue 6,5% y el de rebaudiósido A de 2,3%. Los valores correspondientes para los tallos fueron 0,69% y 0,3%. Las hojas de Stevia rebaudiana contienen otros atributos nutricionales además de la alta concentración de componentes endulzantes (esteviósido y rebaudiósido A). Abstract in english The nutritional profile of the leaves and stem of Stevia rebaudiana, and their potential utilization in an animal model were studied. Stevia leaves and stem had 16% and 6.7% crude protein and were low in fat content (2.6 and 1.1%) respectively. The fatty acid profile of fat showed a preponderance of [...] unsaturated fatty acids (65.8% and 71.4% for leaves and stem respectively). Linolenic acid was the most abundant fatty acid in stevia leaf oil (36%) whereas linoleic acid was the highest in stems (38%). The crude fiber contents on dry fat free basis were 6.8% and 45.4% for leaves and stem respectively. The K content of stevia leaves and stem were comparable; Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were higher in leaves and the opposite was true for Na. The tests with broiler chickens showed that apparent, nitrogen corrected, and true metabolisable energy values for leaves were 2113, 2098 and 2223 kcal/kg and for stems 1573, 1554 and 1675 kcal/kg respectively. Retention of the protein from the leaves and stems by chickens was 63% and 65.7% respectively. Stevia leaves contain other nutritional attributes besides of the sweetening components.

J., Atteh; O., Onagbesan; K., Tona; J., Buyse; E., Decuypere; J., Geuns.

2011-03-01

224

Potential use of stevia rebaudiana in animal feeds / Empleo potencial de stevia rebaudiana en alimentación animal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se estudió el perfil nutricional de hojas y tallos de Stevia rebaudiana y su potencial empleo en un modelo animal. Las hojas y tallos de Stevia rebaudiana tienen 16% y 6,7% de proteína bruta y bajo contenido de grasa (2,6 y 1,1%) respectivamente. La grasa extraída mostró un predominio de ácidos gras [...] os insaturados (65,8% y 71,4% para hojas y tallos respectivamente). El ácido graso más abundante en la hoja fue el linolénico (36%) y en el tallo, el linoleico (38%). La fibra bruta sobre materia seca desgrasada supuso el 6,8% para hojas y 45,4% para tallo. El contenido de K de hojas y tallos fue similar, la concentración de Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn fue mayor en las hojas y al contrario para Na. Las pruebas con broilers establecieron que los valores de energía aparente, corregida para N y metabolizable verdadera, fueron 2113, 2098 y 2223 kcal/kg en hojas, y 1573, 1554 y 1675 kcal/kg en tallos respectivamente. La retención de proteína foliar y de los tallos por los broilers fue 63 y 65,7% respectivamente. El contenido de esteviósido de las hojas fue 6,5% y el de rebaudiósido A de 2,3%. Los valores correspondientes para los tallos fueron 0,69% y 0,3%. Las hojas de Stevia rebaudiana contienen otros atributos nutricionales además de la alta concentración de componentes endulzantes (esteviósido y rebaudiósido A). Abstract in english The nutritional profile of the leaves and stem of Stevia rebaudiana, and their potential utilization in an animal model were studied. Stevia leaves and stem had 16% and 6.7% crude protein and were low in fat content (2.6 and 1.1%) respectively. The fatty acid profile of fat showed a preponderance of [...] unsaturated fatty acids (65.8% and 71.4% for leaves and stem respectively). Linolenic acid was the most abundant fatty acid in stevia leaf oil (36%) whereas linoleic acid was the highest in stems (38%). The crude fiber contents on dry fat free basis were 6.8% and 45.4% for leaves and stem respectively. The K content of stevia leaves and stem were comparable; Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were higher in leaves and the opposite was true for Na. The tests with broiler chickens showed that apparent, nitrogen corrected, and true metabolisable energy values for leaves were 2113, 2098 and 2223 kcal/kg and for stems 1573, 1554 and 1675 kcal/kg respectively. Retention of the protein from the leaves and stems by chickens was 63% and 65.7% respectively. Stevia leaves contain other nutritional attributes besides of the sweetening components.

J., Atteh; O., Onagbesan; K., Tona; J., Buyse; E., Decuypere; J., Geuns.

225

Determination of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at cross contamination levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

A confirmatory multi-residue method has been developed to allow for the detection, confirmation and quantification of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method can be used to determine halofuginone, robenidine, nicarbazin, diclazuril, decoquinate, semduramicin, lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin at levels relating to unavoidable carry over as stated in Regulation 2009/8/EC. Feed samples are extracted with water and acetonitrile with the addition of anhydrous magnesium sulphate and sodium chloride. The extract then undergoes a freezing out step before being diluted and injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. The LC-MS/MS system is run in MRM mode with both positive and negative electrospray ionisation and can confirm all eleven analytes in a run time of 19 min. The sensitivity of the method allows quantification and confirmation for all coccidiostats at a 0.5% carry over level. The method was validated over three days in accordance with of European legislation; Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation criteria of accuracy, precision, decision limit (CC?), and detection capability (CC?) along with measurement uncertainty are calculated for all analytes. The method was then successfully used to analyse a number of feed samples that contained various coccidiostat substances. PMID:21742113

Cronly, Mark; Behan, P; Foley, B; Malone, E; Shearan, P; Regan, L

2011-08-26

226

21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cattle materials prohibited in animal food...in Animal Food or Feed § 589.2001 Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or...section is to prohibit the use of certain cattle origin materials in the food or...

2010-04-01

227

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern, as a result of changes in livestock production methods. RSC emissions were determined from a swine CAFO in North Carolina. RSC measurements were made over a period of ?1 week from both the barn and lagoon during each of the four seasonal periods from June 2007 to April 2008. During sampling, meteorological and other environmental parameters were measured continuously. Seasonal hydrogen sulfide (H2S) barn concentrations ranged from 72 to 631 ppb. Seasonal dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH3SCH3) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS; CH3S2CH3) concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower, ranging from 0.18 to 0.89 ppb and 0.47 to 1.02 ppb, respectively. The overall average barn emission rate was 3.3 g day-1 AU-1 (AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for H2S, which was approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the DMS and DMDS overall average emissions rates, determined as 0.017 g day-1 AU-1 and 0.036 g day-1 AU-1, respectively. The overall average lagoon flux was 1.33 ?g m-2 min-1 for H2S, which was approximately an order of magnitude higher than the overall average DMS (0.12 ?g m-2 min-1) and DMDS (0.09 ?g m-2 min-1) lagoon fluxes. The overall average lagoon emission for H2S (0.038 g day-1 AU-1) was also approximately an order of magnitude higher than the overall average DMS (0.0034 g day-1 AU-1) and DMDS (0.0028 g day-1 AU-1) emissions. H2S, DMS and DMDS have offensive odors and low odor thresholds. Over all four sampling seasons, 77% of 15 min averaged H2S barn concentrations were an order of magnitude above the average odor threshold. During these sampling periods, however, DMS and DMDS concentrations did not exceed their odor thresholds. The overall average barn and lagoon emissions from this study were used to help estimate barn, lagoon and total (barn + lagoon) RSC emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina. Total (barn + lagoon) H2S emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina were estimated to be 1.22*106 kg yr-1. The barns had significantly higher H2S emissions than the lagoons, contributing ?98% of total North Carolina H2S swine CAFO emissions. Total (barn + lagoon) emissions for DMS and DMDS were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower, with barns contributing ?86% and ?93% of total emissions, respectively. H2S swine CAFO emissions were estimated to contribute ?18% of North Carolina H2S emissions.

Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

2014-09-01

228

The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

Petr Mares

2014-02-01

229

Graph animals, subgraph sampling and motif search in large networks  

CERN Document Server

We generalize a sampling algorithm for lattice animals (connected clusters on a regular lattice) to a Monte Carlo algorithm for `graph animals', i.e. connected subgraphs in arbitrary networks. As with the algorithm in [N. Kashtan et al., Bioinformatics 20, 1746 (2004)], it provides a weighted sample, but the computation of the weights is much faster (linear in the size of subgraphs, instead of super-exponential). This allows subgraphs with up to ten or more nodes to be sampled with very high statistics, from arbitrarily large networks. Using this together with a heuristic algorithm for rapidly classifying isomorphic graphs, we present results for two protein interaction networks obtained using the TAP high throughput method: one of Escherichia coli with 230 nodes and 695 links, and one for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with roughly ten times more nodes and links. We find in both cases that most connected subgraphs are strong motifs (Z-scores >10) or anti-motifs (Z-scores <-10) when the null model is the...

Baskerville, Kim; Paczuski, Maya

2007-01-01

230

Improvement in irradiation pasteurization on sugarcane bagasse for its fungal bioconversion to animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Goals of this study were to reduce radiation dose required for bagase pasteurization and to convert the pasteurized bagasse into animal feed by using fungal fermentation. Comparative study on the effectiveness of radiation decontamination on moisturized and dried bagasse showed different doses required for pasteurization. Radiation treatment on wetted substratum bags required 20 kGy, while dried bagasse needed only 10 kGy for pasteurization. In comparison with wetted bagasse substratum, the pasteurized dry bagasse has more dominant advantages because it can be kept for storage, transportation and distribution to household producers. Moisturizing substratum with tap water can be done just before inoculation with mycelial seed. Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse to ruminant feed by using fungal fermentation was investigated. The in sacco digestibility of fermented substratum increased with incubation period and it was higher than that of paddy rice straw and comparable to Pangola grass after 35 days of fermentation. As the digestibility of mushroom-harvested residue was still higher than that of non-fermented bagasse, the fermentation by using Pleurotus spp. could simultaneously provide edible mushroom and animal feed as well. (Author)

231

Animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

232

Nutritional and toxicological assessment of white-rot fermented animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungal fermented wheat straws as animal feeds have been evaluated for its toxicological and nutritional status in male rats (Holtzman strain). Digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients as well as fiber fractions were found significantly higher (P Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (T2). The aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were either absent or present in permissive levels in T3 and T4 diets and exhibited normal stress enzyme activity in case of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes whereas, rats fed on T2 diet showed elevated levels of stress enzymes (ALT, AST and LDH activity), 100% high morbidity and 8.3% mortality. This study suggests that Ganoderma sp. rckk02 and Crinipellis sp. RCK-1 are efficient in improving the nutritive value of poor quality straw and do not posses any threat for their subsequent use as ruminant feed. PMID:23729880

Sharma, K K; Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Nandal, Preeti; Sehgal, Neeta; Sastry, V R B; Kalra, A; Kuhad, R C

2012-06-01

233

Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, and zearalenone (ZEN contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

Dong-Ho Kim

2013-12-01

234

21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...from which brains and spinal cords were not effectively removed or otherwise effectively excluded from animal feed; (iv... (A) The brain and spinal cord are not effectively removed from such cattle or the brain and...

2010-04-01

235

76 FR 79697 - Withdrawal of Notices of Opportunity for a Hearing; Penicillin and Tetracycline Used in Animal Feed  

Science.gov (United States)

...antibiotic. Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of bacteria...of a drug. Antimicrobial resistance, as it relates to bacterial...animal feed of antibiotic and sulfonamide drugs unless certain data...the issue of antimicrobial resistance. Today's action...

2011-12-22

236

40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).  

Science.gov (United States)

...applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.23 Section 122.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.23 Concentrated animal feeding operations...

2010-07-01

237

Controlling the aflatoxin producing fungi contaminating animal feed by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results indicated that 9 from 24 isolates of fungi have the ability to produce aflatoxins either on synthetic medium or natural animal diet. Seven from the nine isolates producing aflatoxins belonged to genus Aspergillus and were held to five species namely A. terreus ,A. niger, A.flavus, A. orywae and A. nidulans. Meanwhile, only one species from genus penicillium was found to produce aflatoxin on both synthetic and animal diet media, while the remaining isolate, rhizopus nigricansm was found to produce aflatoxin on synthetic medium only. Aspergillus terreus isolates (1 and 3) were found to produce aflatoxins G 1 and G 2 on synthetic medium. On animal diet, strain (1) produced only aflatoxin G l, while strain (3) produced aflatoxin G 2 on the same animal diet. Exposure of these two strains to increasing doses of gamma rays up to 5 KGy decreased and finally prevented aflatoxin production. This dose was also found to be sufficient to eliminate all kinds of fungi contaminated animal feed.2 fig.,5 tab

238

Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge using reactor waste to obtain acceptable fertilizer or animal supplement feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a report of the Beneficial Uses Program. This program consists of a number of activities at Sandia Laboratories to develop the necessary technology for cost-beneficial use of a maximum amount of radioactive waste. Major activity is currently concentrated in the Waste Resources Utilization Program which has as its objective the use of cesium-134/137 as a gamma radiation source, coupled with modest heating, to treat sewage sludge to rid it of pathogenic organisms so that it may safely be used as a fertilizer or a feed supplement for ruminant animals. (author)

239

The occurrence of zearalenone and its derivatives in standard and therapeutic feeds for companion animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Weather anomalies are the cause of the more and more frequent occurrence of the rezorcycyklic acid derivatives--zearalenone--in the fodders of the animal origin. This mycotoxine induces in the organism of gilts an oestrus-like condition. According to the latest reports the zearalenone derivatives were found in the human food-stuffs in the retail market. It was considered important to assay the concentration of zearalenone and its derivatives in the standard and therapeutic feeds for dogs. Zearalenone and its derivatives were found in 48 commercial formulations for a total number of 57 brands analysed. PMID:15633789

Zwierzchowski, W; Gajecki, M; Obremski, K; Zielonka, L; Baranowski, M

2004-01-01

240

Ochratoxin A in feed of food-producing animals: an undesirable mycotoxin with health and performance effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, whose presence in feed- and foodstuffs is unavoidable. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the known mycotoxins with greatest public health and agro-economic significance. Several toxic effects have been ascribed following exposure, namely nephrotoxicity, as well negative impacts in the performance of farm animals, resulting in major economic implications. Of no less importance for the route of human exposure that can also embody the carry-over of OTA from feed into animal-derived products is also a concern. For all these reasons the present article updates the worldwide occurrence of OTA in different raw ingredients and finished feed destined to food-producing animals. After that a brief characterization of specie susceptibility and the major rationales is made. An historical overview of field outbreaks linked to OTA exposure in farm animals, concerning the implicated feeds, contamination levels and major clinical and productivity effects is presented. Finally a review of the major animal health and performance potential impacts of animals being reared on contaminated feed is made allied to a perspective regarding its co-occurrence with other mycotoxins, and simultaneous parasitic and bacterial infections. Ultimately, this article aims to be instructive and draw attention to a mycotoxin so often neglected and elapsed from the list of differential diagnosis in farm practice. For the unpredictability and unavoidability of occurrence, OTA will definitely be an enduring problem in animal production. PMID:21641127

Duarte, Sofia C; Lino, Celeste M; Pena, Angelina

2011-12-29

 
 
 
 
241

Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors contributing to nutrient availability and animal performance. PMID:20578647

Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl; Skrede, Anders

2010-06-01

242

Animal feed contamination by PCDDs-PCDFs in Italy in years 2002-2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), are ubiquitous toxic contaminants mainly originating from thermal and incineration processes and representing a potential risk for human health. Various studies show that environmental levels have decreased during the last 20 years. In contrast to this trend several cases of specific contamination have caused high PCDD and PCDF levels in feedstuffs. It is important to monitor the dioxin contamination of feed to avoid large scale feed contamination and to decrease human exposure to dioxins. In Italy PCDDs and PCDFs monitoring has been introduced in the National Residues Surveillance Plan (NRSP) since 1999 and all relevant laboratory tests have been carried out at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise (ISO/IEC 17025 accredited), following designation by the Ministry of Health. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCDD/Fs levels and congener distribution patterns in different animal feed in Italy, collected in the period 2002-2003.

Ceci, R.; Diletti, G.; Torreti, L.; Benedictis, A. De; Scortichini, G. [Ist. Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Abruzzo e del Molise (Italy)

2004-09-15

243

Pilot scale study - processing of palm empty fruit bunch into animal feed at sterifeed pilot plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5-1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

244

Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

2007-01-01

245

Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from animals and feed in Poland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fifty-seven Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from poultry, swine and animal feed in Poland during the years 1979-1998 and 2000-2002 were analysed with conventional and molecular techniques. Antimicrobial resistance as well as multiresistance was found, respectively, in 80.1 % and 56.1 % of the isolates and most frequently among isolates from 2000-2002. Of several phage types noted, DT104 was prevalent among poultry, swine and feed isolates. DT104, U302 and non-typable strains had a multiple resistant profile (ACSSuT) due to the presence of class I integrons. Pulse-field get electrophoresis of XbaI and BlnI digest showed high genomic similarity between the strains and confirmed clonal spread of S. Typhimurium infections. Plasmid profiling allowed further differentiation of the strains. We have, therefore, confirmed the appearance of S. Typhimurium DT104 showing genome integrated integron-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Poland. These findings are significant for public and animal health risks and document the dissemination of DT104 epidemic strains into new geographical regions.

Baggesen, Dorte Lau

2006-01-01

246

Effect of Operational Parameters on Solid State Fermentation of Cassava Peel to an Enriched Animal Feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Response surface methodology based on the Face-Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD was employed to determine the effects of process conditions on the production of an enriched animal feed from cassava peel by a locally isolated white rot fungus Panus tigrinus (M609RQY. Seventeen experimental runs based on three parameters (pH, inoculum size and moisture content as designated by FCCD were carried out under solid state fermentation. The effect of these parameters on lignin degradation in cassava peel was evaluated. Statistical analysis of the results showed that, only moisture content exerted a highly significant effect (p<0.01 on lignin degradation. The optimum parameter combination was found at 70% v/w of moisture content, 6% v/w inoculum size and pH of 5.30. Under this optimum, 50.62% lignin loss was obtained. This study presents a viable option to the management of cassava peel for production of value-added-product animal feed.

Md. Zahangir Alam

2012-01-01

247

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author)

248

Do whole-food animal feeding studies have any value in the safety assessment of GM crops?  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin. PMID:23851038

Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo

2014-02-01

249

Genotyping of plant and animal samples without prior DNA purification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Direct PCR approach facilitates PCR amplification directly from small amounts of unpurified samples, and is demonstrated here for several plant and animal tissues (Figure 1). Direct PCR is based on specially engineered Thermo Scientific Phusion and Phire DNA Polymerases, which include a double-stranded DNA binding domain that gives them unique properties such as high tolerance of inhibitors. PCR-based target DNA detection has numerous applications in plant research, including plant genotype analysis and verification of transgenes. PCR from plant tissues traditionally involves an initial DNA isolation step, which may require expensive or toxic reagents. The process is time consuming and increases the risk of cross contamination. Conversely, by using Thermo Scientific Phire Plant Direct PCR Kit the target DNA can be easily detected, without prior DNA extraction. In the model demonstrated here, an example of derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis (dCAPS) is performed directly from Arabidopsis plant leaves. dCAPS genotyping assays can be used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by SNP allele-specific restriction endonuclease digestion. Some plant samples tend to be more challenging when using Direct PCR methods as they contain components that interfere with PCR, such as phenolic compounds. In these cases, an additional step to remove the compounds is traditionally required. Here, this problem is overcome by using a quick and easy dilution protocol followed by Direct PCR amplification (Figure 1). Fifteen year-old oak leaves are used as a model for challenging plants as the specimen contains high amounts of phenolic compounds including tannins. Gene transfer into mice is broadly used to study the roles of genes in development, physiology and human disease. The use of these animals requires screening for the presence of the transgene, usually with PCR. Traditionally, this involves a time consuming DNA isolation step, during which DNA for PCR analysis is purified from ear, tail or toe tissues. However, with the Thermo Scientific Phire Animal Tissue Direct PCR Kit transgenic mice can be genotyped without prior DNA purification. In this protocol transgenic mouse genotyping is achieved directly from mouse ear tissues, as demonstrated here for a challenging example where only one primer set is used for amplification of two fragments differing greatly in size. PMID:23051689

Chum, Pak Y; Haimes, Josh D; André, Chas P; Kuusisto, Pia K; Kelley, Melissa L

2012-01-01

250

Nutrient Composition of Some Unconventional and Local Feed Resources Available in Senegal and Recoverable in Indigenous Chickens or Animal Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10 unconventional and local ingredients from Senegal including leguminous leaves (Leuceana leucocephala, Cassia tora, Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata, Sesbania rostrata, cucurbit (Citrullus vulgaris and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds, red and white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds and cockroaches (Blatta orientalis were collected, sun-dried, processed into meal and analyzed for their chemical and macro-mineral composition using internationally established procedures. The results showed that the samples Dry Matter (DM percent ranged from 89.3% (red cowpea to 94.9% (C. vulgaris. The Crude Protein (CP content ranged from 24.7% (white cowpea to 61.9% (cockroaches meal, with A. digitata leaves having the lowest value (12.9%. Citrullus and Hibiscus seeds meal recorded the highest (38.8% and 18.9% Ether Extract (EE values, followed respectively by cockroaches (11.1%, Moringa (9.8%, Leuceana (6.4% and Sesbania leaves meal (5.1%, while the others were below 4.5%. The crude fiber (CF content was globally high in the leaves, ranging from 11.7% (M. oleifera to 16.8% (C. tora while that of seeds and cockroaches ranged from 1.9% (white cowpea to 19% (Citrullus seeds. A. digitata leaves gave the highest ash content (25.2%, followed by Cassia (15.2%, Moringa (13.6%, Leuceana (11.4% and Sesbania leaves (7.1%, while the others were below 5.6%. The metabolizable energy (ME value calculated for seeds and cockroaches meal ranged from 3161 kcal/kg DM (cockroaches to 4270 kcal/kg DM (C. vulgaris and that of leaves from 1873 (A. digitata to 2888.9 kcal/kg DM (M. oleifera. Cassia leaves contained the highest level of calcium (3.1%, followed by Adansonia and Leuceana (1.81%, Moringa and Sesbania leaves (1.41%, whilst cockroaches, Hibiscus and Citrullus seeds meal recorded respectively 0.93, 0.81 and 0.55% of phosphorus. These results showed that all the ingredients samples contained appreciable quantities of all dietary nutrients tested for which more or less make them partial or complete substitutes for the conventional feed sources.

J.L. Hornick

2011-01-01

251

Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. Mean fractional GI absorption values in fasted adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 15 x 10-4; Pu(IV) bicarbonate, 20 x 10-4; Pu(IV) nitrate (pH2), 17 x 10-4; Pu(IV) citrate, 24 x 10-4; and Pu(IV) polymer, 3 x 10-4. Values in fed adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 1.4 x 10-4; Pu(IV) polymer, 0.3 x 10-4. Pu(VI) is the oxidation state in chlorinated drinking waters and Pu(IV) is the oxidation state in many untreated natural waters. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. Fractional GI absorption values obtained by this method were 23 +- 10 x 10-4 for fasted baboons (n=5) and 1.4 +- 0.9 x 10-4 for fed baboons (n=3). We have so far validated this method in one baboon and are currently completing validation in two additional animals. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state [Pu(VI) vs Pu(IV)] and administration medium (bicarbonate vs nitrate vs citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. 17 refs., 2 tabs

252

Occurrence of mycotoxins in Polish animal feed in years 2006-2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a 4-year survey (2006-2009, 1255 samples) of fungal secondary metabolites in feed material (cereal and corn grains) and feedstuffs (silages, mixed feeds). Five major mycotoxin groups were studied, including aflatoxins (AF), ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes [deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin], zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisins (FUM). The metabolites were identified using HPLC methods with fluorescent, UV and MS/MS detection. Both immunoaffinity and SPE columns were used for sample preparation. In eleven samples, the concentration of several mycotoxins exceeded the recommended guidelines for feedstuffs. DON was detected at the highest concentration in the majority of analysed samples (cereal grains, silages and mixed feeds, maximum values ranged from 409 to 14,470 ng/g). Corn grains also contained other Fusarium toxins (FUM) at maximum levels ranging from 435 to 9409 ng/g. The highest average(positive) concentration of the other trichothecenes (NIV, T-2 and HT-2 toxins) was <5.0-139 ng/g. ZEA was found at the highest concentration in corn grains and silages (maximum values ranging from 292 to 603 ng/g and 116 to 1150 ng/g, respectively). The highest average(positive) concentration and the maximum level of OTA were detected in cereal grains (33.0 ng/g in 2009 and 760 ng/g in 2007, respectively). Less than 7% of the 557 samples were contaminated with AF at low levels (maximum of 0.61 ng/g). Our results support the need for further monitoring of mycotoxins in Polish feedstuffs and their components. PMID:22356129

Grajewski, J; B?ajet-Kosicka, A; Twaru?ek, M; Kosicki, R

2012-10-01

253

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Danisco Animal Nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glycine betaine (betaine acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns for consumer safety. Users’ inhalation exposure to betaine is expected to be minimal. Betaine anhydrous should be considered irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes and a skin sensitiser. It is likely to cause skin sensitisation. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become efficacious in all animal species and categories when administered via feed or water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations on (i introduction of a maximum content for supplemental betaine in complete feed and water for drinking; (ii avoidance of simultaneous use of betaine in feed and water for drinking; and (iii avoidance of simultaneous inclusion of betaine and choline chloride in premixtures.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-05-01

254

Radionuclides in animal tissue samples from various regions of Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of the concentration of radioactive substances in animal species from various regions of Austria has been carried out. For bone and liver of deer, radionuclide concentrations typical for central Europe were found. The content of 90Sr were higher in gasteropod shells than in deer bone. Similar concentrations of 90Sr were found in isopods as in snail shells related to fresh weight, but related to Ca content the values in isopods were higher than in all other animals. Based on these results, a study of snail shells and of isopods as bioindicators for 90Sr content in environmental control is indicated. In tissue samples of the same species, but from different regions of Austria, the fallout radionuclide concentrations were found to be related to altitude (90Sr) and to the amount of precipitation (137Cs). These correlation differences could point to a different deposition behaviours of 90Sr and 137Cs, the former being deposited mainly with solid precipitation. This seems plausible since aerosols carried over continental distances show a high sulfate content and alkaline earth metal sulfates are less soluble than alkali sulfates. Examination of absolute concentration values related to fresh tissue weight show high fallout radionuclide concentrations, as compared to natural radionuclide concentration, especially in hard tissues. These fallout levels constitute a significant radioactive load on the biosphere. Due to the long physical half-life of 90Sr and 137Cs, this situation will remain virtually unchanged during the next decades, even if no further nuclear weapons tests are carried out. (G.G.)

255

Animals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

1997-10-01

256

Unravelling a vicious circle: animal feed marketed in Costa Rica contains irregular concentrations of tetracyclines and abundant oxytetracycline-resistant Gram-positive bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverse tetracyclines are used to prevent and control bacterial infections in livestock and farmed fish. These drugs are administered through the diet, but farmers seldom check whether feed contains antibiotic-resistant bacteria that may colonise their crops or transfer their resistance traits to species of veterinary relevance. To examine whether antibiotic dosage defines the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animal feed, we determined the concentration of parental compounds and epimers of oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline, as well as the abundance and resistance level of OTC-resistant bacteria in samples of fish (n = 21), poultry (n = 21), swine (n = 21), and shrimp feed (n = 21) marketed in Costa Rica. Fish feed contained the highest amounts of tetracyclines (119-8365 mg kg(-1)) and the largest proportion of bacteria resistant to 10 ?g ml(-1) (1.8-92.4%) or 100 ?g ml(-1) of OTC (12.5-63.8%). Poultry (78-438 mg kg(-1)) and swine (41-1076 mg kg(-1)) feed had intermediate concentrations of tetracyclines and OTC-resistant bacteria (0.2-66% and 0.3-49%, respectively), whereas shrimp feed showed the lowest amounts of tetracyclines (21.5-50.3 mg kg(-1)), no OTC and no culturable OTC-resistant bacteria. In line with these results, the MIC50 of OTC for 150 isolates from fish and poultry feed was > 256 µg ml(-1), while that of 150 bacteria isolated from swine feed was 192 µg ml(-1). Phenotypic tests, fatty acid profiles and proteotypic analyses by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass-spectroscopy revealed that most OTC-resistant isolates were Gram-positive bacteria of low G+C% content from the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Clear correlations between OTC dosage and feed colonisation with OTC-resistant bacteria were seen in medicated feed for fish (r = 0.179-0.651). Nonetheless, some unmedicated feed for fish, swine and poultry contained large populations of OTC-resistant bacteria, suggesting that raw materials and manufacturing processes may also influence carriage of OTC-resistant bacteria in animal feed. PMID:24660748

Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro, Margarita; Chavarría, Guadalupe; Rodríguez, César

2014-01-01

257

Rationalization of motive power use in animal feed industry; Racionalizacao do uso de forca motriz em fabrica de racao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pif Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: to adjust relays and to choose fuses, to schedule operation and to build storage facilities. (author)

Teixeira, Carlos A.; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio F. de; Martins, Jose H. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mails: carlos, delly, alacerda, jmartins@vicosa.ufv.br

2005-05-15

258

Isotope analytics for the evaluation of the feeding influence on the isotope ratio in beef samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information about the origin of food and associated production systems has a high significance for food control. An extremely promising approach to obtain such information is the determination of isotope ratios of different elements. In this study the correlation of the isotope ratios C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, Mg-25/Mg-24, and Sr-87/Sr-86 in bovine samples (milk and urine) and the corresponding isotope ratios in feed was investigated. It was shown that in the bovine samples all four isotope ratios correlate with the isotope composition of the feed. The isotope ratios of strontium and magnesium have the advantage that they directly reflect the isotope ratios of the ingested feed since there is no isotope fractionation in the bovine organism which is in contrast to the case of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. From the present feeding study it is evident, that a feed change leads to a significant change in the delta C-13 values in milk and urine within 10 days already. For the deltaN-15 values the feed change was only visible in the bovine urine after 49 days. Investigations of cows from two different regions (Berlin/Germany and Goestling/Austria) kept at different feeding regimes revealed no differences in the N-15/N-14 and Mg-26/Mg-24 isotope ratios. The strongest correlation between the isotope ratio of the bovine samples and the kind of ingested feed was observed for the carbon isotope ratio. With this ratio even smallest differences in the feed composition were traceable in the bovine samples. Since different regions usually coincide with different feeding regimes, carbon isotope ratios can be used to distinguish bovine samples from different regions if the delta C-13 values of the ingested feed are different. Furthermore, the determination of strontium isotope ratios revealed significant differences between bovine and feed samples of Berlin and Goestling due to the different geologic realities. Hence the carbon and strontium isotope ratios allow the best discrimination between bovine samples of different locations. In some cases these ratios even show indications for the production system (conventional and organic cattle breeding).

259

Do infant formula samples shorten the duration of breast-feeding?  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether advertising by infant formula companies shortens the duration of breast-feeding, we randomly assigned 448 breast-feeding new mothers to either receive or not receive a formula sample packet upon discharge from a maternity ward. These mother, unaware of the study, were then telephoned 3 months post partum by a research assistant blind to the randomisation status. "Sample" mothers were less likely to still be breast-feeding at 1 month (78% vs 84%, p = 0.07) and more likely to have introduced solid foods by 2 months (18% vs 10%, p = 0.01). These trends became more significant in three vulnerable subgroups: less educated mothers, primiparas, and mothers who had been ill post partum. Our results suggest that infant formula samples may shorten the duration of breast-feeding and hasten the age at which solids are introduced. PMID:6133166

Bergevin, Y; Dougherty, C; Kramer, M S

1983-05-21

260

Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus – effects on animal performance and meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM or fishmeal (WFM as protein source on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to “wild’ or “gamey” flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively. No “fish-related” flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjøl – effekter på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet I vår undersökning ingick 14 renar (8 kastrerade sarvar (härkaroch 6 vajor för att jämföra effekter av två olika renfoder (baserade på korn, hö och soja- (SBM eller fiskmjöl (WFM som proteintillskott med avseende på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet. Köttprover från naturbetande renar (n=4; 2 härkar och 2 vajor från Seward Peninsula inkluderades i studien för att representera kvaliteten på traditionellt producerat renkött från Alaska. Inga signifikanta skillnader i tillväxt observerades, varken mellan SBM- och WFM-grupperna eller mellan härkar och vajor. Foderutnyttjandet var dock signifikant bättre hos WFM-renarna. Slaktutbytet var högst för renarna i SBM-gruppen, däremot rapporterades inga skillnader i levandevikt, slaktkroppsegenskaper, pH-värde och temperatur i ytterfilén, skärmotstånd, färg eller vattenhållande förmåga i köttet när de tre grupperna av renar jämfördes (SBM, WFM och naturbetande djur. Köttet från de naturbetande renarna hade det signifikant högsta innehållet av både omega-3-fettsyror och av fleromättade fettsyror. Kött från SBM-renarna hade det högsta innehållet av triglycerider och det lägsta innehållet av fosfolipider jämfört med de andra två grupperna. Den tränade smakpanelen kunde inte hitta några skillnader i sensoriska egenskaper hos köttet från renarna i de tre olika grupperna. I en konsumentundersökning rapporterades kommentarer om olika ”vilt-relaterade” bismaker i kött från naturbetande renar (24% av konsumenterna och från WFM-gruppen (15% av konsumenterna, men inga ”fisk-liknande” bismaker i köttet kunde påvisas. Att byta ut sojamjöl mot fiskmjöl som proteintillskott i renfoder hade inga negativa effekter på renarnas

Greg Finstad

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2008-F-0151] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking...is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking...has noticed the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and...

2013-07-17

262

Application of Neutron Activation Analysis to the determination of essential and toxic elements in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work the concentrations of essential elements Ca (calcium), CI (chlorine), K (potassium), Mg (magnesium), Na (sodium), Co (cobalt), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), Fe (iron), Mn (manganese). Mo (molybdenum), Se (selenium), V (vanadium) and Zn (zinc), the toxic elements As (arsenic), Cd (cadmium) and Hg (mercury) and the elements without defined functions to the animal metabolism, such as Br (bromine), Eu (europium). La (lanthanum), Rb (rubidium), Sb (antinomies), Sc (scandium), Ta (tantalum), Th (thorium) and U (uranium) were determined in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Forty samples of agroindustrial by-products were analyzed, six of which are from animal origin and the others are from vegetable origin. All these materials are widely used in bovine feeding, mainly in dry season, when the forage become scarce. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated by means of analysis of the following certified reference materials: Rice Flour NIES-CRM-10C, Pig Kidney BCR-CRM, Oyster Tissue NIST-SRM-1566a e Buffalo River Sediment NIST-SRM-2704. The results, in general, are lower than 10 %. The results for the most of essential minerals were lower than the toxic limit for animals, and they reached the minimum requirements for domestic animals, although some agroindustrial by-products showed concentrations lower than the requirement. For all samples, the concentrations of toxic minerals were lower than the toxic limit (author)

263

Wholesomeness and toxicological safety of irradiated animal feed by-products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to assess the wholesomeness and toxicological safety of irradiated animal feed by-products after eliminating the pathogenic microorganisms by using gamma irradiation. Five groups of Dokki-4 chicks each group consists of 60 one-day old cockerels were fed for 24 weeks on a ration containing irradiated fish, meat, and blood meals by dose level 0.5, 10.0, 20.0, and 50,0 KGY for 24 weeks. The ratio of animal proteins to the total protein of ration fed was 56% for non-irradiated or irradiated meals. The effects of consumption of irradiated meals on live body weight and internal organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys) were studied. The observation gave an indication that body weight of all group as well as organs weight were normal and similar for the control group. Also, there was no clinically significant differences among the groups regarding red and white blood cells counts, haemoglobin contents, haematocrite value, and ESR for all groups. The results also showed no differences in total plasma protein, alkaline phosphatase activity and plasma Na, K, Mg, and Zn ions between the five groups studied

264

Quantitative Analysis of Food and Feed Samples with Droplet Digital PCR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for routine analysis in food and feed samples was demonstrated with the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of GMOs in products. However, its use is limited for detecting and quantifying very small numbers of DNA targets, as in some complex food and feed matrices. Using ddPCR duplex as...

Morisset, Dany; S?tebih, Dejan; Milavec, Mojca; Gruden, Kristina; Z?el, Jana

2013-01-01

265

Validation of an open-formula, diagnostic real-time PCR method for 20-hr detection of Salmonella in animal feeds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A comparative study of a 20-hr, non-commercial, open-formula PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL 187, for detection of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) on 81 artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water for 16 ± 2 h followed by a magnetic beads based semi automated DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis, including an internal amplification control. The limit of detection (LOD50) was found to be 7.19 and 7.24 CFU/sample for the PCR method and NMKL187, respectively. A very good correlation between results obtained by the two methods were found (Cohe?s kappa = 0.92). The relative accuracy, relative sensitivity and relative specificity were found to be 97.5%, 102.0% and 96.6%, respectively. This method is the fastest open PCR based analysis protocol for detection of Salmonella in feed samples. Implementing rapid methods such as the one validated in this study can speed up Salmonella testing of feed for food-producing animals

Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

266

The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

Tarrant, R C

2010-06-01

267

21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...established for it in the new animal drug application or request...be attributable to the new animal drug, except that this requirement...information described in a written communication to the applicant from the...submitted as part of the new animal drug application or in...

2010-04-01

268

Composição química da glicerina produzida por usinas de biodiesel no Brasil e potencial de uso na alimentação animal Chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and potential utilization in animal feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com a crescente produção de biodiesel no Brasil, aumenta também a produção de glicerina, co-produto dessa indústria. O principal componente da glicerina é o glicerol, altamente energético e, por isso, ela já vem sendo usada como alimento animal em vários países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química da glicerina produzida por indústrias de biodiesel no Brasil e discutir seu potencial de utilização na alimentação animal. Dezesseis usinas, responsáveis por 85,1% do biodiesel produzido no país, forneceram 41 amostras para análise. Cromo, cádmio e chumbo não foram detectados em nenhuma das amostras estudadas. Apenas quatro usinas, responsáveis por 36,8% da produção, produzem glicerina que atendem os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento para os teores de umidade e glicerol. Apenas uma usina, responsável por 14,1% da produção, produz glicerina apta para uso na alimentação de ruminantes, por não utilizar sebo bovino como matéria prima para o biodiesel.The increasing production of biodiesel in Brazil also increases glycerin production, a co-product of this industry. The main component of glycerin, glycerol, is highly energetic and because of that, glycerin is already used as animal feed in many countries. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and discuss its potential utilization as animal feed. Forty one samples of glycerin from sixteen biodiesel plants, that together yield 85.1% of Brazilian biodiesel, were analyzed. Chromium, cadmium and lead were not detected in any studied sample. Only four plants, that together yield 36.8% of Brazilian glycerin, comply the glycerol and moisture content levels established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Only one, responsible for 14.1% of Brazilian glycerin, delivers glycerin with the potential to be used as ruminant feed once it doesn't use animal fat to produce biodiesel.

Jackson Silva e Oliveira

2013-03-01

269

Feedly  

Science.gov (United States)

For those still mourning the loss of Google Reader, Feedly might be a good place to rebuild. Start with a particular blog or URL you would like to follow, or explore one of the suggested topics. The smooth, easy-to-use interface makes it a snap to browse the headlines or delve more deeply into particular stories of interest. Feedly is compatible with all operating systems.

2013-09-19

270

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. 500.35 Section 500.35 ...feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. (a) Investigations...to be contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms: Bone meal, blood meal, crab...

2010-04-01

271

Direct methylation procedure for converting fatty amides to fatty acid methyl esters in feed and digesta samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two direct methylation procedures often used for the analysis of total fatty acids in biological samples were evaluated for their application to samples containing fatty amides. Methylation of 5 mg of oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) in a one-step (methanolic HCl for 2 h at 70 degrees C) or a two-step (sodium methoxide for 10 min at 50 degrees C followed by methanolic HCl for 10 min at 80 degrees C) procedure gave 59 and 16% conversions of oleamide to oleic acid, respectively. Oleic acid recovery from oleamide was increased to 100% when the incubation in methanolic HCl was lengthened to 16 h and increased to 103% when the incubation in methoxide was modified to 24 h at 100 degrees C. However, conversion of oleamide to oleic acid in an animal feed sample was incomplete for the modified (24 h) two-step procedure but complete for the modified (16 h) one-step procedure. Unsaturated fatty amides in feed and digesta samples can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters by incubation in methanolic HCl if the time of exposure to the acid catalyst is extended from 2 to 16 h. PMID:11368568

Jenkins, T C; Thies, E J; Mosley, E E

2001-05-01

272

Between animal variation in biological efficiency as related to residual feed consumption.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production levels in livestock (cattle, pigs and poultry) have been increased considerably, with a correlated increase in gross feed efficiency. However, mature body weight has also increased, leading to higher maintenance costs. Thus, net feed efficiency has been little improved. Breeding for lower body weight has not been successful, but there are possibilities for reduction of feed consumption independent of production and body weight (residual feed consumption). It is as yet uncertain to ...

Luiting, P.; Urff, E. M.; Verstegen, M. W. A.

1994-01-01

273

Extruded Leftover Food as Animal Feed: I. Effect of Extruded Feed on Growth and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75±1.27 g. Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1 and without (type-2 were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia.

Ibrahim M. Al-Ruqaie

2007-01-01

274

Strategies to prevent mycotoxin contamination of food and animal feed: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that have been associated with severe toxic effects to vertebrates produced by many important phytopathogenic and food spoilage fungi including Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Alternaria species. The contamination of foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. We reviewed various control strategies to prevent the growth of mycotoxigenic fungi as well as to inhibit mycotoxin biosynthesis including pre-harvest (resistance varieties, field management and the use of biological and chemical agents), harvest management, and post-harvest (improving of drying and storage conditions, the use of natural and chemical agents, and irradiation) applications. While much work in this area has been performed on the most economically important mycotoxins, aflatoxin B(1) and ochratoxin A much less information is available on other mycotoxins such as trichothecenes, fumonisin B(1), zearalenone, citrinin, and patulin. In addition, physical, chemical, and biological detoxification methods used to prevent exposure to the toxic and carcinogenic effect of mycotoxins are discussed. Finally, dietary strategies, which are one of the most recent approaches to counteract the mycotoxin problem with special emphasis on in vivo and in vitro efficacy of several of binding agents (activated carbons, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, bentonite, zeolites, and lactic acid bacteria) have also been reviewed. PMID:17092826

Kabak, Bulent; Dobson, Alan D W; Var, I?il

2006-01-01

275

Determination of seven synthetic dyes in animal feeds and meat by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass detectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used synthetic sulfonate dyes (Ponceau 4RC, Sunset yellow, Allura red, Azophloxine, Ponceau xylidine, Erythrosine and Orange II) in animal feed and meat using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Ethanol-ammonia-water (80:1:19, V/V/V) solution was used as extract solution, which can extract target species while reducing interference from the sample matrices. The recoveries of these 7 dyes in animal feed and chicken meat were between 71% and 97% with relative standard deviations less than 14.8%. HPLC-MS/MS was employed as a further means of confirmation to assure accuracy of the results. Limits of detection for these dyes were in the range of 0.02-21.83 ng mL(-1). The proposed method can be applied to confirmative screening of seven commonly used food colorants in feed and meat samples. PMID:23411306

Zou, Tingting; He, Pingli; Yasen, Amangul; Li, Zhen

2013-06-01

276

Solar energy project and biogas for animal feed production and jelly; Projeto de energia solar e biogas para producao de racao animal e geleia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a study for utilization of surplus of horticulture industry for the production of jam and sweet from the fruit pulp and the manufacture of animal feed, organic fertilizer and biogas from the waste of this production. It also presents the equipment development of low-cost construction and operation that enables high energy efficiency (without heat loss) and can then be traded with greater advantage over other products on the market.

Moura, J.P. de; Selvam, P.V.P.; Silva, R.T. da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mails: johnsonmoura@yahoo.com.br, tatianesil@gmail.com

2006-07-01

277

Influence of Gamma-Irradiation On the Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Myco toxigenic Moulds in Cereals and Animal Feed stuffs in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the period 2003-2005. 370 samples of cereals and animal feed stuffs were examined for toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 showed the highest incidence rate, it occurred in 26.5% of all samples analyzed, the highest levels being found in peanut meal at 3000-5000 ?g/Kg. Ochratoxin A and citrinin were detected in commodities at low rate. The most prevalent fungi were Aspergillus spp. which were found in 63.8% of all samples, whereas, Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. identified in 25.7 and 22.4%. respectively. Also, the present study revealed that aflatoxin B1 was detected at low level 95?g/kg after treatment of samples with 20 kGy and there was no detectives of aflatoxin B1 at 40 kGy. Application of radiation at 25 kGy was sufficient for complete destruction of citrinin, whereas application of radiation at 30 kGy reduced the levels of ochratoxin A by 97% in the animal feed stuffs

278

Techno-economic evaluation of masonry type animal feed solar cooker in rural areas of an Indian state Rajasthan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilisation of animal draft power in agricultural operation and milk production is highly dependent on the feed and fodder. Properly cooked feed is digestive in nature and enhance milk production. Solar energy is promising option for slow cooking. Keeping this in view a masonry animal feed solar cooker (AFSC) was developed. It helps in the number of ways to improve the living standard of rural farmers and also reduce the CO2 emission by replacing conventional fossil fuel. The AFSC can replace the 100 per cent biomass and save about 424.80 kg of CO2 on annual basis and save about 24 INR per day. Usually women prepare animal feed in rural areas, hence cooking with AFSC save time and this time can be spear to take care of her family or in agricultural operation. This paper presents fuel replacement and reduction of carbon dioxide on annual basis and economic evaluation of AFSC. - Highlights: ? Considerable amount of energy can be saved on annual basis. ? This also helps to save the time and money of rural farmer. ? AFSC helps to reduce the greenhouse gas.

279

Proposed food and drug administration protection action guides for human food and animal feed: Rationale and limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Food and Drug Administration is proposing Protective Action Guides (PAG's) to be used in the event that a radiological incident results in the radioactive contamination of human food and animal feed. PAG's are proposed for two levels of response: (1) PREVENTIVE PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should take protective action to prevent or reduce the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed. (2) EMERGENCY PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should isolate food containing radioactivity to prevent its introduction into commerce and determine whether condemnation or another disposition is appropriate. Derived response levels, which are defined as the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed corresponding to the above PAG's, are proposed for radionuclides of most significance. The presentation will discuss the supporting rationale as well as the numerical limits for the PAG's. This rationale is based on the process of risk assessment and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. The risk assessment compares the risk of radiation exposure to the risk from prevalent hazards accepted by society and from variability of the natural radiation environment. The cost-benefit analysis is limited to protective actions efficacious in the reduction of iodine-131 dose to the thyroid via the milk pathway (condemnation and use of stored feed). In addition, the metabolic and agricultural transfer models that were used to calculate derived response levels will be described briefly. (author)

280

Microbiological and biochemical characterization of fermented liquid feed samples from 40 Danish farms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When feed and a liquid are mixed fermentation will spontaneously start. The microbial species dominating in the fermented mixture may vary depending on the environment and/or the ingredients being fermented. However, there is scarce knowledge on this subject. A study was carried out to investigate the biochemical and microbial variations in fermented liquid feed (FLF) samples obtained from 40 Danish farms, which could help in elucidating the reason for the variable results obtained when feeding pigs with FLF. The farms were classified into two groups, a ‘High feed intake' group and a ‘Low feed intake' group. The biochemical characteristics and the microbiological composition to group level were determined. Furthermore, characterization of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to species level was carried out. The biochemical characteristics and the composition of microbial groups of the two farm groups were similar. The data on lactic acid bacteria and yeasts diversity showed that a few phylotypes of lactic acid bacteria (four phylotypes made up 74-79% of the total isolates), and yeasts (four species made up 85-91% of the total isolates), dominated in all samples

Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages (AFRA project II-17 - RAF/5/041). Project summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Joint FAO/IAEA programme has supported animal production research in Africa for many years through country Technical Co-operation (TC) Projects, Regional Projects (AFRA) and Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). These activities have helped to build up the infrastructure needed in the countries concerned to conduct much of the research in animal reproduction and nutrition. In the past the Agency has provided technical assistance in defining reproductive indices of ruminant livestock species and identifying nutritional constraints to productivity of animals maintained on smallholder farms under various topographical and environmental conditions. In view of the satisfactory progress of AFRA Project VIII in identifying the major constraints to livestock productivity in the region, and the recognition of many Member States of the importance of supplementary feeding for improving milk and meat production, a regional strategy was proposed for developing affordable and sustainable supplementation packages for improving productivity from smallholder farms using locally available feed resources. The new Regional Project was initiated in 1997 with the following objectives: 1. To produce a supplementary feed in the form of a convenient and easy-to-use package for improving milk and meat production in peri-urban areas 2. To promote the uptake of this technology through demonstrations of its advantages in terms of increased productivity and benefit: cost ratio 3. To maximize the use of locally available feed material such as molasses, cereal bran, legume tree leaves, oil seed meals, etc. for feeding ruminant livestock, thereby reducing the use of high cost concentrate feeds 4. To promote technical co-operation amongst developing countries (TCDC) in the region and take advantage of established infrastructure and available human and technical resources to solve problems of common interest. From 1997 until 2000 the project has been operational with 13 Member States participating in various project activities. The project activities included Research Planning and Review Meetings, Expert Visits, Regional and National Training Workshops, Fellowship Training and Scientific Visits to National Agricultural Research Systems

282

Effects on pulmonary health of neighboring residents of concentrated animal feeding operations: exposure assessed using optimized estimation technique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Potential adverse health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which were also shown in the authors' Lower Saxony Lung Study, are of public concern. The authors aimed to investigate pulmonary health effect of neighboring residents assessed using optimized estimation technique. Annual ammonia emission was measured to assess the emission from CAFO and from surrounding fields. Location of sampling points was optimized using cluster analysis. Individual exposure of 457 nonfarm subjects was interpolated by weighting method. Mean estimated annual ammonia levels varied between 16 and 24 ?g/m³. Higher exposed participants were more likely to be sensitized against ubiquitous allergens as compared to lower exposed subjects (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-13.2). In addition, they showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV?) (adjusted mean difference in % of predicted -8%; 95% CI -13% to -3%). The authors' previous findings that CAFOs may contribute to burden of respiratory diseases were confirmed by this study.

Schulze, Anja; Römmelt, Horst

2012-01-01

283

Synergistic effects and physiological responses of selected bacterial isolates from animal feed to four natural antimicrobials and two antibiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, 20 samples from three different sources of animal feed were investigated and six bacterial isolates were identified. The susceptibility of four natural antimicrobials, namely, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol, against six of these isolates was determined. Carvacrol and eugenol showed better inhibitory effects with larger zones of inhibition. The minimal inhibitory concentration for a range of antibiotics on the susceptibility of two isolates (namely, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Klebsiella oxytoca) was investigated using the VITEK® 2 microbiological identification system. Both isolates showed a variety of resistance to 18 antibiotics. The minimal inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index of those two isolates for ampicillin and nitrofurantoin in combination with four phenolic compounds was determined. Synergistic interactions were found for most antimicrobial/antibiotic combinations; thymol and carvacrol were very effective (fractional inhibitory concentration ?0.5) in combination with all antibiotics tested against S. paucimobilis and K. oxytoca, respectively. Ultra performance liquid chromatography techniques were used to investigate the physiological effects of the four natural antimicrobials against those two isolates. Two identical peaks were found to be systematically different between cinnamaldehyde-treated and -untreated cells. The identity of the peaks is unknown and further investigation is needed. PMID:21612425

Zhang, DongLai; Hu, HuiPing; Rao, QinXiong; Zhao, ZhiHui

2011-10-01

284

Microscopic method in processed animal proteins identification in feed: applications of image analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processed animal proteins (PAP detection and identification in feedstuffs can be difficult in distinguishing among land animals, i.e. poultry and mammals. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of image analysis in PAP identification. For this purpose four reference samples containing poultry meals and four reference samples containing mammalian meat and bone meals were used. Each sample was analyzed using the microscopic method (98/88/EC. Bone fragments are characterized by similar morphological features (colours, shape, lacunae shape, lacunae distribution, etc. that make it diff i c u l t to distinguish between poultry and mammals. Through a digital camera and an image analysis software a total of 30 bone fragment lacunae images at X400 were obtained. For each image 29 geometric parameters related to the lacunae and 3 geometric parameters related to the canaliculae of lacunae, were measured using the image analysis software obtaining 960 observations. Of the 32 descriptors used two, the area of the lacunae and their perimeter, were able to explain 96.15% of the total variability of the data, even though their contribution was different (83.97% vs. 12.18%, respectively. Through these two descriptors it was possible to distinguish between mammalian and poultry lacunae, except in two cases (6.6%, in which poultry lacunae were wrongly classified as mammalian. This latter can be related with higher variability in the lacunae area recorded for mammals compared to poultry. On the basis of the present study, it can be concluded that image analysis represents a promising potential tool in PAP identification, that may provide accurate and reliable results in feedstuffs characterisation, analysis and control.

Savoini G

2004-01-01

285

Tank 30 and 37 Supernatant Sample Cross-Check and Evaporator Feed Qualification Analysis-2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the analytical data reported by the F/H and Savannah River National Laboratories for the 2012 cross-check analysis for high level waste supernatant liquid samples from SRS Tanks 30 and 37. The intent of this Tank 30 and 37 sample analyses was to perform cross-checks against routine F/H Laboratory analyses (corrosion and evaporator feed qualification programs) using samples collected at the same time from both tanks as well as split samples from the tanks.

Oji, L. N.

2013-03-07

286

The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium) and amino acids (methionine, c...

Cmi, Caires; Ea, Fernandes; Ns, Fagundes; Ap, Carvalho; Mp, Maciel; Br, Oliveira

2010-01-01

287

Zinc and copper in animal feed - development of resistance and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in bacteria of animal origin  

Science.gov (United States)

Farmed animals such as pig and poultry receive additional Zn and Cu in their diets due to supplementing elements in compound feed as well as medical remedies. Enteral bacteria in farmed animals are shown to develop resistance to trace elements such as Zn and Cu. Resistance to Zn is often linked with resistance to methicillin in staphylococci, and Zn supplementation to animal feed may increase the proportion of multiresistant E. coli in the gut. Resistance to Cu in bacteria, in particular enterococci, is often associated with resistance to antimicrobial drugs like macrolides and glycopeptides (e.g. vancomycin). Such resistant bacteria may be transferred from the food-producing animals to humans (farmers, veterinarians, and consumers). Data on dose-response relation for Zn/Cu exposure and resistance are lacking; however, it seems more likely that a resistance-driven effect occurs at high trace element exposure than at more basal exposure levels. There is also lack of data which could demonstrate whether Zn/Cu-resistant bacteria may acquire antibiotic resistance genes/become antibiotics resistant, or if antibiotics-resistant bacteria are more capable to become Zn/Cu resistant than antibiotics-susceptible bacteria. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between Zn/Cu and antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

Yazdankhah, Siamak; Rudi, Knut; Bernhoft, Aksel

2014-01-01

288

Zinc and copper in animal feed – development of resistance and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in bacteria of animal origin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Farmed animals such as pig and poultry receive additional Zn and Cu in their diets due to supplementing elements in compound feed as well as medical remedies. Enteral bacteria in farmed animals are shown to develop resistance to trace elements such as Zn and Cu. Resistance to Zn is often linked with resistance to methicillin in staphylococci, and Zn supplementation to animal feed may increase the proportion of multiresistant E. coli in the gut. Resistance to Cu in bacteria, in particular enterococci, is often associated with resistance to antimicrobial drugs like macrolides and glycopeptides (e.g. vancomycin. Such resistant bacteria may be transferred from the food-producing animals to humans (farmers, veterinarians, and consumers. Data on dose-response relation for Zn/Cu exposure and resistance are lacking; however, it seems more likely that a resistance-driven effect occurs at high trace element exposure than at more basal exposure levels. There is also lack of data which could demonstrate whether Zn/Cu-resistant bacteria may acquire antibiotic resistance genes/become antibiotics resistant, or if antibiotics-resistant bacteria are more capable to become Zn/Cu resistant than antibiotics-susceptible bacteria. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between Zn/Cu and antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

Siamak Yazdankhah

2014-09-01

289

Life cycle assessment of animal feeds prepared from liquid food residues: a case study of rice-washing water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption of three methods used to produce animal feed from concentrated rice-washing water (CRW) and disposing of the rice-washing water through wastewater treatment. Four scenarios were compared using LCA: (i) producing concentrated liquid feed by centrifugation (CC) of CRW with wastewater treatment and discharge of the supernatant, (ii) producing concentrated liquid feed by heating evaporation (HC) of CRW, (iii) producing dehydrated feed by dehydration (DH) of CRW, and (iv) wastewater treatment and discharge of nonconcentrated rice-washing water (WT). The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 metric ton of rice washed for cooking or processing. Our results suggested that the energy consumptions of CC, HC, DH, and WT were 108, 322, 739, and 242 MJ per FU, respectively, and the amounts of GHG emissions from CC, HC, DH, and WT were 6.4, 15.8, 45.5, and 22.5 kg of CO equivalents per FU, respectively. When the produced feed prepared from CRW was assumed to be transported 200 km to farms, CC and HC still emitted smaller GHGs than the other scenarios, and CC consumed the smallest amount of energy among the scenarios. The present study indicates that liquid feed production from CRW by centrifugation has a remarkably reduced environmental impact compared with the wastewater treatment and discharge of rice-washing water. PMID:23128755

Ogino, Akifumi; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tatsugawa, Kenji; Ijiri, Satoru; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

2012-01-01

290

Multistage Solvent Extraction for High Yield Oil and Animal Feed Production from Toxic Jatropha Curcas Meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the possibility for the production of high yield oil and phorbol esters removal from Thai toxic Jatropha curcas meal. Optimum oil recovery by hexane extraction to obtain high oil yield was accomplished in three stages of batch extraction, following which the de-oiled meal was further determined for the optimum conditions for removal of phorbol esters (PEs by aqueous ethanol extraction from the first to the third stage of batch extraction with the aim of yielding detoxified de-oiled meal product for using as a raw material in animal feed. The optimum conditions for oil extraction was three-stage extraction with each stage operated at 1:3 (wt/v of toxic meal to hexane at 40°C for 30 min. These conditions gave 100% of de-oiling efficiency compared with the Soxhlet extraction method. The optimum conditions for PEs removal from the de-oiled meal involved two-stage extraction with each stage operated at 1:3 (wt/v of de-oiled meal to aqueous ethanol at 50°C for 30 min. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode, was used to confirm the PEs residue in the detoxified de-oiled meal. The confirmation showed that the two stages of PEs extraction could removed 100% of the PEs from the de-oiled meal. The results from our study can provide the basis for the efficient commercial production of both Jatropha curcas oil and detoxified de-oiled meal.

Rayakorn NOKKAEW

2015-02-01

291

Convective transport of pollutants from eastern Colorado concentrated animal feeding operations into the Rocky Mountains  

Science.gov (United States)

As the population of the urban corridor along the eastern Front Range grows at an unprecedented rate, concern about pollutant transport into the Rocky Mountains is on the rise. The confluence of mountain meteorology and major pollution sources conspire to transport pollutants across the Front Range, especially nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, orgN, and NO3-) from concentrated animal feeding operations and urban regions, into the Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountains have coarse-textured soils which disallow the uptake nitrogen-rich precipitation, allowing most ions in precipitation to reach, be stored in, and eutrophicate alpine terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The focus of this study was to examine the meteorological conditions in which atmospheric deposition of pollutants at two mountain sites was anomalously high due to convective transport. We looked at 19 years (1994-2013) of precipitation and wet deposition data from two National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NAPD) sites in the Rocky Mountains: Beaver Meadows (CO19) and Loch Vale (CO98). Loch Vale (3159 m) and Beaver Meadows (2477 m) are located approximately 11 km apart but differ in height by 682 m resulting in different seasonal precipitation composition and totals. The Advanced Research WRF model was used to simulate the meteorology at a high resolution for the progression of the upslope event that led to high nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains. Data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was used to observe and verify synoptic conditions produced by the WRF model that influenced the high-deposition events. Dispersion plumes showed a mesoscale mountain circulation caused by differential heating between mountains-tops and the plains was the main driver of the westward convective transport towards the mountains. Additionally and unexpectedly, a lee trough and high precipitable water values associated with a cold front played significant roles in the nitrogen deposition into the Rocky Mountains.

Pina, A.; Denning, A.; Schumacher, R. S.

2013-12-01

292

A GIS-based data analysis platform for analyzing the time-varying quality of animal feed and its impact on the environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Swiss Feed Data Warehouse is a public service for companies, farmers and research institutions that provides detailed and up-to-date information about the concentration of nutrients in animal feed from all across Switzerland. The core of the Swiss Feed Data Warehouse is a carefully curated data warehouse with more than 2 million chemical analyses of 600 feed types and 400 nutrients. The nutrient measurements are enriched with geographical (as postal code and altitude), temporal (as harves...

Taliun, Andrej; Bo?hlen, Michael H.; Bracher, Annelies; Cafagna, Francesco

2012-01-01

293

Salmonella enterica in Commercial Swine Feed and Subsequent Isolation of Phenotypically and Genotypically Related Strains from Fecal Samples?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence and genotypic relatedness of Salmonella enterica isolates recovered from feed and fecal samples in commercial swine production units. Of 275 feed samples, Salmonella was detected in 10 feed samples that originated from 8 of 36 (22.2%) barns, with a prevalence of 3.6% (10/275 samples). In fecal samples, a prevalence of 17.2% was found at the early finishing stage (1,180/6,880 samples), with a significant reduction in prevalence (7.4%) w...

Molla, Bayleyegn; Sterman, Allyson; Mathews, Jennifer; Artuso-ponte, Valeria; Abley, Melanie; Farmer, William; Rajala-schultz, Pa?ivi; Morrow, W. E. Morgan; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.

2010-01-01

294

75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate  

Science.gov (United States)

...formerly Docket No. 2007F-0478) Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking...is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking...This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj...

2010-07-19

295

76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2009-F-0525] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking...is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking...This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj...

2011-02-09

296

Simultaneous determination of major type B trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in animal feed and raw materials using improved DSPE combined with LC-MS/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and reliable method for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and major type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenon X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol) in animal feed and raw materials has been developed and validated in this study. The method was based on an improved dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) followed by analysis using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Also, matrix-matched calibration curve (R(2)>0.99) was employed to minimize matrix effects and ensure accurate quantification. The recoveries during sample preparation process (including extraction and clean-up) ranged from 79.03% to 118.39%, with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 20% for all the analytes. The limit of quantification ranged from 5.0 ?g/kg for deoxynivalenol to 13.6 ?g/kg for fusarenon X. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of animal feed and corn. The pilot study showed that 37 out of 41 samples were contaminated with deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside at the levels of 6.0-121.0 ?g/kg. Most of the type B trichothecenes were also found with the exception of fusarenon X, at the contaminated levels of 10.0-1,382 ?g/kg. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first scientific report on the co-occurrence of masked deoxynivalenol and type B trichothecenes in animal feed and raw materials. PMID:24935763

Zhao, Zhiyong; Rao, Qinxiong; Song, Suquan; Liu, Na; Han, Zheng; Hou, Jiafa; Wu, Aibo

2014-07-15

297

Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO 4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17??-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000??g/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R 2=0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R 2=0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO 4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R 2=0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO 4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO 4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ciparis, S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Voshell, J.R.

2012-01-01

298

Effect of creatine addition in feeds containing animal meals on the performance and carcass yield of broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed exclusively vegetable diets and diets containing animal meal with the addition of creatine or not after day 8. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed according to a compl [...] etely randomized experimental design into six treatments with six replicates each. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated, to which animal meals and creatine were included or not. Diets were formulated to contain equal mineral (calcium, phosphorus and sodium) and amino acid (available methionine + cystine, lysine and threonine) levels. The following treatments were applied: A. control (diet based on corn and soybean meal); B. control + creatine (600g/ton); C. inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM), D. inclusion of 5% MBM + creatine (600g/ton), E. inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM), F. inclusion 5% BM + creatine (600g/ton). Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass yield and viability were evaluated. At 42 days of age, BM dietary inclusion impaired weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The inclusion of MBM affected only feed conversion ratio. The addition of creatine ito the diet with BM improved weight gain when compared with the BM diet with no creatine. The addition of creatine to the diet containing 5% BM improved weight gain when compared with the same diet without the use of the additive.

CMC, Carvalho; EA, Fernandes; AP de, Carvalho; MP, Maciel; RM, Caires; NS, Fagundes.

2013-09-01

299

Effect of creatine addition in feeds containing animal meals on the performance and carcass yield of broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed exclusively vegetable diets and diets containing animal meal with the addition of creatine or not after day 8. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed according to a compl [...] etely randomized experimental design into six treatments with six replicates each. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated, to which animal meals and creatine were included or not. Diets were formulated to contain equal mineral (calcium, phosphorus and sodium) and amino acid (available methionine + cystine, lysine and threonine) levels. The following treatments were applied: A. control (diet based on corn and soybean meal); B. control + creatine (600g/ton); C. inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM), D. inclusion of 5% MBM + creatine (600g/ton), E. inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM), F. inclusion 5% BM + creatine (600g/ton). Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass yield and viability were evaluated. At 42 days of age, BM dietary inclusion impaired weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The inclusion of MBM affected only feed conversion ratio. The addition of creatine ito the diet with BM improved weight gain when compared with the BM diet with no creatine. The addition of creatine to the diet containing 5% BM improved weight gain when compared with the same diet without the use of the additive.

CMC, Carvalho; EA, Fernandes; AP de, Carvalho; MP, Maciel; RM, Caires; NS, Fagundes.

300

Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives investigated contained lauric acid, myristic acid, linseed oil, and calcium fumarate. These additives were included at 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, and 0.7% of dietary dry matter, respectively (treatment ADD). Exp...

Zijderveld, S. M.; Fonken, B. C. J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W. J. J.; Perdok, H. B.; Fokkink, W. B.; Newbold, J. R.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Improved pellet quality following the implementation of a HACCP system in a commercial animal feed pelleting plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An investigation of complaints about the cause of poor product quality and performance pointed to critical control points (CCP’s) in the pelleting process that were either absent or not monitored and controlled. The non-conformance cost due to poor pellet quality and product inconsistency is quite significant. The positive relationship between pellet quality and animal performance is well known. Poor and inconsistent quality of pelleted feed is the consequence of many contributing factors s...

Rooyen, R. S.

2003-01-01

302

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of fumaric acid as a feed additive for all animal species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fumaric acid is currently authorised as a preservative in feedingstuffs for all animal species. Fumaric acid is considered safe for pigs and poultry provided that an expected use level of 20 000 mg/kg in complete diets for pigs and poultry is not exceeded. The margin of safety for pigs and poultry is approximately two. The tolerated fumaric acid concentration in complete diets for ruminants is higher. The margin of safety for pigs, poultry and ruminants is sufficiently high that setting a maximum content is not necessary. In contrast, the maximum safe level in milk replacer for veal calves (and probably other young mammals is provisionally estimated to be 10 000 mg/kg milk replacer, with no margin of safety. Fumaric acid is rapidly metabolised by well-recognised pathways, and neither fumarate nor its metabolites are expected to accumulate in animal tissues. Consequently, human exposure is not expected to be increased by the use of fumaric acid in animal nutrition. Fumaric acid is a severe irritant to eyes. Given the potential for eye irritation, the particle size and the dusting potential, exposure to other mucous membranes such as the respiratory tract may also be a concern and it is advisable to minimise exposure by inhalation. The use of fumaric acid in animal nutrition will not pose a risk to the environment. Fumaric acid has value as a food preservative only in the presence of significant moisture. Comparable situations in feed are limited to some feedingstuffs, feed processing and feeding techniques. In such situations, its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food and no further demonstration of efficacy is considered necessary. However, the FEEDAP Panel has reservations about the effectiveness of any preservative, including fumaric acid, in raw materials and compound feedingstuffs with a typical moisture content of ? 12 %.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-02-01

303

Factor analysis of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire in a large sample of children.  

Science.gov (United States)

How parents feed their children may impact on their weight and eating behaviours, both now and in the future. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) proposes to measure parental feeding practices and was originally developed using 12 factors in relatively small, homogenous samples. In contrast the present study used a large, diverse sample (n=1013) of children aged 4-8years. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the original 12-factor model was not a good fit and that several factors were strongly inter-correlated. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis yielded five scales of interest: Healthy Eating Guidance, Monitoring, Parent Pressure, Restriction and Child Control. These scales were largely supported by further analyses in these data. Parents who were concerned about their child being overweight reported more Healthy Eating Guidance and Restriction and less Parent Pressure, whereas parents concerned about their child being underweight used more Parent Pressure and less Healthy Eating Guidance. Parents who rated a healthy diet for their child as very important undertook more Healthy Eating Guidance and Monitoring of food intake and less Child Control. These five factors from the CFPQ provide a well-supported and useful set of feeding practices that could be applicable to a wide variety of population groups. PMID:23207187

Haszard, Jillian J; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Skidmore, Paula M L; Taylor, Rachael W

2013-03-01

304

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of DL-selenomethionine as a feed additive for all animal species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DL-Selenomethionine (DL-SeMet consists of 40?% selenium, an essential trace element. DL-SeMet. It was tolerated by chickens for fattening at up to 1.5 mg selenium supplemented/kg feed; DL-SeMet is therefore safe for chickens for fattening provided total dietary selenium does not exceed 0.5 mg/kg complete feed; this conclusion is extended to all animal species. Based on available toxicity studies and previous assessments of closely related compounds, it is concluded that selenium from DL-SeMet does not elicit any adverse effects not expected in a selenium compound. The use of DL-SeMet in animal nutrition is expected to result in a similar increase in selenium deposition in animal tissues/products as that resulting from other sources of SeMet. To ensure consumer safety from consumption of food originating from animals fed DL-SeMet, dietary selenium supplementation from the additive should not exceed a maximum of 0.2 mg Se/kg complete feed. Although a DL-SeMet-containing additive did not release any measurable dust, the additive is considered as a hazard by inhalation, which requires protection measures for users since the additive is not the subject of authorisation, and selenium is highly toxic. The additive is not an irritant to skin and eyes and is not a dermal sensitiser. The use of DL-SeMet in feed does not pose an additional risk to the environment, compared with other sources of selenium for which it will substitute, as long as the maximum authorised content in complete feed is not exceeded. Sufficient evidence is provided that DL-SeMet is an effective source of selenium in chickens for fattening. Since there are no fundamental differences between target animals in the metabolism of SeMet and its use for the specific biological functions of selenium, the FEEDAP Panel extends its conclusion on the efficacy of DL-SeMet to all animal species and categories.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2014-02-01

305

Racionalização do uso de força motriz em fábrica de ração Management of motive power use in animal feed industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A falta de investimento no setor energético, aliada à sazonalidade de recursos naturais necessários para a geração de energia hidroelétrica, faz da racionalização do uso de energia elétrica uma ferramenta de apoio imprescindível para o crescimento do País. A ração animal pode representar entre 70 e 80% do custo de produção da criação de animais. Sendo assim, é importante o estudo da racionalização do uso de energia em processos que utilizam intensivamente força motriz, tais como as fábricas de ração. Na fábrica de ração estudada, os motores elétricos são utilizados principalmente para moagem e mistura de granulados e transporte. Com o objetivo de racionalizar o uso da energia elétrica, foi realizado estudo de adequação de força motriz dos equipamentos da fábrica de ração da Indústria Pif Paf Alimentos. O índice de carregamento médio dos motores elétricos estudados foi de 48,6%. O potencial estimado total de economia com energia elétrica anual, utilizando-se sempre da melhor opção de adequação de força motriz foi de R$ 24.426,50 ao ano (23,9%. Para que essas medidas sejam efetivadas, devem-se adequar também: (i as exigências elétricas do circuito, como ajuste de relés e escolha de fusíveis; (ii o horário de funcionamento, e (iii necessidade de implantação de sistema de armazenamento de ração.The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pi Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%. To achieve this goal it is also necessary: (i to adjust relays and to choose fuses, (ii to schedule operation and (iii to build storage facilities.

Carlos A. Teixeira

2005-08-01

306

Racionalização do uso de força motriz em fábrica de ração / Management of motive power use in animal feed industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A falta de investimento no setor energético, aliada à sazonalidade de recursos naturais necessários para a geração de energia hidroelétrica, faz da racionalização do uso de energia elétrica uma ferramenta de apoio imprescindível para o crescimento do País. A ração animal pode representar entre 70 e [...] 80% do custo de produção da criação de animais. Sendo assim, é importante o estudo da racionalização do uso de energia em processos que utilizam intensivamente força motriz, tais como as fábricas de ração. Na fábrica de ração estudada, os motores elétricos são utilizados principalmente para moagem e mistura de granulados e transporte. Com o objetivo de racionalizar o uso da energia elétrica, foi realizado estudo de adequação de força motriz dos equipamentos da fábrica de ração da Indústria Pif Paf Alimentos. O índice de carregamento médio dos motores elétricos estudados foi de 48,6%. O potencial estimado total de economia com energia elétrica anual, utilizando-se sempre da melhor opção de adequação de força motriz foi de R$ 24.426,50 ao ano (23,9%). Para que essas medidas sejam efetivadas, devem-se adequar também: (i) as exigências elétricas do circuito, como ajuste de relés e escolha de fusíveis; (ii) o horário de funcionamento, e (iii) necessidade de implantação de sistema de armazenamento de ração. Abstract in english The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around [...] 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pi Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: (i) to adjust relays and to choose fuses, (ii) to schedule operation and (iii) to build storage facilities.

Carlos A., Teixeira; Delly, Oliveira Filho; Adílio F. de, Lacerda Filho; José H., Martins.

2005-08-01

307

Enterocytozoon bieneusi (microsporidia in faecal samples from domestic animals from Galicia, Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this survey we examined 87 domestic animal stool samples in order to detect the possible presence of microsporidia in animals in close contact with humans in Galicia (NW, Spain. The detection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores was confirmed in faecal samples from two dogs and one goat by polymerase chain reaction. None of the positive samples for microsporidia in the staining method were amplified with species-specific primers for Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem and E. cuniculi. Four rabbits faecal samples reacted with anti-E. cuniculi serum. Our results could indicate the importance of domestic animals as zoonotic reservoirs of microsporidial human infections.

Lores B

2002-01-01

308

Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 ± 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the sterilization and consequently the disinfestation of all studied rations. (author)

309

IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

Dr. Donal F. Day

2009-01-29

310

21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...589.2000 Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant...cellulosic food casings); milk products (milk and milk proteins); and any...

2010-04-01

311

Enterocytozoon bieneusi (microsporidia) in faecal samples from domestic animals from Galicia, Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this survey we examined 87 domestic animal stool samples in order to detect the possible presence of microsporidia in animals in close contact with humans in Galicia (NW, Spain). The detection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores was confirmed in faecal samples from two dogs and one goat by polymerase chain reaction. None of the positive samples for microsporidia in the staining method were amplified with species-specific primers for Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem and E. cuniculi. Fo...

Lores, B.; Del Aguila, C.; Arias, C.

2002-01-01

312

21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...off-farm feed manufacturing and mixing operations. (5...exclusively a manufacturing method that...controlling the manufacturing process that...Office of Management and...

2010-04-01

313

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...periord of high egg production, to improve egg production, to improve...to improve egg production and feed efficiency...improve egg shell quality prevention of...enteritis and in the control of neomycin-sensitive...reconstituted milk replacer...

2010-04-01

314

Degradation of caffeine by microorganisms and potential use of decaffeinated coffee husk and pulp in animal feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coffee husk and coffee pulp are coffee processing by-products. Coffee husk is obtained when harvested coffee is processed by the dry method, and coffee pulp is produced by the wet method. In Brazil, coffee is usually processed by the dry method, therefore an expressive amount of husk is obtained every year. Some of the husk is used as organic fertilizer but, other applications are very limited, mainly because it is a bulky product. The presence of tannins and caffeine diminish acceptability and palatability of husk by animals. This review discuss degradation of caffeine by microorganisms, with special attention to bacterial, biological decaffeination of coffee husk and pulp and its subsequent use on animal feeding. The known biochemical routes of caffeine degradation by microorganisms are initially discussed; problems concerning physiological effects in animals, focusing on the limitations imposed by caffeine as an antiphysiological component are raised; the use of microorganisms to decaffeinate coffee husk and pulp is discussed. The discussions offer a view on decreasing caffeine content of coffee husk and pulp, which would allow the use of larger amounts of these products in animal feeding, partially replacing traditional components such as cereal grains.

Mazzafera Paulo

2002-01-01

315

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-selenomethionine as feed additive for all animal species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element that is essential for vertebrates and involved in series of vital metabolic functions. Considering the purity of the L-selenomethionine (L-SeMet under application and the metabolic pathways of SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel considers the use of L-SeMet as safe for all animal species, provided that the maximum total selenium level authorised in feed is respected. The use of in animal nutrition is expected to result in a similar increase in selenium deposition in animal tissues/products as that resulting from other sources of SeMet. To ensure consumer safety from consumption of food originating from animals fed L-SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel concludes that dietary selenium supplementation from the additive should not exceed a maximum of 0.2 mg Se/kg complete feed. In the absence of specific data, the additive should be considered as an irritant to skin and eyes, as a skin sensitiser and as potentially harmful by inhalation. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of L-SeMet in feed does not pose an additional risk to the environment, compared with other sources of selenium for which it will substitute, as long as the maximum authorised content in feedingstuffs is not exceeded. L-SeMet is an efficient source of selenium for all species. This conclusion is derived from studies with laying hens and pigs for fattening and, in the case of ruminants, from literature describing the microbial incorporation of selenium from organic sources in the rumen. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations concerning (i the specification, (ii the use of the compound in premixtures, (iii the use in water for drinking and (iv risk reduction when handling the additive.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-05-01

316

Composição química da glicerina produzida por usinas de biodiesel no Brasil e potencial de uso na alimentação animal / Chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and potential utilization in animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com a crescente produção de biodiesel no Brasil, aumenta também a produção de glicerina, co-produto dessa indústria. O principal componente da glicerina é o glicerol, altamente energético e, por isso, ela já vem sendo usada como alimento animal em vários países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar [...] a composição química da glicerina produzida por indústrias de biodiesel no Brasil e discutir seu potencial de utilização na alimentação animal. Dezesseis usinas, responsáveis por 85,1% do biodiesel produzido no país, forneceram 41 amostras para análise. Cromo, cádmio e chumbo não foram detectados em nenhuma das amostras estudadas. Apenas quatro usinas, responsáveis por 36,8% da produção, produzem glicerina que atendem os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento para os teores de umidade e glicerol. Apenas uma usina, responsável por 14,1% da produção, produz glicerina apta para uso na alimentação de ruminantes, por não utilizar sebo bovino como matéria prima para o biodiesel. Abstract in english The increasing production of biodiesel in Brazil also increases glycerin production, a co-product of this industry. The main component of glycerin, glycerol, is highly energetic and because of that, glycerin is already used as animal feed in many countries. The objective of this paper was to evaluat [...] e the chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and discuss its potential utilization as animal feed. Forty one samples of glycerin from sixteen biodiesel plants, that together yield 85.1% of Brazilian biodiesel, were analyzed. Chromium, cadmium and lead were not detected in any studied sample. Only four plants, that together yield 36.8% of Brazilian glycerin, comply the glycerol and moisture content levels established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Only one, responsible for 14.1% of Brazilian glycerin, delivers glycerin with the potential to be used as ruminant feed once it doesn't use animal fat to produce biodiesel.

Jackson Silva e, Oliveira; Rosemar, Antoniassi; Sidinéa Cordeiro de, Freitas; Marcelo Dias, Müller.

317

Composição química da glicerina produzida por usinas de biodiesel no Brasil e potencial de uso na alimentação animal / Chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and potential utilization in animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com a crescente produção de biodiesel no Brasil, aumenta também a produção de glicerina, co-produto dessa indústria. O principal componente da glicerina é o glicerol, altamente energético e, por isso, ela já vem sendo usada como alimento animal em vários países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar [...] a composição química da glicerina produzida por indústrias de biodiesel no Brasil e discutir seu potencial de utilização na alimentação animal. Dezesseis usinas, responsáveis por 85,1% do biodiesel produzido no país, forneceram 41 amostras para análise. Cromo, cádmio e chumbo não foram detectados em nenhuma das amostras estudadas. Apenas quatro usinas, responsáveis por 36,8% da produção, produzem glicerina que atendem os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento para os teores de umidade e glicerol. Apenas uma usina, responsável por 14,1% da produção, produz glicerina apta para uso na alimentação de ruminantes, por não utilizar sebo bovino como matéria prima para o biodiesel. Abstract in english The increasing production of biodiesel in Brazil also increases glycerin production, a co-product of this industry. The main component of glycerin, glycerol, is highly energetic and because of that, glycerin is already used as animal feed in many countries. The objective of this paper was to evaluat [...] e the chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and discuss its potential utilization as animal feed. Forty one samples of glycerin from sixteen biodiesel plants, that together yield 85.1% of Brazilian biodiesel, were analyzed. Chromium, cadmium and lead were not detected in any studied sample. Only four plants, that together yield 36.8% of Brazilian glycerin, comply the glycerol and moisture content levels established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Only one, responsible for 14.1% of Brazilian glycerin, delivers glycerin with the potential to be used as ruminant feed once it doesn't use animal fat to produce biodiesel.

Jackson Silva e, Oliveira; Rosemar, Antoniassi; Sidinéa Cordeiro de, Freitas; Marcelo Dias, Müller.

2013-03-01

318

Animals  

... Animals Animals, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Animals Submit to Animals Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors ...Policy Title / Keyword Journal all Actuators Administrative Sciences Aerospace Agriculture Agronomy Algorithms Animals Antibiotics Antibodies Antioxidants Applied Sciences Arts Atmosphere Atoms Axioms Behavioral Sciences ...Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Animals Animals Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for ... 1 (2011) Animals — Editors Journal Contact Animals Editorial Office MDPI AG, Klybeckstrasse 64, 4057 Basel, Switzerland E-Mail: animals@mdpi.com ...

319

Concentrations of U and Po in animal feed supplements, in poultry meat and in eggs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to assess the contribution of phosphate feed supplements to the radiation exposure of the population in Israel. The phosphates usually contain appreciable quantities of U and its daughters and the actual exposure of human consumers depends, to a very large extent, on the degree of equilibrium of the decay chain in the feed and through the metabolic process. The concentrations of 238U, 234U, 226Ra and 210Po (210Pb) in poultry feed supplements and in chicken meat (breasts, thighs) and organs (livers, spleens, gizzards) as well as in eggs were determined. From the results, the transfer coefficients of U and Po in chicken meat and in eggs were calculated. The effective dose equivalent to the Israeli population due to the consumption of poultry products which accounts for approximately 70% of all meat consumed in Israel is assessed to be 0.04 mSv y-1

320

Microbial and Nutrient Concentration and Load Data During Stormwater Runoff at a Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, 2006-2007  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes water-quality and hydrologic data collected during 2006-2007 to characterize bacteria and nutrient loads associated with overland runoff and subsurface tile drainage in spray fields at a swine concentrated animal feeding operation. Four monitoring locations were established at the Lizzie Research Site in the North Carolina Coastal Plain Physiographic Province for collecting discharge and water-quality data during stormwater-runoff events. Water stage was measured continuously at each monitoring location. A stage-discharge relation was developed for each site and was used to compute instantaneous discharge values for collected samples. Water-quality samples were collected for five storm events during 2006-2007 for analysis of nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria. Instantaneous loads of nitrite plus nitrate, total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci were computed for selected times during the five storm events.

Harden, Stephen L.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Monitoring total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitigation of bioaerosol emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) demands knowledge of bioaerosol concentrations feeding into an end-of-pipe air treatment process. The aim of this preliminary study was to measure total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations at the air exhaust of 18 commercial CAFOs and to examine their variability with animal operation type (swine farrowing, swine gestation, swine weaning, swine finishing, manure belt laying hen, and tom turkey) and season (cold, mild, and hot). The measured airborne concentrations of total endotoxin ranged from 98 to 23,157 endotoxin units (EU)/m3, and the airborne concentrations of total (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan ranged from 2.4 to 537.9 ng/m3. Animal operation type in this study had a significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan but no significant effect on their concentrations in total suspended particulate (TSP). Both endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan attained their highest airborne concentrations in visited tom turkey buildings. Comparatively, season had no significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin or (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan. Endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations in TSP dust appeared to increase as the weather became warmer, and this seasonal effect was significant in swine buildings. Elevated indoor temperatures in the hot season were considered to facilitate the growth and propagation of bacteria and fungi, thus leading to higher biocomponent concentrations in TSP. PMID:24282971

Yang, Xufei; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin; Su, Jingwei; Gates, Richard S

2013-10-01

322

Determination of apramycin in animal feeds by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determining apramycin in animal feeds was developed. Apramycin in feeds was extracted with 0.1 M HCl solution and cleaned up with an MCX solid-phase extraction column. The purified extract was derivatized with o-phthaldehyde, and components were separated on a C18 column and detected with a fluorescence detector. Mass spectrometric data confirmed that apramycin was derivatized at all the 4 primary amines on the apramycin molecule. Average recoveries at 8 included levels (5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 200, 400, and 2000 mg/kg) ranged from 92.2 to 100.5%, and the coefficients of variation were < 6.5%. Standard curves were linear over the range 0.05 to 10 microg/mL. The detection and quantitation limits were determined to be 0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:17760324

Zhang, Liying; Wang, Zongyi; Chang, Biying; Yang, Wengjun

2007-01-01

323

Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge to eliminate pathogens for safe use as fertilizer and animal feed supplement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A research program titled ''Waste Resources Utilization'' using a new technique, ''thermoradiation'' to destroy pathogenic organisms in sewage sludge is described. The thermoradiated sewage sludge will be used to study the feasibility of (1) use for safe land application as fertilizer and soil conditioner and (2) use as a feed supplement for ruminant animals. Experiments to date have shown good results for sludge disinfection of resistant bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Thermoradiation experiments are being carried out at a temperature of 650C combined with 160 krad gamma dose for a total of 2000 pounds of dried treated sludge. The sludge will be shipped to New Mexico State University for the feeding studies and land application studies

324

Use of the EFSA Standard Sample Description for the reporting of data on the control of pesticide residues in food and feed according to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 (revision 1)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 on Maximum Residue Levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin requires the Member States to monitor pesticide residue levels in food commodities and submit the monitoring results to EFSA and the European Commission. In 2009, EFSA developed the Standard Sample Description (SSD), which is a standardised model for the reporting of harmonised data on analytical measurements of chemical substances occurring in food, feed and water. This docum...

European Food Safety Authority

2013-01-01

325

21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...antelopes. (b) Food additive status. The Food...ruminant feed is a food additive subject to section...exemption for a food additive under § 570.17 of...Use exclusively a manufacturing method that has been...encephalopathy (TSE) and whose design has been made...

2010-04-01

326

Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from biotechnology must be shown to be pure, potent, safe and effective when used according to label recommendations. The Canadian regulatory system relies on the 'precautionary principle' in its approach to regulate the 'product' instead of the 'process'. The regulatory framework captures transgenic animals under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). Food from transgenic animals is assessed for safety by Health Canada under its Novel Foods Regulations of the Food and Drugs Act. Feed containing any genetically modified organism is considered Novel Feed under the Feeds Act and Regulations. The regulation of veterinary biologics, in an effort to prevent and diagnose infectious diseases of animals, relies on effective science-based regulatory controls under the Health of Animals Act and Regulations. The Canadian system of regulation for feeds, veterinary biologics and transgenic animals could be useful to developing countries in the process of establishing an effective framework for new regulations. (author)

327

Enzyamtic and Oven-drying Method of Processing Rubber Seeds for Animal Feed and the Evaluation of the Toxicity of Such Feed in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydrolytic activity of endogenous -glucosidase of Hevea brasiliensis towards the cyanogenic glycosides of rubber seeds as a means of processing was investigated followed by the study of acute toxicity of the enzymatically and oven dried processed feeds from these seeds towards rats. Crushing/ grating of the rubber seeds and allowing interaction of the endogenous -glucosidase with the cyanogenic glcosides content for a period of 60 min resulted in about 90-95% hydrolysis of the cyanogenic glycoside by the -glucosidase. Oven drying of the crushed seeds after 60mins at a temperature of 60?C for 180min gave rise to about 81% reduction in the total cyanogens content. Ingestion of feed compounded from the oven dried seed containing 9.25 mg CN 1Kg 1 did not produce any sign of acute toxic effects in rats after 72 h. Elevation in blood glucose and Thiocyanate was observed but the activities of aspartate and alanine amino transferases and alkaline phosphatase did not show any significant change (p <0.05 compared to those of control. The same was true of the total protein and serum albumin levels of the animals.

N.O. Anyanwu

2006-01-01

328

The effect of feed contamination with mycotoxins on animals and ways for prevention and degradation of mycotoxins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that are capable of causing illness and sometimes death to animals and not only animals even humans. In 1960 it was established that some fungal metabolites, now called mycotoxins, that have a destructive effect on animal health, since then people were interested on the effect and the way to stop it. Among them, aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 & G2 synthesized mainly byAspergillus flavus/ Aspergillus parasiticus are known to induce severe effects on animal: can cause liver damage, decreased milk production, reduced reproductively and suppressed immunity in animals consuming low dietary concentrations, decreased feed intake and efficiency, weight loss, jaundice, drop in milk production, nervous signs, bleeding and death. The aim of this work was the isolation of aflatoxin producing fungi in order to investigate new ways that can determinate, inhibit or degradation of aflatoxin, ochratoxin, using lactic bacteria and yeast. A number of 17Aspergillus spp. isolates were obtained from wheat, barley, triticale, oats, and sunflower seeds and identified, based on macroscopic and microscopic features as A.flavus/A.parasiticus. The ability of aflatoxin biosynthesis was detected on PDA medium with ? cyclodextrine and sodium deoxycholate were evaluated by TLC and RIDA Screen R-biopharm. At this stage of experiments 3 fungal isolates, designated as GE2, G32, T11 were selected as aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and used for further analysis (molecular identification, interactions with LAB and yeasts.  

Oana Ciobotaru

2014-05-01

329

Scientific Opinion on risks for animal and public health related to the presence of nivalenol in food and feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nivalenol is a mycotoxin produced by various Fusarium species. The European Commission (EC asked the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to human and animal health related to the presence of nivalenol in food and feed. A total of 13 164 results for nivalenol in food, feed and unprocessed grains, collected in 2001-2011 from 18 European countries, were available for the evaluation. The highest mean concentrations for nivalenol were observed in oats, maize, barley and wheat and products thereof. Grains and grain-based foods, in particular bread and rolls, grain milling products, pasta, fine bakery wares and breakfast cereals, made the largest contribution to nivalenol exposure for humans. Animal exposure to nivalenol is primarily from consuming cereal grains and cereal by-products. The available information on the toxicokinetics of nivalenol is incomplete. Evidence exists for metabolic de-epoxidation in some species. Based on the data available, the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel concluded that the overall weight of evidence is that nivalenol is unlikely to be genotoxic. Toxic effects of nivalenol include immunotoxicity and haematotoxicity. A reduction in white blood cell (WBC counts in a 90-day rat study was identified as the critical effect for human risk assessment. Using these data and a benchmark dose analysis the CONTAM Panel established a tolerable daily intake (TDI of 1.2 µg/kg b.w. per day. All chronic human dietary exposures to nivalenol estimated, based on the available occurrence data in food, are below the TDI, and are therefore not a health concern. No toxicity data were identified for ruminants, rabbits, fish and companion animals but lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels were identified in pigs and poultry. Based on estimates of exposure the risk of adverse health effects of feed containing nivalenol is low for both these species.

EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

2013-06-01

330

Effect of feed additives and animal shelter disinfectants on methane fermentation. Die Wirkung von Fuetterungszusaetzen und Stalldesinfektionsmitteln auf die Methangaerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first part of the work investigates the effect of potential inhibitors on the entire process of methane fermentation, including more scrupulous testing of some substances as regards the site of their action respectively the groups of organisms concerned. The second part reports on the action of two ionophoric substances, Monensin and Lasalocid, which are commonly used in animal feeding and exhibited interesting effects in the experiments on the total methane fermentation process, on pure cultures of methanogenic bacteria, i.e. on the organisms of the third degradation stage.

Hilpert, R.

1984-03-16

331

Quantitative analysis of food and feed samples with droplet digital PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for routine analysis in food and feed samples was demonstrated with the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of GMOs in products. However, its use is limited for detecting and quantifying very small numbers of DNA targets, as in some complex food and feed matrices. Using ddPCR duplex assay, we have measured the absolute numbers of MON810 transgene and hmg maize reference gene copies in DNA samples. Key performance parameters of the assay were determined. The ddPCR system is shown to offer precise absolute and relative quantification of targets, without the need for calibration curves. The sensitivity (five target DNA copies) of the ddPCR assay compares well with those of individual qPCR assays and of the chamber digital PCR (cdPCR) approach. It offers a dynamic range over four orders of magnitude, greater than that of cdPCR. Moreover, when compared to qPCR, the ddPCR assay showed better repeatability at low target concentrations and a greater tolerance to inhibitors. Finally, ddPCR throughput and cost are advantageous relative to those of qPCR for routine GMO quantification. It is thus concluded that ddPCR technology can be applied for routine quantification of GMOs, or any other domain where quantitative analysis of food and feed samples is needed. PMID:23658750

Morisset, Dany; Štebih, Dejan; Milavec, Mojca; Gruden, Kristina; Žel, Jana

2013-01-01

332

Diversity and Population Structure of Bovine Fecal-Derived Microorganisms from Different Animal Feeding Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but in odor emissions, agricultural land nutrient loading, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, our understanding of the specif...

333

Chloride estimation in feed/steam water samples with conventional and reagent free ion chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) of India utilizes liquid sodium in the primary circuit to extract the fission heat generated in the core. This thermal energy is transferred to the non-radioactive sodium in secondary circuit and in turn is transferred to the feed water in Once Through Steam Generator (OTSG) for producing super heated steam at 480 deg C, 125 kg/cm2. In case of OTSG, total impurities in feed water should not exceed a few mg.kg-1 as there is no blow down facility to reduce the impurity levels. Among the impurities to be controlled, Chloride is of great concern as it induces stress corrosion and its vaporous carry over cause deposition on turbine blades resulting in corrosive environment there. Hence, it is very important to control and monitor the chloride impurity level and make sure it is within the technical specification limit of 20 ppb in feed water. A method based on suppressed Ion Chromatography with two different anion-exchange columns AS4SC and AS15 comprising the use of either a manually prepared conventional carbonate-bicarbonate eluent or an electrolytically generated high purity eluent, a new approach known as Reagent-Free IC (RFIC), with conductometric detection is described for the determination of Chloride ion at mg/L levels. The greater sensitivity and enhanced resolution of RFIC are brought out in this paper. The capability to estimate chloride at levels as low as 1.4 ppb with 25?L loop in De Ionized (DI) watepb with 25?L loop in De Ionized (DI) water, used for the preparation of standards and reagents, and the possibility of further lowering the detection limits with higher loop volume makes the RFIC more suitable for routine ultra trace level analysis of anionic impurities in feed/steam water samples. (author)

334

Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55 for carcasses (animals found dead and 0.2% (13/5309 for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1 surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2 any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3 surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4 morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure.

Damien O. Joly

2012-04-01

335

Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans  

Science.gov (United States)

There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV) spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55) for carcasses (animals found dead) and 0.2% (13/5309) for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1) surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2) any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3) surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4) morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure. PMID:22558004

Olson, Sarah H.; Reed, Patricia; Cameron, Kenneth N.; Ssebide, Benard J.; Johnson, Christine K.; Morse, Stephen S.; Karesh, William B.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Joly, Damien O.

2012-01-01

336

Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV) spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55) for carcasses (animals found dead) and 0.2% (13/5309) for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1) surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2) any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3) surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4) morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure. PMID:22558004

Olson, Sarah H; Reed, Patricia; Cameron, Kenneth N; Ssebide, Benard J; Johnson, Christine K; Morse, Stephen S; Karesh, William B; Mazet, Jonna A K; Joly, Damien O

2012-01-01

337

Potencial de silagens de ramas de batata-doce para alimentação animal / Potential of silages of sweet-potato foliages for animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de silagens de ramas de diferentes clones de batata-doce para alimentação animal. O trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Forquilha localizada no Distrito de Batatal, município de Diamantina MG, no período de 23/12/2007 a 23/06/2008. O experimento foi conduzido no esquem [...] a de parcelas subdivididas em delineamento de blocos completos casualizados. Foram avaliadas a produtividade de matéria verde e matéria seca das ramas e a composição químico-bromatológica, além do perfil fermentativo de suas silagens, em três idades de colheita (120, 150 e 180 dias), em oito clones de batata doce. A produtividade de matéria seca não variou com a época de colheita das ramas, obtendo-se média de 6,01t ha-1. Os teores de matéria seca nas ramas aumentaram com o ciclo da cultura, verificando-se teores médios de 11,94; 12,16 e 19,62%, aos 120, 150 e 180 dias após o corte, respectivamente. As silagens das ramas de batata-doce apresentaram altos teores protéicos e energéticos e adequado perfil fermentativo, portanto, apresentam potencial para utilização na alimentação animal, independentemente dos clones. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the potential of silage derived from different clones of sweet potato for animal feed. The study was conducted at Forquilha Farm located in Batatal district, MG Diamantina in the period from 23/12/2007 to 23/06/2008. The experiment was conducted in split plot design in [...] a randomized complete block. It was evaluated the green and dry matter yield, the chemical composition and the fermentative profile of silage harvested on three dates (days 120, 150 and 180), of eight clones of sweet potato. The dry matter yield did not vary according to the harvest time of the branches, resulting in an average of 6.01t ha-1. The dry matter content in the stems increased with the growth cycle, and there are average levels of 11.94, 12.16 and 19.62% on days 120, 150 and 180 after cutting, respectively. The raw potato silage showed high protein content and adequate energy fermentation and therefore, potential for use in animal feed, regardless of clones.

Daniel José Silva, Viana; Valter Carvalho de, Andrade Júnior; Karina Guimarães, Ribeiro; Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni, Pinto; Irã Pinheiro, Neiva; José Altair, Figueiredo; Vinícius Teixeira, Lemos; Carlos Enrrik, Pedrosa; Alcinei Místico, Azevedo.

1466-14-01

338

Enterocytozoon bieneusi (microsporidia) in faecal samples from domestic animals from Galicia, Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this survey we examined 87 domestic animal stool samples in order to detect the possible presence of microsporidia in animals in close contact with humans in Galicia (NW, Spain). The detection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores was confirmed in faecal samples from two dogs and one goat by polymera [...] se chain reaction. None of the positive samples for microsporidia in the staining method were amplified with species-specific primers for Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem and E. cuniculi. Four rabbits faecal samples reacted with anti-E. cuniculi serum. Our results could indicate the importance of domestic animals as zoonotic reservoirs of microsporidial human infections.

B, Lores; C del, Aguila; C, Arias.

2002-10-01

339

Enterocytozoon bieneusi (microsporidia) in faecal samples from domestic animals from Galicia, Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this survey we examined 87 domestic animal stool samples in order to detect the possible presence of microsporidia in animals in close contact with humans in Galicia (NW, Spain). The detection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores was confirmed in faecal samples from two dogs and one goat by polymera [...] se chain reaction. None of the positive samples for microsporidia in the staining method were amplified with species-specific primers for Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem and E. cuniculi. Four rabbits faecal samples reacted with anti-E. cuniculi serum. Our results could indicate the importance of domestic animals as zoonotic reservoirs of microsporidial human infections.

B, Lores; C del, Aguila; C, Arias.

340

Radiation processing technology for feed mixes and litter for laboratory animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research was centred on feed mixes for laboratory rats and mice in conditions of germ-free and conventional breeding in isolators. Polyethylene was chosen as the most suitable packing material for radiation processing and subsequent storage. Pelleted diets and litter are packaged in three layers in 400x600 mm bags. 25 kGy for germ-free breeding and 50 kGy for gnotobiotic breeds of laboratory rats and mice were determined as being sufficient. The quality of processed diets and their effect on the weight and growth of rats is discussed. (Pu)

 
 
 
 
341

Community structures of fecal bacteria in cattle from different animal feeding operations  

Science.gov (United States)

The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provid...

342

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...penicillin assessing the effect of the subtherapeutic...effectiveness, including the effect on the salmonella reservoir...results indicating a health hazard, will be considered...use Fermenta Animal Health Co. Bacitracin methylene...organisms during periods of stress. As an aid in the...

2010-04-01

343

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...persons or firms previously marketing identical, related, or...case of nitrofuran drugs, if marketing is to continue during the...salmonella reservoir in the target animal as compared to that...sponsors are eligible for interim marketing based on their...

2010-04-01

344

Effect of the presence of two commercial adsorbents in animal feed on Aflatoxin B1 determination by ELISA kit test  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A rapid AFB1 detection method by ELISA kit test was used on feedstuff samples, and compared to an HPLC method, to verify if the presence of clay-adsorbent (SA) could cause erroneous quantification of the toxin. Samples were obtained using two AFB1-contaminated feedstuffs (7.92 and 17.58 µg/kg for low and high contaminated feeds; LC and HC respectively), added either one of two commercial SAs (Atox® and Myco AD) and three different inclusion doses (0, 10 and 20 g/kg, respectively for...

Francesco Masoero; Marta Vilas Boas; Marco Battaglia; Maurizio Moschini; Antonio Gallo

2010-01-01

345

Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: From domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transport of iodine in the mammary gland into breast milk plays a central role in various fields of prevention of thyroid diseases. First, a sufficient content of iodine in the mother's milk is necessary for normal brain development in the breastfed child. This is attained by expression during lactation in the mammary gland of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), also responsible for iodine transport in the thyroid. Milk iodine content varies with the iodine intake of the mother, and urinary iodine excretion in groups of mothers seems to be a valuable indicator of the iodine status of their breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake areas of the world. It can be speculated that a low-iodine content of mother's milk because of inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland may be one factor of importance for development of myxedematous cretinism.

2002-01-01

346

Variations among animals when estimating the undegradable fraction of fiber in forage samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the variability among animals regarding the critical time to estimate the undegradable fraction of fiber (ct using an in situ incubation procedure. Five rumenfistulated Nellore steers were used to estimate the degradation profile of fiber. Animals were fed a standard diet with an 80:20 forage:concentrate ratio. Sugarcane, signal grass hay, corn silage and fresh elephant grass samples were assessed. Samples were put in F57 Ankom® bags and were incubated in the rumens of the animals for 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240 and 312 hours. The degradation profiles were interpreted using a mixed non-linear model in which a random effect was associated with the degradation rate. For sugarcane, signal grass hay and corn silage, there were no significant variations among animals regarding the fractional degradation rate of neutral and acid detergent fiber; consequently, the ct required to estimate the undegradable fiber fraction did not vary among animals for those forages. However, a significant variability among animals was found for the fresh elephant grass. The results seem to suggest that the variability among animals regarding the degradation rate of fibrous components can be significant.

Cláudia Batista Sampaio

2014-10-01

347

Electronic module for control of sample feeding device of spectrometers of X-ray fluorescent analysis of CRV type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scheme of electronic module for sample feeding device control for the CRV type X-ray fluorescence analysis spectrometers is considered. This module provides realization of next functions: sample change operations and installation in starting position; signaling and defense at emergency cases; indication of any sample amount in the spectrometer chamber; testing function at tuning and testing of modules. All these principal functions are entrusted with microcontroller. Programming of the microcontroller is putting into effect by algorithm of the whole sample feeding device. In the capacity of microcontroller the single crystalline processor PICI16C54 and stepping motor of NV-306-V2202 model have been used

348

X-ray diffraction analysis of particles ingested by filter-feeding animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The size and relative abundance of mineral particles ingested by two filter-feeding aquatic insects, Simulium vittatum Zett. (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Different minerals representing different particle size categories were supplied larval black flies and mosquitoes. Since minerals possess characteristic diffraction properties, their presence and relative abundance can be determined. Early instars of the black fly ingested and retained particles of three different size ranges: however, more coarse particles relative to fine particles were retained by smaller instars as compared with the larger instars. With mosquito larvae, there was a proportional increase in coarser material ingested with increasing age and size of larvae. Other applications of this method are discussed. (Auth.)

349

Improvement of animal productivity through supplementary feeding with urea-mineral blocks (UMB) in Mongolia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The predominant feed resource available for ruminant production in Mongolia is low quality fibrous forages, which sometimes lack essential nutrients for optimal growth and production of livestock. Four formulations of urea-mineral block (UMB) were developed and tested with locally available low quality forages. In dairy cattle, the average daily intake of one of these formulations was 121 g and consumption resulted in an increase in the daily milk yield of 0.3 L/cow, with a cost : benefit ratio of 1 : 8.2. Training and extension activities are presently underway to extend this technology to ruminant-livestock keepers. A medicated block containing the plant Stelleria chamaejasme was also developed for use in sheep, resulting in substantial reductions in cestode egg counts in the faeces. Validation of these results will be necessary before recommendations for use can be made to farmers. (author)

350

Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants. PMID:24269825

Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

2014-01-01

351

Usage of Slaughtered Animal Rumen Fluid for Dry Matter Digestibility of Ruminant Feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the precision of rumen fluid of slaughtered sheep and cows as the inoculums in the in vitro digestibility technique and its comparison with in vivo apparent digestibility techniques for ten feeds. The following two in vitro and one in vivo technique were used. These were the in vitro slaughtered Sheep Rumen fluid Technique (SRT, the in vitro slaughtered Cattle Rumen fluid Technique (CRT and the in vivo Apparent Digestion Technique (ADT. Results from this study indicate that SRT and CRT have potential to be used for predicting in vivo DM digestibility. However, more research is required to modify both SRT and CRT to get better regression equation with low RSD and high correlation coefficient.

S. Koncagul

2006-01-01

352

Sustainability of ruminant agriculture in the new context: feeding strategies and features of animal adaptability into the necessary holistic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are numerous recent studies highlighting sustainability problems for the development of ruminant production systems (RPS) while facing increasing human food necessities and global climate change. Despite the complexity of the context, in our view the main objectives of the ruminants' physiologist should be convergent for both industrialized (IC) and developing countries (DC) in a common and global strategy of advancing knowledge. In DC, this means improving the efficiency of RPS, taking into account the unique possibility of using rangelands. For IC settings, RPS should be revisited in terms of autonomy and environment- friendly feeding and managing practices. Assuming that competition for feed/food use is still a crucial criterion, future ruminant feeding systems (FeSyst) should preferably focus on lignocellulosic sources. According to biome distributions, and the recent increases in volumes of crop residues and their by-products, the annually renewed volumes of these biomasses are considerable. Therefore, we need to redesign our strategies for their efficient utilization at the local level. For this purpose, digestion processes and rumen functioning need to be better understood. The renewed vision of ruminal digestion through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is also a key aspect as it is an environmental demand that cannot be ignored. With regard to other ruminants' physiological functions, accumulated knowledge could be mobilized into an integrative approach that puts forward the adaptive capacities of animals to face variability in quantity and quality of supplied feeds. Basically, the reduction of inputs that were traditionally used to ensure FeSyst will need more flexible animals. In that sense, the concepts of homeostasis and teleophorhesis need to be updated and adapted to domestic species and breeds that were until now largely excluded from the dominant productive systems. In conclusion, a more holistic approach of research targets is required in which physiological functions and farmers' practices must converge and respond to each particular situation in an integral, dynamic and flexible conceptual perspective. From a scientific point of view, both for ICs and DCs, a broader range of experimental scenarios should be explored in order to arrive at innovative practices and solutions that respect environmental, ethical and economical issues. The clear challenge is to in evaluate the sustainability of RPSs. This includes, in our opinion, a strong interaction with other disciplines (multi- and trans-disciplinary conception), thus structuring new relevant indicators for the evaluation sustainability. PMID:22444621

Bocquier, F; González-García, E

2010-07-01

353

Evans Blue as a Simple Method to Discriminate Mosquitoes' Feeding Choice on Small Laboratory Animals  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable. Principal Findings By using Evans blue (EB) vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquito’s choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host), either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat. Significance Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc) and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment. PMID:25333369

Maciel, Ceres; Fujita, Andre; Gueroni, Daniele I.; Ramos, Anderson D.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Sa-Nunes, Anderson

2014-01-01

354

Definition of key parameters for constructing an online reference micrographs collection of processed animal particles in feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Union Reference Laboratory for the detection of animal proteins in feedingstuffs (EURL-AP has developed an online micrographs collection supporting its network activities within the European Union for the detection of prohibited animal by-products in feed. So far, the only official method for detecting these by-products is light microscopy, which is highly dependent on the skills of a microscopist because it relies on particle recognition. In order to help the microscopist network to achieve high proficiency levels, it was necessary to create an online reference tool based on micrographs and accessible via an Intranet platform. Members of the National Reference Laboratories for animal proteins in feedingstuffs (NRL-AP and the International Association for Feedingstuff Analysis – Section Feedingstuff Microscopy (IAG have access to this micrographs collection. This paper describes how the online collection was created and what conditions had to be taken into account in creating such a tool. It also describes how information are periodically updated and managed within the context of the large amount of information included in each micrograph. The need for a robust back-office system as the foundation for all the research activities in this project is also covered, and the evaluation of the use of the online collection is discussed.

Belinchon Crespo, C.

2012-01-01

355

Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives investigated contained lauric acid, myristic acid, linseed oil, and calcium fumarate. These additives were included at 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, and 0.7% of dietary dry matter, respectively (treatment ADD). Experimental fat sources were exchanged for a rumen inert source of fat in the control diet (treatment CON) to maintain isolipidic rations. Cows (experiment 1, n=20; experiment 2, n=12) were fed restricted amounts of feed to avoid confounding effects of dry matter intake on methane production. In experiment 1, methane production and energy balance were studied using open-circuit indirect calorimetry. In experiment 2, 10 rumen-fistulated animals were used to measure rumen fermentation characteristics. In both experiments animal performance was monitored. The inclusion of dietary additives decreased methane emissions (g/d) by 10%. Milk yield and milk fat content tended to be lower for ADD in experiment 1. In experiment 2, milk production was not affected by ADD, but milk fat content was lower. Fat- and protein-corrected milk was lower for ADD in both experiments. Milk urea nitrogen content was lowered by ADD in experiment 1 and tended to be lower in experiment 2. Apparent total tract digestibility of fat, but not that of starch or neutral detergent fiber, was higher for ADD. Energy retention did not differ between treatments. The decrease in methane production (g/d) was not evident when methane emission was expressed per kilogram of milk produced. Feeding ADD resulted in increases of C12:0 and C14:0 and the intermediates of linseed oil biohydrogenation in milk in both experiments. In experiment 2, ADD-fed cows tended to have a decreased number of protozoa in rumen fluid when compared with that in control cows. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were lower for ADD, whereas molar proportions of propionate increased at the expense of acetate and butyrate. PMID:21338809

van Zijderveld, S M; Fonken, B; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J; Perdok, H B; Fokkink, W; Newbold, J R

2011-03-01

356

Composición química de la pulpa de café a diferentes tiempos de ensilaje para su uso potencial en la alimentación animal / Chemical composition of coffee pulp at different silage times and its potential use in animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar mediante análisis químico la pulpa de café ensilada a diferentes tiempos y su uso potencial en la alimentación animal. Las muestras de pulpa se dejaron drenar por 24 horas para eliminar el agua residual proveniente del beneficio, luego se colocaron e [...] n un silo, de 1,35 m3, el cual se cubrió en su totalidad con un plástico de polietileno negro para generar la fermentación natural. De este silo, se tomaron muestras a los 0, 90, 120 y 240 días después del despulpado del café para realizarle análisis químico. El diseño experimental empleado fue completamente aleatorizado y para efectos de comparación se aplicó la prueba de mínima diferencia significativa. Los resultados muestran valores promedios de ceniza 16,87%; extracto etéreo 3,34%; taninos 0,23% y proteínas 21,35%. En la medida que se incremento el tiempo de ensilaje, se observo aumento en la concentración de ceniza y taninos; por otra parte, se detectaron diferencias significativas entre los tiempos de ensilaje (P?0,05). De forma general, el factor tiempo influyó sobre las características químicas de la pulpa de café, la cual presentó alto valor nutricional a los 120 días de ensilada y potencialmente podría ser recomendada para la alimentación animal. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to characterize the pulp of coffee, at different times, using chemical analysis and its potential use in animal feeding. The samples of pulp were drained during 24 hours, to eliminate the residual water coming from the benefit; then placed in a silo of 1.35 m3, which w [...] as totally covered with a black polyetilene plastic, to generate the natural fermentation. From the silos, samples were taken at 0, 90, 120, and 140 days after the pulp of coffee was obtained to conduct the chemical analysis. It was used a completely randomized design and for the means comparison was applied the least significance difference. The results showed means values of ashes 16.87%, ethereal extract 3.34%, tannins 0.23%, and protein 21.35%. At silage time increased, it was observed an increase in the concentration of ashes and tannins. Also, there were detected significant differences among times of silage (P? 0.05). In general, the time factor influenced on the chemical characteristics of the coffee pulp, which had a high nutritional value at 120 days of silage and it could be recommended potentially for animal feeding.

Adrianyela, Noriega Salazar; Ramón, Silva Acuña; Moraima, García de Salcedo.

357

Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

358

Scientific Opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the presence of seeds of Ambrosia spp. in animal feed : Scientific Opinion, EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The European Commission requested EFSA to provide a scientific opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union and on the importance of feed materials, in particular bird feed, in the dispersion of Ambrosia spp. The genus Ambrosia (Asteraceae family) is distributed worldwide. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) has heavily colonised several areas of South-East Europe. Ambrosia spp., both in their native range and in invaded areas, are of public health concern due to the allergenic properties of their pollen. The NDA Panel concluded that inhalation of the plant pollen causes rhino-conjunctivitis and asthma, with skin allergies and food allergy playing minor roles. Ambrosia may cross-sensitize patients to other allergens, including food allergens. There is some evidence for allergenicity of Ambrosia pollen in animals. With regard to the effects on the environment of the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union, the PLH Panel concluded that there is no direct evidence that Ambrosia spp. cause extinction of plant species. However, there are some indications that A. artemisiifolia could become highly invasive in certain environmentally-valuable habitats and might be linked to an impoverishment of species richness, therefore further ecological studies are needed. The CONTAM Panel focused on the relative importance of animal feed, bird feed in particular, on the dispersion of Ambrosia. Ambrosia seeds may contaminate feed. However, animal feed materials compounded for use in livestock are extensively processed. This processing destroys Ambrosia seeds and hence the contribution of compounded feed to the dispersion of Ambrosia is considered to be negligible. Bird feed often contains significant quantities of Ambrosia seeds and remains unprocessed. Therefore, bird feed seems to play an important role in introducing Ambrosia to new, previously not infested areas.

Baker, R.; Candresse, T.

2010-01-01

359

Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of “Envelopes,” each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward.

Fort, James A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

2007-10-01

360

Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of 'Envelopes,' each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to undestment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward

 
 
 
 
361

Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus – effects on animal performance and meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM or fishmeal (WFM as protein source on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to “wild’ or “gamey” flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively. No “fish-related” flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.

Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:

Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjøl – effekter på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet I vår undersökning ingick 14 renar (8 kastrerade sarvar (härkaroch 6 vajor för att jämföra effekter av två olika renfoder (baserade på korn, hö och soja- (SBM eller fiskmjöl (WFM som proteintillskott med avseende på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet. Köttprover från naturbetande renar (n=4; 2 härkar och 2 vajor från Seward Peninsula inkluderades i studien för att representera kvaliteten på traditionellt producerat renkött från Alaska. Inga signifikanta skillnader i tillväxt observerades, varken mellan SBM- och WFM-grupperna eller mellan härkar och vajor. Foderutnyttjandet var dock signifikant bättre hos WFM-renarna. Slaktutbytet var högst för renarna i SBM-gruppen, däremot rapporterades inga skillnader i levandevikt, slaktkroppsegenskaper, pH-värde och temperatur i ytterfilén, skärmotstånd, färg eller vattenhållande förmåga i köttet när de tre grupperna av renar jämfördes (SBM, WFM och naturbetande djur. Köttet från de naturbetande renarna hade det signifikant högsta innehållet av både omega-3-fettsyror och av fleromättade fettsyror. Kött från SBM-renarna hade det högsta innehållet av triglycerider och det lägsta innehållet av fosfolipider jämfört med de andra två grupperna. Den tränade smakpanelen kunde inte hitta några skillnader i sensoriska egenskaper hos köttet från renarna i de tre olika grupperna. I en konsumentundersökning rapporterades kommentarer om olika ”vilt-relaterade” bismaker i kött från naturbetande renar (24% av konsumenterna och från WFM-gruppen (15% av konsumenterna, men inga ”fisk-liknande” bismaker i köttet kunde påvisas. Att byta ut sojamjöl mot fiskmjöl som prote

Alexandra C. M. Oliveira

2007-01-01

362

CONFINED ANIMAL FEED LOT OPERATIONS (CAFOS) : JUNE 1, 2002 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003  

Science.gov (United States)

Field investigations includes identifying, sampling, and characterizing the level of microbiological and chemical contamination in surface water, groundwater, and sediment in areas surrounding CAFO sites. Study sites were located in Murryville, NC (Fieldale Farms) and Honrin...

363

FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF CONFINED ANIMAL FEED LOT OPERATIONS (CAFO): OCTOBER 2006 ? JULY 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

Field investigations of CAFO sites conducted by the Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division involve identifying, sampling, and characterizing the level of microbiological and chemical contamination in surface water, groundwater, and sediment in areas surrounding the CAFO ...

364

FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF CONFINED ANIMAL FEED LOT OPERATIONS (CAFO): OCTOBER 2005 ? SEPTEMBER 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

Field investigations include identifying, sampling, and characterizing the level of microbiological and chemical contamination in surface water, groundwater, and sediment in areas surrounding CAFO sites. Study sites for this reporting period included the Turner Road Site in Cleve...

365

Isolation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strain from fecal samples of zoo animal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats) were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive petting zoo animals was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by agglutination with E. coli O157:H7 latex reagent (Oxoid), identified among the isolates, which showed that multiple E. coli strains were isolated from one petting zoo animal, in which a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli strains; E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture of 2?g of petting zoo animal feces. In contrast, strains other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of petting zoo animals without enrichment. PMID:24489514

Mohammed Hamzah, Aseel; Mohammed Hussein, Aseel; Mahmoud Khalef, Jenan

2013-01-01

366

Parental predictors of children's animal abuse: findings from a national and intergenerational sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the intra- and intergenerational links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal abuse by analyzing a national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,614 individuals collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study from 1990 to 2004. Using multilevel random-intercept regression modeling, parents' own history of animal abuse is predictive of their later involvement in IPV perpetration and victimization, net of important controls. In turn, parents' IPV violent perpetration (but not violent victimization) is predictive of their children's history of animal abuse-measured 14 years later. Intergenerational continuity of animal abuse, however, is not significant. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are the study's limitations, and future research directions. PMID:24777142

Knight, Kelly E; Ellis, Colter; Simmons, Sara B

2014-11-01

367

Recycling technology of sugar industry by-products for animal feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de una tecnología de reciclaje y enriquecimiento proteico mediante fermentación en estado sólido de los subproductos de la industria azucarera para su posterior utilización como alimento animal. A partir de un estudio bibliográfico sobre los aspectos más importantes de las tecnologías actuales de fabricación de alimentos para el consumo animal y las herramientas para el desarrollo de tecnologías de fermentaci ón en medios sólidos se ha desarrollado un procedimiento general para el diseño de una planta para la producción de un alimento a partir de bagazo y miel final, enriquecido proteicamente con levadura Candida utilis y que se le ha dado el nombre de Bagames. El diseño cuenta con varias etapas: preparaci ón de las materias primas, fermentación en estado sólido, sistema de aireaci ón, sistema de bombeo y transporte mecánico del producto, secado, humidificaci ón del aire. El diseño de todos los equipos fue realizado en Microsoft Excel. La metodología desarrollada puede ser generalizada a otras plantas del país. Mediante un análisis de prefactibilidad económica se calculó que la inversi ón en el Complejo Agro Industrial "Siboney" es de $72 697,91 con un tiempo de recuperación de 2,44 años. Con un valor del VAN de $219 407, 48 y un TIR de 39,13 %. Se demostró que la tecnología es técnico económicamente factible.

Yadira Su\\u00E1rez Rodr\\u00EDguez

2006-01-01

368

Status of United States recommendations for control of accidental radioactive contamination of human food and animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing recommendations in the United States of America for control of accidental radioactive contamination of human food and animal feeds were issued in 1982 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the Department of Health and Human Services. These recommendations provide guidance for determining whether levels of radiation encountered after a radiological incident warrant protective action and also suggest appropriate actions that may be taken. Additional guidance specific to the control of imported foods was adopted following the Chernobyl accident. The guidance consisted of derived intervention levels (DILs) for imported foods and was based in part on the 1982 FDA recommendations and on assumptions appropriate to the circumstances of Chernobyl. These DILs, which were called Levels of Concern when issued in 1986, set levels of contamination for specific radionuclides below which imported foods would be allowed for general distribution in commerce. The existing FDA recommendations for control of accidental radioactive contamination of human foods and animal feeds are currently under review. This review will take into account current scientific information and radiation protection philosophy, as well as practical experience, and will also consider the developing international DILs. Limiting the risk to the public in the event of an accidental release of radioactive materials involves both protective actions to mitigate the degree of radioactive contamination rethe degree of radioactive contamination reaching food, as well as regulatory controls for the distribution in commerce of foods with residual radioactive contamination from the accident. It is this approach which is steering the current review and development of revised guidance. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

369

Determination of manganese, copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum in animal blood sample by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique of neutron activation analysis had been applied to the determination of Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mo in animal blood sample as supplied by IAEA for intercomparison purposes. One gram of the sample was found to contain 0.3786+-0.0019 ug Mn, 1.4146+-0.0025 ug cu, 16.5713+-0.0607 ug Zn, 2.7025+-0.0446 mg Fe and 0.0305 +-0.0013 ug Mo

370

Effect of the presence of two commercial adsorbents in animal feed on Aflatoxin B1 determination by ELISA kit test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rapid AFB1 detection method by ELISA kit test was used on feedstuff samples, and compared to an HPLC method, to verify if the presence of clay-adsorbent (SA could cause erroneous quantification of the toxin. Samples were obtained using two AFB1-contaminated feedstuffs (7.92 and 17.58 µg/kg for low and high contaminated feeds; LC and HC respectively, added either one of two commercial SAs (Atox® and Myco AD and three different inclusion doses (0, 10 and 20 g/kg, respectively for CTR, 1% and 2% doses. The HPLC and ELISA data were compared in CTR samples with a paired t-test. The AFB1 recoveries, performed with ELISA, were analysed as a completely randomized design using a 2×2×3 factorial arrangement. The ELISA method tended to underestimate the AFB1 concentrations with respect to the HPLC method, both in HC (P=0.050 and in LC (P<0.001 feedstuffs. A more drastic reduction (P<0.001 was observed when SAs were included in the two feedstuffs. In particular, Atox® determined an AFB1 recovery of 15,5% in HC and 7,6% in LC (1% dose and of 11,1% in HC and 8,4% in LC (2% dose. Less severe penalisation were observed when Myco AD was added to feeds.

Francesco Masoero

2010-01-01

371

Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia=Modelagem matemática para energia digestivel de ingredientes de origem animal para tilápias  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals (MBM were used, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model is described below and cannot estimate digestible energy (DE of animal origin: . The path coefficients were medium or low, the highest direct effect was from gross energy (0.529, while the highest indirect effect was from crude protein, through gross energy (0.439. O objetivo deste estudo foi a formulação de equações para estimar a energia digestível em alimentos para a tilápia. Foram utilizados valores obtidos na literatura da composição centesimal em proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, matéria mineral e energia bruta (variáveis independentes, bem como a energia digestível (variável dependente obtidos em ensaios biológicos. Os dados foram submetidos à regressão linear múltipla “stepwise backward”. Foi realizada análise de trilha para medir os efeitos diretos e indiretos de cada variável independente sobre a dependente. Para validar o modelo foram utilizados dados de estudos independentes, e os valores obtidos em um ensaio de digestibilidade com juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, testando-se cinco farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO, utilizando o sistema de coleta de fezes de Guelph e óxido de cromo (III como indicador. A equação obtida não pode estimar os valores de energia digestível (ED de origem animal e está descrito a seguir: . Os coeficientes de trilha obtidos tem valores de médios a baixo, sendo o maior efeito direto o da energia bruta (0,529, enquanto a proteina bruta apresentou o maior efeito indireto, via energia bruta (0,439.

Mariana Michelato

2012-07-01

372

Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia / Modelagem matemática para energia digestivel de ingredientes de origem animal para tilápias  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi a formulação de equações para estimar a energia digestível em alimentos para a tilápia. Foram utilizados valores obtidos na literatura da composição centesimal em proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, matéria mineral e energia bruta (variáveis independentes), bem como a energia [...] digestível (variável dependente) obtidos em ensaios biológicos. Os dados foram submetidos à regressão linear múltipla "stepwise backward". Foi realizada análise de trilha para medir os efeitos diretos e indiretos de cada variável independente sobre a dependente. Para validar o modelo foram utilizados dados de estudos independentes, e os valores obtidos em um ensaio de digestibilidade com juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, testando-se cinco farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO), utilizando o sistema de coleta de fezes de Guelph e óxido de cromo (III) como indicador. A equação obtida não pode estimar os valores de energia digestível (ED) de origem animal e está descrito a seguir: ED (kcalkg-1) = -2364,970+1,287 x EB;R² = 0,775. Os coeficientes de trilha obtidos tem valores de médios a baixo, sendo o maior efeito direto o da energia bruta (0,529), enquanto a proteina bruta apresentou o maior efeito indireto, via energia bruta (0,439). Abstract in english The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological [...] assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals (MBM) were used, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model is described below and cannot estimate digestible energy (DE) of animal origin: DE (kcal kg-1) = -2364.970+1.287xGE;R² = 0.775. The path coefficients were medium or low, the highest direct effect was from gross energy (0.529), while the highest indirect effect was from crude protein, through gross energy (0.439).

Luiz Vítor Oliveira, Vidal; Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Elias Nunes, Martins; Tadeu Orlandi, Xavier; Mariana, Michelato; Thêmis Sakaguti, Graciano.

2012-09-01

373

Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being, policies targeting intermediate pollution and final pollution create incentives for the operator to examine the effects of other management practices to reduce pollution in addition to controlling the polluting inputs. Incentive-based mechanisms are slightly more cost-effective than quantity controls when seasonal emissions fluctuate. Our approach demonstrates the importance of taking into account the spatial & temporal dynamics in the rootzone and the integrated effects of water, nitrogen, and salinity on crop yield and nitrate emissions. It also highlights the significant role the environment can play in pollution control and the potential benefits from designing policies that acknowledge this role.oss of Total Net Farm Income Under Alternative Policies

Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

2012-12-01

374

Techniques for measuring particle size distribution of particulate matter emitted from animal feeding operations  

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While various techniques for measuring particle size distributions (PSD) of particulate matter (PM) exist, there is no a single agreed upon standard or reference method for PM with different characteristics. This study investigated differences in the PSD measurements by four PSD analyzers: LS13 320 multi-wave length laser diffraction particle size analyzer, LS230 laser diffraction particle size analyzer, LA-300 laser scattering particle size analyzer, and Coulter Counter Multisizer3 (CCM3). Simultaneously collected total suspended particulate (TSP) samples in a commercial egg production house were analyzed by the four analyzers for PSDs. In addition, four types of testing powders (limestone, starch, No.3 micro aluminum, and No.5 micro aluminum) were also analyzed by these four PSD analyzers. The results suggest when comparing measured mass median diameters (MMDs) and geometric standard deviations (GSD) of the PSDs, the laser diffraction method (LS13 320, LS230 and LA-300) provided larger MMDs and broader distributions (GSDs) than the electrical sensing zone method (CCM3) for all samples. When comparing mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 between the measured values and the lognormal fitting values derived from the measured MMDs and GSDs, lognormal fitting method produced reasonably accurate PM10 mass fraction estimations (within 5%), but it failed to produce accurate PM2.5 mass fraction estimations. The measured PM2.5 mass fractions significantly differed from the lognormal fitting PM2.5 fractions and the mean differences reached as high as 95%. It is strongly recommended that when reporting a PSD of certain PM samples, in addition to MMD and GSD, the mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 should also be reported.

Wang-Li, Lingjuan; Cao, Zihan; Buser, Michael; Whitelock, Derek; Parnell, Calvin B.; Zhang, Yuanhui

2013-02-01

375

Unusual animal-plant interaction: Feeding of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae) by ants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hollow pseudobulbs of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae; Central America) serve as domatia for many species of ants. The ants pack many of the pseudobulbs with debris including dead insects, plant material, and sand. Ants were fed 14C-labelled D-glucose in honey, killed, and placed in the pseudobulbs for up to eight weeks. Samples of plant tissue were harvested and tested for radioactivity after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The labelled material had moved into various parts of the plant and demonstrated direct nutrient uptake

376

Detection of hepatitis E virus in samples of animal origin collected in Hungary.  

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Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an enterically transmitted human pathogen. HEV infections are mainly associated with acute, self-limited, icteric hepatitis with an average mortality rate of 1%. Animal reservoirs are considered to play an important role in the maintenance of the virus and in the spread of HEV to humans. HEV-induced seroconversion was described in several species, however clinical hepatitis in animals has not been observed to date. HEV strains from animals are genetically closely related to human HEV isolates, which supports the opinions on the zoonotic transmission of the virus. In this expansive study the occurrence of HEV was investigated in Hungarian wild and domesticated animal samples. HEV RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in liver samples of wild boars, roe deer, and deer. The investigations of domestic swine samples detected HEV in 39% of the investigated Hungarian pig farms. Simultaneous investigation revealed no definite difference between liver and faeces samples of domestic pigs in the frequency of HEV positivity. The highest (36%) incidence of HEV infection was found among the 11-16-week-old pigs. Samples from domestic cattle and rodents collected in pig farms, forests and meadows were tested negative for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences amplified within the ORF1 and ORF2 regions of selected strains revealed that the detected viruses belong to three subgroups of the third genogroup of HEV, and are closely related to human and swine HEV strains detected in different countries. The investigations revealed widespread distribution of HEV in Hungarian wild ungulate and domesticated swine populations, with considerable genetic diversity among the strains. PMID:20005644

Forgách, Petra; Nowotny, Norbert; Erdélyi, Károly; Boncz, Attila; Zentai, János; Szucs, György; Reuter, Gábor; Bakonyi, Tamás

2010-07-14

377

Occurrence and partition of antibiotics in the liquid and solid phases of swine wastewater from concentrated animal feeding operations in Shandong Province, China.  

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Swine wastewater represents an important pollution source of antibiotics in the environment; however, regional data about residual antibiotics in swine wastewater are very limited at present. This study investigated the concentrations of three classes of commonly used veterinary antibiotics, including five sulfonamides (SAs), three tetracyclines (TCs) and one macrolide (tiamulin, TIA), in swine wastewater collected from 21 concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) sites in Shandong Province, China. Both the liquid and solid (i.e., suspended solids) phases of swine wastewater were analyzed to determine the total concentration of each studied antibiotic. Results indicate that sulfamethazine had the highest median concentration (14.56 ?g L(-1)), followed by oxytetracycline (OTC, 8.05 ?g L(-1)) and chlortetracycline (CTC, 6.01 ?g L(-1)). The maximum detected concentration reached up to 2.02 mg L(-1) (OTC) and the highest detection frequency was 95.1% (CTC). The median concentrations and detection frequencies of antibiotics in winter samples were generally higher than those in summer samples (except CTC). The log Kd values were in the range of 1.31-1.96 for SAs, 2.05-2.33 for TCs, and 1.54-1.58 for TIA in swine wastewater. More TCs (14-28%) preferred to partition in the solid phase than SAs (2-10%) and TIA (5-10%), indicating that the suspended solids of swine wastewater may not be ignored. PMID:23493952

Ben, Weiwei; Pan, Xun; Qiang, Zhimin

2013-04-01

378

DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE. AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND UHPLC -ICPMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Arsenic animal-feed additives have been extensively used in the United States for their growth- promoting and disease-controlling properties. In particular most broiler chickens are fed roxarsone(3- nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) to control coccidiosis. Disposal of the result...

379

Feeding Practices and Styles Used by a Diverse Sample of Low-Income Parents of Preschool-age Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Design: Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Setting: Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Participants: Thirty-two parents of…

Ventura, Alison K.; Gromis, Judy C.; Lohse, Barbara

2010-01-01

380

In vitro rumen feed degradability assessed with DaisyII and batch culture: effect of sample size  

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Full Text Available In vitro degradability with DaisyII (D equipment is commonly performed with 0.5g of feed sample into each filter bag. Literature reported that a reduction of the ratio of sample size to bag surface could facilitate the release of soluble or fine particulate. A reduction of sample size to 0.25 g could improve the correlation between the measurements provided by D and the conventional batch culture (BC. This hypothesis was screened by analysing the results of 2 trials. In trial 1, 7 feeds were incubated for 48h with rumen fluid (3 runs x 4 replications both with D (0.5g/bag and BC; the regressions between the mean values provided for the various feeds in each run by the 2 methods either for NDF (NDFd and in vitro true DM (IVTDMD degradability, had R2 of 0.75 and 0.92 and RSD of 10.9 and 4.8%, respectively. In trial 2, 4 feeds were incubated (2 runs x 8 replications with D (0.25 g/bag and BC; the corresponding regressions for NDFd and IVTDMD showed R2 of 0.94 and 0.98 and RSD of 3.0 and 1.3%, respectively. A sample size of 0.25 g improved the precision of the measurements obtained with D.

Stefano Schiavon

2010-01-01