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Sample records for animal feed samples

  1. Representative sampling of animal feed and mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    Sampling of grain, animal feeds (solid & liquid) including important mineral mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector is subject to an ongoing investigation with the objective of improving existing (sub-optimal) sampling procedures. Results from the first 6 months are presented here; the project...

  2. Measurement of natural radioactivity in animal feed supplements samples by gamma-ray spectrometry

    The objective of the present work is to determine the radiation levels found in animal feed supplements due to natural radioactivity. Knowledge of the radiation levels in samples of animal and poultry feed supplements is important, because they directly or indirectly form part of the human diet. In order to obtain this data, gamma-ray spectrometry technique was used, employing a p-type HPGe detector of 30% of relative efficiency, with an energy resolution of 1.9 KeV for the 60Co 1332.46 KeV line. The radioactivity due to radionuclides 40K, 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and its respective decay series was measured. The accommodation recipient of the samples was a 250 cc cylindrical plastic container. The 238U series radioactivity was calculated through 214Pb and 214Bi activities, and the 232Th series' activity was calculated through the 228Ac, 212Pb, 212Bi and 208Tl values. The animal feed supplements samples measured in this work were samples received in this laboratory for radioactivity test certification. Among the samples, the radioactivity concentration of Uranium-238, Thorium-232, Radium-226 and Potassium-40 in animal supplement was found to be in the range of 1.4 ± 0.2 to 32.7 ± 5.7 Bq/kg, 1.8 ± 0.2 to 44.5 ± 6.6 Bq/kg, 4.0 ± 1. 2 to 105.2 ± 10.2 Bq/kg and 13.1 ± 3.6 to 397.2 ± 19.9 Bq/kg respectively. (author)

  3. Cyromazine imprinted polymers for selective stir bar sorptive extraction of melamine in animal feed and milk samples.

    Fan, Wenying; Gao, Mingqi; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-06-21

    In this work, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) coated stir bar was prepared using a self-designed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mold and in situ polymerization, with cyromazine as the dummy template for the target melamine. The prepared MIP coated stir bar presented a uniform and porous surface as well as good chemical stability and selectivity for melamine. Based on it, a method of MIP coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed for the quantification of melamine in food samples. Significant factors affecting the extraction efficiency of melamine by MIP-SBSE, such as the extraction solvent and time, stirring rate, desorption solvent and time, were investigated thoroughly. Under the optimal conditions, the analytical performance of this method was evaluated. The detection limit of the developed method was 0.54 μg L(-1) for melamine with an enrichment factor of 42-fold and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.1% (c = 5 μg L(-1), n = 7), and the linear range was 2-200 μg L(-1). The established method was applied for the determination of melamine in a variety of real samples including cat food, dog food, chicken feed A, chicken feed B and milk powder, and the recoveries for melamine in the spiked samples were in the range of 76.2-98.2%, 80.0-85.5%, 89.5-113%, 85.0-95.5% and 65.0-111%, respectively. The proposed method presented a good specific recognition ability and matrix interference resistance, and was demonstrated to be effective and sensitive for the analysis of melamine in animal food and milk samples. PMID:25875596

  4. Irradiation effect on animal feeds and feedstuffs

    Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of γ-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)

  5. Occurrence of mycotoxins in animal feeds.

    Juszkiewicz, T; Piskorska-Pliszczyńska, J

    1992-01-01

    A total of 1120 grain samples of oats, wheat, rye, barley, and maize, delivered for processing of mixed feeds for animals, were collected during the years 1975 to 1979 from commercial feed mills located throughout Poland. In addition, 625 samples of the commercially mixed feeds and protein concentrates were collected during 1976. For the mycotoxin survey, 751 laboratory samples were chosen at random and analyzed. When applying confirmatory tests neither aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 nor sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, or ochratoxin B were found to be present in any of the samples of barley, wheat, rye, or oats. Aflatoxins were detected in about 4% of the maize samples. The presence of ochratoxin A in the range of 2 to 200 micrograms/kg was evident in 9% of the grain samples. The commercially mixed feeds were found to be more contaminated with mycotoxins than were the grains. The aflatoxins were confirmed in about 13% of the samples of mixed feeds. After the preliminary multimycotoxin analysis, out of 42 feed samples that could be suspected of containing ochratoxins, 32 failed to prove their presence. Similarly, out of 27 suspected feed samples, zearalenone was found only in one (0.5%) sample. The lowest percentage of samples contaminated with mycotoxins was found in poultry mixed feeds (4%). The highest contamination occurred among the samples of swine rations, where 17% of the samples contained aflatoxins and 13% ochratoxins. The protein concentrates contained only aflatoxins. Out of 31 analyzed samples, aflatoxins were detected in 19 (61%) in concentrations ranging from 5 micrograms/kg to 500 micrograms/kg. In one sample, aflatoxin concentration (B1 + B2) reached 1140 micrograms/kg. Practical implications of the results are discussed in relation to animal and human safety. PMID:1387162

  6. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in animal feed.

    Nag, Subir Kumar; Raikwar, Mukesh K

    2011-03-01

    Animal products like milk and meat are often found to be contaminated with residues of persistent pesticides and other toxic substances. The major source of entry of these compounds to animal body is the contaminated feed and fodder. So, unless the residues are managed at this stage, it is very difficult to prevent contamination in milk and meat. Therefore, the status of residue level of most persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) in feed and fodder should be monitored regularly. The frequency of occurrence and contamination levels of OCP residues in different kinds of animal concentrate feed and straw samples collected from Bundelkhand region of India were determined. Out of 533 total samples, 301 i.e. 56.47% samples were positive containing residues of different OCPs like hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) complex, endosulfan and dicofol. Among different HCH isomers, the mean concentration of β-HCH was highest, and total HCH varied from 0.01 to 0.306 mg kg(-1). In case of DDT complex, i.e. DDD, DDE and DDT, the concentration ranged between 0.016 and 0.118 mg kg(-1) and the pp(|) isomers were more frequently encountered than their op(|) counterparts. Endosulfan was also found in some samples in concentration ranging from 0.009 to 0.237 mg/kg, but dicofol could be recorded in very few samples. Although feed samples were found to contain OC residues, after comparing their levels in positive samples with the limiting values of respective pesticides, only very few were found to exceed the threshold level. Otherwise, they were mostly within safe limits. PMID:20443138

  7. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  8. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote

  9. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote development of animal husbandry and veterinary.In 2009,Wu Chu(USA-China)Science&Culture Media Co.(Cranston,USA)and Anhui Wuchu Science,Technology and Culture Communication Co.,Ltd(Hefei,China)issued the journal Animal Husbandry and Feed Science(ISSN 1943-9911).The main content is basic theory and applied research about animal husbandry,veterinary,feed science and other related fields.The journal covers many research areas

  10. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote development of animal husbandry and veterinary.In 2009,Wu Chu(USA-China)Science&Culture Media Co.

  11. Trend analysis of mycotoxins in animal feed

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van, H.J.; Driessen, J.J.M.; Rijk, de, J.; Jong, de, P.F.; Nijs, de, S.

    2012-01-01

    Feed materials were analysed for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and HT-2- and T-2-toxins. In this report trends in the average content during the period 2001-2009 are reported for these mycotoxins. Monitoring data from the National Feed monitoring program and from the Commodity Board Animal Feed are used for this study.

  12. Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products

    Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

  13. 21 CFR 573.380 - Ethoxyquin in animal feeds.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. 573.380 Section 573...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.380 Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. Ethoxyquin...

  14. Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated animal feed

    The emphasis in recent years on livestock farming as a means of increasing the availability of animal protein in India has led to a spurt in the commercial production of a variety of cattle and poultry feeds. Adverse climatic conditions have posed problems of insect infestation and spoilage due to microorganisms, for which radiation treatment of prepacked feeds could provide a solution. The wholesomeness of an irradiated (0.2 and 2.5 Mrad) diet composed of wheat, shrimp, milk powder, vegetable and oil has been investigated in long term feeding studies involving five successive generations of rats. Growth, foodintake, longevity and mortality remained comparable between control and test groups of animals. Reproductive performance as judged by fertility index, litter size and weaning index were also similar. Examination of the animals sacrified at the age of 23-24 months for gross pathological manifestations including tumor incidence did not indicate any significant differences between the control and the test groups. Judged by a variety of parameters, the rearing of rats for upto five generations on an irradiated diet had no adverse influences on their health. (author)

  15. Development and Testing of an Animal Feed Mixing Machine

    A. A. Balami; D. Adgidzi; A. Mua’zu

    2013-01-01

    An animal feed mixing machine was designed, developed and tested. The machine was tested using a feed components divided into three equal measures of 50 kg for ground corn, 0.265 kg for cassava flour and 2.65 kg for shelled corn replicated thrice at four mixing durations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. The average CV is 4.84% which shows a significant reduction in feed components for the samples tested. The degree of mixing attained was 95.16% which portrays an improvement of about 7.8% reduction i...

  16. Ethoxyquin: An Antioxidant Used in Animal Feed

    Alina Błaszczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethoxyquin (EQ, 6-ethoxy-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline is widely used in animal feed in order to protect it against lipid peroxidation. EQ cannot be used in any food for human consumption (except spices, e.g., chili, but it can pass from feed to farmed fish, poultry, and eggs, so human beings can be exposed to this antioxidant. The manufacturer Monsanto Company (USA performed a series of tests on ethoxyquin which showed its safety. Nevertheless, some harmful effects in animals and people occupationally exposed to it were observed in 1980’s which resulted in the new studies undertaken to reevaluate its toxicity. Here, we present the characteristics of the compound and results of the research, concerning, for example, products of its metabolism and oxidation or searching for new antioxidants on the EQ backbone.

  17. Antibiotics in Animal Feed Contribute to Drug-Resistant Germs

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158316.html Antibiotics in Animal Feed Contribute to Drug-Resistant Germs: Study Individual farm ... HealthDay News) -- Use of antibiotics in farm animal feed is helping drive the worldwide increase in antibiotic- ...

  18. Real-time pair-feeding of animals

    Leon, H. A.; Connolly, J. P.; Hitchman, M. J.; Humbert, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic pair-feeding system was developed which immediately dispenses same amount of food to control animal as has been consumed by experimental animal that has free access to food. System consists of: master feeding system; slave feeding station; and control mechanism. Technique performs real time pair-feeding without attendant time lag.

  19. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    A. R. Alimon

    2009-01-01

    The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large ...

  20. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  1. 75 FR 9334 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Chlortetracycline

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal... CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  2. 75 FR 34361 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal... requirements in 5 U.S.C. 801-808. List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0...

  3. Feeding and welfare of domestic animals: A Darwinistic framework

    Koene, P.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter explores the natural feeding behaviour, domestic feeding, behavioural problems related to feeding in captivity and welfare of domestic animals, particularly cattle, horse and chicken. The solutions for feeding problems and poor welfare are discussed. The concept of environment of evolut

  4. Bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding

    In order to evaluate the growth, the absorption and the dynamics of phosphorus and calcium phosphates of high fluorine content , triple superphosphates (TSP) and two sedimentary phosphates Riecito (RIO) and Monte Fresco (MONTE) vs dicalcium phosphate (DICAL), they were carried out two experiments with sheep. In the first one, with a duration of 360 days, the group (six animals) consumed DICAL, and at the 330 day of feeding it was divided in two groups, one under the same treatment and to the other one it was added 500 ppm of fluorine like NaF (DICAL+F). In this experiment the growth was evaluated, and at the end of the period, it was determined the phosphorus and calcium absorption and kinetics, the retention of fluorine in different sources, as well as the bony mineralization. In the second experiment, with a duration of 30 days, the phosphorus absorption and kinetics, as and the retention of fluorine in the sources under study, were determined. In both experiments, for the dynamic studies it was used the isotopic dilution technique, by means of the dosage, through jugular injection, of 200 uCi 32P and, for via oral, 200 uCi 45Ca. The weight gained (g / animal /day ) was 75, 87, 56 and 53 for DICAL, RIO, MONTE and TSP, respectively, with significant differences (P'0.05) in favor of DICAL and RIO. The true absorption of phosphorus (%), for the fed animals during 30 and 360 days, respectively, was 73 and 76 for DICAL, 40 and 57 for RIO, 36 and 57 for MONTE and, 79 and 71 for TSP, being significantly higher (P'0.05), for both periods, the values of DICAL and TSP. The evaluation of 12 months of absorption of RIVER and MONTE was higher than during the period of 30 days. The absorption of calcium at the 362 days was higher for DICAL and RIO in relation to MONTE and TSP. The addition of fluorine during 30 days didn't affect the calcium and phosphorus absorption. The run time to reach the maximum level of specific activity of calcium in blood was higher for RIO, MONTE and

  5. 78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms

    2013-07-16

    ....young@fda.hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of March 15, 1967, (32 FR 4058... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 500 Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella... Administration (FDA or Agency) is revoking an advisory opinion on animal feeds contaminated with...

  6. 75 FR 54019 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feed; Ractopamine

    2010-09-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feed... NADAs provide for administering a Type C medicated feed containing ractopamine hydrochloride as a top dress on Type C medicated feeds containing monensin, USP, or monensin, USP, and tylosin phosphate...

  7. Presence and content of kynurenic acid in animal feed.

    Turski, M P; Zgrajka, W; Siwicki, A K; Paluszkiewicz, P

    2015-02-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was found to be an antagonist of iontropic glutamate receptors and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, it was documented that KYNA is an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptors which are mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also found that KYNA is present in the gastrointestinal tract and that its concentration gradually increases along it. The origin of KYNA in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. Both might be synthesized from tryptophan in it or absorbed from food and other dietary products. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of KYNA in animal feed. The results indicate that the highest concentration of KYNA was found in animal feeds intended for livestock. The lower amount of KYNA was detected in animal feeds for fish. Interestingly, the lowest amount of KYNA was found in dog and cat feeds. Furthermore, an analysis of KYNA content in animal food ingredients was conducted. The concentration of KYNA found in one of the ingredients – rapeseed meal – was several times higher in comparison to animal feeds studied. The content of KYNA in the remaining feed ingredients tested was significantly lower. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in animal feeds. There is a need for further detailed analysis leading to establishing a set of guidelines for animal feeding. PMID:25040314

  8. Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement

    Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement. Radiation treatment for disinfection of manure have been investigated on manure collected during the dry and rainy seasons. Total bacterial counts of non-irradiated dewatered manure with water content of around 13.44% were found to be 1.0x106 up to 1.4x108 per g during the dry season, and 2.0x105 up to 1.7x107 per g during the rainy season, while coliforms, enterobecteriacease, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pseudomonas were found to be 1.0x106 up to 1.4x108 per g, 1.0x104 up to 1.2x106 per g, 4.0x105 up to 2.2x107 per g, 1.8x103 per g, and 1.0x102 up to 5.4x103 per g, respectively. About 30% of the total coliforms were found to be escherichia coli. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy eliminated salmonella from all samples observed. No. Shigella Vibrio, and parasites were detected in the samples. Total nitrogen of the dewatered manure ranged between 1.87 and 2.33%, phosphorus between 1.25 and 4.38%, and potassium between 0.66 and 2.18%. Heavy metal elements were found only in very small amounts, hence the dewatered manure could be applied as animal feed or soil conditioner. A combination of irradiation at 4 kGy and storage for 3 months was synergistically effective to eliminate coliform, E. coli, and salmonella in the dewatered manure. From nutritional point of view, the manure is still acceptable for animal feed supplement. (author). 13 refs

  9. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  10. 75 FR 5887 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Ractopamine; Monensin

    2010-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co....

  11. 76 FR 60721 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin

    2011-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy Animal Health,...

  12. 76 FR 76894 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tilmicosin

    2011-12-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, a division of Eli Lilly & Co. The...

  13. 77 FR 24138 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin

    2012-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Novartis Animal Health US, Inc. The supplemental NADA provides...

  14. 77 FR 4228 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    2012-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co. The...

  15. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  16. Occurence and trend analysis of organochlorine in animal feed

    Adamse, P.; Peters, R.J.B.; Egmond, van H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2014-01-01

    In this report historical data are used to give insight into the trends in levels of organochlorine compounds in compound feeds and feeding materials for animals in the Netherlands. The main focus is on pesticides, but non-dioxin-like PCBs have been studied as well. The latter will be included in th

  17. Analysis of Tetracyclines in Medicated Feed for Food Animal Production by HPLC-MS/MS

    Rosa Elvira Gavilán; Carolina Nebot; Jose Manuel Miranda; Yolanda Martín-Gómez; Beatriz Vázquez-Belda; Carlos Manuel Franco; Alberto Cepeda

    2015-01-01

    The use of medicated feed is a common practice in animal food production to improve animal health. Tetracyclines and β-Lactams are the groups that are most frequently added to this type of feed. The measurement of the concentration of the analytes in these types of samples is sometimes due to the matrix characteristic, and manufacturers are demanding fast, precise and reproducible methods. A rapid confirmatory method based on a simple extraction protocol using acidified methanol and followed ...

  18. 75 FR 20917 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine

    2010-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Div....

  19. 77 FR 22667 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect the withdrawal of approval of those parts of a new animal drug application (NADA) for a tiamulin Type A medicated article that pertain to...

  20. 76 FR 65109 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin

    2011-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy...

  1. 78 FR 76059 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins

    2013-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to remove dairy replacement...-8108, email: amey.adams@fda.hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA has noticed that the animal...

  2. 77 FR 58021 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    2012-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520 and 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to remove a... that the animal drug regulations for certain monensin free-choice Type C medicated feeds for...

  3. A study on radiation sterilization of SPF animal feed

    SPF animal feed could be infected with various microorganisms in the crushing or granulating process. Fumigation with chemicals is generally employed for sterilization of feeds, but owing to low permeability of the chemicals, this sterilization method is not very good, and there may be residual chemicals in the feed. Research results of sterilization by radiation show that irradiation by 60Co gamma rays will reduce infections for SPF animals. 8 kGy can kill microorganisms in the feed with satisfactory efficiency. After the irradiation treatment with different doses, the changes of nutrient components in the feeds, such as crude fats, coarse fibres, calcium, phosphorus, salts and amino acids, were not found to change in our tests. (author)

  4. Salmonellae in foods and animal feeding stuffs

    After the problem of Salmonella infections in foods and feeding stuffs is emphasized, an account is given of the current ways of manufacturing bone meal, meat meal, blood meal, fish meal, fish flour, egg products and coconut. The effectiveness in eliminating salmonellae and the chance and possible sources of recontamination are described for each production method. Besides heat treatment, fumigation by ethylene oxide and irradiation with gamma rays are considered. The bacteriological tests required to establish the effectiveness of treatment are also discussed, as well as the effect of the treatment on the nutritive value of the product. (author). 50 refs, 4 tabs

  5. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxin fumonisin B1 and B2 in animal feeds in Korea.

    Seo, Dong-Geun; Phat, Chanvorleak; Kim, Dong-Ho; Lee, Chan

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the occurrence and levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) in animal feeds distributed in South Korea in 2011. The contamination levels of FB1 and FB2 were investigated in 150 samples of compound feeds and in 40 samples of feed ingredients. The contamination rate of feed ingredients with FB1 and FB2 was 50 and 40%, respectively. FB2 was only found in samples contaminated with FB1. Of the compound feeds, 85% were contaminated by FB1 and 47% were contaminated by FB2. The highest contamination rate of FBs was observed in compound feeds for cattle (FB1: 100%; FB2: 80%), followed by poultry feed (FB1: 78%; FB2: 40%) and swine feed (FB1: 76%; FB2: 22%). The highest contamination level (14,600 ng/g) for FB1 were found in poultry broiler feed (early feeding period) samples, which had 82% contamination rate (9/11), and the highest level of FB2 (2,280 ng/g) was found in feed for fatting calves,which had a contamination rate of 100%. PMID:23807416

  6. Animal feed controls implemented in Japan for the eradication of bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available After the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in Japan in September 2001, the Japanese government introduced a series of animal feed control measures to reduce the risk of the spread of the disease from a feed source. To ensure the proper implementation of these measures, the Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Centre conducted audit inspections of feed importers, producers, distributors and end-users. The audit inspections include on-site inspection of the feed plants, warehouses, farms and other related premises and the laboratory analysis of feed samples taken from these premises to check for the presence of animal protein. The results of inspections conducted in recent years indicate good compliance with the feed control measures.

  7. 21 CFR 510.7 - Consignees of new animal drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed.

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacture of animal feed. 510.7 Section 510.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS General Provisions § 510.7 Consignees of new animal drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed. (a) A new...

  8. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.305 Maintenance...

  9. Research and Development on Animal Feed in Malaysia

    M Wan Zahari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the non-ruminant sector to self–sufficiency in meat and eggs has been matched by massive importation of feed. Thus, a major thrust to reduce the burden of feed imports is to increase the use of indigenous feed resources and intensify research to look for alternatives and substitutes. Over the past 3 decades, local researchers have reported on the availability nutritive content, optimal inclusion levels and treatment methods to enhance nutrient value of many locally available feed ingredients in practical poultry rations. The list includes evaluation and utilization of feed rice, palm kernel cake (PKC, broken rice, bran, sorghum, cassava, sago, fishmeal and commercial grain corn production; but the goal of import substitution and self- sufficiency is still unfulfilled. Although PKC, feed rice, local maize and specialty fats has potential to be viable energy feed sources and local fish meal is a promising protein feed source, more large scale Research and Development (R & D is needed. In the ruminant sub-sector, emphasis is towards maximizing use of locally available agro-industrial byproducts and crop residues for the production of cost-effective feeds. The utilization of local feed resources is highly dependent on the supply of agro- industrial byproducts or crop residues from the oil palm and rice industries. In order to encourage a sustainable ruminant industry in Malaysia, local feed production has to be maximized and strengthened. Current emphasis is towards the development of practical and low-cost feeds for various classes of livestock species, particularly by utilizing local forages, tree fodders, crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts. This paper highlights the research and development on animal feed in Malaysia over the last three decades and discusses various aspects of livestock feeding.

  10. Evaluation of feed intake by grazing animals

    After a nuclear incident, grazing animals will be exposed to both direct and indirect contamination, the latter in proportion to the quantity of herbage eaten and its degree of contamination. The evaluation of food intake is thus important in deciding the level of contamination. After a brief survey of intake control mechanisms and intake prediction models, the various methods for the measurement or estimation of herbage intake are presented, and their suitability for use in mediterranean and alpine countries discussed, together with some of the expected errors and problems associated with their use. (author)

  11. An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture.

    Yaakob, Zahira; Ali, Ehsan; Zainal, Afifi; Mohamad, Masita; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2014-12-01

    Despite being more popular for biofuel, microalgae have gained a lot of attention as a source of biomolecules and biomass for feed purposes. Algae farming can be established using land as well as sea and strategies can be designed in order to gain the products of specific interest in the optimal way. A general overview of the contributions of Algae to meet the requirements of nutrients in animal/aquaculture feed is presented in this study. In addition to its applications in animal/aquaculture feed, algae can produce a number of biomolecules including astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, phycobiliprotein, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), beta-1,3-glucan, and pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds which have been reviewed with respect to their commercial importance and current status. The review is further extended to highlight the adequate utilization of value added products in the feeds for livestock, poultry and aquaculture (with emphasis in shrimp farming). PMID:25984489

  12. 76 FR 79064 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    2011-12-21

    ... requirements. (For selenium see 21 CFR 573.920; for EDDI see 51 FR 11483 (April 3, 1986).) * * * * * Dated... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new...

  13. Mechanism of antimicrobial growth promoters used in animal feed.

    Corpet, Denis E

    2000-01-01

    Most feeds for broilers, pigs and veal calves, but 1/3 of feeds for beef cattle, are supplemented with an antimicrobial growth promoter. A European regulation list allows antimicrobial growth promoter, concentrations, animal species, and withdrawal periods (often null). Presently, avilamycin, flavomycin, lasalocid, monensin, and salinomycin are allowed. Avoparcin, bacitracin, carbadox, olaquindox, spiramycin, tylosin, and virginiamycin use was suspended by EU in 1997 and 98. Permitted doses a...

  14. High Incidence of Fusarium verticillioides in Animal and Poultry Feed Mixtures Produced in Karnataka, India

    Regina Sharmila Dass

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the species incidence of genus Fusarium in animal and poultry feed mixtures and to know the extent of potential risk of feed contamination by Fusarium mycotoxins. One hundred and seven different animal feed samples and (71 poultry-feed mixtures were collected from Karnataka (India during April 2004 to April 2005. All samples were analyzed for the incidence of Fusarium species on PDA, DCPA and MGA 2.5 media. A total frequency of the Fusarium species isolated was determined to be 50% and their counts ranged from 9.5x101 to 4.4x105 CFU g-1 of poultry feed and 5.728x101 to 2.088x105 CFU g-1 of animal feed sample. Of the total number of Fusarium isolates (330 from animal and poultry feedstuffs, F. verticillioides recorded 89.09%, followed by F. pallidoroseum (6.66%, F. oxysporum (3.63% and F. solani (0.6%. The results of this study showed a high incidence of F. verticillioides in poultry feed mixtures while animal feeds especially cotton seeds, fine wheat bran and maize pellets showed high incidence of F. verticillioides. Bengal gram husk, coarse horse gram powder, groundnut seed cake, sunflower seed cake and wheat flakes showed very low incidence of F. verticillioides. The study not only reveals a high incidence of the potentially toxigenic F. verticillioides, in the local feeds of Karnataka region but also represents the possibility of occurrence of fusarial mycotoxins, especially fumonisins.

  15. 21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. 589... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED Listing of Specific Substances Prohibited From Use in Animal Food or Feed §...

  16. Radionuclides in Animal Feed (Poultry) 'Assessment of Radiation Dose'

    In this work a comprehensive study has been carried out for the determination of presents evaluation of effective dose due to consumption of chicken fed by fodders collected from four major Sudanese companies (Hader, Koudjs, Wifi and Preconex SPN.V). The concentrations of radionuclides in the thirty two (32) feed samples have been determined by gamma spectrometry using NaI(Tl) detector. Radionuclides observed were: Pb-212 (daughter of Th-238), Pb-214, Bi-214 (daughters of U-238), Cs-137 and K-40 concentration. In additives the activity concentration of these radionuclides has found in the following ranges: 0.81 - 22.06 Bq/kg, 0.59 - 32.07 Bq/kg, 0.64 - 15.77 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 2.02 Bq/kg and 33.58 - 204.61 Bq/kg respectively. In feed concentrates activity concentration ranges has: 0.73 - 13.79 Bq/kg, 0.33 - 20.04 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 1.67 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 0.28 Bq/kg, 26.86 - 99.21 Bq/kg respectively. In fodders the activity concentration ranges has: 1.25 - 1.52 Bq/kg, 0.12 - 1.24 Bq/kg, 0.51 - 1.25 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 0.61 Bq/kg, 11.94 - 127.88 Bq/kg respectively. The 'animal product' activity concentration ranges has: 0.31 - 1.65 Bq/kg, 0.22 - 1.11 Bq/kg, 0.26 - 1.07 Bq/kg, 0.03 - 0.51 Bq/kg, 14.07 - 79.93 Bq/kg respectively. High concentrations (233.3 Bq/Kg) has typically found in toxo(additive); the lowest concentration (27.9 Bq/Kg ) has found in concentrate for layers and animal product. The total average effective dose due to the different feed-stuff has estimated and found to be 5.89x10-6±3.11x10-6mSv/y and 13.9 x 10-7 ± 7.24 x 10-7mSv/y for age categories 7-12 y and >17 y respectively. If compared with the limits - Radioactivity Levels Permitted in foodstuffs Part 1 the Saudi Standards, Metrology and quality (300 Bq/Kg) and ICRP,FAO organization (5 mSv/y) - these values are very low. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  17. Determination of zearalenone in cereal grains, animal feed, and feed ingredients using immunoaffinity column chromatography and liquid chromatography: interlaboratory study.

    Campbell, Harold M; Armstrong, J Fred

    2007-01-01

    A method using immunoaffinity column chromatography (IAC) and liquid chromatography (LC) for determination of zearalenone in cereal grains, animal feed, and feed ingredients was collaboratively studied. The test portion is extracted by shaking with acetonitrile-water (90 + 10, v/v) and sodium chloride. The extract is diluted and applied to an immunoaffinity column, the column is washed with water or phosphate-buffered saline or methanol-water (30 + 70, v/v), and zearalenone is eluted with methanol. The eluate is evaporated, the residue is dissolved in mobile phase and analyzed by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. The presence of zearalenone can be confirmed using an alternate excitation wavelength or diode array detection. Twenty samples were sent to 13 collaborators (8 in Europe, 2 in the United States, one in Japan, one in Uruguay, and one in Canada). Eighteen samples of naturally contaminated corn, barley, wheat, dried distillers grains, swine feed, and dairy feed were analyzed as blind duplicates, along with blank corn and wheat samples. The analyses were done in 2 sample sets with inclusion of a spiked wheat control sample (0.1 mg/kg) in each set. Spiked samples recoveries were 89-116%, and for the 18 naturally contaminated samples, RSDr values (within-laboratory repeatability) ranged from 6.67 to 12.1%, RSDR values (among-laboratory reproducibility) ranged from 12.5 to 19.7%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.61 to 0.90. PMID:18193738

  18. 77 FR 14272 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2011,...

  19. 75 FR 15610 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2009,...

  20. Livestock feed for domestic animals in and around Rokkasho, Aomori

    We collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides that will be released from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, which is now under construction in Rokkasho Village. The consumption rate of livestock feed eaten by domestic animals is an important factor for the estimation of radioactive material transfer to the animals. We surveyed the amount of livestock feed in and around Rokkasho Village by means of questionnaires to stockbreeding farmers. The questionnaires were distributed to 90 farmers who kept one of five kinds of domestic animals or poultry; milking cattle, beef cattle, hogs, broilers and laying hens. Several farming companies were also included as subjects. Recovery of the questionnaires was 59%. The hogs, broilers and laying hens were fed compound feeds consisting of imported materials. The feed for milking cattle and beef cattle consisted of grass, field corn and other concentrates. The consumption rates of grass and field corn for dairy cattle were 22.5 kg-fresh d-1 and 8.3 kg-fresh d-1, respectively. The grass and field corn consumption rate for beef cattle were 2.8 kg-fresh d-1 and 0.3 kg-fresh d-1, respectively. All of these rates were lower than those used for dose assessment of the reprocessing plant. (author)

  1. 21 CFR 589.1 - Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed.

    2010-04-01

    ... feed. 589.1 Section 589.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED General Provisions § 589.1 Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed. (a)...

  2. High Incidence of Fusarium verticillioides in Animal and Poultry Feed Mixtures Produced in Karnataka, India

    Regina Sharmila Dass; Sreenivasa, M. Y.; G. R. Janardhana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the species incidence of genus Fusarium in animal and poultry feed mixtures and to know the extent of potential risk of feed contamination by Fusarium mycotoxins. One hundred and seven different animal feed samples and (71) poultry-feed mixtures were collected from Karnataka (India) during April 2004 to April 2005. All samples were analyzed for the incidence of Fusarium species on PDA, DCPA and MGA 2.5 media. A total frequency of the Fusarium species ...

  3. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals

    Mariana Vanesa Greco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb. Forty-four out of 49 samples (90% were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb and OTA (median 5 ppb. Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb, 42 samples (86% with ZEA (median 50 ppb, and 38 samples (78% with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb. Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety.

  4. Rehearsal: Sample Canister in Cleanroom (Animation)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Rehearsal: Sample Canister in Cleanroom animation This movie shows rehearsal of the initial processing of the sample return capsule when it is taken to a temporary cleanroom at Utah's Test and Training Range.

  5. Warning: feeding animals hydrophilic fiber sources in dry diets.

    Struthers, B J

    1986-01-01

    Feeding animals large quantities of dry hydrophilic fiber sources, such as psyllium husk or guar gum, may lead to intestinal obstruction or to other mechanical effects unrelated to the normal function of these materials in human diets. Such fiber sources should be hydrated prior to feeding, rather than being incorporated into dry diets as is. The water-holding capacity of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, for example, is greater than or equal to 40 g/g, compared to 2-3 g/g of wheat bran. Consumption of the psyllium product dry would be much more likely to produce intestinal dehydration than would consumption of dry bran. Because of possible untoward effects of high levels of these materials, it may also be more appropriate to feed such fiber sources in quantities approximating that of their potential human dietary consumption, rather than very high quantities that would be unlikely to be attained in human diets. PMID:3003290

  6. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S;

    2006-01-01

    Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the...... effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross...... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but...

  7. 21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella... Decisions § 500.35 Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. (a) Investigations by the Food..., and other animal byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with...

  8. Rapid Ammonia Deposition Measured Near Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    Stanton, L. G.; Pan, D.; Sun, K.; Golston, L.; Tao, L.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit massive amounts of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere. Current measurements of NH3 are generally conducted far away from the sources (satellites, airplanes, etc.). There is insufficient knowledge about the dry deposition rate of NH3 near the sources, which might contribute to the large discrepancies between measured concentrations at CAFOs and those from models. During the 2014 NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign, we designed a series of tests to measure the deposition rate of NH3 by utilizing a suite of sensors, including a LICOR LI-7700 methane sensor and Princeton University's custom open path NH3 sensor, which was mounted on top of a small SUV. Our mobile sampling technique enables us to follow feedlot emission plumes to see how ambient NH3 concentration decays as gases moves away from the CAFO. The mobile platform is used to perform upwind and downwind sampling to characterize the NH3 emission source. We tracked the change of the enhancement of NH3 concentration relative to the enhancement of CH4 concentration (ΔNH3:ΔCH4), while transecting the plume of individual cattle feedlots. Measured data shows that the high concentration of NH3 seen at the source decreases quickly as one moves further downwind from it. A time constant of approximately ten minutes has been calculated from the decay of the ΔNH3:ΔCH4 ratios while moving away from the sources. We also will compare our measurements with those of NASA's P-3B aerosol measurements to show that the majority must be lost to dry deposition. This rapid deposition suggests that large amounts of NH3 are being deposited in very close proximity to these CAFOs, which is consistent with previous findings of locally high soil pH near NH3 sources. Our results will be used to better characterize nitrogen deposition from cattle feedlots and estimate NH3 lifetime.

  9. Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia

    Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Elias Nunes Martins; Tadeu Orlandi Xavier; Mariana Michelato; Themis Sakaguti Graciano

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one....

  10. Investment Appraisal of an Animal Feed Plant in South Africa

    Glenn Jenkins; ANDREY KLEVCHUK

    2002-01-01

    Limpopo Province of South Africa has been successful in recent years in attracting domestic and foreign investors. One of the priority sectors favored by the provincial development strategy is agriculture, and the proposed animal feed plant is a commercial project falling under the umbrella of those projects encouraged by the Provincial Government. At the same time, this project is owned and financed by a foreign investor, hence, making it eligible for the direct foreign investment (FDI) supp...

  11. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy's extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative

  12. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy's extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative sampling

  13. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  14. Nitrite in feed: from animal health to human health.

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Cottrill, Bruce; van Peteghem, Carlos; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  15. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  16. Microbiological method for assaying lincomycin in animal feed: collaborative study.

    Neff, A W; Thomas, R W

    1978-09-01

    A microbiological assay for determining lincomycin in swine feed, supplement, and a vitamin-mineral premix was studied collaboratively in 16 laboratories. The design of the study involved a complete feed, feed supplement, and a vitamin-mineral premix covering a range of fortification from 20 to 80 g/ton and 80 to 2600 g/ton. Two methods of sample preparation were used depending on the concentration of lincomycin in the sample. Statistical evaluation of the results from the 2 methods indicated that 10 and 11 collaborators, respectively, had mean recoveries which were not significantly different from one another. Ten laboratories obtained a mean recovery of 112.2% (range 102.3--123.5%) for the lower level, and 11 laboratories obtained a mean recovery of 104.4% (range 100.0--107.7%) for the higher level. The method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:363677

  17. Treatment of Animal Feeds with Ionizing Radiation: VI. Technological and Economic Feasibility of Poultry Feed Radicidation

    Salmonella contamination of farm animals in Israel has increased significantly, particularly on poultry farms, and is causing severe losses and a high incidence of infected poultry products. EEC regulations regarding poultry meat require rejection of batches containing salmonella microorganisms. Feed flour is considered to be one of the principal sources of contamination and effective treatment of the feed is one of the most important steps in reducing flock contamination. The Israel authorities have passed a new regulation requiring breeders to buy only salmonella-free poultry feed. Salmonella-free poultry feed can be produced by pelletization or by treatment with ionizing radiation, using gamma or electron sources. From the view point of radicidation both types of radiation are equally effective. Both types of sources are suited to on-line treatment of products in feed mills, but each has its advantages and disadvantages in practice. Whereas gamma irradiation facilities will allow thick layers of product, they require considerable shielding and nearly continuous operation to be economically justifiable. The low energy electron accelerators allow treatment of flour only (pellets cannot be treated), but are easily adaptable to the fluctuating flow of products in a feed mill, at relatively low treatment cost. Breeders, contrary to broilers, require feed flour and not pellets. Hence electron irradiation would tend to yield a product more in compliance with the new regulation than pelletization, which requires crushing and which may leave Salmonella in the feed. The economic feasibility of an electron accelerator-based radicidation process in an existing feed mill is examined. (author)

  18. Treatment of animal feeds with ionizing radiation. VI. Technological and economic feasibility of poultry feed radicidation

    Salmonella contamination of farm animals in Israel has increased significantly, particularly on poultry farms, and is causing severe losses and a high incidence of infected poultry products. EEC regulations regarding poultry meat require rejection of batches containing salmonella microorganisms. Feed flour is considered to be one of the principal sources of contamination and effective treatment of the feed is one of the most important steps in reducing flock contamination. The Israel authorities have passed a new regulation requiring breeders to buy only salmonella-free poultry feed. Salmonella-free poultry feed can be produced by pelletization or by treatment with ionizing radiation, using gamma or electron sources. From the view point of radicidation both types of radiation are equally effective. Both types of sources are suited to on-line treatment of products in feed mills, but each has its advantages and disadvantages in practice. Whereas gamma irradiation facilities will allow thick layers of product, they require considerable shielding and nearly continuous operation to be economically justifiable. The low energy electron accelerators allow treatment of flour only (pellets cannot be treated), but are easily adaptable to the fluctuating flow of products in a feed mill, at relatively low treatment cost. Breeders, contrary to broilers, require feed flour and not pellets. Hence electron irradiation would tend to yield a product more in compliance with the new regulation than pelletization, which requires crushing and which may leave Salmonella in the feed. The economic feasibility of an electron accelerator-based radicidation process in an existing feed mill is examined. (author)

  19. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted;

    2014-01-01

    and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were...... of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety......With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected...

  20. Control tools to detect processed animal proteins in feed and in animal by-products: specificity and challenges

    Woodgate SL.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper reviews the current situation with regard to a total feed ban on the use of processed animal proteins in feed for meat producing animals within the EU. The scientific aspects surrounding the development of control tools are discussed. In particular, focus is given to methods for marking those materials prohibited in animal feeds and for the determination of species specificity in those proteins that are potentially allowed in animal feeds. The overall objective is that the advancements in science are utilized to achieve a partial relaxation of the total feed ban in the near future.

  1. TEGA Sample Delivery and Analysis (Animation)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows NASA's Phoenix Lander's Robotic Arm scoop delivering a sample to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and how samples are analyzed within the instrument. TEGA has eight tiny ovens for measuring constituents in the atmosphere and in the soil, including possible organic constituents and the melting point of ice. The scoop drops soil onto a fine mesh screen between TEGA's open doors. Some soil passes through the screen, which vibrates, into the throat of a funnel, where a spinning device called the 'whirligig' aids delivery into one half of a tiny oven. The soil sample is represented here by the white chip. The filled oven half then rotates and mates with the other oven half, closing the complete oven so sample heating can begin. The purple coil in this animation is the spring that moves the oven halves together. Heating occurs at successively higher temperatures over several days. The energy required to heat the sample is measured to discover its thermal properties. Gases driven off during sample heating pass through tubing to the mass spectrometer for analysis. Note that the exterior doors above the screen never close after sample delivery. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Animation of TEGA Sample Delivery and Analysis

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows NASA's Phoenix Lander's Robotic Arm scoop delivering a sample to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and how samples are analyzed within the instrument. TEGA has eight tiny ovens for measuring constituents in the atmosphere and in the soil, including possible organic constituents and the melting point of ice. The scoop drops soil onto a fine mesh screen between TEGA's open doors. Some soil passes through the screen, which vibrates, into the throat of a funnel, where a spinning device called the 'whirligig' aids delivery into one half of a tiny oven. The soil sample is represented here by the white chip. The filled oven half then rotates and mates with the other oven half, closing the complete oven so sample heating can begin. The purple coil in this animation is the spring that moves the oven halves together. Heating occurs at successively higher temperatures over several days. The energy required to heat the sample is measured to discover its thermal properties. Gases driven off during sample heating pass through tubing to the mass spectrometer for analysis. Note that the exterior doors above the screen never close after sample delivery. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

    2008-04-01

    A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

  4. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    M. Kenis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica (Diptera Muscidae and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (Diptera Stratiomyiidae, which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small production units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability

  5. Gamma radiation in the control of insects in animal feed

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal feeds, spices and dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of this study was to use gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of commercial feeds used for animals of small size. In the experiment, packages measuring 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate with 4 types of trademarks were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, infested with 10 insects for each package with the following species: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae. After the irradiation, all the packages were maintained at acclimatized room with 27 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The number of insects and holes in all packages were assessed after 60 days. The results showed that the dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to control all the species of insects in the tested feeds. (author)

  6. Gamma radiation in the control of insects in animal feed

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal feeds, spices and dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of this study was to use gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of commercial feeds used for animals of small size. In the experiment, packages measuring 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate with 4 types of trademarks were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, infested with 10 insects for each package with the following species: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae. After the irradiation, all the packages were maintained at acclimatized room with 27 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The number of insects and holes in all packages were assessed after 60 days. The results showed that the dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to control all the species of insects in the tested feeds. (author)

  7. 78 FR 41401 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Draft Animal Feed...

    2013-07-10

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards; Availability AGENCY: Food and... associated with the draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards (AFRPS). The draft feed standards are... the draft feed standards to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Office of Regulatory...

  8. 40 CFR 406.70 - Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... animal feed subcategory. 406.70 Section 406.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Animal Feed Subcategory § 406.70 Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug Administration has determined...

  10. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    2010-07-19

    ... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the safe use of... Part 573 Animal feeds, Food additives. 0 Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  11. Practical experiences with irradiation of laboratory animals' feed

    The increasing need for well-defined, standardized experimental animals for research has led to the development of many new methods of keeping the animals free from pathogenic microorganisms. In this connection the problem of contaminated food has taken on ever greater significance. The methods most commonly used today, namely chemical treatment and heat treatment of the fodder, have many disadvantages and interest in the use of radiation sterilization has accordingly increased. The author discusses the various aspects of this method in relation to SPF animals and reports on the three years' experience of the Research Institute for Experimental Animal Breeding (University of Vienna) in Himberg with the use of exclusively radiation-treated diets in the rearing of rats and mice. The ease of handling irradiated fodder, the reliability of the method from the microbiological point of view and the excellent breeding results already obtained make this process - despite its somewhat higher cost - the best possible method of pasteurizing the feed of experimental animals. (author)

  12. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    Kenis, M.; Koné, N.; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; E. Devic; G.K.D. Koko; V.A. Clottey; S. Nacambo; G.A. Mensah

    2014-01-01

    In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practi...

  13. Fermented empty fruit bunch (FEFB) as feed for ruminant animal

    Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5 - 1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

  14. Screening of mycotoxins in animal feed from the region of Vojvodina

    Kokić Bojana M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of screening of mycotoxins in animal feed originating from the region of Vojvodina. Permanent screening is needed on all levels of production and storage, as well as the use of known methods to reduce mould contamination or toxin content in feedstuffs and feed. A total of 56 representative samples were collected from feed companies from the region of Vojvodina. Samples were collected during February 2009. The collected samples included 41 samples of feedstuffs (soybean, soybean meal, soybean grits, soybean cake, maize, sunflower meal, barley, wheat feed flour, rapeseed meal, dehydrated sugar beet pulps, alfalfa meal, yeast, dried whey, fish meal, meat-bone meal and 15 samples of complete feedingstuffs. The amounts of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol were determined. Screening method for the analysis was done using Neogen Veratox® testing kits. The test itself is a competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA. Mycotoxins were present in 71.4% of the samples, but the values determined were below the maximum allowed limits for both Serbian and EC reference values. Zearalenone was found with the highest incidence (57.1% of samples, followed by ochratoxin A (37.5%, fumonisin (33.9%, deoxynivalenol (14.3% and aflatoxins (3.6%.

  15. 21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.

    2010-04-01

    ... the feed of animals. 558.15 Section 558.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE... similar products except the nitrofuran drugs not the subject of an approved new animal drug...

  16. Trade in feed grains, animals, and animal products: current trends, future prospects, and main issues

    Guyomard, Herve; Manceron, Stéphane; Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The food transition process is now occurring much more quickly in developing countries than in developed nations, where it took over more than a century to achieve it. Two essential consequences of this process are a switch in the domestic utilization of cereals from human consumption to feeding of livestock and a much greater growth rate of meat and milk production today in developing countries than in developed nations. However, many developing countries continue to consume more animal...

  17. The Use of Feeding Behaviour in the Assessment of Animal Welfare

    Nielsen, Birte; Jong, Ingrid; Devries, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Feeding behaviour is an important aspect of animal production, as it constitutes the link between the feed provided and that which is consumed. Measures of feeding behaviour can be used as a tool with which to gauge how an animal perceives the diet offered, as well as its motivation to feed, i.e. its level of hunger. The feed intake of an animal may also depend on the presentation of the food, the previous experience of the animal with a given food, and to what extent other competing motivati...

  18. 78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    2013-07-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals do not correctly describe... Part 573 Animal feeds, Food additives. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  19. The fuzzy optimization on irradiation sterilization dose of SPF animal feed

    The key technique of irradiation SPF animal feed with 60Co γ-rays was authentication and optimization irradiation dose. Having studied the change of irradiation SPF feed on nutrient content and microorganism and sensory quality, the method of fuzzy comprehensive quality evaluation with radiation processing was put forward and the optimization radiation sterilization dose of SPF test animal feed was established

  20. The transfer of radionuclides from soil to animal feed

    Non volatile radioactive compounds which become released into the atmosphere will finally accumulate in the top layer of soils. The soil-to-plant transfer is therefore a key process for the contamination of food and animal feed. The spread of the uptake factors is large; even so large that a worst case approach for estimating the contamination may lead to very unrealistic conclusions. The Int. Union of Radioecologists (IUR) has established a working group to approach this problem. By means of a joint programme of many institutions sufficient transfer data are being collected to allow a sophisticated statistical evaluation resulting in predictions of transfer factor values and confidence levels. Possible counter measures against the uptake of radionuclides are discussed. (author)

  1. Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds

    A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author)

  2. 2nd animal experiment to determine radioactivity in milk and meat (winter feed)

    High levels of the cesium isotopes 137 and 134, which were released by the Chernobyl reactor accident, are above all present in southern Germany in feeds for the winter of 1986/87. There are two possible pathways of how the fodder was contaminated: by deposition of radioactive material on the exposed parts of the plant and by uptake of radioactive material from the soil via the roots. The following questions were to be elucidated by the experiment: 1. Appraisal of the probable radioactive contamination of milk and meat, given the exclusive use of stored fodder from the first growth; 2. Determination of transfer factors and transfer rates for milk and meat; 3. Determination of the variation range for animal reactions to the use of contaminated fodder; 4. Drawing up of recommendations for feeding. For this purpose, eight cows were divided into two groups. One group fed on hay from the first growth as a sole basic feed, the other on silage fodder consisting of a mixture of hay and grass from the first growth (mixing ratio 40 to 60). The animals were fed individually, the feed being offered twice a day. The following parameters were recorded: quantity of milk (daily in kilogrammes), quantity of cesium in milk (every second day, Bq/kilogramme), silage grass fodder (10 samples, Bq/kilogramme), hay (10 samples and one control each week during the experiment, Bq/kilogramme), meat (from one cow out of each group, Bq/kilogramme). (orig./MG)

  3. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products. PMID:27109117

  4. An evaluation of total starch and starch gelatinization methodologies in pelleted animal feed.

    Zhu, L; Jones, C; Guo, Q; Lewis, L; Stark, C R; Alavi, S

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of total starch content (TS) or degree of starch gelatinization (DG) in animal feed is always challenging because of the potential interference from other ingredients. In this study, the differences in TS or DG measurement in pelleted swine feed due to variations in analytical methodology were quantified. Pelleted swine feed was used to create 6 different diets manufactured with various processing conditions in a 2 × 3 factorial design (2 conditioning temperatures, 77 or 88°C, and 3 conditioning retention times, 15, 30, or 60 s). Samples at each processing stage (cold mash, hot mash, hot pelletized feed, and final cooled pelletized feed) were collected for each of the 6 treatments and analyzed for TS and DG. Two different methodologies were evaluated for TS determination (the AOAC International method 996.11 vs. the modified glucoamylase method) and DG determination (the modified glucoamylase method vs. differential scanning calorimetry [DSC]). For TS determination, the AOAC International method 996.11 measured lower TS values in cold pellets compared with the modified glucoamylase method. The AOAC International method resulted in lower TS in cold mash than cooled pelletized feed, whereas the modified glucoamylase method showed no significant differences in TS content before or after pelleting. For DG, the modified glucoamylase method demonstrated increased DG with each processing step. Furthermore, increasing the conditioning temperature and time resulted in a greater DG when evaluated by the modified glucoamylase method. However, results demonstrated that DSC is not suitable as a quantitative tool for determining DG in multicomponent animal feeds due to interferences from nonstarch transformations, such as protein denaturation. PMID:27136009

  5. DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE FOR USE AS ANIMAL FEED

    A. E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure have become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by drying. Dried manure can be utilized as a feed for ruminants because of its high nitrogen content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drying temperature and depth, as well as the nutritional profile of dried manure and its suitability as an animal feed. Dried poultry manure contained sufficient levels of digestible energy, crude fiber, crude protein, crude fat, cobalt and iodine. Although dried poultry manure did not meet the dietary requirements for calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, sulfur or zinc it could be used as a feed stuff for ruminants after supplementation with the required nutrients. Heated air drying was most efficient at 60°C and at a depth of 3 cm. During drying poultry manure decreased in pH (8.4-6.9, protein content (43 to 39-43% and amino acid content. The greatest reductions in microbial population occurred at the highest temperature (60°C and the lowest manure depth (1cm. Reductions in the number of bacteria, mold/yeast and E. coli were 65-99, 74-99 and 99.97% respectively, Salmonellae was not detected in the dried product. Dried poultry manure was found to have a non-offensive odor. Odor intensity and offensiveness were reduced by 65 and 69% respectively during drying. Thin layer heated air drying of poultry manure between 40 and 60°C created a safe and nutritionally appropriate feed for ruminants.

  6. Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia

    Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1 = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900 of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710, reducing the crude protein content and quality.

  7. Transmission of Aflatoxins from Animal Feeds to Raw and Pasteurized Milk in Shiraz City and its Suburbs

    Ghasemi, R.; F Baho-Aldini Baigi; A Ersali

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: There are a lot of fungi in the air and our environment that grow and reproduce if the temperature and humidity are suitable. Aspergillus flavus and parasilicus are among the most important food contaminants which have a role in food poisoning. These fungi secrete poisons which contaminate animal feed as well as the milk we get from the animals fed with these foods. Methods: In this study, a total of 428 samples of raw, pasteurized milk and animal feeds were examined in differen...

  8. Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation

    In our laboratory, we had studied disinfection of animal feeds by radiation, and these results contributed to commercial use of sterilisation on laboratory animal diets. We also studied radiation-disinfection of putrefactive moulds on corn and milo. On the basis of these studies, we investigated radiation disinfection of farm animal feeds. In this paper we present the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals on the market, and effect of radiation-inactivation of microorganisms. (author)

  9. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark.

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer D; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Friis-Wandall, Søren; Simonsen, Yvonne; Broesbøl-Jensen, Birgitte; Bonnichsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants. PMID:25190554

  10. 75 FR 65565 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520, 556, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations by removing...

  11. Studying the elimination of pathogenic agents in laboratory animals feed by use of nuclear technique

    Laboratory animals are being used all around the world for different kinds of experiments in biological and medical sciences and related fields for the purposes such as prevention, control, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases in livestock, poultry, human, reproduction, breeding, etc. This is very important to keep in the breeding and reproduction environment of laboratory animals, pathogenic microorganisms as low as possible or completely remove them. The most prevailing and important way of such contamination is through feeding laboratory animals. In this research work, it is tried to use gamma radiation as a useful nuclear technique for decrease or resolve the problem. Two kinds of standard forms of diets consumed by rabbit and guinea pig in the form of small pellets and by mouse, rat and hamster in the form of big pellets (with different feed formula) and also two kinds of additive food i.e. dry milk and vitamin C have been examined. Un-irradiated samples have been used for control. Total of 226 samples were irradiated, among which optimum doses were found 25 kilo Gray for both small and big pellets, 18 kilo Gray for dry milk. Since there was not any contamination in vitamin C un-irradiated sample, irradiation was done only to observe the effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C compounds. (Author)

  12. Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary

    The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

  13. High Protein- and High Lipid-Producing Microalgae from Northern Australia as Potential Feedstock for Animal Feed and Biodiesel

    Duong, Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequ...

  14. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:23915993

  15. Distillery effluents as animal feed: the use of condensed beet molasses stillage (CBMS) in broiler feeding

    Manfredo, M.; Cavani, C.

    1980-09-01

    The trial was conducted on 176 Hubbard male broilers, allotted into four groups of 44 animals each. The control group received a CBMS-free diet and the other groups were given feed containing 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% CBMS, respectively. The trial started at 21 days of age and ended at 56 days of age. Growth rate was not affected by 2.5% CBMS. Feed efficiency was practically the same for the control group for the 2.5%-CBMS group but tended to worsen as the CBMS level increased. As far as dressing out percentages, health (checked by means of anatomo-phathological examination at slaughter), feather pattern and meat organoleptic characteristics were concerned, no differences could be detected. Water content and ash content of the carcasses tended to increase, whereas ether extract decreased as CBMS level increased. Fatty acid composition of abdominal fat pad was uniform for the four groups; in the case of myristic, oleic and linoleic acids significant differences were recorded, but these differences must be considered as biologically not relecent. Excreta water content increased as CBMS level increased.

  16. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in animal feed workers.

    Jorna, T H; Borm, P J; Valks, J; Houba, R; Wouters, E F

    1994-10-01

    In a study among 194 male workers exposed to endotoxin-containing organic dust in animal feed mills, lung function was measured by flow volume curves and impedance measurements and respiratory symptoms were recorded by means of a validated questionnaire. The aims were to detect and localize airway obstruction caused by fodder dust and endotoxin, and to relate respiratory symptoms to both types of lung function measurements. Flow volume and impedance parameters were significantly related to present exposure. All impedance parameters, of the spirometric measures only FEF25, were significantly related to cumulative dust or endotoxin exposure. The changes in impedance parameters were for overall increasing resistance at 8 Hz and decreasing reactance at 8 Hz, reflecting an increase in peripheral airflow obstruction, with increasing exposure. The changes in all lung function parameters were more strongly related to (cumulative) endotoxin exposure than to inspirable dust exposure. All impedance parameters and FEV1 showed a good correlation with complaints of chronic bronchitis and breathlessness. Impedance measurement of the respiratory system proved to be a useful tool for objectively assessing (early) airflow obstruction in workers exposed to inspirable dust and endotoxin and in localizing airflow obstruction. PMID:7924472

  17. Determination of aflatoxins B1 and M1 in animal feeds and liquid milk using thin layer chromatography

    Animal feed samples were collected from feeding troughs and analysed for levels of aflatoxins B1, a toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. When aflatoxin B1 is consumed by dairy cattle some of it is hydroxylated to form aflatoxin M1, which can appear in milk. Since aflatoxin M1, is also toxic and carcinogenic, it was determined in liquid milk. The determinations were carried out using thin-layer chromatography. Some of the feed samples were found to contain concentrations of aflatoxin B1 that were above maximum tolerated values in foods and feeds in various countries. Brewers grain and used poultry feed contained 133.4 ppb, while the barley husks had a maximum value of 27.4 ppb. The details of the experimental results and analytical methods used are presented.(author)

  18. Statistical Methods and Tools for Hanford Staged Feed Tank Sampling

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to technically evaluate the current approach to staged feed sampling of high-level waste (HLW) sludge to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for transfer from tank farms to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The current sampling and analysis approach is detailed in the document titled Initial Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria, 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014, Revision 0 (Arakali et al. 2011). The goal of this current work is to evaluate and provide recommendations to support a defensible, technical and statistical basis for the staged feed sampling approach that meets WAC data quality objectives (DQOs).

  19. Efficacy of a commercial polymerase chain reaction-based assay for detection of Salmonella spp. in animal feeds.

    Maciorowski, K G; Pillai, S D; Ricke, S C

    2000-10-01

    Salmonellosis is a cyclic problem in the food industry, to which animal feed has been contributory. Current conventional methods of Salmonella spp. detection require 96 h for detection and confirmation. With modern and just-in-time production schedules, a 96-h hold represents a significant expense in storage and decontamination. The commercially available assay, 'BAX for Screening/Salmonella' (BAX), is based on the principle of the polymerase chain reaction and may represent a significant decrease in assay time. Seven fresh feed formulations, two fresh feed ingredients, seven stored feeds and two stored feed ingredients were artificially contaminated with a primary poultry isolate of Salmonella typhimurium and analysed by conventional and BAX methodology. The results of BAX agreed with conventional plating results for 16 of 18 samples spiked with 1200 cfu 10 g(-1) of feed and 13 of 18 samples spiked with 40 cfu 10 g(-1) of feed. Indigenous Salmonella spp. were detected in five of eight samples of poultry diets by conventional methods. With BAX, Salmonella spp. could not be detected in any of the samples after only 7 h of enrichment but could be detected in two dietary samples after 13 h of enrichment and four dietary samples after 24 h of enrichment. Specific sequences of salmonella DNA that were extracted from poultry diets could be detected with BAX. PMID:11054177

  20. Study of trace elements content in rice straw for animal feed

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the trace elements content of rice straw such as Fe, Zn, and Cr. Samples were obtained from Pasar Jumat and Pusakanegara, and were collected several days after harvesting. Activation analysis was used as a method for detecting trace elements content and counting were done by using multi channel analyzer two days after irradiation. Results indicated that rice straw from Pasar Jumat contained of Fe: 25.46-113.44 ug/g, Zn: 30.02-91.55 ug/g, and Cr: 9.83-36.5 ug/g and rice straw from Pusakanegara contained of Fe: 11.54-99.23 ug/g, Zn: 12.02-91.55 ug/g and Cr: 13.80-35.67 ug/g. It is concluded that all samples can be used as animal feed, and the values were considered relatively save for the animal. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs

  1. Feeding strategies for improving milk production from milch animals owned by small farmers in India

    Over the last decade the National Dairy Development Board of India has researched and developed feeding strategies for lactating cattle and buffaloes fed on basal forage diets. Depending on the season and climate, these diets are largely mature forage from tropical pastures or crop residues, which are generally low in protein and of relatively low digestibility. Supplementation of the rumen microbial ecosystem with essential nutrients by providing each animal with a urea/molasses block stimulates production by improving feed digestibility, intake and the balance of nutrients available from the feed. Supplementation with a bypass protein to supply the animal directly with additional amino acids stimulates the efficiency of feed utilization by reducing the heat increment of feeding. In hot environments this reduces heat stress and allows feed intake to be maintained. These feeding strategies are now being applied to a large number of milch animals in the herds of small farmers in India. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  2. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment

    Leeman, W.R.; Berg, K.J. van den; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data

  3. 19 CFR 123.27 - Feeding and watering animals in Canada.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feeding and watering animals in Canada. 123.27 Section 123.27 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.27 Feeding and watering animals...

  4. Research and Development on Animal Feed in Malaysia

    M Wan Zahari; Wong, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of the non-ruminant sector to self–sufficiency in meat and eggs has been matched by massive importation of feed. Thus, a major thrust to reduce the burden of feed imports is to increase the use of indigenous feed resources and intensify research to look for alternatives and substitutes. Over the past 3 decades, local researchers have reported on the availability nutritive content, optimal inclusion levels and treatment methods to enhance nutrient value of many locally available fee...

  5. Transmission of Aflatoxins from Animal Feeds to Raw and Pasteurized Milk in Shiraz City and its Suburbs

    R Ghasemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are a lot of fungi in the air and our environment that grow and reproduce if the temperature and humidity are suitable. Aspergillus flavus and parasilicus are among the most important food contaminants which have a role in food poisoning. These fungi secrete poisons which contaminate animal feed as well as the milk we get from the animals fed with these foods. Methods: In this study, a total of 428 samples of raw, pasteurized milk and animal feeds were examined in different seasons of the year using ELISA or TLC method. Results: The results revealed that in 43.36% of the animal feed samples, the contamination level was above the permissible level of aflatoxin B1 (20ppb. In 38.03% of raw and 14.42% of pasteurized milk samples, the contamination level was above the permissible level (0.5 ppb. It was also found out that the contamination level was higher in summer and autumn than that in winter and spring. This could be due to higher humidity in autumn and higher temperature in summer. This study also showed that the percentage of contamination in corn was higher. A high percentage of contamination was also found in recycled bread in the samples of AL. The contamination level was low in Fal. Fa, bran and straw samples. Conclusion: Based on these findings, there seems to be a pressing need for controlling aflatoxin contamination in animal feeds and prevention of the use of contaminated animal feeds such as corn and recycled bread. Also rotten analysis of milk and its products is necessary to be performed periodically for detection of aflatoxin contamination.

  6. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    Tysen E

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91, followed by S. Dublin (n = 82. There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97.

  7. Comparison of sampling methods for animal manure

    Derikx, P. J. L.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Hoeksma, P.

    1997-01-01

    Currently available and recently developed sampling methods for slurry and solid manure were tested for bias and reproducibility in the determination of total phosphorus and nitrogen content of samples. Sampling methods were based on techniques in which samples were taken either during loading from the hose or from the transport vehicle after loading. Most methods were unbiased. New sampling methods for slurry from the hose were substantially more reproducible than existing methods. For pract...

  8. Radioimmunoassay determination of the effect on animal reproduction of alternative of feeding suplementation in dairy cows

    The principal object of this trial was to evaluate the influence of three alternatives of feeding suplementation in dairy cows in the post-partum period in ecuadorian highlands. Thirty sic animals in fist lactation were used in this experiment and were divided in three groups according to the feed intake: Group A diet was 5 Kg. of a commercial concentrate mixture with 12 per cent of crude protein plus pasture ad libitum; Group B diet was green banans (Musa paradisiaca) and pasture and Group C diet was the control only pasture. Using Radioimmunoassay technique (RIA), progesterone values were determinated in milk from each cow. the sampling was sequential, two samples a week, starting 6 days after parturition, until the animal was pregnant or until the study was finished, 150 days after post-partum for each cow. This research allowed us to evaluate the ovaric post-partum activity of each group: Frequency and length of the oestrus cycles; efficiency of oestrus detection, calving-first, oestrus period, calving-conception length, conception rate, and services per conception. Additional datas were used in this study such as: milk production, palpations and treatments

  9. Animals and People First. Why good animal welfare is important for feeding people, for trade and for the future

    Dr Michael Appleby.

    2007-01-01

    AbstractLivestock contributes to both the potential and the problems of agriculture. Meat and animal products are important in people’s diet and also valuable trade goods. However, manure can cause pollution. One other issue receiving increased attention is the welfare offarm animals: this is a matter of public concern in many countries, particularly in Europe2. This paper explains why attention to farm animal welfare can help agriculture to feed people, to promote trade and to prevent future...

  10. Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.

    Meriç, S; Cakır, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Arı, S

    2014-01-01

    Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2. PMID:24634172

  11. Determination of ash in animal feed: AOAC official method 942.05 revisited.

    Thiex, Nancy; Novotny, Lawrence; Crawford, Andy

    2012-01-01

    AOAC Official Method 942.05, Ash in Animal Feed, has been applied in feed laboratories since its publication in the Official Methods of Analysis in 1942. It is a routine test with renewed interest due to the incorporation of "ash values" into modern equations for the estimation of energy content of dairy feed, beef feed, and pet food. As with other empirical methods, results obtained are a function of the test conditions. For this method, the critical conditions are the ignition time, ignition temperature, and any other furnace or weighing conditions. Complete ignition can be observed by the absence of black color (due to residual carbonaceous material) in the ash residue. To investigate performance of AOAC 942.05, 15 samples were chosen to be representative of a wide range of feed materials. These materials were tested at the conditions of AOAC 942.05 (ignition at 600 degrees C for 2 h) and similar or more rigorous conditions. The additional conditions investigated included: 600 degrees C for 4 h; 600 degrees C for 2 h, cool, and ignite 2 additional h; 600 degrees C for 2 h, cool, wet, dry, and ignite 2 additional h; 550 degrees C for 6 h; 550 degrees C for 3 h, cool, and ignite 3 additional h; and 550 degrees C for 3 h, cool, wet, dry, ignite 3 additional h. Results for all other conditions investigated were found to be significantly different from the current AOAC Method 942.05. All ignition conditions were significantly different from each other except two: 550 degrees C for 3 h, cool, ignite 3 additional h; and 550 degrees C for 3 h, cool, wet, dry, and ignite 3 additional h. Recommendations for modification to AOAC Official Method 942.05 are suggested based on statistical analysis of the data and a review of the literature. PMID:23175971

  12. Detection of Airborne Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Inside and Downwind of a Swine Building, and in Animal Feed: Potential Occupational, Animal Health, and Environmental Implications.

    Ferguson, Dwight D; Smith, Tara C; Hanson, Blake M; Wardyn, Shylo E; Donham, Kelley J

    2016-01-01

    Aerosolized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was sampled inside and downwind of a swine facility. Animal feed was sampled before and after entry into the swine facility. Aerosolized particles were detected using an optical particle counter for real-time measurement and with an Andersen sampler to detect viable MRSA. Molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on samples collected. Viable MRSA organisms isolated inside the swine facility were primarily associated with particles >5 µm, and those isolated downwind from the swine facility were associated with particles <5 µm. MRSA isolates included spa types t008, t034, and t5706 and were resistant to methicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, and erythromycin. Animal feed both before and after entry into the swine facility tested positive for viable MRSA. These isolates were of similar spa types as the airborne MRSA organisms. Air samples collected after power washing with a biocide inside the swine facility resulted in no viable MRSA organisms detected. This pilot study showed that the ecology of MRSA is complex. Additional studies are warranted on the maximum distance that viable MRSA can be emitted outside the facility, and the possibility that animal feed may be a source of contamination. PMID:26808288

  13. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    2010-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  14. 21 CFR 2.35 - Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed.

    2010-04-01

    ... storage of food and animal feed. 2.35 Section 2.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Foods § 2.35 Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed. (a... State public health agencies have revealed practices whereby food and animal feed stored or shipped...

  15. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). PMID:26769506

  16. Open Feedlots Listed in the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Animal Feeding Operations Database

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Currently, the Animal Feeding Operations (AFO) database does not allow facilities to be queried by watershed, therefore, this coverage was developed to assist with...

  17. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    2011-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted... Part 573 Animal feeds, Food additives. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  18. New developments in the detection and identification of processed animal proteins in feeds

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Holst, von C.; Baeten, V.; Berben, G.; Boix, A.; Jong, de J.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the most likely route of infection of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is by consumption of feeds containing low levels of processed animal proteins (PAPs). This likely route of infection resulted in feed bans, which were primarily aimed at ruminant fe

  19. Microbiological control of a gamma-irradiated feed for laboratory animals

    A special feed for laboratory animals was prepared, that meets or surpasses the FAO requirements. Experiments were undertaken to determine the γ-radiation dose necessary to sterilize the feed, to free it from enterobacteria which grow abundantly in the rich medium and cause digestive disorders in the laboratory animals. Methods of identifying the various bacteria and fungi are given. The results are tabulated. (U.K.)

  20. A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction approach for estimating processed animal proteins in feed: preliminary data

    Maria Cesarina Abete

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifting of the ban on the use of processed animal proteins (PAPs from non-ruminants in non-ruminant feed is in the wind, avoiding intraspecies recycling. Discrimination of species will be performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR, which is at a moment a merely qualitative method. Nevertheless, quantification of PAPs in feed is needed. The aim of this study was to approach the quantitative determination of PAPs in feed through Real Time (RT-PCR technique; three different protocols picked up from the literature were tested. Three different kind of matrices were examined: pure animal meals (bovine, chicken and pork; one feed sample certified by the European reference laboratory on animal proteins (EURL AP in feed spiked with 0.1% bovine meal; and genomic DNAs from bovine, chicken and pork muscles. The limit of detection (LOD of the three protocols was set up. All the results obtained from the three protocols considered failed in the quantification process, most likely due to the uncertain copy numbers of the analytical targets chosen. This preliminary study will allow us to address further investigations, with the purpose of developing a RT-PCR quantitative method.

  1. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  2. Liquid chromatographic determination of carbadox residues in animal feed.

    Roybal, J E; Munns, R K; Shimoda, W

    1985-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method for determining residues of carbadox in the 0.01-10 ppm range in swine feed is described. Carbadox is extracted from ground feed with 25% acidified methanol-CHCl3, removed from emulsion-forming coextractables via an alumina column, separated from highly colored pigments by acid-base liquid-liquid partitioning, and finally isolated from interferences on a second alumina column. Isocratic reverse phase LC at 305 nm is used for quantitation. The average overall recovery at the 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm spike levels was 83.0% with a standard deviation of 2.04% and a coefficient of variation of 2.46%. PMID:4030635

  3. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  4. Research Progress of Grassland Feed-animal Balance at Home and Abroad

    Xiaohu; MAI; Yujuan; ZHANG; Yingjun; ZHANG; Shangli; SHI; Ding; HUANG; Yajun; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Feed-animal balance is the key technique on the grassland ecosystem management,and attracts widespread attention in the world.Many studies have been conducted by former researchers,and most of their efforts were intended to keep the balance of feed-animal.However,there are still much more issue needed to be studied in details on the face of grassland degeneration and animal husbandry sustainable development.The author analyzed the feed-animal balance research progress,including the concept of stocking rate and its practical management techniques,especially on the stocking rate calculation methods.In addition,the social and economy effects on feed-animal balance were also discussed during the progress of improving the development of pastoral economy.In order to achieve feed-animal balance more effectively,it was concluded that the focus must be shift from only on animal number to the grassland quality,and it’s necessary to strengthen market tax control.

  5. Importance of animal feed resources in developing countries and current constraints on their utilization

    Inadequacy and poor utilization of animal feed resources are the main limiting factors on animal production in most developing countries. The bulk of ruminant foodstuffs consists of poor quality fodder, such as pasture and rangeland grass, crop residues and fibrous by-products. It is very rarely possible to use cereals as supplements, since most developing countries at present need to import cereals for human consumption. This has not prevented many development agencies from recommending that cereals and other concentrate feeds be imported to boost monogastric production, reproducing the model developed for temperate countries where there is a cereal surplus. In most cases, the types of feed available locally do not allow high levels of individual animal performance. However, this does not mean that it is impossible to improve animal production in developing countries. During the last two decades, much research on animal nutrition has been successfully conducted and the results are being applied in practice. The most significant of these concern the utilization by animals of sugar-cane and its by-products, the use of non-conventional animal feeds and the treatment of straw and other fibrous materials. In all cases, supplements are required. Livestock feeding systems could also be improved if it were possible to use more of those by-products which are at present exported. New livestock feeding strategies must be developed based on currently or potentially available local resources. It is more logical and profitable for developing countries to adapt animal production systems to available feed resources than vice versa. (author)

  6. Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed

    Kuprasert, S.; Watanasit, S.

    2001-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullet...

  7. 75 FR 24394 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...

    2010-05-05

    ... medicated article was voluntarily withdrawn (60 FR 37651, July 21, 1995) and approved conditions of use for... NADA 45-738, were removed (60 FR 39847, July 21, 1995). At this time, the tolerances for residues of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 556 and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and...

  8. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle

    Bodenchuk Michael J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline, with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help

  9. 75 FR 11451 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Zilpaterol

    2010-03-11

    ... ZILMAX and MGA 500 (melengestrol acetate), approved under NADA 141-284. Ivy Laboratories also filed ANADA... a generic copy of Intervet, Inc.'s combination medicated feed use of ZILMAX, MGA 500, and RUMENSIN... combination medicated feed use of ZILMAX, MGA 500, RUMENSIN, and TYLAN, approved under NADA 141-280....

  10. How to calculate sample size in animal studies?

    Jaykaran Charan; N D Kantharia

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of sample size is one of the important component of design of any research including animal studies. If a researcher select less number of animals it may lead to missing of any significant difference even if it exist in population and if more number of animals selected then it may lead to unnecessary wastage of resources and may lead to ethical issues. In this article, on the basis of review of literature done by us we suggested few methods of sample size calculations for animal s...

  11. Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed

    Kuprasert, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC, a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullets and laying hen, PKC can be used 30% and 20% respectively if supplemented with fat, methionine and lysine. PKC can be used 30% in diet for grower (30-60 kg and 50% in diet for finisher pigs (60-90 kg., respectively, if supplemented with lysine and cane molasses.

  12. The Milky Way : The implications of using animal milkproducts in infant feeding

    Howcroft, Rachel; Eriksson, Gunilla; Lidén, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Animal milks have been used in infant feeding for at least a few millennia, but this can only have become a common practice after the domestication of dairy animals during the Neolithic. Neolithic population increase has often been attributed to the effect of a reduction in breastfeeding duration on female fertility. It is possible, therefore, that animal milks were first introduced to the infant diet at this time as a replacement for the lost breastmilk. Milks are complex liquids and are spe...

  13. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients. 501.110 Section 501.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Officials. The collective names are as follows: (1) Animal protein products include one or more of the following: Animal products, marine products, and milk products. (2) Forage products include one or more...

  14. Mycotoxins in horse feed: Incidence of deoxynivalenol in oat samples from stud farms

    Urošević Miroslav I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports concerning mycotoxins in horse feed are very rare and are typically restricted to fumonisins. As a non-ruminant monogastric species, horses may be more sensitive to adverse effects of mycotoxins, but the most severe effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1 in equines is that it causes fatal leucoencephalomalacia. In recent years, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has evaluated several mycotoxins as “undesirable substances in animal feed” with the aim of establishing guidance values for the feed industry. In its evaluation of deoxynivalenol (DON, EFSA concluded that this toxin exhibited toxic effects in all species, but that horses were more tolerant towards this toxin than pigs. According to the available data, a systematic survey on mycotoxins in horse feed in Serbia has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of mycotoxins in horse feed in Vojvodina. Samples of oats for horse consumption, collected in 2010, were analyzed by enzyme immunoassays (ELISA for deoxynivalenol contamination. Twelve samples of oats were taken from twelve horse studs, with sport, school and hobby horses.

  15. Improving animal welfare and economic sustainability in bull-fattening systems in France: A comparison of three different feeding programmes

    Mialon, Marie Madeleine; Lherm, Michel; Micol, Didier; Doreau, Michel; Martin, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Feeding late maturing young bulls on high concentrate diets needs adjustment of both animal feeding behaviour and rumen adaptation which can be done by feeding maize silage according to researchers at the National Institute of Agronomic Research, Saint-Genès Champanelle, France who state good economic results are achievable alongside animal welfare.

  16. Determination of the Thyreostats in Animal Feeding Stuffs Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Woźniak Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to detect and confirm five thyreostatic drugs: tapazole, thiouracil, methylthiouracil, propylthiouracil, and phenylthiouracil in animal feeding stuff samples. Thyreostats were extracted from feed with methanol, and then degreasing of the extract with petroleum ether was performed, followed by the derivatisation of the compounds with 3-iodobenzylbromide in basic medium (pH 8.0. The derivatives were extracted with diethyl ether and analysed by gradient elution on a Poroshell 120-EC C18 column with triple quadrupole MS detection with turbo spray source in positive ionisation mode. The method was validated in accordance with the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. For validation level of 10 ļig kg-1, the recovery ranged from 82% to 97.5% for all examined compounds. The repeatability and reproducibility did not exceed the limit of 20% for all analytes. The linearity was good for all thyreostats in the whole range of tested concentrations, as proved by the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The decision limits (CCa ranged from 1.63 ļig kg-1 to 3.95 ļig kg-1, whereas the detection capabilities (CCß ranged from 2.74 ļig kg-1 to 6.73 ļig kg-1. The developed analysis is sensitive and robust, and therefore useful for quantification and confirmation of thyreostats in residue control programme.

  17. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  18. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Fernández-Cruz, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain); Bertelsen, U. [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Renshaw, D.W. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Peltonen, K. [Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland); Anadon, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid (Spain); Feil, A. [ForschungsinstitutFuttermitteltechnik, Braunschweig (Germany); Sanders, P. [AFSSA, LERMVD, Fougères (France); Wester, P. [RIVM, Food and Consumer Safety, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  19. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  20. PRODUCTS OF PROCESSING OF RAPESEED IN FEEDING OF FARM ANIMALS AND POULTRY

    Коnоnеnко S. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions of the import substitution, special importance is given to the search for new feed sources, methods of preparing them for feeding, the use of biologically active substances and enzymes. At the forefront of feed production is rape as breeding work with this culture has showed positive results. Currently, selectionists have bred yellow double-zero "00" varieties of rapeseeds free of erucic acid of "Canole" type, that have low glucosinolate level. The development of new and modern technology standards are required for preparation them for feeding, since they are fundamentally different from the previously used rapeseed varieties and have fewer restrictions for feeding to different types of farm animals and poultry. The article presents a fairly lengthy and reasoned review of the literature of a large number of authors on the topic, as well as given rapeseed market analysis, rational and advanced methods of preparing rapeseed processed products for feeding to young and adult animals. Much attention is paid to the use of a variety of biologically active substances and enzymes, which improve digestion and absorption of nutrients from rations with rapeseed processingproducts, increase productivity and reduce feed costs per unit of production. The use of processing products of rapeseed improves the profitability of livestock production. Feeding of rapeseedcake to cattle increases the protein content and volatile fatty acids in the rumen content, increases the number of infusoria and decreases ammonia levels. The inclusion of rape forage in diets of farm animals and poultry improves hematological parameters. Products of rapeseed processing of the varieties with low glucosinolatesa1re recommended for the rations of farm animals and poultry depending on the species, age and physiological state

  1. Studies on Feeding Animals with Straw of Grain-Straw-Dual-Use-Rice 201

    ZHENG Jin-gui; CHEN Jun-chen; HUANG Qin-lou; ZHENG Kai-bin; YE Xin-fu; TU Jie-feng; CHEN Bing-huan

    2002-01-01

    The straw of Grain-Straw-Dual-Use-Rice (GSDUR) variety 201 of which the grain quality and yield were equivalent to that of common rice variety (the grain yield approximately 7.5 t ha-1 ), but straw protein content was 9.31% (common rice straw i.e. CK was approximately 4.0%), and other eight fodder indexes were better than CK to some extent, was employed to feed animals. 15 N tracing result suggested that the protein in 201 straw could be effectively transformed into fish body protein and white mouse body protein. The digestibility of fodder, the 15N recovery rate of animal body and the absorption of fodder protein were 13.8,9.6, 24. 49 % and 16.5, 6.0, 47.2 % higher than those of common rice straw respectively when feeding grass carp and white mice with 201 rice straw, whereas the 1s N recovery rates of animal manure were 3.25, 6.5 %lower than those of common rice straw, respectively. The results of feeding animals with 201 straw were as carp, fish weight gain per kg fresh rice straw were increased by 60.0, 16.8 and 37.0% respectively when 201fresh straw was used to feed grass carp compared to feeding CK, and fish yield could be increased by 297.5 kg creased by 33.9 and 26.8% respectively when 201 rice straw was used as the main raw material of the compound fodder to feed white geese compared to feeding CK, and geese weight could be increased by 2 358.0 kg powder substituting for wheat bran which made up of 5 % compound fodder to feed cross bred pigs compared to CK, but 0. 11 kg fine fodder could be saved when 1 kg cross bred pig weight was increased.

  2. Techno-economic feasibility of animal feed production from empty fruit bunches

    It has been shown in our laboratory that EFB has the potential to be converted into animal feeds through the process of fermentation; and also use as media for mushroom growing (1). Irradiation of EFB at doses above 10 kGy followed by fermentation can reduce crude fibre (CF) content to almost 20-30% and crude protein (CP) content elevated to 10-15% from 50% and 2% respectively (2)(3). The end-product of fermentation displayed all the characteristics of animal feed, and at these levels of CF and CP can be utilised for feeding ruminants. Further reduction of CF and raising of CP can result in the products suitable for feeding non-ruminants such as poultry and pigs. Following the successful conversion of raw EFB into foodstuff for ruminant in the laboratory, there is an urgent need to evaluate whether such products could be mass-produced economically at larger scale for further feeding-trials. Pilot plant has to be set up to simulate the actual commercial production process before any technology transfer can be undertaken. The main objective of this paper is to report firstly, the economic and financial feasibility of the production process at pilot level. Secondly, preliminary evaluation on the cost of production of animal feed from EFB

  3. Feeding live prey to zoo animals: response of zoo visitors in Switzerland

    Cottle, L.; Tamir, D.; Hyseni, M; Bühler, D; Lindemann-Matthies, P

    2010-01-01

    In summer 2007, with the help of a written questionnaire, the attitudes of more than 400 visitors to the zoological garden of Zurich, Switzerland, toward the idea of feeding live insects to lizards, live fish to otters, and live rabbits to tigers were investigated. The majority of Swiss zoo visitors agreed with the idea of feeding live prey (invertebrates and vertebrates) to zoo animals, both off- and on-exhibit, except in the case of feeding live rabbits to tigers on-exhibit. Women and frequ...

  4. Application of gamma radiation on disinfestation feed grain based food for domestic animals

    This study aimed to realize a survey to identify the associated insects to feed the city Sao Paulo / SP and also to assess the effect of gamma radiation on food ration for domestic animals infested by pests. Samples of 20 stores, 'Pet Shop' in different regions in Sao Paulo / SP were subjected to trials of 1 and 45 days for collection of insects with the aid of plastic tray and screens of different sizes. The species Sitophilus zeamais, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Lasioderma serricorne and Oryzaephilus sp. showed a higher frequency. In assessing the effects of gamma radiation we used samples of maize, sunflower seeds and mix for rodents infested with adults of the species Sitophilus zeamais, Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, after the period of 7 to 10 days the insects were removed and samples subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation. The species Sitophilus zeamais and Lasioderma serricorne subjected doses from 0,25 to 1,50 kGy and species Plodia interpunctella doses from 0,10 to 2,0 kGy. After 40 days of irradiation was evaluated the number of insects emerged. The results of bioassays with Sitophilus zeamais and with Lasioderma serricorne demonstrated that doses starting at 0,5 kGy was sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and newly emerged larvae. The results with Plodia interpunctella from the 1,5 kGy, hasn't emerged adult insects, concluding that these doses were sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and larvae. (author)

  5. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography determination of zinc bacitracin and nystatin in animal feed.

    Injac, Rade; Kac, Javor; Mlinaric, Ales; Karljikovic-Rajic, Katarina

    2006-06-01

    An MEKC procedure was developed for the separation of zinc bacitracin (Zn-BC) and nystatin (NYS) in mixtures and in animal feedstuff. The running buffer was 15 mM borate/19 mM phosphate, pH 8.2, containing 20 mM SDS and 10% v/v methanol. Samples were run at 25 degrees C, the applied voltage was 25 kV, and an additional pressure of 5 mbar was applied. Both analytes were detected by UV simultaneously at 215 nm, Zn-BC alone at 192 and 254 nm, and NYS alone at 305 nm. The method was shown to be specific, accurate (recoveries were 100.0 +/- 0.6% and 100.1 +/- 0.6% for Zn-BC and NYS, respectively), linear over the tested range (correlation coefficients 0.9991 and 0.9994), and precise (RSD below 1.3% for both analytes). The method was applied to determine Zn-BC and NYS as additives in animal feed. PMID:16833088

  6. IMEP-32: Determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Cordeiro, Fernando; Rasmussen, Rie Romme;

    A collaborative study, IMEP-32, was conducted in accordance with international protocols to determine the performance characteristics of an analytical method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin. The method would support Directive No 2002/32/EC of the European...... Parliament and the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed [1] where it is indicated that "Upon request of the competent authorities, the responsible operator must perform an analysis to demonstrate that the content of inorganic arsenic is lower than 2 ppm". The method is based on solid phase...

  7. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp.) as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    Serra, AB

    1997-01-01

    The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The ...

  8. Safety assessment of biotechnology used in animal production, including genetically modified (GM) feed and GM animals - a review

    Kleter, G.A.; Kok, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the large-scale commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the mid-nineties, it has continuously increased. This has occurred in particular in non-European countries from which these crops may be exported as commodities to Europe and other markets. Before genetically modified organisms (GMO) are allowed onto the market as animal feed and/or food, they have to undergo a regulatory safety assessment as required by the law in many nations, including that ...

  9. 76 FR 16534 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol; Correction

    2011-03-24

    ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a document in the Federal Register of June 17, 2010 (75 FR... and Drug Administration (FDA) published a document in the Federal Register of June 17, 2010 (75 FR... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal...

  10. 75 FR 60308 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol

    2010-09-30

    ... monensin Type C medicated feeds under NADA 95-735 (72 FR 653, January 8, 2007). The supplements were approved in October 2009 and the regulations were amended in Sec. 558.342 (21 CFR 558.342) (74 FR 59911, November 19, 2009; 74 FR 61029, November 23, 2009). Labeling submitted with these supplements also...

  11. Graph animals, subgraph sampling and motif search in large networks

    Baskerville, Kim; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2007-01-01

    We generalize a sampling algorithm for lattice animals (connected clusters on a regular lattice) to a Monte Carlo algorithm for `graph animals', i.e. connected subgraphs in arbitrary networks. As with the algorithm in [N. Kashtan et al., Bioinformatics 20, 1746 (2004)], it provides a weighted sample, but the computation of the weights is much faster (linear in the size of subgraphs, instead of super-exponential). This allows subgraphs with up to ten or more nodes to be sampled with very high ...

  12. The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models

    Petr Mares; Tunde Jurikova Pokorna; Jiri Sochor; Ladislav Zeman; Mojmir Baron; Jiri Mlcek; Stefan Balla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of genetically modified (GM) food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on anim...

  13. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp. as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    Serra, AB.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The different meal forms that can be extracted are golden snail meal (30 % calcium and 15 % crude protein, golden snail meat meal (62 % crude protein and 3336 kcal/kg and golden shell meal (35 % calcium. Feeding trials indicate that golden snail meal can be a part of swine and chicken layer diets up to 15 %. Golden snail meat meal can be a part of broiler chicken diet up to 12 %. Feeding fresh and ground golden snail to ducks can replace 50 % of their diet under total confinement system. Whereas, golden snail meat meal (75 % of the diet plus rice bran can be beneficially fed to tilapia. With the information collated, golden snail can be a promising animal feed in the Philippines.

  14. 78 FR 52774 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Animal Feed...

    2013-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Animal Feed Network (Pet Event Tracking Network and LivestockNET)--State... affected, body systems affected, product problem/defect, date of onset or the date product problem...

  15. Bioassay based screening of steroid derivatives in animal feed and supplements

    Rijk, J.C.W.; Ashwin, H.M.; Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Groot, M.J.; Heskamp, H.H.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor binding transcription activation bioassays are valuable tools for the screening of steroid hormones in animal feed and supplements. However, steroid derivatives often lack affinity for their cognate receptor and do not show any direct hormonal activity by themselves. These compounds are thu

  16. [Problems in the energy and nutritional requirements of feeding and welfare of food producing animals].

    Kamphues, J

    1998-03-01

    The efforts in optimizing feeding conditions of food producing animals in the past were focussed primarily on promoting performance and/or the products' quality (MEYER 1997). In spite of great success in this direction various risks occur due to the conflict between the increased requirements on the one hand and the species typical demands on the other (for example: need of roughage as well as of concentrates with high energy and nutrient density in ruminants). Especially in feeding high yielding dairy cows the conflict is obvious: Even in the case, that high amounts of concentrates are fed it becomes more and more difficult to meet the energy requirement when the milk yield exceeds 40 kg milk per day (FLACHOWSKY a. LEBZIEN 1997). A negative energy balance is accompanied by a forced predisposition for ketosis and infertility (KRUIP 1996). Insufficient proportions of roughage in those rations predispose the animals for rumen acidosis and associated problems (health of claws etc.) as well as for displacement of abomasum. Thereby in feeding high yielding dairy cows there is only the choice between different risks due to the fact that the feed intake capacity did not increase to the same extent as the milk production did. In fattening calves the use of roughage (in Germany required by law) is on debate in this direction (necessary to avoid disturbances in the behaviour). Further problems in feeding animals according to their species typical demands are related to the established conditions of housing, feeding and water supply (risks of mechanization and automatization due to potential disfunction). The generally increased feeding intensity results--for example in poultry--in a higher frequency of skeleton diseases; the more and more specialized pig production (separate units for piglet production, rearing units, fattening units) is accompanied by increased changes in diets and techniques of feed and water supply, to that the animals have to be accustomed, too. The

  17. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals.

    Hristov, Alexander N; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; Zimmerman, Patrick R; Harper, Michael T; Hristova, Rada A; Zimmerman, R Scott; Branco, Antonio F

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but with variable accuracy). The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas method is commonly used to measure enteric CH4 production by animal scientists and more recently, application of an Automated Head-Chamber System (AHCS) (GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD), which is the focus of this experiment, has been growing. AHCS is an automated system to monitor CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) mass fluxes from the breath of ruminant animals. In a typical AHCS operation, small quantities of baiting feed are dispensed to individual animals to lure them to AHCS multiple times daily. As the animal visits AHCS, a fan system pulls air past the animal's muzzle into an intake manifold, and through an air collection pipe where continuous airflow rates are measured. A sub-sample of air is pumped out of the pipe into non-dispersive infra-red sensors for continuous measurement of CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Field comparisons of AHCS to respiration chambers or SF6 have demonstrated that AHCS produces repeatable and accurate CH4 emission results, provided that animal visits to AHCS are sufficient so emission estimates are representative of the diurnal rhythm of rumen gas production. Here, we demonstrate the use of AHCS to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes from dairy cows given a control diet or a diet supplemented with technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid. PMID:26383886

  18. Scientific Opinion on the risk for public and animal health related to the presence of sterigmatocystin in food and feed

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on sterigmatocystin (STC in food and feed. STC is a polyketide mycotoxin that shares its biosynthetic pathway with aflatoxins. Following an EFSA call for data, analytical results from 247 food and 334 feed samples were submitted. In food, analytical results on STC were reported to be all below the limit of detection or limit of quantification. In feed, only four quantified results were reported. Therefore, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel concluded that the available occurrence data are too limited to carry out a reliable human and animal dietary exposure assessment. Acute oral toxicity of STC is relatively low, and liver and kidneys are the target organs. STC is mutagenic in both bacterial and mammalian cells after metabolic activation and forms DNA adducts. Tumourigenicity has been observed after oral, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous and dermal administration resulting in hepatocellular carcinomas, haemangiosarcomas in the liver, angiosarcomas in brown fat and lung adenomas. Since no exposure data were available, the margin of exposure approach for substances that are genotoxic and carcinogenic could not be applied for STC, and thus the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the risk for human health. Regarding animals, the Panel noted that STC is hepatotoxic in poultry and pigs, and nephrotoxic in poultry and toxic in several fish species. However, in the absence of exposure data for livestock, fish and companion animals, and given the limited knowledge on the adverse effects of STC, the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the risk for animal health. More occurrence data on STC in food and feed need to be collected to allow dietary exposure assessment. For food, methods with a limit of quantification of less than 1.5 µg/kg should be applied.

  19. Assessment of animal productivity and methane production using an associative feeding strategy

    Methane production from ruminants is a loss of digestible energy thereby reducing animal productivity and is contributing to environmental pollution. In order to develop a beneficial strategy for improving animal productivity while conserving the environment the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a concentrate feeding strategy on the animal productivity and rumen methane production. In this experiment two feeding regimes, Diet-1 and Diet-2, were either fodder alone and with a 10% inclusion of concentrates in the forage diet feed as a phased sequence of 45 days of fodder alone and then 45 days of fodder plus concentrate. The diets were fed to four animal groups comprising of 5 animals in each. Throughout the experimental period, a fresh, chopped fodder of similar age (50-65 days age) was offered to the animals. Average dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ash and ether extract contents of the fodder were 21, 9.3, 31.7, 10.1 and 3.1%, respectively. Diet2 included a concentrate containing 88.0, 16.0, 8.1, 10.0, and 12.1% DM, CP, CF, Ash and EE, respectively. A decrease of 8.2 and 39.5% in group A and B with only minor a minor change in group C and D for feed intake was observed when the animals where feed Diet2. Weight gain for the four groups were 133, 422, 111 and 600 g per animal per day on Diet1 and 244, 688, 177 and 888 g per animal per day on Diet2 for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. With supplementation feeding strategy, there was an increase of 45.4, 38.7, 3.7 and 32.4% in weigh gain over fodder alone diet for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. This was associated with an improvement of 49.7, 62.9, 38.5 and 32% in feed to gain ratio for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. The DM digestibility was 22.9, 4.6, 4.7 and 8.4% higher in groups A, B, C and D, respectively when the groups were feed the fodder diets supplemented with concentrates. On fodder alone, the molar concentration of acetate, propionate, butyrate and

  20. Determination of starch, including maltooligosaccharides, in animal feeds: comparison of methods and a method recommended for AOAC collaborative study.

    Hall, Mary B

    2009-01-01

    Starch is a nutritionally important carbohydrate in feeds that is increasingly measured and used for formulation of animal diets. Discontinued production of the enzyme Rhozyme-S required for AOAC Method 920.40 invalidated this method for starch in animal feeds. The objective of this study was to compare methods for the determination of starch as potential candidates as a replacement method and for an AOAC collaborative study. Many starch methods are available, but they vary in accuracy, replicability, and ease of use. After assays were evaluated that differed in gelatinization method, number of reagents, and sample handling, and after assays with known methodological defects were excluded, 3 enzymatic-colorimetric assays were selected for comparison. The assays all used 2-stage, heat-stable, a-amylase and amyloglucosidase hydrolyses, but they differed in the gelatinization solution (heating in water, 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid buffer, or acetate buffer). The measured values included both starch and maltooligosaccharides. The acetate buffer-only method was performed in sealable vessels with dilution by weight; it gave greater starch values (2-6 percentage units of sample dry matter) in the analysis of feed/food substrates than did the other methods. This method is a viable candidate for a collaborative study. PMID:19382561

  1. Characterizing non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

    2012-02-01

    Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were determined from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) in North Carolina. NMVOCs were measured in air samples collected in SUMMA and fused-silica lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Measurements were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn in each of the four seasonal sampling periods during the period June 2007 through April 2008. In each sampling period, nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn over a minimum of four different days during a period of ˜1 week. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were also made during the sampling period. In lagoon samples, six NMVOCs were identified that had significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. This included three alcohols (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and methanol), two ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) and an aldehyde (acetaldehyde). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.18 μg m -2 min -1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 μg m -2 min -1 for acetone, with seasonal fluxes highest in the summer for four (acetone, acetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and MEK) of the six compounds In barn samples, there were six NMVOCs that had significantly larger concentrations and emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. These consisted of two alcohols (methanol and ethanol), an aldehyde (acetaldehyde), two ketones (acetone and 2,3-butanedione), and a phenol (4-methylphenol). Overall average barn concentration ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. Overall average normalized barn emission rates ranged from 0.10 g day -1 AU -1 (1 AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day -1 AU -1 for ethanol. The NMVOCs, 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione, which have low odor thresholds (odor thresholds = 1.86 ppb and 0

  2. Silkworm feeding as the source of the animal protein for human

    Yunan, Y.; Tang, L.; Liu, H.

    Controlled Ecological Life-Support System CELSS which is also called Bioregenerative Life Support System has been considered now as the most advanced and complicated Closed Ecological System in the world Based on the construction principle of the CELSS the resources could be permanently regenerated so the flexibility and security for long-term spaceflight and lunar-base missions could be improved The cost could be also decreased CELSS is more appropriated for long-term manned spaceflight and applied for the possibility of long-term space missions or planetary probe in the lower cost The increasing closure and reliability is considered as the development and integrality direction of Life-Support System LSS The LSS closure and configuration is mainly depended on the human space diet composition Vast researches have been carried on this aspect but these researches mainly concentrate on the space vegetable protein exploitation The animal protein supply is still a problem the solution should be found and the LSS constitution analysis also deserves being explored Many animals have been taken into account to provide the animal proteins nowadays world-wide animals selection mainly focus on the poultry for instance sheep chicken fish etc But the poultry feeding exist many problems such as the long growth periods low efficiency complex feeding procedures and capacious feeding space and these animals also cause the water and air pollution The complete food composition is often depended on the features of the nation diet habit Chinese have

  3. An update on the safety of foods of animal origin and feeds

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hazards may occur in any phases of the different livestock production systems. Aim of this review is to address an update about the key issues related to the risk of contamination in foods of animal origin by environmental contaminants linked to industrialisation or urbanisation (e.g., heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, and natural contaminants (e.g., mycotoxins. This review deals with current issues and future perspectives on the complex issue of the safety of feeds and foods of animal origin, by taking into account the estimation of the occurrence of chemical residues in food, the hazard identification and characterisation of mycotoxins in animal feeds, and the analysis of feedstuffs as a tool to control and evaluate food safety.

  4. 78 FR 79299 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins; Correction

    2013-12-30

    ... December 16, 2013 (78 FR 76059). The document amended the animal drug regulations to remove dairy..., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301-796-9148. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the FR Doc. 2013-29810, appearing on page 76059 in the Federal Register of Monday, December 16, 2013 (78 FR 76059), the...

  5. Zinc and copper in animal feed – development of resistance and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in bacteria of animal origin

    Yazdankhah, Siamak; Rudi, Knut; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2014-01-01

    Farmed animals such as pig and poultry receive additional Zn and Cu in their diets due to supplementing elements in compound feed as well as medical remedies. Enteral bacteria in farmed animals are shown to develop resistance to trace elements such as Zn and Cu. Resistance to Zn is often linked with resistance to methicillin in staphylococci, and Zn supplementation to animal feed may increase the proportion of multiresistant E. coli in the gut. Resistance to Cu in bacteria, in particular ente...

  6. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    2010-07-01

    ... Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). (a) Scope... with any raw materials, products, or byproducts including manure, litter, feed, milk, eggs or bedding.... The raw materials storage area includes but is not limited to feed silos, silage bunkers, and...

  7. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations

    Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  8. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; Zimmerman, Patrick R.; Harper, Michael T.; Hristova, Rada A.; Zimmerman, R. Scott; Branco, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but with variable accuracy). The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas method is commonly used to measure enteric CH4 production by animal scientists and more recently, application of an Automated Head-Chamber System (AHCS) (GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD), which is the focus of this experiment, has been growing. AHCS is an automated system to monitor CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) mass fluxes from the breath of ruminant animals. In a typical AHCS operation, small quantities of baiting feed are dispensed to individual animals to lure them to AHCS multiple times daily. As the animal visits AHCS, a fan system pulls air past the animal’s muzzle into an intake manifold, and through an air collection pipe where continuous airflow rates are measured. A sub-sample of air is pumped out of the pipe into non-dispersive infra-red sensors for continuous measurement of CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Field comparisons of AHCS to respiration chambers or SF6 have demonstrated that AHCS produces repeatable and accurate CH4 emission results, provided that animal visits to AHCS are sufficient so emission estimates are representative of the diurnal rhythm of rumen gas production. Here, we demonstrate the use of AHCS to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes from dairy cows given a control diet or a diet supplemented with technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid. PMID:26383886

  9. Fast filtration for metabolome sampling of suspended animal cells

    Volmer, Martin; Northoff, Stefan; Scholz, Sebastian; Thüte, Tobias; Büntemeyer, Heino; Noll, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new method for sampling suspended animal cells by fast filtration is presented that allows rapid quenching of cellular metabolism and efficient separation of the cells from culture medium. Compared to sampling with a microstructure heat exchanger or centrifugation without prior quenching, the adenylate energy charge and the measured concentrations especially of metabolites with a high turnover rate or of metabolites early in metabolic pathways were substantially higher. ...

  10. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  11. Sequential sampling: a novel method in farm animal welfare assessment.

    Heath, C A E; Main, D C J; Mullan, S; Haskell, M J; Browne, W J

    2016-02-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is an important welfare issue. As part of a welfare assessment, herd level lameness prevalence can be estimated from scoring a sample of animals, where higher levels of accuracy are associated with larger sample sizes. As the financial cost is related to the number of cows sampled, smaller samples are preferred. Sequential sampling schemes have been used for informing decision making in clinical trials. Sequential sampling involves taking samples in stages, where sampling can stop early depending on the estimated lameness prevalence. When welfare assessment is used for a pass/fail decision, a similar approach could be applied to reduce the overall sample size. The sampling schemes proposed here apply the principles of sequential sampling within a diagnostic testing framework. This study develops three sequential sampling schemes of increasing complexity to classify 80 fully assessed UK dairy farms, each with known lameness prevalence. Using the Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme, the first 'basic' scheme involves two sampling events. At the first sampling event half the Welfare Quality sample size is drawn, and then depending on the outcome, sampling either stops or is continued and the same number of animals is sampled again. In the second 'cautious' scheme, an adaptation is made to ensure that correctly classifying a farm as 'bad' is done with greater certainty. The third scheme is the only scheme to go beyond lameness as a binary measure and investigates the potential for increasing accuracy by incorporating the number of severely lame cows into the decision. The three schemes are evaluated with respect to accuracy and average sample size by running 100 000 simulations for each scheme, and a comparison is made with the fixed size Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme. All three schemes performed almost as well as the fixed size scheme but with much smaller average sample sizes. For the third scheme, an overall

  12. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme. As a replacement, an enzymatic-colorimetric starch assay developed in 1997 that had advantages in ease of sample handling and accuracy compared to other methods was considered. The assay was further modified to improve utilization of laboratory resources and reduce time required for the assay. The assay is quasi-empirical: glucose is the analyte detected, but its release is determined by run conditions and specification of enzymes. The modified assay was tested in an AOAC collaborative study to evaluate its accuracy and reliability for determination of dietary starch in animal feedstuffs and pet foods. In the assay, samples are incubated in screw cap tubes with thermostable α-amylase in pH 5.0 sodium acetate buffer for 1 h at 100°C with periodic mixing to gelatinize and partially hydrolyze α-glucan. Amyloglucosidase is added, and the reaction mixture is incubated at 50°C for 2 h and mixed once. After subsequent addition of water, mixing, clarification, and dilution as needed, free + enzymatically released glucose are measured. Values from a separate determination of free glucose are subtracted to give values for enzymatically released glucose. Dietary starch equals enzymatically released glucose multiplied by 162/180 (or 0.9) divided by the weight of the as received sample. Fifteen laboratories that represented feed company, regulatory, research, and commercial feed

  13. Occurrence of aflatoxins in layer feed and corn samples in Konya province, Turkey.

    Nizamlýoğlu, F; Oguz, H

    2003-07-01

    The natural occurrence of aflatoxin was investigated in layer feed and corn samples brought to Konya Veterinary Control and Research Institute Laboratory between 15 April and 15 December 2002. Seventy-eight samples (52 feeds, 26 corn samples) were analysed for total aflatoxin (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) by an ELISA screening method. Aflatoxin contamination was deter-mined in 37 feed samples (71.1%) and 15 corn samples (57.7%), with a range of 1.5-133 microg kg(-1). However, a majority of the aflatoxin contamination was less than 5 microg kg(-1) (50% within the positive samples). Two feed samples and two corn samples exceeded the maximum tolerated levels in feed (20 microg kg(-1)) and feedstuffs (50 microg kg(-1)) for total flatoxin. PMID:12888391

  14. Critical literature study on the cesium transfer feed/meat of domestic animals

    A literature study concerning the transfer of cesium from feed to meat of domestic and wild animals has been carried out regarding approx. 3200 publications of the period 1950-1979. General criteria for the influence of experimental conditions on the transfer factor have been found. The transfer factor of radioisotopes of cesium is always smaller by one order of magnitude after single ingestion than after continuous administration until an equilibrium of incorporation to excretion is attained. The transfer factor of growing animals is greater than that of adult animals where transfer factor is not a function of age. The sex of the animals has no influence on the transfer factor. This value decreases with increasing weight of the animals. From these findings average transfer factors have been derived as follows: cattle 0.03 +- 0.02; calf 0.43 +- 0.06; goat 0.20; sheep 0.11 +- 0.02; pig 0.26 +- 0.01; hen 4.5; reindeer/caribou 0.31 +- 0.07; deer 0.18 +- 0.03. These values have been extracted from the original literature and relate mainly to animals undergoing metabolic experiments at equilibrium. Only the transfer factors of deer and caribou have been evaluated from data of the radiocesium concentration in feed and in meat. (orig.)

  15. Sampling feed for mycotoxins: acquiring knowledge from food

    Eleonora Fusi; Vittorio Dell'Orto; Anna Campagnoli; Luciano Pinotti; Federica Cheli

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence and control of mycotoxins in feed and food are items of great interest to researchers, producers, manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In order to implement knowledge of control measures for mycotoxins in the entire food production chain, coordinated inspection programmes aimed to check the presence and concentration of mycotoxins in feedingstuffs are recommended by the Commission of the European Communities. Reliability of measured levels of mycotoxins in feed and food is gr...

  16. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine–cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine–uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ► Melamine in food and feed. ► Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ► Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ► Recent EFSA risk assessment. ► Animal and human health

  17. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed

    Dorne, Jean Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Doerge, Daniel R. [NCTR, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Vandenbroeck, Marc [Unit on Contaminants, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, Johanna [University of Utrecht (Netherlands); Mennes, Wim [RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Knutsen, Helle K. [Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Vernazza, Francesco [Dietary and Chemical Monitoring, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Castle, Laurence [FERA, York (United Kingdom); Edler, Lutz [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Benford, Diane [Food Standard Agency, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine–cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine–uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ► Melamine in food and feed. ► Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ► Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ► Recent EFSA risk assessment. ► Animal and human health.

  18. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples. PMID:21548621

  19. Determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chloramphenicol antibiotics in animal feeds using subcritical water extraction and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Wang, Linling; Yang, Hai; Zhang, Chunwei; Mo, Yulin; Lu, Xiaohua

    2008-06-30

    A rapid analytical method for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chloramphenicol (CAP) antibiotics in animal feeds has been developed based on subcritical water extraction (SWE) without further sample clean-up followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. On extracting target antibiotics from spiked samples, the efficiency of the water extraction device was evaluated in terms of pH and volume of the extractant, temperature and time of the static extraction. The best extraction conditions were obtained by using 5.5 mL of water adjusted to pH 2 with hydrochloric acid as the extractant at 100 degrees C with 5-min static extraction. After filtration, 20 microL of the aqueous extract was directly injected into the HPLC column. Recoveries between 82.1% and 90.0% with relative standard deviations ranging between 1.6% and 4.8% were achieved from spiked animal feed samples by using this method. Compared with the traditional ultrasonic extraction, this procedure was remarkably more efficient in extracting OTC, TC and CAP, simpler to perform, and there was no use of toxic organic solvents. PMID:18539174

  20. Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation

    In this study, the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals, and the effect of radiation inactivation of the microorganisms were investigated. The contamination of animal feeds was remarkable, and the number of total count in the mash for chicken and other animals was from 5.3 x 104 to 2.2 x 106 per gram. The number of coliforms was from 5.1 x 103 to 6.8 x 105 per gram and they were mainly Enterobacter and Klebsiella. The number of osmophilic moulds was from 9.6 x 102 to 4.5 x 105 per gram. In case of the mixed feeds in pellets, the total count was from 5.3 x 103 to 1.0 x 106 per gram. The contamination of fish meals was not remarkable, and only mixed fish meals were contaminated largely by faecal coliforms and others. The species of bacteria in the total count of mixed feeds were Bacilli, Micrococci, Enterobacteria and Klebsiellas, and the osmophilic moulds were Aspergilus glaucus group, A. gracilis and A. candidus. As the result, it seemed to be necessary to prevent the damage to feed stuff caused by the growth of moulds and insects and to eliminate pathogens. Osmopholic moulds are sensitive to radiation, and ere eliminated to below the identification limit by 0.2 Mrad irradation. Coliforms were more resistant to radiation, and eliminated by up to 0.8 Mrad of radiation. But some bacteria survived up to 1.5 Mrad dose. The irradiation at 0.5 Mrad seemed to be enough to reduce the total count to below 103 per gram, and to eliminate faecal coliforms from mixed feeds. (Kako, I.)

  1. Zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006

    Valkenburgh S; Oosterom R van; Stenvers O; Aalten M; Braks M; Schimmer B; Giessen A van de; van Pelt W; Langelaar M; LZO; EPI

    2007-01-01

    The report 'Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in The Netherlands 2003 - 2006' is based on data that is reported annually to the European Commission, in accordance with the Directive 2003/99/EC on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. They are supplemented with data from Dutch surveillance, monitoring and control programmes and relevant research projects concerning zoonoses and zoonotic agents by the different institutions that have contributed to the pre...

  2. Dietary Fibres: Their Analysis in Animal Feeding, and Their Role in Rabbit Nutrition and Health

    Thierry Gidenne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries ago Heinrich Einhof developed the so-called Weende method (crude fibre, to first deals with the fibre content of the feeds for ruminants, and proposes to isolate a residue called the "crude fibre". Then, dietary fibre concepts evolve and differ in animal feeding compared to human nutrition and health. Animal nutritionists deal with various fibre sources, often from whole plants (forages, by products of seeds processing, and recover a larger range of polysaccharidic components, including other polymers, such polyphenolic (lignins, tannins or polylipidic compounds (cutins. Dietary fibres are generally defined as polysaccharides and associated substances resistant to mammal enzyme digestion and absorption that can be partially or totally fermented in the gut. However, today this topic is still subjected to very active research, because of the complexity of the physical structure and chemical composition of the plant cell walls, and in the wide and different physiological effects of these different constituents. The importance of dietary fibre in animal feeding is due to its influence on rate of passage, mucosa functionality and its role as substrate for gut microbes performances and digestive health. This review will describe the definition and different structure of fibres and cell wall constituents and their analytical methods.

  3. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  4. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  5. Radionuclides in Animal Feed (Poultry) 'Assessment of Radiation Dose'

    Algadi, S.; Salih, I. [Radiation Safety Institute (Sudan)

    2014-07-01

    In this work a comprehensive study has been carried out for the determination of presents evaluation of effective dose due to consumption of chicken fed by fodders collected from four major Sudanese companies (Hader, Koudjs, Wifi and Preconex SPN.V). The concentrations of radionuclides in the thirty two (32) feed samples have been determined by gamma spectrometry using NaI(Tl) detector. Radionuclides observed were: Pb-212 (daughter of Th-238), Pb-214, Bi-214 (daughters of U-238), Cs-137 and K-40 concentration. In additives the activity concentration of these radionuclides has found in the following ranges: 0.81 - 22.06 Bq/kg, 0.59 - 32.07 Bq/kg, 0.64 - 15.77 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 2.02 Bq/kg and 33.58 - 204.61 Bq/kg respectively. In feed concentrates activity concentration ranges has: 0.73 - 13.79 Bq/kg, 0.33 - 20.04 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 1.67 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 0.28 Bq/kg, 26.86 - 99.21 Bq/kg respectively. In fodders the activity concentration ranges has: 1.25 - 1.52 Bq/kg, 0.12 - 1.24 Bq/kg, 0.51 - 1.25 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 0.61 Bq/kg, 11.94 - 127.88 Bq/kg respectively. The 'animal product' activity concentration ranges has: 0.31 - 1.65 Bq/kg, 0.22 - 1.11 Bq/kg, 0.26 - 1.07 Bq/kg, 0.03 - 0.51 Bq/kg, 14.07 - 79.93 Bq/kg respectively. High concentrations (233.3 Bq/Kg) has typically found in toxo(additive); the lowest concentration (27.9 Bq/Kg ) has found in concentrate for layers and animal product. The total average effective dose due to the different feed-stuff has estimated and found to be 5.89x10{sup -6}±3.11x10{sup -6}mSv/y and 13.9 x 10{sup -7} ± 7.24 x 10{sup -7}mSv/y for age categories 7-12 y and >17 y respectively. If compared with the limits - Radioactivity Levels Permitted in foodstuffs Part 1 the Saudi Standards, Metrology and quality (300 Bq/Kg) and ICRP,FAO organization (5 mSv/y) - these values are very low. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation

    Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

  7. Efficiency of feed utilization in young Nellore animals of different genders

    Guilherme Pinheiro dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In study of more efficient animals for food utilization, it is of great importance to know differences between genders. There are differences between male and female cattle in growing and body composition, mainly those related to the action of sex hormones. This study aimed to evaluate the sex effect on feed efficiency traits in young Nellore animals. Individual feed intake data from eight tests, performed from 2005 to 2012 at Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte-Instituto de Zootecnia-Sertãozinho-SP were utilized. The tests began after weaning, when the animals had, on average, 286 days of age and 229 kg of body weight. The tests duration ranged from 56 to 112 days, depending on the year. Traits analyzed were final body weight (FBW, dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed efficiency ratio (FER, residual feed intake (RFI and Kleiber ratio (KR. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the fixed effect age at the test beginning as linear covariate and the random effects: sex, facilities and year. Least square means were calculated and compared by t test. Males had greater FBW than females, what was expected, due to the action of male hormones which benefits the muscle deposition. Greater means of ADG and DMI were also detected for males, when compared to females, because heavier animals have higher gains and consume food according to their body sizes. Among all the feed efficiency measures studied, significant differences between males and females were detected in FCR and KR. Analyzing FCR, females used more food than males for 1 kg of body weight gain, being less efficient. The same was found when KR was analyzed, having males higher KR and being more efficient. No significant differences were detected between males and females for FER and RFI. Young Nellore females are less efficient than males in this growth stage, because of the differences in growth curves due to the sex

  8. Domestication and cereal feeding developed domestic pig-type intestinal microbiota in animals of suidae.

    Ushida, Kazunari; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Maruyama, Fumito

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota are characterized by host-specific microorganisms, which have been selected through host-microbe interactions under phylogenetic evolution and transition of feeding behavior by the host. Although many studies have focused on disease-related intestinal microbiota, the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota have not been well elucidated. Pig is the ideal mammal model to reveal the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota because their direct wild ancestor and close phylogenetic neighbors are available for comparison. The pig has been recognized as a Lactobacillus-type animal. We analyzed the intestinal microbiota of various animals in Suidae: domestic pigs, wild boars and Red river hogs to survey the origin and evolution of Lactobacillus-dominated intestinal microbiota by metagenomic approach and following quantitative PCR confirmation. The metagenomic datasets were separated in two clusters; the wild animal cluster being characterized by a high abundance of Bifidobacterium, whereas the domesticated (or captured) animal cluster by Lactobacillus. In addition, Enterobacteriaceae were harbored as the major family only in domestic Sus scrofa. We conclude that domestication may have induced a larger Enterobacteriaceae population in pigs, and the introduction of modern feeding system further caused the development of Lactobacillus-dominated intestinal microbiota, with genetic and geographical factors possibly having a minor impact. PMID:26315488

  9. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl; Skrede, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed...... ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink...... Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors...

  10. Biological treatments as a mean to improve feed utilization in agriculture animals-An overview

    Nahla A Abdel-Aziz; Abdelfattah Z M Salem; Mounir M El-Adawy; Luis M Camacho; Ahmed E Kholif; Mona M Y Elghandour; Borhami E Borhami

    2015-01-01

    As a result of agriculture practices, mil ion tons of agriculture are produced as a secondary or by-products;however, with low nutritive values. Many methods are applied to improve the nutritive value and increase its utilization in ruminant’s nutrition. The biological treatments are the most common with more safe-treated products. In most cases, the biological treatments are paral eled with decreased crude ifber and ifber fractions content with increased crude protein content. Direct-fed micro-bial and exogenous enzymes to animal are other ways of biological methods for improving nutritive value of feeds. Here in this review, we wil try to cover the biological treatments of by-products from different sides view with different types of animals and different animal end-products.

  11. The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models

    Petr Mares

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

  12. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed.

    Dorne, Jean Lou; Doerge, Daniel R; Vandenbroeck, Marc; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Mennes, Wim; Knutsen, Helle K; Vernazza, Francesco; Castle, Laurence; Edler, Lutz; Benford, Diane

    2013-08-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine-cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine-uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. PMID:22306862

  13. Treatment of Animal Feeds with Ionizing Radiation II: Effects of Gamma Radicidation on the Biological Value of Poultry Feed

    Poultry is a major local meat source which is often contaminated with salmonella. A major source of contamination was found to be salmonella-infected poultry feed. Since gamma radiation at doses of up to 1 Mrad reduced salmonella populations in feed by 6 to 7 logs, this study was undertaken to determine if radicidized poultry feed can be used as a step in reducing contamination of poultry without affecting breeder flock performance and longevity. Two breeder flocks, each comprising 300 hens and 50 roosters, were kept in separate coops. One flock was fed untreated feed, while the feed of the other was radicidized at 1 Mrad, which resulted in a level of less than 10 enterobacteria per gram. The flocks Were studied for over 12 months, from the emergence of chicks to the end of 6 months of egg production. The quantity of feed supply was controlled to ensure early detection of detrimental effects on the biological value of the feed. For the first 8 weeks, when the feed was freely supplied, no differences were observed in feed utilization or growth. After limited feeding was started, no significant differences were observed in feed utilization and in total amount of feed consumed. The number of fertile eggs, the feed consumption per egg, the age at which the first egg was laid, mortality and the total weight after 22 weeks and 12¼ months were practically equivalent in both flocks. Chicks obtained from both flocks showed no significant differences in weight or in feed utilization. (author)

  14. Animal performance and carcass characteristics from confined lambs fed on concentrate feed and additives.

    Prado, Tayrone F; França, Aldi F S; Meirinhos, Maria Lúcia G; Peron, Hugo J M C; Ferreira, Reginaldo N; Oliveira, Leonardo G; Corrêa, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    The number of sheep flocks in Brazil is increasing. It is known that lambs must be slaughtered when young for producing quality meat. The current study evaluated the inclusion of protected methionine, protected lysine, lysophospholipid and amylolytic enzymes in a diet to lambs and their effects on weight gain and quantitative carcass traits at slaughtering. Eighty non-castrated male crossbred Dorper x Santa Inês lambs, 20.57 ± 4.33 kg live weight, were used. The feedlot lasted 64 days and 60 animals were slaughtered. There were no differences for live weight, daily feed intake, feed conversion and average daily weight gain at the first 28 days of feedlot. From the 28th day lysophospholipid treatment presented the highest live weight. Lysophospholipid and amylolytic enzyme presented the best performance in average daily gain, followed by protected methionine, control and protected lysine. Lysophospholipid treatment presented higher daily feed intake rates than protected lysine and protected methionine. Feed conversion was lower for amylolytic enzyme and higher for control. No changing in carcass traits was reported due to additives. Better performance may be achieved with feedlot lambs fed on diets with the addition of amylolytic enzyme and lysophospholipid at the finishing phase. PMID:26536854

  15. Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012

    Dong-Ho Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, and zearalenone (ZEN contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

  16. Graph animals, subgraph sampling and motif search in large networks

    Baskerville, Kim; Paczuski, Maya

    2007-01-01

    We generalize a sampling algorithm for lattice animals (connected clusters on a regular lattice) to a Monte Carlo algorithm for `graph animals', i.e. connected subgraphs in arbitrary networks. As with the algorithm in [N. Kashtan et al., Bioinformatics 20, 1746 (2004)], it provides a weighted sample, but the computation of the weights is much faster (linear in the size of subgraphs, instead of super-exponential). This allows subgraphs with up to ten or more nodes to be sampled with very high statistics, from arbitrarily large networks. Using this together with a heuristic algorithm for rapidly classifying isomorphic graphs, we present results for two protein interaction networks obtained using the TAP high throughput method: one of Escherichia coli with 230 nodes and 695 links, and one for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with roughly ten times more nodes and links. We find in both cases that most connected subgraphs are strong motifs (Z-scores >10) or anti-motifs (Z-scores <-10) when the null model is the...

  17. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  18. Environmental contaminants associated with a swine concentrated animal feeding operation and implications for McMurtrey National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waste generated by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) may contain a variety of contaminants including nutrients, pathogens, trace elements, antibiotics,...

  19. Recommendation concerning maximum permissible radioactivity in animal feeds in case of a nuclear accident or other type of radiological emergency

    The SSK in its advice to the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety recommends to abstain from determining maximum permissible values to be applied in such cases of emergency. If, however, official limits are to be given, the following should be considered: (1) Distinction has to be made between animal feeds not subject to restrictive application with regard to time, animal species, or food chain (meat, milk, eggs), and those animal feeds whose application is subject to restrictions defined. (2) Maximum permissible activity data for animal feeds for restricted use should be ten times the value determined for non-restricted feeds. As to consultations within the EC on supplemtary tables to EC Directive No. 3954/87, the SSK presented its proposals in tables, using transfer factors from the literature concerning assessment of maximum permissible chronic intake of Cs-137, I-131, Sr-90, Pu-239, Am-241 by productive livestock (bovine, goats, sheep, swine, poultry). (HP)

  20. Optimal conditions for determination of zinc bacitracin, polymyxin B, oxytetracycline and sulfacetamide in animal feed by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Injac, Rade; Mlinaric, Ales; Djorjevic-Milic, Vukosava; Karljikovic-Rajic, Katarina; Strukelj, Borut

    2008-04-01

    A separation technique for zinc bacitracin, polymyxin B, oxytetracycline and sulfacetamide in animal feedstuffs by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was developed. The running buffer was 20 mmol l(-1) borate, 20 mmol l(-1) phosphate, pH 8.4, containing 20 mmol l(-1) sodium dodecylsulphate and 10% (v/v) methanol. MEKC was performed at 25 degrees C; the applied voltage was 25 kV with a running pressure of 10 mbar. Simultaneous UV detection for all analytes was at 215 nm. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, linearity, precision and robustness. It was shown to be specific, accurate (recoveries were 99.7 +/- 0.3, 99.9 +/- 0.9, 99.8 +/- 1.0 and 99.5 +/- 0.4, respectively, for oxytetracycline-, sulfacetamide-, polymyxin B- and zinc bacitracin-spiked samples of feed for cow, pigs, chicken and cattle), linear over the tested range (correlation coefficients > or =0.9987) and precise (RSDs below 1.8% for each analyte). The method was applied to determine zinc bacitracin, polymyxin B, oxytetracycline and sulfacetamide as additives in animal feed. PMID:18348041

  1. Distiller’s Dried Grains With Solubles (DDGS for Animal Feed

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Distiller’s Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS is co-product from dry milling of ethanol industry after removal of ethanol and CO2. From every 25.4 kg (1 bushel of corn, it can produce around 7.7 kg of DDGS. DDGS offers an opportunity for cost savings in animal feed rations, and will be available in abundant quantities in coming years. DDGS has been traded in many parts of the world with 27% protein, 9 – 10% fat and < 7% fiber. Although DDGS is mainly used for feeding ruminant, more DDGS are used for monogastric animals such as swine and poultry and recently an interest to be used for aquaculture. Recent studies by University of Arkansas indicated that Metabolizable Energy value of DDGS for poultry is 2850 kcal/kg. It was also reported that DDGS can be included up to 15% in broiler feed without affecting performance and higher level of inclusion was possible for finisher broiler. On swine diet, Digestible and Metabolizable Energy of DDGS is equal to corn and much higher value than that reported by NRC 1998. DDGS is a good source of protein, fat, phosphorus and energy for lactating dairy cows. Distiller’s grains can be included in dairy cow diets up to 20% of the ration without decreasing dry matter intake, milk production, milk fat and protein percentage. For beef cattle, it can effectively be used as an energy source and be fed up to 40% of ration with excellent growth performance, carcass and meat quality. For aquaculture, DDGS can be used up to 30% in freshwater fish such as catfish and tilapia and up to 20% in trout; it can also be used to feed shrimp up to 10%. However, in order to use DDGS for animal feeding, several quality factors include physical, chemical and biological should be considered especially in formulating a diet. DDGS quality may vary depending on the origin and corn quality, processing condition especially drying temperature and time and amount of solubles being added to distiller’s grains.

  2. Controlling the aflatoxin producing fungi contaminating animal feed by gamma irradiation

    The results indicated that 9 from 24 isolates of fungi have the ability to produce aflatoxins either on synthetic medium or natural animal diet. Seven from the nine isolates producing aflatoxins belonged to genus Aspergillus and were held to five species namely A. terreus ,A. niger, A.flavus, A. orywae and A. nidulans. Meanwhile, only one species from genus penicillium was found to produce aflatoxin on both synthetic and animal diet media, while the remaining isolate, rhizopus nigricansm was found to produce aflatoxin on synthetic medium only. Aspergillus terreus isolates (1 and 3) were found to produce aflatoxins G 1 and G 2 on synthetic medium. On animal diet, strain (1) produced only aflatoxin G l, while strain (3) produced aflatoxin G 2 on the same animal diet. Exposure of these two strains to increasing doses of gamma rays up to 5 KGy decreased and finally prevented aflatoxin production. This dose was also found to be sufficient to eliminate all kinds of fungi contaminated animal feed.2 fig.,5 tab

  3. Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from animals and feed in Poland

    Wasyl, D.; Sandvang, D.; Skov, M. N.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2006-01-01

    the isolates and most frequently among isolates from 2000-2002. Of several phage types noted, DT104 was prevalent among poultry, swine and feed isolates. DT104, U302 and non-typable strains had a multiple resistant profile (ACSSuT) due to the presence of class I integrons. Pulse-field get...... integron-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Poland. These findings are significant for public and animal health risks and document the dissemination of DT104 epidemic strains into new geographical regions....

  4. Treatment of animal feeds with ionizing radiation. II. Effects of gamma radicidation on the biological value of poultry feed

    Poultry is a major local meat source which is often contaminated with salmonella. A major source of contamination was found to be salmonella-infected poultry feed. Since gamma radiation at doses of up to 1 Mrad reduced salmonella populations in feed by 6 to 7 logs, this study was undertaken to determine if radicidized poultry feed can be used as a step in reducing contamination of poultry without affecting breeder flock performance and longevity. Two breeder flocks, each comprising 300 hens and 50 roosters, were kept in separate coops. One flock was fed untreated feed, while the feed of the other was radicidized at 1 Mrad, which resulted in a level of less than 10 enterobacteria per gram. The flocks were studied for over 12 months, from the emergence of chicks to the end of 6 months of egg production. The quantity of feed supply was controlled to ensure early detection of detrimental effects on the biological value of the feed. For the first 8 weeks, when the feed was freely supplied, no differences were observed in feed utilization or growth. After limited feeding was started, no significant differences were observed in feed utilization and in total amount of feed consumed. The number of fertile eggs, the feed consumption per egg, the age at which the first egg was laid, mortality and the total weight after 22 weeks and 12 1/4 months were practically equivalent in both flocks. Chicks obtained from both flocks showed no significant differences in weight or in feed utilization. (author)

  5. The Prospect of Using Complete Feed in Goat Production: A Review on its Utility and Physical Form and Animal Responses

    Simon P Ginting

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Complete feed is a strategic feeding system that has been widely adopted by the dairy cattle industry, but it has been rarely practised in goat enterprises. The prospect of using complete feed for goat production could be considered from two aspects, namely 1 its relevancy to the goat metabolic requirement, and 2 its potential as an effective means for maximal utilization of crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts as alternative feeds. Metabolically, the higher energy requirement and the lower gut capacity of goats due to its relatively smaller body size make this animal more adapted to feedstuffs with denser nutrient contents as typified by the complete feed. As complete feed is characteristically dry, it has potential to cause hypovolemia and induce later a lower feed consumption when fed to goats. But, this event occurs only during the initial meal and the condition returns to the normal state thereafter. Total saliva secretion tend to decrease by consuming dry feed which can cause parakeratosis, laminitis or acidosis. However, these metabolic disorder could be prevented by formulating complete feed with optimal roughage/concentrate ratio. Review from literatures showed that, when used in complete feed, the inclusion rate of several low palatability crop residues or agro-industrial ranged from 15 to 60%. The roughage/concentrate ratio was in the range of 0.25 to 3.0. Some physical characteristics are important for effective complete feed such as the particle size of roughage, the content of physically effective fibre and the form of the complete feed. Complete feed processed into pellet generally resulted in better performances. The ME and CP content of complete feed used ranged from 1800 to 2800 kcal/kg DM and from 15 to 20%, respectively. The rate of feed intake by goats receiving complete feed ranged from 2.0 to 4.9% BW, the ADG ranged from 40 to 145 g, FCR ranged from 5.2 to 13.0 and DM digestibility ranged from 62 to 81%. These

  6. Animals

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  7. Drosophilidae feeding on animals and the inherent mystery of their parasitism.

    Máca, Jan; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Insect evolution, from a free to a parasitic lifestyle, took eons under the pressure of a plethora of ecological and environmental drivers in different habitats, resulting in varying degrees of interactions with their hosts. Most Drosophilidae are known to be adapted to feeding on substrates rich in bacteria, yeasts and other microfungi. Some of them, mainly those in the Steganinae subfamily, display a singular behaviour, feeding on animal tissues or secretions. This behaviour may represent an evolving tendency towards parasitism. Indeed, while the predatory attitude is typical for the larval stages of a great proportion of flies within this subfamily, adult males of the genera Amiota, Apsiphortica and Phortica display a clearly zoophilic attitude, feeding on the lachrymal secretions of living mammals (also referred as to lachryphagy). Ultimately, some of these lachryphagous species act as vectors and intermediate hosts for the spirurid nematode Thelazia callipaeda, which parasitizes the eyes of domestic and wild carnivores and also humans. Here we review the scientific information available and provide an opinion on the roots of their evolution towards the parasitic behaviour. The distribution of T. callipaeda and its host affiliation is also discussed and future trends in the study of the ecology of Steganinae are outlined. PMID:25404259

  8. Pilot scale study - processing of palm empty fruit bunch into animal feed at sterifeed pilot plant

    Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5-1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

  9. Animal feed contamination by PCDDs-PCDFs in Italy in years 2002-2003

    Ceci, R.; Diletti, G.; Torreti, L.; Benedictis, A. De; Scortichini, G. [Ist. Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Abruzzo e del Molise (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), are ubiquitous toxic contaminants mainly originating from thermal and incineration processes and representing a potential risk for human health. Various studies show that environmental levels have decreased during the last 20 years. In contrast to this trend several cases of specific contamination have caused high PCDD and PCDF levels in feedstuffs. It is important to monitor the dioxin contamination of feed to avoid large scale feed contamination and to decrease human exposure to dioxins. In Italy PCDDs and PCDFs monitoring has been introduced in the National Residues Surveillance Plan (NRSP) since 1999 and all relevant laboratory tests have been carried out at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise (ISO/IEC 17025 accredited), following designation by the Ministry of Health. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCDD/Fs levels and congener distribution patterns in different animal feed in Italy, collected in the period 2002-2003.

  10. Graph animals, subgraph sampling, and motif search in large networks

    Baskerville, Kim; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2007-09-01

    We generalize a sampling algorithm for lattice animals (connected clusters on a regular lattice) to a Monte Carlo algorithm for “graph animals,” i.e., connected subgraphs in arbitrary networks. As with the algorithm in [N. Kashtan , Bioinformatics 20, 1746 (2004)], it provides a weighted sample, but the computation of the weights is much faster (linear in the size of subgraphs, instead of superexponential). This allows subgraphs with up to ten or more nodes to be sampled with very high statistics, from arbitrarily large networks. Using this together with a heuristic algorithm for rapidly classifying isomorphic graphs, we present results for two protein interaction networks obtained using the tandem affinity purification (TAP) method: one of Escherichia coli with 230 nodes and 695 links, and one for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with roughly ten times more nodes and links. We find in both cases that most connected subgraphs are strong motifs ( Z scores >10 ) or antimotifs ( Z scores <-10 ) when the null model is the ensemble of networks with fixed degree sequence. Strong differences appear between the two networks, with dominant motifs in E. coli being (nearly) bipartite graphs and having many pairs of nodes that connect to the same neighbors, while dominant motifs in yeast tend towards completeness or contain large cliques. We also explore a number of methods that do not rely on measurements of Z scores or comparisons with null models. For instance, we discuss the influence of specific complexes like the 26S proteasome in yeast, where a small number of complexes dominate the k cores with large k and have a decisive effect on the strongest motifs with 6-8 nodes. We also present Zipf plots of counts versus rank. They show broad distributions that are not power laws, in contrast to the case when disconnected subgraphs are included.

  11. Interaction of the role of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDS).

    Hollenbeck, James E

    2016-03-01

    Most significant change in the evolution of the influenza virus is the rapid growth of the Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on a global scale. These industrial agricultural operations have the potential of housing thousands of animals in a relatively small area. Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) event can be considered as a shift in the pathogen-host-environment interplay characteristics described by Engering et al. (2013). These changes in the host-environment and the disease ecology are key to creating novel transmission patterns and selection of novel pathogens with a modification of genetic traits. With the development of CAFOs throughout the world, the need for training of animal caretakers to observe, identify, treat, vaccinate and cull if necessary is important to safeguard public health. The best defense against another pandemic of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) is the constant monitoring of the livestock and handlers of CAFOs and the live animal markets. These are the most likely epicenter of the next pandemic. PMID:26656834

  12. Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment

    Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author)

  13. Do whole-food animal feeding studies have any value in the safety assessment of GM crops?

    Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin. PMID:23851038

  14. Prevalence of Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Salmonella Strains with Conjugative Antimicrobial-Resistant Serovars Contaminating Animal Feed in Texas.

    Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Poole, Toni L; Runyon, Mick; Hume, Michael; Herrman, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize 365 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolates from animal feed. Among the 365 isolates, 78 serovars were identified. Twenty-four isolates (7.0%) were recovered from three of six medicated feed types. Three of these isolates derived from the medicated feed, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen), and Salmonella Lexington var. 15+ (Manila), displayed antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility testing revealed that only 3.0% (12) of the 365 isolates displayed resistance to any of the antimicrobial agents. These 12 isolates were recovered from unmedicated dry beef feed (n = 3), medicated dry beef feed (n = 3), cabbage culls (n = 2), animal protein products (n = 2), dry dairy cattle feed (n = 1), and fish meal (n = 1). Only Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen) were multidrug resistant. Both isolates possessed the IncA/C replicon and the blaCMY-2 gene associated with cephalosporin resistance. Plasmid replicons were amplified from 4 of 12 resistant isolates. Plasmids (40 kb) were Salmonella Montevideo and Salmonella Kentucky. Conjugation experiments were done using 7 of the 12 resistant isolates as donors. Only Salmonella Montevideo, possessing a plasmid and amplifying IncN, produced transconjugants. Transconjugants displayed the same antimicrobial resistance profile as did the donor isolate. Three isolates that amplified replicons corresponding to IncA/C or IncHI2 did not produce transconjugants at 30 or 37°C. The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella contaminating animal feed is low in Texas. However, Salmonella was more prevalent in feed by-products; fish meal had the highest prevalence (84%) followed by animal protein products (48%). Ten of the 35 feed types had no Salmonella contamination. Further investigation is needed to understand the possible role of specific feed types in the dissemination of antimicrobial

  15. Isotope analytics for the evaluation of the feeding influence on the isotope ratio in beef samples

    Information about the origin of food and associated production systems has a high significance for food control. An extremely promising approach to obtain such information is the determination of isotope ratios of different elements. In this study the correlation of the isotope ratios C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, Mg-25/Mg-24, and Sr-87/Sr-86 in bovine samples (milk and urine) and the corresponding isotope ratios in feed was investigated. It was shown that in the bovine samples all four isotope ratios correlate with the isotope composition of the feed. The isotope ratios of strontium and magnesium have the advantage that they directly reflect the isotope ratios of the ingested feed since there is no isotope fractionation in the bovine organism which is in contrast to the case of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. From the present feeding study it is evident, that a feed change leads to a significant change in the delta C-13 values in milk and urine within 10 days already. For the deltaN-15 values the feed change was only visible in the bovine urine after 49 days. Investigations of cows from two different regions (Berlin/Germany and Goestling/Austria) kept at different feeding regimes revealed no differences in the N-15/N-14 and Mg-26/Mg-24 isotope ratios. The strongest correlation between the isotope ratio of the bovine samples and the kind of ingested feed was observed for the carbon isotope ratio. With this ratio even smallest differences in the feed composition were traceable in the bovine samples. Since different regions usually coincide with different feeding regimes, carbon isotope ratios can be used to distinguish bovine samples from different regions if the delta C-13 values of the ingested feed are different. Furthermore, the determination of strontium isotope ratios revealed significant differences between bovine and feed samples of Berlin and Goestling due to the different geologic realities. Hence the carbon and strontium isotope ratios allow the best

  16. Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. Mean fractional GI absorption values in fasted adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 15 x 10-4; Pu(IV) bicarbonate, 20 x 10-4; Pu(IV) nitrate (pH2), 17 x 10-4; Pu(IV) citrate, 24 x 10-4; and Pu(IV) polymer, 3 x 10-4. Values in fed adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 1.4 x 10-4; Pu(IV) polymer, 0.3 x 10-4. Pu(VI) is the oxidation state in chlorinated drinking waters and Pu(IV) is the oxidation state in many untreated natural waters. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. Fractional GI absorption values obtained by this method were 23 +- 10 x 10-4 for fasted baboons (n=5) and 1.4 +- 0.9 x 10-4 for fed baboons (n=3). We have so far validated this method in one baboon and are currently completing validation in two additional animals. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state [Pu(VI) vs Pu(IV)] and administration medium (bicarbonate vs nitrate vs citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Genotyping of plant and animal samples without prior DNA purification.

    Chum, Pak Y; Haimes, Josh D; André, Chas P; Kuusisto, Pia K; Kelley, Melissa L

    2012-01-01

    The Direct PCR approach facilitates PCR amplification directly from small amounts of unpurified samples, and is demonstrated here for several plant and animal tissues (Figure 1). Direct PCR is based on specially engineered Thermo Scientific Phusion and Phire DNA Polymerases, which include a double-stranded DNA binding domain that gives them unique properties such as high tolerance of inhibitors. PCR-based target DNA detection has numerous applications in plant research, including plant genotype analysis and verification of transgenes. PCR from plant tissues traditionally involves an initial DNA isolation step, which may require expensive or toxic reagents. The process is time consuming and increases the risk of cross contamination. Conversely, by using Thermo Scientific Phire Plant Direct PCR Kit the target DNA can be easily detected, without prior DNA extraction. In the model demonstrated here, an example of derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis (dCAPS) is performed directly from Arabidopsis plant leaves. dCAPS genotyping assays can be used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by SNP allele-specific restriction endonuclease digestion. Some plant samples tend to be more challenging when using Direct PCR methods as they contain components that interfere with PCR, such as phenolic compounds. In these cases, an additional step to remove the compounds is traditionally required. Here, this problem is overcome by using a quick and easy dilution protocol followed by Direct PCR amplification (Figure 1). Fifteen year-old oak leaves are used as a model for challenging plants as the specimen contains high amounts of phenolic compounds including tannins. Gene transfer into mice is broadly used to study the roles of genes in development, physiology and human disease. The use of these animals requires screening for the presence of the transgene, usually with PCR. Traditionally, this involves a time consuming DNA isolation step, during which DNA

  18. Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994–2012

    Wierup, Martin; Kristoffersen, Thor

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a “crushing plant” which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. We report the successful control of Salmonella from 1994 to 2012 in a Norwegian crushing plant producing soybean meal from imported soy b...

  19. Unravelling a vicious circle: animal feed marketed in Costa Rica contains irregular concentrations of tetracyclines and abundant oxytetracycline-resistant Gram-positive bacteria.

    Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro, Margarita; Chavarría, Guadalupe; Rodríguez, César

    2014-01-01

    Diverse tetracyclines are used to prevent and control bacterial infections in livestock and farmed fish. These drugs are administered through the diet, but farmers seldom check whether feed contains antibiotic-resistant bacteria that may colonise their crops or transfer their resistance traits to species of veterinary relevance. To examine whether antibiotic dosage defines the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animal feed, we determined the concentration of parental compounds and epimers of oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline, as well as the abundance and resistance level of OTC-resistant bacteria in samples of fish (n = 21), poultry (n = 21), swine (n = 21), and shrimp feed (n = 21) marketed in Costa Rica. Fish feed contained the highest amounts of tetracyclines (119-8365 mg kg(-1)) and the largest proportion of bacteria resistant to 10 μg ml(-1) (1.8-92.4%) or 100 μg ml(-1) of OTC (12.5-63.8%). Poultry (78-438 mg kg(-1)) and swine (41-1076 mg kg(-1)) feed had intermediate concentrations of tetracyclines and OTC-resistant bacteria (0.2-66% and 0.3-49%, respectively), whereas shrimp feed showed the lowest amounts of tetracyclines (21.5-50.3 mg kg(-1)), no OTC and no culturable OTC-resistant bacteria. In line with these results, the MIC50 of OTC for 150 isolates from fish and poultry feed was > 256 µg ml(-1), while that of 150 bacteria isolated from swine feed was 192 µg ml(-1). Phenotypic tests, fatty acid profiles and proteotypic analyses by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass-spectroscopy revealed that most OTC-resistant isolates were Gram-positive bacteria of low G+C% content from the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Clear correlations between OTC dosage and feed colonisation with OTC-resistant bacteria were seen in medicated feed for fish (r = 0.179-0.651). Nonetheless, some unmedicated feed for fish, swine and poultry contained large populations of OTC-resistant bacteria

  20. Rationalization of motive power use in animal feed industry; Racionalizacao do uso de forca motriz em fabrica de racao

    Teixeira, Carlos A.; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio F. de; Martins, Jose H. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mails: carlos, delly, alacerda, jmartins@vicosa.ufv.br

    2005-05-15

    The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pif Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: to adjust relays and to choose fuses, to schedule operation and to build storage facilities. (author)

  1. Radionuclides in animal tissue samples from various regions of Austria

    An investigation of the concentration of radioactive substances in animal species from various regions of Austria has been carried out. For bone and liver of deer, radionuclide concentrations typical for central Europe were found. The content of 90Sr were higher in gasteropod shells than in deer bone. Similar concentrations of 90Sr were found in isopods as in snail shells related to fresh weight, but related to Ca content the values in isopods were higher than in all other animals. Based on these results, a study of snail shells and of isopods as bioindicators for 90Sr content in environmental control is indicated. In tissue samples of the same species, but from different regions of Austria, the fallout radionuclide concentrations were found to be related to altitude (90Sr) and to the amount of precipitation (137Cs). These correlation differences could point to a different deposition behaviours of 90Sr and 137Cs, the former being deposited mainly with solid precipitation. This seems plausible since aerosols carried over continental distances show a high sulfate content and alkaline earth metal sulfates are less soluble than alkali sulfates. Examination of absolute concentration values related to fresh tissue weight show high fallout radionuclide concentrations, as compared to natural radionuclide concentration, especially in hard tissues. These fallout levels constitute a significant radioactive load on the biosphere. Due to the long physical half-life of 90Sr and 137Cs, this situation will remain virtually unchanged during the next decades, even if no further nuclear weapons tests are carried out. (G.G.)

  2. Speciation of arsenic animal feed additives by microbore high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Pergantis, S A; Heithmar, E M; Hinners, T A

    1997-10-01

    Phenylarsonic compounds have been used as poultry and swine feed additives for the purpose of growth promotion and disease prevention. Owing to the lack of suitable analytical methods, however, knowledge of their metabolism, environmental fate and impact remains incomplete. In order to compensate for this, analytical procedures were developed that allow the speciation of arsenic animal feed additives by using microbore high-performance liquid chromatography (microHPLC) coupled on-line with ICP-MS. More specifically, reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic methods were optimised to achieve the separation of various phenylarsonic acids from each other and from the more toxic inorganic arsenic compounds. This mode of chromatography, however, exhibits limitations, especially in the presence of naturally occurring organoarsenic compounds. The application of RP ion-pairing chromatography eliminates such shortcomings by minimising the co-elution of arsenic species. In general, the microHPLC-ICP-MS methods developed in this study provide high selectivity, extremely good sensitivity, low limits of detection (low-ppb or sub-pg amounts of As), require small sample volumes (< 1 microliter), minimise waste and operate most efficiently under low mobile-phase flow rates (15-40 microliters min-1), which are compatible for use with other types of mass spectrometers, e.g., electrospray. Reference materials containing naturally occurring arsenic compounds were spiked with phenylarsonic compounds and then analysed by using the procedures developed in this study. PMID:9463956

  3. Composition and nutritive value of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes) in animal feeds.

    Zumbado, M E; Murillo, M G

    1984-06-01

    Nutritive assessment of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes) meals included proximal composition of the lipid and nitrogenous fractions. Caloric values obtained as true metabolizable energy (TME) indicate that the pejibaye has a higher content of energy than corn and that it is not necessary to separate the seeds from the fruits in animal feeds; the level of indispensable aminoacids is considerably low, especially methionine, which is lower than in corn; thin layer chromatography shows that most of the free fatty acids are present in a ratio of 2:1 in unsaturated to saturated acids. The predominant fatty acids in whole pejibaye meal are oleic and palmitic acids with adequate levels of linoleic acid. Saturated fatty acids are predominant in the seed, with a very high content of lauric and myristic acids. PMID:6535181

  4. Could ozonation technology really work for mitigating air emissions from animal feeding operations?

    Li, Qianfeng; Wang, Lingjuan; Liu, Zifei; Kamens, Richard M

    2009-10-01

    Among various mitigation technologies for ammonia (NH3) emission control at animal feeding operations (AFOs), room ozonation technology is the most controversial. This paper aims to present full perspectives of ozonation techniques through a literature review and a series of laboratory experiments. In the literature review, ozone chemistry was summarized to address (1) ozone and NH3 reactions, (2) ozone and odor reactions, (3) ozone and particulate matter reactions, and (4) ozone and microorganism reactions. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted in a dual large outdoor aerosol smog chamber (270 m3). NH3 and fine particle number concentrations from ozone-treated and control experiments were compared. The experimental results indicated that (1) ozone has no significant effect on NH3 emissions/concentrations or NH3 decay of an outdoor chamber; and (2) with ozone treatment, high concentration of particles in the "high-risk" respiratory fraction (in submicron range) are generated. PMID:19842331

  5. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated. PMID:26231239

  6. Evaluating Chemical Mitigation of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in Animal Feed Ingredients.

    Cochrane, Roger A; Huss, Anne R; Aldrich, Gregory C; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is a potential feed safety hazard in animal feed ingredients. Thermal mitigation of Salmonella spp. during rendering is effective but does not eliminate the potential for cross-contamination. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of chemicals to mitigate postrendering Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 contamination in rendered proteins over time. Treatments were arranged in a 6 × 4 factorial with six chemical treatments and four rendered protein meals. The chemical treatments included (i) control without chemical treatment, (ii) 0.3% commercial formaldehyde product, (iii) 2% essential oil blend, (iv) 2% medium chain fatty acid blend, (v) 3% organic acid blend, and (vi) 1% sodium bisulfate. The four rendered protein meals included (i) feather meal, (ii) blood meal, (iii) meat and bone meal, and (iv) poultry by-product meal. After matrices were chemically treated, they were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, stored at room temperature, and enumerated via plate counts on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 42 postinoculation. The Salmonella concentration in ingredients treated with medium chain fatty acid and commercial formaldehyde were similar to one another (P = 0.23) but were 2 log lower than the control (P organic acids and essential oils also had lower Salmonella concentrations than the control (P poultry by-product meal (P acids or a commercial formaldehyde product were most effective at mitigating Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in rendered protein meals. PMID:27052874

  7. Weber's law, the magnitude effect and discrimination of sugar concentrations in nectar-feeding animals.

    Vladislav Nachev

    Full Text Available Weber's law quantifies the perception of difference between stimuli. For instance, it can explain why we are less likely to detect the removal of three nuts from a bowl if the bowl is full than if it is nearly empty. This is an example of the magnitude effect - the phenomenon that the subjective perception of a linear difference between a pair of stimuli progressively diminishes when the average magnitude of the stimuli increases. Although discrimination performances of both human and animal subjects in various sensory modalities exhibit the magnitude effect, results sometimes systematically deviate from the quantitative predictions based on Weber's law. An attempt to reformulate the law to better fit data from acoustic discrimination tasks has been dubbed the "near-miss to Weber's law". Here, we tested the gustatory discrimination performance of nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina, in order to investigate whether the original version of Weber's law accurately predicts choice behavior in a two-alternative forced choice task. As expected, bats either preferred the sweeter of the two options or showed no preference. In 4 out of 6 bats the near-miss to Weber's law provided a better fit and Weber's law underestimated the magnitude effect. In order to test the generality of this observation in nectar-feeders, we reviewed previously published data on bats, hummingbirds, honeybees, and bumblebees. In all groups of animals the near-miss to Weber's law provided better fits than Weber's law. Furthermore, whereas the magnitude effect was stronger than predicted by Weber's law in vertebrates, it was weaker than predicted in insects. Thus nectar-feeding vertebrates and insects seem to differ in how their choice behavior changes as sugar concentration is increased. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of the observed patterns of sugar concentration discrimination.

  8. Studies on injector pump-ultrasonic nebulizer feeding sample system for MPT-AES

    Feng Guodong; Hang Songbai; Yu Aimin

    2006-01-01

    The feeding-sample system used by microwave plasma torch atomic emission spectroscopy(MPT-AES)is the pneumatic nebulization system;its efficiency,however,is not good.A newly built injector pump-ultrasonic nebulizer combination feeding-sample system has been designed.Its performance was tested and compared with that of the pneumatic nebulization system.It can be concluded that the newly built feeding-sample system can increase the spectral line intensity by about two to three times and decrease the detection limit by about 2 to 10 times.Moreover,this newly built system can reduce the time taken washing the sample cell from 30 rain or so to about 10 rain.

  9. Application of Neutron Activation Analysis to the determination of essential and toxic elements in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding

    In the present work the concentrations of essential elements Ca (calcium), CI (chlorine), K (potassium), Mg (magnesium), Na (sodium), Co (cobalt), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), Fe (iron), Mn (manganese). Mo (molybdenum), Se (selenium), V (vanadium) and Zn (zinc), the toxic elements As (arsenic), Cd (cadmium) and Hg (mercury) and the elements without defined functions to the animal metabolism, such as Br (bromine), Eu (europium). La (lanthanum), Rb (rubidium), Sb (antinomies), Sc (scandium), Ta (tantalum), Th (thorium) and U (uranium) were determined in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Forty samples of agroindustrial by-products were analyzed, six of which are from animal origin and the others are from vegetable origin. All these materials are widely used in bovine feeding, mainly in dry season, when the forage become scarce. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated by means of analysis of the following certified reference materials: Rice Flour NIES-CRM-10C, Pig Kidney BCR-CRM, Oyster Tissue NIST-SRM-1566a e Buffalo River Sediment NIST-SRM-2704. The results, in general, are lower than 10 %. The results for the most of essential minerals were lower than the toxic limit for animals, and they reached the minimum requirements for domestic animals, although some agroindustrial by-products showed concentrations lower than the requirement. For all samples, the concentrations of toxic minerals were lower than the toxic limit (author)

  10. The application of Molasses in Animal compound Feeds%糖蜜在配合饲料中的添加

    蒋振山

    2001-01-01

    The addition method of molasses in compound feeds was discussed. And the suggestion for some key techniques was put forward in order to favourably apply molasses in animal feeds.%对糖蜜在配合饲料中的添加方法进行了讨论,并就几个关键技术提出了建议,以期能在糖蜜使用过程中有所帮助。

  11. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  12. Wholesomeness and toxicological safety of irradiated animal feed by-products

    The aim of this study was to assess the wholesomeness and toxicological safety of irradiated animal feed by-products after eliminating the pathogenic microorganisms by using gamma irradiation. Five groups of Dokki-4 chicks each group consists of 60 one-day old cockerels were fed for 24 weeks on a ration containing irradiated fish, meat, and blood meals by dose level 0.5, 10.0, 20.0, and 50,0 KGY for 24 weeks. The ratio of animal proteins to the total protein of ration fed was 56% for non-irradiated or irradiated meals. The effects of consumption of irradiated meals on live body weight and internal organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys) were studied. The observation gave an indication that body weight of all group as well as organs weight were normal and similar for the control group. Also, there was no clinically significant differences among the groups regarding red and white blood cells counts, haemoglobin contents, haematocrite value, and ESR for all groups. The results also showed no differences in total plasma protein, alkaline phosphatase activity and plasma Na, K, Mg, and Zn ions between the five groups studied

  13. Application of habitat suitability modelling to tracking data of marine animals as a means of analyszing their feeding habitats

    Skov, Henrik; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Garthe, Stefan; Geitner, Kerstin; Gremillet, David; Hamer, Keith C.; Hennicke, Janos; Parner, Hjalte; Wanless, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential for using quantitative applications of statistical models of habitat suitability based on marine animal tracking data to identify key feeding areas. Presence-only models like Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) may be applicable to resolve habitat gradients and potentially project habitat characteristics of tracked animals over large areas of ocean. We tested ENFA on tracking data of the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) obtained from the colony at Bas...

  14. Trace analysis of doxylamine succinate in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater by GC using a rubidium-sensitized nitrogen detector

    Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Bowman, M.C.

    1982-08-01

    Doxylamine succinate, a drug used as a sleep-inducing agent, an antihistamine, and in a therapeutic formulation taken by pregnant women as an antinauseant, was scheduled for toxicological evaluation as part of a structure activity relationship study, with rats and mice, because a deficiency of such data exists with regard to many antihistamines. Analytical chemical procedures that ensure proper concentration, homogeneity, and stability of the drug in dosed feed, as well as the safety of personnel and the environment, were prerequisites for the toxicological tests. GC methods using a rubidium-sensitized nitrogen detector were developed for analysis of doxylamine succinate in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater at levels as low as 1 ppm, 100 ppb, and 100 ppb, respectively. Sample extracts were cleaned up by liquid-liquid partitioning, followed by additional cleanup on a column of silica gel. Data are presented concerning the stability of the drug in animal feed, extraction efficiencies, and the use of the silica gel cleanup column to separate the caffeine interference from doxylamine in extracts of human urine. Partition values and ancillary data concerning analysis of the drug in feed, by HPLC at levels as low as 10 ppm, are also reported.

  15. Growing duckweed to recover nutrients from wastewaters and for production of fuel ethanol and animal feed

    Cheng, Jay J. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Stomp, Anne M. [Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Lemnaceae or duckweed is an aquatic plant that can be used to recover nutrients from wastewaters. The grown duckweed can be a good resource of proteins and starch, and utilized for the production of value-added products such as animal feed and fuel ethanol. In the last eleven years we have been working on growing duckweed on anaerobically treated swine wastewater and utilizing the duckweed for fuel ethanol production. Duckweed strains that grew well on the swine wastewater were screened in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The selected duckweed strains were then tested for nutrient recovery under laboratory and field conditions. The rates of nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by the duckweed growing in the laboratory and field systems were determined in the study. The mechanisms of nutrient uptake by the duckweed and the growth of duckweed in a nutrient-limited environment have been studied. When there are nutrients (N and P) available in the wastewater, duckweed takes the nutrients from the wastewater to support its growth and to store the nutrients in its tissue. When the N and P are completely removed from the wastewater, duckweed can use its internally stored nutrients to keep its growth for a significant period of time. A modified Monod model has been developed to describe nitrogen transport in a duckweed-covered pond for nutrient recovery from anaerobically treated swine wastewater. Nutrient reserve in the duckweed biomass has been found the key to the kinetics of duckweed growth. Utilization of duckweed for value-added products has a good potential. Using duckweed to feed animals, poultry, and fish has been extensively studied with promising results. Duckweed is also an alternative starch source for fuel ethanol production. Spirodela polyrrhiza grown on anaerobically treated swine wastewater was found to have a starch content of 45.8% (dry weight). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the duckweed biomass with amylases yielded a hydrolysate with a reducing sugar content

  16. Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs, tissue and feed samples in the State of Kuwait

    A total of 238 locally produced and imported eggs, tissue (meat, poultry and aquacultured fish) and feed and feedstuffs samples were collected at different seasonal periods from different farms and retail outlets in Kuwait and screened for presence of beta-lactams, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, streptomycin, macrolides and chloramphenicol (799 tests) using Charm II system. The results indicated that all of the 222 tests performed on table egg samples were negative for the analyzed antimicrobial residues indicating adherence to the guidelines for microbial use and withdrawal. Similarly, all of the 268 tests performed on tissue samples were negative for the analyzed antimicrobial residues except for chloramphenicol. These chloramphenicol positive samples, all of the 66 tests performed were negative for beta-lactams residues. Out of the 79 feed and feedstuff samples analyzed for teracyclines residues, broiler diet and concentrate samples (5%) were above the tetracyclines MRL (100 ppb.). On the other hands, results have revealed a widespread of sulfonamide residues and to a less extent chloramphenicol in tested feed and feedstuff samples. The Charm II system was reliable for rapid screening of antimicrobial residues. In general, results obtained in our study necessitate more effective and well planned national antimicrobial residues surveillance programs focusing particularly on samples imported from highly risk sources. (author)

  17. Analysis of products of animal origin in feeds by determination of carnosine and related dipeptides by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Schönherr, Jens

    2002-03-27

    Products of animal origin such as meat meal were commonly used as sources of protein and amino acids for the production of compound feeds. Because the feeding of such products is prohibited in Germany, the official feedstuff control of the government must evaluate feeds for the forbidden use of products of animal origin. Microscope examination is the official method to prove animal-originated adulterations of feeds. This paper proposes a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of the dipeptide carnosine and related dipeptides (anserine and balenine) and shows the dependence of the contents of anserine, balenine, and carnosine in compound feeds on the content of meat meal in feeds. The presented method can complete and confirm the result of the microscopic method for evidence of components of animal origin in feeds. PMID:11902938

  18. Analytical Method for Sugar Profile in Pet Food and Animal Feeds by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection.

    Ellingson, David J; Anderson, Phillip; Berg, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    There is a need for a standardized, accurate, rugged, and consistent method to measure for sugars in pet foods and animal feeds. Many traditional standard sugar methods exist for other matrixes, but when applied in collaborative studies there was poor agreement and sources of error identified with those standard methods. The advancement in technology over the years has given us the ability to improve on these standard methods of analysis. A method is described here that addresses these common issues and was subjected to a single-laboratory validation to assess performance on a wide variety of pet foods and animal feeds. Of key importance to the method performance is the sample preparation before extraction, type of extraction solvent, postextraction cleanup, and, finally, optimized chromatography using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The results obtained from the validation demonstrate how typical issues seen with these matrixes can influence performance of sugar analysis. The results also demonstrate that this method is fit-for-purpose and can meet the challenges of sugar analysis in pet food and animal feeds to lay the foundation for a standardized method of analysis. PMID:26952902

  19. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    2011-05-23

    ...). Microbiological and other testing used to help ensure the safety of specific human food and animal food/feed..., and medical food. Specific biological, chemical, radiological, and physical hazards and controls for... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and...

  20. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives in

  1. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  2. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    2013-06-10

    ... (78 FR 27303). That document used incorrect style for the strength units describing radiation sources... Register of May 10, 2013 (78 FR 27303). That document used incorrect style for the strength units..., and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of...

  3. Multielemental analysis of agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by INAA

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with gamma-ray spectrometry was applied to determine As, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Sb, Se and Zn in the Brazilian agroindustrial by-products. These materials are widely used in ruminant feeding. The results obtained were compared with requirement and maximum tolerable concentrations. The general conclusions from the data obtained were: (1) many by-products presented concentrations of some essential elements lower than the requirement concentrations, while in some samples the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mg and Se exceeded by a little the maximum tolerable concentrations, (2) the elements As, Cd, Hg and Sb, generally considered toxic, showed concentrations lower than maximum tolerable values. (author)

  4. Determination of seven synthetic dyes in animal feeds and meat by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass detectors.

    Zou, Tingting; He, Pingli; Yasen, Amangul; Li, Zhen

    2013-06-01

    An efficient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used synthetic sulfonate dyes (Ponceau 4RC, Sunset yellow, Allura red, Azophloxine, Ponceau xylidine, Erythrosine and Orange II) in animal feed and meat using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Ethanol-ammonia-water (80:1:19, V/V/V) solution was used as extract solution, which can extract target species while reducing interference from the sample matrices. The recoveries of these 7 dyes in animal feed and chicken meat were between 71% and 97% with relative standard deviations less than 14.8%. HPLC-MS/MS was employed as a further means of confirmation to assure accuracy of the results. Limits of detection for these dyes were in the range of 0.02-21.83 ng mL(-1). The proposed method can be applied to confirmative screening of seven commonly used food colorants in feed and meat samples. PMID:23411306

  5. Fruit and Vegetable Co-Products as Functional Feed Ingredients in Farm Animal Nutrition for Improved Product Quality

    Eleni Kasapidou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are significant environmental, economic and social factors favoring the reutilization of fruit and vegetable processing co-products in farm animal nutrition. Current evidence shows that fruit and vegetable processing co-products can be effectively used in farm animal nutrition as functional feed ingredients for the production of food products of improved quality. These ingredients comply with consumer requests for the production of “clean,” “natural” and “eco/green” label food products. The main parameters affecting extensive application of fruit and vegetable processing by-/co-products as functional feed ingredients in livestock nutrition are related to animal factors, logistics, and commercial value. Further research is needed to enable the commercial application of these products to livestock nutrition.

  6. Tank 30 and 37 Supernatant Sample Cross-Check and Evaporator Feed Qualification Analysis-2012

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-03-07

    This report summarizes the analytical data reported by the F/H and Savannah River National Laboratories for the 2012 cross-check analysis for high level waste supernatant liquid samples from SRS Tanks 30 and 37. The intent of this Tank 30 and 37 sample analyses was to perform cross-checks against routine F/H Laboratory analyses (corrosion and evaporator feed qualification programs) using samples collected at the same time from both tanks as well as split samples from the tanks.

  7. Feeding on microbiomes: effects of detritivory on the taxonomic and phylogenetic bacterial composition of animal manures.

    Aira, Manuel; Bybee, Seth; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Domínguez, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Earthworms play a key role in nutrient cycling by interacting with microorganisms thus accelerating organic matter turnover in soil systems. As detritivores, some earthworm types ingest and digest a mixture of dead organic matter and microorganisms, like animal manures (i.e. animal gut microbiomes). Here we described the earthworm cast microbiome and the role ingested bacteria play on its composition. We fed Eisenia andrei with cow, horse and pig manures and determined the taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of the these manures before and after passage through the earthworm gut. Earthworm cast microbiomes showed a smaller diversity than the manure they fed on. Manures strongly differed in their taxonomic and phylogenetic composition, but these differences were markedly reduced once transformed into earthworm cast microbiomes after passage through the earthworm gut. The core earthworm cast microbiome comprised 30 OTUs (2.6% of OTUs from cast samples), of which 10 are possibly native to the earthworm gut. Most of the core cast microbiome OTUs belonged to phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, as opposed to already described animal core gut microbiomes, which are composed mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that earthworms build up their cast microbiome by selecting from the pool of ingested bacteria. PMID:26432803

  8. Solar energy project and biogas for animal feed production and jelly; Projeto de energia solar e biogas para producao de racao animal e geleia

    Moura, J.P. de; Selvam, P.V.P.; Silva, R.T. da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mails: johnsonmoura@yahoo.com.br, tatianesil@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a study for utilization of surplus of horticulture industry for the production of jam and sweet from the fruit pulp and the manufacture of animal feed, organic fertilizer and biogas from the waste of this production. It also presents the equipment development of low-cost construction and operation that enables high energy efficiency (without heat loss) and can then be traded with greater advantage over other products on the market.

  9. Influence of Gamma-Irradiation On the Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Myco toxigenic Moulds in Cereals and Animal Feed stuffs in Egypt

    During the period 2003-2005. 370 samples of cereals and animal feed stuffs were examined for toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 showed the highest incidence rate, it occurred in 26.5% of all samples analyzed, the highest levels being found in peanut meal at 3000-5000 μg/Kg. Ochratoxin A and citrinin were detected in commodities at low rate. The most prevalent fungi were Aspergillus spp. which were found in 63.8% of all samples, whereas, Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. identified in 25.7 and 22.4%. respectively. Also, the present study revealed that aflatoxin B1 was detected at low level 95μg/kg after treatment of samples with 20 kGy and there was no detectives of aflatoxin B1 at 40 kGy. Application of radiation at 25 kGy was sufficient for complete destruction of citrinin, whereas application of radiation at 30 kGy reduced the levels of ochratoxin A by 97% in the animal feed stuffs

  10. Proposed food and drug administration protection action guides for human food and animal feed: Rationale and limits

    The Food and Drug Administration is proposing Protective Action Guides (PAG's) to be used in the event that a radiological incident results in the radioactive contamination of human food and animal feed. PAG's are proposed for two levels of response: (1) PREVENTIVE PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should take protective action to prevent or reduce the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed. (2) EMERGENCY PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should isolate food containing radioactivity to prevent its introduction into commerce and determine whether condemnation or another disposition is appropriate. Derived response levels, which are defined as the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed corresponding to the above PAG's, are proposed for radionuclides of most significance. The presentation will discuss the supporting rationale as well as the numerical limits for the PAG's. This rationale is based on the process of risk assessment and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. The risk assessment compares the risk of radiation exposure to the risk from prevalent hazards accepted by society and from variability of the natural radiation environment. The cost-benefit analysis is limited to protective actions efficacious in the reduction of iodine-131 dose to the thyroid via the milk pathway (condemnation and use of stored feed). In addition, the metabolic and agricultural transfer models that were used to calculate derived response levels will be described briefly. (author)

  11. Techno-economic evaluation of masonry type animal feed solar cooker in rural areas of an Indian state Rajasthan

    Utilisation of animal draft power in agricultural operation and milk production is highly dependent on the feed and fodder. Properly cooked feed is digestive in nature and enhance milk production. Solar energy is promising option for slow cooking. Keeping this in view a masonry animal feed solar cooker (AFSC) was developed. It helps in the number of ways to improve the living standard of rural farmers and also reduce the CO2 emission by replacing conventional fossil fuel. The AFSC can replace the 100 per cent biomass and save about 424.80 kg of CO2 on annual basis and save about 24 INR per day. Usually women prepare animal feed in rural areas, hence cooking with AFSC save time and this time can be spear to take care of her family or in agricultural operation. This paper presents fuel replacement and reduction of carbon dioxide on annual basis and economic evaluation of AFSC. - Highlights: ► Considerable amount of energy can be saved on annual basis. ► This also helps to save the time and money of rural farmer. ► AFSC helps to reduce the greenhouse gas.

  12. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages (AFRA project II-17 - RAF/5/041). Project summary

    The Joint FAO/IAEA programme has supported animal production research in Africa for many years through country Technical Co-operation (TC) Projects, Regional Projects (AFRA) and Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). These activities have helped to build up the infrastructure needed in the countries concerned to conduct much of the research in animal reproduction and nutrition. In the past the Agency has provided technical assistance in defining reproductive indices of ruminant livestock species and identifying nutritional constraints to productivity of animals maintained on smallholder farms under various topographical and environmental conditions. In view of the satisfactory progress of AFRA Project VIII in identifying the major constraints to livestock productivity in the region, and the recognition of many Member States of the importance of supplementary feeding for improving milk and meat production, a regional strategy was proposed for developing affordable and sustainable supplementation packages for improving productivity from smallholder farms using locally available feed resources. The new Regional Project was initiated in 1997 with the following objectives: 1. To produce a supplementary feed in the form of a convenient and easy-to-use package for improving milk and meat production in peri-urban areas 2. To promote the uptake of this technology through demonstrations of its advantages in terms of increased productivity and benefit: cost ratio 3. To maximize the use of locally available feed material such as molasses, cereal bran, legume tree leaves, oil seed meals, etc. for feeding ruminant livestock, thereby reducing the use of high cost concentrate feeds 4. To promote technical co-operation amongst developing countries (TCDC) in the region and take advantage of established infrastructure and available human and technical resources to solve problems of common interest. From 1997 until 2000 the project has been operational with 13 Member States

  13. Life cycle assessment of animal feeds prepared from liquid food residues: a case study of rice-washing water.

    Ogino, Akifumi; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tatsugawa, Kenji; Ijiri, Satoru; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption of three methods used to produce animal feed from concentrated rice-washing water (CRW) and disposing of the rice-washing water through wastewater treatment. Four scenarios were compared using LCA: (i) producing concentrated liquid feed by centrifugation (CC) of CRW with wastewater treatment and discharge of the supernatant, (ii) producing concentrated liquid feed by heating evaporation (HC) of CRW, (iii) producing dehydrated feed by dehydration (DH) of CRW, and (iv) wastewater treatment and discharge of nonconcentrated rice-washing water (WT). The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 metric ton of rice washed for cooking or processing. Our results suggested that the energy consumptions of CC, HC, DH, and WT were 108, 322, 739, and 242 MJ per FU, respectively, and the amounts of GHG emissions from CC, HC, DH, and WT were 6.4, 15.8, 45.5, and 22.5 kg of CO equivalents per FU, respectively. When the produced feed prepared from CRW was assumed to be transported 200 km to farms, CC and HC still emitted smaller GHGs than the other scenarios, and CC consumed the smallest amount of energy among the scenarios. The present study indicates that liquid feed production from CRW by centrifugation has a remarkably reduced environmental impact compared with the wastewater treatment and discharge of rice-washing water. PMID:23128755

  14. Critical evaluation of the literature concerning the transfer feed/meat of strontium, radium, technetium in domestic animals

    A literature study concerning the transfer of Sr, Ra, Te, Co and Fe from feed to meat of domestic animals has been carried out. Approx. 4200 publications from 1950-1980 have been evaluated. General criteria for the influence of experimental conditions on the transfer factor have been pointed out. The transfer factor of growing animals is greater than that of adult animals. After completion of growth the transfer factor is independent of age. The transfer factors differ with various animal species. From these findings the following average transfer factors meat/feed in d/kg have been derived during steady state equilibrium between daily intake and excretion of the isotope. For Sr: cattle 6x10-4, calf 2x10-3, sheep 2,1x10-3, goat 3.3x10-3, pig 3,6x10-4, hen 1,8x10-2. For Ra: cattle 6x10-4, pig 2,6x10-4, caribou 2,3x10-3. These values have been derived mainly from metabolic experiments and from literature values of concentrations in feed and meat. For Te, Co and Fe it was not possible to find relevant values. A transfer factor for Tc of 8x10-3 d/kg for beef was derived indirectly using values of meat and vegetables. (orig.)

  15. Convective transport of pollutants from eastern Colorado concentrated animal feeding operations into the Rocky Mountains

    Pina, A.; Denning, A.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    As the population of the urban corridor along the eastern Front Range grows at an unprecedented rate, concern about pollutant transport into the Rocky Mountains is on the rise. The confluence of mountain meteorology and major pollution sources conspire to transport pollutants across the Front Range, especially nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, orgN, and NO3-) from concentrated animal feeding operations and urban regions, into the Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountains have coarse-textured soils which disallow the uptake nitrogen-rich precipitation, allowing most ions in precipitation to reach, be stored in, and eutrophicate alpine terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The focus of this study was to examine the meteorological conditions in which atmospheric deposition of pollutants at two mountain sites was anomalously high due to convective transport. We looked at 19 years (1994-2013) of precipitation and wet deposition data from two National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NAPD) sites in the Rocky Mountains: Beaver Meadows (CO19) and Loch Vale (CO98). Loch Vale (3159 m) and Beaver Meadows (2477 m) are located approximately 11 km apart but differ in height by 682 m resulting in different seasonal precipitation composition and totals. The Advanced Research WRF model was used to simulate the meteorology at a high resolution for the progression of the upslope event that led to high nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains. Data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was used to observe and verify synoptic conditions produced by the WRF model that influenced the high-deposition events. Dispersion plumes showed a mesoscale mountain circulation caused by differential heating between mountains-tops and the plains was the main driver of the westward convective transport towards the mountains. Additionally and unexpectedly, a lee trough and high precipitable water values associated with a cold front played significant roles in the nitrogen deposition into the Rocky

  16. Availability of information about airborne hazardous releases from animal feeding operations.

    Tyler J S Smith

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air from animal feeding operations (AFOs has been shown to transport numerous contaminants of public health concern. While federal statutes like the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA generally require that facilities report hazardous releases, AFOs have been exempted from most of these requirements by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. We assessed the availability of information about AFO airborne hazardous releases following these exemptions. METHODS: We submitted public records requests to 7 states overlapping with or adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay watershed for reports of hazardous releases made by AFOs under EPCRA. From the records received, we calculated the proportion of AFOs in each state for which ≥1 reports were available. We also determined the availability of specific types of information required under EPCRA. The numbers of AFOs permitted under the Clean Water Act (CWA or analogous state laws, as determined from permitting databases obtained from states, were used as denominators. RESULTS: We received both EPCRA reports and permitting databases from 4 of 7 states. Across these 4 states, the mean proportion of AFOs for which ≥1 EPCRA reports were available was 15% (range: 2-33%. The mean proportions of AFOs for which the name or identity of the substance released, ≥1 estimates of quantity released, and information about nearby population density and sensitive populations were available were 15% (range: 2-33%, 8% (range: 0-22%, and 14% (range: 2-8%, respectively. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that information about the airborne hazardous releases of a large majority of AFOs is not available under federal law in the states that we investigated. While the results cannot be attributed to specific factors by this method, attention to multiple factors, including revision of the EPA's exemptions, may increase the availability of information relevant to the health of populations

  17. Validation of an open-formula, diagnostic real-time PCR method for 20-hr detection of Salmonella in animal feeds

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of a 20-hr, non-commercial, open-formula PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL 187, for detection of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) on 81...... artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water for 16 ± 2 h followed by a magnetic beads based semi automated DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis, including an internal amplification control. The limit of detection (LOD...

  18. New sulfonate composite functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes with cryogel solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of β-agonists in animal feeds.

    Noosang, Supattri; Bunkoed, Opas; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2015-06-01

    A new mixed-mode cation-exchange sulfonate composite functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes with polyvinyl alcohol cryogel was fabricated and used for the first time as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of β-agonists in animal feeds. Feed samples were extracted with 0.20 M phosphoric acid and methanol (1:4, v/v) using ultrasonication, cleaned-up using the developed sorbent to which the β-agonists bound then finally eluted with 5.0% ammonia in methanol and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Various parameters that affected the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the developed sorbent strongly interacted with β-agonists by cationic exchange and hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions, that provided a high extraction efficiency in the range of 92.8 ± 3.7-104.4 ± 2.3% over a range of 0.04-2.0 mg/kg for salbutamol and ractopamine, and 0.40-8.0 mg/kg for clenbuterol. The relative standard deviations were less than 6.0%. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of β-agonists in various types of animal feed and effectively reduced any matrix interference. PMID:25808354

  19. Detection of ochratoxin A in animal feeds and capacity to produce this mycotoxin by Aspergillus section Nigri in Argentina.

    Dalcero, A; Magnoli, C; Hallak, C; Chiacchiera, S M; Palacio, G; Rosa, C A R

    2002-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OA) is a mycotoxin detected in a variety of food and feeds mostly from countries with a temperate climate because of the fungi that produce it, mainly Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosum. In Argentina, there is no available information about the natural occurrence of OA and ochratoxigenic fungi from feedstuffs. The aim was to evaluate the natural occurrence of OA in poultry, pig and rabbit feeds over 8 months. Likewise, the capacity to produce OA by Aspergillus section Nigri was investigated. Mycotoxin analysis showed that in some months of sampling, OA was detected in three feeds. OA was found in 38% of the poultry feed samples tested with levels ranging from 25 to 30 ng g(-1). From rabbit feed samples, 25% contained OA and the levels ranged from 18.5 to 25 ng g(-1). Only 13% of the pig feed samples were contaminated with similar levels of toxins. Ninety-four black Aspergillus strains from feedstuffs were tested for OA production. Among these, the tested species were A. niger var. niger, A. niger var. awamori, A. japonicus var. japonicus, A. japonicus var. aculeatus and A. foetidus. For the detection of OA, three methodologies were applied: the two TLC methods used for the fast screening of the filamentous fungi for the production of OA were not sensitive enough to detect OA in any of the black Aspergillus strains. When an HPLC methodology was used, the results showed that 46% of the black Aspergillus strains were producers of OA, with levels ranging from 13 to 25 ng ml(-1) culture medium. The highest percentage of ochratoxicogenic strains was isolated from rabbit feeds with 100 and 78% of A. niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori, with mean levels of 15.5 and 14.6 ng ml(-1), respectively. From pig feeds, 61% of the A. niger var. awamori were producers of this toxin with mean levels of 16 ng ml(-1). In poultry feeds, the lowest percentage of OA producer strains was detected. The results for the occurrence of OA in feeds from

  20. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus – effects on animal performance and meat quality

    Greg Finstad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM or fishmeal (WFM as protein source on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to “wild’ or “gamey” flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively. No “fish-related” flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjøl – effekter på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet I vår unders

  1. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples

    Fernanda Morcatti Coura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P<0.001 and F (P=0.018 were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P<0.001 and E (P=0.002 were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P=0.003 and D (P=0.017 were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals.

  2. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples

    Morcatti Coura, Fernanda; Diniz, Soraia de Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mussi, Jamili Maria Suhet; Barbosa, Silvia Minharro; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P < 0.001) and F (P = 0.018) were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P < 0.001) and E (P = 0.002) were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P = 0.003) and D (P = 0.017) were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals. PMID:26421310

  3. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams.

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Voshell, J Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R(2) = 0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R(2) = 0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO(4)-P were weaker, but were also significant (R(2) = 0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO(4)-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO(4)-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. PMID:22088420

  4. Data in support of the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed samples.

    Alasaad, Noor; Alzubi, Hussein; Kader, Ahmad Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Food and feed samples were randomly collected from different sources, including local and imported materials from the Syrian local market. These included maize, barley, soybean, fresh food samples and raw material. GMO detection was conducted by PCR and nested PCR-based techniques using specific primers for the most used foreign DNA commonly used in genetic transformation procedures, i.e., 35S promoter, T-nos, epsps, cryIA(b) gene and nptII gene. The results revealed for the first time in Syria the presence of GM foods and feeds with glyphosate-resistant trait of P35S promoter and NOS terminator in the imported soybean samples with high frequency (5 out of the 6 imported soybean samples). While, tests showed negative results for the local samples. Also, tests revealed existence of GMOs in two imported maize samples detecting the presence of 35S promoter and nos terminator. Nested PCR results using two sets of primers confirmed our data. The methods applied in the brief data are based on DNA analysis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This technique is specific, practical, reproducible and sensitive enough to detect up to 0.1% GMO in food and/or feedstuffs. Furthermore, all of the techniques mentioned are economic and can be applied in Syria and other developing countries. For all these reasons, the DNA-based analysis methods were chosen and preferred over protein-based analysis. PMID:26958644

  5. Salmonella enterica in commercial swine feed and subsequent isolation of phenotypically and genotypically related strains from fecal samples.

    Molla, Bayleyegn; Sterman, Allyson; Mathews, Jennifer; Artuso-Ponte, Valeria; Abley, Melanie; Farmer, William; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi; Morrow, W E Morgan; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence and genotypic relatedness of Salmonella enterica isolates recovered from feed and fecal samples in commercial swine production units. Of 275 feed samples, Salmonella was detected in 10 feed samples that originated from 8 of 36 (22.2%) barns, with a prevalence of 3.6% (10/275 samples). In fecal samples, a prevalence of 17.2% was found at the early finishing stage (1,180/6,880 samples), with a significant reduction in prevalence (7.4%) when pigs reached market age (392/5,321 samples). Of the 280 Salmonella isolates systematically selected for further characterization, 50% of the feed isolates and 55.3% of the isolates of fecal origin showed similar phenotypes based on antimicrobial resistance patterns and serogrouping. About 44% of the isolates were multidrug resistant. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping grouped the 46 representative isolates into five genotypic clusters, of which four of the clusters consisted of genotypically related isolates recovered from feed and fecal samples. The occurrence of genotypically related and, in some cases, clonal strains, including multidrug-resistant isolates in commercially processed feed and fecal samples, suggests the high significance of commercial feed as a potential vehicle of Salmonella transmission. PMID:20851969

  6. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  7. Mass cultivation of microalgae on animal wastewater: a sequential two-stage cultivation process for energy crop and omega-3-rich animal feed production.

    Zhou, Wenguang; Hu, Bing; Li, Yecong; Min, Min; Mohr, Michael; Du, Zhenyi; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2012-09-01

    In this study, 97 microalgal strains purchased from algae bank and 50 microalgal strains isolated from local waters in Minnesota were screened for their adaptability growing on a 20-fold diluted digested swine manure wastewater (DSMW). A pool of candidate strains well adapted to the DSMW was established through a high-throughput screening process. Two top-performing facultative heterotrophic strains with high growth rate (0.536 day(-1) for UMN 271 and 0.433 day(-1) for UMN 231) and one strain with high omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid (EPA, 3.75 % of total fatty acids for UMN 231) were selected. Subsequently, a sequential two-stage mixo-photoautotrophic culture strategy was developed for biofuel and animal feed production as well as simultaneous swine wastewater treatment using above two strains. The maximal biomass concentration and lipid content at the first and second stages reached 2.03 g/L and 23.0 %, and 0.83 g/L and 19.0 % for UMN 271 and UMN 231, respectively. The maximal nutrient removals for total phosphorus and ammonia after second-stage cultivation were 100 and 89.46 %, respectively. The experiments showed that this sequential two-stage cultivation process has great potential for economically viable and environmentally friendly production of both renewable biofuel and high-value animal feed and at the same time for animal wastewater treatment. PMID:22798164

  8. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 ± 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the

  9. New feed additives based on phytogenics and acidifiers in animal nutrition

    Lević J.; Sredanović S.; Đuragić O.; Jakić D.; Lević Lj.; Pavkov S.

    2007-01-01

    Low regulations for feed additives use, has been changed in EU as well as in our country, especially in use of antibiotics as growth promotors. Along years it has investigated an alternative for antibiotics as growth promotors. Essential oilsand organic acids are one of alternative feed, which acting in a few of the most important directions: as antioxidants, metabolic upgraders, growth promotors and development of pathogenic microorganizms controllers, including moulds and bacterias and as e...

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-selenomethionine as feed additive for all animal species

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element that is essential for vertebrates and involved in series of vital metabolic functions. Considering the purity of the L-selenomethionine (L-SeMet under application and the metabolic pathways of SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel considers the use of L-SeMet as safe for all animal species, provided that the maximum total selenium level authorised in feed is respected. The use of in animal nutrition is expected to result in a similar increase in selenium deposition in animal tissues/products as that resulting from other sources of SeMet. To ensure consumer safety from consumption of food originating from animals fed L-SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel concludes that dietary selenium supplementation from the additive should not exceed a maximum of 0.2 mg Se/kg complete feed. In the absence of specific data, the additive should be considered as an irritant to skin and eyes, as a skin sensitiser and as potentially harmful by inhalation. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of L-SeMet in feed does not pose an additional risk to the environment, compared with other sources of selenium for which it will substitute, as long as the maximum authorised content in feedingstuffs is not exceeded. L-SeMet is an efficient source of selenium for all species. This conclusion is derived from studies with laying hens and pigs for fattening and, in the case of ruminants, from literature describing the microbial incorporation of selenium from organic sources in the rumen. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations concerning (i the specification, (ii the use of the compound in premixtures, (iii the use in water for drinking and (iv risk reduction when handling the additive.

  11. Quantitative analysis of food and feed samples with droplet digital PCR.

    Dany Morisset

    Full Text Available In this study, the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR for routine analysis in food and feed samples was demonstrated with the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of GMOs in products. However, its use is limited for detecting and quantifying very small numbers of DNA targets, as in some complex food and feed matrices. Using ddPCR duplex assay, we have measured the absolute numbers of MON810 transgene and hmg maize reference gene copies in DNA samples. Key performance parameters of the assay were determined. The ddPCR system is shown to offer precise absolute and relative quantification of targets, without the need for calibration curves. The sensitivity (five target DNA copies of the ddPCR assay compares well with those of individual qPCR assays and of the chamber digital PCR (cdPCR approach. It offers a dynamic range over four orders of magnitude, greater than that of cdPCR. Moreover, when compared to qPCR, the ddPCR assay showed better repeatability at low target concentrations and a greater tolerance to inhibitors. Finally, ddPCR throughput and cost are advantageous relative to those of qPCR for routine GMO quantification. It is thus concluded that ddPCR technology can be applied for routine quantification of GMOs, or any other domain where quantitative analysis of food and feed samples is needed.

  12. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    Christina Schreier; Werner Kremer; Fritz Huber; Sindy Neumann; Philipp Pagel; Kai Lienemann; Sabine Pestel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats wit...

  13. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge to eliminate pathogens for safe use as fertilizer and animal feed supplement

    A research program titled ''Waste Resources Utilization'' using a new technique, ''thermoradiation'' to destroy pathogenic organisms in sewage sludge is described. The thermoradiated sewage sludge will be used to study the feasibility of (1) use for safe land application as fertilizer and soil conditioner and (2) use as a feed supplement for ruminant animals. Experiments to date have shown good results for sludge disinfection of resistant bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Thermoradiation experiments are being carried out at a temperature of 650C combined with 160 krad gamma dose for a total of 2000 pounds of dried treated sludge. The sludge will be shipped to New Mexico State University for the feeding studies and land application studies

  14. Managing waste from confined animal feeding operations in the United States: the need for sanitary reform.

    Graham, Jay P; Nachman, Keeve E

    2010-12-01

    Confined food-animal operations in the United States produce more than 40 times the amount of waste than human biosolids generated from US wastewater treatment plants. Unlike biosolids, which must meet regulatory standards for pathogen levels, vector attraction reduction and metal content, no treatment is required of waste from animal agriculture. This omission is of concern based on dramatic changes in livestock production over the past 50 years, which have resulted in large increases in animal waste and a high degree of geographic concentration of waste associated with the regional growth of industrial food-animal production. Regulatory measures have not kept pace with these changes. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) review trends that affect food-animal waste production in the United States, 2) assess risks associated with food-animal wastes, 3) contrast food-animal waste management practices to management practices for biosolids and 4) make recommendations based on existing and potential policy options to improve management of food-animal waste. PMID:20705978

  15. Greenhouse gas reduction and improved sustainability of animal husbandry using amino acids in swine, poultry feeds.

    Tsujimoto, Susumu; Takagi, Tomo; Osada, Takashi; Ogino, Akifumi

    2013-05-01

    In Annex 1 countries, nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from swine and poultry excreta have been calculated and the N2 O reduction potential of each country by using amino acids in feed could also be calculated, then a comparison made among the countries. The N2 O reduction rates were approximately 25% for these Annex 1 countries and amino acids were able to make a large contribution to that reduction. Greenhouse gases (GHG) which are N2 O combined with methane (CH4 ) were estimated to reduce by 24.8% in Japan when amino acids were introduced into the feed, but only a 7.2% reduction was estimated in France. Purification, which is mainly used for manure treatment in Japan, emits much more N2 O and less CH4 , whereas the liquid system which is mainly used in France emits more CH4 and less N2 O based on the emission factors from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change data base. Changing the French manure treatment system to the Japanese style with amino acids in feed would reduce GHG emissions by 23.4%. Reduction of the arable land use in Japan by changing crop formulations supported by adding amino acids to feed was also quantified as about 10% and led to an increase in the production of meat using the same arable land area. PMID:23607750

  16. Fermentation instead of animal feeding; In den Fermenter statt in den Magen des Schweins

    Brombach, T.

    2008-07-01

    Since 2006, Germany has prohibited the feeding of class K3 waste food from gastronomy, canteens and the food industry to pigs. Fermentation is a creative solution. In Haid on the Schwaebische Alb mountain range, two creative waste managers developed a plant for power generation from fat and used oils. (orig.)

  17. Feeding of the brine shrimp Artemia on yeast: effect of mechanical disturbance, animal density, water quality and light intensity

    Coutteau, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1989-01-01

    Details are given of experiments conducted to determine the effects of tank culture conditions on the feeding of Artemia. Mechanical disturbance, animal density and water quality were found to affect the feeding rate of Artemia. The importance of culture conditions in maintaining a rate of food consumption which does not limit the growth of the brine shrimp is stressed.

  18. Supply Chain Risk Management in Entomology Farms : Case: High scale production of human food and animal feed

    Taponen, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative research focuses on risk management in the supply chain of industrial entomology companies that are mass rearing insects for human food or for feed for farmed animals. This research presents answers to such questions as what are the risks related especially to the entomology industry, what are the reasons behind the risks and finally how the risks can be mitigated. The industry has started to bloom only recently in the 2010’s, meaning that the industry is still lacking kn...

  19. Diversity and Population Structure of Bovine Fecal-Derived Microorganisms from Different Animal Feeding Operations

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but in odor emissions, agricultural land nutrient loading, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, our understanding of the specif...

  20. Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: From domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism

    Laurberg, P.; Andersen, S.; Knudsen, N.; Ovesen, Lars; Nohr, S.B.; Pedersen, I.B.

    2002-01-01

    breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter the...... iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake......Transport of iodine in the mammary gland into breast milk plays a central role in various fields of prevention of thyroid diseases. First, a sufficient content of iodine in the mother's milk is necessary for normal brain development in the breastfed child. This is attained by expression during...

  1. An Integrated Approach to Measuring Emissions from Confined Animal Feeding Operations at the Whole Facility Scale

    Bingham, G. E.; Hatfiels, J.; Prueger, J.H.; Wilkerson, T D; Zavyalov, V. V.; Pfeiffer, R. L.; Hipps, L.; Martin, R.; De Silva, P; Eichinger, W.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural operations produce a variety of particulates and gases that influence air quality. Agriculture, through wind erosion, tillage and harvest operations, burning, diesel-powered machinery and animal production operations, is a source of particulate matter that can enter human lungs and cause pulmonary problems. Animal production operations can be a source of gaseous emissions such as ammonia, odor-causing volatile organic compounds, hydrogen sulfide, greenhouse gases (methane, nitrou...

  2. Comparison of Selective Media for the Enumeration of Probiotic Enterococci from Animal Feed

    Weiss, Agnes; Domig, Konrad Johann; Kneifel, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    The project »Methods for the Official Control of Probiotics Used as Feed Additives« has been undertaken to develop and validate methods for the selective enumeration and strain identification of six probiotic microorganism genera (enterococci, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, pediococci, bacilli and yeast). A diversity of media has been used for the detection, isolation and enumeration of enterococci. Aiming at the selective enumeration of enterococci (mainly Enterococcus faecium) present in pro...

  3. Use of diploid and tetraploid hulled wheat genotypes for animal feeding

    KAPLAN, Mahmut; Akar, Taner; KAMALAK, Adem; BULUT, Sancar

    2014-01-01

    Einkorn and emmer wheat are still cultivated in the mountainous areas of Turkey. They are resistant to biotic and abiotic stress conditions and are routinely used as food stuffs due to reasonable dietary fiber rate and vitamin and micronutrient content. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the feed potential of einkorn and emmer wheat populations. A total of 17 hulled wheat populations collected from different provinces of Turkey were studied during the years 2012 and 2013....

  4. Molecular Identification of Species from the Penicillium roqueforti Group Associated with Spoiled Animal Feed

    Boysen, Marianne E.; Jacobsson, Karl-Gustav; Schnürer, Johan

    2000-01-01

    The Penicillium roqueforti group has recently been split into three species, P. roqueforti, Penicillium carneum, and Penicillium paneum, on the basis of differences in ribosomal DNA sequences and secondary metabolite profiles. We reevaluated the taxonomic identity of 52 livestock feed isolates from Sweden, previously identified by morphology as P. roqueforti, by comparing the sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. Identities were confirmed with random amplified polymor...

  5. Potencial de silagens de ramas de batata-doce para alimentação animal Potential of silages of sweet-potato foliages for animal feeding

    Daniel José Silva Viana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de silagens de ramas de diferentes clones de batata-doce para alimentação animal. O trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Forquilha localizada no Distrito de Batatal, município de Diamantina MG, no período de 23/12/2007 a 23/06/2008. O experimento foi conduzido no esquema de parcelas subdivididas em delineamento de blocos completos casualizados. Foram avaliadas a produtividade de matéria verde e matéria seca das ramas e a composição químico-bromatológica, além do perfil fermentativo de suas silagens, em três idades de colheita (120, 150 e 180 dias, em oito clones de batata doce. A produtividade de matéria seca não variou com a época de colheita das ramas, obtendo-se média de 6,01t ha-1. Os teores de matéria seca nas ramas aumentaram com o ciclo da cultura, verificando-se teores médios de 11,94; 12,16 e 19,62%, aos 120, 150 e 180 dias após o corte, respectivamente. As silagens das ramas de batata-doce apresentaram altos teores protéicos e energéticos e adequado perfil fermentativo, portanto, apresentam potencial para utilização na alimentação animal, independentemente dos clones.The objective was to evaluate the potential of silage derived from different clones of sweet potato for animal feed. The study was conducted at Forquilha Farm located in Batatal district, MG Diamantina in the period from 23/12/2007 to 23/06/2008. The experiment was conducted in split plot design in a randomized complete block. It was evaluated the green and dry matter yield, the chemical composition and the fermentative profile of silage harvested on three dates (days 120, 150 and 180, of eight clones of sweet potato. The dry matter yield did not vary according to the harvest time of the branches, resulting in an average of 6.01t ha-1. The dry matter content in the stems increased with the growth cycle, and there are average levels of 11.94, 12.16 and 19.62% on days 120, 150 and 180 after cutting, respectively. The raw

  6. Recycling technology of sugar industry by-products for animal feeding

    Yadira Suárez Rodríguez; Arael Martínez Teruel; Luis B. Ramos Sánchez; María Caridad Julián

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de una tecnología de reciclaje y enriquecimiento proteico mediante fermentación en estado sólido de los subproductos de la industria azucarera para su posterior utilización como alimento animal. A partir de un estudio bibliográfico sobre los aspectos más importantes de las tecnologías actuales de fabricación de alimentos para el consumo animal y las herramientas para el desarrollo de tecnologías de fermentaci ón en medios sólidos se ha desarrollado un...

  7. Radiation processing technology for feed mixes and litter for laboratory animals

    The research was centred on feed mixes for laboratory rats and mice in conditions of germ-free and conventional breeding in isolators. Polyethylene was chosen as the most suitable packing material for radiation processing and subsequent storage. Pelleted diets and litter are packaged in three layers in 400x600 mm bags. 25 kGy for germ-free breeding and 50 kGy for gnotobiotic breeds of laboratory rats and mice were determined as being sufficient. The quality of processed diets and their effect on the weight and growth of rats is discussed. (Pu)

  8. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  9. Community structures of fecal bacteria in cattle from different animal feeding operations

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provid...

  10. Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans

    Damien O. Joly

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55 for carcasses (animals found dead and 0.2% (13/5309 for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1 surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2 any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3 surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4 morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure.

  11. Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues

    The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of 'Envelopes,' each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward

  12. Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues

    Fort, James A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2007-10-01

    The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of “Envelopes,” each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward.

  13. Among a German Sample of Forensic Patients, Previous Animal Abuse Mediates Between Psychopathy and Sadistic Actions.

    Stupperich, Alexandra; Strack, Micha

    2016-05-01

    In an attempt to explain the relationship between psychopathy and severe violent behavior, this study associates previous animal abuse, psychopathy, and sadistic acting in forensic patients. Two topics are addressed: (i) whether previous animal abuse can be identified by a patient's Psychopathy Checklist profile and (ii) whether animal abuse statistically mediates between psychopathy and sadistic acting. In a German forensic hospital, 60 patients were investigated. Animal abuse was assessed using face-to-face interviews and the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), and sadistic acting was identified by file records.Discriminant analysis separated previous animal abuse (10/60) by high adolescent antisocial behavior, superficiality, lack of remorse, lack of empathy, and grandiosity. The mediation from psychopathy to sadistic acting (6/60) through animal abuse was found to be complete.The results, although sample size is limited and base rate of animal abuse and sadistic acting are low, fit with a model suggestive of animal abuse as a causal step toward sadistic crimes. Animal abuse correlates with callous, unemotional traits, and a development of sadistic crimes. PMID:27122409

  14. Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from

  15. Simultaneous determination of eleven quinolones in animal feed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet absorbance detection.

    Galarini, Roberta; Fioroni, Laura; Angelucci, Federico; Tovo, Gloria R; Cristofani, Elisa

    2009-11-13

    A rapid and simple multi-residue procedure is described for assaying eleven quinolones (cinoxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, marbofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, oxolinic acid and sarafloxacin) in feeds at sub-additive levels (1-5 mg kg(-1)). Five grams of sample were extracted by a metaphosphoric acid/acetonitrile mixture (70/30, v/v) and purified onto OASIS HLB cartridges. The determination was achieved by liquid chromatography (LC) using a GEMINI C18 analytical column both with fluorescence detection (FD) and photodiode-array (DAD). Limits of detection for each drug were in the range 0.04-0.8 mg kg(-1). Above the limit of quantification (LOQ), in poultry feed the recoveries were from 69 to 98% with relative standard deviations less than or equal 10%. Finally the measurement uncertainty was estimated using the bottom-up approach. PMID:19616214

  16. Improvement of animal productivity through supplementary feeding with urea-mineral blocks (UMB) in Mongolia

    The predominant feed resource available for ruminant production in Mongolia is low quality fibrous forages, which sometimes lack essential nutrients for optimal growth and production of livestock. Four formulations of urea-mineral block (UMB) were developed and tested with locally available low quality forages. In dairy cattle, the average daily intake of one of these formulations was 121 g and consumption resulted in an increase in the daily milk yield of 0.3 L/cow, with a cost : benefit ratio of 1 : 8.2. Training and extension activities are presently underway to extend this technology to ruminant-livestock keepers. A medicated block containing the plant Stelleria chamaejasme was also developed for use in sheep, resulting in substantial reductions in cestode egg counts in the faeces. Validation of these results will be necessary before recommendations for use can be made to farmers. (author)

  17. Optimization of cassava root sieviate medium to an enriched animal feed by Aspergillus niger

    Mbah G.O

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available - Optimization of the media components cassava root sieviate with Aspergellus Niger was carried out using Face-Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM and the responses were measured in terms of protein and crude fiber contents. Statistical Analysis (ANOVA of the result showed that time and substrate concentration had effect on biodegraded cassava root sieviate (p-value was 0.00 ie. 0.00 < 0.05. The optimum value of enriched cassava root sieviate with Aspergellus Niger were found to be on 10 days (time and 6g/10ml concentration resulting to 9.42% from 1.85% enrichment in protein content and degrading crude fiber to 8.38%, from 70.3%, thus indicating the potency of Aspergillus niger for the production of economical livestock feed from renewable source.

  18. Community Structures of Fecal Bacteria in Cattle from Different Animal Feeding Operations▿†

    Shanks, Orin C.; Kelty, Catherine A.; Archibeque, Shawn; Jenkins, Michael; Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L; Susan M. Huse; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2011-01-01

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity but also in food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provide adequate detail about variability in the community structures of fecal bacteria within and across cattle populations. Using massively parallel pyrosequencing of a hypervariable region of the rRNA coding region, we profiled the fecal mi...

  19. Evans blue as a simple method to discriminate mosquitoes' feeding choice on small laboratory animals.

    Ceres Maciel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using Evans blue (EB vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquito's choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host, either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat. SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment.

  20. Bioaerosol sampling for airborne bacteria in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital

    Adesiyun, Abiodun A.; Tisha A. M. Harper; Bridgewater, Shelley; Brown, Latoya; Pow-Brown, Patricia; Stewart-Johnson, Alva

    2013-01-01

    Background: Airborne microorganisms within the hospital environment can potentially cause infection in susceptible patients. The objectives of this study were to identify, quantify, and determine the nosocomial potential of common airborne microorganisms present within a small animal teaching hospital. Methods: Bioaerosol sampling was done initially in all 11 rooms and, subsequently, weekly samples were taken from selected rooms over a 9-week period. Samples were collected twice (morning and ...

  1. Antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000

    FAVORETTO Silvana Regina; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; CUNHA Elenice Maria S.; Elizabeth A.C. Aguiar; SILVA Luzia Helena Q.; Miriam M. SODRÉ; SOUZA Maria Conceição A.M.; Kotait, Ivanete

    2002-01-01

    Animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. The panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the Americas. Samples were isolated in the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in Brazil. In addition to the fixed virus samples CVS-31/96-IP, preserved in mouse brain, and PV-BHK/97, preserved in cel...

  2. Conversion of distiller's grain into fuel alcohol and a higher-value animal feed by dilute-acid pretreatment.

    Tucker, Melvin P; Nagle, Nicholas J; Jennings, Edward W; Ibsen, Kelly N; Aden, Andy; Nguyen, Quang A; Kim, Kyoung H; Noll, Sally L

    2004-01-01

    Over the past three decades ethanol production in the United States has increased more than 10-fold, to approx 2.9 billion gal/yr (mid-2003), with ethanol production expected to reach 5 billion gal/yr by 2005. The simultaneous coproduction of 7 million t/yr of distiller's grain (DG) may potentially drive down the price of DG as a cattle feed supplement. The sale of residual DG for animal feed is an important part of corn dry-grind ethanol production economics; therefore, dry-grind ethanol producers are seeking ways to improve the quality of DG to increase market penetration and help stabilize prices. One possible improvement is to increase the protein content of DG by converting the residual starch and fiber into ethanol. We have developed methods for steam explosion, SO2, and dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of DG for evaluation as a feedstock for ethanol production. The highest soluble sugar yields (approximately 77% of available carbohydrate) were obtained by pretreatment of DG at 140 degrees C for 20 min with 3.27 wt% H2SO4. Fermentation protocols for pretreated DG were developed at the bench scale and scaled to a working volume of 809 L for production of hydrolyzed distiller's grain (HDG) for feeding trials. The pretreated DG was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A, with ethanol yields of 73% of theoretical from available glucans. The HDG was air-dried and used for turkey-feeding trials. The inclusion of HDG into turkey poult (as a model non-ruminant animal) diets at 5 and 10% levels, replacing corn and soybean meal, showed weight gains in the birds similar to controls, whereas 15 and 20% inclusion levels showed slight decreases (-6%) in weight gain. At the conclusion of the trial, no negative effects on internal organs or morphology, and no mortality among the poults, was found. The high protein levels (58-61%) available in HDG show promising economics for incorporation of this process into corn dry-grind ethanol plants. PMID:15054259

  3. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources

    Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

  4. Definition of key parameters for constructing an online reference micrographs collection of processed animal particles in feed

    Belinchon Crespo, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Reference Laboratory for the detection of animal proteins in feedingstuffs (EURL-AP has developed an online micrographs collection supporting its network activities within the European Union for the detection of prohibited animal by-products in feed. So far, the only official method for detecting these by-products is light microscopy, which is highly dependent on the skills of a microscopist because it relies on particle recognition. In order to help the microscopist network to achieve high proficiency levels, it was necessary to create an online reference tool based on micrographs and accessible via an Intranet platform. Members of the National Reference Laboratories for animal proteins in feedingstuffs (NRL-AP and the International Association for Feedingstuff Analysis – Section Feedingstuff Microscopy (IAG have access to this micrographs collection. This paper describes how the online collection was created and what conditions had to be taken into account in creating such a tool. It also describes how information are periodically updated and managed within the context of the large amount of information included in each micrograph. The need for a robust back-office system as the foundation for all the research activities in this project is also covered, and the evaluation of the use of the online collection is discussed.

  5. Variations among animals when estimating the undegradable fraction of fiber in forage samples

    Cláudia Batista Sampaio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the variability among animals regarding the critical time to estimate the undegradable fraction of fiber (ct using an in situ incubation procedure. Five rumenfistulated Nellore steers were used to estimate the degradation profile of fiber. Animals were fed a standard diet with an 80:20 forage:concentrate ratio. Sugarcane, signal grass hay, corn silage and fresh elephant grass samples were assessed. Samples were put in F57 Ankom® bags and were incubated in the rumens of the animals for 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240 and 312 hours. The degradation profiles were interpreted using a mixed non-linear model in which a random effect was associated with the degradation rate. For sugarcane, signal grass hay and corn silage, there were no significant variations among animals regarding the fractional degradation rate of neutral and acid detergent fiber; consequently, the ct required to estimate the undegradable fiber fraction did not vary among animals for those forages. However, a significant variability among animals was found for the fresh elephant grass. The results seem to suggest that the variability among animals regarding the degradation rate of fibrous components can be significant.

  6. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows.

    van Zijderveld, S M; Fonken, B; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J; Perdok, H B; Fokkink, W; Newbold, J R

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives investigated contained lauric acid, myristic acid, linseed oil, and calcium fumarate. These additives were included at 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, and 0.7% of dietary dry matter, respectively (treatment ADD). Experimental fat sources were exchanged for a rumen inert source of fat in the control diet (treatment CON) to maintain isolipidic rations. Cows (experiment 1, n=20; experiment 2, n=12) were fed restricted amounts of feed to avoid confounding effects of dry matter intake on methane production. In experiment 1, methane production and energy balance were studied using open-circuit indirect calorimetry. In experiment 2, 10 rumen-fistulated animals were used to measure rumen fermentation characteristics. In both experiments animal performance was monitored. The inclusion of dietary additives decreased methane emissions (g/d) by 10%. Milk yield and milk fat content tended to be lower for ADD in experiment 1. In experiment 2, milk production was not affected by ADD, but milk fat content was lower. Fat- and protein-corrected milk was lower for ADD in both experiments. Milk urea nitrogen content was lowered by ADD in experiment 1 and tended to be lower in experiment 2. Apparent total tract digestibility of fat, but not that of starch or neutral detergent fiber, was higher for ADD. Energy retention did not differ between treatments. The decrease in methane production (g/d) was not evident when methane emission was expressed per kilogram of milk produced. Feeding ADD resulted in increases of C12:0 and C14:0 and the intermediates of linseed oil biohydrogenation in milk in both experiments. In experiment 2, ADD-fed cows tended to have a decreased number of protozoa in rumen fluid when

  7. Contaminant investigations at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge including an assessment of confined animal feeding operations

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Samples of water, benthic sediment, fish and interior least tern eggs, taken from various locations on the refuge between 1990-2001, indicate a relatively low risk...

  8. Sample size considerations for one-to-one animal transmission studies of the influenza A viruses.

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal transmission studies can provide important insights into host, viral and environmental factors affecting transmission of viruses including influenza A. The basic unit of analysis in typical animal transmission experiments is the presence or absence of transmission from an infectious animal to a susceptible animal. In studies comparing two groups (e.g. two host genetic variants, two virus strains, or two arrangements of animal cages, differences between groups are evaluated by comparing the proportion of pairs with successful transmission in each group. The present study aimed to discuss the significance and power to estimate transmissibility and identify differences in the transmissibility based on one-to-one trials. The analyses are illustrated on transmission studies of influenza A viruses in the ferret model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Employing the stochastic general epidemic model, the basic reproduction number, R₀, is derived from the final state of an epidemic and is related to the probability of successful transmission during each one-to-one trial. In studies to estimate transmissibility, we show that 3 pairs of infectious/susceptible animals cannot demonstrate a significantly higher transmissibility than R₀= 1, even if infection occurs in all three pairs. In comparisons between two groups, at least 4 pairs of infectious/susceptible animals are required in each group to ensure high power to identify significant differences in transmissibility between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results inform the appropriate sample sizes for animal transmission experiments, while relating the observed proportion of infected pairs to R₀, an interpretable epidemiological measure of transmissibility. In addition to the hypothesis testing results, the wide confidence intervals of R₀ with small sample sizes also imply that the objective demonstration of difference or similarity should rest on firmly calculated sample size.

  9. Analysis of zearalenone in cereal and Swine feed samples using an automated flow-through immunosensor.

    Urraca, Javier L; Benito-Peña, Elena; Pérez-Conde, Concepción; Moreno-Bondi, María C; Pestka, James J

    2005-05-01

    The development of a sensitive flow-though immunosensor for the analysis of the mycotoxin zearalenone in cereal samples is described. The sensor was completely automated and was based on a direct competitive immunosorbent assay and fluorescence detection. The mycotoxin competes with a horseradish-peroxidase-labeled derivative for the binding sites of a rabbit polyclonal antibody. Control pore glass covalently bound to Prot A was used for the oriented immobilization of the antibody-antigen immunocomplexes. The immunosensor shows an IC(50) value of 0.087 ng mL(-1) (RSD = 2.8%, n = 6) and a dynamic range from 0.019 to 0.422 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (90% of blank signal) of 0.007 ng mL(-1) (RSD = 3.9%, n = 3) is lower than previously published methods. Corn, wheat, and swine feed samples have been analyzed with the device after extraction of the analyte using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The immunosensor has been validated using a corn certificate reference material and HPLC with fluorescence detection. PMID:15853369

  10. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    Christina Schreier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at −20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Conclusion. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

  11. Solid sampling in analysis of animal organs by two-jet plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    A study of high-power two-jet plasma capabilities for the direct multi-elemental analysis of animal organs was undertaken. The experimental conditions chosen allow the direct analysis of different animal organs after drying and grinding to powder (particle size 20–200 μm). It was found that evaporation efficiency of the samples depends on the particle size and thermal stability of tissues and can be improved by reduction of a carrier gas flow. Calibration samples based on graphite powder and a tenfold dilution of powdered samples with buffer (graphite powder containing 15% NaCl) were used. 5–10 mg of the sample was quite enough to get the detection limits of elements at the level of 0.1–10 μg g−1. A prior carbonization procedure (not ashing) makes it possible to decrease the detection limits of elements by an order of magnitude. The validation of the techniques was confirmed by the analysis of certified reference materials NIST 8414, BCR 278R and NCS ZC 81001 as well as by using different sample preparation procedures. - Highlights: ► A two-jet plasma was used for direct analysis of powdered animal organs. ► The analysis of powders with particles 20–200 μm in size was possible. ► Calibration samples based on graphite powder were used. ► Carbonization of the sample allows decreasing detection limits of elements.

  12. Recycling technology of sugar industry by-products for animal feeding

    Yadira Suárez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de una tecnología de reciclaje y enriquecimiento proteico mediante fermentación en estado sólido de los subproductos de la industria azucarera para su posterior utilización como alimento animal. A partir de un estudio bibliográfico sobre los aspectos más importantes de las tecnologías actuales de fabricación de alimentos para el consumo animal y las herramientas para el desarrollo de tecnologías de fermentaci ón en medios sólidos se ha desarrollado un procedimiento general para el diseño de una planta para la producción de un alimento a partir de bagazo y miel final, enriquecido proteicamente con levadura Candida utilis y que se le ha dado el nombre de Bagames. El diseño cuenta con varias etapas: preparaci ón de las materias primas, fermentación en estado sólido, sistema de aireaci ón, sistema de bombeo y transporte mecánico del producto, secado, humidificaci ón del aire. El diseño de todos los equipos fue realizado en Microsoft Excel. La metodología desarrollada puede ser generalizada a otras plantas del país. Mediante un análisis de prefactibilidad económica se calculó que la inversi ón en el Complejo Agro Industrial "Siboney" es de $72 697,91 con un tiempo de recuperación de 2,44 años. Con un valor del VAN de $219 407, 48 y un TIR de 39,13 %. Se demostró que la tecnología es técnico económicamente factible.

  13. Mécanismes de la promotion de croissance des animaux par les additifs alimentaires antibiotiques [Mechanism of antimicrobial growth promoters used in animal feed

    Corpet, Denis E

    2000-01-01

    Most feeds for broilers, pigs and veal calves, but 1/3 of feeds for beef cattle, are supplemented with an antimicrobial growth promoter. A European regulation list allows antimicrobial growth promoter, concentrations, animal species, and withdrawal periods (often null). Presently, avilamycin, flavomycin, lasalocid, monensin, and salinomycin are allowed. Avoparcin, bacitracin, carbadox, olaquindox, spiramycin, tylosin, and virginiamycin use was suspended by EU in 1997 and 98. Permitted doses a...

  14. REAL-TIME PCR DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN FOOD SAMPLES OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

    Jaroslav Pochop; Miroslava Kačániová; Lukáš Hleba; Jana Petrová; Ľubomír Lopašovský; Adriana Pavelková; Alica Bobková

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow the contamination of food with Listeria monocytogenes by using Step One real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and SensiFAST SYBR Hi-ROX Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In 24 samples of food of animal origin without incubation were detected strains of Listeria monocytogenes in 15 samples (swabs). Nine samples were negative. Our results indicated that the real-time PCR assa...

  15. A novel PCR-based method to enumerate Salmonella in animal feed

    Löfström, Charlotta; Andersson, Gunnar; Häggblom, Per;

    2010-01-01

    the pellet and subjected to real-time PCR. The qualitative PCR method was compared to a reference culture method using modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassilades (MSRV) agar plates (ISO 6579, Amd D, 2007). Of 81 naturally or artificially contaminated samples tested (soya meal, rape seed meal, rape seed...

  16. Social behaviour of dogs encountering AIBO, an animal-like robot in a neutral and in a feeding situation.

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Miklósi, Adám; Kaplan, Frédéric; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József; Csányi, Vilmos

    2004-03-31

    The use of animal-like autonomous robots might offer new possibilities in the study of animal interactions, if the subject recognises it as a social partner. In this paper we investigate whether AIBO, a dog-like robot of the Sony Corp. can be used for this purpose. Twenty-four adult and sixteen 4-5 months old pet dogs were tested in two situations where subjects encountered one of four different test-partners: (1) a remote controlled car; (2) an AIBO robot; (3) AIBO with a puppy-scented furry cover; and (4) a 2-month-old puppy. In the neutral situation the dog could interact freely with one of the partners for 1 min in a closed arena in the presence of its owner. In the feeding situation the encounters were started while the dog was eating food. Our results show that age and context influence the social behaviour of dogs. Further, we have found that although both age groups differentiated the living and non-living test-partners for some extent, the furry AIBO evoked significantly increased responses in comparison to the car. These experiments show the first steps towards the application of robots in behavioural studies, notwithstanding that at present AIBO's limited ability to move constrains its effectiveness as social partner for dogs. PMID:14998660

  17. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in animal feed by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    López Grío, Sergio José; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Romero-González, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    A rapid and simple method was developed to determine aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in animal feed and pet foods by UHPLC-MS/MS. Because the complexity of the evaluated matrices, the proposed method is based on sonication extraction using an ACN/water mixture (80:20 v/v) followed by a clean-up step utilising C(18) as sorbent. Performance parameters of the method were evaluated, including linearity, trueness, precision and LOQ. Good linearity was found for all mycotoxins, with determination coefficients higher than 0.99 in the range considered, using matrix-matched calibration for quantification purposes. Recoveries ranged from 84 to 113%, with RSD lower than 20%, whereas LOQs were 5 microg/kg for the assayed mycotoxins. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of 19 real samples, detecting aflatoxin G2 in two samples at 13 and 17 microg/kg respectively, whereas the other mycotoxins were detected at trace levels (samples. PMID:20127914

  18. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    2013-05-10

    .... Background In a notice published in the Federal Register of February 29, 2012 (77 FR 12226), FDA announced... Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed and Poultry Feed... safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry...

  19. Improvement Utilization Efficiency of Sunflower Meal as a Feed for Ruminant Animals

    This research was conducted to study the effect of blood, formaldehyde, heating or roasting on sunflower meal including chemical composition, particle size, solubility, in vitro digestion coefficient, dry matter and nitrogen degradability and true nitrogen digestion coefficient. Results of chemical composition indicated that treatments caused high significant (P<0.01) differences in comparison with untreated meal particularly in protein. It was shown that treatment with blood or roasting caused an increase in protein percentage about 7.75% and 3.81%; respectively. Treatments casued a highly significant (P<0.01) increase in particle size and reduction in small particle ratio in comparison with untreated meal. Superiority was for blood treatment. Meanwhile, solubility results reflected no significant differences between used solutions . Different treatments tended to reduce solubility compared to untreated meal. Significant reduction (p<0.01) in nitrogen solubility was for treating meal with blood or roasting . Results indicated that treatment tended to reduce (P<0.01) dry and organic mater digestion coefficients in comparison with untreated meal. Dry matter and nitrogen degradability was greatly reduced (P<0.01) compared to untreated meal, especially blood and roasting treatments . True nitrogen digestion coefficient showed high significance (P<0.01) due to treatment . This study indicated that sunflower meal protein could be protected effectively from degradation in rumen by treatment with blood or roasting without any inverse effect on nitrogen digestion and absorbability in ruminant animal abomasum and small intestine. (authors) 32 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Unusual animal-plant interaction: Feeding of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae) by ants

    The hollow pseudobulbs of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae; Central America) serve as domatia for many species of ants. The ants pack many of the pseudobulbs with debris including dead insects, plant material, and sand. Ants were fed 14C-labelled D-glucose in honey, killed, and placed in the pseudobulbs for up to eight weeks. Samples of plant tissue were harvested and tested for radioactivity after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The labelled material had moved into various parts of the plant and demonstrated direct nutrient uptake

  1. Unusual animal-plant interaction: Feeding of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae) by ants

    Rico-Gray, V. (INIREB, Veracruz (Mexico)); Barber, J.T.; Thien, L.B.; Ellgaard, E.G.; Toney, J.J. (Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    The hollow pseudobulbs of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae; Central America) serve as domatia for many species of ants. The ants pack many of the pseudobulbs with debris including dead insects, plant material, and sand. Ants were fed {sup 14}C-labelled D-glucose in honey, killed, and placed in the pseudobulbs for up to eight weeks. Samples of plant tissue were harvested and tested for radioactivity after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The labelled material had moved into various parts of the plant and demonstrated direct nutrient uptake.

  2. Evaluation of the Validity of three Criteria for Sampling and Analyzing DST Wastes in Support of Waste Feed Delivery

    This document summarizes the analysis of 3 basic criteria for the sampling systems that will provide waste validation samples of tank waste feeds prior to delivery to the waste treatment and immobilization plant where the wastes will be converted to glass forms. The assessed criteria includes sampling through a 4-inch riser, sampling while a mixer pump is operating, and the deployment of an at-tank analysis system. The assessment, based on the Phase I, 3S6 waste feed scenario, indicated that for high level waste, sampling through a 4-inch riser is not required but sampling while mixer pumps are operating will be required. For low activity waste, sampling through a 4-inch riser will be required but sampling while mixer pumps are operating is not required. The assessment indicated that an at-tank analysis system to provide tank mixing/settling (homogeneity) status is not needed since the number of tanks providing LAW feed was expanded and the payment basis in the original privatization contract has been modified

  3. Evaluation of the Validity of 3 Criteria for Sampling and Analyzing DST Wastes in Support of Waste Feed Delivery

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-10-16

    This document summarizes the analysis of 3 basic criteria for the sampling systems that will provide waste validation samples of tank waste feeds prior to delivery to the waste treatment and immobilization plant where the wastes will be converted to glass forms. The assessed criteria includes sampling through a 4-inch riser, sampling while a mixer pump is operating, and the deployment of an at-tank analysis system. The assessment, based on the Phase I, 3S6 waste feed scenario, indicated that for high level waste, sampling through a 4-inch riser is not required but sampling while mixer pumps are operating will be required. For low activity waste, sampling through a 4-inch riser will be required but sampling while mixer pumps are operating is not required. The assessment indicated that an at-tank analysis system to provide tank mixing/settling (homogeneity) status is not needed since the number of tanks providing LAW feed was expanded and the payment basis in the original privatization contract has been modified.

  4. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF A PRECIPITATE REACTOR FEED TANK (PRFT) SAMPLE FROM THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.

    2014-05-12

    A sample of from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) was pulled and sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in June of 2013. The PRFT in DWPF receives Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/ Monosodium Titanate (MST) material from the 512-S Facility via the 511-S Facility. This 2.2 L sample was to be used in small-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing in the Shielded Cells Facility of SRNL. A 1L sub-sample portion was characterized to determine the physical properties such as weight percent solids, density, particle size distribution and crystalline phase identification. Further chemical analysis of the PRFT filtrate and dissolved slurry included metals and anions as well as carbon and base analysis. This technical report describes the characterization and analysis of the PRFT sample from DWPF. At SRNL, the 2.2 L PRFT sample was composited from eleven separate samples received from DWPF. The visible solids were observed to be relatively quick settling which allowed for the rinsing of the original shipping vials with PRFT supernate on the same day as compositing. Most analyses were performed in triplicate except for particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PRFT slurry samples were dissolved using a mixed HNO3/HF acid for subsequent Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analyses performed by SRNL Analytical Development (AD). Per the task request for this work, analysis of the PRFT slurry and filtrate for metals, anions, carbon and base were primarily performed to support the planned chemical process cell testing and to provide additional component concentrations in addition to the limited data available from DWPF. Analysis of the insoluble solids portion of the PRFT slurry was aimed at detailed characterization of these solids (TGA, PSD

  6. Doctor-diagnosed health problems in a region with a high density of concentrated animal feeding operations: a cross-sectional study.

    Hooiveld, M.; Smit, L.A.M.; Sman-de Beer, F. van der; Wouters, I.M.; Dijk, C.E. van; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Yzermans, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is growing interest in health risks of residents living near concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Previous research mostly focused on swine CAFOs and self-reported respiratory conditions. The aim was to study the association between the presence of swine, poultry, cattle

  7. Pigs in Space: Determining the Environmental Justice Landscape of Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Iowa.

    Carrel, Margaret; Young, Sean G; Tate, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Given the primacy of Iowa in pork production for the U.S. and global markets, we sought to understand if the same relationship with traditional environmental justice (EJ) variables such as low income and minority populations observed in other concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) studies exists in the relationship with swine CAFO densities in Iowa. We examined the potential for spatial clustering of swine CAFOs in certain parts of the state and used spatial regression techniques to determine the relationships of high swine concentrations to these EJ variables. We found that while swine CAFOs do cluster in certain regions and watersheds of Iowa, these high densities of swine are not associated with traditional EJ populations of low income and minority race/ethnicity. Instead, the potential for environmental injustice in the negative impacts of intensive swine production require a more complex appraisal. The clustering of swine production in watersheds, the presence of antibiotics used in swine production in public waterways, the clustering of manure spills, and other findings suggest that a more literal and figurative "downstream" approach is necessary. We document the presence and location of antibiotics used in animal production in the public waterways of the state. At the same time, we suggest a more "upstream" understanding of the structural, political and economic factors that create an environmentally unjust landscape of swine production in Iowa and the Upper Midwest is also crucial. Finally, we highlight the important role of publicly accessible and high quality data in the analysis of these upstream and downstream EJ questions. PMID:27571091

  8. Colorimetric polymer-metal nanocomposite sensor of ammonia for the agricultural industry of confined animal feeding operations

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Czarick, Michael; Fairchild, Brian D.; Liang, Yi; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Curley, Michael J.

    2014-02-01

    The proposed colorimetric sensor of ammonia for the confined animal feeding industry uses the method of optoelectronic spectroscopic measurement of the reversible change of the color of a nanocomposite reagent film in response to ammonia. The film is made of a gold nanocolloid in a polymer matrix with an ammonia-sensitive indicator dye additive. The response of the indicator dye (increase of the optical absorption between 550 and 650 nm) is enhanced by the nanoparticles (˜8 nm in size) in two ways: (a) concentration of the optical field near the nanoparticle due to the plasmon resonance and (b) catalytic acceleration of the chemical reaction of deprotonization of the indicator dye in the presence of ammonia and water vapor. This enhancement helps to miniaturize the sensing element without compromising its sensitivity of <1 parts per million (ppm) for the range 0 to 100 ppm. The sensor underwent field tests in commercial poultry farms in Georgia and Arkansas and was compared against a scientific-grade photoacoustic gas analyzer. The coefficient of correlation between the sensor and the photoacoustic data for several weeks of continuous side-by-side operation in a commercial poultry house was ˜0.9 and the linear regression slope was 1.0. The conclusions on the necessary improvements were made.

  9. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wastes by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EBF) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13% and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30oC in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran. (author)

  10. Growing spirodela polyrrhiza in Swine wastewater for the production of animal feed and fuel ethanol: a Pilot study

    To evaluate the performance of Spirodela polyrrhiza grown in swine wastewater for protein and starch production under field conditions, a pilot-scale duckweed culture pond was installed at Barham Farm, Zebulon, North Carolina and operated from May to November 2010. The anaerobically treated swine wastewater was fed to the duckweed pond intermittently to provide nutrients for the growth of duckweed, and the duckweed biomass was harvested regularly from the pond and prepared as a protein- or starch-rich feedstock for the production of animal feed or fuel ethanol. Over the experimental period, the duckweed pond produced protein and starch at rates of 2.68 and 1.88 g m-2 day-1, respectively. During the same time, NH4-N and o-PO4-P in the wastewater were, respectively, removed at rates of 92.9 and 2.90 mmol m-2 day-1. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. A review of nutritional and toxicological implications of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) meal in animal feeding systems.

    Akande, T O; Odunsi, A A; Akinfala, E O

    2016-04-01

    The nutrient-rich defatted castor meal has been tested as a potential source of protein in diets of many livestock species but has limitation due to challenges of toxins. This review was conducted to compile the relevant research information on advances in the use of raw and differently processed castor seed meal in animal feed. In this article, distribution and uses of castor and its products were identified. Research findings on the nutrients profile, principal toxins, various detoxification strategies, nutritional value and toxicity on common livestock species were compiled and reviewed. The defatted seed meal had crude protein range of 32-48%, gross energy of about 3200 kcal/kg. Ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, and the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g. The meal had high activity of lectin, which produced agglutination at about 4.70 mg/ml minimum assays. Reports of detoxification strategies showed varying degrees of success but high pH, moist heating and microbial techniques appeared to exert greater effect on deactivating ricin. Detoxification strategy for the allergen component is inconclusive. Tannins and the phenolic contents were present at trace level and did not constitute notable threat. It was concluded that castor seed holds great potential as feedstuff when upgraded but such upgrading must be safe, cost-effective and labour efficient for commercial acceptability. PMID:26150062

  12. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

    1993-10-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

  13. Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindicus) as an alternative feed and water source for animals during the dry season in Eritrea

    Throughout East Africa, animal feed resources fluctuate seasonally and are often of limited availability. Finding alternative feed resources that can sustain animal production during the long dry season is an essential need. Cactus is a drought-tolerant and succulent feed resource available throughout the year in Eritrea. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including increasing levels of spineless cactus in the diet of sheep fed urea-treated barley straw. Twenty four fat tailed Highland male sheep with mean live weight of 21.1 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments (T1-T4). Animals in T1 received urea (5%) -treated barley straw (UTBS) alone ad libitum, while those in T, T3 and T4 received ad libitum UTBS supplemented with 175 g, 350 g and 525 g of spineless cactus (dry matter [DM] basis), respectively. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant increases in DM intake (P 0.75d and 96.5 g/ kg BWt0.75d, respectively) as compared with the first two treatments (94.4 g/kg BWt0.75d and 87.6 g/kg BWt0.75d). Water intake was significantly decreased with the progressive increase in cactus intake. The highest BWt gain (51.9 g/d) was found when sheep received 350 g DM of cactus (T3), while the lowest was in the control diet (26.8 g/d). The metabolism data demonstrated that available energy intake (TDNI) was directly related to animal performance. In conclusion, feeding cactus with UTBS can significantly increase animal performance and feed intake, and reduced water intake. (author)

  14. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper compounds (E4) as feed additives for all species: cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2013-01-01

    Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is safe for all animal species/categories up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feed. Consumption surveys include copper from foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with copper-containing compounds has not essentially changed over the last decade, no change in the contribution of foodstuffs originating from supplemented animals to the overall copper intake of consumers is expected. No concerns for ...

  15. Studies on the control of mold and its toxin in indirect foods(animal feeds) by radiation technology

    Chung, Duck Hwa; Shim, Won Bo; Cho, Sik Bee; Nimakashim; Song, Jung Un [Gyungsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    For determining susceptibility of the hazard fungi in feed to radiation, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mycotoxin free feed and reconfirm liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection of mycotoxin. The growth of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi in the feeds were completely inhibited at > 3 kGy of both radiations, and the zearalenone producing fungi in the feeds was controlled at > 5 kGy of both radiations. The growth and mycotoxin productivity of three fungi (aflatoxigenic, ochratoxigenic and zearalenone producing fungi) were fully controlled at > 7 kGy of gamma-irradiation. This means that the growth and mycotoxin productivity of fungi in feed could be fully inhibited by gamma-irradiation at > 7 kGy and the safety feed also can produce and preserve by the proper radiation level and hygienic management of feed factory and livestock raiser

  16. Studies on the control of mold and its toxin in indirect foods(animal feeds) by radiation technology

    For determining susceptibility of the hazard fungi in feed to radiation, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mycotoxin free feed and reconfirm liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection of mycotoxin. The growth of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi in the feeds were completely inhibited at > 3 kGy of both radiations, and the zearalenone producing fungi in the feeds was controlled at > 5 kGy of both radiations. The growth and mycotoxin productivity of three fungi (aflatoxigenic, ochratoxigenic and zearalenone producing fungi) were fully controlled at > 7 kGy of gamma-irradiation. This means that the growth and mycotoxin productivity of fungi in feed could be fully inhibited by gamma-irradiation at > 7 kGy and the safety feed also can produce and preserve by the proper radiation level and hygienic management of feed factory and livestock raiser

  17. Feed Feeds: Managing Feeds Using Feeds

    Wilde, Erik; Pesenson, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Feeds have become an important information channel on the Web, but the management of feed metadata so far has received little attention. It is hard for feed publishers to manage and publish their feed information in a unified format, and for feed consumers to manage and use their feed subscription data across various feed readers, and to share it with other users. We present a system for managing feed metadata using feeds, which we call "feed feeds". Because these feeds are Atom feeds, the wi...

  18. Arsenic residues in meat and organ samples from farm animals, water fowl and game

    Holm, J.

    1978-09-01

    There are still gaps in our knowledge of the extent to which animal foods are contaminated with arsenic. An examination was therefore made of the meat, livers and kidneys of 65 pigs, 40 bulls including some heifers, 35 calves, 50 cows and 30 horses from north-eastern area of Lower Saxony. Arsenic contents were also determined in 269 geese and 27 ducks and in 29 deer and 11 hares. The samples were treated with a nitric acid/perchloric acid mixture until dry, absorbed into 25 ml of 3.2% nitric acid and determined by means of the arsenic hydride system and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer 300 made by Perkin Elmer with ED-lamp. The results show that food of animal origin is only very slightly contaminated with arsenic. The guide values for arsenic contents in meat and organ samples taken from pigs and bovines were not exceeded in any case. 7 bovines from an immission area however had undesirably high arsenic values with maximum quantities of 0.16 ppM in the meat, 0.14 ppM in the liver and 0.22 ppM in the kidneys. Unlike the situation with cadmium and lead there was no build-up of arsenic in the organs. Results so far would suggest that arsenic only plays a subordinate role as a ''problem element'' in the contamination of animal foods with harmful metals. Continual supervision of this harmful metal would therefore not appear to be absolutely essential and random sampling of and control tests on animal foods from immission areas would seem more appropriate. 11 references, 1 table.

  19. REAL-TIME PCR DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN FOOD SAMPLES OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

    Jaroslav Pochop

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow the contamination of food with Listeria monocytogenes by using Step One real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and SensiFAST SYBR Hi-ROX Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In 24 samples of food of animal origin without incubation were detected strains of Listeria monocytogenes in 15 samples (swabs. Nine samples were negative. Our results indicated that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Listeria monocytogenes in food of animal origin without incubation. This could prevent infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes, and also could benefit food manufacturing companies by extending their product’s shelf-life as well as saving the cost of warehousing their food products while awaiting pathogen testing results. The rapid real-time PCR-based method performed very well compared to the conventional method. It is a fast, simple, specific and sensitive way to detect nucleic acids, which could be used in clinical diagnostic tests in the future.

  20. Feasibility of feeding yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) in bioregenerative life support systems as a source of animal protein for humans

    Li, LeYuan; Zhao, ZhiRuo; Liu, Hong

    2013-11-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems, using inedible plant biomass to feed animals can provide animal protein for astronauts, while at the same time treating with wastes so as to increase the degree of system closure. In this study, the potential of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) as an animal candidate in the system was analyzed. The feasibility of feeding T. molitor with inedible parts of wheat and vegetable was studied. To improve the feed quality of wheat straw, three methods of fermentation were tested. A feeding regime was designed to contain a proper proportion of bran, straw and old leaves. The results showed that T. molitor larvae fed on the plant waste diets grew healthily, their fresh and dry weight reached 56.15% and 46.76% of the larvae fed on a conventional diet (control), respectively. The economic coefficient of the larvae was 16.07%, which was 88.05% of the control. The protein and fat contents of the larvae were 76.14% and 6.44% on dry weigh basis, respectively. Through the processes of facultative anaerobic fermentation and larval consumption, the straw lost about 47.79% of the initial dry weight, and its lignocellulose had a degradation of about 45.74%. Wheat germination test indicated that the frass of T. molitor needs a certain treatment before the addition to the cultivation substrate.

  1. Animals

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  2. Propolis extract in the diet of crossbred (½ Angus vs. ½ Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the replacement of monensin by propolis on performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristic of bulls finished in feedlot. The bulls, kept in feedlot for 70 days, were allocated in three diets: Control (CON, Monensin (MON and Propolis (PRO. They were fed on corn silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Further, 250 mg monensin and 35 g propolis/bulls/day were included respectively in the MON and PRO diets. Animal performance and carcass characteristics were similar (P>0.05 among diets. Feed intake was higher (P0.05 urinary excretion, microbial synthesis and carcass characteristics.

  3. Animal performance

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  4. Free-range pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Effect of feeding strategy on growth, feed conversion and animal behaviour

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Horsted, Klaus; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional contributions from free-range foraging, growth, feed conversion and behaviour were investigated in 36 growing pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (JA) and fed concentrates restrictedly (30% of energy recommendations) or ad libitum. Compared to the ad libitum fed pigs, the pigs fed...

  5. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  6. Measuring ecosystem functioning of soil mega-aggregates produced by soil/litter mix-feeding animals

    Kaneko, N.

    2009-04-01

    on their seed nutrient, and the canopy oak trees seem to be nutrient limited. Thus in this forest, the nutrient condition mediated by earthworm activity was a strong factor influencing plant species-specific growth and this correlation was clear when we used the cast abundance as an independent factor but it was not clear when we used the worm abundance or biomass for explanation variables. In laboratory incubations, fresh casts of earthworm Metaphire hilgendorfi contained higher NH4-N which was mostly nitrified within 4-weeks. The 4-weeks aged casts of the earthworm and millipede Parafontaria laminata emitted significantly more N2O whereas the modified soil had strong CH4 acidification capacity. Therefore the animal effects on greenhouse effect gas should be evaluated for CO2, N2O and CH4 at the same time. We then confirmed that megaaggregates, probably cast origin, tended to contain more carbon than fine soil. Combining our data from various study sites in Japan, the amount of carbon contained in megaaggregates (> 2 mm) in 0-5 cm layer ranged from 200 to 1000 g C per m2. Animal feeding activities maintained substantial amount of surface soil aggregates. Therefore, the activity of soil/litter mix feeders can be linked to the carbon dynamics by evaluating worm's soil engineering effect.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the presence of seeds of Ambrosia spp. in animal feed

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission requested EFSA to provide a scientific opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union and on the importance of feed materials, in particular bird feed, in the dispersion of Ambrosia...... spp. The genus Ambrosia (Asteraceae family) is distributed worldwide. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) has heavily colonised several areas of South-East Europe. Ambrosia spp., both in their native range and in invaded areas, are of public health concern due to the allergenic properties of...

  8. Acidic β-mannanase from Penicillium pinophilum C1: Cloning, characterization and assessment of its potential for animal feed application.

    Cai, Hongying; Shi, Pengjun; Luo, Huiying; Bai, Yingguo; Huang, Huoqing; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2011-12-01

    The β-mannanase gene, man5C1, was cloned from Penicillium pinophilum C1, a strain isolated from the acidic wastewater of a tin mine in Yunnan, China, and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The sequence analysis displayed the gene consists of a 1221-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 406 amino acids (Man5C1). The deduced amino acid sequence of Man5C1 showed the highest homology of 57.8% (identity) with a characterized β-mannanase from Aspergillus aculeatus belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5. The purified rMan5C1 had a high specific activity of 1035U mg(-1) towards locust bean gum (LBG) and showed highest activity at pH 4.0 and 70°C. rMan5C1 was adaptable to a wide range of acidity, retaining >60% of its maximum activity at pH 3.0-7.0. The enzyme was stable over a broad pH range (3.0 to 10.0) and exhibited good thermostability at 50°C. The K(m) and V(max) values were 5.6 and 4.8mgmL(-1), and 2785 and 1608μmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively, when LBG and konjac flour were used as substrates. The enzyme had strong resistance to most metal ions and proteases (pepsin and trypsin), and released 8.96mgg(-1) reducing sugars from LBG in the simulated gastric fluid. All these favorable properties make rMan5C1 a promising candidate for use in animal feed. PMID:22036533

  9. Activity and growth of microbial populations in pressurized deep-sea sediment and animal gut samples.

    Tabor, P S; Deming, J W; Ohwada, K; Colwell, R R

    1982-08-01

    Benthic animals and sediment samples were collected at deep-sea stations in the northwest (3,600-m depth) and southeast (4,300- and 5200-m depths) Atlantic Ocean. Utilization rates of [14C]glutamate (0.67 to 0.74 nmol) in sediment suspensions incubated at in situ temperatures and pressures (3 to 5 degrees C and 360, 430, or 520 atmospheres) were relatively slow, ranging from 0.09 to 0.39 nmol g-1 day-1, whereas rates for pressurized samples of gut suspensions varied widely, ranging from no detectable activity to a rapid rate of 986 nmol g-1 day-1. Gut flora from a holothurian specimen and a fish demonstrated rapid, barophilic substrate utilization, based on relative rates calculated for pressurized samples and samples held at 1 atm (101.325 kPa). Substrate utilization by microbial populations in several sediment samples was not inhibited by in situ pressure. Deep-sea pressures did not restrict growth, measured as doubling time, of culturable bacteria present in a northwest Atlantic sediment sample and in a gut suspension prepared from an abyssal scavenging amphipod. From the results of this study, it was concluded that microbial populations in benthic environments can demonstrate significant metabolic activity under deep-ocean conditions of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, rates of microbial activity in the guts of benthic macrofauna are potentially more rapid than in surrounding deep-sea sediments. PMID:6127054

  10. Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development

    Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

  11. ANIMALS

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for all animal species or categories based on a dossier submitted by Lohmann Animal Health GmbH

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum authorised content of vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs and fish, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. The FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D for target animals but considers the current maximum contents temporarily acceptable pending a review of the recent scientific literature. The two vitamin sources under application are considered safe for the target animals provided the current maximum contents in feed are respected. Any administration of vitamin D3 via water for drinking could exceed the safe amounts of vitamin D and therefore represents a safety concern. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed, and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes, and as a dermal sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful. No environmental risk resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.

  13. Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indicus) as an alternative animal feed and water resource during dry season in Eritrea

    Animal feed and water shortage is one of the main constraints for the livestock sector in arid and semi arid region of Eritrea. The major feed resource comes from the rangeland pasture and crop residue. The quality and availability of these feed resources decreases rapidly following the rainy season. This fluctuating pattern of animal feed supply results in a pattern of gain and loss in animal growth and performance. In a country like Eritrea where feed shortage is such a serious problem, utilization of multipurpose trees and shrubs such as cactus that can cope with low and erratic rain fall, high temperature poor soils, and required low energy inputs can serve as an alternative strategy to reduce the chronic animal feed and water shortage (Barbera et al., 1995). Therefore the aim of this research was to assess the potential of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindica) as an alternative source feed and water for ruminant animals fed poor quality crop residues during the dry season in Eritrea. A randomized complete block design was used to allocate 24 fat tailed Highland male sheep with initial mean live weight of 21.1kg in two replications and one of four feed treatment groups. Animal in T1 received ad libitum amount of urea treated barley straw alone, while those in T2, T3 and T4 received ad libitum urea treated barley straw supplemented with 175g, 350g and 525g of spineless cactus (DM basis), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, four sheep were transferred to metabolic crates for the digestibility trial. Data were analyzed using standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) with help of GENSTAT statistical producer software. Spineless cactus cladodes were high in water and ash content but low in crude protein and low in crude fibre. The energy content of cactus was 65% more than the urea treated straw. The effect of increasing level of spineless cactus on feed and water intake and weight gain is presented. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant

  14. Research Progress of Grassland Feed-animal Balance at Home and Abroad%国内外草畜平衡研究进展

    买小虎; 张玉娟; 张英俊; 师尚礼; 黄顶; 张亚军

    2013-01-01

    Feed-animal balance was the key technique on the grassland ecosystem management, and attracts widespread attention in the world. Many studies have been conducted by former researchers, and most of their efforts were intended to keep the balance of feed-animal. However, there were still much more issue needed to be studied in details on the face of grassland degeneration and animal husbandry sustainable development. The author analyzed the feed-animal balance research progress, including the concept of stocking rate and its practical management techniques, especially on the stocking rate calculation methods. In addition, the social and economy effects on feed-animal balance were also discussed during the progress of improving the development of pastoral economy. In order to achieve feed-animal balance more effectively, it was concluded that the focus must be shift from only on animal number to the grassland quality, and it’s necessary to strengthen market tax control.%  草畜平衡长期以来是草地生态系统研究的热点。然而,多年来的研究成果未能有效解决草地退化以及畜牧业可持续发展的管理和技术问题,现有的草畜平衡研究体系尚存在一定缺陷。笔者论述了草畜平衡的国内外研究进展,讨论了确定草原载畜量所涉及的基本概念、基本方法和实践问题,特别是载畜量的确定和牧民收入问题。并通过对草原畜牧业发展、划区轮牧和季节畜牧业等概念的探讨,进一步阐述了在草原牧区提高畜牧业经营水平和维持草畜平衡的相关理论和实践问题。草畜平衡应由侧重牲畜数量监管模式改为以草原质量为依据,以税收等市场手段为主体的市场经济管理新模式。

  15. Isolation of tick and mosquito-borne arboviruses from ticks sampled from livestock and wild animal hosts in Ijara District, Kenya.

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

    2013-09-01

    Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service-protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne. PMID:23805790

  16. Development of an immunoaffinity chromatography column for selective extraction of a new agonist phenylethylamine A from feed, meat and liver samples.

    Mei, Liyun; Cao, Biyun; Yang, Hong; Xie, Yun; Xu, Shouming; Deng, Anping

    2014-01-15

    Phenylethanolamine A (PA) is a new emerged β-adrenergic agonist that has been illegally used as an animal feed additive for growth promotion in China. In this study, an immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column for selective extraction of PA from swine feed, meat and liver samples was developed. The IAC column was constructed by covalently coupling specific polyclonal antibody (Ab) against PA to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B and packed into a common solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The extraction conditions including loading, washing and eluting solutions were carefully optimized. Under optimal conditions, the IAC column was characterized in terms of maximum capacity, selectivity, extraction recovery and stability. The maximum capacity of the ICA for PA extraction was found to be 239.4ng. For selectivity testing, 100ng of other three β-adrenergic agonists (clenbuterol, ractopamine and salbutamol) was separately loaded onto the column, and it was observed that the tested compounds could not be captured on the column, e.g. the column could only selectively recognize PA. The recovery of the IAC for PA extraction was found within 96.47-101.98% when 10, 50 and 100ng PA were separately loaded onto IAC column. The IAC column was also applied to real sample extraction. Swine feed, meat and liver samples were collected and spiked with PA in range of 1.0-20ngg(-1). The spiked and unspiked samples were extracted by IAC column and measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was found that there was no detectable PA in the blank samples, and the extraction recoveries of the IAC for PA from the spiked samples were within 89.48-104.89%. The stability of the column was also tested. It was showed that after 35 times repeated usage, 60% of the maximum capacity was still remained. The proposed IAC was proven to be a feasible extraction method for PA from different matrices with the properties of high maximum capacity, selectivity, extraction efficiency and

  17. Bioaerosol sampling for airborne bacteria in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital

    Tisha A. M. Harper

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Airborne microorganisms within the hospital environment can potentially cause infection in susceptible patients. The objectives of this study were to identify, quantify, and determine the nosocomial potential of common airborne microorganisms present within a small animal teaching hospital. Methods: Bioaerosol sampling was done initially in all 11 rooms and, subsequently, weekly samples were taken from selected rooms over a 9-week period. Samples were collected twice (morning and afternoon at each site on each sampling day. The rooms were divided into two groups: Group 1, in which morning sampling was post-cleaning and afternoon sampling was during activity, and Group 2, in which morning sampling was pre-cleaning and afternoon sampling was post-cleaning. The total aerobic bacterial plate counts per m3 and bacterial identification were done using standard microbiological methods. Results: A total of 14 bacterial genera were isolated with the most frequent being Micrococcus spp. followed by species of Corynebacterium, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus. There was a significant interaction between location and time for rooms in Group 1 (p=0.0028 but not in Group 2 (p>0.05. Microbial counts for rooms in Group 2 were significantly greater in the mornings than in the afternoon (p=0.0049. The microbial counts were also significantly different between some rooms (p=0.0333. Conclusion: The detection of significantly higher airborne microbial loads in different rooms at different times of the day suggests that the probability of acquiring nosocomial infections is higher at these times and locations.

  18. Detection and genetic characterization of foot‐and‐mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, G.; Hussain, M.;

    2012-01-01

    A total of 1501 oral swab samples from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between July 2008 and August 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA. The oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets...... in Pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in Afghanistan (n = 61) and both the live animal markets in Tajikistan (n = 120) all tested negative. However, 2 of 129 (∼2%) samples from Gondal and 11 of 123 (9%) from Chichawatni markets in Pakistan were positive for FMDV RNA. Similarly, 12 of 81 (15......%) samples from Kabul and 10 of 20 (50%) from Badakhshan in Afghanistan were found to be positive. Serotypes A and O of FMDV were identified within these samples. Oral swab samples were also collected from dairy colonies in Harbanspura, Lahore (n = 232) and Nagori, Karachi (n = 136), but all tested negative...

  19. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 3: diversion of crops grown for human consumption to animal feed

    This report forms part of a series describing a study to evaluate selected options for the management of food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. This report considers the scope for the redirection of contaminated foods grown for human consumption to animal feeds and addresses whether crops grown for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for animal production systems; what the likely impact on contamination levels in animal products is; whether amounts of waste food could be reduced in the event of a nuclear accident; and whether the option is acceptable to the farming industry, retail trade and consumers. The study identified that foods intended for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for beef cattle and sheep and, to a limited extent, for breeding sows but it is essential that a suitable nutritional balance is maintained. The scope to provide suitable alternative diets is, however, limited and is dependent upon the time of year at which the deposition occurs. If crops were contaminated at the relevant CFIL, not all of the alternative diets considered would result in animal products that were below the corresponding CFIL value, thus limiting any benefit in implementing the option. Except possibly in the most extreme of circumstances, this management option would not be considered acceptable by consumers or by the retail trade and farmers would only implement such a measure if there was a suitable market for the resultant produce. This work was undertaken under the Environmental Assessments Department and Emergency Response Group's Quality Management System, which has been approved by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance to the Quality Management Standards ISO 9001:2000 and TickIT Guide Issue 5, certificate number 956546. (author)

  20. Factors influencing diagnostic sample submission by food animal veterinarians in Mississippi

    Philip A. Robinson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A focus group was organised to gather information and opinions from food animal veterinarians in Mississippi regarding sample submission to diagnostic laboratories. The research found that a range of factors influence the veterinarian's decision regarding whether samples will be submitted to a diagnostic laboratory, with the cost of diagnostics as the key influence. The veterinarians believed that the relationship they had with diagnostic laboratories was important in the protection of public health, but they thought that their role in disease surveillance was under-utilised. More attention needs to be directed towards strengthening veterinary surveillance at ground level to ensure that emergent diseases are detected effectively by a partnership approach between veterinary practitioners in the field and diagnosticians in diagnostic laboratories. This partnership is a vital component of the 'One Health' concept for the protection of both animal and human health. This study demonstrates that qualitative social science methodologies, such as focus groups, can usefully be applied to topics of relevance to veterinary public health.

  1. Characterization of Particulate Emission from Animal Feeding Operations with Three-wavelength Lidar Using Simultaneous In-Situ Point Measurements as Calibration Reference Sources

    Zavyalov, Vladimir V.; Bingham, Gail E; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Swasey, Jason; Marchant, Christian; Rogers, Christopher; Martin, Randy; Silva, Phil; Doshi, Vishal

    2006-01-01

    Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides the means to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of particulate emissions from agricultural activities, including animal feeding operations. A three-wavelength portable scanning Lidar system built at the Space Dynamic Laboratory (SDL) is used to extract optical properties of the particulate matter from the return Lidar signal and to convert these optical properties to physical parameters including the spatial distribution o...

  2. Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed

    Wang ZZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zhizeng Wang,1 Dejuan Zhi,2 Yang Zhao,1 Hailong Zhang,2 Xin Wang,2 Yi Ru,1 Hongyu Li1,2 1MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Institute of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Although high melamine (MEL intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 µg/kg, 1,000 µg/kg, and 800 µg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. Keywords: melamine, selenium nanoparticles, test strip, milk, animal feed, dairy food

  3. Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.13304

    Thêmis Sakaguti Graciano; Mariana Michelato; Tadeu Orlandi Xavier; Elias Nunes Martins; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependen...

  4. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal samples of healthy farm animals and pets in Tunisia.

    Gharsa, Haythem; Ben Slama, Karim; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Messadi, Lilia; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2015-02-01

    A total of 261 healthy farm and pet animals (75 cattle, 52 goats, 100 dogs, and 34 cats) from different regions of Tunisia were screened for Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage. Molecular typing of isolates (by spa- and multilocus sequence-typing) was performed, and their antimicrobial resistance and virulence genotypes were determined by PCR and sequencing. S. aureus isolates were detected in 17 of 261 tested samples (6.5%). All S. aureus isolates recovered were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), and one isolate/sample was further studied. Eight different spa types were detected (t189, t279, t582, t701, t1166, t1268, t1534, and t1773), and eight different sequence types were identified (ST6, ST15, ST45, ST133, ST188, ST700 [clonal complex CC130], ST2057, and a new ST2121). MSSA from pets (six isolates) showed resistance to (number of isolates, resistance gene): penicillin (six, blaZ), tetracycline (one, tet[M]), erythromycin one, erm[A]), streptomycin (one, ant[6]-Ia), and ciprofloxacin (one). All isolates from farm animals showed susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials, except for two penicillin-resistant isolates. Five S. aureus isolates from goats and cats harbored the lukF/lukS-PV genes, encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and six isolates from goats harbored the tst virulence gene. In addition, diverse combinations of enterotoxin genes were detected, including two variants of the egc cluster. Goats and cats could represent a reservoir of important toxin genes, with potential implications in animal and human health. PMID:25700041

  5. Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed

    Wang, Zhizeng; Zhi, Dejuan; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Xin; Ru, Yi; Li, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Although high melamine (MEL) intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 μg/kg, 1,000 μg/kg, and 800 μg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. PMID:24729705

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) as a feed additive for all animal species or categories based on a dossier submitted by Lohmann Animal Health GmbH

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2014-01-01

    The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum authorised content of vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs and fish, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a s...

  7. Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified (GM) maize in commercial animal feeds and food products in Turkey

    Türkeç, Aydın; Turkec, Aydin; Stuart J Lucas; Karlık, Elif; Karlik, Elif

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9 g.kg-1 (for approved GM crops). We screened maize-containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. RESULTS: With this aim, 83 food and feed products – none labelled as containing GM material – were screened using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) f...

  8. Microbiological and biochemical characterization of fermented liquid feed samples from 40 Danish farms

    Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan; Jensen, Bent Borg;

    2010-01-01

    When feed and a liquid are mixed fermentation will spontaneously start. The microbial species dominating in the fermented mixture may vary depending on the environment and/or the ingredients being fermented. However, there is scarce knowledge on this subject. A study was carried out to investigate...... intake' group. The biochemical characteristics and the microbiological composition to group level were determined. Furthermore, characterization of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to species level was carried out. The biochemical characteristics and the composition of microbial groups of the two farm...

  9. Detection and species identification of Campylobacter in stool samples of children and animals from Vellore, south India

    P Rajendran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis frequently isolated from animal, poultry and environmental samples. In this study, we investigated the zoonotic potential of Campylobacter spp. by comparing prevalence rates and species in 394 children with diarrhoea and 652 animals in Vellore using PCR-based tools. Eighteen children (4.5% had campylobacteriosis, a majority of whom had co-pathogens (15/18 and most were infected with Campylobacter jejuni (16/18. A few C. coli and mixed infections with both species were also seen. Among the animal samples, 16/25 chicken samples (64% were positive and all were found to be C. jejuni.

  10. The black economic empowerment in the animal feed milling industry in South Africa / by Louis Lukas Swanepoel

    Swanepoel, Louis Lukas

    2007-01-01

    Broad base black economic empowerment redresses historical and social inequalities in a manner that does not have a negative impact on existing enterprises. Transforming existing agribusinesses create opportunities for black businessmen to contribute to the economy of the country. The Balanced Feed Manufacturers Association was established in 1945 when the need for better structuring in the industry and a mouthpiece for the feed industry to liaise with inter alia the government, was identifie...

  11. Animal Bites

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  12. IN VITRO IDENTIFICATION OF ANDROGENIC AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATIONS (CAFO) AND TERTIARY-TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SAMPLES

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fr...

  13. Ground-water quality and effects of poultry confined animal feeding operations on shallow ground water, upper Shoal Creek basin, Southwest Missouri, 2000

    Mugel, Douglas N.

    2002-01-01

    Forty-seven wells and 8 springs were sampled in May, October, and November 2000 in the upper Shoal Creek Basin, southwest Missouri, to determine if nutrient concentrations and fecal bacteria densities are increasing in the shallow aquifer as a result of poultry confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Most of the land use in the basin is agricultural, with cattle and hay production dominating; the number of poultry CAFOs has increased in recent years. Poultry waste (litter) is used as a source of nutrients on pasture land as much as several miles away from poultry barns.Most wells in the sample network were classified as ?P? wells, which were open only or mostly to the Springfield Plateau aquifer and where poultry litter was applied to a substantial acreage within 0.5 mile of the well both in spring 2000 and in several previous years; and ?Ag? wells, which were open only or mostly to the Springfield Plateau aquifer and which had limited or no association with poultry CAFOs. Water-quality data from wells and springs were grouped for statistical purposes as P1, Ag1, and Sp1 (May 2000 samples) and P2, Ag2, and Sp2 (October or November 2000 samples). The results of this study do not indicate that poultry CAFOs are affecting the shallow ground water in the upper Shoal Creek Basin with respect to nutrient concentrations and fecal bacteria densities. Statistical tests do not indicate that P wells sampled in spring 2000 have statistically larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate or fecal indicator bacteria densities than Ag wells sampled during the same time, at a 95-percent confidence level. Instead, the Ag wells had statistically larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate and fecal coliform bacteria densities than the P wells.The results of this study do not indicate seasonal variations from spring 2000 to fall 2000 in the concentrations of nutrients or fecal indicator bacteria densities from well samples. Statistical tests do not indicate statistically

  14. Improving animal productivity through meeting nutrient deficiencies with multi-nutrient blocks, enhancing utilization efficiency of alternate feed resources, and controlling internal parasites: A summary

    Livestock farming is crucially important for provision of animal-based food products for the population, and as a source of income for many resource-poor farmers in developing countries. With the increase in human population and economic growth of many Asian countries, the demand for livestock products is likely to double in the coming 20 years. However, the main constraint to livestock development in these countries is the scarcity and fluctuation in the quality and quantity of the year-around animal feed supply. Increased populations and industrialization are making arable land scarce and in addition a large area of the available arable land is being degraded due to human activities. For sustainable development of the livestock sector it is essential for RCA (Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific) member countries to secure sufficient supplies of balanced feeds from resources which do not compete with human food. The conventional feeds such as soya bean, groundnut, rapeseed meals etc. are either not available or are available at very high cost. Most of the RCA member states have recognized the need to efficiently utilize locally available feed resources such as tree and shrub leaves, agro-industrial by-products and other lesser-known and new plants adapted to the harsh conditions and capable of growing in poor, marginal and degraded soils. A severe setback impacted to the livestock industry during the nineties by the financial crisis in Indonesia, Thailand, South Korea and Malaysia has played an important role in highlighting the importance of research and development in this area. Another important limiting factor for enhancing animal productivity in tropical countries is the heavy internal parasitic load in livestock. The development of economically viable and environmentally friendly strategies and their strategic use for controlling internal parasites were also identified by the participating countries as one of the priority areas to be

  15. A Magnetic Nanoparticle Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Sensitive Quantification of Zearalenone in Cereal and Feed Samples

    Xian Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on magnetic nanoparticles and biotin/streptavidin-HRP (MNP-bsELISA was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of zearalenone (ZEN. The detection signal was enhanced and the sensitivity of the assay was improved by combined use of antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles and biotin-streptavidin system. Under the optimized conditions, the regression equation for quantification of ZEN was y = −0.4287x + 0.3132 (R2 = 0.9904. The working range was 0.07–2.41 ng/mL. The detection limit was 0.04 ng/mL and IC50 was 0.37 ng/mL. The recovery rates of intra-assay and inter-assay ranged from 92.8%–111.9% and 91.7%–114.5%, respectively, in spiked corn samples. Coefficients of variation were less than 10% in both cases. Parallel analysis of cereal and feed samples showed good correlation between MNP-bsELISA and liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (R2 = 0.9283. We conclude that this method is suitable for rapid detection of zearalenone in cereal and feed samples in relevant laboratories.

  16. A Magnetic Nanoparticle Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Sensitive Quantification of Zearalenone in Cereal and Feed Samples

    Zhang, Xian; Wang, Xin; Sun, Mengjiao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Song, Houhui; Yan, Yaxian; Sun, Jianhe; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan

    2015-01-01

    A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on magnetic nanoparticles and biotin/streptavidin-HRP (MNP-bsELISA) was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of zearalenone (ZEN). The detection signal was enhanced and the sensitivity of the assay was improved by combined use of antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles and biotin-streptavidin system. Under the optimized conditions, the regression equation for quantification of ZEN was y = −0.4287x + 0.3132 (R2 = 0.9904). The working range was 0.07–2.41 ng/mL. The detection limit was 0.04 ng/mL and IC50 was 0.37 ng/mL. The recovery rates of intra-assay and inter-assay ranged from 92.8%–111.9% and 91.7%–114.5%, respectively, in spiked corn samples. Coefficients of variation were less than 10% in both cases. Parallel analysis of cereal and feed samples showed good correlation between MNP-bsELISA and liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (R2 = 0.9283). We conclude that this method is suitable for rapid detection of zearalenone in cereal and feed samples in relevant laboratories. PMID:26492271

  17. A comment on sampling techniques for microbiological detection of Salmonellae in consignments of foods and feeds

    Although most people are aware that the adequate sampling of a consignment of fish or fishery products such as fish meal for infection by, say, food poisoning pathogens involves statistical considerations, little which gives the investigator any guidance on this matter seems to have been published. The problem in the sampling of an infected consignment is to reduce the risk that samples will turn out all negative so that the infected material passes undetected. The difficulties in getting a positive sample when the level of infection is low, or when infection is scattered very unevenly over the consignment, can to some extent be lessened by methods such as increase of the number of samples, increase of the volume of material in each sample, use of bulked samples from several units, and use of more than one enrichment or plating medium. The choice of methods will depend partly on the resources available, the staff to collect and prepare more samples, incubator space to hold more or larger vessels, and partly on the level and distribution of infections that are considered the most likely to occur. Some typical situations, with appropriate sampling methods, are mentioned briefly in this paper. 3 figs

  18. Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven. The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site. This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Horvitz-Thompson survey sample methods for estimating large-scale animal abundance

    Samuel, M.D.; Garton, E.O.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale surveys to estimate animal abundance can be useful for monitoring population status and trends, for measuring responses to management or environmental alterations, and for testing ecological hypotheses about abundance. However, large-scale surveys may be expensive and logistically complex. To ensure resources are not wasted on unattainable targets, the goals and uses of each survey should be specified carefully and alternative methods for addressing these objectives always should be considered. During survey design, the impoflance of each survey error component (spatial design, propofiion of detected animals, precision in detection) should be considered carefully to produce a complete statistically based survey. Failure to address these three survey components may produce population estimates that are inaccurate (biased low), have unrealistic precision (too precise) and do not satisfactorily meet the survey objectives. Optimum survey design requires trade-offs in these sources of error relative to the costs of sampling plots and detecting animals on plots, considerations that are specific to the spatial logistics and survey methods. The Horvitz-Thompson estimators provide a comprehensive framework for considering all three survey components during the design and analysis of large-scale wildlife surveys. Problems of spatial and temporal (especially survey to survey) heterogeneity in detection probabilities have received little consideration, but failure to account for heterogeneity produces biased population estimates. The goal of producing unbiased population estimates is in conflict with the increased variation from heterogeneous detection in the population estimate. One solution to this conflict is to use an MSE-based approach to achieve a balance between bias reduction and increased variation. Further research is needed to develop methods that address spatial heterogeneity in detection, evaluate the effects of temporal heterogeneity on survey

  20. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project

    Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in African countries. The ruminants in the smallholder sector depend on natural pasture and fibrous crop residues for their survival, growth, reproduction and production. Since quality and quantity of the natural pasture vary with season, animals dependent on it are subjected to nutritional stress in the dry season when feed resources are senesced and in short supply leading to decreased animal productivity. The main objective of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project 11-17 (RAF/5/041) was the improvement of ruminant livestock production in AFRA Member States. It had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'Self-coating Radioimmunoassay' technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The project has developed a number of feed supplementation packages using feed resources available on-farm and by-products from agro-industrial processes. The packages involve the use of multi-nutrient blocks containing molasses and urea or poultry litter, ensilage of fibrous crop residues with poultry litter, leguminous fodder, mineral blocks etc. These packages have been evaluated on-station and on-farm to assess their potential to enhance productivity of ruminants. The cost-benefit ratio for feeding supplementation packages has been established. As a result of their use, income of the farmers has been shown to increase substantially. Needless to say, the scientists, agricultural extension officers, policy makers and the governments must work hand-in-hand to capitalize on this and ensure wider application and extension of the packages, and develop strategies for sustaining them. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone has been used in this project mainly for the assessment of ovarian activity in order to

  1. Application of feeding probiotics in animal healthy cultivation%饲用益生素在畜禽健康养殖中的应用

    吕玉丽; 徐子伟; 吴建良; 李永明; 邓波

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic is a new type of nontoxic and unpolluted feed additives of biological products. It has some specific functions such as adjusting the microecological balance in animal organism, preventing diseases, enhancing the feed/gain ratio, promoting animal health and protecting ecological environment. Instead of antibiotic, probiotic hasn't toxins and side-effects, drug residues and resistances, so it has been extensively used in animal production. The origins, kinds, functional mechanisms of feeding probiotic were mainly summarized in this paper. Moreover, the future developmental trends and the application prospects of probiotic were discussed in animal healthy cultivation.%益生素是一种新型无毒、绿色的微生物类饲料添加剂,具有调节动物机体微生态平衡、预防疾病、提高饲料转化率、促进动物健康和保护生态环境等多方面功能.因其在使用过程中无毒副作用、无药物残留、不产生耐药性,而成为抗生素的理想替代品,广泛应用于畜禽生产中.文章综述了饲用益生素的起源、种类及作用机理,探讨了益生素在畜禽健康养殖中的应用前景及发展趋势.

  2. Improving animal productivity and reproductive efficiency: Strategic supplementation of feeds with legume forages and non-conventional plant resources

    Identification and evaluation of potential plant resources and their dissemination among rural farmers have been attempted. The work was done in three phases. In the first phase, laboratory evaluation of proximate components, in vitro digestibility and energy contents was carried out. Fifteen plant species were evaluated in this phase. Some of the plant species (Sesbania, Dhaincha, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were promising, containing relatively large amounts of protein (18 - 34%) and having high digestibility values (53 - 60%). Some species contained reasonably good levels of metabolizd energy (6.5- 8.5 MJ/kg). In the second phase, four promising species (Sesbania, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were offered as supplements to lactating and growing cattle, in four in vivo feeding trials carried out on-station. Supplementation with Sesbania gave significantly (P <0.01) higher milk yields, resulting from increased feed intake and digestibility of organic matter (OM) and crude fibre (CF). Lathyrus also gave similar results in terms of milk yield and digestibility but had little effect on feed intake. Leucaena supplementation also significantly (P <0.05) increased milk yield but not feed intake or digestibility. Crotalaria gave a significant (P <0.05) increase in live-weight gain of growing calves. In the third phase, Sesbania, Lthyrus and Leucaena forages were grown by rural smallholders for feeding to their cattle. The forages were fed to lactating cows as supplements to straw-based diets. All the forage supplements resulted in increased milk yield compared to the control diets, however, Sesbania gave the best result in terms of output. The practice of cultivating legume forages and feeding to cattle receiving straw diets created enormous interest among the farmers as the increase in milk yield was cost effective. (author)

  3. Development of feed supplement Urea Molasses Multi nutrient Block (UMMB) using protein source from soy bean flour and gliricidia sepium (Gs) for ruminant animal

    The aim of this activities is to develop formula of feed supplement UMMB-Gs for ruminant animal. The development of feed supplement was carried out on a laboratory and field scale. The activities on laboratory scale include biological evaluation of feed supplement used isotope technique P-32 in order to measure ratio bacteria and protozoa and growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid by in vitro studies. Two feed supplement were developed, these were UMMB-TK and UMMB-Gs. Two UMMB-TK were produced at pesantren Al Hikmah and Famor Satwa. Gliricidia sepium meal combined with UMMB-BK were tested on Goat of PE, buffaloes and beef cattle by in vitro studies in order to measure growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid using P-32. On the next activity the effect of UMMB-Gs on production and fat concentration of milk from dairy cattle was done. Statistical analysis used were test, 3x3 latin square design and randomize block design respectively. Quality control of UMMB indicated that ratio of bacteria and protozoa was 14 : 1 on UMMB-BK formulas, whereas on UMMB-TK1 it was found 19 : 1 and UMMB-TK2 was 17 : 1 respectively. These results were better then control (grass only). The value of feed control was 1 : 4. The result of UMMB-BK combinated with Gs on laboratory scale was capable of increasing growth rate of microbial cell on rumen liquid of Goat PE, buffaloes and beef cattle. The values were 102.01%; 205.7% and 73.7% respectively compared to control. Field trial of UMMB-Gs increased milk production and fat concentration on dairy cattle. It mean that nuclear technique has a potential role on the finding of a new feed supplement formulas and capable of giving positive impact, when UMMB feed supplement was able to create job field for small business of UMMB product based on local feed resources. (author)

  4. 9 CFR 95.13 - Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.13 Bone meal for use as fertilizer or... °Fahrenheit (121 °Centigrade), may be imported without further restrictions for use as fertilizer or as...

  5. Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans

    Sarah H Olson; Reed, Patricia; Cameron, Kenneth N.; Ssebide, Benard J; Johnson, Christine K.; Stephen S Morse; Karesh, William B.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Joly, Damien O.

    2012-01-01

    There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV) spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public ...

  6. 医院科研课题实验动物成本核算研究%Animal's feeding cost accounting of the scientific researches in hospital

    徐艳霞

    2014-01-01

    Due to lack of cost accounting,the scientific researches charge differently of experimental animals in every hospital.Animals feeding costs include two parts,direct costs and indirect costs.Through gathering statistics of different kinds of animals and cumulative feeding amounts of different researches,the article calculates the indirect costs of each research,this approach can make up deficiencies for the current management method and improve hospital management level.%由于缺少成本核算,我国各医院对科研课题实验动物的收费标准存在较大差异.文章将动物饲养成本分为直接成本和间接成本两部分,根据各品种动物的累计饲养数量情况,核算成本分摊系数,计算间接成本,可以弥补目前收费标准的不足,提高医院科研经费管理水平.

  7. Determination of nitrofurans in animal feeds by liquid chromatography-UV photodiode array detection and liquid chromatography-ionspray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Barbosa, Jorge; Moura, Sara; Barbosa, Rita; Ramos, Fernando; da Silveira, Maria Irene Noronha

    2007-03-14

    Within the EU, the use of nitrofurans is prohibited in food production animals. For this reason detection of these compounds in feedingstuffs, at whatever limit, constitutes an offence under EU legislation. This detection generally involves the use of analytical methods with limits of quantification lowers than 1 mg kg(-1). These procedures are unsuitable for the detection and confirmation of trace amounts of nitrofurans in feedingstuffs due to contamination. It is well known that very low concentrations of these compounds can be the source of residues of nitrofuran metabolites in meat and other edible products obtained from animals consuming the contaminated feed. The present multi-compound method was capable of measuring very low concentrations of nitrofurantoin (NFT), nitrofurazone (NFZ), furazolidone (FZD) and furaltadone (FTD) in animal feed using nifuroxazide (NXZ) as internal standard. Following ethyl acetate extraction at mild alkaline conditions and purification on NH2 column, the nitrofurans are determined using liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (LC-DAD). It was observed a CCalpha ranged from 50 to 100 microg kg(-1). The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) procedure was used to confirm the identity of the suspected presence of any of the nitrofuran compounds. PMID:17386735

  8. 76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...

    2011-11-01

    ... reopening the comment period for the notice, published in the Federal Register of May 23, 2011 (76 FR 29767... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of May 23, 2011 (76 FR 29767), FDA published a notice with... Food/ Feed Facilities; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  9. Investigations into cold moulding. Procedure for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell. Incrust technology. Choice of technology; Udregningsaktitivet omkring koldformning. Fremgangsmaede for produktion af foder indkapslet i en fordoejelig skal. Incrust technology. Teknologivalg

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    More than 120 million tons animal feeds are produced within the European Union a year Denmark alone produces more than 6 million tons. Current industrial production of animal feeds implies different problems. This project aims at reducing or removing the following problems: Odour nuisances; Bacterium, especially salmonella; Nutrition, especially preservation of the animal feeds' natural elements; Energy, especially reduction of carbon dioxide emission; Independence of raw materials composition; Improved hygienic storage of the finished product. During the project a new method for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell (feeding blocks) has been developed. Extruded feeding stuff is lead from an extruder to a common die, in which a shell pipe is formed vertically. Shape, diameter, and pipe thickness can be changed by adjustment of a set of nozzles. The shell pipe is lead to a cutter that shortens and closes one end. The shell pipe is now filled with the core product (feed mixture) from a feeder with a dosing screw. The quantity can be adjusted to the size of the feeding block by changing the number of the dosing screw's revolutions and the rotation speed. When the core product has been dosed into the shell pipe a shortening device shortens and closes the open end of the feeding block. The shortening device can be regulated so that make the feeding block form a line that is broken later in the process. If necessary a conveyor belt with condensate ventilation takes a number of feeding blocks in a line to a marker. Marks on the feeding blocks can be made with either a laser printer or an ink jet printer. (BA)

  10. Incrust technology. Procedure for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell. Phase 1. User economy; Fremgangsmaede for produktion af foder indkapslet i en fordoejelig skal. Fase 1. Brugeroekonomi

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    More than 120 million tons animal feeds are produced within the European Union a year Denmark alone produces more than 6 million tons. Current industrial production of animal feeds implies different problems. This project aims at reducing or removing the following problems: Odour nuisances; Bacterium, especially salmonella; Nutrition, especially preservation of the animal feeds' natural elements; Energy, especially reduction of carbon dioxide emission; Independence of raw materials composition; Improved hygienic storage of the finished product. During the project a new method for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell (feeding blocks) has been developed. Extruded feeding stuff is lead from an extruder to a common die, in which a shell pipe is formed vertically. Shape, diameter, and pipe thickness can be changed by adjustment of a set of nozzles. The shell pipe is lead to a cutter that shortens and closes one end. The shell pipe is now filled with the core product (feed mixture) from a feeder with a dosing screw. The quantity can be adjusted to the size of the feeding block by changing the number of the dosing screw's revolutions and the rotation speed. When the core product has been dosed into the shell pipe a shortening device shortens and closes the open end of the feeding block. The shortening device can be regulated so that make the feeding block form a line that is broken later in the process. If necessary a conveyor belt with condensate ventilation takes a number of feeding blocks in a line to a marker. Marks on the feeding blocks can be made with either a laser printer or an ink jet printer. (BA)

  11. Incrust technology. Procedure for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell. Phase 2.1. Common matrix; Incrust Technology. Fremgangsmaede for produktion af foder indkapslet i en fordoejelig skal. Fase 2.1. Faellesmatrice

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    More than 120 million tons animal feeds are produced within the European Union a year Denmark alone produces more than 6 million tons. Current industrial production of animal feeds implies different problems. This project aims at reducing or removing the following problems: Odour nuisances; Bacterium, especially salmonella; Nutrition, especially preservation of the animal feeds' natural elements; Energy, especially reduction of carbon dioxide emission; Independence of raw materials composition; Improved hygienic storage of the finished product. During the project a new method for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell (feeding blocks) has been developed. Extruded feeding stuff is lead from an extruder to a common die, in which a shell pipe is formed vertically. Shape, diameter, and pipe thickness can be changed by adjustment of a set of nozzles. The shell pipe is lead to a cutter that shortens and closes one end. The shell pipe is now filled with the core product (feed mixture) from a feeder with a dosing screw. The quantity can be adjusted to the size of the feeding block by changing the number of the dosing screw's revolutions and the rotation speed. When the core product has been dosed into the shell pipe a shortening device shortens and closes the open end of the feeding block. The shortening device can be regulated so that make the feeding block form a line that is broken later in the process. If necessary a conveyor belt with condensate ventilation takes a number of feeding blocks in a line to a marker. Marks on the feeding blocks can be made with either a laser printer or an ink jet printer. (BA)

  12. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-01-01

    A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb ). In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperatur...

  13. Isotope analytics for the evaluation of the feeding influence on the isotope ratio in beef samples; Isotopenanalytik zur Bestimmung des Einflusses der Ernaehrung auf die Isotopenzusammensetzung in Rinderproben

    Herwig, Nadine

    2010-11-17

    Information about the origin of food and associated production systems has a high significance for food control. An extremely promising approach to obtain such information is the determination of isotope ratios of different elements. In this study the correlation of the isotope ratios C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, Mg-25/Mg-24, and Sr-87/Sr-86 in bovine samples (milk and urine) and the corresponding isotope ratios in feed was investigated. It was shown that in the bovine samples all four isotope ratios correlate with the isotope composition of the feed. The isotope ratios of strontium and magnesium have the advantage that they directly reflect the isotope ratios of the ingested feed since there is no isotope fractionation in the bovine organism which is in contrast to the case of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. From the present feeding study it is evident, that a feed change leads to a significant change in the delta C-13 values in milk and urine within 10 days already. For the deltaN-15 values the feed change was only visible in the bovine urine after 49 days. Investigations of cows from two different regions (Berlin/Germany and Goestling/Austria) kept at different feeding regimes revealed no differences in the N-15/N-14 and Mg-26/Mg-24 isotope ratios. The strongest correlation between the isotope ratio of the bovine samples and the kind of ingested feed was observed for the carbon isotope ratio. With this ratio even smallest differences in the feed composition were traceable in the bovine samples. Since different regions usually coincide with different feeding regimes, carbon isotope ratios can be used to distinguish bovine samples from different regions if the delta C-13 values of the ingested feed are different. Furthermore, the determination of strontium isotope ratios revealed significant differences between bovine and feed samples of Berlin and Goestling due to the different geologic realities. Hence the carbon and strontium isotope ratios allow the best

  14. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of 137Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff

  15. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  16. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; ZIMMERMAN, PATRICK R.; Harper, Michael T.; Hristova, Rada A.; Zimmerman, R. Scott; Branco, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but ...

  17. Influence of increasing dryness, animal feeding strategy and human hunting on large ungulates abundance : a first approach in West Africa

    Galat, Gérard; Galat-Luong, Anh; Nizinski, Georges; Skovmand, O.

    2015-01-01

    Large ungulates as primary consumers consume variable proportions of herbaceous and woody plants. Recent climate changes modify the herbaceous/woody plant balance. To test their differential effects on ungulate species abundance, we compared large ungulate feeding strategies with climate change patterns, taking the game preferences of local people into account. We analyzed changes in population density of ten species of large ungulates between two census periods (1990-1993 and 1994-1998) in t...

  18. "ISA-Lation" of Single-Stranded Positive-Sense RNA Viruses from Non-Infectious Clinical/Animal Samples.

    Fabien Aubry

    Full Text Available Isolation of viral pathogens from clinical and/or animal samples has traditionally relied on either cell cultures or laboratory animal model systems. However, virus viability is notoriously susceptible to adverse conditions that may include inappropriate procedures for sample collection, storage temperature, support media and transportation. Using our recently described ISA method, we have developed a novel procedure to isolate infectious single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses from clinical or animal samples. This approach, that we have now called "ISA-lation", exploits the capacity of viral cDNA subgenomic fragments to re-assemble and produce infectious viral RNA in susceptible cells. Here, it was successfully used to rescue enterovirus, Chikungunya and Tick-borne encephalitis viruses from a variety of inactivated animal and human samples. ISA-lation represents an effective option to rescue infectious virus from clinical and/or animal samples that may have deteriorated during the collection and storage period, but also potentially overcomes logistic and administrative difficulties generated when complying with current health and safety and biosecurity guidelines associated with shipment of infectious viral material.

  19. 喜马拉雅旱獭动物实验技术与饲养管理%Feeding management and animal experiments of Marmota himalayana

    王忠东

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立喜马拉雅旱獭动物实验技术和饲养管理技术,为该动物在人类乙肝疾病研究研究中提供技术支持和服务平台.方法 在《医学实验动物学》、《动物实验方法学》的指导下,以科学、规范为原则,在实际工作中认真探索并反复试验,验证其可操作性.结果 建立喜马拉雅旱獭抓取、标记、固定、麻醉、给药、取材、处死、活体肝穿刺动物实验技术和饲养管理技术.结论 为促进青海特有野生动物喜马拉雅旱獭资源开发和进一步实验动物化奠定了必要基础,有利于这一新型实验材料在生命科学研究领域得到更加广泛的应用.%Objective To establishment marmota himalayana experiments technology and feeding management, in order to provide technology support and service platform for biomedical research. Method According to Laboratory Animal Medicine, Animal Experiments Methodology, under the principles of science and standard, exploring during the practical work and repetition test, validating it operability. Results Establishment marmota himalayana experiments technology and feeding management of capture, mark, fixed, anesthesia, administration, obtained material, death, and living body liver biopsy. Conclusions This study provide basis for u-nique marmota himalayan resources development and future laboratory animalization, it was profit for this animal widely used in the field of life science research.

  20. Clenbuterol Residues in Bovine Feed and Meat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the β-agonist, clenbuterol in bovine feeds and meat in North and South of Mexico. Clenbuterol is used illegally as growth promoter in animal feeding in farms animals due to muscle hypertrophy and lipolisis effect. In Mexico, there is a suspected in their unlicensed use in certain commercial feedlots. Total 16 food samples and 90 samples of meat were analyzed by 2 commercially clenbuterol enzyme immunoassays kits. The samples were collected during 2006. Approximately, 75% of the animal feed samples and 16.6 % of meat analyzed were found positives in levels ranged 2525-53787 ppt and 0.1-2.3 μg kg-1. These information indicate that the abuse of clenbuterol during the last 5 years is not declining in some farms of Mexico with a health human risk.

  1. Influence of feed and sampling systems on element partitioning in Kentucky fly ash

    Valentim, Bruno V. [Centro e Departamento de Geologia Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007, Porto (Portugal); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), Lexington, Kentucky, 40511 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Pentannual surveys of the production of coal combustion byproducts in Kentucky utility power plants, along with other studies in the intervening years has resulted in a large amount of data relating coal chemistry, fly ash (FA) chemistry, and, to a lesser degree, bottom ash chemistry. Therefore, this important collection of data enables to perform studies on a wide variety of fly ash types. The chemical classification, based on major oxides (acid, alkaline, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), of coal high-temperature ash (HTA) and FA from Kentucky Power Plants shows that the majority of the coal HTAs are Sialic, Sialic-Ferrisialic, and Ferrisialic. The FA classification not only depends of the coal HTA chemistry but also the ash-collection system and the sampling position, with the implications of flue gas temperature and ash particle size, within the system. (author)

  2. Preparation and Application of Novel Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Composites for Recognition of Sulfadimethoxine in Feed Samples.

    Feng, Min; Li, Hengye; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jingyou; Dai, Jianping; Wang, Xiaojin; Zhang, Lingli; Wei, Yunji

    2016-01-01

    Novel magnetic molecularly imprinted composites were prepared through a facile method using sulfadimethoxine (SDM) as template. The inorganic magnetic nanoparticles were linked with the organic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) through irreversibly covalent bond. So, the resulted composites showed excellent stability and reusability under acidic elution conditions. The magnetic MIP composites showed good selectivity, high binding capacity and excellent kinetics toward SDM. Adopting the magnetic MIP composites as extraction material, an off-line magnetic solid-phase extraction (SPE)/high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05 - 15 mg kg(-1) (r(2) = 0.9976). The LOD and LOQ were 0.016 and 0.052 mg kg(-1), respectively, while the recoveries were in the range of 89.3 - 107.0%. These novel magnetic MIP composites may become a powerful tool for the extraction of template from complex samples with good efficiency. PMID:27169650

  3. Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of iron compounds (E1) as feed additives for all species: iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    The use of iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, as source of iron is considered safe for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iron in complete feed, with the exception of bovines and poultry for which the maximum tolerated level is 450 mg/kg complete feed, and pets, for which the maximum tolerated level is 600 mg/kg complete feed. The FEEDAP Panel is not in the position to derive a maximum safe iron concentration in feed for horses o...

  4. Development of an Ion-Pairing Reagent and HPLC-UV Method for the Detection and Quantification of Six Water-Soluble Vitamins in Animal Feed.

    Kim, Ho Jin

    2016-01-01

    A novel and simple method for detecting six water-soluble vitamins in animal feed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA) and ion-pairing reagent was developed. The chromatographic peaks of the six water-soluble vitamins were successfully identified by comparing their retention times and UV spectra with reference standards. The mobile phase was composed of buffers A (5 mM PICB-6 in 0.1% CH3COOH) and B (5 mM PICB-6 in 65% methanol). All peaks were detected using a wavelength of 270 nm. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, and precision. The limits of detection (LODs) for the instrument employed in these experiments ranged from 25 to 197 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 84 to 658 μg/kg. Average recoveries of the six water-soluble vitamins ranged from 82.3% to 98.9%. Method replication resulted in intraday and interday peak area variation of <5.6%. The developed method was specific and reliable and is therefore suitable for the routine analysis of water-soluble vitamins in animal feed. PMID:27555871

  5. Development of an Ion-Pairing Reagent and HPLC-UV Method for the Detection and Quantification of Six Water-Soluble Vitamins in Animal Feed

    Ho Jin Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and simple method for detecting six water-soluble vitamins in animal feed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA and ion-pairing reagent was developed. The chromatographic peaks of the six water-soluble vitamins were successfully identified by comparing their retention times and UV spectra with reference standards. The mobile phase was composed of buffers A (5 mM PICB-6 in 0.1% CH3COOH and B (5 mM PICB-6 in 65% methanol. All peaks were detected using a wavelength of 270 nm. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, and precision. The limits of detection (LODs for the instrument employed in these experiments ranged from 25 to 197 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification (LOQs ranged from 84 to 658 μg/kg. Average recoveries of the six water-soluble vitamins ranged from 82.3% to 98.9%. Method replication resulted in intraday and interday peak area variation of <5.6%. The developed method was specific and reliable and is therefore suitable for the routine analysis of water-soluble vitamins in animal feed.

  6. Effects of different sampling intervals on apparent protein and energy digestibility of common feed ingredients by juvenile oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.10541

    João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the apparent protein and energy digestibility of common feed ingredients (soybean meal, fish meal, wheat meal and corn by juvenile oscars using two different sampling intervals (30 min. and 12h. The 160 juvenile oscar fish tested (22.37 ± 3.06 g BW were divided into four cylindrical plastic net cages, each one placed in a 1000 L feeding tank. The experiment was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial design (2 feces collection intervals and 4 feed ingredients with four replications. The statistical tests did not detect an interaction effect of sampling interval and type of ingredient on digestibility coefficients. Sampling interval did not affect protein and energy digestibility. The physical characteristics of juvenile oscar feces likely make them less susceptible to nutrient loss by leaching and can therefore be collected at longer intervals. Protein digestibility of the different ingredients was similar, showing that apparent digestibility of both animal and plant ingredients by juvenile oscars was efficient. Energy digestibility coefficients of fish meal and soybean meal were higher than those of wheat meal and corn. Carbohydrate-rich ingredients (wheat meal and corn had the worst energy digestibility coefficients and are therefore not used efficiently by juvenile oscars.

  7. Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial.

    Hulett, Judie L; Weiss, Robert E; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Galal, Osman M; Drorbaugh, Natalie; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2014-03-14

    Micronutrient deficiencies and suboptimal energy intake are widespread in rural Kenya, with detrimental effects on child growth and development. Sporadic school feeding programmes rarely include animal source foods (ASF). In the present study, a cluster-randomised feeding trial was undertaken to determine the impact of snacks containing ASF on district-wide, end-term standardised school test scores and nutrient intake. A total of twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to one of three isoenergetic feeding groups (a local plant-based stew (githeri) with meat, githeri plus whole milk or githeri with added oil) or a control group receiving no intervention feeding. After the initial term that served as baseline, children were fed at school for five consecutive terms over two school years from 1999 to 2001. Longitudinal analysis was used controlling for average energy intake, school attendance, and baseline socio-economic status, age, sex and maternal literacy. Children in the Meat group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than those in all the other groups, and the Milk group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than the Plain Githeri (githeri+oil) and Control groups. Compared with the Control group, the Meat group showed significant improvements in test scores in Arithmetic, English, Kiembu, Kiswahili and Geography. The Milk group showed significant improvements compared with the Control group in test scores in English, Kiswahili, Geography and Science. Folate, Fe, available Fe, energy per body weight, vitamin B₁₂, Zn and riboflavin intake were significant contributors to the change in test scores. The greater improvements in test scores of children receiving ASF indicate improved academic performance, which can result in greater academic achievement. PMID:24168874

  8. Effects of forage type, animal characteristics and feed intake on faecal particle size in goat, sheep, llama and cattle

    Jalali, A.R.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nadeau, E.;

    2015-01-01

    The effect of forage maturity stage at harvest, animal characteristics and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake on mean particle size and particle size distribution in faeces from sheep and cattle fed grass silages was studied (Study I). Models for prediction of faeces characteristics from sheep ...... size in faeces from goat, sheep, llama and steers fed other forages e.g., lucerne, dried grass, grass seed straw and whole crop barley silage in Study II.......The effect of forage maturity stage at harvest, animal characteristics and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake on mean particle size and particle size distribution in faeces from sheep and cattle fed grass silages was studied (Study I). Models for prediction of faeces characteristics from sheep...... in faeces and this effect was amplified in larger animals. The prediction model established from Study I, on the effect of BW, ADL/NDF in forage, C:F and forage NDF intake on particle size in faeces of grass silage-fed animals in Study I appeared to be valid to predict the geometric mean particle...

  9. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    2010-04-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, or another method equivalent in accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to AOCS... Nutrition's Library, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or at the National Archives and..., industrial use, or other uses. The term includes renderers that also blend animal protein products....

  10. 77 FR 50591 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...

    2012-08-22

    ... cancer to the test animals approach (See e.g., 52 FR 49572 at 49575 and 49582). Therefore, FDA has..., 2010, FDA issued a proposed rule (75 FR 79320) to amend its regulations regarding compounds of... Proviso (See 75 FR 79320 at 79321) without requiring the development of a second, alternative, set...

  11. Retrieval of physical properties of particulate emission from animal feeding operations using three-wavelength elastic lidar measurements

    Zavyalov, Vladimir V.; Marchant, Christian; Bingham, Gail E.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Swasey, Jason; Rogers, Christopher; Ahlstrom, Douglas; Timothy, Paul

    2006-08-01

    Agricultural operations produce a variety of particulates and gases that influence ambient air quality. Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) technology provides a means to derive quantitative information of particulate spatial distribution and optical/physical properties over remote distances. A three-wavelength scanning lidar system built at the Space Dynamic Laboratory (SDL) is used to extract optical parameters of particulate matter and to convert these optical properties to physical parameters of particles. This particulate emission includes background aerosols, emissions from the agricultural feeding operations, and fugitive dust from the road. Aerosol optical parameters are retrieved using the widely accepted solution proposed by Klett. The inversion algorithm takes advantage of measurements taken simultaneously at three lidar wavelengths (355, 532, and 1064 nm) and allows us to estimate the particle size distribution. A bimodal lognormal particle size distribution is assumed and mode radius, width of the distribution, and total number density are estimated, minimizing the difference between calculated and measured extinction coefficients at the three lidar wavelengths. The results of these retrievals are then compared with simultaneous point measurements at the feeding operation site, taken with standard equipment including optical particle counters, portable PM 10 and PM 2.5 ambient air samplers, multistage impactors, and an aerosol mass spectrometer.

  12. Ethics and Animal Numbers: Informal Analyses, Uncertain Sample Sizes, Inefficient Replications, and Type I Errors

    Fitts, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    To obtain approval for the use vertebrate animals in research, an investigator must assure an ethics committee that the proposed number of animals is the minimum necessary to achieve a scientific goal. How does an investigator make that assurance? A power analysis is most accurate when the outcome is known before the study, which it rarely is. A ‘pilot study’ is appropriate only when the number of animals used is a tiny fraction of the numbers that will be invested in the main study because t...

  13. Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of iron compounds (E1 as feed additives for all species: iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, as source of iron is considered safe for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iron in complete feed, with the exception of bovines and poultry for which the maximum tolerated level is 450 mg/kg complete feed, and pets, for which the maximum tolerated level is 600 mg/kg complete feed. The FEEDAP Panel is not in the position to derive a maximum safe iron concentration in feed for horses or fish. Consumption surveys include iron-containing foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with iron-containing compounds has not essentially changed during the last decades, it is reasonable to assume that the iron levels in food of animal origin used in exposure scenarios originated from animals fed iron-supplemented diets. Since iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, will be used as a substitute for other iron compounds, its use in animal nutrition would not modify consumer exposure to iron. The additive should be considered as a skin, eye and respiratory irritant and, owing to its residual peptide component, as a skin/respiratory sensitiser. Considering the high background concentration of iron in soil and water, the supplementation of feed with iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, is not expected to pose an environmental risk. Iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, is an effective source of iron for all animal species and categories. The FEEDAP Panel recommends that the maximum iron contents in complete feed be reduced as follows: bovines and poultry, 450 mg Fe/kg; and pets, 600 mg Fe/kg.

  14. Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria : prevalence of ova in faecal and soil samples and animal ectoparasites in Makurdi

    E.A. Omudu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic environmental pollution resulting from urban livestock farming was investigated in Makurdi using parasitological techniques. The test tube flotation technique was used for the parasitological analysis of animal faecal matter and soil samples collected from residential premises. Ectoparasitic fauna of dogs, goats, sheep and cattle cohabiting with humans within the same residential compound were also collected and identified. The hand-picking and body brushing methods were employed to search for ticks, fleas, lice and mites. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 55 (36.7 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. There was no significant difference in the distribution of eggs in the soil samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=0.046, df=2, P>0.05. Ascaris species were the dominant parasite eggs found. Of the 180 faecal samples examined, 107 (59.4 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in the level of infection of different animal faeces sampled (c2=5.74, df=4, P>0.05. Ascaris species were again the dominating helminth parasite eggs found. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of helminth eggs in the animal faecal samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=5.99, df=4, P>0.05. A total of 1908 ectoparasites was recovered (ticks: 32.80 %; lice: 22.43 %; fleas: 22.06% and mite: 22.69 %. There was no significant difference in infestation animals between sexes (c2=0.10, df=4, P>0.05. The predominant genus encountered for ticks were Amblyomma, while Linognathus (43.90%, Ctenocephalides (97.38% and Sarcoptes (58.89 % were most predominant for lice, fleas and mites respectively. The public health implications of the findings, especially as these relate to the increasing incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections, are discussed.

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin K3 (menadione sodium bisulphite and menadione nicotinamide bisulphite as a feed additive for all animal species

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin K describes a group of lipophilic vitamins that exist naturally in two forms: vitamin K1 (phylloquinone, found in green plants and vitamin K2 (a group of menaquinones synthesised by bacteria in the intestine. Vitamin K3 (or menadione is a synthetic form of vitamin K without a side chain. To become active, menadione needs to undergo prenylation. Vitamins K1, K2 and K3 are metabolically activated in the liver to become co-factors in the activation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, which are important for normal blood coagulation, and normality of bones and arteries (Gla proteins. Acute toxicity of menadione or its derivatives is reached at levels exceeding the requirements by a factor of at least 1 000. Menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB and menadione nicotinamide bisulphite (MNB are safe for all animal species at practical use levels in feed. The use of MSB in water for drinking is likely to increase the exposure of target animals to chromium(VI. Therefore, the FEEDAP Panel has concerns about the safety of MSB when administered by this route. The use of MSB and MNB in animal nutrition does not give rise to safety concerns for consumers. MSB is an eye irritant; in the absence of adequate data, the additive should be considered as a skin sensitiser. In the absence of data, MNB should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as a skin sensitiser. Considering the high dusting potential of MSB and MNB, the absence of data on inhalation toxicity and the chromium(VI content of dust, inhalation exposure resulting from handling of MSB and MNB could be hazardous. The use of MSB and MNB in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. MSB and MNB are regarded as effective sources of vitamin K in animal nutrition.

  16. FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY FOR FISHES

    Govind Pandey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for commercial manufacturers to produce very small quantities of specialized feeds. Most feed mills will only produce custom formulations in quantities of more than one ton, and medicated feeds are usually sold in 50-pound bags. Small fish farmers, hobbyists and laboratory technicians are, therefore, left with the option of buying large quantities of expensive feed, which often goes to waste. Small quantities of fish feeds can be made quite easily in the laboratory, classroom, or at home, with common ingredients and simple kitchen or laboratory equipment. Hence, this review provides the knowledge about the fish feed formulation and feeding technology concerned with the live feed for fish larvae, fish feeds, fish feed ingredients, common fish feed stuffs, animal and plant sources of feeds for culture fish, and fish feeding methods.

  17. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  18. HCI Treatment Followed by Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    HCl Treatment Followed By Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples., S.K. Jensen, C. Lauridsen, Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele, Denmark. The official EU method for fatty acid analysis in feed is based......-15% more total fatty acids and a 30-50% increase in some of the PUFA compared with the official EU method. Thus, besides being much more efficient for extraction of fatty acids, the HCl-Bligh and Dyer method is much faster, and allows inclusion of an internal standard from the beginning of the sample...

  19. Optimal Condition for Determination of Zinc Bacitracin, Polymyxin B, Oxytetracycline and Sulfacetamide in Animal Feed by Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography

    Injac, Rade Dragan; MLINARIC, ALES; Djordjevic-Milic, Vukosava; Karljikovic-Rajic, Katarina; Strukelj, Borut

    2008-01-01

    International audience Separation of zinc bacitracin, polymyxin B, oxytetracycline and sulfacetamide in animal feedstuff by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was developed. The running buffer was 20 mmol L-1 borate 20 mmol L-1 phosphate, pH 8.4, containing 20 mmol L-1 sodium dodecylsulphate and 10 % (v/v) methanol. MEKC was performed at 25C, the applied voltage was 25 kV and running pressure of 10 mbar was applied. Simultaneous UV detection for all analytes was at 21...

  20. Developing selenium-enriched animal feed and biofuel from canola planted for managing Se-laden drainage waters in the westside of central California.

    Bañuelos, G S; Da Roche, J; Robinson, J

    2010-03-01

    We studied the reuse of selenium (Se)-laden effluent for producing canola (Brassica napus) and subsequent bioproducts in central California. Canola was irrigated with poor quality waters [electrical conductivity (EC) of approximately 5 dS m(-1) sulfate-salinity, 5 mg B L(-1), and 0.25 mg Se L(-1)]. Typical seed yields were 2.2 metric tons ha(-1). Seeds were processed for their oil, and transesterified to produce ASTM-quality biodiesel (BD) blends. The resulting Se-enriched seed cake meal (containing approximately 2 mg Se kg(-1) DM) was used in a dairy feed trial. Seventy-two Jersey and Holstein cows, 36 respectively, were fed Se-enriched canola meal as 6.2% of their daily feed ration for five weeks. Blood and milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for total Se. This study showed that Se-enriched canola meal did not significantly increase total blood Se content in either cow breed. Milk Se concentrations did, however, significantly increase to safe levels of 59 microg Se L(-1) and 52 microg Se L(-1) in Jersey and Holstein cows, respectively. The production of BD 20 biofuels and Se-enriched feed meal from canola irrigated with poor quality waters may help sustain similar phytomanagement strategies under Se-rich conditions. PMID:20734619

  1. Evaluation of lesser-known feeds for ruminants to improve and sustain animal productivity during dry periods

    Seven species of tree forage (Azadirechta indica, Bahunia recemosa, Enterolobium saman, Moringa olecifera, Morus alba, Prosopis juliflora and Tithonia diversifolia) that grow in the dry and intermediate zones; and brewery waste were evaluated for their feed quality. For tree forages, the proximate composition, in vivo digestibility, nitrogen balance and order of preference were evaluated. Brewery waste was ensiled with either 0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% of molasses and 0.5% urea. Ensiling characteristics, pH, crude protein, intake and digestibility were determined. All forage species were protein-rich (>170 g/kg dry matter) and digestibility ranged from 45 to 68%. The goats fed tree forages maintained a positive nitrogen balance. The most preferred species of tree forage was Morus alba and the least Azadirecta indica. Ensiled brewery waste exhibited satisfactory ensiling characteristics, measured by pH and total and individual volatile fatty acids. Lactic acid content also indicated high quality silage. The level of molasses added influenced fermentation characteristics of the ensiled brewery waste by lowering the pH of the fermented silage and improving the crude protein, acetic acid and propionic acid production. Addition of molasses during ensiling improved the organic and dry matter digestibility by 15-20%. (author)

  2. Fast gas chromatographic residue analysis in animal feed using split injection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    Tienstra, M; Portolés, T; Hernández, F; Mol, J G J

    2015-11-27

    Significant speed improvement for instrumental runtime would make GC–MS much more attractive for determination of pesticides and contaminants and as complementary technique to LC–MS. This was the trigger to develop a fast method (time between injections less than 10 min) for the determination of pesticides and PCBs that are not (or less) amenable to LC–MS. A key factor in achieving shorter analysis time was the use of split injection (1:10) which allowed the use of a much higher initial GC oven temperature. A shorter column (15 m), higher temperature ramp, and higher carrier gas flow rate (6 mL/min) further contributed to analysis-time reduction. Chromatographic resolution was slightly compromised but still well fit-for-purpose. Due to the high sensitivity of the technique used (GC–APCI-triple quadrupole MS/MS), quantification and identification were still possible down to the 10 μg/kg level, which was demonstrated by successful validation of the method for complex feed matrices according to EU guidelines. Other advantages of the method included a better compatibility of acetonitrile extracts (e.g. QuEChERS) with GC, and a reduced transfer of co-extractants into the GC column and mass spectrometer. PMID:26601712

  3. A Survey of occurrence of toxogenic fungi and mycotoxins in pig feed samples-Use in evaluation of risk assessment

    Dragan Milicevic

    Full Text Available In order to assess of risk assessment, the aim of this paper was to provide good and detailed insight into the level of contamination of complete feedmixes intended for fattening swine from mycotoxin-producing fungi and mycotoxins (n=18. Isolation and quantitative enumeration of fungal propagules were done on solid media using the standard microbiological procedure. These plates were incubated the number of colonies was determined and thent on the basis of characteristic colonies and microscopic analysis was performed to identify genera and species of moulds. Isolates identified as Aspergillus and Penicillium species were subjected to molecular characterization of the presence of genes responsible for the synthesis of OTA (polyketide synthase gene-PKS. Total fungal counts (CFU/g ranged from 0,5x105 do 4x106. From a total samples analysed, seven samples had fungal counts higher than the limit established by Serbian regulations (3x105. During a mycological analysis of complete feedmixes intended for fattening swine, a total of six genera and 14 species of moulds were identified of which the most frequent one was of the genus Penicillium (94,4% while the moulds from Fusarium genere isolated in 55,5% and Paecilomyces in 44,4% of the samples from investigated localities. Other fungi from the genera Aspergillus (22%, Mycor (11,1% and Alternaria (5,5% were represented in a less amount. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a set of 18 isolates of the DNA belonging to families Penicillium and Aspergillus. The sequences of PCR reaction products in three samples were compared with nucleotide sequences of genes for poliketid synthase (PKS from Penicillium species and found that the samples possess PKS sequence. The traditional methods for identification of ochratoxin-producing fungi are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Rapid and specific detection of ochratoxinproducing fungi is important for ensuring microbiological quality and safety of feed and food

  4. Development, validation and accreditation of a method for the determination of Pb, Cd, Cu and As in seafood and fish feed samples.

    Psoma, A K; Pasias, I N; Rousis, N I; Barkonikos, K A; Thomaidis, N S

    2014-05-15

    A rapid, sensitive, accurate and precise method for the determination of Pb, Cd, As and Cu in seafood and fish feed samples by Simultaneous Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was developed in regard to Council Directive 333/2007EC and ISO/IEC 17025 (2005). Different approaches were investigated in order to shorten the analysis time, always taking into account the sensitivity. For method validation, precision (repeatability and reproducibility) and accuracy by addition recovery tests have been assessed as performance criteria. The expanded uncertainties based on the Eurachem/Citac Guidelines were calculated. The method was accredited by the Hellenic Accreditation System and it was applied for an 8 years study in seafood (n=202) and fish feeds (n=275) from the Greek market. The annual and seasonal variation of the elemental content and correlation among the elemental content in fish feeds and the respective fish samples were also accomplished. PMID:24423504

  5. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2 as feed additives for all animal species: calcium iodate anhydrous, based on a dossier submitted by Calibre Europe SPRL/BVBA

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium iodate anhydrous is considered a safe source of iodine for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. The limited data available on iodine tolerance in cats support a provisional tolerated level of 5 mg I/kg complete feed. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two scenarios applying the currently authorised maximum iodine contents in feed and reduced contents. The iodine content of food of animal origin, if produced taking account of the currently authorised maximum content of iodine in feed, would represent a substantial risk to high consumers. The risk would originate primarily from the consumption of milk and to a minor extent from eggs. The UL for adults (600 µg/day and for toddlers (200 µg/day would be exceeded by a factor of 2 and 4, respectively. If the authorised maximum iodine concentrations in feed for dairy cows and laying hens were reduced to 2 and 3 mg I/kg feed, respectively, the exposure of adult consumers would be below the UL. However, iodine intake in high-consuming toddlers would remain above the UL (1.6-fold. Calcium iodate is considered as irritant to the eye, skin and respiratory tract, and a dermal sensitiser. The exposure by inhalation should be avoided. The use of calcium iodate in animal nutrition is not expected to pose a risk to the environment. Calcium iodate is efficacious to meet animal iodine requirements. The FEEDAP Panel recommends that the maximum iodine contents in complete feed be reduced as follows: dairy cows and minor dairy ruminants, 2 mg I/kg; laying hens, 3 mg I/kg; horses, 3 mg I/kg; dogs, 4 mg I/kg; cats, 5 mg I/kg.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2 as feed additives for all animal species: calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide, based on a dossier submitted by Ajay Europe SARL

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide are considered safe sources of iodine for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. The limited data available on iodine tolerance in cats support a provisional tolerated level of 5 mg I/kg complete feed. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two scenarios applying the currently authorised maximum iodine contents in feed and reduced contents. The iodine content of food of animal origin, if produced taking account of the currently authorised maximum content of iodine in feed, would represent a substantial risk to high consumers. The risk would originate primarily from the consumption of milk and to a minor extent from eggs. The UL for adults (600 µg/day and for toddlers (200 µg/day would be exceeded by a factor of 2 and 4, respectively. If the authorised maximum iodine in feed for dairy cows and laying hens were reduced to 2 and 3 mg I/kg feed, respectively, the exposure of adult consumers would be below the UL. However, iodine intake in high-consuming toddlers would remain above the UL (1.6-fold. The additives are considered as irritant to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract, and as dermal sensitisers. Exposure by inhalation should be avoided. The use of the additives in animal nutrition is not expected to pose a risk to the environment. The additives are efficacious to meet animal iodine requirements. The FEEDAP Panel recommends that the maximum iodine contents in complete feed be reduced as follows: dairy cows and minor dairy ruminants, 2 mg I/kg; laying hens, 3 mg I/kg; horses, 3 mg I/kg; dogs, 4 mg I/kg; cats, 5 mg I/kg.

  7. Pulsed electromembrane extraction for analysis of derivatized amino acids: A powerful technique for determination of animal source of gelatin samples.

    Rezazadeh, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Aghaei, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Differentiation of animal sources of gelatin is required for many reasons such as some anxieties about bovine spongiform encephalopathy or a ban on consuming porcine gelatin in some religions. In the present work, an efficient method is introduced for determination of animal origin of gelatin samples. The basis of this procedure is the application of pulsed electric field for extraction, preconcentration, and analysis of derivatized amino acids in gelatin. To this end, after derivatization of amino acids of interest by means of o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) for enhancing their ultraviolet (UV) absorbance as well as increasing their lipophilicities, a 137V electric field was applied for 20min with 10min(-1) frequency to make the analytes migrate through a 200µm organic liquid membrane into an aqueous acceptor phase. Finally, the acceptor phase was analyzed by HPLC-UV. The proposed technique offered a high efficiency for analysis of amino acids, regarding 43% and 79% as extraction recoveries and 25ng mL(-1) and 50ng mL(-1) as limits of detection (LODs) for asparagine and glutamine, respectively. Therefore, due to sample cleanup ability of the proposed method and obtained preconcentration factors (29 and 53 for asparagine and glutamine, respectively), it could be carried out for differentiation of animal origins of gelatin samples, even if only small amounts of samples are available or in complicated media of foodstuffs and medicament. PMID:25703002

  8. Estimating the abundance of clustered animal population by using adaptive cluster sampling and negative binomial distribution

    Bo, Yizhou; Shifa, Naima

    2013-09-01

    An estimator for finding the abundance of a rare, clustered and mobile population has been introduced. This model is based on adaptive cluster sampling (ACS) to identify the location of the population and negative binomial distribution to estimate the total in each site. To identify the location of the population we consider both sampling with replacement (WR) and sampling without replacement (WOR). Some mathematical properties of the model are also developed.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2) as feed additives for all animal species: calcium iodate anhydrous, based on a dossier submitted by Calibre Europe SPRL/BVBA

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Calcium iodate anhydrous is considered a safe source of iodine for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. The limited data available on iodine tolerance in cats support a provisional tolerated level of 5 mg I/kg complete feed. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two scenarios applying th...

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2) as feed additives for all animal species: calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide, based on a dossier submitted by Ajay Europe SARL

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide are considered safe sources of iodine for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. The limited data available on iodine tolerance in cats support a provisional tolerated level of 5 mg I/kg complete feed. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two ...

  11. Identification of animal glue species in artworks using proteomics: application to a 18th century gilt sample.

    Dallongeville, Sophie; Koperska, Monika; Garnier, Nicolas; Reille-Taillefert, Geneviève; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2011-12-15

    This study proposes a proteomic-based strategy for the identification of the origin species of glues used as binding media and adhesives in artworks. The methodology, based on FTICR high resolution mass spectrometry, was evaluated on glues from different animal origin (i.e., bovine, rabbit, and fish). The analysis of the peptide mixture resulting from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the proteins led to the identification of species-specific peptides. Up to 15 specific peptides were identified for the bovine species and three for the rabbit species and, in the case of sturgeon glue, three fish-specific peptides were found by sequence homology to the rainbow trout. Then, the method was applied to authenticate different rabbit skin glue samples, including a 100 year-old sample named "Colle à Doreurs" coming from the "Maison Totin-Frères". For this sample, two specific peptides of rabbit collagen were identified. To evaluate the method in a complex matrix, model paints composed of lead white, linseed oil, and animal glue were prepared. Species-specific peptides were identified in each paint sample. Finally, a gilt sample from St Maximin church dating from the eighteenth century was analyzed, and 13 peptides specific to bovine collagens were identified starting from very low sample amount (50 μg). PMID:22014085

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Trouw Nutritional International B.V.

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycine betaine (betaine acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns for consumer safety. In the absence of data, betaine anhydrous should be considered hazardous by inhalation, irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes and a skin sensitiser. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become efficacious in all animal species and categories when administered via feed or water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations on (i introduction of a maximum content for supplemental betaine in complete feed and water for drinking; (ii avoidance of simultaneous use of betaine in feed and water for drinking; and (iii avoidance of simultaneous inclusion of betaine and choline chloride in premixtures.

  13. Continued studies of the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium by rodents: relationships to feeding regimen and age of animals

    In mice that are consuming food ad libitum the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium (and its subsequent retention in liver and skeleton) has been shown to be a factor of about 10 lower than it is in the fasted anaimal. It has been found that the time required to achieve the fasted state is less than two hours for mice that are at the end of their diurnal, inactive phase and between 4 and 8 hours for mice that are 4 hours into their active phase. The absorption of plutonium appears to depend on the nature of materials in the G.I. tract, i.e., properties of the food consumed, rather than amounts present. The fractional absorption of plutonium from the G.I. tract by the rat decreases with age in the unweaned animal, from 7 x 10-3 on day 1 to 3 x 10-3 on day 19 (the latter value being the same as that for the fasted adult) and with weaning to 1 x 10-4 on day 29

  14. SAMPLING ADAPTIVE STRATEGY AND SPATIAL ORGANISATION ESTIMATION OF SOIL ANIMAL COMMUNITIES AT VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVELS OF URBANISED TERRITORIES

    Baljuk J.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In work the algorithm of adaptive strategy of optimum spatial sampling for studying of the spatial organisation of communities of soil animals in the conditions of an urbanization have been presented. As operating variables the principal components obtained as a result of the analysis of the field data on soil penetration resistance, soils electrical conductivity and density of a forest stand, collected on a quasiregular grid have been used. The locations of experimental polygons have been stated by means of program ESAP. The sampling has been made on a regular grid within experimental polygons. The biogeocoenological estimation of experimental polygons have been made on a basis of A.L.Belgard's ecomorphic analysis. The spatial configuration of biogeocoenosis types has been established on the basis of the data of earth remote sensing and the analysis of digital elevation model. The algorithm was suggested which allows to reveal the spatial organisation of soil animal communities at investigated point, biogeocoenosis, and landscape.

  15. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal and Environmental Samples Associated with Small-Scale Poultry Farming in Northwestern Ecuador

    Braykov, Nikolay P.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.; Grossman, Marissa; Zhang, Lixin; Vasco, Karla; CEVALLOS, WILLIAM; Muñoz, Diana; Acevedo, Andrés; Moser, Kara A.; Marrs, Carl F.; Foxman, Betsy; Trostle, James; Trueba, Gabriel; Levy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of animal agriculture on the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) are cross-cutting and thus require a multidisciplinary perspective. Here we use ecological, epidemiological, and ethnographic methods to examine populations of Escherichia coli circulating in the production poultry farming environment versus the domestic environment in rural Ecuador, where small-scale poultry production employing nontherapeutic antibiotics is increasingly common. We sampled 262 “production ...

  16. Analysis of tank 4 (FTF-4-15-22, 23) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of enrichment control, corrosion control and evaporator feed qualification programs

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-09

    This report provides the results of analyses on Savannah River Site Tank 4 surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program (CCP) and the Evaporator Feed Qualification (EFQ) Program. The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 4 in August 2015 was to determine if the supernatant liquid would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  17. AGLITE: multiwavelength lidar for characterizing atmospheric emissions from animal feeding operations using simultaneous optical and point measurements

    Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Bingham, Gail E.; Zavyalov, Vladimir V.; Marchant, Christian C.; Anderson, Jan M.; Andrew, Luke P.

    2007-10-01

    AGLITE is a multiwavelength lidar developed for Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture and its program on particle emissions from animal production facilities. The lidar transmission system is a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (355, 532, 1064 nm) operating at a pulse rate of 10 kHz. We analyze and model lidar backscatter and extinction coefficients to extract aerosol physical properties. All wavelength channels operate simultaneously, day or night, using photon counting and high speed data acquisition. The lidar housing is a transportable trailer suitable for all-weather operation at any accessible site. We direct the laser and telescope field of views to targets of interest in both azimuth and elevation. Arrays of particle samplers and turbulence detectors were also used by colleagues specializing in those fields and are compared with the lidar data. The value of multiwavelength, eyesafe lidars for agricultural aerosol measurements has been confirmed by the successful operation of AGLITE. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of the lidar system to quantitatively characterize particulate emissions as mass concentration fields applicable for USEPA regulations. The combination of lidar with point characterization information allows the development of 3-D distributions of standard USEPA mass concentration fractions (PM10, PM2.5, and other interesting groupings such as PM10-PM2.5 and PM1). Lidar measurements are also focused on air motion as seen by long duration scans of the farm region. We demonstrate the ability to use "standoff" lidar methods to determine the movement and concentrations of emissions over an entire agricultural facility.

  18. Effect of glycerine and essential oils (Anacardium occidentale and Ricinus communis on animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of crossbred bulls finished in a feedlot system

    Olga Teresa Barreto Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of corn substitution by glycerine and essential oils on animal performance, apparent digestibility and red and white blood cells of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot was evaluated. Thirty bulls with average weight of 311±28.8 kg and 22±2 month-old were allocated in three diets: CON (without glycerine or essential oils, GLY (with glycerine and GEO (with glycerine and essential oils. The bulls were fed a diet of sorghum silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Three grams of cashew and castor oil/animal/day were included in GEO diet. Animals were kept in feedlot for 115 days and slaughtered at average weight of 467±40.6 kg. No differences (P<0.05 among diets regarding final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion were reported. Ether extract intake was higher (P<0.05 in CON diet compared to the others. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in GLY diet compared to CON. Acid detergent fibre digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in CON compared to GLY diet. Nonfibrous carbohydrate, fibrous carbohydrate and ether extract digestibility were similar (P>0.05 among diets. No effect of glycerine and essential oil addition on total blood cholesterol, triglycerides, haemogram, leukogram and plasmatic proteins was observed. Corn replacement by glycerine and essential oils addition did not affect (P>0.05 carcass weight, dressing and conformation, carcass length and cushion thickness.

  19. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino).

    Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Prachoom, Norratouch; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-04-27

    Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products. PMID:27058252

  20. Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia.

    Osbjer, Kristina; Tano, Eva; Chhayheng, Leang; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa Olivia; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Ellström, Patrik; Sokerya, Seng; Sokheng, Choup; Mom, Veng; Chheng, Kannarath; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Boqvist, Sofia; Rautelin, Hilpi; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible. PMID:26991032

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin) is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplemen...

  2. Safety assessment and feeding value for pigs, poultry and ruminant animals of pest protected (Bt plants and herbicide tolerant (glyphosate, glufosinate plants: interpretation of experimental results observed worldwide on GM plants

    Aimé Aumaitre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New varieties of plants resistant to pests and/or tolerant to specific herbicides such as maize, soybean, cotton, sugarbeets, canola, have been recently developed by using genetic transformation (GT. These plants contain detectable specificactive recombinant DNA (rDNA and their derived protein. Since they have not been selected for a modification oftheir chemical composition, they can be considered as substantially equivalent to their parents or to commercial varietiesfor their content in nutrients and anti-nutritional factors. However, insect protected maize is less contaminated by mycotoxinsthan its parental counterpart conferring a higher degree of safety to animal feeds. The new feeds, grain and derivatives,and whole plants have been intensively tested in vivo up to 216 days for their safety and their nutritional equivalencefor monogastric farm animals (pig, poultry and ruminants (dairy cows, steers, lambs. The present article is basedon the interpretation and the summary of the scientific results published in original reviewed journals either as full papers(33 or as abstracts (33 available through September 2003. For the duration of the experiments adapted to the species,feed intake, weight gain, milk yield and nutritional equivalence expressed as feed conversion and/or digestibility of nutrientshave never been affected by feeding animals diets containing GT plants. In addition, in all the experimental animals,the body and carcass composition, the composition of milk and animal tissues, as well as the sensory properties of meatare not modified by the use of feeds derived from GT plants. Furthermore, the health of animals, their physiological characteristicsand the survival rate are also not affected.The presence of rDNA and derived proteins can be recognized and quantified in feeds in the case of glyphosate resistant soybeanand canola and in the case of insect protected maize. However, rDNA has never been recovered either in milk, or in

  3. On the importance of sampling variance to investigations of temporal variation in animal population size

    Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Our purpose here is to emphasize the need to properly deal with sampling variance when studying population variability and to present a means of doing so. We present an estimator for temporal variance of population size for the general case in which there are both sampling variances and covariances associated with estimates of population size. We illustrate the estimation approach with a series of population size estimates for black-capped chickadees (Parus atricapillus) wintering in a Connecticut study area and with a series of population size estimates for breeding populations of ducks in southwestern Manitoba.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers and measures should be taken to minimise inhalation exposure. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking.

  5. Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in livestock feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of aflatoxin B1 in Livestock compound Feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. Materials and Methods: Chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F 254, aluminum sheets by CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, with mobile phase condition chloroform:acetone:water (28:4:0.06. Extraction of aflatoxin B1 from samples was done as per AOAC method and screening and quantification done by HPTLC Scanner 4 under wavelength 366 nm. Results: A total of 97 livestock feed (48 and feed ingredients (49 samples received from different livestock farms and farmers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1of which 29 samples were contaminated, constituting 30%. Out of 48 livestock compound feed samples, aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 16 samples representing 33%, whereas in livestock feed ingredients out of 49 samples, 13 found positive for aflatoxin B1 representing 24.5%. Conclusion: HPTLC assures good recovery, precision, and linearity in the quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 extracted from Livestock compound feed and feed ingredients. As more number of feed and feed ingredients are contaminated with aflatoxin B1 which causes deleterious effects in both animal and human beings, so there is a need for identifying the source of contamination, executing control measures, enabling better risk assessment techniques, and providing economic benefits.

  6. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb . In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperature and humidity could be detected. Mean values of aflatoxin concentration in feed stuffs such as rice, rice polish, wheat bran, wheat bread, maize, fish meal, blood meal, bone meal, guar meal, corn gluten 30%, corn gluten 60%, sun flower meal, soyabean meal and cotton seed meal were found to be higher than safe level of 20 ppb recommended by FDA.

  7. Estimate of beta and gamma contamination in vegetable and animal biologic samples using GM detectors

    The paper presents the use of a large area Geiger-Mueller Detector (GMD) with aluminium window of 50 mm thickness (3,4 mg/cm2) in a measuring chain in order to estimate the beta and gamma contamination of biologic samples. The technical data for GMD are: - window area for gamma radiation: 300 cm2; - grid transmission: 80%; - operating voltage: 1100 - 1300 V; - minimum detectable beta energy: 125 keV; - dead time: 250 ms; - background (shielded with 100 mm Pb + 1 mm Cu): 6 pulses/s; - service life: 5 x 108 counts. Using this GMD together with a set of large area beta standard sources and a set of point gamma sources we could estimate beta and gamma contamination in the energy range 125 keV - 2.5 MeV for biologic samples. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of RT-PCR Assay for Routine Laboratory Diagnosis of Rabies in Post Mortem Brain Samples from Different Species of Animals

    Aravindh Babu, R. P.; Manoharan, S.; Ramadass, P.; Chandran, N.D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rabies in domestic and wild animals continues to be a major public health threat in India. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of rabies in animals is therefore of utmost importance as the individuals who were in contact with the rabid animals are at a greater risk. A significant amount of diagnostic tissue samples submitted to our laboratory are often autolysed and the WHO recommended direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for rabies diagnosis cannot be used in such samples. In this pilot study we ...

  9. Cellulolytic potential of probiotic Bacillus Subtilis AMS6 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi): An in-vitro study with regards to application as an animal feed additive.

    Manhar, Ajay K; Bashir, Yasir; Saikia, Devabrata; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Konwar, Bolin K; Kumar, Rahul; Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the probiotic attributes of Bacillus subtilis AMS6 isolated from fermented soybean (Churpi). This isolate exhibited tolerance to low pH (pH 2.0) and bile salt (0.3%), capability to autoaggregate and coaggregate. AMS6 also showed highest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic indicator strain Salmonella enterica typhimurium (MTCC 1252) and susceptibility towards different antibiotics tested. The isolate was effective in inhibiting the adherence of food borne pathogens to Caco-2 epithelial cell lines, and was also found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthen the candidature of the isolate as a potential probiotic. Further studies revealed B. subtilis AMS6 showed cellulolytic activity (0.54±0.05 filter paper units mL(-1)) at 37°C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and maize (Zea mays) straw. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96h of incubation. A full length cellulase gene of AMS6 was amplified using degenerate primers consisting of 1499 nucleotides. The ORF encoded for a protein of 499 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 55.04kDa. The amino acids sequence consisted of a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 domain at N-terminal; Glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core and a CBM-3 cellulose binding domain at its C terminal. The study suggests potential probiotic B. subtilis AMS6 as a promising candidate envisaging its application as an animal feed additive for enhanced fiber digestion and gut health of animal. PMID:27242144

  10. Use of the EFSA Standard Sample Description (SSD for the reporting of data on the control of pesticide residues in food and feed according to Regulation (EC No 396/2005 (Version: 2013 Data Collection

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation (EC No 396/2005 on Maximum Residue Levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin requires the Member States to monitor pesticide residue levels in food commodities and submit the monitoring results to EFSA and the European Commission. In 2009, EFSA developed the Standard Sample Description (SSD, which is a standardised model for the reporting of harmonised data on analytical measurements of chemical substances occurring in food, feed and water. This document is intended to provide the Member States with specific guidance on how to use the SSD for the reporting of the national results of the pesticide monitoring in the framework of Article 32 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005. In particular, this document is meant to provide SSD users with support in selecting the appropriate codes for the elements which pertain to pesticide residues monitoring data. This document shall complement the EFSA guidance document “Standard sample description for food and feed”.

  11. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Winery and Olive Mill Waste Mixtures into Lignocellulolytic Enzymes and Animal Feed by Aspergillus uvarum Using a Packed-Bed Bioreactor.

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    Wineries and olive oil industries are dominant agro-industrial activities in southern European regions. Olive pomace, exhausted grape marc, and vine shoot trimmings are lignocellulosic residues generated by these industries, which could be valued biotechnologically. In the present work these residues were used as substrate to produce cellulases and xylanases through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01. For that, two factorial designs (3(2)) were first planned to optimize substrate composition, temperature, and initial moisture level. Subsequently, the kinectics of cellulolytic enzyme production, fungal growth, and fermented solid were characterized. Finally, the process was performed in a packed-bed bioreactor. The results showed that cellulase activity improved with the optimization processes, reaching 33.56 U/g, and with the packed-bed bioreactor aeration of 0.2 L/min, reaching 38.51 U/g. The composition of fermented solids indicated their potential use for animal feed because cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and phenolic compounds were partially degraded 28.08, 10.78, 13.3, and 28.32%, respectively, crude protein was increased from 8.47 to 17.08%, and the mineral contents meet the requirements of main livestock. PMID:26165254

  12. Research and demonstration to improve air quality for the U.S. animal feeding operations in the 21st century – A critical review

    There was an increasing interest in reducing production and emission of air pollutants to improve air quality for animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the U.S. in the 21st century. Research was focused on identification, quantification, characterization, and modeling of air pollutions; effects of emissions; and methodologies and technologies for scientific research and pollution control. Mitigation effects were on pre-excretion, pre-release, pre-emission, and post-emission. More emphasis was given on reducing pollutant emissions than improving indoor air quality. Research and demonstrations were generally continuation and improvement of previous efforts. Most demonstrated technologies were still in a limited scale of application. Future efforts are needed in many fundamental and applied research areas. Advancement in instrumentation, computer technology, and biological sciences and genetic engineering is critical to bring major changes in this area. Development in research and demonstration will depend on the actual political, economic, and environmental situations. - Highlights: • More emphasis was placed on pollutant emissions than indoor air quality. • Basic research dedicated to new pollutants, modeling, and baseline emissions. • Applied research focused on developing monitoring and mitigation technologies. • Field demonstrations combined with projects to evaluate new mitigation approaches. • Future efforts are needed in many fundamental and applied research areas. - Different scales of basic and applied research were conducted and 15 mitigation technologies were demonstrated. Future work is needed in many fundamental and applied research areas

  13. Potentiation of the effect of a commercial animal feed additive mixed with different probiotic yeast strains on the adsorption of aflatoxin B1.

    Poloni, Valeria; Dogi, Cecilia; Pereyra, Carina Maricel; Fernández Juri, Maria G; Köhler, Pablo; Rosa, Carlos A R; Dalcero, Ana Maria; Cavaglieri, Lilia Reneé

    2015-01-01

    This study potentiates the adsorbent effect for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) of a commercial additive (CA) of animal feed, containing inactive lysate of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, active enzymes, adsorbents and a selenium-amino acid complex, when the additive was mixed separately with three S. cerevisiae strains. Levels of AFB1 of 20 and 50 ng g(-1) were used to determine the binding capacity of different concentrations of CA alone and in the presence of yeast strains, as well as toxin desorption, under gastrointestinal conditions. The viability of yeasts in the presence of CA was evaluated. The results show that the CA did not affect the viability of the yeast strains assayed. CA alone showed a low percentage adsorption. At 20 and at 50 ng g(-1), CA was highly efficient in adsorbing AFB1 when combined with RC016 and RC012 strains respectively. Desorption of AFB1 by CA alone and in combination with the yeasts increased with increasing levels of CA. The results demonstrate the improvement of CA in AFB1 adsorption once it is mixed with live yeasts. PMID:25941951

  14. Simultaneous determination of 16 brominated flame retardants in food and feed of animal origin by fast gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation.

    Bichon, E; Guiffard, I; Vénisseau, A; Lesquin, E; Vaccher, V; Brosseaud, A; Marchand, P; Le Bizec, B

    2016-08-12

    A gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation was developed for the monitoring of 16 brominated flame retardants (7 usually monitored polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs) and BDE #209 and 8 additional emerging and novel BFRs) in food and feed of animal origin. The developed analytical method has decreased the run time by three compared to conventional strategies, using a 2.5m column length (5% phenyl stationary phase, 0.1mm i.d., 0.1μmf.t.), a pulsed split injection (1:5) with carrier gas helium flow rate at 0.48mLmin(-1) in one run of 20 min. For most BFRs, analytical data were compared with the current analytical strategy relying on GC/EI/HRMS (double sector, R=10000 at 10% valley). Performances in terms of sensitivity were found to meet the Commission recommendation (118/2014/EC) for nBFRs. GC/APCI/MS/MS represents a promising alternative for multi-BFRs analysis in complex matrices, in that it allows the monitoring of a wider list of contaminants in a single injection and a shorter run time. PMID:27425757

  15. Bacteriological Study of the Fishmeal used in Feed for Imported Chicken in Atlantic Department

    Dougnon Jacques Tossou; Edorh Aléodjrodo Patrick; Bankole Honoré Sourou; Sezonlin Michel; Guedenon Patient; Kpodekon Marc; Gbeassor Messanvi

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria are microorganisms involved in the digestion of foods by many animals. At the same time, some of them are pathogens causing serious diseases to the survival of animals that harbor them. It is therefore essential to identify the different species of bacteria in feed served to farm animals. The present study aims at identifying the bacteria in the fishmeal used for feeding imported chickens in Atlantic Department. Out of sixtyone (61) samples collected, twenty six (26) came from proven...

  16. Evaluation of the illegal use of clenbuterol in feed, drinking water, urine, and hair samples collected in bovine farms in Portugal

    Ramos, Fernando; Baeta, Maria Lurdes; Reis, Jorge; Noronha Da Silveira, Maria Irene

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The recent discovery of clenbuterol contamination in Portuguese food led to a special inspection of 16 cattle farms for β-agonists, which involved the analysis of a total of 486 samples, of which 78 were feeds, 106 drinking waters, 168 urines and 134 hairs. Bromobuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol, clenpenterol, clenproperol, hydroxymethylclenbuterol, mapenterol, salbutamol and terbutaline were the β-agonists screened for. Only clenbuterol was found in all types of a...

  17. Cisgenic barley for animal feed

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Genetic transformation is currently met with substantial scepticism among the general public. One major concern is the mingling of genetic material between species. We have initiated a collaborating project with different groups from University of Copenhagen, the Danish Agricultural Advisory Serv...

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper compounds (E4 as feed additives for all species: cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is safe for all animal species/categories up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feed. Consumption surveys include copper from foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with copper-containing compounds has not essentially changed over the last decade, no change in the contribution of foodstuffs originating from supplemented animals to the overall copper intake of consumers is expected. No concerns for consumer safety are expected from the use of cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate in animal nutrition, which would substitute for other copper sources. The additive should be considered as a skin and eye irritant and, owing to its amino acid/peptide component, as a skin/respiratory sensitiser. Potential risks to soil organisms have been identified as a result of the application of piglet manure. Levels of copper in other types of manure are too low to create a potential risk within the timescale considered. There might also be a potential environmental concern related to the contamination of sediment resulting from drainage and the run-off of copper to surface water. In order to draw a final conclusion, further model validation is needed and some further refinement to the assessment of copper-based feed additives in livestock needs to be considered, for which additional data would be required. The use of copper-containing additives in aquaculture up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feeds is not expected to pose an appreciable risk to the environment. The extent to which copper-resistant bacteria contribute to the overall antibiotic resistance situation cannot be quantified at present. Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is recognised as an efficacious source of copper to meet animal requirements.

  19. Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia=Modelagem matemática para energia digestivel de ingredientes de origem animal para tilápias

    Mariana Michelato

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals (MBM were used, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model is described below and cannot estimate digestible energy (DE of animal origin: . The path coefficients were medium or low, the highest direct effect was from gross energy (0.529, while the highest indirect effect was from crude protein, through gross energy (0.439. O objetivo deste estudo foi a formulação de equações para estimar a energia digestível em alimentos para a tilápia. Foram utilizados valores obtidos na literatura da composição centesimal em proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, matéria mineral e energia bruta (variáveis independentes, bem como a energia digestível (variável dependente obtidos em ensaios biológicos. Os dados foram submetidos à regressão linear múltipla “stepwise backward”. Foi realizada análise de trilha para medir os efeitos diretos e indiretos de cada variável independente sobre a dependente. Para validar o modelo foram utilizados dados de estudos independentes, e os valores obtidos em um ensaio de digestibilidade com juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, testando-se cinco farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO, utilizando o sistema de coleta de fezes de Guelph e óxido de cromo (III como indicador. A equação obtida não pode estimar os valores de

  20. Issues regarding the U.S. F.D.A. Protective Action Guidelines and derived response levels for human food and animal feed

    Full text: A review of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) rationale and methods for determining protective action guidelines (PAGs) and derived response levels (DRLs) (FDAa82, FDAb82) for human food and animal feed reveals the presence of ambiguous and contradictory information that should be clarified in order to improve the usefulness of the guidance. The differences in the criteria used to determine the Preventative and Emergency PAGs and DRLs, for example, are striking. The Preventative PAGs (and DRLs) are based on accepted health physics principles, e.g. risk factors, avoidance of fetal health effects, agricultural models, etc. The Emergency PAGs (and DRLs), however, are based solely on a traditional safety factor of ten. This difference in rationale becomes more conspicuous when the protective actions for these PAGs are compared: preventative protective actions involve low impact actions, e.g. removal of cattle from pasture, storage to allow for radioactive decay, etc., while emergency protective actions involve high impact actions e.g. isolating and condemning food products. These differences result in a contradiction: high impact actions, which may cause considerable problems and loss of income for farmers and food processors, are based on non-technical premises ('tradition'), while the low impact actions, which may only result in minor inconveniences to farmers and food processors, are based on solid scientific principles. Justifying or explaining these differences to farmers or to the media may be very difficult. Clearly there exists a need to review the basis and rationale upon which the Emergency PAGs and DRLs were derived in order to provide a more scientific explanation for their choice and use. In the FDA guidance (FDAa82), references are also made to ALARA and to the use of low-impact actions at doses lower than the PAGs. Although the FDA accepts and endorses the concept of keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable, the FDA does not

  1. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from food and feed samples.

    Wiberg, Karin; Sporring, Sune; Haglund, Peter; Björklund, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Selective pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) from various food and feed samples was performed with a selective PLE method previously developed for bulk PCBs. The method utilizes sulfuric acid impregnated silica inside the extraction cell to oxidize coextracted fat. Extractions were performed at 100 degrees C with n-heptane for 5 min in two cycles. Data obtained by selective PLE combined with gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) were compared to concentrations derived from reference laboratories applying conventional sample preparation and GC-HRMS. Experiments performed on spiked vegetable oil, naturally contaminated crude fish oil and oil containing compound feed samples showed good results for these relatively simple matrices. The accuracy was generally +/-20% as compared to spiked levels or to values obtained by the reference laboratories. The precision, measured as the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency values (TEQs), was below 10% in all cases. The method was also tested on naturally contaminated herring tissue, chicken tissue, pork tissue and sepiolitic clay, which all caused some trouble. It was observed that sufficient amounts of sodium sulfate should be used for dehydration of tissue samples and additionally, the cells should not be packed too dense in order to avoid suppressed extraction efficiency. Once this was attended to, satisfactory data could be obtained, except for sepiolithic clay. This study demonstrates that selective PLE can be applied with success to a number of food and feed matrices in analysis of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Since the fat removal step is on-line, the selective PLE method will reduce time and solvent consumption for sample preparation as compared to traditional clean-up. PMID:17109872

  2. [Negative effects of anti-nutritional factors in animal feed on nitrogen burden of the environment and possibilities of its reduction. Nutritional physiology effects].

    Huisman, J

    1991-04-15

    Antinutritional factors (ANFs) protect the seed against attacks of moulds, bacteria, insects and birds. The defensive effect of ANFs is apparently related to disturbances in digestive processes in insects and microorganisms. When animals consume seeds containing ANFs, the digestive processes and growth may be disturbed in a similar manner. In the present paper, the fact is discussed that all proteins passing undigested through the small intestine will be fermentatively digested in the large intestine. The final products of the protein digested in the large intestine are excreted in the faeces or urine. For investigations into the digestion of protein in pigs and the amounts of N excreted into the environment, it is of importance to measure the ileal digestibility of protein. Studies showed that ANFs such as trypsin inhibitors, lectins and tannins present in legume seeds reduce the ileal digestibility of protein. In the case of Phaseolus beans it was found that more protein passed through the terminal ileum than was ingested with the feed. With peas was shown that ANFs reduce the ileal digestibility of protein. The carbohydrates of peas did not affect the ileal digestibility of protein, although the ileal chyme was more loose. In the case of faba beans, negative correlation of tannins with ileal digestibility of protein was observed. Calculations showed that, when ANFs were removed from peas and faba beans a considerable reduction in excretion of N into the environment can be achieved. These calculations also showed important possibilities of reducing the secretion of N into the environment by elimination of ANFs. PMID:1882367

  3. Estimation of Genetic Gain on Growth and Carcass Traits over Direct and Index Selection for Growth and Feed Efficiency of Japanese Black Cattle by computer simulation(Animal Production Science Animal Breeding and Genetics)

    HOQUE,Md. Azharul / SUZUKI,Keiichi / OIKAWA,Takuro

    2007-01-01

    A simulation study was performed for performance traits on 740 bulls and carcass traits on 1,774 progeny in Japanese Black cattle to compare the efficiency of direct and index selection. Performance traits included average daily gain (ADG), final body weight (BWF), metabolic body weight (MWT), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI). Progeny traits were carcass weight (CWT), rib eye area (REA), rib thickness (RBT), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), marblin...

  4. Variação de peso e sobrevida de Micrurus corallinus sob diferentes condições de alimentação em biotério (Serpentes, Elapidae Variation of weight and survival rates of Micrurus corallinus under different feeding conditions in laboratory animal rooms (Serpentes, Elapidae

    Eliana de Oliveira Serapicos

    Full Text Available The weight variation in Micrurus corallinus (Merrem, 1820 during the first 60 days in laboratory animal rooms was very remarkable. This fact demonstrates the difficulty in adaptation of these animals to the captive environment. The weight loss was observed in animals under voluntary feeding as well as forced feeding. The survival rate was significantly higher in voluntarily fed animals. Sex differences were also observed with higher survival rates for males. Low survival rates were observed in both sexes under forced feeding.

  5. Research Progress on Methods of Determination of Diet Composition and Feed Intake of Grazing Animals%放牧家畜采食量和择食性测定方法的研究进展

    崔占鸿

    2011-01-01

    文章就国内外关于放牧家畜采食量和采食种类测定方法的研究现状进行了回顾与总结,分析了影响其测定的主要因素,并提出了合理的建议,为今后开展草地放牧家畜的采食量、择食性及其测定方法的研究提供了科学参考.%This article reviewed research developments and current situation of feed intake and diet composition of grazing animals,analyzed the main influencing factors, and presented the reasonable suggestions, which provided scientific references for future study on feed intake, diet composition and their research methods of grazing animals in Qinghai plateau.

  6. 固态发酵豆粕营养价值及其应用研究%Research on Nutritional Value of Solid-state fermented Soybean Meal and its Application on Animals Feeding

    郝耿; 胡婷; 马桢; 彭子欣; 艾布什; 陈童; 王安如; 王洪彬

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation resulted in improved nutritional value of soybean meal. Soybean meal is the most commonly used protein source in the animal feed industry. However, use of soybean meal is mostly limited to adult animals because of inefficient digestibility of soy proteins by young animals. And fermented soybean meal would have valuable functional benefits available for animals. The paper reviewed the recent research on evaluating the value of fermented soybean meal and its application in animal feeding.%固态发酵法是一种切实可行的提高豆粕营养价值的方法.豆粕是畜禽最重要的植物性蛋白源,但其含有的抗营养因子限制了幼龄动物对蛋白质的有效利用.研究结果表明,发酵豆粕对动物的生长性能、消化和免疫功能具有积极的影响.作者就固态发酵豆粕的营养价值研究及其在动物饲养中的应用进行了综述.

  7. Animal welfare assessment

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of manganese compounds (E5) as feed additives for all animal species: manganous oxide, based on a dossier submitted by Poortershaven Industriële Mineralen B.V.

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Manganese, an essential trace element, functions as an enzyme activator and is a constituent of several enzymes. Primary signs of manganese deficiency are impaired growth, skeletal abnormalities, depressed reproductive function, ataxia of the newborn and faults in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Manganous oxide is a safe source of manganese for all animal species/categories, provided that the current maximum total contents of manganese authorised in feed are respected. Dietary manganese do...

  9. Survey of quality of swine feed mixes

    Mašić Zoran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analyses of the chemical composition of 455 samples, microbiological analysis of 412 samples, and mucotoxicological analyses of 212 samples of feed mixes for different categories of swine which arrived for control at authorized laboratories from the territory of the Republic of Serbia during the period from 2000 until 2001. The analyses of 455 swine feed mix samples showed that as many as 185 feed mixes do not meet the quality condition on protein content envisaged by legal regulations, and the highest discrepancy was determined in feed mixes for piglets. Analyses of Ca, P and NaCl contents showed that the mixes in a large number of cases contain insufficient quantities, and in a considerable number even quantities which are not permitted. Analyses of the contents of certain microelements showed that mixes contain insufficient quantities in a large number of cases, especially of copper, manganese and zinc. The number of saprophytic bacteria greatly varied depending on the type of feed mix but all examined samples contained a permitted number of saprophytic bacteria. These analyses most often isolated Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., coliform bacteries, and Micrococcus spp.. Most examined samples contained a permitted number of clostridia, and a smaller number of samples mostly for piglets, showed an impermissible number of clostridia. The quantity of mold fungi in mixes was significantly higher in mixes for young animals, and the determination of fungi most frequently resulted in the isolation of Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Mucor spp.. The mucotoxin analysis of 212 feed mixes showed that only 30.2% were within permitted levels, and the differences between the mixes for young and adult animals were not significant. The mucotoxins most often present were zearalenon and ochratoxin, and all mixes in which aflatoxin and trychotecenes were identified contained these toxins in quantities

  10. Scientific Opinion on safety and efficacy of zinc compounds (E6 as feed additive for all animal species: Zinc oxide, based on a dossier submitted by Grillo Zinkoxid GmbH/EMFEMA

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide is a safe source of zinc for all animal species and no concerns for consumer safety are expected from the use of zinc oxide in animal nutrition, considering the maximum contents for total zinc in feedingstuffs set by EU legislation. Zinc oxide is not an irritant to skin and eyes; it is not a skin sensitiser. The zinc oxide under application is considered a compound with high dusting potential, which may result in a critical exposure of users by inhalation, affecting the respiratory system. The authorised use of zinc oxide as a feed additive does not pose a direct concern for the agricultural soil compartment. However, there is a potential environmental concern related to groundwater, drainage and the run-off of zinc to surface water. Acid sandy soils are most vulnerable to these processes. In order to draw a final conclusion, some further refinement to the assessment of zinc-based feed additives in livestock needs to be considered, for which additional data would be required. The use of zinc-containing additives in aquaculture up to maximum authorised zinc level in feeds is not expected to pose an appreciable risk to the environment. Zinc oxide is efficacious in meeting animal zinc requirements.

  11. Improving animal productivity by supplementary feeding of multi-nutrient blocks, controlling internal parasites and enhancing utilization of alternate feed resources. A publication prepared under the framework of an RCA with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    A major constraint to livestock production in developing countries is the scarcity and fluctuating quantity and quality of the year-round feed supply. Providing adequate good quality feed to livestock to raise and maintain their productivity is, and will continue to be, a major challenge to agricultural scientists and policy makers all over the world. The increase in population and rapid growth in world economies will lead to an enormous increase in demand for animal products, a large part of which will be from developing countries. Future hopes of feeding the millions and safeguarding their food security will depend on the enhanced and efficient utilization of alternative feed resources that cannot be used as food for humans. In addition, a large area of land in the world is degraded, barren or marginal and the amount is increasing every year. This also calls for identification and introduction of new and lesser-known plants capable of growing in poor soils, which can play a vital role in the control of soil erosion in addition to providing food and feed. In developing countries, livestock are fed mainly on low quality roughages, including natural grazing and agro-industrial by-products, such as cereal straws/stovers, sugarcane byproducts and other similar feeds, all of which contain large quantities of ligno-cellulosic material. These feeds are deficient in protein, energy, minerals and vitamins. In addition, at certain times of the year, the quality of grazing and browse deteriorates substantially due to seasonal influences, and livestock, productivity consequently declines, and in the case of lactation ceases, unless supplements are offered. Addition of foliage from tree leaves or supplementation with seed meals, or for ruminants' urea in the form of urea-molasses multinutrient blocks, can improve the utilization of low quality roughages mainly through the supply of nitrogen to the rumen microbes. Attempts to increase the productivity of ruminants in developing

  12. Offgas characterization from the radioactive NCAW core sample (102-AZ-C1) and simulant during HWVP feed preparation testing: Letter report

    The primary objective of the Radioactive Process/Product Laboratory Testing (RPPLT) is to provide preliminary confirmation that the nonradioactive waste feed stimulant recipe is adequate for addressing the testing needs of design, safety, waste form qualification (WFO), and permitting of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant HWVP). The information contained In this letter report specifically addresses offgas production during the formating, digestion, and recycle addition of the third Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) core sample and core stimulant. Testing was conducted using a laboratory-scale version of the HWVP flowsheet

  13. Mould and mycotoxin contamination of pig and poultry feed

    Marković Radmila V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During ten-year period (1995-2004, a total of 756 analyses of pig and poultry feed was performed. Standard methods were used for microbiological determination. Qualitative and quantitative analyze of mycotoxins was performed by TLC technique. Feed for young categories contained from 100 to 3,400,000 CFU/g of feed. In 35.71% of all samples the detected amount was above acceptable levels. Feed for adult categories contained from 800 to 8,000,000 CFU/g of feed. In only 7.54% of samples this amount was over the tolerable level. Species determination revealed great heterogeneity, with the most common findings of Penicillium spp. (28.38%, Aspregillus spp. (26.37% Mucor spp. (24.67%, Fusarium spp. (11.33% and Rhizopus spp. (9.22%. The amount and type of mycotoxin varied depending on the feed category as well as on year of detection, implicating a strong influence of climatic factors and average humidity of the specified year. In a total of 320 analyzed feeds for pigs and poultry the characteristic finding was a combined contamination with two or three mycotoxins. In 161 samples of feed for young animals the presence of AFB1, F-2 and OTA was detected in 36, 161 and 161 samples respectively, while in 33, 83 and 71 samples the detected amounts were above tolerable levels. In 159 samples of feed for adult animals the presence of AFB1, F-2 and OTA was detected in 32, 159 and 159 samples, respectively while in 31, 65 and 99 samples the detected amounts were above tolerable levels.

  14. Quantification of Human and Animal Viruses to Differentiate the Origin of the Fecal Contamination Present in Environmental Samples

    Sílvia Bofill-Mas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking. In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples.

  15. Possible additional exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds from waste incineration. Biomonitoring using human milk and animal samples

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Murk, A. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    In the ambit of an Environmental Health Survey Program relative to a MSW facility, which has been operating near to Lisbon since 1999 a biomonitoring study using human breast milk has been performed. Specific aims of this study were: (1) determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases dioxin maternal body burden and accordingly perinatal (intra-uterus and lactacional) exposure; (2) to investigate the possibility of increased human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds via locally produced food items from animal origin. Therefore, levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been determined in human milk samples collected in the vicinity of the incinerator and in a control area, for comparison. From the same areas, cow and sheep milk and eggs from free-range chickens have also been collected to get an indication of possible local additional exposure to air-borne dioxins via the food chain. Analyses of TCDD-equivalents (TEQs) were mainly performed with a reporter gene assay for dioxin-like activity, the DR-CALUX bioassay (Dioxin Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression).To determine congeners profile, some human milk samples have also been analysed for PCDD/Fs and relevant dioxin-like PCBs, by using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Both the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, and of the Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa have approved the study protocol.

  16. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto-60 na desinfestacao de alguns tipos de racoes para alimentacao de animais de pequeno porte

    Arthur, Paula Bergamin

    2012-07-01

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 {+-} 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Lonza Benelux BV

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The term ‘niacin’ is used as a generic description of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with pyridine as the basic structure. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide function mainly as precursors of the co-enzymes NAD and NADP. Thus, nicotinamide has physiologically critical roles in mitochondrial respiration and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Oral administration routes of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide via feed or water for drinking were considered bioequivalent. Niacin is safe for the target animals with a margin of safety that is at least ten times the requirements and use levels. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that exposure figures for a population already include the contribution of edible tissues and products of animals fed niacin-supplemented diets. Information on niacin metabolism and the limited data available on retention in edible tissues and products indicate that supplemental levels in feeds even far higher than the requirements (1–35 mg/kg feed are highly unlikely to lead the tolerable upper intake level being exceeded. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of niacin in animal nutrition is not of safety concern for consumers. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are not irritant to skin, but can cause irritancy to eyes and mucous membranes. They are unlikely to cause skin sensitisation. Workers might be exposed to a respirable dust when handling nicotinic acid, which should be regarded as being potentially harmful to their health. Nicotinamide is considered to be of no concern for inhalation exposure. The use of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are regarded as effective sources of niacin in animal nutrition.

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of niacin (nicotinamide as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by EUROPE-ASIA Import Export GmbH

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The term ‘niacin’ is used as a generic description of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with pyridine as the basic structure. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide function mainly as precursors of the co-enzymes NAD and NADP. Thus, nicotinamide has physiologically critical roles in mitochondrial respiration and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Oral administration routes of nicotinamide via feed or water for drinking are considered bioequivalent. Nicotinamide is safe for the target animals with a margin of safety that is at least ten times the requirements and use levels. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that exposure figures for a population already include the contribution of edible tissues and products of animals fed niacin-supplemented diets. Information on niacin metabolism and the limited data available on retention in edible tissues and products indicate that supplemental levels in feeds even far higher than the requirements (1–35 mg/kg feed are highly unlikely to lead the tolerable upper intake level being exceeded. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of nicotinamide in animal nutrition is not of safety concern for consumers. Nicotinamide is not irritant to skin, but can cause irritancy to eyes and mucous membranes. It is unlikely to cause skin sensitisation. Workers might be exposed to a respirable dust when handling nicotinamide, which should be regarded as being potentially harmful to their health. The use of nicotinamide in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. Nicotinamide is regarded as an effective source of niacin in animal nutrition.

  19. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Commercial Fish Feed: An Initial Study

    Sven Dänicke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of mycotoxins is a global challenge not only in human consumption but also in nutrition of farm animals including aquatic species. Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN, are common contaminants of animal feed but no study reported the occurrence of both mycotoxins in fish feed so far. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of DON and ZEN in samples of commercial fish feed designed for nutrition of cyprinids collected from central Europe. A maximal DON concentration of 825 μg kg−1 feed was found in one feed whereas average values of 289 μg kg−1 feed were noted. ZEN was the more prevalent mycotoxin but the concentrations were lower showing an average level of 67.9 μg kg−1 feed.

  20. Development of a group selective molecularly imprinted polymers based solid phase extraction of malachite green from fish water and fish feed samples

    Li Yahui; Yang Tao; Qi Xiaoling; Qiao Yuwei [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Wangjiang Road 29, Chengdu 610064 (China); Deng Anping [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Wangjiang Road 29, Chengdu 610064 (China)], E-mail: denganping6119@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-08-29

    A group selective molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) for malachite green (MG) from fish water and fish feed samples was developed. Using MG as template molecule, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycoldimethacrylate as linking agent and bulk polymerization as synthetic method, the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized and characterized with rebinding experiment. The Scatchard polt's analysis revealed that the template-polymer system showed the two-site binding behavior with dissociation constants of 0.3194 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and 15.70 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, respectively. MG and two structurally related compounds, leucomalachite green (LMG) and crystal violet (CV) were employed for selectivity test. The MIPs exhibited the highest selective rebinding to MG, but also displayed 83.0% and 87.5% of cross-reactivity with LMG and CV, demonstrating that MIPs could be used as group recognition sorbents in solid phase extraction. The extraction conditions of MISPE column for MG were optimized. Tap water samples spiked with MG at concentration of 0.5-10 ng mL{sup -1} were extracted by MISPE column and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The recoveries of MISPE column for MG extraction were found to be 76.8-93.7% with the relative standard deviations of 2.12-10.09%, indicating the feasibility of the prepared MIPs for MG extraction. No detectable MG was observed in one fish farming water sample and two fish feed samples; while the MG concentrations in two pet fishpond water samples were found at 1.50 ng mL{sup -1} and 0.67 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively.