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1

Representative sampling of animal feed and mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sampling of grain, animal feeds (solid & liquid) including important mineral mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector is subject to an ongoing investigation with the objective of improving existing (sub-optimal) sampling procedures. Results from the first 6 months are presented here; the project will continue for two more years and will include international collaborators (Australia, Canada). The Danish authorities have instituted a system of control analysis, which contains a set of mandated sampling and analysis methods. From a preliminary survey it was concluded that in fact all of the existing sampling procedures are not optimized in the light of Pierre Gy’s Theory of Sampling (TOS).

Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

2005-01-01

2

Analysis of lagoon samples from different concentrated animal feeding operations for estrogens and estrogen conjugates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids) which are used for land application. Lagoons associated with swine, poultry, and cattle operations were sampled at three locations each for direct analysis for estrogens by GC/ MS/MS and estrogen conjugates by LC/MS/MS. Estrogen conjugates were also analyzed indirectly by first subjecting the same samples to enzyme hydrolysis. Solids from centrifuged samples were extracted for free estrogens to estimate total estrogen load. Total free estrogen levels (estrone, 17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, estriol) were generally higher in swine primary (1000-21000 ng/L), followed by poultry primary (1800-4000 ng/L), dairy secondary (370-550 ng/L), and beef secondary (22-24 ng/L) whole lagoon samples. Swine and poultry lagoons contained levels of 17(alpha-estradiol comparable to those of 17beta-estradiol. Confirmed estrogen conjugates included estrone-3-sulfate (2-91 ng/L), 17beta-estradiol-3-sulfate (8-44 ng/L), 17alpha-estradiol-3-sulfate (141-182 ng/L), and 17beta-estradiol-17-sulfate (72-84 ng/L) in some lagoons. Enzymatic hydrolysis indicated the presence of additional unidentified estrogen conjugates not detected bythe LC/MS/MS method. In most cases estrogen conjugates accounted for at least a third of the total estrogen equivalents. Collectively, these methods can be used to better determine estrogen loads from CAFO operations, and this research shows that estrogen conjugates contribute significantly to the overall estrogen load, even in different types of CAFO lagoons.

Hutchins SR; White MV; Hudson FM; Fine DD

2007-02-01

3

Animal feeds. Foderstoffer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal drying of animal feeds using flue gas in direct contract with the food mass in rotating drums is briefly described. The advantages and disadvantages of using flue gas from natural gas combustion are discussed. (AB).

Nurmi, H. (Cultor Ab (SE))

1989-01-01

4

Soft moist extruded animal feed  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The animal feed of the present invention is a soft extruded nugget with a chewy, moist interior. These nuggets have a high moisture content and preservatives. The animal feed also has a long shelf life given the high moisture content. The animal feed of this invention is provided to young animals after weaning from a liquid diet.

LANTER KENT J; DE RODAS BRENDA; RAUB RANDEL H; GORDON MARY ELIZABETH

5

SOFT MOIST EXTRUDED ANIMAL FEED  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The animal feed of the present invention is a soft extruded nugget with a chewy, moist interior. These nuggets have a high moisture content and preservatives. The animal feed also has a long shelf life given the high moisture content. The animal feed of this invention is provided to young animals after weaning from a liquid diet.

LANTER KENT J; DE RODAS BRENDA; RAUB RANDEL H; GORDON MARY ELIZABETH

6

Radiation pasteurization of animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Short-term feeding tests with day old single comb White Leghorn cockerels were undertaken to test the proposition that radiation pasteurization of animal feed would result in improved performance of animals or birds consuming that feed. This assumes that animal feed frequently harbours pathogens which deleteriously affect the consuming animal or bird, and that irradiation destroys those pathogens. In five of six tests completed to date, using separate lots of feed ingredients in each, radiation pasteurization resulted in statistically significant improvements in feed consumption, weight gain and/or feed conversion efficiency.

1991-01-01

7

Feed or feed additive for animals  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Feed or feed additives for animals, which are characterised in that they are composed of an extract of olive stones, apple pips, Glossostemon bruguieri, tubers of Pueraria mirifica and/or corn cobs or ground olive stones and/or apple pips. The ground olive stones and/or apple pips are produced by conventional grinding. The extracts mentioned are likewise obtained by conventional extraction using suitable extractants. The feeds or feed additives according to the invention are highly suitable for processing in mixed feeds.

KRIWET MANFRED

8

Toxic elements in animal feeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Toxic elements without nutritional relevance are lead, cadmium, mercury, thallium, arsenic, and fluorine. They are ubiquitous in different forms and occur in animal feeds of vegetable and plant origin in varying concentrations owing also to a certain distribution pattern. ''Critical'' feeds are those that derive from animals (fish meal, animal meal) and mineral animal feeds. Pollution of self-produced animal feeds is site-dependent. Air pollutants and pollutants accumulation in the soil can have toxic effect on plants by direct uptake via the roots or can cause harmful depositions on plants. To bring about an improvement of the current situation it is helpful to cut down on the amount of toxic elements and, accordingly, on the maximum contents of such elements in animal feeds, and to classify sites of heavy pollution according to effect-related limiting values.

Croessmann, G.

1985-01-01

9

Fermentation of bagasse for animal feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biological delignification of bagasse for animal feed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using two basidiomycetes mould isolates from biomanure samples is described. The microbial growth degraded the bagasse components and increased its digestibility and protein content. 20 references.

Nigam, P.; Prabhu, K.A.

1985-01-01

10

Irradiation effect on animal feeds and feedstuffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of ?-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)

1983-01-01

11

Cellulase and Dairy Animal Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of cellulase is of great significance in present day biotechnology. Cellulose biodegradation by cellulases, produced by numerous microorganisms is very important in several agricultural and waste treatment processes. The development of microbial strains, media composition and process control has including submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation all contributed to achievements of high levels of cellulases for subsequent applications. One of these important applications is supplementing diets of farm animals with cellulases to improve feed utilization and animal performance by enhancing fiber degradation. Dairy cows feed forge treated with a cellulase enzyme preparations ate more feed and produced 5-25% more milk. This review provides an over view of the main variables to be considered for cellulase production from agricultural residues for animal feeding.

H.A. Murad; H.H. Azzaz

2010-01-01

12

Method development and validation for melamine and its derivatives in rice concentrates by liquid chromatography. Application to animal feed samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

An isocratic LC method for the determination of melamine and its degradation products (ammelide, ammeline, and cyanuric acid), used to increase the apparent protein content of rice protein concentrate, has been developed. Method development involved optimization of different RP columns, aqueous mobile phases, pH, phosphate concentration, and temperature. The optimum separation of these compounds was achieved using a Luna CN column (30 degrees C), 5 mmol L(-1) sodium phosphate (pH 5.0) as mobile phase, 1 mL min(-1) flow-rate, UV absorbance-DAD detection at 220 nm, and resorcine as internal standard; this enabled separation of these compounds with baseline resolution (values in the 2.1-10.1 range) in about 8 min. Prior to HPLC, the developed sample preparation procedure consisted in a leaching process using the above mentioned mobile phase. Method validation was carried out in rice protein concentrates in accordance with the European Commission decision 2002/657/EC criteria. For this purpose, eight mandatory performance characteristics for the conventional validation approach were determined: calibration graphs, extraction efficiencies, decision limits, detection capabilities, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), accuracy, selectivity, and robustness. The extraction efficiencies for these compounds were in the range 99-100% and the within-laboratory reproducibility at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 detection capabilities concentration levels were smaller than 5, 4, and 3%, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of other rice protein concentrates and several animal feed samples. PMID:18668227

Muñiz-Valencia, Roberto; Ceballos-Magaña, Silvia G; Rosales-Martinez, Daniel; Gonzalo-Lumbreras, Raquel; Santos-Montes, Ana; Cubedo-Fernandez-Trapiella, Angel; Izquierdo-Hornillos, Roberto C

2008-07-31

13

Feeding animal fats to sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an experiment lasting 7 weeks, 18% of the calculated energy requirement of 5 nonpregnant ewes was met by giving natural fats of animal origin mixed in the ration (at a level of 6.6%). Changes in certain blood and blood plasma parameters of lipid and energy metabolism were monitored at 5 time-points during the experiment. Samples of rumen fluid were taken three times for determining the concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Rumen fermentation was studied by in sacco method. Total lipid (TL) content of the liver and fatty acid composition of the liver tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue (from the tailhead) were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. At the concentration used in this experiment, fat supplementation caused neither digestive disturbances nor any other adverse changes in the animals' health status. It did, however, exert a significant influence on blood plasma lipid composition. TL and total cholesterol (TCh) concentration increased and blood glucose level decreased. A rise in triglyceride (TG) content was accompanied by a drop in free fatty acid (FFA) concentration. The in sacco experiments and volatile fatty acid (VFA) levels in the rumen fluid suggested an impaired crude fibre digestion in the rumen. At the same time, fat supplementation enhanced rumen proteolysis. The TL content of liver samples did not exceed the physiological limit. The liver biopsy samples had decreased myristic acid and increased stearic and oleic acid concentrations. No change occurred in the fatty acid composition of the fat depots. PMID:1476087

Magdus, M; Szegleti, C; Husvéth, F; Fekete, S

1992-01-01

14

Feeding animal fats to sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an experiment lasting 7 weeks, 18% of the calculated energy requirement of 5 nonpregnant ewes was met by giving natural fats of animal origin mixed in the ration (at a level of 6.6%). Changes in certain blood and blood plasma parameters of lipid and energy metabolism were monitored at 5 time-points during the experiment. Samples of rumen fluid were taken three times for determining the concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Rumen fermentation was studied by in sacco method. Total lipid (TL) content of the liver and fatty acid composition of the liver tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue (from the tailhead) were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. At the concentration used in this experiment, fat supplementation caused neither digestive disturbances nor any other adverse changes in the animals' health status. It did, however, exert a significant influence on blood plasma lipid composition. TL and total cholesterol (TCh) concentration increased and blood glucose level decreased. A rise in triglyceride (TG) content was accompanied by a drop in free fatty acid (FFA) concentration. The in sacco experiments and volatile fatty acid (VFA) levels in the rumen fluid suggested an impaired crude fibre digestion in the rumen. At the same time, fat supplementation enhanced rumen proteolysis. The TL content of liver samples did not exceed the physiological limit. The liver biopsy samples had decreased myristic acid and increased stearic and oleic acid concentrations. No change occurred in the fatty acid composition of the fat depots.

Magdus M; Szegleti C; Husvéth F; Fekete S

1992-01-01

15

Complete animal feed with potato component  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A complete integral pelletized animal feed which is easily and economically prepared with a potato component. This invention combines hay, oats, and potato waste with a primary and secondary supplement premix. The potato component acts as a binder which makes it possible to pelletize the combined components. The composite animal feed is a complete food requiring no further supplementation. The instant invention provides an economical, one-step, integral, composite animal feed which incorporates potato waste and a primary and secondary supplement premix forming a complete animal feed. The instant invention is economically produced using potato waste, and economical to use since no further supplementation is necessary. Further, the complete feed with primary and secondary supplements has the capacity to improve performance characteristics in, for example race or show horses, far beyond what might be expected if the individual components were singly incorporated into the animal's diet.

ANDERSON TOM

16

COMPLETE ANIMAL FEED WITH POTATO COMPONENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A complete integral pelletized animal feed which is easily and economically prepared with a potato component. This invention combines hay, oats, and potato waste with a primary and secondary supplement premix. The potato component acts as a binder which makes it possible to pelletize the combined components. The composite animal feed is a complete food requiring no further supplementation. The instant invention provides an economical, one-step, integral, composite animal feed which incorporates potato waste and a primar y and secondary supplement premix forming a complete animal feed. The instant invention is economically produced using potato waste, and economical to use since no further supplementation is necessary. Further, the complete feed with primary and secondary supplements has the capacity to improve performance characteristics in, for example race or show horses, far beyond what might be expected if the individual components were singly incorporated into the animal's diet.

ANDERSON TOM

17

Animal feed with pure natural addictive  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The animal feed with natural additive consists of corn 34 wt%, wheat 30 wt%, soybean 7 wt%, fish meal 7 wt%, bone meal 5 wt%, soybean residue 7 wt%, yeast 5 wt%, premixed material 4.5-4.75 wt% and pollen 0.25-0.5 wt%. Utilizing natural additive for feed can raise the reproduction rate and ablactation survival rate of animal and expand population scale of animal.

HU QUANHUI; WANG YUN

18

Inputs of polychlorinated biphenyl residues in animal feeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Animal nutrition constitutes an important issue for the animal production industry. Products intended for animal feed may contain undesirable substances which could endanger animal health or, because of their presence in livestock products, human health or the environment. In this sense, several incidents related with the presence of persistent organic pollutants, particularly with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have happen in food and feed additives. Animal feed and feed components are challenging matrices for the determination of residues and contaminants. The variability of these matrices is enormous. It ranges from relatively simple ones like those based on wheat to all kinds of by-products from agro and food industry, such as cereal oils. Firstly, this article reviews and addresses the extraction efficiency of ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction (UASE) and focused ultrasonic solvent extraction (FUSE) for determining selected PCBs in animal feed and ingredients. Detection of these pollutants was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electron capture detection (ECD); tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used as confirmatory technique. Recoveries ranged from 70% to 98% by UASE and from 75% to 106% by FUSE with estimated quantification limits between 0.11 and 0.3 ?g/kg in feeds and ingredients and between 0.2 and 0.75 ?g/kg in fats. Once the method was optimised, it was applied to 18 feed samples as well as 16 ingredients. PCBs were detected in almost all the selected samples. As expected, the samples of animal origin as shell powder and fish oil showed the highest concentrations of 56 and 29 ng/g, which are equivalent to toxicological concentrations of 123 and 18 ng WHO-TEQDL-PCBs/kg, respectively. Feeds and ingredients from vegetable origin ranged from non-detected to 7.1 ?g/kg. PCB 77 and 169 were the discriminant congeners in the selected samples of feed and ingredients. Samples showed that the pattern of PCBs depends on the sources of contamination.

Fernández-González R; Yebra-Pimentel I; Martínez-Carballo E; Regueiro J; Simal-Gándara J

2013-09-01

19

ANIMAL FEED CONTAINING MOLASSES, BENTONITE AND ZEOLITE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An animal feed, in granular or solid form, comprising molasses (or by-products thereof) mixed with sorptive materials, including bentonite and zeolite. Hydrated lime may be added as a source of calcium, to improve pellet quality, for moisture absorbency and for pH control. Cereal grains, trace elements, bypass proteins and other additives may be included in the mix to tailor the animal feed to the user's requirements.

KEMP Philip William; NOUGHER Thomas Hall

20

Animal feed containing molasses bentonite and zeolite  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An alkaline animal feed, in granular or solid form, with a pH greater than or equal to 7.5, comprising Dunder, dunder and molasses, or dunder and molasses by-products mixed with sorptive materials, including bentonite and zeolite. Hydrated lime may be added as a source of calcium, to improve pellet quality, for moisture absorbency and for pH control. Cereal grains, trace elements, bypass proteins and other additives may be included in the mix to tailor the animal feed to the user's requirements.

KEMP PHILIP W; NOUGHER THOMAS HALL

 
 
 
 
21

Speciation of VOCs from Animal Feeding Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Environmental Pollution Agency (EPA) air consent agreement with animal feeding operations (AFO) specifies the use of EPA TO-15 for the speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from these facilities. However, compounds emitted from AFO are often both volatile and highly polar chara...

22

DEVICE FOR DRYING OF BALED ANIMAL FEED  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The device for drying of baled animal feed consists of a chamber (1) which is aimed at receiving animal feed in bales (41', 42', 43', 44' 41''. 42''. 43'', 44'') and prepared for drying. Inside the chamber (1) there are a heat pump (2) and at least one fan (31) for generating an air current and directing it towards the specified bales (41', 42', 43', 44', 41''. 42''. 43'', 44''). Based on data on the humidity (x) of the animal feed The main control unit (12) via the control unit (310) controls the fan (31) and via the control unit (20) also the compressor (21) of the heat pump (2) in such a way that in the initial drying phase a more intensive operation of the fan (31) and less intensive operation of the compressor (21) of the heat pump (2) are provided, while later during the drying process the operation power (PK) of the heat pump (2) increases, while at the same time the operation power (PV) of the fan (31) adequately decreases. This way it is possible that by using a relatively simple device a fast and effective drying process of baled animal feed is ensured along with providing energy efficiency.

STRUBELJ PAVLE

23

Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emphasis in recent years on livestock farming as a means of increasing the availability of animal protein in India has led to a spurt in the commercial production of a variety of cattle and poultry feeds. Adverse climatic conditions have posed problems of insect infestation and spoilage due to microorganisms, for which radiation treatment of prepacked feeds could provide a solution. The wholesomeness of an irradiated (0.2 and 2.5 Mrad) diet composed of wheat, shrimp, milk powder, vegetable and oil has been investigated in long term feeding studies involving five successive generations of rats. Growth, foodintake, longevity and mortality remained comparable between control and test groups of animals. Reproductive performance as judged by fertility index, litter size and weaning index were also similar. Examination of the animals sacrified at the age of 23-24 months for gross pathological manifestations including tumor incidence did not indicate any significant differences between the control and the test groups. Judged by a variety of parameters, the rearing of rats for upto five generations on an irradiated diet had no adverse influences on their health. (author)

1975-12-18

24

Utilizing waste activated sludge for animal feeding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Activated sludge has a high protein content and is a good source of B-group vitamins and generally also of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe and K). Propionibacterium freudenreichii can be readily incorporated into the activated sludge to synthesize vitamin B12, particularly high vitamin yields being obtained with sewage mixed with dairy waste. Numerous examples of successful use of activated sludge in animal feeding are given.

Beszedits, S.

1981-01-01

25

Microbiological characterization of food residues for animal feeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

A description is offered of microbiological characterization of the biodegradable fractions present in food wastes so that those fractions can be transformed in such a way that they will fulfil the specifications involved in their use as raw materials in other production areas. In this way the wastes can be converted into sub-products, hence minimizing the amount of them eventually sent to rubbish dumps. Of all the types of residues analyzed, only those obtained by separate collection from fishmongers' and greengrocers' sections of large supermarkets and small shops were valid for the objectives of the project and were subjected to a heat treatment to test whether or not this treatment was capable of reducing their microbiological content to the point of converting them into acceptable raw materials for animal feed. Residues from butchers' sections of supermarkets and small shops, and residues from restaurants were not included in the final study because of the prohibition by the European legislation in force of using any kind of meat containing wastes for feeding farm animals. In the present work we made a one-year analysis of representative samples of such wastes. We observed that after thermal treatment at a temperature of at least 65 degrees C for 20 min the nutritional and microbiological parameters remained suitable for their possible use as animal feed and that their harmlessness was ensured, with no loss of nutritional characteristics. Regarding the microbiological study of the meals which have been obtained from residues for the production of the feed and the feed itself, and in accordance with the data for nutritional composition, we consider valid and sanitarily adequate their use as animal feed with the concomitant consequent minimization of waste, which has become a priority in view of the recent legislation enacted by the European Union. PMID:15504669

Sancho, Pilar; Pinacho, Ana; Ramos, Pedro; Tejedor, Carmen

2004-01-01

26

Reducing concentrated animal feeding operations permitting requirements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many owners and operators of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) need to secure National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits from the federal or state permitting authority. Because of the expense and inconvenience of permit applications, farm groups have challenged revisions to the federal CAFO Rule as well as state regulations claiming selected provisions exceeded the authority of the permitting agency. In 2011, 2 courts responded with decisions that clarify federal and state permitting regulations. Another goal of agricultural groups is to change the regulatory authority of the state from an environmental agency to a department of agriculture. These developments suggest that by altering the permitting authority, CAFO owners and operators may alleviate some of the burdens of the permitting process.

Centner TJ; Newton GL

2011-12-01

27

[Detection of genetically modified organisms in food and animal feed by polymerase chain reaction].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the foods and animal feed samples in Guangzhou market. METHODS: The presence of GMO were investigated by PCR detection of camv 35S promoter and nos terminator, and the presence of RoundUp Ready Soybean (RRS), Bt176 Maximaizer or Mon810 YieldGard in GMO-positive samples were further determined by PCR detecting their specific DNA fragments respectively. RESULTS: One corn soup sample, two soybean samples, one potato fries sample as well as two animal feed samples were revealed to be GMO-positive in twenty-two food samples and three animal feed samples, and the presence of RRS in the GMO-positive soybean samples and the two positive animal feed samples were verified by PCR detection of a 129 bp RRS-specific DNA fragment, however, no Bt176 Maximaizer or Mon810 YieldGard specific PCR products were obtained with the GMO-positive corn soup and animal feed DNA samples used as PCR templates. CONCLUSION: Genetically modified organism presented in foods and animal feeds even though they were not been labelled.

Zhou JC; Yang MJ; Yang XF; Huang JM

2005-11-01

28

Bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the growth, the absorption and the dynamics of phosphorus and calcium phosphates of high fluorine content , triple superphosphates (TSP) and two sedimentary phosphates Riecito (RIO) and Monte Fresco (MONTE) vs dicalcium phosphate (DICAL), they were carried out two experiments with sheep. In the first one, with a duration of 360 days, the group (six animals) consumed DICAL, and at the 330 day of feeding it was divided in two groups, one under the same treatment and to the other one it was added 500 ppm of fluorine like NaF (DICAL+F). In this experiment the growth was evaluated, and at the end of the period, it was determined the phosphorus and calcium absorption and kinetics, the retention of fluorine in different sources, as well as the bony mineralization. In the second experiment, with a duration of 30 days, the phosphorus absorption and kinetics, as and the retention of fluorine in the sources under study, were determined. In both experiments, for the dynamic studies it was used the isotopic dilution technique, by means of the dosage, through jugular injection, of 200 uCi 32P and, for via oral, 200 uCi 45Ca. The weight gained (g / animal /day ) was 75, 87, 56 and 53 for DICAL, RIO, MONTE and TSP, respectively, with significant differences (P'0.05) in favor of DICAL and RIO. The true absorption of phosphorus (%), for the fed animals during 30 and 360 days, respectively, was 73 and 76 for DICAL, 40 and 57 for RIO, 36 and 57 for MONTE and, 79 and 71 for TSP, being significantly higher (P'0.05), for both periods, the values of DICAL and TSP. The evaluation of 12 months of absorption of RIVER and MONTE was higher than during the period of 30 days. The absorption of calcium at the 362 days was higher for DICAL and RIO in relation to MONTE and TSP. The addition of fluorine during 30 days didn't affect the calcium and phosphorus absorption. The run time to reach the maximum level of specific activity of calcium in blood was higher for RIO, MONTE and TSP. The run time corresponding to the mobilization of hematic phosphorus to the different compartments (inter, intracells and bony) were higher for RIO, MONTE and TSP, for the two times of feeding DICAL+F in relation to DICAL; while for calcium, DICAL went superior to RIO, MONTE, DICAL+F and TSP, in the same order, indicating that fluorine increased the half time for the absorption and diminished the half time for the compartamental mobilization. The bony mineralization (density: g / cc; ashes: %) was bigger for DICAL and TSP and minor for RIO and MONTE, without differences between DICAL and DICAL. The specific activity in bone was smaller for DICAL than for RIO, MONTE and TSP, as much for 32P than for 45Ca. The accumulation of fluorine (ppm) in the bony tissue was bigger (P'0.05) for TSP (3033) and MONTE (2100), in relation to RIO (1767), DICAL+F (1633) and DICAL (1333). It is concluded that the phosphates of RIO and MONTE have a smaller bioavailability in connection with DICAL and TSP, and that the addition of fluorine in DICAL doesn't modify the phosphorus absorption but the calcium kinetics at blood level and the specific activity in the bony tissue, indicating a possible effect on the absorption and metabolism of that element

1997-07-10

29

Respiratory effects of chronic animal feed dust exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of chronic work related respiratory symptoms and to determine lung function abnormalities in animal feed industry workers. METHOD: 108 workers with a mean age of +/- SD: 32 +/- 7.11 yr employed in the animal feed industry and 108 unexposed subjects as a control group were enrolled in the study. All subjects filled out a questionnaire on their respiratory symptoms. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were conducted. Airborne dust (respirable fraction) was sampled during an 8-h work shift. Dust sampling was performed with a Casella AFC 123 machine. RESULTS: A significantly higher prevalence of work related upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms such as cough (12%), dyspnea (5.6%) and sinusitis (8.3%) were found among the workers than in the control group (p=0.001, p=0.04 and p=0.008 respectively). Irritation symptoms such as pruritus of the eyes (11.1%), skin lesions (7.4%) and nose symptoms (8.3%) were also significantly higher among workers that in the control group (p=0.001, p=0.014 and p=0.005 respectively). The mean PFTs (predicted %) of the workers; forced vital capacity (FVC)% +/- SD (85.23 +/- 12.06), 1-s forced expiratory volume (FEV1)% +/- SD (88.73 +/- 13.09), peak expiratory flow (PEF)% +/- SD (70.64 +/- 18.76) and forced expiratory flow rate at 25-75% of the FVC (FEF25-75)% +/- SD (88.42 +/- 25.94) were found significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p<0.0001 respectively). Our data indicate that exposure to animal feed dust is an important factor in the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and decline in lung functions.

Baser S; Fisekci FE; Ozkurt S; Zencir M

2003-09-01

30

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals. 558.15 Section 558.15 Food and...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General...

2010-04-01

31

The animal feed and energy conservation properties of Avotan (Avoparcin)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AVOTAN, avoparcin is a glycopeptide antibiotic manufactured by Cyanamid (UK) via the fermentation of a strain of Streptomyces candidus. The gross energy requirement of manufacturing avoparcin is calculated and compared with the gross energy savings of feed utilisation when used in animal feeding regimes for broiler chickens, pigs, beef cattle and dairy cows for milk production. Avoparcin improves farm animal production in terms of liveweight gains and feed conversion efficiency. So, by conserving animal feed it conserves the energy which would have been expended to produce that animal feed. The energy savings thus calculated range from one to two orders of magnitude on an energy ratio basis and so are very significant. The widespread use of avoparcin in world agriculture is therefore very beneficial in an energy conservation context. (Author)

Lewis, C.W. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom); O`Beirne, P. [Cyanamid (United Kingdom) Ltd. (United Kingdom). Animal Health Div.

1994-12-31

32

Development and Testing of an Animal Feed Mixing Machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An animal feed mixing machine was designed, developed and tested. The machine was tested using a feed components divided into three equal measures of 50 kg for ground corn, 0.265 kg for cassava flour and 2.65 kg for shelled corn replicated thrice at four mixing durations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. The average CV is 4.84% which shows a significant reduction in feed components for the samples tested. The degree of mixing attained was 95.16% which portrays an improvement of about 7.8% reduction in non-uniformity of components among samples when the mixing duration was 10 min. The result further indicates an increase in the level of difficulty associated with intimate blending as the mixture approaches its equilibrium level (from 78.15% at 5 minutes increase by 9.21% at 10 minutes and by 7.8% at 15 minutes). Also the average weights of ungrounded corn of 24.90 g, 24.80 g and 24.40 g recovered from the three replicates had corresponding coefficient of variations of 4.81%, 5.31% and 3.96% respectively during a 20 minutes mixing process. The average value of coefficient of variation for the three replicates here was 4.69% indicating that, the mixer’s performance was pegged at 95.31%..

A. A. Balami; D. Adgidzi; A. Mua’zu

2013-01-01

33

Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IN); Cecava, Michael J. (Decatur, IN); Doane, Perry H. (Decatur, IN)

2010-12-21

34

Ensilaging of bark to produce animal feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experiment was conducted of ensilaging stripped Norway spruce bark and feeding the silage to red deer (Cervus elaphus) and other game. The process of ensilaging by adding salt and sugar is described. Wild red deer only ate a small amount of the silage; consumption was increased when more sugar was added. It was not possible to tell whether feeding silage to game would limit or inhibit bark-stripping. Red deer, fallow deer (Dama dama) and other game in enclosures as well as young cattle, goats, and sheep accepted the silage well.

Gastinger, W.

1980-01-01

35

HOP ACIDS AS A REPLACEMENT FOR ANTIBIOTICS IN ANIMAL FEED  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of using hop acids for increasing food and energy uptake from feed by livestock is described which includes delivering the hop acids for oral ingestion to the animals by mixing the acids with livestock feed. The acids are mixed with the feed in an amount to inhibit certain types of undesirable bacteria in the livestock's digestive system, thereby increasing the production of propionate and lactate and decreasing the production of methan e gas.

MAYE JOHN PAUL

36

Waste management and environmental challenges related to animal feeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the U.S. approximately 23 million cattle are fed in feedyards each year. The high density of animals in these confined operations can lead to environmental concerns. The feeding of livestock in confinement leads to concentration of feed nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and ot...

37

Occurrence of mycotoxins in feed samples in Burdur Province, Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of total aflatoxin (AF), ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisin (FB) in dairy cattle, beef cattle, and lamb-calf feeds. A total of 180 dairy cattle, beef cattle, and lamb-calf feeds (60 samples each) were randomly collected from farms, feed mills, and villages in Burdur province, between September 2006 and August 2007. All samples were analyzed by the competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). The most frequent mycotoxin detected was total AF, which was found in 108 samples (60 %) in concentrations ranging from 3.82 to 116.83 ?g?kg(-1), followed by DON that was detected in 87 samples (48.3 %), in concentrations ranging from 18.50 to 500 ?g?kg(-1). Ochratoxin A (OTA), T-2 toxin, ZEA, and FB were found in 84 (46.7 %), 85 (47.2 %), 57 (31.7 %), and 19 (10.6 %) samples, respectively, in concentrations of 1.01 to 15.85 ?g?kg(-1) for OTA, 3.85 to 52.36 ?g?kg(-1) for T-2 toxin, 2.10 to 29.30 ?g?kg(-1) for ZEA, and 2.69 to 4.96 mg?kg(-1) for FB. It was concluded that feed samples in Burdur province were contaminated by mycotoxins, and the levels of total aflatoxin in the samples were considered a risk to animal health.

Kocasari FS; Mor F; Oguz MN; Oguz FK

2013-06-01

38

[Special features of feeding in ecologic animal husbandry  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Food produced in ecological agriculture becomes popular more and more. In the interest of consumers (to protect against deception) and of producers (to contrast with conventionally produced food) it is necessary to define the conditions and circumstances when products can be declared as ecological. Up to now definitions of housing and feeding animals in organic agriculture only are set up by private organizations and associations, but in the future we will have a direction of the European community (Nr. 2092/91 EWG), extended by directives and restrictions focussed on animal husbandry and feeding. Aim of this contribution is to give information on special restrictions on feeds and feeding of food producing animals in organic agriculture (preconditions in the case that labelling as "ecologically produced" is intended). Conventionally produced feedstuffs are restricted, common complete diets and some special feed additives (for example growth promoters) are not allowed. Feeding according to species specific requirements (herbivorous animals) as well as according to age and development (for example minimum duration of suckling periods) is intended. On the other hand there is a conscious renunciation of maximizing animals' performance (and plant yields). Consequences, risks and conflicts of different aims in feeding in accordance with ideas of organic agriculture are discussed. Various efforts at sustainability of conventional agriculture are influenced markedly by ideas and concepts established in organic agriculture primarily.

Kamphues J

1998-08-01

39

Device for metered feeding of animals  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The subject of the present invention is to dispense, either in batches, or continuously, accurate quantities of food by means of a module 14 equipped with a floating Archimedes screw 2 accepting various size grading. The regulation of the weight is carried out by means of an initial calibration and may be modified by varying the speed of rotation of the screw 2 or by varying the feeding speed of the food supply system in the event of continuous dispensing.

40

Process for preparing forage crop animal feeds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Partially dried forage crops such as perennial grasses and partially dehydrated alfalfa containing at least 10% moisture are treated with sodium diacetate and stored in the form of bales or other consolidated form using a sufficient amount of sodium diacetate to reduce the rise in temperature which normally occurs on storage under such conditions while simultaneously inhibiting mold growth. The resultant products are especially useful in feeding beef and dairy cattle and other ruminants.

GLABE ELMER F

 
 
 
 
41

78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate  

Science.gov (United States)

...Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate...additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to correct the description...additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals do not correctly...

2013-07-17

42

Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxin fumonisin B1 and B2 in animal feeds in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to monitor the occurrence and levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) in animal feeds distributed in South Korea in 2011. The contamination levels of FB1 and FB2 were investigated in 150 samples of compound feeds and in 40 samples of feed ingredients. The contamination rate of feed ingredients with FB1 and FB2 was 50 and 40%, respectively. FB2 was only found in samples contaminated with FB1. Of the compound feeds, 85% were contaminated by FB1 and 47% were contaminated by FB2. The highest contamination rate of FBs was observed in compound feeds for cattle (FB1: 100%; FB2: 80%), followed by poultry feed (FB1: 78%; FB2: 40%) and swine feed (FB1: 76%; FB2: 22%). The highest contamination level (14,600 ng/g) for FB1 were found in poultry broiler feed (early feeding period) samples, which had 82% contamination rate (9/11), and the highest level of FB2 (2,280 ng/g) was found in feed for fatting calves,which had a contamination rate of 100%. PMID:23807416

Seo, Dong-Geun; Phat, Chanvorleak; Kim, Dong-Ho; Lee, Chan

2013-06-27

43

Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxin fumonisin B1 and B2 in animal feeds in Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to monitor the occurrence and levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) in animal feeds distributed in South Korea in 2011. The contamination levels of FB1 and FB2 were investigated in 150 samples of compound feeds and in 40 samples of feed ingredients. The contamination rate of feed ingredients with FB1 and FB2 was 50 and 40%, respectively. FB2 was only found in samples contaminated with FB1. Of the compound feeds, 85% were contaminated by FB1 and 47% were contaminated by FB2. The highest contamination rate of FBs was observed in compound feeds for cattle (FB1: 100%; FB2: 80%), followed by poultry feed (FB1: 78%; FB2: 40%) and swine feed (FB1: 76%; FB2: 22%). The highest contamination level (14,600 ng/g) for FB1 were found in poultry broiler feed (early feeding period) samples, which had 82% contamination rate (9/11), and the highest level of FB2 (2,280 ng/g) was found in feed for fatting calves,which had a contamination rate of 100%.

Seo DG; Phat C; Kim DH; Lee C

2013-08-01

44

Animal feed controls implemented in Japan for the eradication of bovine spongiform encephalopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Japan in September 2001, the Japanese government introduced a series of animal feed control measures to reduce the risk of the spread of the disease from a feed source. To ensure the proper implementation of these measures, the Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Centre conducted audit inspections of feed importers, producers, distributors and end-users. The audit inspections include on-site inspection of the feed plants, warehouses, farms and other related premises and the laboratory analysis of feed samples taken from these premises to check for the presence of animal protein. The results of inspections conducted in recent years indicate good compliance with the feed control measures.

Toyoko Kusama; Hiroshi Hibino; Takashi Onodera; Katsuaki Sugiura

2009-01-01

45

NEW DIMENSION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANIMAL FEED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The medicinal plants and herbs have been used for many years in the treatment of various diseases in animals and human beings. Now-a-days, utilization of these medicinal plants is increasing. These are used in animal feed as the growth promoters. Due to prohibition of most of the antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feed because of their residual effects, plant extracts are becoming more popular. They act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal, anticoccidial and growth promoters. These plant extracts compete with the synthetic drugs. Majority of medicinal plants do not have the residual effects. Azadiracht indica, Zizyphus vulgaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Atlanta monophylla have the strong antibacterial activity, whereas ocimum plant has strong antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic and antipyretic properties. Leaves of Azadirachta indica are used for feeding and reducing the parasitic load of animals. The fruit of Azadirachta indica also has the anticoccidial activity for poultry.

M. A. TIPU, M. S. AKHTAR, M. I. ANJUM1 AND M. L. RAJA

2006-01-01

46

Chromatographic analysis of banned antibacterial growth promoters in animal feed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The issue of antimicrobial use in animals used as food is of global concern. Antimicrobials are used in animal agriculture to improve health and welfare of animals, meat quality, the economic efficiency of growth and production and public health by decreasing shedding of zoonotic pathogens. However, large quantities are often used without professional supervision. The growth-promotant (now reclassified as zootechnical feed additives) effect of low levels of antibiotics in animal feeds was first described in the late 1940s. Already in 1969 the Swann Committee recommended that use of antibiotics as a supplement in animal feedstuff should be restricted to those with little or no application as therapeutic agents for humans and animals, which would not impair the efficacy of therapeutic antibiotics through the development of resistant strains of organisms. Antimicrobials like avoparcin, ardacin, zinc bacitracin, virginiamycin, tylosin, spriramycin, carbadox and olaquindox were withdrawn within the period 1997-1999. Four others (monensin sodium, salinomycin sodium, avilamycin and flavophospholipol) were still permitted for use as growth promoters in animal feed to animals marketed in the European Union (EU). Since January 2006, they have been banned as well. This review focuses on the analytical methods developed to be an effective tool for monitoring compliance with the ban.

Samanidou VF; Evaggelopoulou EN

2008-06-01

47

High Incidence of Fusarium verticillioides in Animal and Poultry Feed Mixtures Produced in Karnataka, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the species incidence of genus Fusarium in animal and poultry feed mixtures and to know the extent of potential risk of feed contamination by Fusarium mycotoxins. One hundred and seven different animal feed samples and (71) poultry-feed mixtures were collected from Karnataka (India) during April 2004 to April 2005. All samples were analyzed for the incidence of Fusarium species on PDA, DCPA and MGA 2.5 media. A total frequency of the Fusarium species isolated was determined to be 50% and their counts ranged from 9.5x101 to 4.4x105 CFU g-1 of poultry feed and 5.728x101 to 2.088x105 CFU g-1 of animal feed sample. Of the total number of Fusarium isolates (330) from animal and poultry feedstuffs, F. verticillioides recorded 89.09%, followed by F. pallidoroseum (6.66%), F. oxysporum (3.63%) and F. solani (0.6%). The results of this study showed a high incidence of F. verticillioides in poultry feed mixtures while animal feeds especially cotton seeds, fine wheat bran and maize pellets showed high incidence of F. verticillioides. Bengal gram husk, coarse horse gram powder, groundnut seed cake, sunflower seed cake and wheat flakes showed very low incidence of F. verticillioides. The study not only reveals a high incidence of the potentially toxigenic F. verticillioides, in the local feeds of Karnataka region but also represents the possibility of occurrence of fusarial mycotoxins, especially fumonisins.

Regina Sharmila Dass; M.Y. Sreenivasa; G.R. Janardhana

2007-01-01

48

Antibiotics in animal feed and their role in resistance development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animals and humans constitute overlapping reservoirs of resistance, and consequently use of antimicrobials in animals can impact on public health. For example, the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in food-animals is associated with the use of avoparcin, a glycopeptide antibiotic used as a feed additive for the growth promotion of animals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci and vancomycin resistance determinants can therefore spread from animals to humans. The bans on avoparcin and other antibiotics as growth promoters in the EU have provided scientists with a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the withdrawal of a major antimicrobial selective pressure on the occurrence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The data shows that although the levels of resistance in animals and food, and consequently in humans, has been markedly reduced after the termination of use, the effects on animal health and productivity have been very minor.

Wegener, Henrik Caspar

2003-01-01

49

Occurrence of mycotoxins in feed samples in Burdur Province, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of total aflatoxin (AF), ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisin (FB) in dairy cattle, beef cattle, and lamb-calf feeds. A total of 180 dairy cattle, beef cattle, and lamb-calf feeds (60 samples each) were randomly collected from farms, feed mills, and villages in Burdur province, between September 2006 and August 2007. All samples were analyzed by the competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). The most frequent mycotoxin detected was total AF, which was found in 108 samples (60 %) in concentrations ranging from 3.82 to 116.83 ?g?kg(-1), followed by DON that was detected in 87 samples (48.3 %), in concentrations ranging from 18.50 to 500 ?g?kg(-1). Ochratoxin A (OTA), T-2 toxin, ZEA, and FB were found in 84 (46.7 %), 85 (47.2 %), 57 (31.7 %), and 19 (10.6 %) samples, respectively, in concentrations of 1.01 to 15.85 ?g?kg(-1) for OTA, 3.85 to 52.36 ?g?kg(-1) for T-2 toxin, 2.10 to 29.30 ?g?kg(-1) for ZEA, and 2.69 to 4.96 mg?kg(-1) for FB. It was concluded that feed samples in Burdur province were contaminated by mycotoxins, and the levels of total aflatoxin in the samples were considered a risk to animal health. PMID:23054279

Kocasari, Fatma Sahindokuyucu; Mor, Firdevs; Oguz, Mustafa Numan; Oguz, Fatma Karakas

2012-10-04

50

Spirulina as a livestock supplement and animal feed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and welfare. Its influence over animal development stems from its nutritive and protein-rich composition, thus leading to an increased commercial production to meet consumer demand. Consequently, Spirulina is emerging as a cost-effective means of improving animal productivity for a sustainable and viable food security future. However, our present knowledge of animal response to dietary Spirulina supplementation is relatively scanty and largely unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper was to review past and current findings on the utilisation of Spirulina as a feed supplement and its impact on animal productivity and health. Only animals deemed to be of agricultural significance were investigated; hence, only ruminants, poultry, swine and rabbits and their responses to dietary Spirulina supplementation are covered.

Holman BW; Malau-Aduli AE

2013-08-01

51

Livestock feed for domestic animals in and around Rokkasho, Aomori  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides that will be released from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, which is now under construction in Rokkasho Village. The consumption rate of livestock feed eaten by domestic animals is an important factor for the estimation of radioactive material transfer to the animals. We surveyed the amount of livestock feed in and around Rokkasho Village by means of questionnaires to stockbreeding farmers. The questionnaires were distributed to 90 farmers who kept one of five kinds of domestic animals or poultry; milking cattle, beef cattle, hogs, broilers and laying hens. Several farming companies were also included as subjects. Recovery of the questionnaires was 59%. The hogs, broilers and laying hens were fed compound feeds consisting of imported materials. The feed for milking cattle and beef cattle consisted of grass, field corn and other concentrates. The consumption rates of grass and field corn for dairy cattle were 22.5 kg-fresh d-1 and 8.3 kg-fresh d-1, respectively. The grass and field corn consumption rate for beef cattle were 2.8 kg-fresh d-1 and 0.3 kg-fresh d-1, respectively. All of these rates were lower than those used for dose assessment of the reprocessing plant. (author)

2004-01-01

52

Treatment of Animal Feeds with Ionizing Radiation. V: Petition and Clearance for Radicidized Poultry Feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience obtained in Israel regarding procedures for petitioning and granting clearance for irradiated food is briefly reviewed. The Israel Ministry of Health deliberated on the approach to be taken towards irradiated farm animal feed, since feed is normally dealt with under Ministry of Agriculture Plant Protection Division regulations. A similar situation existed in Canada, where the Feed and Fertilizer Section, Plant Products Division, granted clearance of radicidized poultry feed. However, since the meat of farm animals raised on radicidized feed is to be consumed by humans, and is thus included in the definition of food in the Public Health (Rules as to Food) Ordinance, the Ministry of Health finally decided that it would require a regular petition. The petition to clear irradiated poultry feed is described in detail. It is based on local studies as well as on the detailed material prepared by the Canadian authorities in their petition and the clearance. The petition was submitted in October 1972 and clearance was obtained in July 1973. The implementation of the legislative requirements in the forthcoming pilot scale test, aimed at radicidization of 300 tons of poultry feed, is considered in detail. (author)

1978-01-01

53

Animation of Sample Loop HPLC Injections  

Science.gov (United States)

This site deals specifically with sample loop injections in liquid chromatography. The animations are short (one to two minutes) and can easily be shown in class as part of a lecture. They are extremely helpful in illustrating key components and concepts of chromatographic systems. Users are encouraged to explore the site and the other brief animations as well. Separate links to other simulations by the same company (TRSL) are listed below.

2011-05-04

54

Multiclass method for antimicrobial analysis in animal feeds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rapid multiclass method that covers 50 antimicrobials from 13 different families in animal feeds was developed. Samples were extracted using a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and a McIlvaine buffer combined with sonication. Feed extracts were simply diluted prior to injection, since the clean-up strategies that were tested, based on either solid-phase extraction or dispersive solid-phase extraction, were ineffective at minimizing matrix-related signal suppression/enhancement. Analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source operating in positive and negative modes. For the quantification, matrix-fortified standard calibration curves were used to compensate for matrix effects and losses in sample preparation. The method was validated in-house in pig, poultry and cattle feed matrices and showed satisfactory performance characteristics. Thus, the proposed approach was suitable for application in a routine high-throughput laboratory for the official control of feeds.

Borràs S; Companyó R; Guiteras J; Bosch J; Medina M; Termes S

2013-08-01

55

Treatment of Animal Feeds with Ionizing Radiation: VI. Technological and Economic Feasibility of Poultry Feed Radicidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salmonella contamination of farm animals in Israel has increased significantly, particularly on poultry farms, and is causing severe losses and a high incidence of infected poultry products. EEC regulations regarding poultry meat require rejection of batches containing salmonella microorganisms. Feed flour is considered to be one of the principal sources of contamination and effective treatment of the feed is one of the most important steps in reducing flock contamination. The Israel authorities have passed a new regulation requiring breeders to buy only salmonella-free poultry feed. Salmonella-free poultry feed can be produced by pelletization or by treatment with ionizing radiation, using gamma or electron sources. From the view point of radicidation both types of radiation are equally effective. Both types of sources are suited to on-line treatment of products in feed mills, but each has its advantages and disadvantages in practice. Whereas gamma irradiation facilities will allow thick layers of product, they require considerable shielding and nearly continuous operation to be economically justifiable. The low energy electron accelerators allow treatment of flour only (pellets cannot be treated), but are easily adaptable to the fluctuating flow of products in a feed mill, at relatively low treatment cost. Breeders, contrary to broilers, require feed flour and not pellets. Hence electron irradiation would tend to yield a product more in compliance with the new regulation than pelletization, which requires crushing and which may leave Salmonella in the feed. The economic feasibility of an electron accelerator-based radicidation process in an existing feed mill is examined. (author)

1978-01-01

56

Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs.

Mitloehner FM; Calvo MS

2008-04-01

57

75 FR 7555 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bacitracin Zinc; Nicarbazin  

Science.gov (United States)

...Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bacitracin Zinc; Nicarbazin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc and nicarbazin to make two-way combination...200-478 for use of ALBAC 50 (bacitracin zinc) and NICARB (nicarbazin)...

2010-02-22

58

The microscopic detection of animal proteins in feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the framework of the European Union funded research project STRATFEED for detection and identification of animal proteins in feeds, the microscopic method was optimized at several key steps and better documented. A check list was developed for uniform reporting. Characters of bone fragments, hairs, muscles and gills are fully documented. A so-called muscle ratio has been developed for the identification of muscle fibers at the level of vertebrate classes (mammals, birds and fishes). Both the improved protocol and the entire range of characters which can be observed, are documented in a Decision Support System called ARIES (Animal Remains Identification and Evaluation System). A second internet-based system called STRATFEED-DSS exclusively assists in identification of animal particles in feeds. A new strategy with microscopy as screening technique and either DNA or protein identification as confirmation technique is proposed. The advantages of this combination are the extremely low level of false negatives, low detection limits and the heat-resistant nature of microscopic detection, together with the possibility of a very specific identification of particles by one of the other methods.

van Raamsdonk L. WD.; Vancutsem J.; Zegers J.; Frick G.; Jorgenson J-S.; Pinckaers V.; Bosch J.; Paradies-Severin I.

2004-01-01

59

Patented non-antibiotic agents as animal feed additives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For a long time it was a common practice to add subtherapeutic amounts of antibiotics, such as tetracycline, to the feeds of livestock to promote growth and improve productivity. When antibiotic resistance in foodborne human pathogens was reported, this practice was either banned or voluntarily abandoned in many countries. The task of controlling the intestinal microflora in food animals, in the absence of antibiotics, is two-fold. First, to modulate the composition and number of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract so that it is as favorable as possible to the health and productivity of the animal. Second, to reduce asymptomatic intestinal colonization by pathogenic bacteria in the animals to lower the possibility of foodborne transmission to humans. Unfortunately, the knowledge of what constitutes a healthy, balanced intestinal microflora is still incomplete. This makes the task of favorably changing its composition difficult. However, modulation by means of natural feed supplements has been successfully practised for a number of years, the most important being probiotics, prebiotics, bacteriocins, organic acids, enzymes, bioactive phytochemicals, antimicrobial peptides, lipids and bacteriophages. A number of patents and patent applications have been published recently describing new supplements of various types. Many new compounds can therefore be expected to enter the market in the near future.

Thormar H

2012-08-01

60

Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition. PMID:20842395

Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

2010-09-15

 
 
 
 
61

78 FR 52774 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Animal Feed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Animal Feed Network (Pet Event Tracking Network...Cooperation To Prevent Spread of Pet Food and Animal Feed Related Diseases AGENCY: Food and...paperwork burden to the public of the Animal Feed Network, which includes the...

2013-08-26

62

Trace elements in animal feed and animal tissues: a correlation study by neutron activation method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentrations of 12 trace elements have been determined in the Hindustan Lever rat and mice feed by neutron activation method without chemical separation, employing a 64 ccGe(Li) detector and a 4096 channel pulse height analyser. These concentrations are Fe (386 +- 43), Zn(19 +- 0.6), Cr(1.05 +- 0.34), Co(0.256 +- 0.005), Se(0.156 +- 0.027), Rb(3.16 +- 0.18), Sb(0.014 +- 0.008), Sc(0.410 +- 0.028), Hg(0.129 +- 0.053), Eu(0.165 +- 0.006), Cs(0.935 +- 0.067) and Hf(0.037 +- 0.011)..mu..g per g of dry weight. These concentrations have been compared with the concentrations of these elements in tissues of the rats kept on this feed. The concentrations of essential trace element, viz Fe, Zn, Co and Se in the feed and the rat tissues have been found to be comparable in magnitude. Cr, though an essential element, is found at a lower level in rat tissues, as compared to that in feed. The non-essential trace elements, namely Rb, Sb, Sc, Hg, Eu and Hf, detected in the animal feed, except Sb, are either totally absent or much lower in concentrations in the rat tissues. This indicates that non-essential trace elements are poorly absorbed by the animal systems compared to the essential trace elements.

Mangal, P.C.; Gulati, N. (Punjab Univ., Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Biophysics)

1981-05-01

63

Trace elements in animal feed and animal tissues: a correlation study by neutron activation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of 12 trace elements have been determined in the Hindustan Lever rat and mice feed by neutron activation method without chemical separation, employing a 64 ccGe(Li) detector and a 4096 channel pulse height analyser. These concentrations are Fe (386 +- 43), Zn(19 +- 0.6), Cr(1.05 +- 0.34), Co(0.256 +- 0.005), Se(0.156 +- 0.027), Rb(3.16 +- 0.18), Sb(0.014 +- 0.008), Sc(0.410 +- 0.028), Hg(0.129 +- 0.053), Eu(0.165 +- 0.006), Cs(0.935 +- 0.067) and Hf(0.037 +- 0.011)?g per g of dry weight. These concentrations have been compared with the concentrations of these elements in tissues of the rats kept on this feed. The concentrations of essential trace element, viz Fe, Zn, Co and Se in the feed and the rat tissues have been found to be comparable in magnitude. Cr, though an essential element, is found at a lower level in rat tissues, as compared to that in feed. The non-essential trace elements namely Rb, Sb, Sc, Hg, Eu and Hf, detected in the animal feed, except Sb, are either totally absent or much lower in concentrations in the rat tissues. This indicates that non-essential trace elements are poorly absorbed by the animal systems compared to the essential trace elements. (author)

1981-01-01

64

Community and environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High-density concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become an increasing source of concern with respect to their impact on health, the environment, and quality of life in the communities in which they are located. A growing body of literature has identified a number of potential adverse effects, including the development of antimicrobial resistance patterns, groundwater contamination, and occupational respiratory disease. The odor associated with CAFOs has had a detrimental effect on the quality of life of rural residents, and there may also be associated adverse health effects. Physicians in rural areas may be asked to assess patients with concerns related to neighboring CAFOs and may be drawn into a political battle regarding the authorization of the development of additional CAFOs. This article reviews current research on the community, environmental, and occupational health effects associated with high-density animal production facilities. It also discusses recommendations for evaluating patients affected by CAFO odors and steps to decrease occupational and community exposure.

Kirkhorn SR

2002-10-01

65

Fermented empty fruit bunch (FEFB) as feed for ruminant animal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5 - 1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

1998-01-01

66

Energy use in the animal-feeds industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel and electricity use in the animal feeds industry is discussed. Data were collected by postal survey and by detailed energy survey from plant records. Energy conservation measures are discussed. Large energy savings are unlikely in lucerne pellet production but significant savings in imported fuel oil could be made by conversion to coal or other indigenous fuels. When heat pump technology has improved it may be economically feasible to use a heat pump to recover heat from the dryer outlet air and use it to preheat the incoming air stream. Electricity savings are unlikely in feed mills but the boiler fuel consumption can by reduced by better situation of boilers and upgrading of steam reticulation systems. Energy consumption in dog biscuit factories can be reduced by similar methods to those suggested in the biscuit baking industry report, in particular conversion to direct gas heating (where available) and waste heat recovery for hot water production offer potential savings. Methods used to manufacture processed animal foods differ between factories and a general list of conservation measures could not be prepared. Useful savings are likely by reduced baseload boiler fuel consumption and waste heat recovery for hot water production.

Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

1980-05-01

67

Screening of mycotoxins in animal feed from the region of Vojvodina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows the results of screening of mycotoxins in animal feed originating from the region of Vojvodina. Permanent screening is needed on all levels of production and storage, as well as the use of known methods to reduce mould contamination or toxin content in feedstuffs and feed. A total of 56 representative samples were collected from feed companies from the region of Vojvodina. Samples were collected during February 2009. The collected samples included 41 samples of feedstuffs (soybean, soybean meal, soybean grits, soybean cake, maize, sunflower meal, barley, wheat feed flour, rapeseed meal, dehydrated sugar beet pulps, alfalfa meal, yeast, dried whey, fish meal, meat-bone meal) and 15 samples of complete feedingstuffs. The amounts of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol were determined. Screening method for the analysis was done using Neogen Veratox® testing kits. The test itself is a competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA). Mycotoxins were present in 71.4% of the samples, but the values determined were below the maximum allowed limits for both Serbian and EC reference values. Zearalenone was found with the highest incidence (57.1% of samples), followed by ochratoxin A (37.5%), fumonisin (33.9%), deoxynivalenol (14.3%) and aflatoxins (3.6%).

Koki? Bojana M.; ?abarkapa Ivana S.; Levi? Jovanka D.; Mandi? Anamarija I.; Mati? Jovana J.; Ivanov Dušica S.

2009-01-01

68

A PROCESS FOR PRODUCING A FEED ADDITIVE ADSORBING THE MYCOTOXIN IN THE ANIMAL FEED  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a process for preparing a feed additive that can adsorb the mycotoxin in the animal feed. Said Process comprises the following steps: 1) the mixture of montmorllonite and sodium chloride in a proportion of 1:0.1-0.2 is stirred after the addition of water to produce a slurry. The slurry is washed with water and re-slurried; 2) giantarum glucomannan is added to the slurry under high speed stirring. Then the stirring continues to let the reaction proceed. The slurry is aged and washed with water and then dehydrated; 3) The filter cake of the dehydration is dried and pulverized. Said additive can absorb mycotoxin of broad spectrum under the pH of a wide range.

XU Zirong; HU Caihong; XIA Meisheng; DENG Yuesong

69

Enumeration of probiotic pediococci in animal feed: interlaboratory study.  

Science.gov (United States)

An enumeration method to be used as official control under Council Directive 70/524/EEC for probiotic pediococci used as feed additives was validated for consideration for adoption as Comitée Européen de Normalisation (CEN) and ISO standards. Seventeen laboratories in 11 European countries carried out an interlaboratory study. A spread plate method following BS ISO 15214:1998 using 4 different agars [MRS, acidified MRS, MRS with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), and a newly developed pediococci selective medium (PSM)] was validated. Precision data in terms of repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) of the method for each medium using different feeding stuffs with a high and a low inoculation level were determined. Pediococci were present in the samples in mixtures with other probiotics. The enumeration of pediococci on all agars showed an RSDr value of 0.4-3.1% and an RSDR of 1.3-4.8%. MRS agar was preferred, followed by acidified MRS and MRS + TTC agar. All 4 media gave similar counts. Depending on the presence and concentration of other probiotic, such as enterococci, lactobacilli, and yeast, acidified MRS or MRS + TTC agar are recommended. The PSM was selective for pediococci and can be used if this species is present at a concentration more than 10-fold lower than other species that can grow on the MRS agars. The methodology with all 4 media is not applicable to mineral feed. PMID:14509440

Leuschner, Renata G K; Bew, Jan; Simpson, Paul J; Ross, Paul R; Stanton, Catherine

70

Enumeration of probiotic pediococci in animal feed: interlaboratory study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An enumeration method to be used as official control under Council Directive 70/524/EEC for probiotic pediococci used as feed additives was validated for consideration for adoption as Comitée Européen de Normalisation (CEN) and ISO standards. Seventeen laboratories in 11 European countries carried out an interlaboratory study. A spread plate method following BS ISO 15214:1998 using 4 different agars [MRS, acidified MRS, MRS with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), and a newly developed pediococci selective medium (PSM)] was validated. Precision data in terms of repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) of the method for each medium using different feeding stuffs with a high and a low inoculation level were determined. Pediococci were present in the samples in mixtures with other probiotics. The enumeration of pediococci on all agars showed an RSDr value of 0.4-3.1% and an RSDR of 1.3-4.8%. MRS agar was preferred, followed by acidified MRS and MRS + TTC agar. All 4 media gave similar counts. Depending on the presence and concentration of other probiotic, such as enterococci, lactobacilli, and yeast, acidified MRS or MRS + TTC agar are recommended. The PSM was selective for pediococci and can be used if this species is present at a concentration more than 10-fold lower than other species that can grow on the MRS agars. The methodology with all 4 media is not applicable to mineral feed.

Leuschner RG; Bew J; Simpson PJ; Ross PR; Stanton C

2003-07-01

71

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author)

1994-01-01

72

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author).

Kume, Tamikazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

1994-01-01

73

Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs.

Heederik D; Sigsgaard T; Thorne PS; Kline JN; Avery R; Bønløkke JH; Chrischilles EA; Dosman JA; Duchaine C; Kirkhorn SR; Kulhankova K; Merchant JA

2007-02-01

74

2nd animal experiment to determine radioactivity in milk and meat (winter feed)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] High levels of the cesium isotopes 137 and 134, which were released by the Chernobyl reactor accident, are above all present in southern Germany in feeds for the winter of 1986/87. There are two possible pathways of how the fodder was contaminated: by deposition of radioactive material on the exposed parts of the plant and by uptake of radioactive material from the soil via the roots. The following questions were to be elucidated by the experiment: 1. Appraisal of the probable radioactive contamination of milk and meat, given the exclusive use of stored fodder from the first growth; 2. Determination of transfer factors and transfer rates for milk and meat; 3. Determination of the variation range for animal reactions to the use of contaminated fodder; 4. Drawing up of recommendations for feeding. For this purpose, eight cows were divided into two groups. One group fed on hay from the first growth as a sole basic feed, the other on silage fodder consisting of a mixture of hay and grass from the first growth (mixing ratio 40 to 60). The animals were fed individually, the feed being offered twice a day. The following parameters were recorded: quantity of milk (daily in kilogrammes), quantity of cesium in milk (every second day, Bq/kilogramme), silage grass fodder (10 samples, Bq/kilogramme), hay (10 samples and one control each week during the experiment, Bq/kilogramme), meat (from one cow out of each group, Bq/kilogramme). (orig./MG)

1986-01-01

75

Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON) is typically found in more than 50% of the samples) and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i) most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii) commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii) completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins  and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.

Elisabeth Streit; Gerd Schatzmayr; Panagiotis Tassis; Eleni Tzika; Daniela Marin; Ionelia Taranu; Cristina Tabuc; Anca Nicolau; Iuliana Aprodu; Olivier Puel; Isabelle P. Oswald

2012-01-01

76

Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable (more) on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Vidal, Luiz Vítor Oliveira; Furuya, Wilson Massamitu; Martins, Elias Nunes; Xavier, Tadeu Orlandi; Michelato, Mariana; Graciano, Themis Sakaguti

2012-06-01

77

Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Elias Nunes Martins; Tadeu Orlandi Xavier; Mariana Michelato; Themis Sakaguti Graciano

2012-01-01

78

Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals (MBM) were used, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model is described below and cannot estimate digestible energy (DE) of animal origin: . The path coefficients were medium or low, the highest direct effect was from gross energy (0.529), while the highest indirect effect was from crude protein, through gross energy (0.439).

Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Elias Nunes Martins; Tadeu Orlandi Xavier; Mariana Michelato; Thêmis Sakaguti Graciano

2012-01-01

79

Method for modulating animal digestive tract microbiota and feed composition comprising bark extract  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a method for modulating animal digestive tract microbiota wherein the modulating comprises adding an extract of birch bark to animal feed. The invention further relates to a feed composition comprising a birch bark extract for enhancement of animal performance and gastrointestinal health.

HERRANEN KAISA; PIETARINEN SUVI; LUUKKO KARI; HOTANEN ULF; LAURAEUS MARKO; APAJALAHTI JUHA; VUORENMAA JUHANI

80

Traceability of processed animal proteins with varying texture in feed: determination with microscopic and polymerase Chain Reaction methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To test the traceability of different animal components that could enter the feed chain two methods for the determination of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed ? classical microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-analysis ? were applied in the following study. To determine PAPs of varying but defined structure different animal meals were produced artificially and analysed after spiking to a set of 13 compound feed samples. The aims of the study were (i) to compare the capacity and the limits of both methods with respect to the determination of animal constituents of varying composition, (ii) to verify a correct interpretation of the results from each method and (iii) to determine an optimum application area for each method. Both methods complemented each other. The microscopic approach allowed a reproducible, high sensitive and quantitative determination of animal ingredients with morphological detectable structures, and in the presence of bone fragments a d i fferentiation between fish and terrestrial animals was possible simultaneously. The PCR-analysis provided the detection of animal ingredients in feed even in absence of visible structures but fishmeal was not detected in a sufficient manner by the chosen screening setup. However, the PCR-method enabled to differentiate between animal groups or species and to identify animal species. The methods complemented each other not only in the analytical features but also regarding the results produced by the detection of two different analytical targets of PAPs, morphological structures and gene sequences, r e s p e c t i v e l y. Suitable data regarding the presence of their analytical targets were produced by each method, but a combination of both methods enabled furthermore to report correct results regarding the presence of the artificially composed PAPs in the feed samples. It was concluded that a combination of microscopy and PCR-analysis is reasonable for special application purposes to determine PAPs in feed: while microscopy provides reliable results also in highly processed feed with wellpreserved morphological animal structures even with highly degraded genomic material, PCR provides applicable results in feed samples with preserved genomic animal material even after the separation of morphological structures. These specialties have to be considered for the choice of capable analytical methods and even for a correct evaluation of the results obtained from these methods in highly processed feed. An interpretation scheme based on the results of the study was proposed.

Hormisch D.E.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In our laboratory, we had studied disinfection of animal feeds by radiation, and these results contributed to commercial use of sterilisation on laboratory animal diets. We also studied radiation-disinfection of putrefactive moulds on corn and milo. On the basis of these studies, we investigated radiation disinfection of farm animal feeds. In this paper we present the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals on the market, and effect of radiation-inactivation of microorganisms.

Ito, H.; Kume, T.; Takehisa, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Iizuka, H. (Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

1981-01-01

82

Co-Occurrence of Moulds and Mycotoxins in Corn Grains Used for Animal Feeds in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available About 80 corn grain samples used for animal feeds were collected from 10 states in Malaysia in order to determine the mycobiota using agar plate assay and mycotoxins (Aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins) by ELISA. Aspergillus flavus (87%), A. niger (83%), F. verticillioides (47%), F. graminearum (43%), F. proliferatum (42%), F. equisieti (30%) and Penicillium sp. (5%) were the prevalent fungi in all corn samples. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) could be detected in 65 (81.2%) corn samples ranging from 1.0-135 g kg-1. The 18 (22.5%) samples, out of 80 had exceeded AFB1 above the international regulatory limits of animal feeds (>20 g kg-1) ranging from 20.6-135 g kg-1. Fumonisins were detected in all the corn samples (100%) ranging from 261-2.420 g kg-1. Although, only 80 samples were analyzed, they were randomly collected from 10 states in Malaysia. Since there is a lack of information from Malaysia and such data are valuable.

K.R.N. Reddy; B. Salleh

2011-01-01

83

Studying the elimination of pathogenic agents in laboratory animals feed by use of nuclear technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory animals are being used all around the world for different kinds of experiments in biological and medical sciences and related fields for the purposes such as prevention, control, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases in livestock, poultry, human, reproduction, breeding, etc. This is very important to keep in the breeding and reproduction environment of laboratory animals, pathogenic microorganisms as low as possible or completely remove them. The most prevailing and important way of such contamination is through feeding laboratory animals. In this research work, it is tried to use gamma radiation as a useful nuclear technique for decrease or resolve the problem. Two kinds of standard forms of diets consumed by rabbit and guinea pig in the form of small pellets and by mouse, rat and hamster in the form of big pellets (with different feed formula) and also two kinds of additive food i.e. dry milk and vitamin C have been examined. Un-irradiated samples have been used for control. Total of 226 samples were irradiated, among which optimum doses were found 25 kilo Gray for both small and big pellets, 18 kilo Gray for dry milk. Since there was not any contamination in vitamin C un-irradiated sample, irradiation was done only to observe the effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C compounds. (Author)

2002-01-01

84

Complaints associated with animal feeding facilities as reported to Ohio local health departments, 2006-2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Confined animal feeding facilities of all sizes have long been targeted as a source of human health and quality of life concerns. In order to describe and quantify these concerns in Ohio, a retrospective survey of local health departments was conducted focusing on reported complaints associated with animal feeding facilities. During 2006-2008, the most common complaints pertaining to any type of animal feeding facility were air quality and odor outside the home, followed by manure storage and application issues. The study described here showed that larger permitted livestock feeding facilities were not a major source of health and nuisance complaints associated with animal feeding facilities as reported to Ohio local health departments. Local health departments received few health complaints associated with any animal feeding facility. None were validated or confirmed by a physician in 2008.

Morrow SM; O'Quin J; Hoet AE; Wilkins JR 3rd; DeGraves F; Smith KA

2013-05-01

85

Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:23915993

Davies, R H; Wales, A D

2013-07-12

86

Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals.

Davies RH; Wales AD

2013-10-01

87

Reuse of concentrated animal feeding operation wastewater on agricultural lands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. When applied to land at agronomic rates, CAFO wastewater has the potential to be a valuable fertilizer and soil amendment that can improve the physical condition of the soil for plant growth and reduce the demand for high quality water resources. However, excess amounts of nutrients, heavy metals, salts, pathogenic microorganisms, and pharmaceutically active compounds (antibiotics and hormones) in CAFO wastewater can adversely impact soil and water quality. The USEPA currently requires that application of CAFO wastes to agricultural lands follow an approved nutrient management plan (NMP). A NMP is a design document that sets rates for waste application to meet the water and nutrient requirements of the selected crops and soil types, and is typically written so as to be protective of surface water resources. The tacit assumption is that a well-designed and executed NMP ensures that all lagoon water contaminants are taken up or degraded in the root zone, so that ground water is inherently protected. The validity of this assumption for all lagoon water contaminants has not yet been thoroughly studied. This review paper discusses our current level of understanding on the environmental impact and sustainability of CAFO wastewater reuse. Specifically, we address the source, composition, application practices, environmental issues, transport pathways, and potential treatments that are associated with the reuse of CAFO wastewater on agricultural lands.

Bradford SA; Segal E; Zheng W; Wang Q; Hutchins SR

2008-09-01

88

Governmental oversight of discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As point sources of pollution in the United States, concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are subject to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permitting system requirements. Changes to federal regulations in 2003 and a 2005 court decision have increased the governmental oversight of CAFOs. Manure application to fields from "large CAFOs" that results in unpermitted discharges can be regulated under the Clean Water Act. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's interpretation of agricultural stormwater discharges was approved so that unpermitted discharges may arise if an owner or operator of a CAFO fails to apply manure correctly. Owners and operators do not, however, have a duty to secure governmental permits in the absence of a discharge. Turning to the federal provisions regarding nutrient management plans, a court found that they were deficient. Moreover, the federal government needs to reconsider requirements that would reduce pathogens from entering surface waters. Although these developments should assist in reducing the impairment of U.S. waters, concern still exists. Greater oversight of nutrient management plans and enhanced enforcement efforts offer opportunities to provide greater assurance that CAFO owners and operators will not allow a discharge of pollutants to enter surface waters.

Centner TJ

2006-06-01

89

Supercritical fluid extraction method development for extraction of an experimental HIV protease inhibitor drug from animal feed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was evaluated as a sample preparation procedure for the recovery of experimental drugs from animal feed preparations that are generated during long-term toxicology studies. A commercially available supercritical fluid extractor was utilized to develop and validate an off-line procedure for the recovery of an experimental HIV protease inhibitor drug from animal feed. Extracts were analyzed with a conventional reversed-phase HPLC method. Elements of the SFE method developed that are described include optimization of the system temperature and selection of the extraction media modifier. The study emphasized the performance of two-day precision and accuracy studies. Precision and accuracy studies were carried out with SC-52151 levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 1.0% (w/w) and used an internal standard quantitation format. Also, the study utilized a relatively large analytical scale extraction vessel size of 10 ml to accomodate 6 g animal feed samples.

Roston DA; Sun JJ

1997-01-01

90

Determination of aflatoxins B1 and M1 in animal feeds and liquid milk using thin layer chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal feed samples were collected from feeding troughs and analysed for levels of aflatoxins B1, a toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. When aflatoxin B1 is consumed by dairy cattle some of it is hydroxylated to form aflatoxin M1, which can appear in milk. Since aflatoxin M1, is also toxic and carcinogenic, it was determined in liquid milk. The determinations were carried out using thin-layer chromatography. Some of the feed samples were found to contain concentrations of aflatoxin B1 that were above maximum tolerated values in foods and feeds in various countries. Brewers grain and used poultry feed contained 133.4 ppb, while the barley husks had a maximum value of 27.4 ppb. The details of the experimental results and analytical methods used are presented.(author)

1996-01-01

91

Do lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations promote nitrous oxide supersaturation?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal wastewater lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent the latest tendency in global animal farming, severely impacting the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions, including nitrous oxide (N2O). We hypothesized that lagoon wastewater could be supersaturated with N2O as part of incomplete microbial nitrification/denitrification processes, thereby regulating the N2O partitioning in the gaseous phase. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the magnitude of dissolved N2O concentrations in the lagoon; and (ii) to determine the extent to which supersaturation of N2O occurs in wastewater lagoons. Dissolved N2O concentrations in the wastewater samples were high, ranging from 0.4 to 40.5 ?g N2O mL-1. Calculated dissolved N2O concentrations from the experimentally measured partition coefficients were much greater than those typically expected in aquatic systems (2O mL-1). Knowledge of the factors controlling the magnitude of N2O supersaturation could potentially bridge mass balance differences between in situ measurements and global N2O models. - Supersaturation of nitrous oxide may occur in lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations.

2009-01-01

92

Feeding strategies for improving milk production from milch animals owned by small farmers in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last decade the National Dairy Development Board of India has researched and developed feeding strategies for lactating cattle and buffaloes fed on basal forage diets. Depending on the season and climate, these diets are largely mature forage from tropical pastures or crop residues, which are generally low in protein and of relatively low digestibility. Supplementation of the rumen microbial ecosystem with essential nutrients by providing each animal with a urea/molasses block stimulates production by improving feed digestibility, intake and the balance of nutrients available from the feed. Supplementation with a bypass protein to supply the animal directly with additional amino acids stimulates the efficiency of feed utilization by reducing the heat increment of feeding. In hot environments this reduces heat stress and allows feed intake to be maintained. These feeding strategies are now being applied to a large number of milch animals in the herds of small farmers in India. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

1990-01-01

93

21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trace minerals added to animal feeds. 582.80 Section 582...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.80 Trace minerals added to animal feeds. These substances...

2010-04-01

94

Sampling feed for mycotoxins: acquiring knowledge from food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence and control of mycotoxins in feed and food are items of great interest to researchers, producers, manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In order to implement knowledge of control measures for mycotoxins in the entire food production chain, coordinated inspection programmes aimed to check the presence and concentration of mycotoxins in feedingstuffs are recommended by the Commission of the European Communities. Reliability of measured levels of mycotoxins in feed and food is greatly affected by the collection of representative samples. Because of the heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins, the variability associated with a mycotoxin test procedure usually depends heavily on the sampling plan. European legislation dealing with sampling plans for mycotoxins in foodstuffs has been recently revised. The aim of the following overview is to discuss the role of sampling in mycotoxin-contaminated feed by considering the evolution of legislation dealing with sampling plans for food. A sampling procedure is a multistage process and consists of three distinct phases: sampling, sample preparation and analysis. The variability associated with each step of a sampling procedure and the aspects related to feedstuffs, matrix/ mycotoxin combination and level of contamination are discussed.

Federica Cheli; Anna Campagnoli; Luciano Pinotti; Eleonora Fusi; Vittorio Dell'Orto

2010-01-01

95

Transmission of Aflatoxins from Animal Feeds to Raw and Pasteurized Milk in Shiraz City and its Suburbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: There are a lot of fungi in the air and our environment that grow and reproduce if the temperature and humidity are suitable. Aspergillus flavus and parasilicus are among the most important food contaminants which have a role in food poisoning. These fungi secrete poisons which contaminate animal feed as well as the milk we get from the animals fed with these foods. Methods: In this study, a total of 428 samples of raw, pasteurized milk and animal feeds were examined in different seasons of the year using ELISA or TLC method. Results: The results revealed that in 43.36% of the animal feed samples, the contamination level was above the permissible level of aflatoxin B1 (20ppb). In 38.03% of raw and 14.42% of pasteurized milk samples, the contamination level was above the permissible level (0.5 ppb). It was also found out that the contamination level was higher in summer and autumn than that in winter and spring. This could be due to higher humidity in autumn and higher temperature in summer. This study also showed that the percentage of contamination in corn was higher. A high percentage of contamination was also found in recycled bread in the samples of AL. The contamination level was low in Fal. Fa, bran and straw samples. Conclusion: Based on these findings, there seems to be a pressing need for controlling aflatoxin contamination in animal feeds and prevention of the use of contaminated animal feeds such as corn and recycled bread. Also rotten analysis of milk and its products is necessary to be performed periodically for detection of aflatoxin contamination.

A Ersali; F Baho-Aldini Baigi; R Ghasemi

2009-01-01

96

Avian-specific real-time PCR assay for authenticity control in farm animal feeds and pet foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was developed for detection of an avian-specific DNA fragment (68bp) in farm animal and pet feeds. The specificity of the assay was verified against a wide representation of animal and plant species. Applicability assessment of the avian real-time PCR was conducted through representative analysis of two types of compound feeds: industrial farm animal feeds (n=60) subjected to extreme temperatures, and commercial dog and cat feeds (n=210). Results obtained demonstrated the suitability of the real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of low percentages of highly processed avian material in the feed samples analysed. Although quantification results were well reproducible under the experimental conditions tested, an accurate estimation of the target content in feeds is impossible in practice. Nevertheless, the method may be useful as an alternative tool for traceability purposes within the framework of feed control. PMID:24001810

Pegels, Nicolette; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

2013-07-15

97

Avian-specific real-time PCR assay for authenticity control in farm animal feeds and pet foods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was developed for detection of an avian-specific DNA fragment (68bp) in farm animal and pet feeds. The specificity of the assay was verified against a wide representation of animal and plant species. Applicability assessment of the avian real-time PCR was conducted through representative analysis of two types of compound feeds: industrial farm animal feeds (n=60) subjected to extreme temperatures, and commercial dog and cat feeds (n=210). Results obtained demonstrated the suitability of the real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of low percentages of highly processed avian material in the feed samples analysed. Although quantification results were well reproducible under the experimental conditions tested, an accurate estimation of the target content in feeds is impossible in practice. Nevertheless, the method may be useful as an alternative tool for traceability purposes within the framework of feed control.

Pegels N; González I; García T; Martín R

2014-01-01

98

Animal Waste and Water Quality: EPA Regulation of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs)  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the release of waste from animal feedlots to surface water, groundwater, soil, and air is associated with a range of human health and ecological impacts and contributes to degradation of the nation s surface waters. The most dramatic ecological impacts are massive fish kills. A variety of pollutants in animal waste can affect human health, including causing infections of the skin, eye, ear, nose, and throat. Contaminants from manure can also affect human health by polluting drinking water sources. Although agricultural activities are generally not subject to requirements of environmental law, discharges of waste from large concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the nation s waters are regulated under the Clean Water Act. In the late 1990s, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a review of the Clean Water Act rules that govern these discharges, which had not been revised since the 1970s, despite structural and technological changes in some components of the animal agriculture industry that have occurred during the last two decades. A proposal to revise the existing rules was released by the Clinton Administration in December 2000. The Bush Administration promulgated final revised regulations in December 2002; the rules took effect in February 2003. The final rules were generally viewed as less stringent than the proposal, a fact that strongly influenced how interest groups have responded to them. Agriculture groups said that the final rules were workable, and they were pleased that some of the proposed requirements were scaled back, such as changes that would have made thousands more CAFOs subject to regulation. However, some continue to question EPA s authority to issue portions of the rules. Many states had been seeking more flexible approaches than EPA had proposed and welcomed the fact that the final rules retain the status quo to a large extent.

2007-01-01

99

ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: BROILER LITTER FEEDING TRIALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of broiler litter as a feedstuff was evaluated on the basis of results of feeding trials reported in the literature. Although the method of preparing or processing the broiler litter as a feed constituent (drying, composting or ensiling) influences its value, this assessm...

100

Sampling animal movement paths causes turn autocorrelation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Animal movement models allow ecologists to study processes that operate over a wide range of scales. In order to study them, continuous movements of animals are translated into discrete data points, and then modelled as discrete models. This discretization can bias the representation of the movement path. This paper shows that discretizing correlated random movement paths creates a biased path by creating correlations between successive turning angles. The discretization also biases statistical tests for correlated random walks (CRW) and causes an overestimate in distances travelled; a correction is given for these biases. This effect suggests that there is a natural scale to CRWs, but that distance-discretized CRWs are in a sense, scale invariant. Perhaps a new null model for continuous movement paths is needed. Authors need to be aware of the biases caused by discretizing correlated random walks, and deal with them appropriately.

Nams VO

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed : Animal Feed Contamination: Effects on Livestock and Food Safety  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary products such as peels, pulpettes, molasses, whey, mask, oil cakes, etc. Contamination of by-products and possible impacts are presented.

Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja

2012-01-01

102

Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible changes in the level of natural constituents beyond normal variation, and on the characteristics of the GM food and feed, and (ii) the possible occurrence of unintended (unexpected) effects in GM plants due to genetic modification. In order to identify these effects a comparative phenotypic and molecular analysis of the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart is carried out, in parallel with a targeted analysis of single specific compounds, which represent important metabolic pathways in the plant like macro and micro nutrients, known anti-nutrients and toxins. Significant differences may be indicative of the occurrence of unintended effects, which require further investigation. Section 2 provides an overview of studies performed for the safety and nutritional assessment of whole food and feed. Extensive experience has been built up in recent decades from the safety and nutritional testing in animals of irradiated foods, novel foods and fruit and vegetables. These approaches are also relevant for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. Many feeding trials have been reported in which GM foods like maize, potatoes, rice, soybeans and tomatoes have been fed to rats or mice for prolonged periods, and parameters such as body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, organ weights, histopathology etc have been measured. The food and feed under investigation were derived from GM plants with improved agronomic characteristics like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. The majority of these experiments did not indicate clinical effects or histopathological abnormalities in organs or tissues of exposed animals. In some cases adverse effects were noted, which were difficult to interpret due to shortcomings in the studies. Many studies have also been carried out with feed derived from GM plants with agronomic input traits in target animal species to assess the nutritive value of the feed and their performance potential. Studies in sheep, pigs, broilers, lactating dairy cows, and fish, comparing the in vivo bioavailability of nutrients fro

2008-03-01

103

Phytic phosphorus and phytase activity of animal Feed Ingredients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Para determinar o fósforo total e fítico e, a atividade da fitase endógena de grãos de cereais e oleaginosas e seus subprodutos, avaliaram-se ingredientes alimentícios que se utilizam na produção animal nos trópicos. Estes foram; milho amarelo, sorgo, trigo duro e farelo de arroz; dos subprodutos de cereais, a farinha de gérmen e farelo de milho desengordurado grosso e fino, farelo de trigo e polidura de arroz; das oleaginosas e subprodutos, a semente e farinha d (more) e algodão, e as farinhas de soja, palmiste e coco. O ácido fítico determinou-se, em cinco amostras, mediante um método colorimétrico e a atividade fitásica por um procedimento enzimático colorimétrico. Além disso, determinou-se, por métodos convencionais, a composição química e mineral dos materiais avaliados. O conteúdo (%) de proteína crua, extrato etéreo, cinzas e composição mineral foi similar aos valores resenhados nas tabelas de composição de alimentos de diferentes países. Os grãos de cereais e subprodutos apresentaram concentrações de fósforo total variando de 0,12 a 1,57%. Nos grãos de oleaginosas e seus subprodutos a concentração de fósforo total variou de 0,43 a 1,34%. A concentração de fósforo fítico (%) em cereais e oleaginosas variou de 0,08 a 0,49 e, para os subprodutos, de 0,24 a 1.13%. As equações de regressão entre o fósforo total e fítico foram positivas e significativas nos cereais e subprodutos e nas oleaginosas e subprodutos. As correlações foram significativas entre fósforo fítico e conteúdo de magnésio, potássio e cálcio, nos cereais e seus subprodutos. A atividade fitásica (U/kg) foi significativamente mais elevada para o trigo (1.565). O arroz, o farelo de trigo e a polidura de arroz, apresentaram atividades maiores de 100 U/kg. Os grãos e subprodutos restantes se consideram como materiais sem atividade fitásica. Abstract in spanish Para determinar fósforo total y fítico, y la actividad de fitasas endógenas de granos de cereales y oleaginosas y sus subproductos, se evaluaron ingredientes alimenticios utilizados en la producción animal en los trópicos. Los cereales y sus subproductos fueron maíz amarillo, sorgo, trigo duro, tercerilla de arroz, harina de germen y afrecho de maíz desgrasado grueso y fino, afrecho de trigo y pulitura de arroz. Las oleaginosas y sus subproductos fueron semilla y h (more) arina de algodón, y harinas de soya, palmiste y coco. El ácido fítico se determinó mediante un método colorimétrico y la actividad fitásica por un procedimiento enzimático-colorimétrico. Además se determinó, por métodos convencionales, la composición química y mineral de los materiales evaluados. El contenido (%) de proteína cruda, extracto etéreo, cenizas y composición mineral fue similar a los valores de las tablas de composición de alimentos. La concentración de P total estuvo entre 0,12 y 1,57% en granos de cereales y sus subproductos, y entre 0,43 y 1,34% en granos de oleaginosas y sus subproductos. La concentración de P fítico en cereales y oleaginosas varió entre 0,08 y 0,49% y en sus subproductos entre 0,24 y 1,13%. Las ecuaciones de regresión entre P total y fítico fueron positivas y significativas en los cereales y subproductos, y en las oleaginosas y subproductos. Las correlaciones fueron significativas entre P fítico y contenido de Mg, K y Ca en los cereales y subproductos. La actividad fitásica (U/kg) fue significativamente mayor para el trigo (1565). Arroz, afrecho de trigo y pulitura de arroz presentaron actividades >100U/kg. Los restantes granos y subproductos se consideran como materiales sin actividad fitásica. Abstract in english To determine total and phytic phosphorus and endogenous phytase activity in cereals, oilseeds and by-products, feed ingredients used in animal production in the tropics were evaluated. The cereals and by-products were yellow corn, sorghum, hard wheat, broken rice, wheat bran, fine and gross defatted corn germ and bran, and rice polishing; the oilseeds and b

Godoy, Susmira; Chicco, Claudio; Meschy, François; Requena, Fanny

2005-01-01

104

Feeding live prey to zoo animals: response of zoo visitors in Switzerland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In summer 2007, with the help of a written questionnaire, the attitudes of more than 400 visitors to the zoological garden of Zurich, Switzerland, toward the idea of feeding live insects to lizards, live fish to otters, and live rabbits to tigers were investigated. The majority of Swiss zoo visitors agreed with the idea of feeding live prey (invertebrates and vertebrates) to zoo animals, both off- and on-exhibit, except in the case of feeding live rabbits to tigers on-exhibit. Women and frequent visitors of the zoo disagreed more often with the on-exhibit feeding of live rabbits to tigers. Study participants with a higher level of education were more likely to agree with the idea of feeding live invertebrates and vertebrates to zoo animals off-exhibit. In comparison to an earlier study undertaken in Scotland, zoo visitors in Switzerland were more often in favor of the live feeding of vertebrates. Feeding live prey can counter the loss of hunting skills of carnivores and improve the animals' well-being. However, feeding enrichments have to strike a balance between optimal living conditions of animals and the quality of visitor experience. Our results show that such a balance can be found, especially when live feeding of mammals is carried out off-exhibit. A good interpretation of food enrichment might help zoos to win more support for the issue, and for re-introduction programs and conservation.

Cottle L; Tamir D; Hyseni M; Bühler D; Lindemann-Matthies P

2010-05-01

105

Ambient odour testing of concentrated animal feeding operations using field and laboratory olfactometers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Missouri Air Conservation Commission regulations include regulations that limit the amount of acceptable odor from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The regulations concerning odor designate the use of a scentometer as a screening tool. The rules dictate that if an odor is detectable by an investigator at a dilution ratio of 5.4 using a scentometer then an air sample should be collected and sent to an olfactometry laboratory for an odor panel to determine the detection threshold and the intensity of the odor sample. The detection thresholds are determined following ASTM E679-91 and EN13725. The intensity is determined following ASTM E544-99. If the olfactometry laboratory determined the detection threshold of the sample to be above seven, then the CAFO would be in violation. If the olfactometry laboratory determined the intensity level to be above a level equivalent to 225 ppm of n-butanol, then the source of odor would be in violation. The CAFO odor rules came under scrutiny by representatives of the largest hog producer in the State of Missouri. Specifically, they argued that the detection threshold limit of seven in the CAFO portion of the rule was too low for the rule to realistically identify a violation. This paper presents the results of a study to find the appropriate regulatory level of odor as determined by laboratory olfactometry. The study took place from November 2001 to October 2002. Samples were collected from field locations that exhibited odor produced by confined animal feeding operations and from areas exhibiting no apparent odor. The odors were categorized based upon the scentometer level at which the odors were detectable, and then samples were sent to an odor evaluation laboratory for analysis by olfactometry.

Newby BD; McGinley MA

2004-01-01

106

The effect of animal feed from irradiated palm oil sludge on antibody forming of mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this experiment, 3 kinds of animal feed were, e.q. control (commercial product), non irradiated and irradiated palm oil sludge by using 60Co source with a 4 kGy dose. BALB-C mice of 3 months old were used, each group contains 5 animals. Before conducting the experiment the animals were injected with antibiotic to free them from Enterobacteriaceae. The animals were observed every 2 weeks by weighting them, blood were analyzed and after 10 weeks their antibody were analyzed. Animal feed were in the form of pellets and each animal was feed 5 g of pellets. The results were as follows, antibody formed by C (control), N (non irradiated sludge) and, R (irradiated sludge) were 37; 36.5; and 36.2 mg/nl, respectively. Apparently pellets which were made of palm oil sludge and commercial product produced not significantly different level of antibody. (author)

1998-01-01

107

ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: CATTLE MANURE FEEDING TRIALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilization of 'as-collected' and processed beef cattle and dairy cow manure, manure screenings and anaerobically digested cattle manures was evaluated on the basis of the results of feeding trials reported in the literature. The maximum level of incorporating these manures i...

108

Monitoring and modeling of emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations: overview of methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accurate monitors are required to determine ambient concentration levels of contaminants emanating from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), and accurate models are required to indicate the spatial variability of concentrations over regions affected by CAFOs. A thorough understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of concentration levels could then be associated with locations of healthy individuals or subjects with respiratory ailments to statistically link the presence of CAFOs to the prevalence of ill health effects in local populations. This workgroup report, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, describes instrumentation currently available for assessing contaminant concentration levels in the vicinity of CAFOs and reviews plume dispersion models that may be used to estimate concentration levels spatially. Recommendations for further research with respect to ambient air monitoring include accurately determining long-term average concentrations for a region under the influence of CAFO emissions using a combination of instruments based on accuracy, cost, and sampling duration. In addition, development of instruments capable of accurately quantifying adsorbed gases and volatile organic compounds is needed. Further research with respect to plume dispersion models includes identifying and validating the most applicable model for use in predicting downwind concentrations from CAFOs. Additional data are needed to obtain reliable emission rates from CAFOs.

Bunton B; O'shaughnessy P; Fitzsimmons S; Gering J; Hoff S; Lyngbye M; Thorne PS; Wasson J; Werner M

2007-02-01

109

78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms  

Science.gov (United States)

...and found upon examination to be contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms: Bone meal, blood meal, crab meal, feather meal, fish meal, fish solubles, meat scraps, poultry meat meal, tankage, or other similar animal byproducts, or...

2013-07-16

110

[Relevance of mycotoxin contaminated feed for farm animals and carryover of mycotoxins to food of animal origin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Contaminated feed is the main source for mycotoxin infestation of farm animals. The oral intake of fungal metabolites with feed results in a negative impact on all relevant parameters of animal production. Moreover, under experimental conditions mycotoxins and/or their metabolites can be traced in meat, edible tissues, milk and eggs. However due to the high concentrations of toxins involved, such findings are rare in the daily practice. In Germany today only aflatoxins (aflatoxin M1 in milk) and ochratoxin A (in blood, meat and edible tissues from swine) are of practical relevance from the view of food hygiene and food safety. Other mycotoxins at present discussed like toxins of Fusaria (trichothecenes, zearaleone, fumonisins) and ergot alkaloids are of no importance as possible contaminants in food from animal origin although they could have a negative impact on animal production. PMID:11098632

Gareis, M; Wolff, J

2000-01-01

111

Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003) have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole) have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997)...

A. Priolo; A. Cornu; M. Krogmann; N. Kondjoyan; D. Micol; J.L. Berdagué; M. Lanza

2011-01-01

112

A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction approach for estimating processed animal proteins in feed: preliminary data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lifting of the ban on the use of processed animal proteins (PAPs) from non-ruminants in non-ruminant feed is in the wind, avoiding intraspecies recycling. Discrimination of species will be performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is at a moment a merely qualitative method. Nevertheless, quantification of PAPs in feed is needed. The aim of this study was to approach the quantitative determination of PAPs in feed through Real Time (RT)-PCR technique; three different protocols picked up from the literature were tested. Three different kind of matrices were examined: pure animal meals (bovine, chicken and pork); one feed sample certified by the European reference laboratory on animal proteins (EURL AP) in feed spiked with 0.1% bovine meal; and genomic DNAs from bovine, chicken and pork muscles. The limit of detection (LOD) of the three protocols was set up. All the results obtained from the three protocols considered failed in the quantification process, most likely due to the uncertain copy numbers of the analytical targets chosen. This preliminary study will allow us to address further investigations, with the purpose of developing a RT-PCR quantitative method.

Daniela Marchis; Alessandro Benedetto; Giuseppina Amato; Beatrice Brusa; Stefania Squadrone; Maria Cesarina Abete

2013-01-01

113

Mycotoxins in horse feed: Incidence of deoxynivalenol in oat samples from stud farms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reports concerning mycotoxins in horse feed are very rare and are typically restricted to fumonisins. As a non-ruminant monogastric species, horses may be more sensitive to adverse effects of mycotoxins, but the most severe effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1) in equines is that it causes fatal leucoencephalomalacia. In recent years, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has evaluated several mycotoxins as “undesirable substances in animal feed” with the aim of establishing guidance values for the feed industry. In its evaluation of deoxynivalenol (DON), EFSA concluded that this toxin exhibited toxic effects in all species, but that horses were more tolerant towards this toxin than pigs. According to the available data, a systematic survey on mycotoxins in horse feed in Serbia has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of mycotoxins in horse feed in Vojvodina. Samples of oats for horse consumption, collected in 2010, were analyzed by enzyme immunoassays (ELISA) for deoxynivalenol contamination. Twelve samples of oats were taken from twelve horse studs, with sport, school and hobby horses.

Uroševi? Miroslav I.; Jaji? Igor M.; Mili?i? Željka G.

2011-01-01

114

Importance of animal feed resources in developing countries and current constraints on their utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Inadequacy and poor utilization of animal feed resources are the main limiting factors on animal production in most developing countries. The bulk of ruminant foodstuffs consists of poor quality fodder, such as pasture and rangeland grass, crop residues and fibrous by-products. It is very rarely possible to use cereals as supplements, since most developing countries at present need to import cereals for human consumption. This has not prevented many development agencies from recommending that cereals and other concentrate feeds be imported to boost monogastric production, reproducing the model developed for temperate countries where there is a cereal surplus. In most cases, the types of feed available locally do not allow high levels of individual animal performance. However, this does not mean that it is impossible to improve animal production in developing countries. During the last two decades, much research on animal nutrition has been successfully conducted and the results are being applied in practice. The most significant of these concern the utilization by animals of sugar-cane and its by-products, the use of non-conventional animal feeds and the treatment of straw and other fibrous materials. In all cases, supplements are required. Livestock feeding systems could also be improved if it were possible to use more of those by-products which are at present exported. New livestock feeding strategies must be developed based on currently or potentially available local resources. It is more logical and profitable for developing countries to adapt animal production systems to available feed resources than vice versa. (author)

1986-01-01

115

Mfg. nest boxes for animals and bird feed houses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hollow bodies of the boxes and feed houses are not made by casting or pressing of light concrete material, but by machining, such as sawing, drilling, milling etc. of conventional light concrete blocks. The individual parts, e.g. the roof, are glued together by a structural adhesive. The material for the mfr. consists of conventional blocks of any type of light concrete. The surfaces are plaster coated, or pickled in an immersion process. They are hardened by silicate, plastics, or synthetic resin, or coated with such materials.

WEINHARDT BERND DIPL ING

116

The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium) and amino acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine), The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet); T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM); T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM); T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM); T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM); T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.

CMI Caires; EA Fernandes; NS Fagundes; AP Carvalho; MP Maciel; BR Oliveira

2010-01-01

117

The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium) and amino (more) acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine), The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet); T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM); T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM); T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM); T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM); T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.

Caires, CMI; Fernandes, EA; Fagundes, NS; Carvalho, AP; Maciel, MP; Oliveira, BR

2010-03-01

118

Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline), with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage disease. Yet, we do not believe starling control should be used as a stand alone tool to reduce S. enterica infections. Rather starling control could be used as part of a comprehensive disease management plan for concentrated animal feeding operations.

Carlson James C; Engeman Richard M; Hyatt Doreene R; Gilliland Rickey L; DeLiberto Thomas J; Clark Larry; Bodenchuk Michael J; Linz George M

2011-01-01

119

Animals and People First. Why good animal welfare is important for feeding people, for trade and for the future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractLivestock contributes to both the potential and the problems of agriculture. Meat and animal products are important in people’s diet and also valuable trade goods. However, manure can cause pollution. One other issue receiving increased attention is the welfare offarm animals: this is a matter of public concern in many countries, particularly in Europe2. This paper explains why attention to farm animal welfare can help agriculture to feed people, to promote trade and to prevent future problems such as pollution – and why ittherefore needs to be considered in the Agreement on Agriculture.

Dr Michael Appleby.

2007-01-01

120

Analysis of naturally occurring zearalenone in feeding stuffs and urine of farm animals in Croatia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine feed and urinary levels of zearalenone. A total of 114 samples, 64 feeding stuffs (commodities, pig and cattle feed), and 50 urine samples were analyzed by the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Zearalenone was detected in 68.7% of feeding stuffs, while all urine samples except for four yearling samples were positive for zearalenone. The maximum zearalenone concentration in feeding stuffs and urine was 577 ng/g and 241.1 ng/mL, respectively. Although zearalenone concentrations in some samples were high, the risk for humans was negligible since the calculated concentrations in meat were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI).

Vuli? A; Pleadin J; Perši N; Mitak M

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC), a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullets and laying hen, PKC can be used 30% and 20% respectively if supplemented with fat, methionine and lysine. PKC can be used 30% in diet for grower (30-60 kg) and 50% in diet for finisher pigs (60-90 kg.), respectively, if supplemented with lysine and cane molasses.

Watanasit, S.; Kuprasert, S.

2001-01-01

122

Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury as undesirable substances in animal feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Toxic mineral elements occur naturally in the environment as a result of natural causes, as well as industrial and agricultural practices. Among existing toxic mineral elements, the most important are arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, which are harmful to animals’ health. This review provides evidence on the occurrence of these four toxic mineral elements in the environment and potentially in animal feeds, where considered as undesirable substances, as well as their bioavailability and their effects in animals.

Vasileios Anastasios Bampidis; Eleonora Nistor; Dimosthenis Nitas

2013-01-01

123

Residual veterinary antibiotics in swine manure from concentrated animal feeding operations in Shandong Province, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The scientific interest in the occurrence and fate of antibiotics in animal husbandry has increased during the past decades because of the emergence and development of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria. This study developed a method for simultaneous detection of five sulfonamides, three tetracyclines and one macrolide in swine manure with stable recoveries (73.0-110.6%) and high sensitivity (limit of quantification <90 ?g kg(-1)). Thereafter, a total of 126 swine manure samples, collected from 21 concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in Shandong Province of China during summer and winter, were analyzed. The potential influences of different sampling seasons, swine types and food sources on residual antibiotic concentrations were examined in detail. The maximum concentration of residual antibiotic could reach up to 764.4 mg kg(-1) (chlortetracycline), and the detection frequencies were 84.9-96.8% for tetracyclines, 0.8-51.6% for sulfonamides and 4.8% for macrolide. These data reveal that antibiotics were extensively used in CAFOs in this district and the manure may act as a non-specific source of antibiotic residue in farmlands and aquatic environments.

Pan X; Qiang Z; Ben W; Chen M

2011-07-01

124

Improved mixing and sampling systems for vitrification melter feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report summarizes the methods used and results obtained during the progress of the study of waste slurry mixing and sampling systems during fiscal year 1977 (FY97) at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The objective of this work is to determine optimal mixing configurations and operating conditions as well as improved sampling technology for defense waste processing facility (DWPF) waste melter feeds at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Most of the research on this project was performed experimentally by using a tank mixing configuration with different rotating impellers. The slurry simulants for the experiments were prepared in-house based on the properties of the DOE sites' typical waste slurries. A sampling system was designed to withdraw slurry from the mixing tank. To obtain insight into the waste mixing process, the slurry flow in the mixing tank was also simulated numerically by applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The major parameters investigated in both the experimental and numerical studies included power consumption of mixer, mixing time to reach slurry uniformity, slurry type, solids concentration, impeller type, impeller size, impeller rotating speed, sampling tube size, and sampling velocities. Application of the results to the DWPF melter feed preparation process will enhance and modify the technical base for designing slurry transportation equipment and pipeline systems. These results will also serve as an important reference for improving waste slurry mixing performance and melter operating conditions. These factors will contribute to an increase in the capability of the vitrification process and the quality of the waste glass

1998-01-01

125

75 FR 11451 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Zilpaterol  

Science.gov (United States)

...ZILMAX, HEIFERMAX 500 Liquid Premix, and RUMENSIN (monensin USP) single- ingredient...medicated feed use of ZILMAX, MGA 500, and RUMENSIN, approved under NADA 141-282. Ivy...ZILMAX, HEIFERMAX 500 Liquid Premix, RUMENSIN, and TYLAN (tylosin phosphate)...

2010-03-11

126

Modification and Characterization of Phytase for Animal Feed Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic phosphate from phytic acid and are able to improve the nutritional quality of phytate rich diet. Monogastric animal such as poultry and fish have lack of significant activity to hydrolyze phytate that contribute to elimination of beneficial nutrient for growth therefore contribute to land pollution, eutrophication of ground water and aquatic environment. Besides, it leads to the negative effect on vitamin utilization that lead to the emaciation, retarded growth and reproductive failure to animal. Due to the importance of, microbial sources for the commercial production of phytases, we have selected waste water bacterium phytase as the subject of interest in this study. In silico experiment is used to identify and examine the active site of waste water bacterium phytase. The factors influencing the ligand binding strength in the active site is analyzed and computational site directed mutagenesis experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of mutations on the binding strength. Multiple mutations of M216R/E219R/H17A, M216R/E219R/F254E and some other multiple mutations showed improvement in the binding strength, primarily due to the addition of hydrogen bond with the adjacent residues. Automated docking based on genetic algorithm is used to dock the phytate in the active site and Partial Mean Force (PMF) scoring is used to calculate the strength of the binding before and after mutation.

I.A. Noorbatcha; N. Samsudin; H.M. Salleh

2009-01-01

127

Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers. PMID:21215766

Dorne, J L C M; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Bertelsen, U; Renshaw, D W; Peltonen, K; Anadon, A; Feil, A; Sanders, P; Wester, P; Fink-Gremmels, J

2011-01-06

128

Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers.

Dorne JL; Fernández-Cruz ML; Bertelsen U; Renshaw DW; Peltonen K; Anadon A; Feil A; Sanders P; Wester P; Fink-Gremmels J

2013-08-01

129

Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

Austin-Phillips, Sandra (Madison, WI); Koegel, Richard G. (Madison, WI); Straub, Richard J. (Brooklyn, WI); Cook, Mark (Madison, WI)

1999-01-01

130

Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

Austin-Phillips, Sandra (Madison, WI); Koegel, Richard G. (Madison, WI); Straub, Richard J. (Brooklyn, WI); Cook, Mark (Madison, WI)

2001-01-01

131

Techno-economic feasibility of animal feed production from empty fruit bunches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been shown in our laboratory that EFB has the potential to be converted into animal feeds through the process of fermentation; and also use as media for mushroom growing (1). Irradiation of EFB at doses above 10 kGy followed by fermentation can reduce crude fibre (CF) content to almost 20-30% and crude protein (CP) content elevated to 10-15% from 50% and 2% respectively (2)(3). The end-product of fermentation displayed all the characteristics of animal feed, and at these levels of CF and CP can be utilised for feeding ruminants. Further reduction of CF and raising of CP can result in the products suitable for feeding non-ruminants such as poultry and pigs. Following the successful conversion of raw EFB into foodstuff for ruminant in the laboratory, there is an urgent need to evaluate whether such products could be mass-produced economically at larger scale for further feeding-trials. Pilot plant has to be set up to simulate the actual commercial production process before any technology transfer can be undertaken. The main objective of this paper is to report firstly, the economic and financial feasibility of the production process at pilot level. Secondly, preliminary evaluation on the cost of production of animal feed from EFB

1998-01-01

132

Determination of aflatoxins in animal feeds by HPLC with multifunctional column clean-up  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A reversed-phase HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in 42 animal feeds, comprising corn (16), soya bean meal (8), mixed meal (13), sunflower, wheat, canola, palm kernel, copra meals (1 each) was carried out. The samples were first extracted using acetonitrile:water (9:1), and was further cleaned-up using a multifunctional column. Optimum conditions for the extraction and chromatographic separation were investigated. By adopting an isocratic chromatographic system using a mobile phase comprising acetonitrile:methanol:water (8:27:65, v/v/v), the separation of the four aflatoxins was possible within 30min. Recoveries for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were 98±0.7%, 95±1.0%, 94±3.6% and 97±4.3%, respectively. The results show that eight samples (19%) were contaminated with aflatoxins, ranging from 6.5 to 101.9ngg?¹. Total aflatoxin levels in three samples exceed the legal limits of many countries of 20ngg?¹.

Khayoon WejdanShakir; Saad Bahruddin; Yan ChewBee; Hashim NorHasani; Ali AbdussalamSalhinMohamed; Salleh MuhammadIdiris; Salleh Baharuddin

2010-02-01

133

Fast filtration for metabolome sampling of suspended animal cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract A new method for sampling suspended animal cells by fast filtration is presented that allows rapid quenching of cellular metabolism and efficient separation of the cells from culture medium. Compared to sampling with a microstructure heat exchanger or centrifugation without prior qu...

134

Concentrated animal feeding operations, row crops, and their relationship to nitrate in eastern Iowa Rivers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and fertilizer application to row crops may contribute to poor water quality in surface waters. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated nutrient concentrations and fluxes in four Eastern Iowa watersheds sampled between 1996 and 2004. We found that these watersheds contribute nearly 10% of annual nitrate flux entering the Gulf of Mexico, while representing only 1.5% of the contributing drainage basin. Mass budget analysis shows streamflow to be a major loss of nitrogen (18% of total N output), second only to crop harvest (63%). The major watershed inputs of nitrogen include applied fertilizer for corn (54% of total N input) and nitrogen fixation by soybeans (26%). Despite the relatively small input from animal manure (approximately 5%), the results of spatial analysis indicate that row crop and CAFO densities are significantly and independently correlated to higher nitrate concentration in streams. Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.59 and 0.89 were found between nitrate concentration and row crop and CAFO density, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis produced a correlation for nitrate concentration with an R2 value of 85%. High spatial density of row crops and CAFOs are linked to the highest river nitrate concentrations (up to 15 mg/L normalized over five years).

Weldon MB; Hornbuckle KC

2006-05-01

135

75 FR 60308 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol  

Science.gov (United States)

...125-476 for use of liquid MGA 500 (melengestrol acetate) and RUMENSIN (monensin, USP) single-ingredient Type A medicated articles...medicated feeds and to NADA 138-870 for use of liquid MGA 500, RUMENSIN, and TYLAN (tylosin phosphate) single- ingredient...

2010-09-30

136

76 FR 79064 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin  

Science.gov (United States)

...Lilly & Co., Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285, filed a supplement to NADA 95-735 that provides for use of RUMENSIN 90 (monensin, USP) Type A medicated article in a free-choice Type C medicated feed for growing cattle on pasture or...

2011-12-21

137

77 FR 4228 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin  

Science.gov (United States)

...Lilly & Co., Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285, filed a supplement to NADA 95-735 that provides for use of RUMENSIN 90 (monensin) Type A medicated article in free-choice feeds for growing cattle on pasture or in dry lot (stocker and...

2012-01-27

138

Nutritional and Health Implications of Mycotoxins in Animal Feeds: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycotoxins are harmful substances produced by fungi in various foods and are estimated to affect as much as 25% of the world`s crop each year. Most of these mytocoxins belong to the three genera of fungi: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Although over 300 mytocoxins are known, those of most concern based on their toxicity and occurrence, are aflatoxin, vomitoxin, ochratoxin, zearaleone, fumonisin and T-2 toxin. They are produced in cereal grains as well as forages before, during and after harvest in various environmental conditions. The presence of mycotoxins in feeds may decrease feed intake and affect animal performance. In addition, the possible presence of toxic residues in edible animal product such as milk, meat and eggs may have some detrimental effects on human health. Fungal contamination affects both the organoleptic characteristics and the alimentary value of feeds and entails a risk of toxicosis. The biological effects of mycotoxin depend on the ingested amounts, number of occurring toxins, duration of exposure to mycotoxin and animal sensitivity. Mycotoxins display a diversity of chemical structures, accounting for their different biological effects. Depending on their precise nature, these toxins may be carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic, immunosuppressive, tremor genic, hemorrhagic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic. Controlling mould growth and mycotoxin production is very important to the feed manufacturer and livestock producer. Control of mould growth in feeds can be accomplished by keeping moisture low, feed fresh, equipment clean and using mould inhibitors. In addition, control of mycotoxins in animal diets would reduce the likelihood that mycotoxin residues would appear in animal products destined for human consumption.

K.E. Akande; M.M. Abubakar; T.A. Adegbola; S.E. Bogoro

2006-01-01

139

[Progress in predicting animal feed intake of plant secondary compounds by spectral analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Study on feed intake of phytophagic animals is a key issue in promoting animal productivity and conservation of wild life. However, how to accurately predict the feed intake of grazing animal and wild life is a long remaining problem. Under the mechanism of co-evolution, plant produces secondary compounds such as phenolics, terpenoids and nitrogen-containing compounds to avoid or reduce animal herbivorous damage as a defensive strategy, while animal attained detoxification capacity of biotransforming and mineralizing the compounds by microbial activities and reactions such as hydrolysis and reduction. The attributes of feedstuff and the amount of a particular feed consumed by the animal affect directly the urinary excretion of secondary metabolites. Plant secondary compounds and their metabolites can be efficiently extracted, separated and structure-identified by spectroscopic analytic method. Then the feed intake of the animal can be accurately measured or predicted by the inference model of concentration-ratio that is based on the regression of correlating the secondary metabolites to the precursors in plant. Aromatic compounds, an universal occurrence in vascular plants, play an important role in predicting feed intake of ruminants. Progresses have been made all-around about the new method. Intensive studies have found that different species and developing stage of plant have varying kinds and levels of secondary compounds, and the age, gender and type of animal have different capacity of metabolizing the compounds. Increasing concentrations of the compounds in the diet led to a dose-dependent decrease in food intake best described as an exponential decay. Animals that had not previously been exposed to the compounds ate significantly more when first offered food containing the compound than on subsequent days. Advanced spectroscopic analytic method has been developed and widely applied in extraction (e. g. microwave assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction), separation and purification (e. g. paper chromatography, VLC, GC, HSCCC, Micro-LC and HPLC), and structure-identification (e. g. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) of plant secondary compounds and their metabolites. Studies suggest that some aromatic compounds like phenolic alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, lignin and N-alkane are suited internal markers and find that the method to predict animal feed intake of plant secondary compound by spectral analysis is quick, accurate and applicable. The further focus should be on selecting appropriate compounds and their fate in metabolizing and excretion, and the development of intelligentized spectroscopy equipments. PMID:18051526

Wang, Yuan-Su; Hong, Fu-Zeng; Wang, Kun

2007-09-01

140

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal) samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n = 650) were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n = 71) were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%), followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n = 14) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxa-zole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline), whereas 80.3% (n = 57) were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprim-suflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

Renatus P. Shilangale; Elisabetta Di Giannatale; Percy M. Chimwamurombe; Godwin P. Kaaya

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal) samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n=650) were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n=71) were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%), followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n=14) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline), whereas 80.3% (n=57) were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprimsuflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

Shilangale RP; Di Giannatale E; Chimwamurombe PM; Kaaya GP

2012-04-01

142

A GREEN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FEED ADDITIVE FOR FOWLS AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS AND ITS PREPARATION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A green environmental protection feed additive for fowls and domestic animals and its preparation method, its main components are plant cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, triterpene with physiological activity, and polysaccharides materials. Furthermore, it contains a little amount of biological active compounds such as nucleotide, furan, sterol, alkaloid, protein and amino acids, anise camphor, trace elements etc.

FAN DEKUN

143

Feed additive and/or drinking water additive for domestic animals  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a feed additive and/or drinking water additive for domestic animals, which contains at least bacteria of the strain Streptococcus faecium IMB 52 (DSM 3530), it is provided that standardized cell wall components from Bacillus sp. and/or Streptoccocus sp. and/or Bifidobacterium sp. as well as inulin are additionally contained.

BINDER JOHANN; BINDER EVA-MARIA; NITSCH SABINE; KLIMITSCH ALFRED

144

Characterization of VOCs and odorants on PM from animal feeding operations  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from animal feeding operations negatively impact local and potentially regional air quality though the release of both odorous and ozone precursor molecules. Characterizing emissions of VOCs from AFOs is strongly influenced by both the method and location of ...

145

Fermentation of Leucaena Leucocephala leaves for fuel, fertilizer, and animal feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reports on the successful series of novel investigations on the production of good quality fuel gas, along with fertilizer and mimosine-free animal feed by-products from leaves of Leucaena leucocephala. Discussion on a pilot plant specifically designed to produce fuel gas from Leucaena leaves is also presented.

Lewis, C.E.; Hales, A.L.; Minott, D.A.

1982-10-01

146

[The species composition of the micromycetes in feed and their role in animal kojic acid toxicosis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microflora of more than 100 samples of different sorts of foodstuff (coarse fodder, grain forage, mixed fodder, premixes, silo, whole milk substitute etc.) selected in 1989-1992 in the period of mass diseases and death of animals in farms of Ukraine has been studied. It is shown that the amount of spore material included in lg of fodder, depends on the sort of feed substrate. Grains and grain forage (94.5 thou. spores in 1 g) occupy the first place in sporification with fungi; vetch-oat mixture and whole milk substitute (82-89 thou. spores)--the second place; mixed fodder granules and maize briquettes (79.5-66.5 thou. spores)--the third place; the latter are mixed fodder plants hay, cereals straw (11.8-43.5 thou. spores). Aspergillus mainly occurred on the concentrated forage, grain, grain forage, in less amount--in grass stand, cereals straw. Penicilli, fusari and other species of saprophytic fungi dominated on hay of natural meadows, on mixed fodder plants and cereals straw. It has been stated that the highest toxicity was typical of the fodder samples infected with Aspergillus strains producing kojic acid. Under conditions of our experiments out of 67 strains of genus Aspergillus kojic acid was synthesized by 48.6% of the total number of the tested fungus cultures. The greatest number of kojic acid producers was found among Aspergillus flavus isolates (56.8%) the less number--among A. fumigatus (36.7%). Kojic acid has been revealed to exert a pathological effect on the organism of different animal species.

Kharchenko SN; Iatsyshin AI; Tea EM; Pototski? NK; Pavlenko OI

1993-05-01

147

[The species composition of the micromycetes in feed and their role in animal kojic acid toxicosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Microflora of more than 100 samples of different sorts of foodstuff (coarse fodder, grain forage, mixed fodder, premixes, silo, whole milk substitute etc.) selected in 1989-1992 in the period of mass diseases and death of animals in farms of Ukraine has been studied. It is shown that the amount of spore material included in lg of fodder, depends on the sort of feed substrate. Grains and grain forage (94.5 thou. spores in 1 g) occupy the first place in sporification with fungi; vetch-oat mixture and whole milk substitute (82-89 thou. spores)--the second place; mixed fodder granules and maize briquettes (79.5-66.5 thou. spores)--the third place; the latter are mixed fodder plants hay, cereals straw (11.8-43.5 thou. spores). Aspergillus mainly occurred on the concentrated forage, grain, grain forage, in less amount--in grass stand, cereals straw. Penicilli, fusari and other species of saprophytic fungi dominated on hay of natural meadows, on mixed fodder plants and cereals straw. It has been stated that the highest toxicity was typical of the fodder samples infected with Aspergillus strains producing kojic acid. Under conditions of our experiments out of 67 strains of genus Aspergillus kojic acid was synthesized by 48.6% of the total number of the tested fungus cultures. The greatest number of kojic acid producers was found among Aspergillus flavus isolates (56.8%) the less number--among A. fumigatus (36.7%). Kojic acid has been revealed to exert a pathological effect on the organism of different animal species. PMID:8355635

Kharchenko, S N; Iatsyshin, A I; Tea, E M; Pototski?, N K; Pavlenko, O I

148

Development and validation of an LC-UV method for the determination of sulfonamides in animal feeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple LC-UV method was developed for the determination of residues of eight sulfonamides (sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimidine, sulfadoxine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadimethoxine) in six types of animal feed. C18, Oasis HLB, Plexa and Plexa PCX stationary phases were assessed for the clean-up step and the latter was chosen as it showed greater efficiency in the clean-up of interferences. Feed samples spiked with sulfonamides at 2 mg/kg were used to assess the trueness (recovery %) and precision of the method. Mean recovery values ranged from 47% to 66%, intra-day precision (RSD %) from 4% to 15% and inter-day precision (RSD %) from 7% to 18% in pig feed. Recoveries and intra-day precisions were also evaluated in rabbit, hen, cow, chicken and piglet feed matrices. Calibration curves with standards prepared in mobile phase and matrix-matched calibration curves were compared and the matrix effects were ascertained. The limits of detection and quantification in the feeds ranged from 74 to 265 µg/kg and from 265 to 868 µg/kg, respectively.

Kumar P; Companyó R

2012-05-01

149

Scientific Opinion on the risk for public and animal health related to the presence of sterigmatocystin in food and feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on sterigmatocystin (STC) in food and feed. STC is a polyketide mycotoxin that shares its biosynthetic pathway with aflatoxins. Following an EFSA call for data, analytical results from 247 food and 334 feed samples were submitted. In food, analytical results on STC were reported to be all below the limit of detection or limit of quantification. In feed, only four quantified results were reported. Therefore, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) concluded that the available occurrence data are too limited to carry out a reliable human and animal dietary exposure assessment. Acute oral toxicity of STC is relatively low, and liver and kidneys are the target organs. STC is mutagenic in both bacterial and mammalian cells after metabolic activation and forms DNA adducts. Tumourigenicity has been observed after oral, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous and dermal administration resulting in hepatocellular carcinomas, haemangiosarcomas in the liver, angiosarcomas in brown fat and lung adenomas. Since no exposure data were available, the margin of exposure approach for substances that are genotoxic and carcinogenic could not be applied for STC, and thus the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the risk for human health. Regarding animals, the Panel noted that STC is hepatotoxic in poultry and pigs, and nephrotoxic in poultry and toxic in several fish species. However, in the absence of exposure data for livestock, fish and companion animals, and given the limited knowledge on the adverse effects of STC, the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the risk for animal health. More occurrence data on STC in food and feed need to be collected to allow dietary exposure assessment. For food, methods with a limit of quantification of less than 1.5 µg/kg should be applied.

EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

2013-01-01

150

32P detection in animal and plant samples using Cerenkov  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 32P detection methodology in animal and plant tissue using the Cerenkov effect, liquid scintillation and Geiger-Muller techniques is studied. The Cerenckov effect shows to be more satisflying as to sensitivity, sample preparation, back ground and negligible cost per sample. Comparing the detection by means of Cerenkov effect with that by GM, the relative counting efficiency is about 100 times and 1,5 to 4 comparing to liquid scintillation detection

1977-01-01

151

Sampling and sample preparation methods for determining concentrations of mycotoxins in foods and feeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sample variation is often the largest error in determining concentrations of mycotoxins in food commodities. The worldwide safety evaluation of mycotoxins requires sampling plans that give acceptably accurate values for the levels of contamination in specific batches or lots of a commodity. Mycotoxin concentrations show a skewed or uneven distribution in foods and feeds, especially in whole kernels (or nuts), so it is extremely difficult to collect a sample that accurately represents the mean batch concentration. Sample variance studies and sampling plans have been published for select mycotoxins such as aflatoxin, fumonisin, and deoxynivalenol, emphasizing the importance of sample selection, sample size, and the number of incremental samples. For meaningful data to be generated from surveillance studies, representative samples should be collected from carefully selected populations (batches or lots) of food that, in turn, should be representative of clearly defined locations (e.g. a country, a region within a country). Although sampling variability is unavoidable, it is essential that the precision of the sampling plan be clearly defined and be considered acceptable by those responsible for interpreting and reporting the surveillance data. The factors influencing variability are detailed here, with reference to both major mycotoxins and major commodities. Sampling of large bag stacks, bulk shipments, and domestic supplies are all discussed. Sampling plans currently accepted in international trade are outlined. Acceptance sampling plans and the variabilities that affect operating characteristic curves of such plans are also detailed. The constraints and issues related to the sampling of harvested crops within subsistence farming areas are also discussed in this chapter, as are the essential rules of sample labelling and storage. The chapter concludes with a short section on sample preparation methods.

2012-01-01

152

Antibiotic use in animal feed and its impact on human healt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria that cause disease in man is an issue of major concern. Although misuse of antibiotics in human medicine is the principal cause of the problem, antibiotic-resistant bacteria originating in animals are contributory factors, with some types of resistance in some species of bacteria. Antibiotics are added to animal feeds to treat and prevent infections and to improve growth and production. Until recently, the major concerns about incorporation of antibiotics in animal feeds related to antibiotic residues in products from treated animals. Although, in 1969, the Swann (1969) report drew attention to the potential for antibiotic-resistant bacteria to spread from treated animals via the food chain, there was little response until the detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in animals fed a related glycopeptide, avoparcin. Subsequently, attention started to focus on the issue and other examples of transfer of resistant bacteria through the food chain, such as enterococci resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin or to everninomicin, fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacters and multiresistant Escherichia coli, and salmonella such as Salmonella typhimurium DT104. Reviews and committees in many countries have highlighted the need for better control of licensing of antibiotics, and codes for prudent use of antibiotics by veterinary practitioners and farmers. The continued use of antibiotic growth promoters has been questioned and there is a need to ensure that antibiotics important in human medicine are not used therapeutically or prophylactically in animals.

Barton MD

2000-12-01

153

Validation study of a lateral-flow immunoassay for detection of ruminant by-product material in animal feeds and feed ingredients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An immunoassay with a lateral flow format has been developed for the detection of ruminant by-product material in animal feeds and feed ingredients. The test is designed for the analysis of animal feeds destined for feeding to ruminants to ensure that they do not contain ruminant by-products in violation of the ruminant-to-ruminant feed ban established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1997. This feed ban was established as a firewall against exposure of ruminant livestock animals to the prion agents responsible for neurological diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie. The test is designed for field use, e.g., at a feed mill, and yields a qualitative (presence/absence) result in 15-20 min. The objective of the study was to validate the lateral-flow test for detection of ruminant by-product material in a variety of finished animal feeds and feed ingredients. Results indicate that the test is specific for ruminant material and can detect as little as 1% ruminant material in these commodities.

Klein F; Lupo T; Pielack D; Mozola M

2005-11-01

154

Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations  

Science.gov (United States)

Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 ??g/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Campagnolo, E. R.; Johnson, K. R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C. S.; Kolpin, D. W.; Meyer, M. T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R. W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K. M.; McGeehin, M.

2002-01-01

155

Feeding Rate of Soil Animals in Different Ecosystems in Pati, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The feeding activity of soil animals was measured by using bait lamina test in three main ecosystems, i.e. the teak forest, home garden and rainfed paddy field. Two additional ecosystems in rainfed paddy field, i.e. the old (permanently established bund around paddy fields) and new bunds were examined as well. Three blocks of bait-lamina sticks (each block consisting of 16 individual sticks) were exposed at each location. The bait lamina were retrieved from the soil after two days and visually assessed. Each hole is designated as “fed” (perforated) or “non-fed” hole. The feeding rate is measured as the absolute number of “fed” holes. Soil animals in the old bunds showed the highest feeding activity (55.20%), followed by home garden (39.10%), rainfed paddy field (16.50%), teak forest (15.60%), and new bund (7.80%). The frequency of animals attack to the bait strips also indicated the similar pattern as their feeding activity, i.e. high in the old bunds (0.90), followed by home garden (0.70), teak forest (0.40), new bunds (0.40) and rainfed paddy field (0.30), respectively.

RAHAYU WIDYASTUTI

2006-01-01

156

Fatty acid analysis of subcutaneous fat from animals with a reliable and safe feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iberian pig fat characteristics depend on the type of feeding at the end of its finish-fattening period. The routine analysis to differentiate among the qualities of the feeding types given to the pigs in the fattening stage has been the use of fatty acid profiles by gas chromatography. Due to de doubts about the effectiveness of this analysis in the montanera period, the aim of this global study was to test the validity of various analytical methods to determine the feeding type of Iberian pigs, focusing on the fatty acid profile. Three montanera periods with a total of 749 samples from 38 batches have been studied; using a total of 144 dry-cured shoulder shanks, 99 of which are of known pig origin. Results showed that the determination of the fatty acid profile using gas chromatography is not a consistent method to classify the animals according to diet in the recebo category, although it provided good percentages of success for classifying the bellota and cebo categories.Las características de la grasa de cerdo Ibérico dependen del tipo de alimentación recibida en el último estadío de engorde. El análisis que se ha utilizado hasta ahora para diferenciar las diferentes calidades de alimentación de los cerdos en este período ha sido el análisis de los perfiles de ácidos grasos de la grasa por técnicas de cromatografía de gases. Debido a las dudas sobre la efectividad de esta técnica en la montanera, el objetivo del proyecto global (RTA2008-0026) fue probar la validez de varios métodos analíticos para determinar el tipo de alimentación del cerdo ibérico, centrándonos en este trabajo en el estudio de los perfiles de ácidos grasos. Para el desarrollo de este estudio se utilizaron tres campañas de montanera con un total de 749 muestras de 38 partidas, y con 144 paletas de las cuales 99 tenían una trazabilidad completa. Los resultados mostraron que la determinación de la alimentación de los cerdos ibéricos usando el análisis del perfil de ácidos grasos no es un método consistente para clasificar los animales de acuerdo a la categoría de recebo, mientras que para las categorías de bellota y cebo, los resultados encontrados mostraron unos buenos porcentajes de éxito.

Sanabria, C.; Martín-Mateos, M. J.; González-Cantillo, N.; Moreno-Indias, I.; García-Casco, J. M.

2013-01-01

157

Occurrence of trenbolone acetate metabolites in simulated confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) runoff.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metabolites of androgenic synthetic growth promoters used at confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) pose a demonstrated ecological risk. To evaluate the transport of trenbolone acetate (TBA) metabolites from beef cattle CAFOs, rainfall simulation experiments were conducted at the University of California, Davis, research CAFO. Steroid concentrations in solid and aqueous samples from the research CAFO and solids samples from a commercial CAFO were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The data indicate that 17?-trenbolone (17?-TBOH), 17?-trenbolone (17?-TBOH), and trendione (TBO), the three primary TBA metabolites, occur in soils and runoff. Soils at the research CAFO contained up to 8.2 (±1.1) ng/g-dw of 17?-TBOH and 1.2 (±0.1) ng/g-dw of 17?-TBOH, with slightly higher (~20 ng/g-dw) 17?-TBOH concentrations observed in commercial CAFO soils. In simulated runoff, 17?-TBOH concentrations of 1-350 ng/L and TBO concentrations from 1-170 ng/L were observed. The metabolite 17?-TBOH intermittently occurred in runoff samples at 5-26 ng/L and may be correlated to anaerobic soils. Metabolite concentrations observed in CAFO runoff correspond to 5-15% of potential maximum steroid concentrations predicted by mass balances. First order transformation rates of 0.028/day (25 day half-life) were estimated for 17?-TBOH in CAFO soils. Results suggest that ecologically relevant concentrations of TBA metabolites can be mobilized from CAFO surfaces in storm runoff and may lead to receiving water concentrations at or above ecological effects thresholds for a very limited number of discharge scenarios.

Webster JP; Kover SC; Bryson RJ; Harter T; Mansell DS; Sedlak DL; Kolodziej EP

2012-04-01

158

Removal of Metallic Objects from Animal Feeds: Development and Studies on a new machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple machine was designed by the authors to remove different metallic objects from animal feed stuff. A series of experiments were conducted to judge the efficiency of the machine whose results revealed that the device could remove almost 100% of magnetic metallic objects and 50-62% of non-magnetic metallic material from different feed stuffs. Metallic objects were more efficiently removed from wheat, barley and alfalfa than hay. The rate of removal of nails and wire pieces was higher than that of needles.

S. Jafari Shoorijeh; A.G. Ramin

2008-01-01

159

Critical literature study on the cesium transfer feed/meat of domestic animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A literature study concerning the transfer of cesium from feed to meat of domestic and wild animals has been carried out regarding approx. 3200 publications of the period 1950-1979. General criteria for the influence of experimental conditions on the transfer factor have been found. The transfer factor of radioisotopes of cesium is always smaller by one order of magnitude after single ingestion than after continuous administration until an equilibrium of incorporation to excretion is attained. The transfer factor of growing animals is greater than that of adult animals where transfer factor is not a function of age. The sex of the animals has no influence on the transfer factor. This value decreases with increasing weight of the animals. From these findings average transfer factors have been derived as follows: cattle 0.03 +- 0.02; calf 0.43 +- 0.06; goat 0.20; sheep 0.11 +- 0.02; pig 0.26 +- 0.01; hen 4.5; reindeer/caribou 0.31 +- 0.07; deer 0.18 +- 0.03. These values have been extracted from the original literature and relate mainly to animals undergoing metabolic experiments at equilibrium. Only the transfer factors of deer and caribou have been evaluated from data of the radiocesium concentration in feed and in meat. (orig.)

1980-01-01

160

Method for preparing animal feed by using prickly ash seeds and application  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for preparing animal feed by using prickly ash seeds and application, which is characterized in that the prickly ash seeds are added to the feed for layer chicken, broilers, fattening pigs, mutton sheep and beefs to replace equivalent corns in the following proportions respectively: 6-8%, 8-10%, 10-12%, 10-15% and 15-20%. A method for preparing the prickly ash seeds added to the diet of livestock and poultry comprises the following steps: (1) selecting pollution-free, mould-free and glossy black fresh prickly ash seeds (2) bagging and sealing the collected prickly ash seeds, and carrying out ventilated-drying on the prickly ash seeds to prevent dampness and mould (3) mixing the prickly ash seeds with the corn materials evenly in proportion and then grinding the prickly ash seeds (4) grinding the prickly ash seeds by hammers, rollers and self-suction grinders and (5) after proportioning the raw materials according to the feed formulation, allowing the raw materials to enter a mixer to be stirred evenly, then bagging, sealing the mixture and preparing powder. The feed contains the prickly ash seeds with special spicy flavor therefore, the palatability of livestock and poultry is improved, the feed intake is increased, the feed cost is lowered, and the culture benefits and income of the prickly ash farmers are increased.

YAODE ZHU

 
 
 
 
161

Application of near-infrared microscopy (NIRM) for the detection of meat and bone meals in animal feeds: A tool for food and feed safety  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports on the development and validation of a method for detecting meat and bone meal (MBM) in compound feeds by near-infrared reflectance microscopy (NIRM) as an alternative in food and feed safety. A FT-NIR (Fourier transformer-near-infrared reflectance) instrument attached to a microscope was used to build up a spectral library containing reference feed particles identified as plant or animal origin, from various sources. Spectra were collected directly from particles in the NIR spectrum region (1112-2500 nm). The spectral library sample set was used to develop various discriminant models to classify spectra as MBM or plant material. The best discriminant model was obtained using partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis and standard normal variate and detrending (SNVD) and first derivative for spectrum pretreatment; this model had a coefficient of determination of 0.95 and a standard error of cross-validation of 0.133. The model was externally validated. The results confirmed NIRM as a valuable technique for detection of banned MBM.

Roza-Delgado Bdela; Soldado A; Marti?nez-Ferna?ndez A; Vicente F; Garrido-Varo A; Pe?rez-Mari?n D; Haba MJdela; Guerrero-Ginel JE

2007-01-01

162

Fast filtration for metabolome sampling of suspended animal cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new method for sampling suspended animal cells by fast filtration is presented that allows rapid quenching of cellular metabolism and efficient separation of the cells from culture medium. Compared to sampling with a microstructure heat exchanger or centrifugation without prior quenching, the adenylate energy charge and the measured concentrations especially of metabolites with a high turnover rate or of metabolites early in metabolic pathways were substantially higher. No leakage of ATP from the cells was observed when using iso-osmotic NaCl solution in the washing step. The combination of fast filtration and cold methanol extraction is therefore suitable for intracellular metabolomic studies of suspended animal cell cultures and superior to other methods currently applied.

Volmer M; Northoff S; Scholz S; Thüte T; Büntemeyer H; Noll T

2011-03-01

163

Fast filtration for metabolome sampling of suspended animal cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new method for sampling suspended animal cells by fast filtration is presented that allows rapid quenching of cellular metabolism and efficient separation of the cells from culture medium. Compared to sampling with a microstructure heat exchanger or centrifugation without prior quenching, the adenylate energy charge and the measured concentrations especially of metabolites with a high turnover rate or of metabolites early in metabolic pathways were substantially higher. No leakage of ATP from the cells was observed when using iso-osmotic NaCl solution in the washing step. The combination of fast filtration and cold methanol extraction is therefore suitable for intracellular metabolomic studies of suspended animal cell cultures and superior to other methods currently applied. PMID:21072561

Volmer, Martin; Northoff, Stefan; Scholz, Sebastian; Thüte, Tobias; Büntemeyer, Heino; Noll, Thomas

2010-11-12

164

Fast filtration for metabolome sampling of suspended animal cells  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new method for sampling suspended animal cells by fast filtration is presented that allows rapid quenching of cellular metabolism and efficient separation of the cells from culture medium. Compared to sampling with a microstructure heat exchanger or centrifugation without prior quenching, the adenylate energy charge and the measured concentrations especially of metabolites with a high turnover rate or of metabolites early in metabolic pathways were substantially higher. No leakage of ATP from the cells was observed when using iso-osmotic NaCl solution in the washing step. The combination of fast filtration and cold methanol extraction is therefore suitable for intracellular metabolomic studies of suspended animal cell cultures and superior to other methods currently applied.

Volmer Martin; Northoff Stefan; Scholz Sebastian; Thüte Tobias; Büntemeyer Heino; Noll Thomas

2011-03-01

165

Regulating manure application discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the United States, reducing pollution from agriculture has received attention due to data suggesting that this is the leading source of impairment of many waterbodies. The federal government revised its regulations governing concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to enhance governmental oversight over sources of pollution. For the application of manure resulting in pollutant discharges, CAFOs need to implement nutrient management plans. A federal court affirmed the ability of the US federal government to oversee the application of manure from CAFOs that have discharges. Simultaneously, owners and operators of CAFOs who have implemented an appropriate nutrient management plan may forgo securing a permit if their discharges qualify under the agricultural stormwater discharge exemption. - New rules applying to the application of manure by large concentrated animal feeding operations should reduce water contamination

2006-01-01

166

Animal production for efficient phosphate utilization : from optimized feed to high efficiency livestock  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for livestock but its efficiency of utilization is below 40%, contributing to environmental issues. In this review, we summarize recent approaches to optimize P availability in livestock diets and improve its utilization efficiency. Phase feeding could potentially reduce P excretion by 20%. Addition of phytase enzymes to diets increased P availability from 42 to 95%. Low phytate transgenic plants and transgenic animals increased P availability by 14% and 52-99%, respectively. In practice, a combination of phase feeding and enzymes has the highest potential for P reduction but legislation and ethics implications will prevent using transgenic animals in the short term. Functional and nutritional genomics may provide tools to improve efficiency in the future.

Kebreab, Ermias; Hansen, Anja VarmlØse

2012-01-01

167

Animal production for efficient phosphate utilization: from optimized feed to high efficiency livestock.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for livestock but its efficiency of utilization is below 40%, contributing to environmental issues. In this review, we summarize recent approaches to optimize P availability in livestock diets and improve its utilization efficiency. Phase feeding could potentially reduce P excretion by 20%. Addition of phytase enzymes to diets increased P availability from 42 to 95%. Low phytate transgenic plants and transgenic animals increased P availability by 14% and 52-99%, respectively. In practice, a combination of phase feeding and enzymes has the highest potential for P reduction but legislation and ethics implications will prevent using transgenic animals in the short term. Functional and nutritional genomics may provide tools to improve efficiency in the future. PMID:22796051

Kebreab, Ermias; Hansen, Anja V; Strathe, Anders B

2012-07-14

168

Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals, and the effect of radiation inactivation of the microorganisms were investigated. The contamination of animal feeds was remarkable, and the number of total count in the mash for chicken and other animals was from 5.3 x 104 to 2.2 x 106 per gram. The number of coliforms was from 5.1 x 103 to 6.8 x 105 per gram and they were mainly Enterobacter and Klebsiella. The number of osmophilic moulds was from 9.6 x 102 to 4.5 x 105 per gram. In case of the mixed feeds in pellets, the total count was from 5.3 x 103 to 1.0 x 106 per gram. The contamination of fish meals was not remarkable, and only mixed fish meals were contaminated largely by faecal coliforms and others. The species of bacteria in the total count of mixed feeds were Bacilli, Micrococci, Enterobacteria and Klebsiellas, and the osmophilic moulds were Aspergilus glaucus group, A. gracilis and A. candidus. As the result, it seemed to be necessary to prevent the damage to feed stuff caused by the growth of moulds and insects and to eliminate pathogens. Osmopholic moulds are sensitive to radiation, and ere eliminated to below the identification limit by 0.2 Mrad irradation. Coliforms were more resistant to radiation, and eliminated by up to 0.8 Mrad of radiation. But some bacteria survived up to 1.5 Mrad dose. The irradiation at 0.5 Mrad seemed to be enough to reduce the total count to below 103 per gram, and to eliminate faecal coliforms from mixed feeds. (Kako, I.).

1981-01-01

169

The public health impacts of concentrated animal feeding operations on local communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Large-scale farm animal production facilities, also known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), release a significant amount of contaminants into the air and water. Adverse health effects related to exposure to these contaminants among CAFO workers have been well-documented; however, less is known about their impact on the health of residents in nearby communities. Epidemiological research in this area suggests that neighboring residents are at increased risk of developing neurobehavioral symptoms and respiratory illnesses, including asthma. Additional research is needed to better understand community-scale exposures and health outcomes related to the management practices and emissions of CAFOs.

Greger M; Koneswaran G

2010-01-01

170

U.S. recommendations for control of accidental radioactive contamination of human food and animal feeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recommendations for control of accidental radioactive contamination of human food and animal feeds issued in 1982 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are being revised to incorporate current scientific information and radiation protection philosophy, to include experience gained since 1982, and to take into account international guidance. The revised guidance will update the 1982 FDA recommendations regarding protective actions and will provide additional recommendations for limits on radioactive contamination permitted in foods distributed in commerce. (author)

Burnett, B.; Rosenstein, M. [Food and Drug Administration, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, Maryland (United States)

1992-07-01

171

Transformation of Beauveria bassiana to produce EGFP in Tenebrio molitor for use as animal feed additives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts are underway to develop more effective and safer animal feed additives. Entomopathogenic fungi can be considered practical expression platforms of functional genes within insects which have been used as animal feed additives. In this work, as a model, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene was expressed in yellow mealworms, Tenebrio molitor by highly infective Beauveria bassiana ERL1170. Among seven test isolates, ERL1170 treatment showed 57.1% and 98.3% mortality of mealworms 2 and 5 days after infection, respectively. The fungal transformation vector, pABeG containing the egfp gene, was inserted into the genomic DNA of ERL1170 using the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method. This resulted in the generation of the transformant, Bb-egfp#3, which showed the highest level of fluorescence. Bb-egfp#3-treated mealworms gradually turned dark brown, and in 7-days mealworm sections showed a strong fluorescence. This did not occur in the wild-type strain. This work suggests that further valuable proteins can be efficiently produced in this mealworm-based fungal expression platform, thereby increasing the value of mealworms in the animal feed additive industry. PMID:23651432

Kim, Jae Su; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Se Jin; Lee, Ju Hyun; Fu, Zhenli; Skinner, Margaret; Parker, Bruce L; Je, Yeon Ho

2013-06-03

172

Transformation of Beauveria bassiana to produce EGFP in Tenebrio molitor for use as animal feed additives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Efforts are underway to develop more effective and safer animal feed additives. Entomopathogenic fungi can be considered practical expression platforms of functional genes within insects which have been used as animal feed additives. In this work, as a model, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene was expressed in yellow mealworms, Tenebrio molitor by highly infective Beauveria bassiana ERL1170. Among seven test isolates, ERL1170 treatment showed 57.1% and 98.3% mortality of mealworms 2 and 5 days after infection, respectively. The fungal transformation vector, pABeG containing the egfp gene, was inserted into the genomic DNA of ERL1170 using the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method. This resulted in the generation of the transformant, Bb-egfp#3, which showed the highest level of fluorescence. Bb-egfp#3-treated mealworms gradually turned dark brown, and in 7-days mealworm sections showed a strong fluorescence. This did not occur in the wild-type strain. This work suggests that further valuable proteins can be efficiently produced in this mealworm-based fungal expression platform, thereby increasing the value of mealworms in the animal feed additive industry.

Kim JS; Choi JY; Lee SJ; Lee JH; Fu Z; Skinner M; Parker BL; Je YH

2013-07-01

173

Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

1998-01-01

174

Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

1998-03-01

175

Determination of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at cross contamination levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

A confirmatory multi-residue method has been developed to allow for the detection, confirmation and quantification of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method can be used to determine halofuginone, robenidine, nicarbazin, diclazuril, decoquinate, semduramicin, lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin at levels relating to unavoidable carry over as stated in Regulation 2009/8/EC. Feed samples are extracted with water and acetonitrile with the addition of anhydrous magnesium sulphate and sodium chloride. The extract then undergoes a freezing out step before being diluted and injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. The LC-MS/MS system is run in MRM mode with both positive and negative electrospray ionisation and can confirm all eleven analytes in a run time of 19 min. The sensitivity of the method allows quantification and confirmation for all coccidiostats at a 0.5% carry over level. The method was validated over three days in accordance with of European legislation; Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation criteria of accuracy, precision, decision limit (CC?), and detection capability (CC?) along with measurement uncertainty are calculated for all analytes. The method was then successfully used to analyse a number of feed samples that contained various coccidiostat substances. PMID:21742113

Cronly, Mark; Behan, P; Foley, B; Malone, E; Shearan, P; Regan, L

2010-11-09

176

Determination of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at cross contamination levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A confirmatory multi-residue method has been developed to allow for the detection, confirmation and quantification of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method can be used to determine halofuginone, robenidine, nicarbazin, diclazuril, decoquinate, semduramicin, lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin at levels relating to unavoidable carry over as stated in Regulation 2009/8/EC. Feed samples are extracted with water and acetonitrile with the addition of anhydrous magnesium sulphate and sodium chloride. The extract then undergoes a freezing out step before being diluted and injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. The LC-MS/MS system is run in MRM mode with both positive and negative electrospray ionisation and can confirm all eleven analytes in a run time of 19 min. The sensitivity of the method allows quantification and confirmation for all coccidiostats at a 0.5% carry over level. The method was validated over three days in accordance with of European legislation; Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation criteria of accuracy, precision, decision limit (CC?), and detection capability (CC?) along with measurement uncertainty are calculated for all analytes. The method was then successfully used to analyse a number of feed samples that contained various coccidiostat substances.

Cronly M; Behan P; Foley B; Malone E; Shearan P; Regan L

2011-08-01

177

Delicious liquid feed as beverages for the animals, races and subspecies of the animals e.g. fish, dog, horses, snakes, milk cattle and pigeons, comprises a freeze- or spray dried camelina oil, and feed preparation or ready food  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The delicious liquid feed as beverages for the animals, races and subspecies of the animals e.g. fish, dog, horses, snakes, milk cattle and pigeons, comprises a freeze-dried or spray-dried camelina oil, and feed preparation or ready food. The camelina oil is added in the manufacturing of the feed, and/or during the manufacturing of the feed and/or to the manufactured feed. The camelina oil is used as single-feed without mixing with other substances. The used camelina oil is produced by refining and is cold pressed in the form of flakes, powders, pellets, granules, liquid, etc. The delicious liquid feed as beverages for the animals, races and subspecies of the animals, comprises a freeze-dried or spray-dried camelina oil, and feed preparation or ready food. The camelina oil is added in the manufacturing of the feed, and/or during the manufacturing of the feed and/or to the manufactured feed. The camelina oil is used as single-feed without mixing with other substances. The used camelina oil is produced by refining and is cold pressed in the form of flakes, powders, pellets, granules, liquid, etc. The animals are fishes, hamster, rabbits, house cats, dogs, cats, bunnies, mice, guinea pigs, snakes, reptiles, spiders, murine, chinchilla, insects, all camelids for example llamas and alpacas, horses, small horses e.g. pony, reindeer, cattle, milk cattle, sheep, hogs, goats, mites type, honeybees, silkworms, dromedaries, moose, elephant, donkey, camel, mink, nutria, ferrets and birds- and poultry species (old jaws and new jaws) e.g. homing pigeons, canaries, parakeet type like cockatiel, budgerigar, parrots, hill myna, starling, crow, falcon and other birds of pray, chickens, ducks, pheasants, geese, ratites, guinea fowl, partridge, dove, turkeys and quails. The feed is oily-, green-, wet-, dry-, additional-, mineral-, concentrate-, basic-, additives- and active agent-, molasses-, roughage-, coarse-, juice-, pellet-, cereals-, finished- and single feed e.g. cereals grains, whose products and by-products are grain legumes. The products and by-products of grain legumes are oil seeds, oleaginous fruit and oil providing plants, whose products and by-products are by-products of the fermentation industry and the distillation, tubers and roots. The products and by-products of roots are other seed, fruits, plants, whose products and by-products are milk products, mineral material, fish and other marine creature. The products and by-products of marine creature are animal meat. The animal meat products and its by-products are identical food material and -products. An independent claim is included for a procedure for the production of a feed for animals.

SCHROEDER JAN

178

Graph animals, subgraph sampling and motif search in large networks  

CERN Multimedia

We generalize a sampling algorithm for lattice animals (connected clusters on a regular lattice) to a Monte Carlo algorithm for `graph animals', i.e. connected subgraphs in arbitrary networks. As with the algorithm in [N. Kashtan et al., Bioinformatics 20, 1746 (2004)], it provides a weighted sample, but the computation of the weights is much faster (linear in the size of subgraphs, instead of super-exponential). This allows subgraphs with up to ten or more nodes to be sampled with very high statistics, from arbitrarily large networks. Using this together with a heuristic algorithm for rapidly classifying isomorphic graphs, we present results for two protein interaction networks obtained using the TAP high throughput method: one of Escherichia coli with 230 nodes and 695 links, and one for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with roughly ten times more nodes and links. We find in both cases that most connected subgraphs are strong motifs (Z-scores >10) or anti-motifs (Z-scores <-10) when the null model is the...

Baskerville, Kim; Paczuski, Maya

2007-01-01

179

Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine-cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine-uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed.

Dorne JL; Doerge DR; Vandenbroeck M; Fink-Gremmels J; Mennes W; Knutsen HK; Vernazza F; Castle L; Edler L; Benford D

2013-08-01

180

Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine-cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine-uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. PMID:22306862

Dorne, Jean Lou; Doerge, Daniel R; Vandenbroeck, Marc; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Mennes, Wim; Knutsen, Helle K; Vernazza, Francesco; Castle, Laurence; Edler, Lutz; Benford, Diane

2012-01-25

 
 
 
 
181

Feeding of ticks on animals for transmission and xenodiagnosis in lyme disease research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transmission of the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, occurs by the attachment and blood feeding of Ixodes species ticks on mammalian hosts. In nature, this zoonotic bacterial pathogen may use a variety of reservoir hosts, but the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is the primary reservoir for larval and nymphal ticks in North America. Humans are incidental hosts most frequently infected with B. burgdorferi by the bite of ticks in the nymphal stage. B. burgdorferi adapts to its hosts throughout the enzootic cycle, so the ability to explore the functions of these spirochetes and their effects on mammalian hosts requires the use of tick feeding. In addition, the technique of xenodiagnosis (using the natural vector for detection and recovery of an infectious agent) has been useful in studies of cryptic infection. In order to obtain nymphal ticks that harbor B. burgdorferi, ticks are fed live spirochetes in culture through capillary tubes. Two animal models, mice and nonhuman primates, are most commonly used for Lyme disease studies involving tick feeding. We demonstrate the methods by which these ticks can be fed upon, and recovered from animals for either infection or xenodiagnosis.

Embers ME; Grasperge BJ; Jacobs MB; Philipp MT

2013-01-01

182

Feeding of ticks on animals for transmission and xenodiagnosis in lyme disease research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transmission of the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, occurs by the attachment and blood feeding of Ixodes species ticks on mammalian hosts. In nature, this zoonotic bacterial pathogen may use a variety of reservoir hosts, but the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is the primary reservoir for larval and nymphal ticks in North America. Humans are incidental hosts most frequently infected with B. burgdorferi by the bite of ticks in the nymphal stage. B. burgdorferi adapts to its hosts throughout the enzootic cycle, so the ability to explore the functions of these spirochetes and their effects on mammalian hosts requires the use of tick feeding. In addition, the technique of xenodiagnosis (using the natural vector for detection and recovery of an infectious agent) has been useful in studies of cryptic infection. In order to obtain nymphal ticks that harbor B. burgdorferi, ticks are fed live spirochetes in culture through capillary tubes. Two animal models, mice and nonhuman primates, are most commonly used for Lyme disease studies involving tick feeding. We demonstrate the methods by which these ticks can be fed upon, and recovered from animals for either infection or xenodiagnosis. PMID:24022694

Embers, Monica E; Grasperge, Britton J; Jacobs, Mary B; Philipp, Mario T

2013-08-31

183

Improvement in irradiation pasteurization on sugarcane bagasse for its fungal bioconversion to animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Goals of this study were to reduce radiation dose required for bagase pasteurization and to convert the pasteurized bagasse into animal feed by using fungal fermentation. Comparative study on the effectiveness of radiation decontamination on moisturized and dried bagasse showed different doses required for pasteurization. Radiation treatment on wetted substratum bags required 20 kGy, while dried bagasse needed only 10 kGy for pasteurization. In comparison with wetted bagasse substratum, the pasteurized dry bagasse has more dominant advantages because it can be kept for storage, transportation and distribution to household producers. Moisturizing substratum with tap water can be done just before inoculation with mycelial seed. Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse to ruminant feed by using fungal fermentation was investigated. The in sacco digestibility of fermented substratum increased with incubation period and it was higher than that of paddy rice straw and comparable to Pangola grass after 35 days of fermentation. As the digestibility of mushroom-harvested residue was still higher than that of non-fermented bagasse, the fermentation by using Pleurotus spp. could simultaneously provide edible mushroom and animal feed as well. (Author)

2002-01-01

184

Treatment of Animal Feeds with Ionizing Radiation II: Effects of Gamma Radicidation on the Biological Value of Poultry Feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poultry is a major local meat source which is often contaminated with salmonella. A major source of contamination was found to be salmonella-infected poultry feed. Since gamma radiation at doses of up to 1 Mrad reduced salmonella populations in feed by 6 to 7 logs, this study was undertaken to determine if radicidized poultry feed can be used as a step in reducing contamination of poultry without affecting breeder flock performance and longevity. Two breeder flocks, each comprising 300 hens and 50 roosters, were kept in separate coops. One flock was fed untreated feed, while the feed of the other was radicidized at 1 Mrad, which resulted in a level of less than 10 enterobacteria per gram. The flocks Were studied for over 12 months, from the emergence of chicks to the end of 6 months of egg production. The quantity of feed supply was controlled to ensure early detection of detrimental effects on the biological value of the feed. For the first 8 weeks, when the feed was freely supplied, no differences were observed in feed utilization or growth. After limited feeding was started, no significant differences were observed in feed utilization and in total amount of feed consumed. The number of fertile eggs, the feed consumption per egg, the age at which the first egg was laid, mortality and the total weight after 22 weeks and 12¼ months were practically equivalent in both flocks. Chicks obtained from both flocks showed no significant differences in weight or in feed utilization. (author)

1978-01-01

185

Production of single cell protein from rice hulls for animal feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degradation of the rice hulls with cellulolytic microorganisms with the production of single-cell protein was studied. A mixed culture of 7 strains of bacteria was developed to grow in an optimized growth medium containing 4% alk.-treated rice hulls and mineral salts. The optimum temperature for the growth was 37 degrees. The pH of the medium was 7.0 and aeration supplied by sparged air at 1 volume air/volume liquid/min. The biomass obtained in 3 days was 6.50 g/L of medium, with 41.6% of the rice hulls hydrolyzed. The biomass contained 38.4% crude protein. The feeding of the biomass to weanling mice as 15% protein showed that there was no apparent acute toxicity in the biomass. The effect of pretreatment of rice hulls on fermentation was examined, and the feasibility of producing single-cell protein for animal feed from the process discussed.

Chang, W.T.H.; Hsu, W.H.; Lai, M.N.; Chang, P.P.

1980-01-01

186

Animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG).

1997-01-01

187

Single-laboratory validation for the quantification of neomycin B and neomycin C in animal feeds by liquid chromatography fluorescence detection with post-column derivatization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method using ion-exchange liquid chromatographic (LC) separation, post-column derivatization, and fluorescence detection to quantify neomycin B and neomycin C in animal feeds has been developed and validated. Improved methodology is required to achieve positive identification of antibiotics present and to more accurately determine the amount of antibiotics in feeds. The method sample range covers additive levels found in type A, B, and C medicated feed products (50-0.005% wt/wt neomycin base). The linear range for the method covers 50-150% of expected sample concentrations. Average recovery from type A and B feeds, n = 9, was 100.4% neomycin with %RSD = 2.28. Average recovery from type C feeds and milk replacers, n = 9, was 97.5% neomycin with %RSD = 4.36. There were no interferences from soybean meal and milk replacer matrix components, oxytetracycline, or other aminoglycosides, with the exception of one gentamicin isomer, which co-elutes with neomycin B. However, neomycin and gentamicin are not a legal feed combination, and the presence of gentamicin can easily be discerned by the appearance of the 3 gentamicin homologs that do not interfere. Comparison of the proposed LC method to the microbiological method shows that the LC method provides comparable recoveries of neomycin from feed products throughout the range of concentrations found commercially.

Driver JL; Thiex N; Raynie D; Ofitserova M; Pickering M

2009-01-01

188

Single-laboratory validation for the quantification of neomycin B and neomycin C in animal feeds by liquid chromatography fluorescence detection with post-column derivatization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method using ion-exchange liquid chromatographic (LC) separation, post-column derivatization, and fluorescence detection to quantify neomycin B and neomycin C in animal feeds has been developed and validated. Improved methodology is required to achieve positive identification of antibiotics present and to more accurately determine the amount of antibiotics in feeds. The method sample range covers additive levels found in type A, B, and C medicated feed products (50-0.005% wt/wt neomycin base). The linear range for the method covers 50-150% of expected sample concentrations. Average recovery from type A and B feeds, n = 9, was 100.4% neomycin with %RSD = 2.28. Average recovery from type C feeds and milk replacers, n = 9, was 97.5% neomycin with %RSD = 4.36. There were no interferences from soybean meal and milk replacer matrix components, oxytetracycline, or other aminoglycosides, with the exception of one gentamicin isomer, which co-elutes with neomycin B. However, neomycin and gentamicin are not a legal feed combination, and the presence of gentamicin can easily be discerned by the appearance of the 3 gentamicin homologs that do not interfere. Comparison of the proposed LC method to the microbiological method shows that the LC method provides comparable recoveries of neomycin from feed products throughout the range of concentrations found commercially. PMID:19382560

Driver, Julee Lynn; Thiex, Nancy; Raynie, Douglas; Ofitserova, Maria; Pickering, Michael

189

Feeding of the brine shrimp Artemia on yeast: effect of mechanical disturbance, animal density, water quality and light intensity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Details are given of experiments conducted to determine the effects of tank culture conditions on the feeding of Artemia. Mechanical disturbance, animal density and water quality were found to affect the feeding rate of Artemia. The importance of culture conditions in maintaining a rat...

Coutteau, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

190

Controlling the aflatoxin producing fungi contaminating animal feed by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results indicated that 9 from 24 isolates of fungi have the ability to produce aflatoxins either on synthetic medium or natural animal diet. Seven from the nine isolates producing aflatoxins belonged to genus Aspergillus and were held to five species namely A. terreus ,A. niger, A.flavus, A. orywae and A. nidulans. Meanwhile, only one species from genus penicillium was found to produce aflatoxin on both synthetic and animal diet media, while the remaining isolate, rhizopus nigricansm was found to produce aflatoxin on synthetic medium only. Aspergillus terreus isolates (1 and 3) were found to produce aflatoxins G 1 and G 2 on synthetic medium. On animal diet, strain (1) produced only aflatoxin G l, while strain (3) produced aflatoxin G 2 on the same animal diet. Exposure of these two strains to increasing doses of gamma rays up to 5 KGy decreased and finally prevented aflatoxin production. This dose was also found to be sufficient to eliminate all kinds of fungi contaminated animal feed.2 fig.,5 tab

1991-01-01

191

Study of starch degradation by yeasts during fermentation for using in animal feed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sixteen amylolytic yeasts, drawn from culture collections or isolated from different environments, were used in the present study. Experiments were performed to evaluate the starch degradation due to exocellular activity. The culture media of growth was optimized to find the maximum activity, and some strains produced an extracellular amylolytic enzyme when cultured in presence of starch in the medium. On the other hand, one yeast showed activity in cell extract when cultured under varying conditions in a bench bioreactor; this strain would thus be suitable for use as an animal feed supplement, both as a source of proteins and nucleic acids and in terms of its amylolytic activity.

Alonso S; Arévalo-Villena M; Ubeda J; Briones A

2010-11-01

192

Study of starch degradation by yeasts during fermentation for using in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixteen amylolytic yeasts, drawn from culture collections or isolated from different environments, were used in the present study. Experiments were performed to evaluate the starch degradation due to exocellular activity. The culture media of growth was optimized to find the maximum activity, and some strains produced an extracellular amylolytic enzyme when cultured in presence of starch in the medium. On the other hand, one yeast showed activity in cell extract when cultured under varying conditions in a bench bioreactor; this strain would thus be suitable for use as an animal feed supplement, both as a source of proteins and nucleic acids and in terms of its amylolytic activity. PMID:20454868

Alonso, Santiago; Arévalo-Villena, Maria; Ubeda, Juan; Briones, Ana

2010-05-09

193

Production of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces rimosus 12,907 as an animal feed supplement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Production of oxytetracycline by S. rimosus 12,907 as an animal feed supplement was achieved with a fermentation medium containing the following ingredients: blackstrap molasses 30, fodder yeast 20, rice bran 10, KH2PO4 0.2%, and water to 1000 mL. The dry mash, containing oxytetracycline, was 50 g/L of fermentation medium. The amount of oxytetracycline, present in the dry mash, was approximately 4.0%. The dry mash, also contained the following amino acids: L-arginine, L-histidine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, DL-methionine, and L-tryptophan.

Baghlaf, A.O.; Abou-Zeid, A.; El-Dewany, A.I.; Eissa, I.; Fouad, M.; Yassein, M.

1980-01-01

194

Method of an apparatus for making an animal feed from a beet material  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Beet material, such as extracted sugar beet slices or sugar beet peels, is subjected to acid hydrolysis in a hydrolyzer at elevated temperature and elevated pressure to form a hydrolyzed product, which is separated on a filter into a liquid fraction which is neutralized and evaporated to form a low moisture content liquid product suitable as animal feed, and a solids fraction. The solids fraction may be pressed to form a product having a high dry matter content or may be used directly as a starting material for the production of glucose by acid hydrolysis.

195

Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge using reactor waste to obtain acceptable fertilizer or animal supplement feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a report of the Beneficial Uses Program. This program consists of a number of activities at Sandia Laboratories to develop the necessary technology for cost-beneficial use of a maximum amount of radioactive waste. Major activity is currently concentrated in the Waste Resources Utilization Program which has as its objective the use of cesium-134/137 as a gamma radiation source, coupled with modest heating, to treat sewage sludge to rid it of pathogenic organisms so that it may safely be used as a fertilizer or a feed supplement for ruminant animals. (author)

1976-06-11

196

Ochratoxin A in feed of food-producing animals: an undesirable mycotoxin with health and performance effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, whose presence in feed- and foodstuffs is unavoidable. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the known mycotoxins with greatest public health and agro-economic significance. Several toxic effects have been ascribed following exposure, namely nephrotoxicity, as well negative impacts in the performance of farm animals, resulting in major economic implications. Of no less importance for the route of human exposure that can also embody the carry-over of OTA from feed into animal-derived products is also a concern. For all these reasons the present article updates the worldwide occurrence of OTA in different raw ingredients and finished feed destined to food-producing animals. After that a brief characterization of specie susceptibility and the major rationales is made. An historical overview of field outbreaks linked to OTA exposure in farm animals, concerning the implicated feeds, contamination levels and major clinical and productivity effects is presented. Finally a review of the major animal health and performance potential impacts of animals being reared on contaminated feed is made allied to a perspective regarding its co-occurrence with other mycotoxins, and simultaneous parasitic and bacterial infections. Ultimately, this article aims to be instructive and draw attention to a mycotoxin so often neglected and elapsed from the list of differential diagnosis in farm practice. For the unpredictability and unavoidability of occurrence, OTA will definitely be an enduring problem in animal production. PMID:21641127

Duarte, Sofia C; Lino, Celeste M; Pena, Angelina

2011-05-11

197

Pilot scale study - processing of palm empty fruit bunch into animal feed at sterifeed pilot plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5-1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

1998-01-01

198

Animal feed contamination by PCDDs-PCDFs in Italy in years 2002-2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), are ubiquitous toxic contaminants mainly originating from thermal and incineration processes and representing a potential risk for human health. Various studies show that environmental levels have decreased during the last 20 years. In contrast to this trend several cases of specific contamination have caused high PCDD and PCDF levels in feedstuffs. It is important to monitor the dioxin contamination of feed to avoid large scale feed contamination and to decrease human exposure to dioxins. In Italy PCDDs and PCDFs monitoring has been introduced in the National Residues Surveillance Plan (NRSP) since 1999 and all relevant laboratory tests have been carried out at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise (ISO/IEC 17025 accredited), following designation by the Ministry of Health. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCDD/Fs levels and congener distribution patterns in different animal feed in Italy, collected in the period 2002-2003.

Ceci, R.; Diletti, G.; Torreti, L.; Benedictis, A. De; Scortichini, G. [Ist. Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Abruzzo e del Molise (Italy)

2004-09-15

199

Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors contributing to nutrient availability and animal performance.

Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene

2010-01-01

200

Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors contributing to nutrient availability and animal performance. PMID:20578647

Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl; Skrede, Anders

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors contributing to nutrient availability and animal performance.

Øverland M; Tauson AH; Shearer K; Skrede A

2010-06-01

202

Effect of Operational Parameters on Solid State Fermentation of Cassava Peel to an Enriched Animal Feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Response surface methodology based on the Face-Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD) was employed to determine the effects of process conditions on the production of an enriched animal feed from cassava peel by a locally isolated white rot fungus Panus tigrinus (M609RQY). Seventeen experimental runs based on three parameters (pH, inoculum size and moisture content) as designated by FCCD were carried out under solid state fermentation. The effect of these parameters on lignin degradation in cassava peel was evaluated. Statistical analysis of the results showed that, only moisture content exerted a highly significant effect (p<0.01) on lignin degradation. The optimum parameter combination was found at 70% v/w of moisture content, 6% v/w inoculum size and pH of 5.30. Under this optimum, 50.62% lignin loss was obtained. This study presents a viable option to the management of cassava peel for production of value-added-product animal feed.

Parveen Jamal; Ruqayyah I.D. Tijani; Md. Zahangir Alam; Md. Elwathig S. Mirghani

2012-01-01

203

ORGANOMINERAL ADSORBENT OF MYCOTOXIN AS AN ANIMAL FEED ADDITIVE, PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCTION AND APPLICATION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organomineral adsorbent of mycotoxins as an animal feed additive, procedure for production and application, is obtained by known processes, technological preparation of zeolitic tuff, containing more than 80% of mineral clinoptilotite/heulandite, three steps comminution, wet classification and water suspended. Suspension 20-50 wt% of zeolitic tuff is mixed in a mixer on 4 000 r/m with addition of organic component -quaternary amine with long carbon chain, the most suitable are dioctadecyldimethyl amine, octadecylthreemethyl amine, octadecyldimethylbenzyl amine and similar compounds, in the amount of 0.5-5 meq/100g of zeolitic tuff. Suspension is filtered, dryed at temperature 80-100·C, desintegrated up to the particle size below 100 micrometers and than packed in powdered state. Adsorbent of mycotoxins possess balanced surface charge and hydrophobicity level and in accordance to mentioned a new active sites, which absorb mycotoxins of different polarities. Organomineral adsorbent of mycotoxins is added to the animal feed directly or through premixes in the amount of 0.2 wt% to feedmix.

TOMASEVIC-CANOVIC Magdalena; DUMIC Milutin; VUKICEVIC Olivera; DAKOVIC Aleksandra; MILOSEVIC Sinisa; AVAKUMOVIC Djordje; RAJIC Isidor

204

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author).

Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Shoji (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Mutaat, H.H.; Awang, M.R.

1992-01-01

205

Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This work-group, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards--Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

Burkholder J; Libra B; Weyer P; Heathcote S; Kolpin D; Thorne PS; Wichman M

2007-02-01

206

Environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations: implications for nurses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in livestock farming over the last 50 years have led to the increase of large-scale livestock farms called concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These farms pose a threat to the environment by polluting the air and nearby ground and surface waters. In addition, adverse health effects have been found in CAFO workers and CAFO neighbors. A multitude of respiratory effects have been noted by workers and neighbors, some of which are severe enough to cause workers to leave the industry. The mental health of CAFO neighbors appears to suffer as well, mainly because of noxious odors and stress. Concentrated animal feeding operations also contribute to the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which have the potential to harm populations nationwide. Although research is being done on this topic around the world, the nursing literature contains very little information on health effects from CAFOs. Occupational, community, and public health nurses should be aware of the dangers from CAFOs and should participate in caring practices, research, and advocacy to diminish the risks.

McElroy KG

2010-10-01

207

Production of ethanol, pulp fibre and animal feed from low grade hardwoods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The utilization of hardwoods is limited because most vessels and ray (parenchyma) cells are very short and not valuable for paper making. In a new catalyzed nitric acid hardwood pulping process the long fibre fraction is recovered, bleached and used to produce a good quality paper pulp. About 70% of the wood fibre can be recovered for sale as pulp with the remaining 30% as short fibres used to produce ethanol. The process does not require expensive high temperature and pressure equipment because the acid concentration and pulping temperatures are relatively low and the process takes place at atmospheric pressure. The process is environmentally friendly because it is possible to bleach the pulp fibres without using chlorine, consequently avoiding the production of environmental hazards such as dioxins. In addition, options exist for recovering used acid and ammonia bleaching agent for the production of either microbial protein for animal feed or as an ammonium nitrate fertilizer. The short fibre fraction is enzymatically hydrolyzed to liberate the wood sugars which are simultaneously fermented by yeasts to produce ethanol. The sugars left in the used acid and wash waters are used as a substrate for the growth of an acid-tolerant yeast-like fungus Scytalidium acidophilum, thereby producing fungal protein animal feed supplement, while removing the biochemical oxygen demand of the waste water. Pulp and ethanol production data and pulp quality data from both bench-scale experiment and pilot plant are presented. A preliminary economic assessment is included. 43 refs., 25 figs., 19 tabs.

Wilson, J.J.; Gauthier, Y.

1990-12-01

208

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author)

1992-01-01

209

Nutrient Composition of Some Unconventional and Local Feed Resources Available in Senegal and Recoverable in Indigenous Chickens or Animal Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10) unconventional and local ingredients from Senegal including leguminous leaves (Leuceana leucocephala, Cassia tora, Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata, Sesbania rostrata), cucurbit (Citrullus vulgaris) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds, red and white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds) and cockroaches (Blatta orientalis) were collected, sun-dried, processed into meal and analyzed for their chemical and macro-mineral composition using internationally established procedures. The results showed that the samples Dry Matter (DM) percent ranged from 89.3% (red cowpea) to 94.9% (C. vulgaris). The Crude Protein (CP) content ranged from 24.7% (white cowpea) to 61.9% (cockroaches meal), with A. digitata leaves having the lowest value (12.9%). Citrullus and Hibiscus seeds meal recorded the highest (38.8% and 18.9%) Ether Extract (EE) values, followed respectively by cockroaches (11.1%), Moringa (9.8%), Leuceana (6.4%) and Sesbania leaves meal (5.1%), while the others were below 4.5%. The crude fiber (CF) content was globally high in the leaves, ranging from 11.7% (M. oleifera) to 16.8% (C. tora) while that of seeds and cockroaches ranged from 1.9% (white cowpea) to 19% (Citrullus seeds). A. digitata leaves gave the highest ash content (25.2%), followed by Cassia (15.2%), Moringa (13.6%), Leuceana (11.4%) and Sesbania leaves (7.1%), while the others were below 5.6%. The metabolizable energy (ME) value calculated for seeds and cockroaches meal ranged from 3161 kcal/kg DM (cockroaches) to 4270 kcal/kg DM (C. vulgaris) and that of leaves from 1873 (A. digitata) to 2888.9 kcal/kg DM (M. oleifera). Cassia leaves contained the highest level of calcium (3.1%), followed by Adansonia and Leuceana (1.81%), Moringa and Sesbania leaves (1.41%), whilst cockroaches, Hibiscus and Citrullus seeds meal recorded respectively 0.93, 0.81 and 0.55% of phosphorus. These results showed that all the ingredients samples contained appreciable quantities of all dietary nutrients tested for which more or less make them partial or complete substitutes for the conventional feed sources.

S.B. Ayssiwede; J.C. Zanmenou; Y. Issa; M.B. Hane; A. Dieng; C.A.A.M. Chrysostome; M.R. Houinato; J.L. Hornick; A. Missohou

2011-01-01

210

Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. Mean fractional GI absorption values in fasted adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 15 x 10/sup -4/; Pu(IV) bicarbonate, 20 x 10/sup -4/; Pu(IV) nitrate (pH2), 17 x 10/sup -4/; Pu(IV) citrate, 24 x 10/sup -4/; and Pu(IV) polymer, 3 x 10/sup -4/. Values in fed adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 1.4 x 10/sup -4/; Pu(IV) polymer, 0.3 x 10/sup -4/. Pu(VI) is the oxidation state in chlorinated drinking waters and Pu(IV) is the oxidation state in many untreated natural waters. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. Fractional GI absorption values obtained by this method were 23 +- 10 x 10/sup -4/ for fasted baboons (n=5) and 1.4 +- 0.9 x 10/sup -4/ for fed baboons (n=3). We have so far validated this method in one baboon and are currently completing validation in two additional animals. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state (Pu(VI) vs Pu(IV)) and administration medium (bicarbonate vs nitrate vs citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L.

1985-01-01

211

Radionuclides in animal tissue samples from various regions of Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of the concentration of radioactive substances in animal species from various regions of Austria has been carried out. For bone and liver of deer, radionuclide concentrations typical for central Europe were found. The content of 90Sr were higher in gasteropod shells than in deer bone. Similar concentrations of 90Sr were found in isopods as in snail shells related to fresh weight, but related to Ca content the values in isopods were higher than in all other animals. Based on these results, a study of snail shells and of isopods as bioindicators for 90Sr content in environmental control is indicated. In tissue samples of the same species, but from different regions of Austria, the fallout radionuclide concentrations were found to be related to altitude (90Sr) and to the amount of precipitation (137Cs). These correlation differences could point to a different deposition behaviours of 90Sr and 137Cs, the former being deposited mainly with solid precipitation. This seems plausible since aerosols carried over continental distances show a high sulfate content and alkaline earth metal sulfates are less soluble than alkali sulfates. Examination of absolute concentration values related to fresh tissue weight show high fallout radionuclide concentrations, as compared to natural radionuclide concentration, especially in hard tissues. These fallout levels constitute a significant radioactive load on the biosphere. Due to the long physical half-life of 90Sr and 137Cs, this situation will remain virtually unchanged during the next decades, even if no further nuclear weapons tests are carried out. (G.G.).

1981-01-01

212

The potential impact of flooding on confined animal feeding operations in eastern North Carolina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thousands of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been constructed in eastern North Carolina. The fecal waste pit and spray field waste management systems used by these operations are susceptible to flooding in this low-lying region. To investigate the potential that flood events can lead to environmental dispersion of animal wastes containing numerous biologic and chemical hazards, we compared the geographic coordinates of 2,287 CAFOs permitted by the North Carolina Division of Water Quality (DWQ) with estimates of flooding derived from digital satellite images of eastern North Carolina taken approximately 1 week after Hurricane Floyd dropped as much as 15-20 inches of rain in September 1999. Three cattle, one poultry, and 237 swine operations had geographic coordinates within the satellite-based flooded area. DWQ confirmed 46 operations with breached or flooded fecal waste pits in the same area. Only 20 of these 46 CAFOs were within the satellite-based estimate of the inundated area. CAFOs within the satellite-based flood area were located in 132 census block groups with a population of 171,498 persons in the 2000 census. African Americans were more likely than whites to live in areas with flooded CAFOs according to satellite estimates, but not according to DWQ reports. These areas have high poverty rates and dependence on wells for drinking water. Our analysis suggests that flood events have a significant potential to degrade environmental health because of dispersion of wastes from industrial animal operations in areas with vulnerable populations.

Wing S; Freedman S; Band L

2002-04-01

213

Isotope analytics for the evaluation of the feeding influence on the isotope ratio in beef samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information about the origin of food and associated production systems has a high significance for food control. An extremely promising approach to obtain such information is the determination of isotope ratios of different elements. In this study the correlation of the isotope ratios C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, Mg-25/Mg-24, and Sr-87/Sr-86 in bovine samples (milk and urine) and the corresponding isotope ratios in feed was investigated. It was shown that in the bovine samples all four isotope ratios correlate with the isotope composition of the feed. The isotope ratios of strontium and magnesium have the advantage that they directly reflect the isotope ratios of the ingested feed since there is no isotope fractionation in the bovine organism which is in contrast to the case of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. From the present feeding study it is evident, that a feed change leads to a significant change in the delta C-13 values in milk and urine within 10 days already. For the deltaN-15 values the feed change was only visible in the bovine urine after 49 days. Investigations of cows from two different regions (Berlin/Germany and Goestling/Austria) kept at different feeding regimes revealed no differences in the N-15/N-14 and Mg-26/Mg-24 isotope ratios. The strongest correlation between the isotope ratio of the bovine samples and the kind of ingested feed was observed for the carbon isotope ratio. With this ratio even smallest differences in the feed composition were traceable in the bovine samples. Since different regions usually coincide with different feeding regimes, carbon isotope ratios can be used to distinguish bovine samples from different regions if the delta C-13 values of the ingested feed are different. Furthermore, the determination of strontium isotope ratios revealed significant differences between bovine and feed samples of Berlin and Goestling due to the different geologic realities. Hence the carbon and strontium isotope ratios allow the best discrimination between bovine samples of different locations. In some cases these ratios even show indications for the production system (conventional and organic cattle breeding).

2010-01-01

214

Animals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

1997-10-01

215

Determination of Zn-, Cu- and Mn-glycinate complexes in feed samples and in-vitro and in-vivo assays to assess their bioaccessibility in feed samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed for the quantification of Zn-, Cu- and Mn-glycinates in supplemented feed samples. The coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with ICP MS detection after purification of the extract by ultrafiltration was shown to be efficient for the quantitative recovery of glycinates. The method developed was then applied to evaluate the bioaccessibility of glycinates using a sequential enzymolysis approach. The data obtained indicated a strong bioaccessibility of each element (79-94%). A new complex was also found to be formed during the digestion process. Bioavailability was then evaluated by analyzing plasma samples of horses supplemented with glycinates-rich feed. Intact glycinates could not be detected in plasma samples but a Cu-containing molecule was found more abundant after CuGly treatment. PMID:23708617

Vacchina, Véronique; Ionescu, Catherine; Oguey, Sébastien; Lobinski, Ryszard

2013-04-06

216

Rationalization of motive power use in animal feed industry; Racionalizacao do uso de forca motriz em fabrica de racao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pif Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: to adjust relays and to choose fuses, to schedule operation and to build storage facilities. (author)

Teixeira, Carlos A.; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio F. de; Martins, Jose H. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mails: carlos, delly, alacerda, jmartins@vicosa.ufv.br

2005-05-15

217

Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) – effects on animal performance and meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females) were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM) or fishmeal (WFM) as protein source) on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females) on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus) from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to “wild’ or “gamey” flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively). No “fish-related” flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjøl – effekter på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet I vår undersökning ingick 14 renar (8 kastrerade sarvar (härkar)och 6 vajor) för att jämföra effekter av två olika renfoder (baserade på korn, hö och soja- (SBM) eller fiskmjöl (WFM) som proteintillskott) med avseende på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet. Köttprover från naturbetande renar (n=4; 2 härkar och 2 vajor) från Seward Peninsula inkluderades i studien för att representera kvaliteten på traditionellt producerat renkött från Alaska. Inga signifikanta skillnader i tillväxt observerades, varken mellan SBM- och WFM-grupperna eller mellan härkar och vajor. Foderutnyttjandet var dock signifikant bättre hos WFM-renarna. Slaktutbytet var högst för renarna i SBM-gruppen, däremot rapporterades inga skillnader i levandevikt, slaktkroppsegenskaper, pH-värde och temperatur i ytterfilén, skärmotstånd, färg eller vattenhållande förmåga i köttet när de tre grupperna av renar jämfördes (SBM, WFM och naturbetande djur). Köttet från de naturbetande renarna hade det signifikant högsta innehållet av både omega-3-fettsyror och av fleromättade fettsyror. Kött från SBM-renarna hade det högsta innehållet av triglycerider och det lägsta innehållet av fosfolipider jämfört med de andra två grupperna. Den tränade smakpanelen kunde inte hitta några skillnader i sensoriska egenskaper hos köttet från renarna i de tre olika grupperna. I en konsumentundersökning rapporterades kommentarer om olika ”vilt-relaterade” bismaker i kött från naturbetande renar (24% av konsumenterna) och från WFM-gruppen (15% av konsumenterna), men inga ”fisk-liknande” bismaker i köttet kunde påvisas. Att byta ut sojamjöl mot fiskmjöl som proteintillskott i renfoder hade inga negativa effekter

Greg Finstad; Eva Wiklund; Kristy Long; Phillip J. Rincker; Alexandra C. M. Oliveira; Peter J. Bechtel

2007-01-01

218

Performance and testing of two models of solar cookers for animal feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two simple solar cookers, one made of clay and locally available materials, and the other of exfoliated vermiculite and cement tiles, have been designed, fabricated and tested. The comparative performance of both cookers is described, and their efficiencies are 22.6 (clay) and 24.9% (vermiculite), respectively. The cookers are capable of boiling 2 kg of animal feed per day, and represent the equivalent of 1350 MJ of fuel per year at Jodhpur. Payback periods for solar cookers made of vermiculite tiles vary from 0.50 to 3.47 years, depending upon the fuel they replace. The shorter payback period suggests that the use of the cooker is economical. (author)

Nahar, N.M.; Gupta, J.P.; Sharma, P. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Jodhpur (India)

1996-04-01

219

Biodiesel-derived crude glycerol bioconversion to animal feed: a sustainable option for a biodiesel refinery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the potential of producing an edible fungus, Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus, on biodiesel-derived crude glycerol. Prolific fungal growth was observed with a fungal biomass yield of 0.83 ± 0.02 (g biomass increase/ginitial biomass) under optimal cultivation conditions (e.g. nonsterile crude glycerol at a concentration of 75% (w/v) with nutrient supplementation and without pH control). The potential of utilizing front-end processed banagrass (Pennisetum purpureum) juice as a source of nutrients for crude glycerol fermentation was evaluated with a 2.3-fold improvement in the fungal biomass yield. The glycerol-derived fungal biomass showed high amounts of threonine, one of the main limiting amino acids in non-ruminant feeds. An inexpensive fungal protein has the potential to reduce meat product prices by lowering the production costs of animal feeds. The application of fungal technology thus provides a unique sustainable option for biodiesel refineries by providing an additional source of revenue from fungal products.

Nitayavardhana S; Khanal SK

2011-05-01

220

Biodiesel-derived crude glycerol bioconversion to animal feed: a sustainable option for a biodiesel refinery.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the potential of producing an edible fungus, Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus, on biodiesel-derived crude glycerol. Prolific fungal growth was observed with a fungal biomass yield of 0.83 ± 0.02 (g biomass increase/ginitial biomass) under optimal cultivation conditions (e.g. nonsterile crude glycerol at a concentration of 75% (w/v) with nutrient supplementation and without pH control). The potential of utilizing front-end processed banagrass (Pennisetum purpureum) juice as a source of nutrients for crude glycerol fermentation was evaluated with a 2.3-fold improvement in the fungal biomass yield. The glycerol-derived fungal biomass showed high amounts of threonine, one of the main limiting amino acids in non-ruminant feeds. An inexpensive fungal protein has the potential to reduce meat product prices by lowering the production costs of animal feeds. The application of fungal technology thus provides a unique sustainable option for biodiesel refineries by providing an additional source of revenue from fungal products. PMID:21382713

Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

2011-02-17

 
 
 
 
221

Weber's Law, the Magnitude Effect and Discrimination of Sugar Concentrations in Nectar-Feeding Animals  

Science.gov (United States)

Weber’s law quantifies the perception of difference between stimuli. For instance, it can explain why we are less likely to detect the removal of three nuts from a bowl if the bowl is full than if it is nearly empty. This is an example of the magnitude effect – the phenomenon that the subjective perception of a linear difference between a pair of stimuli progressively diminishes when the average magnitude of the stimuli increases. Although discrimination performances of both human and animal subjects in various sensory modalities exhibit the magnitude effect, results sometimes systematically deviate from the quantitative predictions based on Weber’s law. An attempt to reformulate the law to better fit data from acoustic discrimination tasks has been dubbed the “near-miss to Weber’s law”. Here, we tested the gustatory discrimination performance of nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina), in order to investigate whether the original version of Weber’s law accurately predicts choice behavior in a two-alternative forced choice task. As expected, bats either preferred the sweeter of the two options or showed no preference. In 4 out of 6 bats the near-miss to Weber’s law provided a better fit and Weber’s law underestimated the magnitude effect. In order to test the generality of this observation in nectar-feeders, we reviewed previously published data on bats, hummingbirds, honeybees, and bumblebees. In all groups of animals the near-miss to Weber’s law provided better fits than Weber’s law. Furthermore, whereas the magnitude effect was stronger than predicted by Weber’s law in vertebrates, it was weaker than predicted in insects. Thus nectar-feeding vertebrates and insects seem to differ in how their choice behavior changes as sugar concentration is increased. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of the observed patterns of sugar concentration discrimination.

Nachev, Vladislav; Stich, Kai Petra; Winter, York

2013-01-01

222

A collaborative study of a method for the enumeration of probiotic bifidobacteria in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

An enumeration method to be used as an official control method in the framework of Council Directive 70/524/EEC for probiotic bifidobacteria used as feed additives was validated. Seventeen laboratories in 11 European Countries carried out a collaborative study. A spread plate method following BS ISO 15214:1998 using four different agars, Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS), acidified MRS, MRS with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and a selective bifidobacteria medium, was validated. Precision data in terms of repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) of the method for each medium using different feeding stuffs with a high and a low inoculation level were determined. Bifidobacteria were present in the samples as a single component or in mixtures with other probiotics. The enumeration of bifidobacteria on all agars showed a relative standard deviation of repeatability (RSD(r)) between 1.2% and 6.3% and a relative standard deviation of reproducibility (RSD(R)) between 2.6% and 8.7%. MRS agar was preferred, followed by acidified MRS and MRS+TTC agar. The selective bifidobacteria medium gave similar counts as the MRS media. For routine analysis, the use of MRS agar with supplementation of cysteine hydrochloride (the selective bifidobacteria medium without antibiotics) is recommended. Depending on the presence and concentration of other probiotics such as enterococci, lactobacilli and pediococci, acidified MRS or MRS+TTC agar is recommended. The selective bifidobacteria medium was selective for bifidobacteria. An official control method for enumeration of probiotic bifidobacteria as a single component and in mixtures with other probiotic microorganisms in feeding stuffs was validated. The methodology is not applicable to mineral feed. The results are intended for consideration for adaptation as CEN and ISO standards. PMID:12706037

Leuschner, Renata G K; Bew, Jan; Simpson, Paul; Ross, Paul R; Stanton, Catherine

2003-06-15

223

Development and validation of a pressurised liquid extraction liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method for beta-lactams and sulfonamides in animal feed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study presents the development and validation of a sensitive and fast (30 min extraction time and 10 min chromatographic run) method for the detection of penicillins, cephalosporins and sulfonamides in animal feed using pressurised liquid extraction and solid phase extraction as extraction and pre-concentration procedures, followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion-trap mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated showing limits of detection ranging from 0.12 (ampicillin) to 3.94 ng/g (amoxicillin), instrumental and analytical linearity coefficients above 0.99 in both standard and matrix-based solutions as well as relative recoveries ranging from 71% (cefoperazone) to 115% (cefazolin). Repeatability of the method was in the range of 1-9% (RSD %), whereas reproducibility ranged from 3% to 13% (RSD %). The developed and validated method was finally applied to the analysis of real feed samples. The results showed 10 out of 18 analytes to be present in at least one sample and all 14 samples to contain at least one analyte. Penicillin V, oxacillin, ceftiofur, cefoperazone, cefalexin, cefazolin, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfapyridine were not detected in any of the samples analysed. Considering the ban of antibacterials as growth promoters added in animal feed, this method is capable of detecting the low concentrations that could result from failure to comply with the regulations or on-site contamination.

Kantiani L; Farré M; Grases i Freixiedas JM; Barceló D

2010-06-01

224

Development and validation of a pressurised liquid extraction liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method for beta-lactams and sulfonamides in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the development and validation of a sensitive and fast (30 min extraction time and 10 min chromatographic run) method for the detection of penicillins, cephalosporins and sulfonamides in animal feed using pressurised liquid extraction and solid phase extraction as extraction and pre-concentration procedures, followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion-trap mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated showing limits of detection ranging from 0.12 (ampicillin) to 3.94 ng/g (amoxicillin), instrumental and analytical linearity coefficients above 0.99 in both standard and matrix-based solutions as well as relative recoveries ranging from 71% (cefoperazone) to 115% (cefazolin). Repeatability of the method was in the range of 1-9% (RSD %), whereas reproducibility ranged from 3% to 13% (RSD %). The developed and validated method was finally applied to the analysis of real feed samples. The results showed 10 out of 18 analytes to be present in at least one sample and all 14 samples to contain at least one analyte. Penicillin V, oxacillin, ceftiofur, cefoperazone, cefalexin, cefazolin, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfapyridine were not detected in any of the samples analysed. Considering the ban of antibacterials as growth promoters added in animal feed, this method is capable of detecting the low concentrations that could result from failure to comply with the regulations or on-site contamination. PMID:20527677

Kantiani, Lina; Farré, Marinella; Grases i Freixiedas, Josep Manuel; Barceló, Damiá

2010-06-25

225

Wholesomeness and toxicological safety of irradiated animal feed by-products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to assess the wholesomeness and toxicological safety of irradiated animal feed by-products after eliminating the pathogenic microorganisms by using gamma irradiation. Five groups of Dokki-4 chicks each group consists of 60 one-day old cockerels were fed for 24 weeks on a ration containing irradiated fish, meat, and blood meals by dose level 0.5, 10.0, 20.0, and 50,0 KGY for 24 weeks. The ratio of animal proteins to the total protein of ration fed was 56% for non-irradiated or irradiated meals. The effects of consumption of irradiated meals on live body weight and internal organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys) were studied. The observation gave an indication that body weight of all group as well as organs weight were normal and similar for the control group. Also, there was no clinically significant differences among the groups regarding red and white blood cells counts, haemoglobin contents, haematocrite value, and ESR for all groups. The results also showed no differences in total plasma protein, alkaline phosphatase activity and plasma Na, K, Mg, and Zn ions between the five groups studied

1985-01-01

226

Sterilization by irradiation of feed for axenic or heteroxenic laboratory animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Sterilization by irradiation of animal feeds is promising. The objective of experiments presented is to determine if integrated dose (44 kGy) has an influence on breeding performances and on animal behavior. Results show that not only nothing abnormal is constated but performances are better than those obtained with an autoclave in an important breeding center in conditions perfectly analyzed[fr] La sterilisation par irradiation des denrees alimentaires pour animaux est riche de promesse. Le but essentiel des experiences presentees etait de determiner si la dose integree par les aliments (44 kGy) pouvait avoir une influence sur les performances d'elevage et sur le comportement des animaux. Les resultats montrent que, non seulement performances et comportements ne presentent rien d'anormal, mais encore que les performances s'averent superieures a celles qu'on obtient chez les animaux nourris avec les regimes autoclaves dans des conditions habituelles d'un tres vaste elevage aux caracteristiques parfaitement analysees

1979-01-01

227

Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic/ tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and doxycycline in animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

A selective and accurate LC/MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), and doxycycline (DC) in animal feeds was developed. Samples were extracted with Na2EDTA-McIlvaine buffer and further purified with Oasis HLB SPE columns. The purified extract was separated on an Xbridge C18 column and detected by LC/MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. This method provided average recoveries of 80.9 to 119.5%, with CVs of 1.7 to 9.8% in the range of 0.5 to 50 mg/kg CTC, OTC, TC, and DC in feeds, except the average recovery of CTC was 76.0%, with a CV of 14.6% in pig feed spiked with 0.5 mg/kg CTC. The linear ranges for the four TCs determined by LC/MS/MS ranged from 0.005 to 2.5 microg/mL with a linear correlation coefficient (R2) >0.99. The LOD and LOQ for CTC, OTC, TC, and DC in pig and poultry feeds ranged from 0.003 to 0.02 and 0.01 to 0.05 microg/g, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of 30 real feed samples, and no illegal use was detected. PMID:22970565

Guo, Liang; Chen, Yiqiang; Zhang, Liying; Yang, Wenjun; He, Pingli

228

Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic/ tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and doxycycline in animal feeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A selective and accurate LC/MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), and doxycycline (DC) in animal feeds was developed. Samples were extracted with Na2EDTA-McIlvaine buffer and further purified with Oasis HLB SPE columns. The purified extract was separated on an Xbridge C18 column and detected by LC/MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. This method provided average recoveries of 80.9 to 119.5%, with CVs of 1.7 to 9.8% in the range of 0.5 to 50 mg/kg CTC, OTC, TC, and DC in feeds, except the average recovery of CTC was 76.0%, with a CV of 14.6% in pig feed spiked with 0.5 mg/kg CTC. The linear ranges for the four TCs determined by LC/MS/MS ranged from 0.005 to 2.5 microg/mL with a linear correlation coefficient (R2) >0.99. The LOD and LOQ for CTC, OTC, TC, and DC in pig and poultry feeds ranged from 0.003 to 0.02 and 0.01 to 0.05 microg/g, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of 30 real feed samples, and no illegal use was detected.

Guo L; Chen Y; Zhang L; Yang W; He P

2012-07-01

229

Technical note: common analytical errors yielding inaccurate results during analysis of fatty acids in feed and digesta samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The basic rules governing the proper fatty acid analysis of feed and digesta samples are sometimes overlooked, leading to potential errors in reporting the fatty acid content or composition of feed and digesta samples. The direct transesterification procedure of Sukhija and Palmquist (1988, J. Agric. Food Chem. 36:1202-1206) has become popular in analyzing fatty acids in feed and digesta samples obtained from animal feeding trials. One shortcoming of the Sukhija and Palmquist transesterification procedure is inaccurate analysis of fatty acids with conjugated double bonds. Digesta and milk samples from ruminant species typically contain a multitude of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers that easily undergo isomerization and epimerization following prolonged exposure to methanolic HCl. Modifications to the Sukhija and Palmquist procedure are given in this paper that allow successful determination of CLA isomers. Errors in fatty acid analysis also occur from misuse of internal standards; use of an internal standard is recommended in the Sukhija and Palmquist procedure as the preferred method to quantify total fatty acid content. The choice of internal standard may sometimes be important for obtaining accurate results. As an example, applying the direct transesterification procedure to a fat supplement high in saturated fatty acids yielded 613 mg/g of total fatty acids when C17 was used as the internal standard compared with 930 mg/g total fatty acids when C19 was used as the internal standard. Fatty acid content further increased to 952 mg/g when a unique unsaturated fatty acid (C13:1) was used as the internal standard.

Jenkins TC

2010-03-01

230

Nutrient Composition of Some Unconventional and Local Feed Resources Available in Senegal and Recoverable in Indigenous Chickens or Animal Feeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10) unconventional and local ingredients from Sen...

S.B. Ayssiwede; J.C. Zanmenou; Y. Issa; M.B. Hane; A. Dieng; C.A.A.M. Chrysostome; M.R. Houinato; J.L. Hornick; A. Missohou

231

Composição química da glicerina produzida por usinas de biodiesel no Brasil e potencial de uso na alimentação animal Chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and potential utilization in animal feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com a crescente produção de biodiesel no Brasil, aumenta também a produção de glicerina, co-produto dessa indústria. O principal componente da glicerina é o glicerol, altamente energético e, por isso, ela já vem sendo usada como alimento animal em vários países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química da glicerina produzida por indústrias de biodiesel no Brasil e discutir seu potencial de utilização na alimentação animal. Dezesseis usinas, responsáveis por 85,1% do biodiesel produzido no país, forneceram 41 amostras para análise. Cromo, cádmio e chumbo não foram detectados em nenhuma das amostras estudadas. Apenas quatro usinas, responsáveis por 36,8% da produção, produzem glicerina que atendem os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento para os teores de umidade e glicerol. Apenas uma usina, responsável por 14,1% da produção, produz glicerina apta para uso na alimentação de ruminantes, por não utilizar sebo bovino como matéria prima para o biodiesel.The increasing production of biodiesel in Brazil also increases glycerin production, a co-product of this industry. The main component of glycerin, glycerol, is highly energetic and because of that, glycerin is already used as animal feed in many countries. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and discuss its potential utilization as animal feed. Forty one samples of glycerin from sixteen biodiesel plants, that together yield 85.1% of Brazilian biodiesel, were analyzed. Chromium, cadmium and lead were not detected in any studied sample. Only four plants, that together yield 36.8% of Brazilian glycerin, comply the glycerol and moisture content levels established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Only one, responsible for 14.1% of Brazilian glycerin, delivers glycerin with the potential to be used as ruminant feed once it doesn't use animal fat to produce biodiesel.

Jackson Silva e Oliveira; Rosemar Antoniassi; Sidinéa Cordeiro de Freitas; Marcelo Dias Müller

2013-01-01

232

Composição química da glicerina produzida por usinas de biodiesel no Brasil e potencial de uso na alimentação animal/ Chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and potential utilization in animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com a crescente produção de biodiesel no Brasil, aumenta também a produção de glicerina, co-produto dessa indústria. O principal componente da glicerina é o glicerol, altamente energético e, por isso, ela já vem sendo usada como alimento animal em vários países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química da glicerina produzida por indústrias de biodiesel no Brasil e discutir seu potencial de utilização na alimentação animal. Dezesseis us (more) inas, responsáveis por 85,1% do biodiesel produzido no país, forneceram 41 amostras para análise. Cromo, cádmio e chumbo não foram detectados em nenhuma das amostras estudadas. Apenas quatro usinas, responsáveis por 36,8% da produção, produzem glicerina que atendem os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento para os teores de umidade e glicerol. Apenas uma usina, responsável por 14,1% da produção, produz glicerina apta para uso na alimentação de ruminantes, por não utilizar sebo bovino como matéria prima para o biodiesel. Abstract in english The increasing production of biodiesel in Brazil also increases glycerin production, a co-product of this industry. The main component of glycerin, glycerol, is highly energetic and because of that, glycerin is already used as animal feed in many countries. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and discuss its potential utilization as animal feed. Forty one samples of glycerin from sixteen b (more) iodiesel plants, that together yield 85.1% of Brazilian biodiesel, were analyzed. Chromium, cadmium and lead were not detected in any studied sample. Only four plants, that together yield 36.8% of Brazilian glycerin, comply the glycerol and moisture content levels established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Only one, responsible for 14.1% of Brazilian glycerin, delivers glycerin with the potential to be used as ruminant feed once it doesn't use animal fat to produce biodiesel.

Oliveira, Jackson Silva e; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Freitas, Sidinéa Cordeiro de; Müller, Marcelo Dias

2013-03-01

233

Determination of exposure to aflatoxins among Danish workers in animal-feed production through the analysis of aflatoxin B1 adducts to serum albumin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aflatoxin B1 is suspected as an etiologic factor in the increased risk for primary liver cancer among workers in animal-feed processing plants in Denmark. Aflatoxin bound to serum albumin was therefore measured for feed-processing workers. Blood samples were collected immediately after vacation and after four weeks of work, and aflatoxin was quantified by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Seven of 45 individuals with an estimated exposure of 64 ng aflatoxin B1.d-1.kg-1 body weight were positive. Three positive workers had been unloading a cargo with an aflatoxin B1 level of 26 micrograms.kg-1 raw material. The exposure level correlated well with the job titles. Dust samples collected at different sites showed considerable variation in the amount of aflatoxin B1 (nondetectable to 8 micrograms.kg-1 dust). The exposure to aflatoxin B1 may only partially explain the increased risk of liver cancer. PMID:1788537

Autrup, J L; Schmidt, J; Seremet, T; Autrup, H

1991-12-01

234

Determination of exposure to aflatoxins among Danish workers in animal-feed production through the analysis of aflatoxin B1 adducts to serum albumin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aflatoxin B1 is suspected as an etiologic factor in the increased risk for primary liver cancer among workers in animal-feed processing plants in Denmark. Aflatoxin bound to serum albumin was therefore measured for feed-processing workers. Blood samples were collected immediately after vacation and after four weeks of work, and aflatoxin was quantified by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Seven of 45 individuals with an estimated exposure of 64 ng aflatoxin B1.d-1.kg-1 body weight were positive. Three positive workers had been unloading a cargo with an aflatoxin B1 level of 26 micrograms.kg-1 raw material. The exposure level correlated well with the job titles. Dust samples collected at different sites showed considerable variation in the amount of aflatoxin B1 (nondetectable to 8 micrograms.kg-1 dust). The exposure to aflatoxin B1 may only partially explain the increased risk of liver cancer.

Autrup JL; Schmidt J; Seremet T; Autrup H

1991-12-01

235

Extruded Leftover Food as Animal Feed: I. Effect of Extruded Feed on Growth and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75±1.27 g). Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1) and without (type-2) were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO) as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia.

Ibrahim M. Al-Ruqaie

2007-01-01

236

Extruded leftover food as animal feed: I. Effect of extruded feed on growth and feed utilization of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75 +/- 1.27 g). Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1) and without (type-2) were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO) as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia. PMID:19090139

Al-Ruqaie, Ibrahim M

2007-10-01

237

Extruded leftover food as animal feed: I. Effect of extruded feed on growth and feed utilization of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75 +/- 1.27 g). Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1) and without (type-2) were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO) as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia.

Al-Ruqaie IM

2007-10-01

238

Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs, tissue and feed samples in the State of Kuwait  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 238 locally produced and imported eggs, tissue (meat, poultry and aquacultured fish) and feed and feedstuffs samples were collected at different seasonal periods from different farms and retail outlets in Kuwait and screened for presence of beta-lactams, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, streptomycin, macrolides and chloramphenicol (799 tests) using Charm II system. The results indicated that all of the 222 tests performed on table egg samples were negative for the analyzed antimicrobial residues indicating adherence to the guidelines for microbial use and withdrawal. Similarly, all of the 268 tests performed on tissue samples were negative for the analyzed antimicrobial residues except for chloramphenicol. These chloramphenicol positive samples, all of the 66 tests performed were negative for beta-lactams residues. Out of the 79 feed and feedstuff samples analyzed for teracyclines residues, broiler diet and concentrate samples (5%) were above the tetracyclines MRL (100 ppb.). On the other hands, results have revealed a widespread of sulfonamide residues and to a less extent chloramphenicol in tested feed and feedstuff samples. The Charm II system was reliable for rapid screening of antimicrobial residues. In general, results obtained in our study necessitate more effective and well planned national antimicrobial residues surveillance programs focusing particularly on samples imported from highly risk sources. (author)

2007-01-01

239

A multi-year field olfactometry study near a concentrated animal feeding operation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study developed and tested a protocol for monitoring odors near a Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO). The Nasal Ranger, a portable field olfactometry instrument, was used by a panel of trained individuals to conduct the monitoring near a swine CAFO. Monitors were selected based on olfactory sensitivity, scheduling availability, and lack of association with the CAFO or residential neighbors of the CAFO. Monitors were trained to use the Nasal Ranger, collect and record weather data, and characterize any odors detected. Data were collected over a 3-year period (2007-2009) for approximately 9 months each year. The data recorded included odor intensity, a description of the odor, date and time of the reading, and weather conditions. Of more than 50,000 readings, forty-one (0.1%) odor readings had a dilution to threshold ratio (D/T) of +/- 7:1 and were attributed to hog manure. The frequency of odor readings attributed to hog manure with D/T +/-7:1 was found to negatively correlate with log wind speed and positively correlate with wind from the direction of the farm. Other meteorological variables (temperature, precipitation, cloud cover) and time of day did not influence the frequency.

Dalton P; Caraway EA; Gibb H; Fulcher K

2011-12-01

240

Determination of seven synthetic dyes in animal feeds and meat by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass detectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used synthetic sulfonate dyes (Ponceau 4RC, Sunset yellow, Allura red, Azophloxine, Ponceau xylidine, Erythrosine and Orange II) in animal feed and meat using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Ethanol-ammonia-water (80:1:19, V/V/V) solution was used as extract solution, which can extract target species while reducing interference from the sample matrices. The recoveries of these 7 dyes in animal feed and chicken meat were between 71% and 97% with relative standard deviations less than 14.8%. HPLC-MS/MS was employed as a further means of confirmation to assure accuracy of the results. Limits of detection for these dyes were in the range of 0.02-21.83 ng mL(-1). The proposed method can be applied to confirmative screening of seven commonly used food colorants in feed and meat samples. PMID:23411306

Zou, Tingting; He, Pingli; Yasen, Amangul; Li, Zhen

2012-11-29

 
 
 
 
241

Determination of seven synthetic dyes in animal feeds and meat by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass detectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An efficient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used synthetic sulfonate dyes (Ponceau 4RC, Sunset yellow, Allura red, Azophloxine, Ponceau xylidine, Erythrosine and Orange II) in animal feed and meat using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Ethanol-ammonia-water (80:1:19, V/V/V) solution was used as extract solution, which can extract target species while reducing interference from the sample matrices. The recoveries of these 7 dyes in animal feed and chicken meat were between 71% and 97% with relative standard deviations less than 14.8%. HPLC-MS/MS was employed as a further means of confirmation to assure accuracy of the results. Limits of detection for these dyes were in the range of 0.02-21.83 ng mL(-1). The proposed method can be applied to confirmative screening of seven commonly used food colorants in feed and meat samples.

Zou T; He P; Yasen A; Li Z

2013-06-01

242

Solar energy project and biogas for animal feed production and jelly; Projeto de energia solar e biogas para producao de racao animal e geleia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a study for utilization of surplus of horticulture industry for the production of jam and sweet from the fruit pulp and the manufacture of animal feed, organic fertilizer and biogas from the waste of this production. It also presents the equipment development of low-cost construction and operation that enables high energy efficiency (without heat loss) and can then be traded with greater advantage over other products on the market.

Moura, J.P. de; Selvam, P.V.P.; Silva, R.T. da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mails: johnsonmoura@yahoo.com.br, tatianesil@gmail.com

2006-07-01

243

Microbiological and biochemical characterization of fermented liquid feed samples from 40 Danish farms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When feed and a liquid are mixed fermentation will spontaneously start. The microbial species dominating in the fermented mixture may vary depending on the environment and/or the ingredients being fermented. However, there is scarce knowledge on this subject. A study was carried out to investigate the biochemical and microbial variations in fermented liquid feed (FLF) samples obtained from 40 Danish farms, which could help in elucidating the reason for the variable results obtained when feeding pigs with FLF. The farms were classified into two groups, a ‘High feed intake' group and a ‘Low feed intake' group. The biochemical characteristics and the microbiological composition to group level were determined. Furthermore, characterization of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to species level was carried out. The biochemical characteristics and the composition of microbial groups of the two farm groups were similar. The data on lactic acid bacteria and yeasts diversity showed that a few phylotypes of lactic acid bacteria (four phylotypes made up 74-79% of the total isolates), and yeasts (four species made up 85-91% of the total isolates), dominated in all samples

Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan

2010-01-01

244

Influence of Gamma-Irradiation On the Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Myco toxigenic Moulds in Cereals and Animal Feed stuffs in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the period 2003-2005. 370 samples of cereals and animal feed stuffs were examined for toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 showed the highest incidence rate, it occurred in 26.5% of all samples analyzed, the highest levels being found in peanut meal at 3000-5000 ?g/Kg. Ochratoxin A and citrinin were detected in commodities at low rate. The most prevalent fungi were Aspergillus spp. which were found in 63.8% of all samples, whereas, Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. identified in 25.7 and 22.4%. respectively. Also, the present study revealed that aflatoxin B1 was detected at low level 95?g/kg after treatment of samples with 20 kGy and there was no detectives of aflatoxin B1 at 40 kGy. Application of radiation at 25 kGy was sufficient for complete destruction of citrinin, whereas application of radiation at 30 kGy reduced the levels of ochratoxin A by 97% in the animal feed stuffs

2008-01-01

245

Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages (AFRA project II-17 - RAF/5/041). Project summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Joint FAO/IAEA programme has supported animal production research in Africa for many years through country Technical Co-operation (TC) Projects, Regional Projects (AFRA) and Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). These activities have helped to build up the infrastructure needed in the countries concerned to conduct much of the research in animal reproduction and nutrition. In the past the Agency has provided technical assistance in defining reproductive indices of ruminant livestock species and identifying nutritional constraints to productivity of animals maintained on smallholder farms under various topographical and environmental conditions. In view of the satisfactory progress of AFRA Project VIII in identifying the major constraints to livestock productivity in the region, and the recognition of many Member States of the importance of supplementary feeding for improving milk and meat production, a regional strategy was proposed for developing affordable and sustainable supplementation packages for improving productivity from smallholder farms using locally available feed resources. The new Regional Project was initiated in 1997 with the following objectives: 1. To produce a supplementary feed in the form of a convenient and easy-to-use package for improving milk and meat production in peri-urban areas 2. To promote the uptake of this technology through demonstrations of its advantages in terms of increased productivity and benefit: cost ratio 3. To maximize the use of locally available feed material such as molasses, cereal bran, legume tree leaves, oil seed meals, etc. for feeding ruminant livestock, thereby reducing the use of high cost concentrate feeds 4. To promote technical co-operation amongst developing countries (TCDC) in the region and take advantage of established infrastructure and available human and technical resources to solve problems of common interest. From 1997 until 2000 the project has been operational with 13 Member States participating in various project activities. The project activities included Research Planning and Review Meetings, Expert Visits, Regional and National Training Workshops, Fellowship Training and Scientific Visits to National Agricultural Research Systems

2002-01-01

246

Effects on pulmonary health of neighboring residents of concentrated animal feeding operations: exposure assessed using optimized estimation technique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Potential adverse health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which were also shown in the authors' Lower Saxony Lung Study, are of public concern. The authors aimed to investigate pulmonary health effect of neighboring residents assessed using optimized estimation technique. Annual ammonia emission was measured to assess the emission from CAFO and from surrounding fields. Location of sampling points was optimized using cluster analysis. Individual exposure of 457 nonfarm subjects was interpolated by weighting method. Mean estimated annual ammonia levels varied between 16 and 24 ?g/m³. Higher exposed participants were more likely to be sensitized against ubiquitous allergens as compared to lower exposed subjects (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-13.2). In addition, they showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV?) (adjusted mean difference in % of predicted -8%; 95% CI -13% to -3%). The authors' previous findings that CAFOs may contribute to burden of respiratory diseases were confirmed by this study.

Schulze, Anja; Römmelt, Horst

2012-01-01

247

Effects on pulmonary health of neighboring residents of concentrated animal feeding operations: exposure assessed using optimized estimation technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Potential adverse health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which were also shown in the authors' Lower Saxony Lung Study, are of public concern. The authors aimed to investigate pulmonary health effect of neighboring residents assessed using optimized estimation technique. Annual ammonia emission was measured to assess the emission from CAFO and from surrounding fields. Location of sampling points was optimized using cluster analysis. Individual exposure of 457 nonfarm subjects was interpolated by weighting method. Mean estimated annual ammonia levels varied between 16 and 24 ?g/m³. Higher exposed participants were more likely to be sensitized against ubiquitous allergens as compared to lower exposed subjects (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-13.2). In addition, they showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV?) (adjusted mean difference in % of predicted -8%; 95% CI -13% to -3%). The authors' previous findings that CAFOs may contribute to burden of respiratory diseases were confirmed by this study.

Schulze A; Römmelt H; Ehrenstein V; van Strien R; Praml G; Küchenhoff H; Nowak D; Radon K

2011-07-01

248

Microscopic method in processed animal proteins identification in feed: applications of image analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processed animal proteins (PAP) detection and identification in feedstuffs can be difficult in distinguishing among land animals, i.e. poultry and mammals. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of image analysis in PAP identification. For this purpose four reference samples containing poultry meals and four reference samples containing mammalian meat and bone meals were used. Each sample was analyzed using the microscopic method (98/88/EC). Bone fragments are characterized by similar morphological features (colours, shape, lacunae shape, lacunae distribution, etc.) that make it diff i c u l t to distinguish between poultry and mammals. Through a digital camera and an image analysis software a total of 30 bone fragment lacunae images at X400 were obtained. For each image 29 geometric parameters related to the lacunae and 3 geometric parameters related to the canaliculae of lacunae, were measured using the image analysis software obtaining 960 observations. Of the 32 descriptors used two, the area of the lacunae and their perimeter, were able to explain 96.15% of the total variability of the data, even though their contribution was different (83.97% vs. 12.18%, respectively). Through these two descriptors it was possible to distinguish between mammalian and poultry lacunae, except in two cases (6.6%), in which poultry lacunae were wrongly classified as mammalian. This latter can be related with higher variability in the lacunae area recorded for mammals compared to poultry. On the basis of the present study, it can be concluded that image analysis represents a promising potential tool in PAP identification, that may provide accurate and reliable results in feedstuffs characterisation, analysis and control.

Pinotti L.; Campagnoli A.; Tognon G.; Cheli F.; Dell'Orto V.; Savoini G

2004-01-01

249

Critical evaluation of the literature concerning the transfer feed/meat of strontium, radium, technetium in domestic animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A literature study concerning the transfer of Sr, Ra, Te, Co and Fe from feed to meat of domestic animals has been carried out. Approx. 4200 publications from 1950-1980 have been evaluated. General criteria for the influence of experimental conditions on the transfer factor have been pointed out. The transfer factor of growing animals is greater than that of adult animals. After completion of growth the transfer factor is independent of age. The transfer factors differ with various animal species. From these findings the following average transfer factors meat/feed in d/kg have been derived during steady state equilibrium between daily intake and excretion of the isotope. For Sr: cattle 6x10-4, calf 2x10-3, sheep 2,1x10-3, goat 3.3x10-3, pig 3,6x10-4, hen 1,8x10-2. For Ra: cattle 6x10-4, pig 2,6x10-4, caribou 2,3x10-3. These values have been derived mainly from metabolic experiments and from literature values of concentrations in feed and meat. For Te, Co and Fe it was not possible to find relevant values. A transfer factor for Tc of 8x10-3 d/kg for beef was derived indirectly using values of meat and vegetables. (orig.)

1981-01-01

250

Nutrient conversions by photosynthetic bacteria in a concentrated animal feeding operation lagoon system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A diurnal examination was conducted to determine the effect of photosynthetic bacteria on nutrient conversions in a two-stage concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) lagoon system in west-central Oklahoma. Changes in nutrients, microbial populations, and physical parameters were examined at three depths (0, 1.5, and 3.0 m) every 3 h over a 36-h period. The south lagoon (SL) was anaerobic (dissolved oxygen [DO] = 0.09 +/- 0.12 mg/L) while the north lagoon (NL) was facultative (DO ranged from 4.0-0.1 mg/L over 36-h period). Negative sulfide-sulfate (-0.85) and bacteriochlorophyll a (bchl a)-sulfate (-0.83) correlations, as well as positive bchl a-sulfide (0.87) and light intensity (I)-bchl a (0.89) correlations revealed that the SL was dominated by sulfur conversions driven by the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). The correlation data was supported by diurnal trends for sulfate, sulfide, and bchl a. Both nitrogen and sulfur conversions played a role in the NL; however, nitrogen conversions appeared to dominate this system because of the activity of cyanobacteria. This was shown by positive chlorophyll a (chl a)-I (0.91) and chl a-nitrate (0.98) correlations and the negative correlation between ammonium and nitrite (-0.88). Correlation data was further supported by diurnal trends observed for chl a, DO, and ammonium. For both lagoons, the dominant photosynthetic microbial species determined which nutrient conversion processes were most important.

Sund JL; Evenson CJ; Strevett KA; Nairn RW; Athay D; Trawinski E

2001-03-01

251

Estrogens in streams associated with a concentrated animal feeding operation in upstate New York, USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Estrogens (estrone, 17 alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, and estriol) in three headwater streams within a concentrated animal feed operation (CAFO) site were monitored on a monthly base for a year (November 2006-October 2007). This CAFO is certified as organic (no growth promoters are administrated) and uses many Whole Farm Planning practices (e.g., 12-month-capacity waste storage lagoons). In general, estrogen concentrations in the streams are low (<1 ng L(-1)), and appeared to increase in spring, likely due to the mobilization of estrogens from soils upon snow melting/precipitation. Estrogens were detected in the streams during dry periods, indicating the contribution of estrogens from groundwater. The low concentrations of estrogens in stream water were probably the result of the long residence time (approximately 8 months) of the manure in the lagoons where most of the estrogens were degraded during storage. An analysis of liquid manure at the beginning of manure application season (after approximately 8 months storage) showed that over 99.8% of the estrogens potentially excreted by the cows were degraded. Moreover, about 90% of the estrogens in the liquid manure were associated with particulates larger than 0.7 microm. Batch experiments with spiked deuterium-labeled 17beta-estradiol-16,16,17-d(3) (d(3)-E2 beta) in the liquid manure demonstrated sorption of d(3)-E2 beta onto particulates in the liquid manure, and rapid degradation of d(3)-E2 beta in the aqueous phase and on particulates of the liquid manure under aerobic conditions.

Zhao S; Zhang P; Melcer ME; Molina JF

2010-04-01

252

Microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy as a tool for the determination of copper, iron, manganese and zinc in animal feed and fertilizer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quantitative analysis of elements in agricultural products like animal feed and fertilizers by a new instrument using microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES) technology was demonstrated in this work. Hot plate and microwave digestion were used to digest the sample matrices and the consequent digests were subject to atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA), inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and MP-AES analysis. The detection limit, accuracy and dynamic range for each instrument, were compared and matrix effects were evaluated with respect to the fertilizer and feed materials. The new MP-AES platform can offer comparable or better performance compared to AA and/or ICP-OES with respect to routine analysis for a regulatory program.

Li W; Simmons P; Shrader D; Herrman TJ; Dai SY

2013-08-01

253

Simultaneous determination and confirmation of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed by zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We developed a new method to analyze animal feed and feed ingredients for melamine and cyanuric acid. The method is capable of extracting and detecting both melamine and cyanuric acid in a single procedure, whether present as free compounds or bound together as the melamine:cyanurate complex. A novel chromatographic system based on zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) columns enables separation and detection of both compounds in one run. Samples are extracted with a strong aqueous acid which is then diluted to bring the concentration within the working range of the method. The method is applicable over the range of 0.5 to 50 micrograms/gram (microg/g). Samples at higher concentrations may be diluted into this range, which is equivalent to 3.6-360 ng/mL in the injection solvent. Analytes are detected using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The data confirm the presence of both compounds according to criteria recommended by the US FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine. The LC/MS/MS method provides an alternative to derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for regulatory analysis of feed samples. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Heller DN; Nochetto CB

2008-11-01

254

Simultaneous determination and confirmation of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed by zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a new method to analyze animal feed and feed ingredients for melamine and cyanuric acid. The method is capable of extracting and detecting both melamine and cyanuric acid in a single procedure, whether present as free compounds or bound together as the melamine:cyanurate complex. A novel chromatographic system based on zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) columns enables separation and detection of both compounds in one run. Samples are extracted with a strong aqueous acid which is then diluted to bring the concentration within the working range of the method. The method is applicable over the range of 0.5 to 50 micrograms/gram (microg/g). Samples at higher concentrations may be diluted into this range, which is equivalent to 3.6-360 ng/mL in the injection solvent. Analytes are detected using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The data confirm the presence of both compounds according to criteria recommended by the US FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine. The LC/MS/MS method provides an alternative to derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for regulatory analysis of feed samples. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:18972452

Heller, David N; Nochetto, Cristina B

2008-11-01

255

Detection of ochratoxin A in animal feeds and capacity to produce this mycotoxin by Aspergillus section Nigri in Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ochratoxin A (OA) is a mycotoxin detected in a variety of food and feeds mostly from countries with a temperate climate because of the fungi that produce it, mainly Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosum. In Argentina, there is no available information about the natural occurrence of OA and ochratoxigenic fungi from feedstuffs. The aim was to evaluate the natural occurrence of OA in poultry, pig and rabbit feeds over 8 months. Likewise, the capacity to produce OA by Aspergillus section Nigri was investigated. Mycotoxin analysis showed that in some months of sampling, OA was detected in three feeds. OA was found in 38% of the poultry feed samples tested with levels ranging from 25 to 30 ng g(-1). From rabbit feed samples, 25% contained OA and the levels ranged from 18.5 to 25 ng g(-1). Only 13% of the pig feed samples were contaminated with similar levels of toxins. Ninety-four black Aspergillus strains from feedstuffs were tested for OA production. Among these, the tested species were A. niger var. niger, A. niger var. awamori, A. japonicus var. japonicus, A. japonicus var. aculeatus and A. foetidus. For the detection of OA, three methodologies were applied: the two TLC methods used for the fast screening of the filamentous fungi for the production of OA were not sensitive enough to detect OA in any of the black Aspergillus strains. When an HPLC methodology was used, the results showed that 46% of the black Aspergillus strains were producers of OA, with levels ranging from 13 to 25 ng ml(-1) culture medium. The highest percentage of ochratoxicogenic strains was isolated from rabbit feeds with 100 and 78% of A. niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori, with mean levels of 15.5 and 14.6 ng ml(-1), respectively. From pig feeds, 61% of the A. niger var. awamori were producers of this toxin with mean levels of 16 ng ml(-1). In poultry feeds, the lowest percentage of OA producer strains was detected. The results for the occurrence of OA in feeds from different sampling months depended on storage and humidity-temperature conditions. Therefore, a good storage practice becomes very important to prevent OA production

Dalcero A; Magnoli C; Hallak C; Chiacchiera SM; Palacio G; Rosa CA

2002-11-01

256

Detection of ochratoxin A in animal feeds and capacity to produce this mycotoxin by Aspergillus section Nigri in Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ochratoxin A (OA) is a mycotoxin detected in a variety of food and feeds mostly from countries with a temperate climate because of the fungi that produce it, mainly Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosum. In Argentina, there is no available information about the natural occurrence of OA and ochratoxigenic fungi from feedstuffs. The aim was to evaluate the natural occurrence of OA in poultry, pig and rabbit feeds over 8 months. Likewise, the capacity to produce OA by Aspergillus section Nigri was investigated. Mycotoxin analysis showed that in some months of sampling, OA was detected in three feeds. OA was found in 38% of the poultry feed samples tested with levels ranging from 25 to 30 ng g(-1). From rabbit feed samples, 25% contained OA and the levels ranged from 18.5 to 25 ng g(-1). Only 13% of the pig feed samples were contaminated with similar levels of toxins. Ninety-four black Aspergillus strains from feedstuffs were tested for OA production. Among these, the tested species were A. niger var. niger, A. niger var. awamori, A. japonicus var. japonicus, A. japonicus var. aculeatus and A. foetidus. For the detection of OA, three methodologies were applied: the two TLC methods used for the fast screening of the filamentous fungi for the production of OA were not sensitive enough to detect OA in any of the black Aspergillus strains. When an HPLC methodology was used, the results showed that 46% of the black Aspergillus strains were producers of OA, with levels ranging from 13 to 25 ng ml(-1) culture medium. The highest percentage of ochratoxicogenic strains was isolated from rabbit feeds with 100 and 78% of A. niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori, with mean levels of 15.5 and 14.6 ng ml(-1), respectively. From pig feeds, 61% of the A. niger var. awamori were producers of this toxin with mean levels of 16 ng ml(-1). In poultry feeds, the lowest percentage of OA producer strains was detected. The results for the occurrence of OA in feeds from different sampling months depended on storage and humidity-temperature conditions. Therefore, a good storage practice becomes very important to prevent OA production PMID:12456278

Dalcero, A; Magnoli, C; Hallak, C; Chiacchiera, S M; Palacio, G; Rosa, C A R

2002-11-01

257

Factor analysis of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire in a large sample of children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How parents feed their children may impact on their weight and eating behaviours, both now and in the future. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) proposes to measure parental feeding practices and was originally developed using 12 factors in relatively small, homogenous samples. In contrast the present study used a large, diverse sample (n=1013) of children aged 4-8years. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the original 12-factor model was not a good fit and that several factors were strongly inter-correlated. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis yielded five scales of interest: Healthy Eating Guidance, Monitoring, Parent Pressure, Restriction and Child Control. These scales were largely supported by further analyses in these data. Parents who were concerned about their child being overweight reported more Healthy Eating Guidance and Restriction and less Parent Pressure, whereas parents concerned about their child being underweight used more Parent Pressure and less Healthy Eating Guidance. Parents who rated a healthy diet for their child as very important undertook more Healthy Eating Guidance and Monitoring of food intake and less Child Control. These five factors from the CFPQ provide a well-supported and useful set of feeding practices that could be applicable to a wide variety of population groups.

Haszard JJ; Williams SM; Dawson AM; Skidmore PM; Taylor RW

2013-03-01

258

Fish oil consumption and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease: a comparison of findings from animal and human feeding trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing evidence that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), abundant in marine organisms, may reduce the development of cardiovascular disease. Because of this, results of laboratory animal and human volunteer feeding trials (using fatty fish, fish oils, or purified n-3 PUFAs) that have examined similar biochemical and metabolic parameters are compared. The limited data reveal that laboratory animal and human volunteers show many similar responses in certain parameters (ie, serum lipids, lipoproteins, trigacylglycerides, cholesterol, etc), to the consumption of n-3 PUFAs. The biochemical and metabolic changes observed are generally consistent with reduced development of cardiovascular disease. However, comparisons between species are limited because relatively few comparable feeding trials have focused on the effects of fish oils on thromboxane, prostacyclin, platelet aggregation, etc. Limitations of the studies and needed research are discussed. PMID:3515901

Herold, P M; Kinsella, J E

1986-04-01

259

Fish oil consumption and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease: a comparison of findings from animal and human feeding trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is growing evidence that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), abundant in marine organisms, may reduce the development of cardiovascular disease. Because of this, results of laboratory animal and human volunteer feeding trials (using fatty fish, fish oils, or purified n-3 PUFAs) that have examined similar biochemical and metabolic parameters are compared. The limited data reveal that laboratory animal and human volunteers show many similar responses in certain parameters (ie, serum lipids, lipoproteins, trigacylglycerides, cholesterol, etc), to the consumption of n-3 PUFAs. The biochemical and metabolic changes observed are generally consistent with reduced development of cardiovascular disease. However, comparisons between species are limited because relatively few comparable feeding trials have focused on the effects of fish oils on thromboxane, prostacyclin, platelet aggregation, etc. Limitations of the studies and needed research are discussed.

Herold PM; Kinsella JE

1986-04-01

260

Effect of creatine addition in feeds containing animal meals on the performance and carcass yield of broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed exclusively vegetable diets and diets containing animal meal with the addition of creatine or not after day 8. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with six replicates each. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated, to which animal meals and creat (more) ine were included or not. Diets were formulated to contain equal mineral (calcium, phosphorus and sodium) and amino acid (available methionine + cystine, lysine and threonine) levels. The following treatments were applied: A. control (diet based on corn and soybean meal); B. control + creatine (600g/ton); C. inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM), D. inclusion of 5% MBM + creatine (600g/ton), E. inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM), F. inclusion 5% BM + creatine (600g/ton). Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass yield and viability were evaluated. At 42 days of age, BM dietary inclusion impaired weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The inclusion of MBM affected only feed conversion ratio. The addition of creatine ito the diet with BM improved weight gain when compared with the BM diet with no creatine. The addition of creatine to the diet containing 5% BM improved weight gain when compared with the same diet without the use of the additive.

Carvalho, CMC; Fernandes, EA; Carvalho, AP de; Maciel, MP; Caires, RM; Fagundes, NS

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Racionalização do uso de força motriz em fábrica de ração Management of motive power use in animal feed industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A falta de investimento no setor energético, aliada à sazonalidade de recursos naturais necessários para a geração de energia hidroelétrica, faz da racionalização do uso de energia elétrica uma ferramenta de apoio imprescindível para o crescimento do País. A ração animal pode representar entre 70 e 80% do custo de produção da criação de animais. Sendo assim, é importante o estudo da racionalização do uso de energia em processos que utilizam intensivamente força motriz, tais como as fábricas de ração. Na fábrica de ração estudada, os motores elétricos são utilizados principalmente para moagem e mistura de granulados e transporte. Com o objetivo de racionalizar o uso da energia elétrica, foi realizado estudo de adequação de força motriz dos equipamentos da fábrica de ração da Indústria Pif Paf Alimentos. O índice de carregamento médio dos motores elétricos estudados foi de 48,6%. O potencial estimado total de economia com energia elétrica anual, utilizando-se sempre da melhor opção de adequação de força motriz foi de R$ 24.426,50 ao ano (23,9%). Para que essas medidas sejam efetivadas, devem-se adequar também: (i) as exigências elétricas do circuito, como ajuste de relés e escolha de fusíveis; (ii) o horário de funcionamento, e (iii) necessidade de implantação de sistema de armazenamento de ração.The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pi Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: (i) to adjust relays and to choose fuses, (ii) to schedule operation and (iii) to build storage facilities.

Carlos A. Teixeira; Delly Oliveira Filho; Adílio F. de Lacerda Filho; José H. Martins

2005-01-01

262

Racionalização do uso de força motriz em fábrica de ração/ Management of motive power use in animal feed industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A falta de investimento no setor energético, aliada à sazonalidade de recursos naturais necessários para a geração de energia hidroelétrica, faz da racionalização do uso de energia elétrica uma ferramenta de apoio imprescindível para o crescimento do País. A ração animal pode representar entre 70 e 80% do custo de produção da criação de animais. Sendo assim, é importante o estudo da racionalização do uso de energia em processos que utilizam intensivame (more) nte força motriz, tais como as fábricas de ração. Na fábrica de ração estudada, os motores elétricos são utilizados principalmente para moagem e mistura de granulados e transporte. Com o objetivo de racionalizar o uso da energia elétrica, foi realizado estudo de adequação de força motriz dos equipamentos da fábrica de ração da Indústria Pif Paf Alimentos. O índice de carregamento médio dos motores elétricos estudados foi de 48,6%. O potencial estimado total de economia com energia elétrica anual, utilizando-se sempre da melhor opção de adequação de força motriz foi de R$ 24.426,50 ao ano (23,9%). Para que essas medidas sejam efetivadas, devem-se adequar também: (i) as exigências elétricas do circuito, como ajuste de relés e escolha de fusíveis; (ii) o horário de funcionamento, e (iii) necessidade de implantação de sistema de armazenamento de ração. Abstract in english The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such (more) as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pi Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: (i) to adjust relays and to choose fuses, (ii) to schedule operation and (iii) to build storage facilities.

Teixeira, Carlos A.; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adílio F. de; Martins, José H.

2005-08-01

263

[Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and its application in the determination for the quality of animal feed and products].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been the most rapidly developing and noticeable spectrographic analytical technique in recent years. The determining principle and progresses of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy are presented briefly. It mainly includes the progresses in pre-processing technique and analyzing model of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two pre-processing techniques, including differential coefficient-dealt with technique, the signal-smoothing technique, and four analyzing models of near-infrared spectroscopy, including the multiplied lined regression (MLR), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and artificial nerve network (ANN). The application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the first time. The investigation of reviewed papers shows that the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy is widely applied in feed analysis and animal products analysis because of its rapidness, non-destruction and non-pollution. The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been used to determine the feed common ingredient, such as dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat and so on, micro-components including amino acid, vitamin, and noxious components, and to determine the physical and chemical properties of animal products which including egg, mutton, beef and pork. Details of the analytical characteristics of feed and animal products described in the reviewed papers are given. New trends and limits to the application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in these fields are also discussed.

Wang L; Meng QX; Ren LP; Yang JS

2010-06-01

264

IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

Dr. Donal F. Day

2009-01-29

265

Níveis de probiótico em rações de origem animal e vegetal para frangos de corte/ Levels of probiotics in animal and vegetal origin feed for broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de probiótico na dieta sobre o desempenho, os rendimentos de carcaça, cortes nobres e gordura abdominal, o pH intestinal e os parâmetros sanguíneos de frangos de corte de 1 a 40 dias de idade alimentados com rações com ingredientes de origens vegetal e animal. Foram utilizados 1.000 pintos machos da linhagem Cobb 500, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos, cada um com 5 repetições de 20 (more) aves por unidade experimental, alojados em cama reutilizada. O probiótico utilizado era à base de Bacillus cereus e Bacillus subtilis e foi incluído nos níveis 0,00; 0,05; 0,10; 0,15 e 0,20% em cada ração. As características de desempenho avaliadas foram peso final, ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade, avaliados aos 7, 21 e 40 dias de idade. Avaliaram-se também o pH intestinal (duodeno e jejuno) e os parâmetros sanguíneos (cálcio, fósforo, ácido úrico, colesterol, triglicérides e proteínas totais) aos 21 e 39 dias de idade, respectivamente. Aos 40 dias de idade, foram avaliados os rendimentos de carcaça inteira e de cortes nobres e a porcentagem de gordura abdominal. Não houve interação entre os níveis de probiótico e o tipo de ração (origem animal ou vegetal), mas houve efeito dos níveis de probiótico e do tipo de ração sobre o peso, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e a mortalidade na fase de 1 a 21 dias de idade, uma vez que a ração de origem vegetal promoveu melhores valores sanguíneos de cálcio, colesterol e triglicérides, determinados aos 39 dias de idade, em comparação à ração de origem animal. Abstract in english It was evaluated the effect of different levels of probiotics in the diet on performance, carcass yield, noble cuts and abdominal fat, intestinal pH and blood parameters of broilers at 1 to 40 days of age fed ingredients of vegetal and animal origin. It was used 1.000 line Cobb 500 broilers, distributed in a complete random design with 10 treatments, each one with 5 replicates of 20 broilers per experimental unity, allocated in a reused litter. The probiotic which was use (more) d was based on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis and it was included at the levels of 0.00, 0.05; 0.10; 0.15 and 0.20% in each feed. The evaluated performance traits were final weight, weight gain, feed intake, food conversion and mortality, evaluated at 7, 21 and 40 days of age. It was also evaluated the intestinal pH (duodenum and jejunum) and blood parameters (calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, and total protein) at 21 and 39 days of age, respectively. At 40 days of age, the yields of the whole carcass and noble cuts, and the percentage of abdominal fat were evaluated. There wasn't interaction between probiotic levels and type of feed (animal or vegetal origin), but there was effect of probiotic levels and type of feed on the weight, weight gain, food conversion and mortality in the phases 1 to 21 days of age, since vegetable origin feed promoted better blood values of calcium, cholesterol and glycerides, which are determined at 39 days of age, comparing to animal origin feed.

Appelt, Matias Djalma; Nunes, Ricardo Vianna; Pozza, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Wagner Thiago Mozer da; Venturi, Iderson; Nunes, Christiane Garcia Vilela

2010-04-01

266

Degradation of caffeine by microorganisms and potential use of decaffeinated coffee husk and pulp in animal feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coffee husk and coffee pulp are coffee processing by-products. Coffee husk is obtained when harvested coffee is processed by the dry method, and coffee pulp is produced by the wet method. In Brazil, coffee is usually processed by the dry method, therefore an expressive amount of husk is obtained every year. Some of the husk is used as organic fertilizer but, other applications are very limited, mainly because it is a bulky product. The presence of tannins and caffeine diminish acceptability and palatability of husk by animals. This review discuss degradation of caffeine by microorganisms, with special attention to bacterial, biological decaffeination of coffee husk and pulp and its subsequent use on animal feeding. The known biochemical routes of caffeine degradation by microorganisms are initially discussed; problems concerning physiological effects in animals, focusing on the limitations imposed by caffeine as an antiphysiological component are raised; the use of microorganisms to decaffeinate coffee husk and pulp is discussed. The discussions offer a view on decreasing caffeine content of coffee husk and pulp, which would allow the use of larger amounts of these products in animal feeding, partially replacing traditional components such as cereal grains.

Mazzafera Paulo

2002-01-01

267

Human and veterinary pharmaceutical abundance and transport in a rural central Indiana stream influenced by confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research has documented the ubiquity of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in freshwater, though their persistence and transport is relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the abundance and transport of human and veterinary PPCPs in a rural, central Indiana stream influenced by confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Research objectives also aimed to identify mechanisms controlling abundance and transport. PPCP concentrations and stream physicochemical characteristics were measured monthly over one year at multiple sites along a 60 km reach. Overall, human PPCPs were more abundant and measured at higher concentrations than veterinary pharmaceuticals. Veterinary pharmaceutical concentrations (lincomycin, sulfamethazine) were greatest in stream reaches adjacent to CAFOs. No distinct spatial variation was observed for human PPCPs. However, caffeine and paraxanthine had significant temporal variation with higher concentrations in winter. In contrast, DEET had higher concentrations in summer. Pharmaceutical load (?g/s) ranged from<0.005 to 1808 ?g/s across sites, sampling events and pharmaceutical compounds with human PPCPs having higher loads relative to veterinary pharmaceuticals. Reach input ranged from net retention (sulfamethazine in August) to 1667 ?g/m/d paraxanthine in March. Triclosan had the highest measured mean input into the reach (661 ?g/m/d) and sulfamethazine had the lowest mean input (32 ?g/m/d). Across measured compounds, input of PPCPs into the reach was two orders of magnitude lower than nitrate-N input (57,000 ?g/m/d). Transport metrics indicated acetaminophen and caffeine are transported farther than triclosan though had lower loss velocities (loss relative to abundance). Loss rate of PPCPs was an order of magnitude lower than nitrate-N loss rate. Human PPCPs were more abundant than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this rural watershed influenced by CAFOs. Further, concentrations had significant temporal and spatial variation highlighting differential sources and fates. Thus, mechanisms driving PPCP retention and transport need to be identified to aid management of these emerging contaminants.

Bernot MJ; Smith L; Frey J

2013-02-01

268

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-selenomethionine as feed additive for all animal species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element that is essential for vertebrates and involved in series of vital metabolic functions. Considering the purity of the L-selenomethionine (L-SeMet) under application and the metabolic pathways of SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel considers the use of L-SeMet as safe for all animal species, provided that the maximum total selenium level authorised in feed is respected. The use of in animal nutrition is expected to result in a similar increase in selenium deposition in animal tissues/products as that resulting from other sources of SeMet. To ensure consumer safety from consumption of food originating from animals fed L-SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel concludes that dietary selenium supplementation from the additive should not exceed a maximum of 0.2 mg Se/kg complete feed. In the absence of specific data, the additive should be considered as an irritant to skin and eyes, as a skin sensitiser and as potentially harmful by inhalation. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of L-SeMet in feed does not pose an additional risk to the environment, compared with other sources of selenium for which it will substitute, as long as the maximum authorised content in feedingstuffs is not exceeded. L-SeMet is an efficient source of selenium for all species. This conclusion is derived from studies with laying hens and pigs for fattening and, in the case of ruminants, from literature describing the microbial incorporation of selenium from organic sources in the rumen. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations concerning (i) the specification, (ii) the use of the compound in premixtures, (iii) the use in water for drinking and (iv) risk reduction when handling the additive.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

2013-01-01

269

Tylosin detection in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with enzymatic hydrolysis of the tylosin urea adduct.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When the use of tylosin as a feed additive was forbidden by Council Regulation 2821/98, the necessity of a chemical confirmation method for the monitoring of the ban was created. Recently a method was developed for the detection of tylosin in animal feed by means of LC-MS/MS. During the validation high deviating values for the decision limit, detection capability, and repeatability for tylosin in cattle feed were observed, and the presence of urea and the formation of a tylosin urea adduct (TUA) were suggested as possible explanations. In this study two hydrolysis approaches for the TUA adduct were compared, namely, a chemical hydrolysis and an enzymatic hydrolysis with urease. The latter yielded a more complete hydrolysis of urea and was used for further validation. The recovery increased by approximately 15-25% depending on the amount of urea present in the feed (0.5-2%). The decision limit and detection capability were hardly influenced by the enzymatic hydrolysis.

Van Poucke C; Dumoulin F; De Keyser K; Elliott C; Van Peteghem C

2004-05-01

270

Tylosin detection in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with enzymatic hydrolysis of the tylosin urea adduct.  

Science.gov (United States)

When the use of tylosin as a feed additive was forbidden by Council Regulation 2821/98, the necessity of a chemical confirmation method for the monitoring of the ban was created. Recently a method was developed for the detection of tylosin in animal feed by means of LC-MS/MS. During the validation high deviating values for the decision limit, detection capability, and repeatability for tylosin in cattle feed were observed, and the presence of urea and the formation of a tylosin urea adduct (TUA) were suggested as possible explanations. In this study two hydrolysis approaches for the TUA adduct were compared, namely, a chemical hydrolysis and an enzymatic hydrolysis with urease. The latter yielded a more complete hydrolysis of urea and was used for further validation. The recovery increased by approximately 15-25% depending on the amount of urea present in the feed (0.5-2%). The decision limit and detection capability were hardly influenced by the enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:15137817

Van Poucke, Christof; Dumoulin, Fréderic; De Keyser, Kirsten; Elliott, Chris; Van Peteghem, Carlos

2004-05-19

271

Application of inulin-type fructans in animal feed and pet food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The inulin-type fructans are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are fermented in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals and pets. This review focuses on the various effects of inulin-type fructans in pigs, poultry, calves and companion animals. Effects of the inulin-type fructans on gut microf...

Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Shim, S.B.; Leeuwen, P., van; Verstegen, M.W.A.

272

Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge to eliminate pathogens for safe use as fertilizer and animal feed supplement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a research program titled ''Waste Resources Utilization'' using a new technique called thermoradiation to destroy pathogenic organisms in sewage sludge. The thermoradiated sewage sludge will be used to study the feasibility of use for safe land application as fertilizer and soil conditioner and use as a feed supplement for ruminant animals. Experiments to date have shown good results for sludge disinfection of resistant bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Thermoradiation experiments are being carried out at a temperature of 650C combined with 160 krad gamma dose for a total of 2000 pounds of dried treated sludge. The sludge will be shipped to New Mexico State University for the feeding studies and land application studies. (auth).

1975-09-23

273

Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge to eliminate pathogens for safe use as fertilizer and animal feed supplement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A research program titled ''Waste Resources Utilization'' using a new technique, ''thermoradiation'' to destroy pathogenic organisms in sewage sludge is described. The thermoradiated sewage sludge will be used to study the feasibility of (1) use for safe land application as fertilizer and soil conditioner and (2) use as a feed supplement for ruminant animals. Experiments to date have shown good results for sludge disinfection of resistant bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Thermoradiation experiments are being carried out at a temperature of 650C combined with 160 krad gamma dose for a total of 2000 pounds of dried treated sludge. The sludge will be shipped to New Mexico State University for the feeding studies and land application studies.

1975-09-23

274

Molecular Identification of Species from the Penicillium roqueforti Group Associated with Spoiled Animal Feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Penicillium roqueforti group has recently been split into three species, P. roqueforti, Penicillium carneum, and Penicillium paneum, on the basis of differences in ribosomal DNA sequences and secondary metabolite profiles. We reevaluated the taxonomic identity of 52 livestock feed isolates from ...

Boysen, Marianne E.; Jacobsson, Karl-Gustav; Schnürer, Johan

275

Greenhouse gas reduction and improved sustainability of animal husbandry using amino acids in swine, poultry feeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Annex 1 countries, nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from swine and poultry excreta have been calculated and the N2 O reduction potential of each country by using amino acids in feed could also be calculated, then a comparison made among the countries. The N2 O reduction rates were approximately 25% for these Annex 1 countries and amino acids were able to make a large contribution to that reduction. Greenhouse gases (GHG) which are N2 O combined with methane (CH4 ) were estimated to reduce by 24.8% in Japan when amino acids were introduced into the feed, but only a 7.2% reduction was estimated in France. Purification, which is mainly used for manure treatment in Japan, emits much more N2 O and less CH4 , whereas the liquid system which is mainly used in France emits more CH4 and less N2 O based on the emission factors from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change data base. Changing the French manure treatment system to the Japanese style with amino acids in feed would reduce GHG emissions by 23.4%. Reduction of the arable land use in Japan by changing crop formulations supported by adding amino acids to feed was also quantified as about 10% and led to an increase in the production of meat using the same arable land area.

Tsujimoto S; Takagi T; Osada T; Ogino A

2013-05-01

276

Fermentation instead of animal feeding; In den Fermenter statt in den Magen des Schweins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 2006, Germany has prohibited the feeding of class K3 waste food from gastronomy, canteens and the food industry to pigs. Fermentation is a creative solution. In Haid on the Schwaebische Alb mountain range, two creative waste managers developed a plant for power generation from fat and used oils. (orig.)

Brombach, T.

2008-07-01

277

Causes of the Biological Accidents of Methane Fermentation. Influence of the Rumensin, Used in Animal Feed, in the Anaerobic Digestion of Manures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of an antibiotic, the Rumensin, on the anaerobic digestion of manures have been studied. The Rumensin is incorporated to the animal feeding in order to reduce the production of intestinal gases among the ruminants and increase the utilization ...

J. Perrier F. Jacob

1983-01-01

278

Enzyamtic and Oven-drying Method of Processing Rubber Seeds for Animal Feed and the Evaluation of the Toxicity of Such Feed in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydrolytic activity of endogenous -glucosidase of Hevea brasiliensis towards the cyanogenic glycosides of rubber seeds as a means of processing was investigated followed by the study of acute toxicity of the enzymatically and oven dried processed feeds from these seeds towards rats. Crushing/ grating of the rubber seeds and allowing interaction of the endogenous -glucosidase with the cyanogenic glcosides content for a period of 60 min resulted in about 90-95% hydrolysis of the cyanogenic glycoside by the -glucosidase. Oven drying of the crushed seeds after 60mins at a temperature of 60?C for 180min gave rise to about 81% reduction in the total cyanogens content. Ingestion of feed compounded from the oven dried seed containing 9.25 mg CN 1Kg 1 did not produce any sign of acute toxic effects in rats after 72 h. Elevation in blood glucose and Thiocyanate was observed but the activities of aspartate and alanine amino transferases and alkaline phosphatase did not show any significant change (p <0.05) compared to those of control. The same was true of the total protein and serum albumin levels of the animals.

Okafor, P.N.; N.O. Anyanwu

2006-01-01

279

Quantitative analysis of food and feed samples with droplet digital PCR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for routine analysis in food and feed samples was demonstrated with the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of GMOs in products. However, its use is limited for detecting and quantifying very small numbers of DNA targets, as in some complex food and feed matrices. Using ddPCR duplex assay, we have measured the absolute numbers of MON810 transgene and hmg maize reference gene copies in DNA samples. Key performance parameters of the assay were determined. The ddPCR system is shown to offer precise absolute and relative quantification of targets, without the need for calibration curves. The sensitivity (five target DNA copies) of the ddPCR assay compares well with those of individual qPCR assays and of the chamber digital PCR (cdPCR) approach. It offers a dynamic range over four orders of magnitude, greater than that of cdPCR. Moreover, when compared to qPCR, the ddPCR assay showed better repeatability at low target concentrations and a greater tolerance to inhibitors. Finally, ddPCR throughput and cost are advantageous relative to those of qPCR for routine GMO quantification. It is thus concluded that ddPCR technology can be applied for routine quantification of GMOs, or any other domain where quantitative analysis of food and feed samples is needed.

Morisset D; Štebih D; Milavec M; Gruden K; Žel J

2013-01-01

280

Quantitative analysis of food and feed samples with droplet digital PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for routine analysis in food and feed samples was demonstrated with the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of GMOs in products. However, its use is limited for detecting and quantifying very small numbers of DNA targets, as in some complex food and feed matrices. Using ddPCR duplex assay, we have measured the absolute numbers of MON810 transgene and hmg maize reference gene copies in DNA samples. Key performance parameters of the assay were determined. The ddPCR system is shown to offer precise absolute and relative quantification of targets, without the need for calibration curves. The sensitivity (five target DNA copies) of the ddPCR assay compares well with those of individual qPCR assays and of the chamber digital PCR (cdPCR) approach. It offers a dynamic range over four orders of magnitude, greater than that of cdPCR. Moreover, when compared to qPCR, the ddPCR assay showed better repeatability at low target concentrations and a greater tolerance to inhibitors. Finally, ddPCR throughput and cost are advantageous relative to those of qPCR for routine GMO quantification. It is thus concluded that ddPCR technology can be applied for routine quantification of GMOs, or any other domain where quantitative analysis of food and feed samples is needed. PMID:23658750

Morisset, Dany; Štebih, Dejan; Milavec, Mojca; Gruden, Kristina; Žel, Jana

2013-05-02

 
 
 
 
281

Scientific Opinion on risks for animal and public health related to the presence of nivalenol in food and feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nivalenol is a mycotoxin produced by various Fusarium species. The European Commission (EC) asked the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for a scientific opinion on the risk to human and animal health related to the presence of nivalenol in food and feed. A total of 13 164 results for nivalenol in food, feed and unprocessed grains, collected in 2001-2011 from 18 European countries, were available for the evaluation. The highest mean concentrations for nivalenol were observed in oats, maize, barley and wheat and products thereof. Grains and grain-based foods, in particular bread and rolls, grain milling products, pasta, fine bakery wares and breakfast cereals, made the largest contribution to nivalenol exposure for humans. Animal exposure to nivalenol is primarily from consuming cereal grains and cereal by-products. The available information on the toxicokinetics of nivalenol is incomplete. Evidence exists for metabolic de-epoxidation in some species. Based on the data available, the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) concluded that the overall weight of evidence is that nivalenol is unlikely to be genotoxic. Toxic effects of nivalenol include immunotoxicity and haematotoxicity. A reduction in white blood cell (WBC) counts in a 90-day rat study was identified as the critical effect for human risk assessment. Using these data and a benchmark dose analysis the CONTAM Panel established a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 1.2 µg/kg b.w. per day. All chronic human dietary exposures to nivalenol estimated, based on the available occurrence data in food, are below the TDI, and are therefore not a health concern. No toxicity data were identified for ruminants, rabbits, fish and companion animals but lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels were identified in pigs and poultry. Based on estimates of exposure the risk of adverse health effects of feed containing nivalenol is low for both these species.

EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

2013-01-01

282

PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING ENZYMATIC PREPARATIONS OBTAINED FROM BIRDS FEATHER, ENZYMATIC PREPARATIONS THUS MADE, USE THEREOF, ANIMAL FEED AND CAPILLARY TRANSFORMATION AGENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention refers to the process for manufacturing enzymatic preparations obtained from bird feathers, enzymatic preparations obtainable by the process mentioned above and, additionally the use thereof for adding to the post-pellet of animal feeds in order to improve the digestibility of a feather meal and to assist in the digestion of the feathers in digestors before they are heated to obtain a feather meal. The invention also refers to animal feed and a capillary transformation agent.

FAIDIGA IZABEL CRISTINA

283

Effect of feed additives and animal shelter disinfectants on methane fermentation. Die Wirkung von Fuetterungszusaetzen und Stalldesinfektionsmitteln auf die Methangaerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first part of the work investigates the effect of potential inhibitors on the entire process of methane fermentation, including more scrupulous testing of some substances as regards the site of their action respectively the groups of organisms concerned. The second part reports on the action of two ionophoric substances, Monensin and Lasalocid, which are commonly used in animal feeding and exhibited interesting effects in the experiments on the total methane fermentation process, on pure cultures of methanogenic bacteria, i.e. on the organisms of the third degradation stage.

Hilpert, R.

1984-03-16

284

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and found upon examination to be contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms: Bone meal, blood meal, crab meal, feather meal, fish meal, fish solubles, meat scraps, poultry meat meal, tankage, or other similar animal byproducts, or...

2010-04-01

285

Sampling strategies for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sampling methods for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., were compared with the intent to assess if one approach was viable for two species occurring from early-season squaring to late bloom in 25 fields located along the coastal cotton growing region of south Texas. Cotton fleaphopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), damages squares early-season and dominated collections using five sampling methods (approximately 99% of insects collected). A major species composition shift occurred beginning at peak bloom in coastal fields, when verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, represented 55-65% of collections. Significantly more cotton fleahoppers were captured by experienced samplers with the beat bucket and sweep net than with the other methods (30-100% more). There were more than twice as many verde plant bugs captured by experienced and inexperienced samplers with the beat bucket and sweep net than captured with the KISS and visual methods. Using a beat bucket or sweep net reduced sampling time compared with the visual method for the experienced samplers. For both species, comparing regressions of beat bucket-based counts to counts from the traditional visual method across nine cultivar and water regime combinations resulted in only one combination differing from the rest, suggesting broad applicability and ability to translate established visual-based economic thresholds to beat bucket-based thresholds. In a first look at sample size considerations, 40 plants (four 10-plant samples) per field site was no more variable than variation associated with larger sample sizes. Overall, the beat bucket is much more effective in sampling for cotton fleahopper and verde plant bug than the traditional visual method, it is more suited to cotton fleahopper sampling early-season when plants are small, it transitions well to sample for verde plant bug during bloom, and it performs well under a variety of soil moisture conditions and cultivar selections.

Brewer MJ; Anderson DJ; Armstrong JS; Villanueva RT

2012-06-01

286

Potencial de silagens de ramas de batata-doce para alimentação animal/ Potential of silages of sweet-potato foliages for animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de silagens de ramas de diferentes clones de batata-doce para alimentação animal. O trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Forquilha localizada no Distrito de Batatal, município de Diamantina MG, no período de 23/12/2007 a 23/06/2008. O experimento foi conduzido no esquema de parcelas subdivididas em delineamento de blocos completos casualizados. Foram avaliadas a produtividade de matéria verde e matéria seca das ramas e a composição qu (more) ímico-bromatológica, além do perfil fermentativo de suas silagens, em três idades de colheita (120, 150 e 180 dias), em oito clones de batata doce. A produtividade de matéria seca não variou com a época de colheita das ramas, obtendo-se média de 6,01t ha-1. Os teores de matéria seca nas ramas aumentaram com o ciclo da cultura, verificando-se teores médios de 11,94; 12,16 e 19,62%, aos 120, 150 e 180 dias após o corte, respectivamente. As silagens das ramas de batata-doce apresentaram altos teores protéicos e energéticos e adequado perfil fermentativo, portanto, apresentam potencial para utilização na alimentação animal, independentemente dos clones. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the potential of silage derived from different clones of sweet potato for animal feed. The study was conducted at Forquilha Farm located in Batatal district, MG Diamantina in the period from 23/12/2007 to 23/06/2008. The experiment was conducted in split plot design in a randomized complete block. It was evaluated the green and dry matter yield, the chemical composition and the fermentative profile of silage harvested on three dates (days 120 (more) , 150 and 180), of eight clones of sweet potato. The dry matter yield did not vary according to the harvest time of the branches, resulting in an average of 6.01t ha-1. The dry matter content in the stems increased with the growth cycle, and there are average levels of 11.94, 12.16 and 19.62% on days 120, 150 and 180 after cutting, respectively. The raw potato silage showed high protein content and adequate energy fermentation and therefore, potential for use in animal feed, regardless of clones.

Viana, Daniel José Silva; Andrade Júnior, Valter Carvalho de; Ribeiro, Karina Guimarães; Pinto, Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni; Neiva, Irã Pinheiro; Figueiredo, José Altair; Lemos, Vinícius Teixeira; Pedrosa, Carlos Enrrik; Azevedo, Alcinei Místico

2011-08-01

287

[Occupational hygiene and health hazards related to concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Emissions of harmful agents, inherent in the intensive production of pigs, create an important problem concerning the protection of workers' health. Concentration of many animals on relatively small areas contributes to high air contaminations inside swine confinement buildings. They are mostly induced by bioaerosols, such as organic dust, microorganisms, endotoxins, glucans and irritant gases. In view of the health care and safety of people employed in animal farming, it is crucial to conduct research involving a comprehensive evaluation of exposure to occupational hazards, indicating their level determinants and increasing the scientific information on dose-response relations. This article presents the review of the literature on the process of pig farming in Poland, including legislation, occupational hygiene and potential risk for the health of animal-handling workers.

Buczy?ska A; Szadkowska-Sta?czyk I

2010-01-01

288

Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV) spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55) for carcasses (animals found dead) and 0.2% (13/5309) for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1) surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2) any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3) surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4) morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure.

Sarah H. Olson; Patricia Reed; Kenneth N. Cameron; Benard J. Ssebide; Christine K. Johnson; Stephen S. Morse; William B. Karesh; Jonna A. K. Mazet; Damien O. Joly

2012-01-01

289

Radiation processing technology for feed mixes and litter for laboratory animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The research was centred on feed mixes for laboratory rats and mice in conditions of germ-free and conventional breeding in isolators. Polyethylene was chosen as the most suitable packing material for radiation processing and subsequent storage. Pelleted diets and litter are packaged in three layers in 400x600 mm bags. 25 kGy for germ-free breeding and 50 kGy for gnotobiotic breeds of laboratory rats and mice were determined as being sufficient. The quality of processed diets and their effect on the weight and growth of rats is discussed. (Pu)

1984-11-01

290

Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

2002-01-01

291

SHIFTING THE PH PROFILE OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER PHYA PHYTASE TO MATCH THE STOMACH PH ENHANCES ITS EFFECTIVENESS AS AN ANIMAL FEED ADDITIVE  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental pollution of phosphorus (P) from animal waste is a major problem in agriculture because simple-stomached animals such as swine, poultry, and fish cannot digest phosphorus (as phytate) present in plant feeds. To alleviate this problem, a phytase from Aspergillus niger PhyA is widely us...

292

Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: From domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transport of iodine in the mammary gland into breast milk plays a central role in various fields of prevention of thyroid diseases. First, a sufficient content of iodine in the mother's milk is necessary for normal brain development in the breastfed child. This is attained by expression during lactation in the mammary gland of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), also responsible for iodine transport in the thyroid. Milk iodine content varies with the iodine intake of the mother, and urinary iodine excretion in groups of mothers seems to be a valuable indicator of the iodine status of their breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake areas of the world. It can be speculated that a low-iodine content of mother's milk because of inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland may be one factor of importance for development of myxedematous cretinism.

Laurberg, P.; Andersen, S.

2002-01-01

293

Electronic module for control of sample feeding device of spectrometers of X-ray fluorescent analysis of CRV type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scheme of electronic module for sample feeding device control for the CRV type X-ray fluorescence analysis spectrometers is considered. This module provides realization of next functions: sample change operations and installation in starting position; signaling and defense at emergency cases; indication of any sample amount in the spectrometer chamber; testing function at tuning and testing of modules. All these principal functions are entrusted with microcontroller. Programming of the microcontroller is putting into effect by algorithm of the whole sample feeding device. In the capacity of microcontroller the single crystalline processor PICI16C54 and stepping motor of NV-306-V2202 model have been used.

2002-01-01

294

METHOD AND KIT FOR ANIMAL SPECIES-SPECIFIC DNA IDENTIFICATION OF A SAMPLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for detecting the presence or absence of animal species-specific DNA in a sample, which comprises the following steps: (a) providing suitable DNA from the sample for the purpose of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), (b) carrying out a PCR reaction with the DNA of step (a) using a primer mixture that comprises a labeled marker for the purpose of producing a PCR product, the primers hybridizing to preserved regions of a gene ubiquitary in the animals to be identified and the PCR product having a region with an animal species-specific sequence that is variable in all animal species or animal varieties of interest, (c) immobilizing the PCR product of step (b) that contains labeled DNA sequences, (d) producing immobilized single-stranded DNA of the immobilized PCR product from step (c), (e) treating the immobilized single-stranded DNA from step (d) under hybridization conditions with at least one animal species-specific probe, (f) detecting if hybridization has taken place in step (e) in order to detect the presence or absence of the animal species-specific DNA.

KUHN Matthias Congen Biotechnologie GmbH; MERGEMEIER Steffen Congen Biotechnologie GmbH

295

Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from biotechnology must be shown to be pure, potent, safe and effective when used according to label recommendations. The Canadian regulatory system relies on the 'precautionary principle' in its approach to regulate the 'product' instead of the 'process'. The regulatory framework captures transgenic animals under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). Food from transgenic animals is assessed for safety by Health Canada under its Novel Foods Regulations of the Food and Drugs Act. Feed containing any genetically modified organism is considered Novel Feed under the Feeds Act and Regulations. The regulation of veterinary biologics, in an effort to prevent and diagnose infectious diseases of animals, relies on effective science-based regulatory controls under the Health of Animals Act and Regulations. The Canadian system of regulation for feeds, veterinary biologics and transgenic animals could be useful to developing countries in the process of establishing an effective framework for new regulations. (author)

2005-01-01

296

Simultaneous determination of eleven quinolones in animal feed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet absorbance detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid and simple multi-residue procedure is described for assaying eleven quinolones (cinoxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, marbofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, oxolinic acid and sarafloxacin) in feeds at sub-additive levels (1-5 mg kg(-1)). Five grams of sample were extracted by a metaphosphoric acid/acetonitrile mixture (70/30, v/v) and purified onto OASIS HLB cartridges. The determination was achieved by liquid chromatography (LC) using a GEMINI C18 analytical column both with fluorescence detection (FD) and photodiode-array (DAD). Limits of detection for each drug were in the range 0.04-0.8 mg kg(-1). Above the limit of quantification (LOQ), in poultry feed the recoveries were from 69 to 98% with relative standard deviations less than or equal 10%. Finally the measurement uncertainty was estimated using the bottom-up approach. PMID:19616214

Galarini, Roberta; Fioroni, Laura; Angelucci, Federico; Tovo, Gloria R; Cristofani, Elisa

2009-07-04

297

Simultaneous determination of eleven quinolones in animal feed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet absorbance detection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rapid and simple multi-residue procedure is described for assaying eleven quinolones (cinoxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, marbofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, oxolinic acid and sarafloxacin) in feeds at sub-additive levels (1-5 mg kg(-1)). Five grams of sample were extracted by a metaphosphoric acid/acetonitrile mixture (70/30, v/v) and purified onto OASIS HLB cartridges. The determination was achieved by liquid chromatography (LC) using a GEMINI C18 analytical column both with fluorescence detection (FD) and photodiode-array (DAD). Limits of detection for each drug were in the range 0.04-0.8 mg kg(-1). Above the limit of quantification (LOQ), in poultry feed the recoveries were from 69 to 98% with relative standard deviations less than or equal 10%. Finally the measurement uncertainty was estimated using the bottom-up approach.

Galarini R; Fioroni L; Angelucci F; Tovo GR; Cristofani E

2009-11-01

298

Definition of key parameters for constructing an online reference micrographs collection of processed animal particles in feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Union Reference Laboratory for the detection of animal proteins in feedingstuffs (EURL-AP) has developed an online micrographs collection supporting its network activities within the European Union for the detection of prohibited animal by-products in feed. So far, the only official method for detecting these by-products is light microscopy, which is highly dependent on the skills of a microscopist because it relies on particle recognition. In order to help the microscopist network to achieve high proficiency levels, it was necessary to create an online reference tool based on micrographs and accessible via an Intranet platform. Members of the National Reference Laboratories for animal proteins in feedingstuffs (NRL-AP) and the International Association for Feedingstuff Analysis – Section Feedingstuff Microscopy (IAG) have access to this micrographs collection. This paper describes how the online collection was created and what conditions had to be taken into account in creating such a tool. It also describes how information are periodically updated and managed within the context of the large amount of information included in each micrograph. The need for a robust back-office system as the foundation for all the research activities in this project is also covered, and the evaluation of the use of the online collection is discussed.

Belinchon Crespo, C.; Veys, P.; Vermeulen, P.; Baeten, V.

2012-01-01

299

Sample size considerations for one-to-one animal transmission studies of the influenza A viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Animal transmission studies can provide important insights into host, viral and environmental factors affecting transmission of viruses including influenza A. The basic unit of analysis in typical animal transmission experiments is the presence or absence of transmission from an infectious animal to a susceptible animal. In studies comparing two groups (e.g. two host genetic variants, two virus strains, or two arrangements of animal cages), differences between groups are evaluated by comparing the proportion of pairs with successful transmission in each group. The present study aimed to discuss the significance and power to estimate transmissibility and identify differences in the transmissibility based on one-to-one trials. The analyses are illustrated on transmission studies of influenza A viruses in the ferret model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Employing the stochastic general epidemic model, the basic reproduction number, R?, is derived from the final state of an epidemic and is related to the probability of successful transmission during each one-to-one trial. In studies to estimate transmissibility, we show that 3 pairs of infectious/susceptible animals cannot demonstrate a significantly higher transmissibility than R?=?1, even if infection occurs in all three pairs. In comparisons between two groups, at least 4 pairs of infectious/susceptible animals are required in each group to ensure high power to identify significant differences in transmissibility between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results inform the appropriate sample sizes for animal transmission experiments, while relating the observed proportion of infected pairs to R?, an interpretable epidemiological measure of transmissibility. In addition to the hypothesis testing results, the wide confidence intervals of R? with small sample sizes also imply that the objective demonstration of difference or similarity should rest on firmly calculated sample size.

Nishiura H; Yen HL; Cowling BJ

2013-01-01

300

Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of “Envelopes,” each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward.

Fort, James A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

2007-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives investigated contained lauric acid, myristic acid, linseed oil, and calcium fumarate. These additives were included at 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, and 0.7% of dietary dry matter, respectively (treatment ADD). Experimental fat sources were exchanged for a rumen inert source of fat in the control diet (treatment CON) to maintain isolipidic rations. Cows (experiment 1, n=20; experiment 2, n=12) were fed restricted amounts of feed to avoid confounding effects of dry matter intake on methane production. In experiment 1, methane production and energy balance were studied using open-circuit indirect calorimetry. In experiment 2, 10 rumen-fistulated animals were used to measure rumen fermentation characteristics. In both experiments animal performance was monitored. The inclusion of dietary additives decreased methane emissions (g/d) by 10%. Milk yield and milk fat content tended to be lower for ADD in experiment 1. In experiment 2, milk production was not affected by ADD, but milk fat content was lower. Fat- and protein-corrected milk was lower for ADD in both experiments. Milk urea nitrogen content was lowered by ADD in experiment 1 and tended to be lower in experiment 2. Apparent total tract digestibility of fat, but not that of starch or neutral detergent fiber, was higher for ADD. Energy retention did not differ between treatments. The decrease in methane production (g/d) was not evident when methane emission was expressed per kilogram of milk produced. Feeding ADD resulted in increases of C12:0 and C14:0 and the intermediates of linseed oil biohydrogenation in milk in both experiments. In experiment 2, ADD-fed cows tended to have a decreased number of protozoa in rumen fluid when compared with that in control cows. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were lower for ADD, whereas molar proportions of propionate increased at the expense of acetate and butyrate.

van Zijderveld SM; Fonken B; Dijkstra J; Gerrits WJ; Perdok HB; Fokkink W; Newbold JR

2011-03-01

302

Effects of different sampling intervals on apparent protein and energy digestibility of common feed ingredients by juvenile oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the apparent protein and energy digestibility of common feed ingredients (soybean meal, fish meal, wheat meal and corn) by juvenile oscars using two different sampling intervals (30 min. and 12h). The 160 juvenile oscar fish tested (22.37 ± 3.06 g BW) were divided into four cylindrical plastic net cages, each one placed in a 1000 L feeding tank. The experiment was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial design (2 feces collection intervals and 4 feed ingredients) with four replications. The statistical tests did not detect an interaction effect of sampling interval and type of ingredient on digestibility coefficients. Sampling interval did not affect protein and energy digestibility. The physical characteristics of juvenile oscar feces likely make them less susceptible to nutrient loss by leaching and can therefore be collected at longer intervals. Protein digestibility of the different ingredients was similar, showing that apparent digestibility of both animal and plant ingredients by juvenile oscars was efficient. Energy digestibility coefficients of fish meal and soybean meal were higher than those of wheat meal and corn. Carbohydrate-rich ingredients (wheat meal and corn) had the worst energy digestibility coefficients and are therefore not used efficiently by juvenile oscars.

Thiago Matias Torres do Nascimento; Thiago El Hadi Perez Fabregat; Laurindo André Rodrigues; Nilva Kazue Sakomura; João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes

2012-01-01

303

Reproducibility of NMR analysis of urine samples: impact of sample preparation, storage conditions, and animal health status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining (1)H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Results. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at -20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Conclusion. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

Schreier C; Kremer W; Huber F; Neumann S; Pagel P; Lienemann K; Pestel S

2013-01-01

304

Scientific Opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the presence of seeds of Ambrosia spp. in animal feed : Scientific Opinion, EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The European Commission requested EFSA to provide a scientific opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union and on the importance of feed materials, in particular bird feed, in the dispersion of Ambrosia spp. The genus Ambrosia (Asteraceae family) is distributed worldwide. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) has heavily colonised several areas of South-East Europe. Ambrosia spp., both in their native range and in invaded areas, are of public health concern due to the allergenic properties of their pollen. The NDA Panel concluded that inhalation of the plant pollen causes rhino-conjunctivitis and asthma, with skin allergies and food allergy playing minor roles. Ambrosia may cross-sensitize patients to other allergens, including food allergens. There is some evidence for allergenicity of Ambrosia pollen in animals. With regard to the effects on the environment of the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union, the PLH Panel concluded that there is no direct evidence that Ambrosia spp. cause extinction of plant species. However, there are some indications that A. artemisiifolia could become highly invasive in certain environmentally-valuable habitats and might be linked to an impoverishment of species richness, therefore further ecological studies are needed. The CONTAM Panel focused on the relative importance of animal feed, bird feed in particular, on the dispersion of Ambrosia. Ambrosia seeds may contaminate feed. However, animal feed materials compounded for use in livestock are extensively processed. This processing destroys Ambrosia seeds and hence the contribution of compounded feed to the dispersion of Ambrosia is considered to be negligible. Bird feed often contains significant quantities of Ambrosia seeds and remains unprocessed. Therefore, bird feed seems to play an important role in introducing Ambrosia to new, previously not infested areas.

Baker, R.; Candresse, T.

2010-01-01

305

Evaluation of two liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry platforms for quantification of monensin in animal feed and milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Monensin is an anticoccidial drug that has been used as an additive in medicated feed. The United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has included monensin in the national surveillance schemes for residues in foodstuff. In this study, two simple, selective and rapid methods were developed to determine monensin content in animal feed and milk. The methods enabled the detection of monensin residues as low as 1 ppb. Moreover, the two methods were used as models to compare two common liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) platforms; an LC linear ion trap (LC/LIT) and an LC triple quadrupole (LC/QqQ). The two instrument platforms were evaluated for their matrix effect dependence, precision and accuracy. The LC/QqQ presented a lower limit of detection and limit of quantitation (LOD and LOQ) and showed less matrix dependence as compared to the LC/LIT. The LC/QqQ instrument also demonstrated a better intermediate precision. For example, the intermediate precision standard deviation calculated for 27 analyses across three days was 4% and 11% for LC/QqQ and LC/LIT, respectively. Overall, the LC/QqQ represents a better choice for analysis of monensin with respect to LOD, LOQ, matrix interference and precision.

Dai SY; Herrman TJ

2010-05-01

306

Status of United States recommendations for control of accidental radioactive contamination of human food and animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Existing recommendations in the United States of America for control of accidental radioactive contamination of human food and animal feeds were issued in 1982 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the Department of Health and Human Services. These recommendations provide guidance for determining whether levels of radiation encountered after a radiological incident warrant protective action and also suggest appropriate actions that may be taken. Additional guidance specific to the control of imported foods was adopted following the Chernobyl accident. The guidance consisted of derived intervention levels (DILs) for imported foods and was based in part on the 1982 FDA recommendations and on assumptions appropriate to the circumstances of Chernobyl. These DILs, which were called Levels of Concern when issued in 1986, set levels of contamination for specific radionuclides below which imported foods would be allowed for general distribution in commerce. The existing FDA recommendations for control of accidental radioactive contamination of human foods and animal feeds are currently under review. This review will take into account current scientific information and radiation protection philosophy, as well as practical experience, and will also consider the developing international DILs. Limiting the risk to the public in the event of an accidental release of radioactive materials involves both protective actions to mitigate the degree of radioactive contamination reaching food, as well as regulatory controls for the distribution in commerce of foods with residual radioactive contamination from the accident. It is this approach which is steering the current review and development of revised guidance. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

307

Determination of manganese, copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum in animal blood sample by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique of neutron activation analysis had been applied to the determination of Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mo in animal blood sample as supplied by IAEA for intercomparison purposes. One gram of the sample was found to contain 0.3786+-0.0019 ug Mn, 1.4146+-0.0025 ug cu, 16.5713+-0.0607 ug Zn, 2.7025+-0.0446 mg Fe and 0.0305 +-0.0013 ug Mo

1969-01-01

308

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY IN ANIMALS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods of improving performance and productivity in animals by feeding the animals an animal feed composition or animal feed supplement comprising a capsaicin product are disclosed. Methods and systems of feeding an animal comprising feeding the animal an animal feed composition or animal feed supplement comprising the capsaicin product are also disclosed. Feed compositions including a capsaicin product are also disclosed.

BLOCK STEPHANIE S; CECAVA MICHAEL J; DOANE PERRY H; FRANKLIN MARK A; KAMEL L. C; PYATT NATHAN A; YANG HONG

309

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY IN ANIMALS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods of improving performance and productivity in animals by feeding the animals an animal feed composition or animal feed supplement comprising a capsaicin product are disclosed. Methods and systems of feeding an animal comprising feeding the animal an animal feed composition or animal feed supplement comprising the capsaicin product are also disclosed. Feed compositions including a capsaicin product are also disclosed.

YANG HONG; BLOCK STEPHANIE S; CECAVA MICHAEL J; DOANE PERRY H; FRANKLIN MARK A; KAMEL L CHRISTOPHER; PYATT NATHAN A

310

Metagenomic detection of viruses in aerosol samples from workers in animal slaughterhouses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Published studies have shown that workers in animal slaughterhouses are at a higher risk of lung cancers as compared to the general population. No specific causal agents have been identified, and exposures to several chemicals have been examined and found to be unrelated. Evidence suggests a biological aetiology as the risk is highest for workers who are exposed to live animals or to biological material containing animal faeces, urine or blood. To investigate possible biological exposures in animal slaughterhouses, we used a metagenomic approach to characterise the profile of organisms present within an aerosol sample. An assessment of aerosol exposures for individual workers was achieved by the collection of personal samples that represent the inhalable fraction of dust/bioaerosol in workplace air in both cattle and sheep slaughterhouses. Two sets of nine personal aerosol samples were pooled for the cattle processing and sheep processing areas respectively, with a total of 332,677,346 sequence reads and 250,144,492 sequence reads of 85 bp in length produced for each. Eukaryotic genome sequence was found in both sampling locations, and bovine, ovine and human sequences were common. Sequences from WU polyomavirus and human papillomavirus 120 were detected in the metagenomic dataset from the cattle processing area, and these sequences were confirmed as being present in the original personal aerosol samples. This study presents the first metagenomic description of personal aerosol exposure and this methodology could be applied to a variety of environments. Also, the detection of two candidate viruses warrants further investigation in the setting of occupational exposures in animal slaughterhouses.

Hall RJ; Leblanc-Maridor M; Wang J; Ren X; Moore NE; Brooks CR; Peacey M; Douwes J; McLean DJ

2013-01-01

311

Metagenomic Detection of Viruses in Aerosol Samples from Workers in Animal Slaughterhouses  

Science.gov (United States)

Published studies have shown that workers in animal slaughterhouses are at a higher risk of lung cancers as compared to the general population. No specific causal agents have been identified, and exposures to several chemicals have been examined and found to be unrelated. Evidence suggests a biological aetiology as the risk is highest for workers who are exposed to live animals or to biological material containing animal faeces, urine or blood. To investigate possible biological exposures in animal slaughterhouses, we used a metagenomic approach to characterise the profile of organisms present within an aerosol sample. An assessment of aerosol exposures for individual workers was achieved by the collection of personal samples that represent the inhalable fraction of dust/bioaerosol in workplace air in both cattle and sheep slaughterhouses. Two sets of nine personal aerosol samples were pooled for the cattle processing and sheep processing areas respectively, with a total of 332,677,346 sequence reads and 250,144,492 sequence reads of 85 bp in length produced for each. Eukaryotic genome sequence was found in both sampling locations, and bovine, ovine and human sequences were common. Sequences from WU polyomavirus and human papillomavirus 120 were detected in the metagenomic dataset from the cattle processing area, and these sequences were confirmed as being present in the original personal aerosol samples. This study presents the first metagenomic description of personal aerosol exposure and this methodology could be applied to a variety of environments. Also, the detection of two candidate viruses warrants further investigation in the setting of occupational exposures in animal slaughterhouses.

Hall, Richard J.; Leblanc-Maridor, Mily; Wang, Jing; Ren, Xiaoyun; Moore, Nicole E.; Brooks, Collin R.; Peacey, Matthew; Douwes, Jeroen; McLean, David J.

2013-01-01

312

Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indicus) as an alternative animal feed and water resource during dry season in Eritrea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Animal feed and water shortage is one of the main constraints for the livestock sector in arid and semi arid region of Eritrea. The major feed resource comes from the rangeland pasture and crop residue. The quality and availability of these feed resources decreases rapidly following the rainy season. This fluctuating pattern of animal feed supply results in a pattern of gain and loss in animal growth and performance. In a country like Eritrea where feed shortage is such a serious problem, utilization of multipurpose trees and shrubs such as cactus that can cope with low and erratic rain fall, high temperature poor soils, and required low energy inputs can serve as an alternative strategy to reduce the chronic animal feed and water shortage (Barbera et al., 1995). Therefore the aim of this research was to assess the potential of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindica) as an alternative source feed and water for ruminant animals fed poor quality crop residues during the dry season in Eritrea. A randomized complete block design was used to allocate 24 fat tailed Highland male sheep with initial mean live weight of 21.1kg in two replications and one of four feed treatment groups. Animal in T1 received ad libitum amount of urea treated barley straw alone, while those in T2, T3 and T4 received ad libitum urea treated barley straw supplemented with 175g, 350g and 525g of spineless cactus (DM basis), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, four sheep were transferred to metabolic crates for the digestibility trial. Data were analyzed using standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) with help of GENSTAT statistical producer software. Spineless cactus cladodes were high in water and ash content but low in crude protein and low in crude fibre. The energy content of cactus was 65% more than the urea treated straw. The effect of increasing level of spineless cactus on feed and water intake and weight gain is presented. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant increases in DMI (P

2009-01-01

313

Conversion of organic waste materials, marine plants and animals into a feed and fertilizer powder  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for the conversion of organic materials raw fish waste and other marine plants and animals into a stable powder form, without the use of high heat or cooking. A raw fish waste is initially ground and then hydrolyzed or "enzymatically reduced," to form a hydrolysate. The hydrolysate is stabilized by adding acid and heated to separate oil and water, to form a product cake. The cake is transferred to a blender for nutrient mixing to form a raw product. The raw product cake is dried in a high velocity air dryer and micronizer. The dryer employs a spiral coil working chamber that preferably circles a separation cyclone. The working chamber can heat the cyclone to conserve energy and provide better drying effect.An alternative of this process eliminates the hydrolysis step and processes finely grinds the raw fish optionally followed by a cold pressing to remove the oil and water, preferably employing bulking agents of other organic nutrients to adjust pH, increase nutrient value, and reduce water and oil concentration.

CONNELL LARRY V

314

Stable isotopes in animal ecology: the effect of ration size on the trophic shift of C and N isotopes between feed and carcass.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The feeding ecology of living or extinct animal species is now frequently studied by analysis of stable isotope ratios in small quantities of carcass or remains such as bones or teeth. Although there are numerous papers on these applications in natural systems, the theoretical and experimental basis of this method is weak. In order to evaluate the effect of different feeding levels on the carbon and nitrogen trophic shift, an experiment was carried out in which fish (Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, initial weight 40.8 g) were fed for 4 weeks at three levels from slightly above maintenance to almost satiation. For each treatment, three fish were reared individually. The isotopic ratios of carbon and nitrogen in feeds and fish carcasses were determined and in the case of carbon this was done separately for lipids and lipid-free matter. The trophic shift was calculated at each feeding level from the delta13C and delta15N ratios of feed and fish. There was a significant trend towards higher values for the trophic shift at higher feeding rates in all fractions analysed. Although further research is required, it can be concluded that the effect of feeding level cannot be ignored when the diet of an animal has to be calculated from the ratios of isotopes in its body.

Focken U

2001-01-01

315

Stable isotopes in animal ecology: the effect of ration size on the trophic shift of C and N isotopes between feed and carcass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feeding ecology of living or extinct animal species is now frequently studied by analysis of stable isotope ratios in small quantities of carcass or remains such as bones or teeth. Although there are numerous papers on these applications in natural systems, the theoretical and experimental basis of this method is weak. In order to evaluate the effect of different feeding levels on the carbon and nitrogen trophic shift, an experiment was carried out in which fish (Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, initial weight 40.8 g) were fed for 4 weeks at three levels from slightly above maintenance to almost satiation. For each treatment, three fish were reared individually. The isotopic ratios of carbon and nitrogen in feeds and fish carcasses were determined and in the case of carbon this was done separately for lipids and lipid-free matter. The trophic shift was calculated at each feeding level from the delta13C and delta15N ratios of feed and fish. There was a significant trend towards higher values for the trophic shift at higher feeding rates in all fractions analysed. Although further research is required, it can be concluded that the effect of feeding level cannot be ignored when the diet of an animal has to be calculated from the ratios of isotopes in its body. PMID:11924851

Focken, U

2001-01-01

316

Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia/ Modelagem matemática para energia digestivel de ingredientes de origem animal para tilápias  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi a formulação de equações para estimar a energia digestível em alimentos para a tilápia. Foram utilizados valores obtidos na literatura da composição centesimal em proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, matéria mineral e energia bruta (variáveis independentes), bem como a energia digestível (variável dependente) obtidos em ensaios biológicos. Os dados foram submetidos à regressão linear múltipla "stepwise backward". Foi realizada aná (more) lise de trilha para medir os efeitos diretos e indiretos de cada variável independente sobre a dependente. Para validar o modelo foram utilizados dados de estudos independentes, e os valores obtidos em um ensaio de digestibilidade com juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, testando-se cinco farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO), utilizando o sistema de coleta de fezes de Guelph e óxido de cromo (III) como indicador. A equação obtida não pode estimar os valores de energia digestível (ED) de origem animal e está descrito a seguir: ED (kcalkg-1) = -2364,970+1,287 x EB;R² = 0,775. Os coeficientes de trilha obtidos tem valores de médios a baixo, sendo o maior efeito direto o da energia bruta (0,529), enquanto a proteina bruta apresentou o maior efeito indireto, via energia bruta (0,439). Abstract in english The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent var (more) iable on the dependent one. To validate the model, data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals (MBM) were used, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model is described below and cannot estimate digestible energy (DE) of animal origin: DE (kcal kg-1) = -2364.970+1.287xGE;R² = 0.775. The path coefficients were medium or low, the highest direct effect was from gross energy (0.529), while the highest indirect effect was from crude protein, through gross energy (0.439).

Vidal, Luiz Vítor Oliveira; Furuya, Wilson Massamitu; Martins, Elias Nunes; Xavier, Tadeu Orlandi; Michelato, Mariana; Graciano, Thêmis Sakaguti

2012-09-01

317

Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia=Modelagem matemática para energia digestivel de ingredientes de origem animal para tilápias  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals (MBM) were used, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model is described below and cannot estimate digestible energy (DE) of animal origin: . The path coefficients were medium or low, the highest direct effect was from gross energy (0.529), while the highest indirect effect was from crude protein, through gross energy (0.439). O objetivo deste estudo foi a formulação de equações para estimar a energia digestível em alimentos para a tilápia. Foram utilizados valores obtidos na literatura da composição centesimal em proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, matéria mineral e energia bruta (variáveis independentes), bem como a energia digestível (variável dependente) obtidos em ensaios biológicos. Os dados foram submetidos à regressão linear múltipla “stepwise backward”. Foi realizada análise de trilha para medir os efeitos diretos e indiretos de cada variável independente sobre a dependente. Para validar o modelo foram utilizados dados de estudos independentes, e os valores obtidos em um ensaio de digestibilidade com juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, testando-se cinco farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO), utilizando o sistema de coleta de fezes de Guelph e óxido de cromo (III) como indicador. A equação obtida não pode estimar os valores de energia digestível (ED) de origem animal e está descrito a seguir: . Os coeficientes de trilha obtidos tem valores de médios a baixo, sendo o maior efeito direto o da energia bruta (0,529), enquanto a proteina bruta apresentou o maior efeito indireto, via energia bruta (0,439).

Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Elias Nunes Martins; Tadeu Orlandi Xavier; Mariana Michelato; Thêmis Sakaguti Graciano

2012-01-01

318

Unusual animal-plant interaction: Feeding of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae) by ants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hollow pseudobulbs of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae; Central America) serve as domatia for many species of ants. The ants pack many of the pseudobulbs with debris including dead insects, plant material, and sand. Ants were fed {sup 14}C-labelled D-glucose in honey, killed, and placed in the pseudobulbs for up to eight weeks. Samples of plant tissue were harvested and tested for radioactivity after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The labelled material had moved into various parts of the plant and demonstrated direct nutrient uptake.

Rico-Gray, V. (INIREB, Veracruz (Mexico)); Barber, J.T.; Thien, L.B.; Ellgaard, E.G.; Toney, J.J. (Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (USA))

1989-04-01

319

Determination of para red, Sudan dyes, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin in animal feeds using UPLC.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for quantitative determination of para red, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin in feedstuff. The sample was extracted using acetonitrile and cleaned up on a C(18) SPE column. The residues were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector at 500 nm. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-formic acid-water with a gradient elution condition. The external standard curves were calibrated. The mean recoveries of the seven colorants were 62.7-91.0% with relative standard deviation 2.6-10.4% (intra-day) and 4.0-13.2% (inter-day). The detection limits were in the range of 0.006-0.02 mg/kg.

Hou X; Li Y; Wu G; Wang L; Hong M; Wu Y

2010-01-01

320

Animations  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Griffith, Christopher

 
 
 
 
321

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Quinoline Yellow (E104) as a feed additive for non food-producing animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quinoline Yellow is applied as a colourant to add colour to feedingstuffs for non food-producing animals at the maximum dose of 500 mg/kg feed. In the absence of specific data, the safe feed concentration for non food-producing animals could be derived from an established no observed adverse effect level of a chronic rat study applying a safety factor of 100. The resulting maximum safe concentration was calculated for dogs and cats and was extrapolated to other non food-producing animals. The maximum safe concentration was 25 mg Quinoline Yellow/kg complete feed for all non food-producing animals. Since no information regarding dusting potential was available, it would be prudent to regard both the powder and the granulated forms as hazardous if inhaled. In the absence of data on irritancy and sensitisation, it would also be prudent to treat Quinoline Yellow as an irritant and skin sensitiser. Although, in principle, no efficacy data would be required for authorised food additives, if the intended effect in feed is the same as in food, evidence of an effect in feed is needed considering the variety of feed materials and the low safe level for target animals (25 mg/kg). In the absence of any information, the efficacy of Quinoline Yellow, with respect to the dose and the nature of the feedingstuffs and their processing, could not be assessed. The derived maximum safe concentration in complete feedingstuffs (25 mg/kg) was recommended as a maximum content of Quinoline Yellow.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

2013-01-01

322

Evaluation of pre-PCR processing approaches for enumeration of Salmonella enterica in naturally contaminated animal feed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Three pre-PCR processing strategies for the detection and/or quantification of Salmonella in naturally contaminated soy bean meal were evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Methods included: (i) flotation-qPCR (enumeration of intact Salmonella cells prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR)), (ii) MPN-PCR (modified most probable number method combined with qPCR) and (iii) qualitative culture enrichment PCR. The limit of quantification was 1.8×10(2) CFU g(-1) (flotation-qPCR) and 0.02 MPN g(-1) (MPN-PCR). Fifteen naturally contaminated Salmonella positive soya bean meal samples from one lot were analysed in parallel with the three methods, using 2.5, 50 and 25 g of feed, respectively, resulting in detection of Salmonella in 6, 15 and 9 bags. Enumeration resulted in 1.8×10(2) -7.8×10(3) CFU g(-1) (flotation-qPCR) and 0.024 to >5.2 MPN g(-1) (MPN-PCR). CONCLUSIONS: Except for differences in methodology, results obtained with the three techniques could be due to the presence of non-culturable Salmonella and/or a heterogeneous distribution of Salmonella in the material. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The evaluated methods provide different possibilities to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in feed, together with the numbers of culturable, as well as non-culturable cells, and can be applied to generate data to allow more accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment for Salmonella in the feed chain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Schelin J; Andersson G; Vigre H; Norling B; Häggblom P; Hoorfar J; Rådström P; Löfström C

2013-09-01

323

Evaluation of pre-PCR processing approaches for enumeration of Salmonella enterica in naturally contaminated animal feed  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: Three pre-PCR processing strategies for the detection and/or quantification of Salmonella in naturally contaminated soy bean meal were evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Methods included: (i) flotation-qPCR (enumeration of intact Salmonella cells prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR)), (ii) MPN-PCR (modified most probable number method combined with qPCR) and (iii) qualitative culture enrichment PCR. The limit of quantification was 1.8×102 CFU g-1 (flotation-qPCR) and 0.02 MPN g-1 (MPN-PCR). Fifteen naturally contaminated Salmonella positive soya bean meal samples from one lot were analysed in parallel with the three methods, using 2.5, 50 and 25 g of feed, respectively, resulting in detection of Salmonella in 6, 15 and 9 bags. Enumeration resulted in 1.8×102 -7.8×103 CFU g-1 (flotation-qPCR) and 0.024 to >5.2 MPN g-1 (MPN-PCR). CONCLUSIONS: Except for differences in methodology, results obtained with the three techniques could be due to the presence of non-culturable Salmonella and/or a heterogeneous distribution of Salmonella in the material. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The evaluated methods provide different possibilities to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in feed, together with the numbers of culturable, as well as non-culturable cells, and can be applied to generate data to allow more accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment for Salmonella in the feed chain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Schelin, Jenny; Andersson, Gunnar

2013-01-01

324

Spatio-temporal optimization of sampling for bluetongue vectors (Culicoides) near grazing animals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background Estimating the abundance of Culicoides using light traps is influenced by a large variation in abun- dance in time and place. This study investigates the optimal trapping strategy to estimate the abun- dance or presence/absence of Culicoides on a field with grazing animals. We used 45 light traps to sample specimens from the Culicoides obsoletus species complex on a 14 hectare field during 16 nights in 2009. Findings The large number of traps and catch nights enabled us to simulate a series of samples consisting of different numbers of traps (1-15) on each night. We also varied the number of catch nights when simulating the sampling, and sampled with increasing minimum distances between traps. We used resampling to generate a distribution of different mean and median abundance in each sam- ple. Finally, we used the hypergeometric distribution to estimate the probability of falsely detecting absence of vectors on the field. The variation in the estimated abundance decreased steeply when using upto six traps, and was less pronounced when using more traps, although no clear cutoff was found. Conclusion Despite spatial clustering in vector abundance, we found no effect of increasing the distance between traps. We found that 18 traps were generally required to reach 90% probability of a true positive catch when sampling just one night. But when sampling over two nights the same probabil- ity level was obtained with just three traps per night The results are useful for the design of vector monitoring programmes on fields with grazing animals.

Kirkeby, Carsten; BØdker, Rene

2013-01-01

325

Occurrence and partition of antibiotics in the liquid and solid phases of swine wastewater from concentrated animal feeding operations in Shandong Province, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Swine wastewater represents an important pollution source of antibiotics in the environment; however, regional data about residual antibiotics in swine wastewater are very limited at present. This study investigated the concentrations of three classes of commonly used veterinary antibiotics, including five sulfonamides (SAs), three tetracyclines (TCs) and one macrolide (tiamulin, TIA), in swine wastewater collected from 21 concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) sites in Shandong Province, China. Both the liquid and solid (i.e., suspended solids) phases of swine wastewater were analyzed to determine the total concentration of each studied antibiotic. Results indicate that sulfamethazine had the highest median concentration (14.56 ?g L(-1)), followed by oxytetracycline (OTC, 8.05 ?g L(-1)) and chlortetracycline (CTC, 6.01 ?g L(-1)). The maximum detected concentration reached up to 2.02 mg L(-1) (OTC) and the highest detection frequency was 95.1% (CTC). The median concentrations and detection frequencies of antibiotics in winter samples were generally higher than those in summer samples (except CTC). The log Kd values were in the range of 1.31-1.96 for SAs, 2.05-2.33 for TCs, and 1.54-1.58 for TIA in swine wastewater. More TCs (14-28%) preferred to partition in the solid phase than SAs (2-10%) and TIA (5-10%), indicating that the suspended solids of swine wastewater may not be ignored.

Ben W; Pan X; Qiang Z

2013-04-01

326

In vitro rumen feed degradability assessed with DaisyII and batch culture: effect of sample size  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro degradability with DaisyII (D) equipment is commonly performed with 0.5g of feed sample into each filter bag. Literature reported that a reduction of the ratio of sample size to bag surface could facilitate the release of soluble or fine particulate. A reduction of sample size to 0.25 g could improve the correlation between the measurements provided by D and the conventional batch culture (BC). This hypothesis was screened by analysing the results of 2 trials. In trial 1, 7 feeds were incubated for 48h with rumen fluid (3 runs x 4 replications) both with D (0.5g/bag) and BC; the regressions between the mean values provided for the various feeds in each run by the 2 methods either for NDF (NDFd) and in vitro true DM (IVTDMD) degradability, had R2 of 0.75 and 0.92 and RSD of 10.9 and 4.8%, respectively. In trial 2, 4 feeds were incubated (2 runs x 8 replications) with D (0.25 g/bag) and BC; the corresponding regressions for NDFd and IVTDMD showed R2 of 0.94 and 0.98 and RSD of 3.0 and 1.3%, respectively. A sample size of 0.25 g improved the precision of the measurements obtained with D.

Mirko Cattani; Franco Tagliapietra; Lucia Bailoni; Stefano Schiavon

2010-01-01

327

Enzyamtic and Oven-drying Method of Processing Rubber Seeds for Animal Feed and the Evaluation of the Toxicity of Such Feed in Rats  

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Hevea brasiliensis towards the cyanogenic glycosides of rubber seeds as a means of processing was investigated followed by the study of acute toxicity of the enzymatically and oven dried processed feeds from these seeds towards ra...

P.N. Okafor; N.O. Anyanwu

328

Screening of plant and fungal metabolites in wheat, maize and animal feed using automated on-line clean-up coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of plant and fungal metabolites can occur in cereals and feed but only a limited number of target compounds are sought. This screening method is using a database of over 600 metabolites to establish contamination profiles in food and feed. Extracts were injected directly into an automated turbulent flow sample clean-up system, coupled to a liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometer (Orbitrap). Compound identification criteria for database searching were defined and the approach was validated by spiking plant and fungal metabolites into cereals and feed. A small survey of market samples (15) and quality control materials (9) of maize, wheat and feed was conducted using this method. Besides regulated and known secondary metabolites, fumiquinazoline F, fusarochromanone and dihydrofusarubin were identified for the first time in samples of maize and oats. This method enables clean-up of crude extracts within 18min and screening and confirmation of a wide range of different compound classes. PMID:24001842

Ates, Ebru; Godula, Michal; Stroka, Joerg; Senyuva, Hamide

2013-07-19

329

Screening of plant and fungal metabolites in wheat, maize and animal feed using automated on-line clean-up coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A wide range of plant and fungal metabolites can occur in cereals and feed but only a limited number of target compounds are sought. This screening method is using a database of over 600 metabolites to establish contamination profiles in food and feed. Extracts were injected directly into an automated turbulent flow sample clean-up system, coupled to a liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometer (Orbitrap). Compound identification criteria for database searching were defined and the approach was validated by spiking plant and fungal metabolites into cereals and feed. A small survey of market samples (15) and quality control materials (9) of maize, wheat and feed was conducted using this method. Besides regulated and known secondary metabolites, fumiquinazoline F, fusarochromanone and dihydrofusarubin were identified for the first time in samples of maize and oats. This method enables clean-up of crude extracts within 18min and screening and confirmation of a wide range of different compound classes.

Ates E; Godula M; Stroka J; Senyuva H

2014-01-01

330

Bioaerosol sampling for airborne bacteria in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Airborne microorganisms within the hospital environment can potentially cause infection in susceptible patients. The objectives of this study were to identify, quantify, and determine the nosocomial potential of common airborne microorganisms present within a small animal teaching hospital. Methods Bioaerosol sampling was done initially in all 11 rooms and, subsequently, weekly samples were taken from selected rooms over a 9-week period. Samples were collected twice (morning and afternoon) at each site on each sampling day. The rooms were divided into two groups: Group 1, in which morning sampling was post-cleaning and afternoon sampling was during activity, and Group 2, in which morning sampling was pre-cleaning and afternoon sampling was post-cleaning. The total aerobic bacterial plate counts per m3 and bacterial identification were done using standard microbiological methods. Results A total of 14 bacterial genera were isolated with the most frequent being Micrococcus spp. followed by species of Corynebacterium, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus. There was a significant interaction between location and time for rooms in Group 1 (p=0.0028) but not in Group 2 (p>0.05). Microbial counts for rooms in Group 2 were significantly greater in the mornings than in the afternoon (p=0.0049). The microbial counts were also significantly different between some rooms (p=0.0333). Conclusion The detection of significantly higher airborne microbial loads in different rooms at different times of the day suggests that the probability of acquiring nosocomial infections is higher at these times and locations.

Harper, Tisha A. M.; Bridgewater, Shelley; Brown, Latoya; Pow-Brown, Patricia; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.

2013-01-01

331

Assessment of an aerosol treatment to improve air quality in a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Poor air quality within swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) poses a threat to workers, the surrounding community, and farm production. Accordingly, the current study was conducted to evaluate a technology for reducing air pollution including particulate matter (PM), viable bacteria, and ammonia within such a facility. The technology consists of an acid-oil-alcohol aerosol applied daily. Its effectiveness was evaluated by comparing air quality from before to after treatment and between treated and untreated sides of a barn separated by an impervious partition. On the untreated side, air quality was typical for a swine CAFO, with mean PM2.5 of 0.28 mg/m3 and PM(TOT) of 1.5 mg/m3. The treatment yielded a reduction in PM concentration of 75-90% from before to after treatment. Effectiveness increased with time, application, and particle size (40% reduction for 1 microm and 90% for >10 microm). Airborne bacteria levels (total bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and gram-positive cocci) decreased one logarithmic unit after treatment. In contrast, treatment had no effect on ammonia concentrations. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in yielding exposure and emission reductions.

Rule AM; Chapin AR; McCarthy SA; Gibson KE; Schwab KJ; Buckley TJ

2005-12-01

332

Engineered biocatalysts: applications for high efficiency animal feed and fermentable by-products of wood and agricultural waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enzymes or biocatalysts are important in industrial processes because being degradable they are used to replace chemicals of environmental concern in many applications such as the pulp bleaching process. The use of enzymes has also increased the efficiency of many manufacturing processes, and their use not only for environmental considerations but also for lowering the operating cost of manufacturing processes is in place. Despite these advantages enzymes have problems in their industrial applications. Enzymes from industrial microbes are fragile in nature and operate in moderate conditions of temperature and acidity, etc. Protein engineering which consists in the manipulation of their amino acids may be able to improve their performance characteristics. Some mention is made of their use in animal feed. There is a need to produce alternate fuels to gasoline, which produces carbon dioxide in combustion, such as ethanol to replace or reduce the use of gasoline. Cellulose, the major part of the plant`s biomass, is an attractive feedstock for the production of ethanol. Enzymatic degradation of cellulose or hemicellulose yields simple sugars, which are fermented into ethanol. One of the technological hurdles to the performance of the cellulose degrading enzymes is their specific activity and stability. This influences the economy and viability of the bio-ethanol production, and protein engineering may be able to improve these enzymes.

Sung, Wing L. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Biological Sciences

1999-11-01

333

Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wastes by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EBF) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13% and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30oC in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran. (author).

1993-01-01

334

Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindicus) as an alternative feed and water source for animals during the dry season in Eritrea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Throughout East Africa, animal feed resources fluctuate seasonally and are often of limited availability. Finding alternative feed resources that can sustain animal production during the long dry season is an essential need. Cactus is a drought-tolerant and succulent feed resource available throughout the year in Eritrea. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including increasing levels of spineless cactus in the diet of sheep fed urea-treated barley straw. Twenty four fat tailed Highland male sheep with mean live weight of 21.1 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments (T1-T4). Animals in T1 received urea (5%) -treated barley straw (UTBS) alone ad libitum, while those in T, T3 and T4 received ad libitum UTBS supplemented with 175 g, 350 g and 525 g of spineless cactus (dry matter [DM] basis), respectively. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant increases in DM intake (P 0.75d and 96.5 g/ kg BWt0.75d, respectively) as compared with the first two treatments (94.4 g/kg BWt0.75d and 87.6 g/kg BWt0.75d). Water intake was significantly decreased with the progressive increase in cactus intake. The highest BWt gain (51.9 g/d) was found when sheep received 350 g DM of cactus (T3), while the lowest was in the control diet (26.8 g/d). The metabolism data demonstrated that available energy intake (TDNI) was directly related to animal performance. In conclusion, feeding cactus with UTBS can significantly increase animal performance and feed intake, and reduced water intake. (author)

2010-01-01

335

Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) feeding strategies at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar: an indirect sampling method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this research, we focused on aye-aye populations in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. From August to December 2008, we tested how aye-aye feeding was influenced by presence/absence of both fruiting and non-fruiting Canarium trees. Deadwood feeding traces were used as a proxy for evidence of Canarium feeding. We enumerated deadwood feeding traces in 20 locations, 10 with Canarium, 10 without. Each location contained two transects (80 m L × 20 m W) for a total area of 5.6 ha. Feeding trace results for Canarium locations compared to non-Canarium locations were not significant (Z = -1.926, p = 0.083); however, feeding trace results were significant when comparing fruiting and non-fruiting Canarium locations (Z = -2.417, p = 0.016). These results highlight the importance of Canarium in the diet of aye-ayes and demonstrate how the distribution of this resource may influence the foraging behavior of aye-ayes.

Sefczek TM; Farris ZJ; Wright PC

2012-01-01

336

Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) feeding strategies at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar: an indirect sampling method.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this research, we focused on aye-aye populations in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. From August to December 2008, we tested how aye-aye feeding was influenced by presence/absence of both fruiting and non-fruiting Canarium trees. Deadwood feeding traces were used as a proxy for evidence of Canarium feeding. We enumerated deadwood feeding traces in 20 locations, 10 with Canarium, 10 without. Each location contained two transects (80 m L × 20 m W) for a total area of 5.6 ha. Feeding trace results for Canarium locations compared to non-Canarium locations were not significant (Z = -1.926, p = 0.083); however, feeding trace results were significant when comparing fruiting and non-fruiting Canarium locations (Z = -2.417, p = 0.016). These results highlight the importance of Canarium in the diet of aye-ayes and demonstrate how the distribution of this resource may influence the foraging behavior of aye-ayes. PMID:22627178

Sefczek, Timothy M; Farris, Zach J; Wright, Patricia C

2012-05-22

337

[Molecularly-imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of ractopamine in feed samples].  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high selectivity to ractopamine (RAC) were prepared by using RAC as template, acrylamide (AM) as monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. The effects of four porogens (methanol, acetonitrile, acetone, and chloroform-methanol) with triethylamine (30:1, v/v) on the recognition capability of MIPs to RAC and the morphological characteristics of the polymers were investigated. Orthogonal test was used to optimize the preparation of MIPs, and the optimal compositions were as follows: 1.0 mmol RAC, 4.0 mmol AM, 20.0 mmol EGDMA, 6.0 mL acetonitrile-triethylamine (30:1, v/v), and 50.0 mg azobisisobutyronitrile. A high performance liquid chromatographic method based on molecularly-imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was developed for the determination of ractopamine in feed samples. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) of ractopamine was 0.1 mg/kg. The linear range was 0.50-100 mg/L (r = 0.999 4). Mean recoveries of RAC spiked in 3 kinds of feed samples at 1.0, 10 and 100 mg/kg were above 80% with the relative standard deviations of less than 10%. The clean-up efficiency of MISPE was ideal for feed samples. The method is more sensitive and reproduciable than the standard analytical method for the determination of RAC in feed matrices. PMID:22667092

Huang, Yi; Zhang, Qingjie; Liu, Min; Wang, Xufeng; Li, Jianqin; He, Limin

2012-01-01

338

[Molecularly-imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of ractopamine in feed samples].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high selectivity to ractopamine (RAC) were prepared by using RAC as template, acrylamide (AM) as monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. The effects of four porogens (methanol, acetonitrile, acetone, and chloroform-methanol) with triethylamine (30:1, v/v) on the recognition capability of MIPs to RAC and the morphological characteristics of the polymers were investigated. Orthogonal test was used to optimize the preparation of MIPs, and the optimal compositions were as follows: 1.0 mmol RAC, 4.0 mmol AM, 20.0 mmol EGDMA, 6.0 mL acetonitrile-triethylamine (30:1, v/v), and 50.0 mg azobisisobutyronitrile. A high performance liquid chromatographic method based on molecularly-imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was developed for the determination of ractopamine in feed samples. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) of ractopamine was 0.1 mg/kg. The linear range was 0.50-100 mg/L (r = 0.999 4). Mean recoveries of RAC spiked in 3 kinds of feed samples at 1.0, 10 and 100 mg/kg were above 80% with the relative standard deviations of less than 10%. The clean-up efficiency of MISPE was ideal for feed samples. The method is more sensitive and reproduciable than the standard analytical method for the determination of RAC in feed matrices.

Huang Y; Zhang Q; Liu M; Wang X; Li J; He L

2012-01-01

339

REAL-TIME PCR DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN FOOD SAMPLES OF ANIMAL ORIGIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow the contamination of food with Listeria monocytogenes by using Step One real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and SensiFAST SYBR Hi-ROX Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In 24 samples of food of animal origin without incubation were detected strains of Listeria monocytogenes in 15 samples (swabs). Nine samples were negative. Our results indicated that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Listeria monocytogenes in food of animal origin without incubation. This could prevent infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes, and also could benefit food manufacturing companies by extending their product’s shelf-life as well as saving the cost of warehousing their food products while awaiting pathogen testing results. The rapid real-time PCR-based method performed very well compared to the conventional method. It is a fast, simple, specific and sensitive way to detect nucleic acids, which could be used in clinical diagnostic tests in the future.

Jaroslav Pochop; Miroslava Ka?ániová; Lukáš Hleba; Jana Petrová; ?ubomír Lopašovský; Adriana Pavelková; Alica Bobková

2013-01-01

340

Ketoprofen-supplemented animal feed and use thereof in the simultaneous treatment of a group of animals for processes which are accompanied by fever, inflammation and/or pain  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is the use of a ketoprofen-supplemented animal feed for the simultaneous oral treatment of a group of animals for processes which are accompanied by fever, inflammation and/or pain in a herd of animals. Such diseases that may cause the fever, inflammation and/or pain include respiratory diseases such as Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex ( PRDC ) and Bovine Respiratory Disease ( BRS ). The composition may additionally comprise diluents, such as lactose, saccharose manitol, cellulose, xylitol, glycine or sorbitol, and fluidifiers, such as colloidal silicon dioxide, stearic acid, magnesium stearate or sodium stearylfumarate.

HOMEDES BEGUER JOSEP; SOLANAS IBARRA PEDRO JUAN; LOPEZ CABRERA ANTONIO; LIZCANO GARCIA JAVIER

 
 
 
 
341

Studies on the control of mold and its toxin in indirect foods(animal feeds) by radiation technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For determining susceptibility of the hazard fungi in feed to radiation, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mycotoxin free feed and reconfirm liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection of mycotoxin. The growth of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi in the feeds were completely inhibited at > 3 kGy of both radiations, and the zearalenone producing fungi in the feeds was controlled at > 5 kGy of both radiations. The growth and mycotoxin productivity of three fungi (aflatoxigenic, ochratoxigenic and zearalenone producing fungi) were fully controlled at > 7 kGy of gamma-irradiation. This means that the growth and mycotoxin productivity of fungi in feed could be fully inhibited by gamma-irradiation at > 7 kGy and the safety feed also can produce and preserve by the proper radiation level and hygienic management of feed factory and livestock raiser

2010-01-01

342

Studies on the control of mold and its toxin in indirect foods(animal feeds) by radiation technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For determining susceptibility of the hazard fungi in feed to radiation, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mycotoxin free feed and reconfirm liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection of mycotoxin. The growth of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi in the feeds were completely inhibited at > 3 kGy of both radiations, and the zearalenone producing fungi in the feeds was controlled at > 5 kGy of both radiations. The growth and mycotoxin productivity of three fungi (aflatoxigenic, ochratoxigenic and zearalenone producing fungi) were fully controlled at > 7 kGy of gamma-irradiation. This means that the growth and mycotoxin productivity of fungi in feed could be fully inhibited by gamma-irradiation at > 7 kGy and the safety feed also can produce and preserve by the proper radiation level and hygienic management of feed factory and livestock raiser

Chung, Duck Hwa; Shim, Won Bo; Cho, Sik Bee; Nimakashim; Song, Jung Un [Gyungsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

2010-04-15

343

Utilizing legume-cereal intercropping for increasing self-sufficiency on organic farms in feed for monogastric animals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In 2009, controlled field trials were conducted on three certified organic farms with field pea (leaf type), spring barley and spring wheat in monocultures and mixtures (pea:cereal ratio 60:40) to study the possibility of producing fodder for monogastric animals under Czech conditions. By grain harvest time, seed samples were collected and analysed for dry matter, ash, crude protein, fat and crude fiber, and content of organic matter and nitrogen-free extracts (NFE) were determined. Weed harrowing at various pea heights were included at one farm. Samples for analysis of tannins and trypsin-inhibitor activity (TIA) were taken from treatments with no weed harrowing (H0) and harrowings at 5 and 10 cm pea height (H2). Analyses of amino acids were conducted from H0-samples. To complement the data from the farm trials, samples of grains from treatments with the same pea and cereal varieties in plot trials conducted in 2008 and 2009 studying the effect of pea:cereal seed ratio and weed harrowing at various pea heights, were analysed. In cereals, the crude protein content increased by intercropping with pea. This increase was compensated for by a decrease in NFE. Wheat and barley grown in mixtures with peas seemed to contain more methionine than cereals in monoculture, and there tends to be higher threonine content in intercropped barley compared with barley monoculture. This is positive for the nutrition of monogastric animals. There were no pronounced effects of intercropping on tannins or TIA or on the content of other analysed nutrients in the cereals. The chemical composition of peas was not significantly impacted by intercropping.

Pozdíšek, J.; Henriksen, Britt I. F.

2011-01-01

344

Biodegradation of paddy straw obtained from different geographic locations by means of Phlebia spp. for animal feed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Various cereal straws are used as feed by supplementing the green forage or other feed stuffs. An experiment was designed to see the effect of different geographic locations and climatological conditions on biochemical constituents, fungal degradation and in vitro digestibility of paddy straw. Paddy straw (PS) obtained from three different geographic locations of India was subjected to solid state fermentation using four white rot fungi i.e. Phlebia brevispora, P. fascicularia, P. floridensis and P. radiata. Changes in the biochemical constituents like water soluble content, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, total organic matter, and in vitro digestibility of paddy straw was analyzed over a period of 60 days along with lignocellulolytic enzymes i.e. laccase, xylanase and carboxymethyl cellulase. All the fungi degraded the straw samples and enhanced the in vitro digestibility. The paddy straw, obtained from north western zone (NWZ) suffered a maximum loss (228 g/kg) of lignin by P. radiata, while a maximum enhancement of in vitro digestibility from 185 to 256 g/kg was achieved by P. brevispora, which also caused minimum loss in total organic matter (98 g/kg). In PS obtained from central eastern zone (CEZ) and north eastern zone (NEZ), a maximum amount of lignin (210 and 195 g/kg, respectively) was degraded by P. floridensis and resulted into a respective enhancement of in vitro digestibility from 172 to 246 g/kg and 188 to 264 g/kg. The study demonstrates that geographic locations not only affect the biochemical constituents of paddy straw but the fungal degradation of fibers, their in vitro digestibility and lignocellulolytic enzyme activity of the fungus may also vary.

Sharma RK; Arora DS

2011-02-01

345

Biodegradation of paddy straw obtained from different geographic locations by means of Phlebia spp. for animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various cereal straws are used as feed by supplementing the green forage or other feed stuffs. An experiment was designed to see the effect of different geographic locations and climatological conditions on biochemical constituents, fungal degradation and in vitro digestibility of paddy straw. Paddy straw (PS) obtained from three different geographic locations of India was subjected to solid state fermentation using four white rot fungi i.e. Phlebia brevispora, P. fascicularia, P. floridensis and P. radiata. Changes in the biochemical constituents like water soluble content, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, total organic matter, and in vitro digestibility of paddy straw was analyzed over a period of 60 days along with lignocellulolytic enzymes i.e. laccase, xylanase and carboxymethyl cellulase. All the fungi degraded the straw samples and enhanced the in vitro digestibility. The paddy straw, obtained from north western zone (NWZ) suffered a maximum loss (228 g/kg) of lignin by P. radiata, while a maximum enhancement of in vitro digestibility from 185 to 256 g/kg was achieved by P. brevispora, which also caused minimum loss in total organic matter (98 g/kg). In PS obtained from central eastern zone (CEZ) and north eastern zone (NEZ), a maximum amount of lignin (210 and 195 g/kg, respectively) was degraded by P. floridensis and resulted into a respective enhancement of in vitro digestibility from 172 to 246 g/kg and 188 to 264 g/kg. The study demonstrates that geographic locations not only affect the biochemical constituents of paddy straw but the fungal degradation of fibers, their in vitro digestibility and lignocellulolytic enzyme activity of the fungus may also vary. PMID:20596757

Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Daljit Singh

2010-07-02

346

[Simultaneous determination of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in animal feeds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for the simultaneous determination of six macrolide antibiotics (oleandomycin, erythromycin, kitasamycin, josamycin, roxithromycin and tylosin) and two lincosamide antibiotics (lincomycin and clindamycin) in animal feeds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospary ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed. The macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics were extracted from the feeds with methanol followed by enrichment and clean-up with an Oasis HLB cartridge. The UPLC separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column by a gradient elution using 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The identification of eight drugs was carried out by positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and the quantification analysis was performed by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 1-100 microg/L. The average recoveries of the eight drugs from the feeds spiked at 1, 10 and 100 microg/kg levels were between 68.6% and 95.2%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were between 4.9% and 11.8%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of the drugs in the feeds were 1 microg/kg. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the simultaneous determination of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in animal feeds. PMID:21381419

Yan, Lijuan; Zhang, Feng; Fang, Enhua; Guo, Yanni; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Liyi; Chu, Xiaogang

2010-11-01

347

[Simultaneous determination of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in animal feeds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for the simultaneous determination of six macrolide antibiotics (oleandomycin, erythromycin, kitasamycin, josamycin, roxithromycin and tylosin) and two lincosamide antibiotics (lincomycin and clindamycin) in animal feeds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospary ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed. The macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics were extracted from the feeds with methanol followed by enrichment and clean-up with an Oasis HLB cartridge. The UPLC separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column by a gradient elution using 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The identification of eight drugs was carried out by positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and the quantification analysis was performed by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 1-100 microg/L. The average recoveries of the eight drugs from the feeds spiked at 1, 10 and 100 microg/kg levels were between 68.6% and 95.2%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were between 4.9% and 11.8%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of the drugs in the feeds were 1 microg/kg. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the simultaneous determination of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in animal feeds.

Yan L; Zhang F; Fang E; Guo Y; Zhou Y; Lin L; Chu X

2010-11-01

348

Prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from clinical samples of companion animals and equidaes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study the prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in clinical specimens of different animal species was defined by investigating a total of 16,103 clinical samples originating from veterinary facilities of five German federal states in 2007. Of all samples examined, 72 were positive for MRSP, giving an overall prevalence of 0.45%. In clinical specimens originating from small animals the prevalence was 0.58% (n=67; dogs n=61 and cats n=6), while samples from equidaes revealed a prevalence of 0.10% (n=5; horses n=4, donkey n=1). Forty-six representative phenotypically identified MRSP were further differentiated by DNA-based species assignment, PCR detection of mecA, SCCmec-typing and MIC determination. As expected, all 46 isolates were unambiguously proven to be MRSP by sequencing of housekeeping genes pta and cpn60 and being positive for mecA. Furthermore, all isolates harboured the mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) SCCmecIII. Antibiotic susceptibility testing for 20 different conventional antimicrobial agents disclosed a high rate of multidrug-resistant isolates (45 of 46) displaying an identical or at least similar resistance pattern for non-beta-lactam antimicrobials. The recognized prevalence of MRSP, which have already been shown to be potential zoonotic agents, reflects the recently emerging development of these serious and often multidrug-resistant pathogens in Germany.

Ruscher C; Lübke-Becker A; Wleklinski CG; Soba A; Wieler LH; Walther B

2009-04-01

349

Free-range pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Effect of feeding strategy on growth, feed conversion and animal behaviour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The nutritional contributions from free-range foraging, growth, feed conversion and behaviour were investigated in 36 growing pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (JA) and fed concentrates restrictedly (30% of energy recommendations) or ad libitum. Compared to the ad libitum fed pigs, the pigs fed restrictedly had a significant lower daily gain (560 vs. 1224 g pig?1), improved feed conversion ratio (17.6 vs. 42.8 MJ ME concentrate kg?1 live weight gain) and spent more time foraging JA tubers (7.9 vs. 1.1%). It is estimated that pigs fed restrictedly found approximately 60% of their energy requirement from foraging in the range.

Kongsted, Anne Grete; Horsted, Klaus

2013-01-01

350

Determination of fusarium mycotoxins in wheat, maize and animal feed using on-line clean-up with high resolution mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An automated method involving on-line clean-up and analytical separation in a single run using TurboFlow™ reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer has been developed for the simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol, T2 toxin, HT2 toxin, zearalenone and fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize, wheat and animal feed. Detection was performed in full scan mode at a resolution of R = 100,000 full width at half maximum with high energy collision cell dissociation for the determination of fragment ions with a mass accuracy below 5 ppm. The extract from homogenised samples, after blending with a 0.1% aqueous mixture of 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile (43:57) for 45 min, was injected directly onto the TurboFlow™ (TLX) column for automated on-line clean-up followed by analytical separation and accurate mass detection. The TurboFlow™ column enabled specific binding of target mycotoxins, whereas higher molecular weight compounds, like fats, proteins and other interferences with different chemical properties, were removed to waste. Single laboratory method validation was performed by spiking blank materials with mycotoxin standards. The recovery and repeatability was determined by spiking at three concentration levels (50, 100 and 200% of legislative limits) with six replicates. Average recovery, relative standard deviation and intermediate precision values were 71 to 120%, 1 to 19% and 4 to 19%, respectively. The method accuracy was confirmed with certified reference materials and participation in proficiency testing.

Ates E; Mittendorf K; Stroka J; Senyuva H

2013-01-01

351

Enzyamtic and Oven-drying Method of Processing Rubber Seeds for Animal Feed and the Evaluation of the Toxicity of Such Feed in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hydrolytic activity of endogenous -glucosidase of Hevea brasiliensis towards the cyanogenic glycosides of rubber seeds as a means of processing was investigated followed by the study of acute toxicity of the enzymatically and oven dried processed feeds from these seeds towards rats. Crushing/ gr...

Okafor, P.N.; N.O. Anyanwu

352

Bioaerosol sampling for airborne bacteria in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Airborne microorganisms within the hospital environment can potentially cause infection in susceptible patients. The objectives of this study were to identify, quantify, and determine the nosocomial potential of common airborne microorganisms present within a small animal teaching hospital. Methods: Bioaerosol sampling was done initially in all 11 rooms and, subsequently, weekly samples were taken from selected rooms over a 9-week period. Samples were collected twice (morning and afternoon) at each site on each sampling day. The rooms were divided into two groups: Group 1, in which morning sampling was post-cleaning and afternoon sampling was during activity, and Group 2, in which morning sampling was pre-cleaning and afternoon sampling was post-cleaning. The total aerobic bacterial plate counts per m3 and bacterial identification were done using standard microbiological methods. Results: A total of 14 bacterial genera were isolated with the most frequent being Micrococcus spp. followed by species of Corynebacterium, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus. There was a significant interaction between location and time for rooms in Group 1 (p=0.0028) but not in Group 2 (p>0.05). Microbial counts for rooms in Group 2 were significantly greater in the mornings than in the afternoon (p=0.0049). The microbial counts were also significantly different between some rooms (p=0.0333). Conclusion: The detection of significantly higher airborne microbial loads in different rooms at different times of the day suggests that the probability of acquiring nosocomial infections is higher at these times and locations.

Tisha A. M. Harper; Shelley Bridgewater; Latoya Brown; Patricia Pow-Brown; Alva Stewart-Johnson; Abiodun A. Adesiyun

2013-01-01

353

Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P < 0.05). At reduced feeder space allowance, a reduction in the percentage of time spent eating was predicted when increasing initial BW, whereas the opposite was predicted for larger feeder space allowances (P < 0.001). The reduction in visit duration to the feeder in higher BW groups became gradually more important with increasing feeder space allowance (P < 0.01), whereas the increase in the ingestion rate and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with increasing initial BW became smaller with increasing feeder space (P < 0.05). The model predicted a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) with increasing group size (P < 0.05) and floor space allowance (P < 0.01) and on solid floors with or without bedding (P < 0.05). In comparison with other feeders, wet/dry feeders were associated with more frequent but shorter feeder visits (P < 0.05), higher ingestion rates (P < 0.001) and higher ADFI (P < 0.10). The use of protection within individual feeders increased the time spent feeding (P < 0.001), reduced the number of visits per day (P < 0.01), the ingestion rate (P < 0.001) and FCR (P < 0.01) in comparison with other feeder types. Sex modulated the effect of the number of feeder places/pig on FCR (P < 0.05), with a gradual reduction of FCR in entire males and females when increasing feeder space allowance. Genetics tended to modulate the effect of diets' CP content on FCR (P < 0.10). Overall, these results may contribute to the improvement of the welfare and performance of growing-finishing pigs by a better knowledge of the influence of the rearing environment and may help optimize the feeding strategies in current production systems.

Averós X; Brossard L; Dourmad JY; de Greef KH; Edwards SA; Meunier-Salaün MC

2012-08-01

354

Isolation of Tick and Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses from Ticks Sampled from Livestock and Wild Animal Hosts in Ijara District, Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service–protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne.

Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

2013-01-01

355

Isolation of tick and mosquito-borne arboviruses from ticks sampled from livestock and wild animal hosts in ijara district, kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service-protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne.

Lwande OW; Lutomiah J; Obanda V; Gakuya F; Mutisya J; Mulwa F; Michuki G; Chepkorir E; Fischer A; Venter M; Sang R

2013-09-01

356

Antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. The panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the Americas. Samples were isolated in the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in Brazil. In addition to the fixed virus samples CVS-31/96-IP, preserved in mouse brain, and PV-BHK/97, preserved in cell culture, a total of 330 rabies virus samples were isolated from dogs, cats, cattle, horses, bats, sheep, goat, swine, foxes, marmosets, coati and humans. Six antigenic variants that were compatible with the pre-established monoclonal antibodies panel were defined: numbers 2 (dog), 3 (Desmodus rotundus), 4 (Tadarida brasiliensis), 5 (vampire bat from Venezuela), 6 (Lasiurus cinereus) and Lab (reacted to all used antibodies). Six unknown profiles, not compatible with the panel, were also found. Samples isolated from insectivore bats showed the greatest variability and the most commonly isolated variant was variant-3 (Desmodus rotundus). These findings may be related to the existence of multiple independent transmission cycles, involving different bat species.

FAVORETTO Silvana Regina; CARRIERI Maria Luiza; CUNHA Elenice Maria S.; AGUIAR Elizabeth A.C.; SILVA Luzia Helena Q.; SODRÉ Miriam M.; SOUZA Maria Conceição A.M.; KOTAIT Ivanete

2002-01-01

357

Compartmental flux and in situ methods underestimate total feed nitrogen as judged by the omasal sampling method due to ignoring soluble feed nitrogen flow.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the present study was to estimate ruminal feed N outflow in lactating cows using the omasal sampling, compartmental flux or in situ method. A total of five ruminally fistulated Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square study with 21 d periods. Experimental silages of grass or red clover harvested at two stages of maturity in addition to a supplement of 9·0 kg concentrate/d were fed to the cows. In vivo omasal N flow was determined using the omasal sampling technique. Ruminal in situ N flow was calculated from N intake and degradability (38 ?m nylon bags). The samples of ruminal contents and faeces were divided into seven particle-size fractions by wet sieving; the concentrations of indigestible neutral-detergent fibre and N were used to calculate N flow in the compartmental flux method. In vivo omasal N flow was greater for the red clover silage diets than for the grass silage diets. The N flow calculated using the compartmental flux technique and that calculated using the in situ technique were highly correlated, but both were less than and poorly correlated with the in vivo N flow. In both in situ and compartmental flux techniques, forage maturity increased the particle-associated N flow, with the increase being significantly greater for the red clover diets than for the grass silage diets. In conclusion, the compartmental flux and in situ methods described the N flow associated with the particle fractions rather than the total ruminal outflow of feed N.

Huhtanen P; Bayat A; Krizsan SJ; Vanhatalo A

2013-08-01

358

Anatomy, visualization and sampling of the biliary tree in animals and man.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Difficulties in obtaining proper bile samples are due to inaccessibility of the biliary tree and to distortions induced by sampling methods. One must be cognizant of the effects of diet on bile secretion and gallbladder motility. Experimental methods which interrupt the enterohepatic circulation or alter the intestinal migrating myoelectric complex induce spurious changes in bile flow and composition. Biliary tract pressure-flow relationships must be maintained or the gallbladder will be made functionless. Dead space errors lead to distortions unless studies are performed in the steady state, or dead space is measured and corrections are applied. Surgery has major effects on some parameters of interest, and animals should be allowed to recover when these are studied. The effect of the mixing of bile with other secretions in the duodenum must be considered when using bile-rich duodenal fluid. For some parameters of bile secretion, mixing is unimportant but for others, special precautions for handling bile and interpreting results are required.

Strasberg SM; Harvey PR; Gallinger S

1984-09-01

359

Factors influencing diagnostic sample submission by food animal veterinarians in Mississippi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A focus group was organised to gather information and opinions from food animal veterinarians in Mississippi regarding sample submission to diagnostic laboratories. The research found that a range of factors influence the veterinarian's decision regarding whether samples will be submitted to a diagnostic laboratory, with the cost of diagnostics as the key influence. The veterinarians believed that the relationship they had with diagnostic laboratories was important in the protection of public health, but they thought that their role in disease surveillance was under-utilised. More attention needs to be directed towards strengthening veterinary surveillance at ground level to ensure that emergent diseases are detected effectively by a partnership approach between veterinary practitioners in the field and diagnosticians in diagnostic laboratories. This partnership is a vital component of the 'One Health' concept for the protection of both animal and human health. This study demonstrates that qualitative social science methodologies, such as focus groups, can usefully be applied to topics of relevance to veterinary public health.

Philip A. Robinson; William B. Epperson; Carla L. Huston; Lanny W. Pace; Robert W. Wills; Arthur G. Cosby

2012-01-01

360

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Patent Blue V (E 131) as feed additive for non food-producing animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patent Blue V (E131) is intended to add colour to feedingstuffs. It is applied for use in non food-producing animals only. The assessment is therefore limited to its safety for the target animals and the users and its efficacy. As no tolerance data were available, the safe feed concentration for target animals was derived from a NOAEL (no observable adverse effect level) from a chronic toxicity study in mice. The maximum safe feed concentration of Patent Blue V is 250 mg/kg complete feed for non food-producing animals. Patent Blue V is not genotoxic. This conclusion is limited to Patent Blue V having a minimum purity of 90 % and containing not more than 1 % of leuco base. Patent Blue V is poorly absorbed and has low systemic toxicity. In the absence of data on irritancy, sensitisation and inhalation toxicity, it would be prudent to treat Patent Blue V as an irritant and a skin sensitiser and as toxic by inhalation. Although a demonstration of efficacy is not required for additives that are used for the same function in food, an assessment of efficacy with respect to different doses and the nature of the feedingstuffs and their processing was not possible. The safety assessment is based on a Patent Blue V with a specification different from that currently used for the food additive. It is strongly recommended that the specification should be adjusted to match that of the product used in the critical genotoxicity study (in vivo comet assay). The specification for the feed additive should be: Patent Blue V with a minimum purity of 90 % and containing not more than 1 % of leuco base.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future. The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The results of the analysed corn samples as well as of the silage samples illustrated substantial equivalence in all investigated ingredients, such as crude nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and non-starch polysaccharides. The results of the experiments using poultry, pigs, wethers and fattening bulls were not influenced by the genetic modification of corn. The determined values for the digestibilities and the energy contents for poultry, pigs and wethers were not affected by the used corn variety. Neither the examined parameters of the fattening experiments with bulls nor the slaughter results showed any significant differences between the bulls fed on silages made from the nontransgenic or transgenic corn.

Aulrich K; Böhme H; Daenicke R; Halle I; Flachowsky G

2001-01-01

362

COMBINED FEED PREPARING PLANT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, equipment for preparing of bulk feeds in animal farming and combined feed preparing enterprises. ^ SUBSTANCE: combined feed preparing plant has computerized programmed control system providing for automatic controlling of dosed feeding of components for producing of combined feed. ^ EFFECT: provision for precise and complete dosing, according to accepted receipt, of combined feed components and micro additives, including vermiculture components, and improved quality of high-protein balanced feed. ^ 2 cl, 5 dwg

UZHIK VLADIMIR FEDOROVICH; BULAVIN STANISLAV ANTONOVICH; GRITSAENKO VLADIMIR IVANOVICH; SKLJAROV ALEKSANDR IVANOVICH

363

Samples feeding device for spectrometers of X-ray fluorescent analysis of SRV type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spectrometers of X-ray fluorescence analysis of SRV type manufactured by TOO 'Dal'tek-U-Ka' (Kazakhstan) is widely applying in Kazakhstan ore mining and processing enterprises and metallurgical plants. For analytical information quality assurance main demands to feedback device allowing obtaining reliable, stable and replicable results are formulated. The feedback device belonging to X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and is controlled by automatic control electronic module provides long, and reliable operating of spectrometer in plant laboratory conditions. At operating with granular materials a set of measures on cleaning and technical service of feeding device through both loading hatch and with help the special cleaning cavity are en