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1

Rapid and specific detection of Salmonella spp. in animal feed samples by PCR after culture enrichment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in these feed samples compared to DyNAzyme II, FastStart Taq, Platinum Taq, Pwo, rTth, Taq, and Tfl. The specificity of the Tth assay was confirmed by testing 101 Salmonella and 43 non-Salmonella strains isolated from feed and food samples. A sample preparation method based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water and DNA amplification with Tth DNA polymerase was developed. The probability of detecting small numbers of salmonellae in feed, in the presence of natural background flora, was accurately determined and foundto follow a logistic regression model. From this model, the probability of detecting I CFU per 25 g of feed in artificially contaminated soy samples was calculated and found to be 0.81. The PCR protocol was evaluated on 155 naturally contaminated feed samples and compared to an established culture-based method, NMKL-71. Eight percent of the samples were positive by PCR, compared with 3% with the conventional method. The reasons for the differences in sensitivity are discussed. Use of this method in the routine analysis of animal feed samples would improve safety in the food chain.

Löfström, Charlotta; Knutsson, R.

2004-01-01

2

Detection and Characterisation of Salmonella in Animal Feed Samples by PCR-Based Methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animal feed is a recognised source of Salmonella enterica for farm livestock and may also indirectly cause infection in people consuming foods of animal origin. It is therefore important to have rapid, reproducible and specific methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed, and for the characterisation of strains for further epidemiological investigations or to trace the source of contamination in a production facility. This study focuses on the development and validation of PCR-based methods for the detection and characterisation of Salmonella in the farm-to-fork chain and, particularly, in animal feed samples. The PCR performance of a 5' nuclease real-time PCR assay was studied to optimise the detection of pre-enriched Salmonella cells in buffered peptone water (BPW). Using rTth instead of AmpliTaq Gold resulted in an earlier detection during enrichment. A simple pre-PCR processing strategy to overcome inhibition by substances in the feed was developed, based on enrichment in BPW followed by PCR using Tth DNA polymerase, which was found to exhibit resistance to PCR-inhibitory feed samples. No DNA extraction or cell lysis was included in the pre-treatment. The probability of detecting Salmonella in feed samples was found to follow a logistic regression model and the probability of detecting 1 CFU/25 g feed in artificially contaminated soya samples was 0.81. The use of the PCR method for routine analysis of feed was validated in a study on 250 feed samples where no significant difference could be observed in the results obtained by the PCR method and the culture-based standard method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis, NMKL). By applying the PCR method the analysis time can be decreased from at least three days to 24 h. The PCR method was found to be superior to the NMKL method when analysing Salmonella in acidified feed samples due to failure to detect living but stressed Salmonella cells by NMKL while they were detected by PCR. The three genotyping methods automated ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were evaluated for the analysis of S. Senftenberg strains originating from long-term contamination in a feed mill, and in tracing the origin of an outbreak of salmonellosis connected to consumption of a fish gratin. It was found that the reproducibility of RAPD could be improved by the use of Tth DNA polymerase and that RAPD could be used as a screening method to select the isolates that should be further studied by the more expensive and time-consuming PFGE. PFGE was useful both in finding the source of contamination in the feed factory and in investigating the epidemiology behind the outbreak. Animal feed was suggested as the source of contamination in the outbreak associated with the consumption of fish gratin. In conclusion, the implementation of PCR-based methods for the detection and characterisation of Salmonella in the food chain from farm to fork can help improve food safety.

Löfström, Charlotta

2005-01-01

3

Validation of a Diagnostic PCR Method for Routine Analysis of Salmonella spp. in Animal Feed Samples  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As a part of a validation study, a comparative study of a PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL-71, for detection of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic validation organ for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) on 250 artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water followed by PCR using the DNA polymerase Tth and an internal amplification control. No significant difference was found between the two methods. The relative accuracy, relative sensitivity and relative specificity were found to be 96.0, 97.3, and 98.8%, respectively. PCR inhibition was observed for rape seed samples. For the acidified feed samples, more Salmonella-positive samples were found with the PCR method compared to the NMKL method. This study focuses on the growing demand for validated diagnostic PCR methods for routine analysis of animal feed and food samples to assure safety in the food production chain.

Löfström, Charlotta; Axelsson, Charlotta Engdahl

2008-01-01

4

Rapid and specific detection of Salmonella spp. in animal feed samples by PCR after culture enrichment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in t...

Lo?fstro?m, Charlotta; Knutsson, Rickard; Axelsson, Ce; Ra?dstro?m, Peter

2004-01-01

5

Rapid and Specific Detection of Salmonella spp. in Animal Feed Samples by PCR after Culture Enrichment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in t...

Lo?fstro?m, Charlotta; Knutsson, Rickard; Axelsson, Charlotta Engdahl; Ra?dstro?m, Peter

2004-01-01

6

Field sampling method for quantifying volatile sulfur compounds from animal feeding operations  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are a major class of chemicals associated with odor from animal feeding operations (AFOs). Identifying and quantifying VSCs in air is challenging due to their volatility, reactivity, and low concentrations. In the present study, a canister-based method collected whole air in fused silica-lined (FSL) mini-canister (1.4 L) following passage through a calcium chloride drying tube. Sampled air from the canisters was removed (10-600 mL), dried, pre-concentrated, and cryofocused into a GC system with parallel detectors (mass spectrometer (MS) and pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD)). The column effluent was split 20:1 between the MS and PFPD. The PFPD equimolar sulfur response enhanced quantitation and the location of sulfur peaks for mass spectral identity and quantitation. Limit of quantitation for the PFPD and MSD was set at the least sensitive VSC (hydrogen sulfide) and determined to be 177 and 28 pg S, respectively, or 0.300 and 0.048 ?g m -3 air, respectively. Storage stability of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol was problematic in warm humid air (25 C, 96% relative humidity (RH)) without being dried first, however, stability in canisters dried was still only 65% after 24 h of storage. Storage stability of hydrogen sulfide sampled in the field at a swine facility was over 2 days. The greater stability of field samples compared to laboratory samples was due to the lower temperature and RH of field samples compared to laboratory generated samples. Hydrogen sulfide was the dominant odorous VSCs detected at all swine facilities with methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide detected notably above their odor threshold values. The main odorous VSC detected in aged poultry litter was dimethyl trisulfide. Other VSCs above odor threshold values for poultry facilities were methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide.

Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; Mitloehner, Frank; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert; Xin, Hongwei

7

Demands on sample preparation of milk, milk products, plants, animal feeds, fertilizers and soil for radioactivity monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to achieve comparability of measurement and analysis results, sample preparation rules have to be strictly observed by all laboratories concerned. Subsequently, considerations concerning sample preparation of milk, milk products, plants, animal feeds, fertilizers and soil, as far as laid down in the rules of measurement instructions for environmental radioactivity monitoring and detection of radioactive emissions from nuclear facilities, are touched. New developments in analysis and measurement techniques involving a possible simplification of sample preparation are outlined. (orig./DG)

1992-10-12

8

Irradiation effect on animal feeds and feedstuffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of ?-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)

1983-01-01

9

Microalgae for Biofuels and Animal Feeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential of microalgae biomass production for low-cost commoditiesbiofuels and animal feedsusing sunlight and CO2 is reviewed. Microalgae are currently cultivated in relatively small-scale systems, mainly for high value human nutritional products. For commodities, production costs must be decreased by an order of magnitude, and high productivity algal strains must be developed that can be stably cultivated in large open ponds and harvested by low-cost processes. For animal feeds, t...

2013-01-01

10

Aflatoxins in animal feed in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and forty-six samples of animal feed (barley, n=60; wheat bran, n=22; wheat dry pulp, n=29; and canola meal, n=35) were collected in 2011 from Mashhad (Khorasan, Iran). Aflatoxins (AFs) were determined in these samples after immunoaffinity column clean-up by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination was found in 28 samples: in five of the barley samples (8.3%) at a mean level of 0.48gkg(-1), in two wheat bran samples (9.0%) at a mean level of 0.88gkg(-1), in 10 wheat dry pulp samples (34.5%) at a mean level of 0.30gkg(-1) and in 11 canola meal samples (31.4%) at a mean level of 0.92gkg(-1). AFB1 levels were below the maximum levels of Iran regulations (5gkg(-1)) and the EU maximum limit (5gkg(-1)). PMID:24779978

Beheshti, Hamed Reza; Asadi, Mohammad

2014-03-01

11

Perspectives for feed-efficient animal production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern animal breeding programs are largely based on biotechnological procedures, including AI and embryo transfer technology. Recent breakthroughs in reproductive technologies, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro embryo production, and their combination with the emerging molecular genetic tools, will further advance progress and provide new opportunities for livestock breeding. This is urgently needed in light of the global challenges such as the ever-increasing human population, the limited resources of arable land, and the urgent environmental problems associated with farm animal production. Here, we focus on genomic breeding strategies and transgenic approaches for making farm animals more feed efficient. Based on studies in the mouse and rat model, we have identified a panel of genes that are critically involved in the regulation of feed uptake and that could contribute toward future breeding of farm animals with reduced environmental impact. We anticipate that genetically modified animals will play a significant role in shaping the future of feed-efficient and thus sustainable animal production, but will develop more slowly than the biomedical applications because of the complexity of the regulation of feed intake and metabolism. PMID:21705634

Niemann, H; Kuhla, B; Flachowsky, G

2011-12-01

12

21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

...names of the animal feed ingredients listed... (1) The animal feed is intended solely for livestock and poultry. (2) The label of the animal feed bears the collective...contain nor are food additives as defined in...

2010-04-01

13

Aflatoxins and heavy metals in animal feed in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2)) and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) contamination was determined in 40 industrially produced animal feed samples which were collected from the southwest of Iran. The results indicated that 75% of samples were contaminated by four aflatoxins and the level of AFB1 and sum of aflatoxins were higher than the permissible maximum levels in Iran (5 and 20gkg(-1), respectively) in all feed samples. A positive correlation was found between four types of aflatoxins in all the tested samples (p<0.01) and the positive correlation between AFG1 and AFG2 was significant (r(2)=0.708). All feed samples had lead concentrations lower than the maximum EU limit, while 5%, 17% and 42.5% of feed samples had As, Cd and Hg concentrations higher than the maximum limits, respectively. PMID:25029403

Eskandari, M H; Pakfetrat, S

2014-09-01

14

Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

1998-06-01

15

Evaluation of PCDD/Fs characterization in animal feed and feed additives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safety control of feed and feed additives is necessary to have safe food of animal origin. Based on media reports, nine incidents regarding dioxins and/or PCBs contaminations occurred worldwide during the last decade. Korea is a country which imports feed and feed additives. In this study, various kinds of feed and feed additives were analyzed to monitor the contamination level of dioxins. The level of PCDD/Fs in fish oil was the highest with a concentration of 23.33ngkg(-1), which is equivalent to a toxicological concentration of 4.68ngWHO-TEQ/kg. Feed from animals origin such as chicken meal, animal fat, fish meal, fish oil, and shell powder showed relatively higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs. Feed from plants origin, minerals, and additives ranged from non-detects for bit pulp and ethoxyquin to 8.28ngkg(-1) for dl-methionine. From a toxicological point of view, the highest concentration in vitamins was 0.08ngWHO-TEQ/kg among the feed additives. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the dominant congener in samples of fish oil, fish meal, and shell powder. Animal fat showed that the pattern of PCDD/Fs depends on the sources of contamination. A sample of animal fat showed 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF and the other sample showed 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD as a primary congener. Generally, low levels of PCDDs were detected in feed additives. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in choline chloride were different with that in choline chloride from an incident in Europe in 2000. PMID:17604812

Kim, MeeKyung; Kim, Sooyeon; Yun, Seon Jong; Kwon, Jin-Wook; Son, Seong-Wan

2007-09-01

16

78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0253] Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms...Agency) is revoking an advisory opinion on animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...guide (CPG) on Salmonella in food for animals. DATES: This rule is effective...

2013-07-16

17

Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emphasis in recent years on livestock farming as a means of increasing the availability of animal protein in India has led to a spurt in the commercial production of a variety of cattle and poultry feeds. Adverse climatic conditions have posed problems of insect infestation and spoilage due to microorganisms, for which radiation treatment of prepacked feeds could provide a solution. The wholesomeness of an irradiated (0.2 and 2.5 Mrad) diet composed of wheat, shrimp, milk powder, vegetable and oil has been investigated in long term feeding studies involving five successive generations of rats. Growth, foodintake, longevity and mortality remained comparable between control and test groups of animals. Reproductive performance as judged by fertility index, litter size and weaning index were also similar. Examination of the animals sacrified at the age of 23-24 months for gross pathological manifestations including tumor incidence did not indicate any significant differences between the control and the test groups. Judged by a variety of parameters, the rearing of rats for upto five generations on an irradiated diet had no adverse influences on their health. (author)

1975-12-18

18

Microalgae for Biofuels and Animal Feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential of microalgae biomass production for low-cost commoditiesbiofuels and animal feedsusing sunlight and CO2 is reviewed. Microalgae are currently cultivated in relatively small-scale systems, mainly for high value human nutritional products. For commodities, production costs must be decreased by an order of magnitude, and high productivity algal strains must be developed that can be stably cultivated in large open ponds and harvested by low-cost processes. For animal feeds, the algal biomass must be high in digestible protein and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that can substitute for fish meal and fish oils. Biofuels will require a high content of vegetable oils (preferably triglycerides, hydrocarbons or fermentable carbohydrates. Many different cultivation systems, algal species, harvesting methods, and biomass processing technologies are being developed worldwide. However, only raceway-type open pond systems are suitable for the production of low-cost commodities.

John Benemann

2013-11-01

19

Real-time pair-feeding of animals  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic pair-feeding system was developed which immediately dispenses same amount of food to control animal as has been consumed by experimental animal that has free access to food. System consists of: master feeding system; slave feeding station; and control mechanism. Technique performs real time pair-feeding without attendant time lag.

Leon, H. A.; Connolly, J. P.; Hitchman, M. J.; Humbert, J. E.

1972-01-01

20

Preservation of animal feed by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of insect infestation on food-stored products and animal feed were studied by using the combination treatments of chemical packaging and radiation treatments. The insecticide and fumigation treatments have been applied by chuwit (1981) but it was reinfested again during the marketing and storage then the radiation treatment in variation dosages have been used to kill all stages of insects. It was found that the dose of required 1 KGy can kill all stages of rice moth but the higher dose of 1.0-1.5 KGy was required Tenebroides sp., and irradiation dose of 0.5-1.0 KGy was required for redflour heetle, rice weevil. Thaneroclerus sp. and cigarette beetle. As Heemert C. V. (1979) mentioned the difference effect of irradiation dose was depended on sexes, sizes age, and species of the insect. As the same as the radiation effect on the type of Chromosome, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera which are carried holokinetic chromosomes in stead of monocentonic chromosome as Diptera then the higher dosage will be needed to damage the one who carried holokinetic chromosome. So a dose of 2 KGy would probably be sufficient because all of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera will be lethality within few days then the polypropylene at 0.02 m.m. thick will be needed to keep the feed free from insect reinfestation during storing. Salmonella sp. has been determined by the Standard method in ISO 3565 (1975)

1982-01-06

 
 
 
 
21

Screening of mycotoxins in animal feed from the region of Vojvodina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper shows the results of screening of mycotoxins in animal feed originating from the region of Vojvodina. Permanent screening is needed on all levels of production and storage, as well as the use of known methods to reduce mould contamination or toxin content in feedstuffs and feed. A total of 56 representative samples were collected from feed companies from the region of Vojvodina. Samples were collected during February 2009. The collected samples included 41 samples of feedstuffs (so...

Koki? Bojana M.; ?abarkapa Ivana S.; Levi? Jovanka D.; Mandi? Anamarija I.; Mati? Jovana J.; Ivanov Duica S.

2009-01-01

22

Bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the growth, the absorption and the dynamics of phosphorus and calcium phosphates of high fluorine content , triple superphosphates (TSP) and two sedimentary phosphates Riecito (RIO) and Monte Fresco (MONTE) vs dicalcium phosphate (DICAL), they were carried out two experiments with sheep. In the first one, with a duration of 360 days, the group (six animals) consumed DICAL, and at the 330 day of feeding it was divided in two groups, one under the same treatment and to the other one it was added 500 ppm of fluorine like NaF (DICAL+F). In this experiment the growth was evaluated, and at the end of the period, it was determined the phosphorus and calcium absorption and kinetics, the retention of fluorine in different sources, as well as the bony mineralization. In the second experiment, with a duration of 30 days, the phosphorus absorption and kinetics, as and the retention of fluorine in the sources under study, were determined. In both experiments, for the dynamic studies it was used the isotopic dilution technique, by means of the dosage, through jugular injection, of 200 uCi "32P and, for via oral, 200 uCi "45Ca. The weight gained (g / animal /day ) was 75, 87, 56 and 53 for DICAL, RIO, MONTE and TSP, respectively, with significant differences (P'0.05) in favor of DICAL and RIO. The true absorption of phosphorus (%), for the fed animals during 30 and 360 days, respectively, was 73 and 76 for DICAL, 40 and 57 for RIO, 36 and 57 for MONTE and, 79 and 71 for TSP, being significantly higher (P'0.05), for both periods, the values of DICAL and TSP. The evaluation of 12 months of absorption of RIVER and MONTE was higher than during the period of 30 days. The absorption of calcium at the 362 days was higher for DICAL and RIO in relation to MONTE and TSP. The addition of fluorine during 30 days didn't affect the calcium and phosphorus absorption. The run time to reach the maximum level of specific activity of calcium in blood was higher for RIO, MONTE and TSP. The run time corresponding to the mobilization of hematic phosphorus to the different compartments (inter, intracells and bony) were higher for RIO, MONTE and TSP, for the two times of feeding DICAL+F in relation to DICAL; while for calcium, DICAL went superior to RIO, MONTE, DICAL+F and TSP, in the same order, indicating that fluorine increased the half time for the absorption and diminished the half time for the compartamental mobilization. The bony mineralization (density: g / cc; ashes: %) was bigger for DICAL and TSP and minor for RIO and MONTE, without differences between DICAL and DICAL. The specific activity in bone was smaller for DICAL than for RIO, MONTE and TSP, as much for 32P than for 45Ca. The accumulation of fluorine (ppm) in the bony tissue was bigger (P'0.05) for TSP (3033) and MONTE (2100), in relation to RIO (1767), DICAL+F (1633) and DICAL (1333). It is concluded that the phosphates of RIO and MONTE have a smaller bioavailability in connection with DICAL and TSP, and that the addition of fluorine in DICAL doesn't modify the phosphorus absorption but the calcium kinetics at blood level and the specific activity in the bony tissue, indicating a possible effect on the absorption and metabolism of that element

1997-07-10

23

Near infrared spectroscopy for enforcement of European legislation concerning the use of animal by-products in animal feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper summarises the work done in the framework of two R&D projects aimed to demonstrate the contribution of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to help the enforcement of the European legislation governing the use of animal by-products in animal feeds. Three different types of animal feed products were studied: compound feeds (CFs, animal protein byproducts meals (APBPs and animal fats by-products (AFBPs. The quantitative and qualitative chemometric models produced with a large collection of compound feed samples (n = 1005 ground and 523 unground have demonstrated, that NIRS can be used for the detection and quantification of the meat and bone meal (MBM added to compound feeds. Discriminant models produced with unground samples produced 100% of correctly classified samples in two cloned instruments placed in two different locations. The results also show that two dimensions NIR spectra of Animal By-Products (ABP, animal meals and fats may contain information about the animal species or group of species from which the ABPs were produced. However, further work is needed to enlarge the sample bank and the spectral libraries with well authenticated samples in order to increase the robustness of the quantitative and qualitative NIRS models. The paper opens expectations for using NIRS for the enforcement of legislation concerning the use of ABPs in animal feeds. More research and demonstration efforts have to be done in order to obtain more definitive and robust predictive models and for optimising its implementation either at-line, on-line and in-line in feed factories and inspection laboratories.

Martnez A.

2005-01-01

24

FDA's Regulation of Animal Feed: Labeling and Branding Shortcomings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Center for Veterinary Medicine (“CVM), a division of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA), is responsible for administering the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act sections applicable to animal feed. The Association of American Feed Control Officials (“AAFCO), an association of state, provincial, and national feed control officials, however, plays a large role in the regulation of anim...

Tibbetts, Cody

2002-01-01

25

Feeding and welfare of domestic animals: A Darwinistic framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This chapter explores the natural feeding behaviour, domestic feeding, behavioural problems related to feeding in captivity and welfare of domestic animals, particularly cattle, horse and chicken. The solutions for feeding problems and poor welfare are discussed. The concept of environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA), environment of domestic adaptedness (EDA) and environment of current adaptedness (ECA) is presented. Methods for measuring mismatch and eventually a Darwinistic framework ...

Koene, P.

2006-01-01

26

Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement. Radiation treatment for disinfection of manure have been investigated on manure collected during the dry and rainy seasons. Total bacterial counts of non-irradiated dewatered manure with water content of around 13.44% were found to be 1.0x106 up to 1.4x108 per g during the dry season, and 2.0x105 up to 1.7x107 per g during the rainy season, while coliforms, enterobecteriacease, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pseudomonas were found to be 1.0x106 up to 1.4x108 per g, 1.0x104 up to 1.2x106 per g, 4.0x105 up to 2.2x107 per g, 1.8x103 per g, and 1.0x102 up to 5.4x103 per g, respectively. About 30% of the total coliforms were found to be escherichia coli. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy eliminated salmonella from all samples observed. No. Shigella Vibrio, and parasites were detected in the samples. Total nitrogen of the dewatered manure ranged between 1.87 and 2.33%, phosphorus between 1.25 and 4.38%, and potassium between 0.66 and 2.18%. Heavy metal elements were found only in very small amounts, hence the dewatered manure could be applied as animal feed or soil conditioner. A combination of irradiation at 4 kGy and storage for 3 months was synergistically effective to eliminate coliform, E. coli, and salmonella in the dewatered manure. From nutritional point of view, the manure is still acceptable for animal feed supplement. (author). 13 refs

1989-01-01

27

[Investigation of As, Cu and Zn species and concentrations in animal feeds].  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy chicken and seventy-six pig feeds were collected from the feed stores in Guangdong province, and the species and concentrations of As, Cu and Zn were determined. We also examined the stability of roxarsone (ROX), one of the most widely used organoarsenical additives, either in the additive or in the feed at room temperature. The results showed that, averagely, the chicken and pig feeds contained 3.6 and 6.5 mg.kg-1 (As), 18.2 and 119.4 mg.kg-1 (Cu),and 124.6 and 486.2 mg.kg-1 (Zn), respectively. The excessive dosages of As, Cu and As in animal feeds will lead to higher residue of As, Cu and Zn in animal manures. Based on the national limit criteria for feed or feed additive, it was supposed that organoarsenicals had been used, only few feed samples exceeded the As limit, however, the excessive Cu and Zn in pig feeds were much more common. Organoarsenicals were found in 25.4% of the total feed samples, and As(Ill) and As(V) were the two most commonly detected As impurities in feeds bearing organoarsenicals. The mean detectable ROX and arsenilic acid were 7.0 and 21.2 mg.kg-1, respectively. Organoarsenicals were detectable in 24. 3% of the chicken feed samples and 26. 3% of the pig feed samples. Moreover, ROX was commonly used in chicken feeds, while p-ASA in pig feeds. ROX and the inorganic As impurities, either in the commercial additive or in the feed, remained stable for at least 30 days at room temperature, indicating the higher As impurities in feeds probably originated from the As impurities in organoarsenical additives. This is a new As exposure pathway for the producer and user of organoarsenicals and feeds amending organoarsenicals. PMID:23668148

Yao, Li-Xian; Huang, Lian-Xi; Jiang, Zong-Yong; He, Zhao-Huan; Zhou, Chang-Min; Li, Guo-Liang

2013-02-01

28

Sterilization of experimental animal feeds with high energy electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Penetration range and depth-dose distribution of 10 MeV electrons within commercial packages of experimental animal feeds were examined with a high power electron accelerator for verification of the application of high energy electron beam irradiation to sterilize experimental animal feeds. Optimum packaging sizes were proposed based on the experimental results. The change of the vitamins and the efficacy of the sterilization by the irradiation were also studied. It is confirmed that the sterilization of experimental animal feeds by 10 MeV electron beam has been completely practical. (author)

2005-09-01

29

Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IN); Cecava, Michael J. (Decatur, IN); Doane, Perry H. (Decatur, IN)

2010-12-21

30

76 FR 16534 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug...incorrect table entry describing the maximum florfenicol concentration in Type B medicated swine...incorrect table entry describing the maximum florfenicol concentration in Type B medicated...

2011-03-24

31

Ensilaging of bark to produce animal feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experiment was conducted of ensilaging stripped Norway spruce bark and feeding the silage to red deer (Cervus elaphus) and other game. The process of ensilaging by adding salt and sugar is described. Wild red deer only ate a small amount of the silage; consumption was increased when more sugar was added. It was not possible to tell whether feeding silage to game would limit or inhibit bark-stripping. Red deer, fallow deer (Dama dama) and other game in enclosures as well as young cattle, goats, and sheep accepted the silage well.

Gastinger, W.

1980-01-01

32

Changes in heavy metal contents in animal feeds and manures in an intensive animal production region of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 360 feed and manure samples were collected from 150 animal farms in Jiangsu Province, China and analyzed for heavy metals. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in animal feeds were 15.9-2041.8 and undetected-392.1 mg/kg respectively, while Hg, As, Pb, Cd, and Cr in all feeds were below 10 mg/kg. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Cr in animal manures were 8.4-1726, 39.5-11379, and 1.0-1602 mg/kg respectively, while As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were feed and manure were positively correlated (p feed and the manure. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were highest in pig feed and manure, followed by poultry and dairy feeds and manures. During 1990-2008, Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Cd contents increased by 771%, 410%, 420%, 220%, and 63% in pig manure, 212%, 95%, 200%, 791%, and -63% in dairy manure, and 181%, 197%, 1500%, 261, and 196% in poultry manure. Most of the increases occurred from 2002 to 2008, which reflects the extensive use of feed additives after 2002. In contrast, Pb and Hg in manures continuously decreased from 1990 to 2008. The results suggest that the heavy metal contents in animal manure have been greatly increased over 18 years and the contribution of manures to soil should be considered. PMID:24649675

Wang, Hui; Dong, Yuanhua; Yang, Yunya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhang, Xumei

2013-12-01

33

Sensitisation to enzymes in the animal feed industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVESTo assess the prevalence of enzyme sensitisation in the animal feed industry.?METHODSA cross sectional study was conducted in four animal feed factories, where several enzymes had been used in powder form for 7-9 years. Before this study, enzymes in liquid form had started to be used. Sensitisation to enzymes was examined by skin prick and radioallergosorbent (RAST) tests. Altogether 218workers were tested; 140people in various tasks in manufacturing, where exposure ...

2001-01-01

34

76 FR 54466 - Request for Nominations of Experts for the Science Advisory Board's Animal Feeding Operation...  

Science.gov (United States)

...estimating methodologies for animal feeding operations, please...estimating methodologies (EEMs) for animal feeding operations (AFOs...Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA...and/or swine production animal feeding operations; air...

2011-09-01

35

[Animal feeding and feed legislation after the detection of the first indigenous BSE cases in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Great Britain, even the earliest tangible signs indicating the epidemiologic significance of meat and bone meal in the spreading of BSE soon gave rise to increasingly rigorous legislative measures regulating animal feedstuffs. In 1994 a ban on the feeding of animal proteins to ruminants was implemented throughout the entire EU. But until the first BSE cases were actually confirmed in locally raised cattle (November 2000), feeding practice and legislation more or less in Germany remained unaffected by the efforts undertaken in Great Britain. This situation was suddenly changed on 1 December, 2000, when the so-called "Verftterungsverbot" was put into effect, a law which drastically extended bans regarding the feedstuffs (including fishmeal and animal fats) as well as the species concerned (all animals used in food production). In 2001 the "contamination" phenomenon (ingredients of animal origin were detected in mixed feeds) became a vital issue for the feed industry; through the media, the subject "feedstuff safety" gained a previously unseen level of public awareness. Those circles concerned with mixed feed production and animal husbandry were increasingly confronted with the consequences of the "Verftterungsverbot" (availability and pricing of substitute ingredients; the demand for amino acids and inorganic sources of phosphorus; problems finding adequate substitutes for animal fats; poor digestibility of alternative components such as indigenous legumes or vegetable fats in calf diets; lower utilization rate of original phosphorus in mixed feeds with negative consequences for skeletal development). With the conditional approval of fishmeal (except in feeds for ruminants) the situation has eased again to a certain degree; on the EU level there are increasing signals pointing toward a political intention to reinstate the utilization of by-products of slaughtered animals qualified for human consumption (with the exception of fallen/dead animals and specific risk material) in poultry and swine feeding. In Germany, at least, the question of animal fat utilization for food-producing animals is still unsolved. PMID:12224466

Kamphues, J

2002-08-01

36

NEW DIMENSION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANIMAL FEED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The medicinal plants and herbs have been used for many years in the treatment of various diseases in animals and human beings. Now-a-days, utilization of these medicinal plants is increasing. These are used in animal feed as the growth promoters. Due to prohibition of most of the antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feed because of their residual effects, plant extracts are becoming more popular. They act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal, anticoccidial and growth promoters. These plant extracts compete with the synthetic drugs. Majority of medicinal plants do not have the residual effects. Azadiracht indica, Zizyphus vulgaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Atlanta monophylla have the strong antibacterial activity, whereas ocimum plant has strong antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic and antipyretic properties. Leaves of Azadirachta indica are used for feeding and reducing the parasitic load of animals. The fruit of Azadirachta indica also has the anticoccidial activity for poultry.

M. A. TIPU, M. S. AKHTAR, M. I. ANJUM1 AND M. L. RAJA

2006-07-01

37

Animal feed controls implemented in Japan for the eradication of bovine spongiform encephalopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in Japan in September 2001, the Japanese government introduced a series of animal feed control measures to reduce the risk of the spread of the disease from a feed source. To ensure the proper implementation of these measures, the Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Centre conducted audit inspections of feed importers, producers, distributors and end-users. The audit inspections include on-site inspection of the feed plants, warehouses, farms and other related premises and the laboratory analysis of feed samples taken from these premises to check for the presence of animal protein. The results of inspections conducted in recent years indicate good compliance with the feed control measures.

Katsuaki Sugiura

2009-06-01

38

Mechanism of antimicrobial growth promoters used in animal feed.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most feeds for broilers, pigs and veal calves, but 1/3 of feeds for beef cattle, are supplemented with an antimicrobial growth promoter. A European regulation list allows antimicrobial growth promoter, concentrations, animal species, and withdrawal periods (often null). Presently, avilamycin, flavomycin, lasalocid, monensin, and salinomycin are allowed. Avoparcin, bacitracin, carbadox, olaquindox, spiramycin, tylosin, and virginiamycin use was suspended by EU in 1997 and 98. Permitted doses a...

2000-01-01

39

Antibiotics in animal feed and their role in resistance development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animals and humans constitute overlapping reservoirs of resistance, and consequently use of antimicrobials in animals can impact on public health. For example, the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in food-animals is associated with the use of avoparcin, a glycopeptide antibiotic used as a feed additive for the growth promotion of animals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci and vancomycin resistance determinants can therefore spread from animals to humans. The bans on avoparcin and other antibiotics as growth promoters in the EU have provided scientists with a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the withdrawal of a major antimicrobial selective pressure on the occurrence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The data shows that although the levels of resistance in animals and food, and consequently in humans, has been markedly reduced after the termination of use, the effects on animal health and productivity have been very minor.

Wegener, Henrik Caspar

2003-01-01

40

Conditions for the utilization of waste products in animal feeding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste products used in animal feeding are considered as feedstuffs and have to comply with the requirements of the law. They have to be able to maintain and improve the performance of the animals, to guarantee a good quality of the products and a good health of livestock. This paper deals with the first requirement only. The biggest part of the nutrients fed to animals in order to produce meat, milk and eggs serves to cover the energy requirement. Since feed consumption is limited in quantity, each feedstuff has to have a certain concentration in metabolisable energy. A waste product, which can be used in animal nutrition, has to show an energy concentration, which at least will cover the maintenance requirement of the animal. The normal performances, however, require an energy supply in the range 2-4 fold the maintenance requirement, which leads to corresponding energy contents of waste products. Waste products rich in protein but low in energy can be used if the costs of the protein which is substituted by the waste product are higher than the costs of the feedstuff which is required for energy compensation. Waste products on the farm are straw and animal waste. The use of animal feaces as feed stuff is illegal in the Federal Republic of Germany. The above mentioned requirements are also valid for the energy concentration of straw, which has been a feedstuff for ruminants since many years. Its energy concentration can be improved by different methods of processing, which today are field proof.

Niess, E.; Pfeffer, E.

1981-08-01

 
 
 
 
41

Spirulina as a livestock supplement and animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and welfare. Its influence over animal development stems from its nutritive and protein-rich composition, thus leading to an increased commercial production to meet consumer demand. Consequently, Spirulina is emerging as a cost-effective means of improving animal productivity for a sustainable and viable food security future. However, our present knowledge of animal response to dietary Spirulina supplementation is relatively scanty and largely unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper was to review past and current findings on the utilisation of Spirulina as a feed supplement and its impact on animal productivity and health. Only animals deemed to be of agricultural significance were investigated; hence, only ruminants, poultry, swine and rabbits and their responses to dietary Spirulina supplementation are covered. PMID:22860698

Holman, B W B; Malau-Aduli, A E O

2013-08-01

42

The Possibilities of the Application of Feed Additives from Macroalgae in Sustainable Mineral Animal Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The idea of the application of biological material as mineral feed additives could constitute an innovative practice that would encourage environmental sustainability. The main idea of this study was to present the advantages of macroalgae enriched with microelements when compared to inorganic salts. Approach: In order to evaluate the potential participation of macroalgae in sustainable animal feeding, it was necessary to consider several concepts, such as: Waste Minimization (WM, Cleaner Production (CP and Pollution Prevention (PP, which were closely related to sustainable production. Special attention was also paid to the prevention of waste generation during production process of mineral feed additives from macroalgae. Results: This kind of feed additives could contribute to the minimization of nutrient excretion by animals, by optimizing nutrient availability and proportion in the animal diet. Conclusion: The application of macroalgae in animal feeding could be considered as preventive environmental strategy, which would reduce the risks of the excess of microelements in the environment and in the animal diet.

Izabela Michalak

2009-01-01

43

The Possibilities of the Application of Feed Additives from Macroalgae in Sustainable Mineral Animal Feeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The idea of the application of biological material as mineral feed additives could constitute an innovative practice that would encourage environmental sustainability. The main idea of this study was to present the advantages of macroalgae enriched with microelements when compared to inorganic salts. Approach: In order to evaluate the potential participation of macroalgae in sustainable animal feeding, it was necessary to consider several concepts, such as: Wa...

Izabela Michalak; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Peter Glavic

2009-01-01

44

Livestock feed for domestic animals in and around Rokkasho, Aomori  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides that will be released from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, which is now under construction in Rokkasho Village. The consumption rate of livestock feed eaten by domestic animals is an important factor for the estimation of radioactive material transfer to the animals. We surveyed the amount of livestock feed in and around Rokkasho Village by means of questionnaires to stockbreeding farmers. The questionnaires were distributed to 90 farmers who kept one of five kinds of domestic animals or poultry; milking cattle, beef cattle, hogs, broilers and laying hens. Several farming companies were also included as subjects. Recovery of the questionnaires was 59%. The hogs, broilers and laying hens were fed compound feeds consisting of imported materials. The feed for milking cattle and beef cattle consisted of grass, field corn and other concentrates. The consumption rates of grass and field corn for dairy cattle were 22.5 kg-fresh d-1 and 8.3 kg-fresh d-1, respectively. The grass and field corn consumption rate for beef cattle were 2.8 kg-fresh d-1 and 0.3 kg-fresh d-1, respectively. All of these rates were lower than those used for dose assessment of the reprocessing plant. (author)

2003-10-22

45

Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one....

Luiz Vtor Oliveira Vidal; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Elias Nunes Martins; Tadeu Orlandi Xavier; Mariana Michelato; Themis Sakaguti Graciano

2012-01-01

46

Animation of Sample Loop HPLC Injections  

Science.gov (United States)

This site deals specifically with sample loop injections in liquid chromatography. The animations are short (one to two minutes) and can easily be shown in class as part of a lecture. They are extremely helpful in illustrating key components and concepts of chromatographic systems. Users are encouraged to explore the site and the other brief animations as well. Separate links to other simulations by the same company (TRSL) are listed below.

2011-05-04

47

Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy?s extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative sampling directly from the large Tank Farm tanks is a difficult, if not unsolvable enterprise due to li

Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

2013-10-29

48

21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trace minerals added to animal feeds. 582.80 Section 582...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.80 Trace minerals added to animal feeds. These substances...

2010-04-01

49

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal) samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n = 650) were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n = 71) were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isol...

2012-01-01

50

Co-Occurrence of Moulds and Mycotoxins in Corn Grains Used for Animal Feeds in Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

About 80 corn grain samples used for animal feeds were collected from 10 states in Malaysia in order to determine the mycobiota using agar plate assay and mycotoxins (Aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins) by ELISA. Aspergillus flavus (87%), A. niger (83%), F. verticillioides (47%), F. graminearum (43%), F. proliferatum (42%), F. equisieti (30%) and Penicillium sp. (5%) were the prevalent fungi in all corn samples. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB...

Reddy, K. R. N.; Salleh, B.

2011-01-01

51

Multivariate near-infrared reflection spectroscopy strategies for ensuring correct labeling at feed bagging in the animal feed industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key concern in animal feed factories is guaranteeing the correct labeling of compound feeds. Therefore, due to incorrect labeling, there is an urgent need for new control methods on the claims that can be made. In this study, this question has been tackled with different multivariate classification algorithms based on the near-infrared spectral fingerprint obtained from a given compound feed analyzed in its original physical market presentation form (i.e., cubes, coarse meals, pellets). The objective of this paper is the evaluation of different methods for establishing a separation among 24 feed types. Two linear methods, soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares (PLS) with two approaches to classification (PLSD and PLS-LDA); and one nonlinear method, support vector machines (SVM), were studied. The database used had the following structure: a first division was made between granules and meals; within these two groups, there was a second division according to three animal species to which the feed was marketed (bovine, ovine, and porcine); within each species there was a third division according to the age or physiological status of the animal (i.e., lactating dairy cattle, starters, etc.). Given the database structure, all the methods were evaluated following two strategies: (1) development of a model composed of the nine classification models corresponding to the structure of the data; and (2) development of a unique model that discriminates among the 24 classes of different feeds. With both strategies the lowest percentage of misclassified samples was achieved with the SVM method (3.96% with strategy 1 and 2.31% with strategy 2). Among the linear methods evaluated, SIMCA yielded the best results, with a percentage of 8.47% misclassified samples with strategy 1 and 4.05% misclassified samples with strategy 2. The results in this study show the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy to make acceptable classifications of feed types based only on spectral information, with differences in performance depending on the multivariate algorithm used. PMID:20132602

Fernndez-Ahumada, E; Roger, J M; Palagos, B; Guerrero, J E; Prez-Marn, D; Garrido-Varo, A

2010-01-01

52

78 FR 52774 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Animal Feed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Animal Feed Network (Pet Event Tracking Network...Cooperation To Prevent Spread of Pet Food and Animal Feed Related Diseases AGENCY: Food and...paperwork burden to the public of the Animal Feed Network, which includes the...

2013-08-26

53

The microscopic detection of animal proteins in feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the framework of the European Union funded research project STRATFEED for detection and identification of animal proteins in feeds, the microscopic method was optimized at several key steps and better documented. A check list was developed for uniform reporting. Characters of bone fragments, hairs, muscles and gills are fully documented. A so-called muscle ratio has been developed for the identification of muscle fibers at the level of vertebrate classes (mammals, birds and fishes. Both the improved protocol and the entire range of characters which can be observed, are documented in a Decision Support System called ARIES (Animal Remains Identification and Evaluation System. A second internet-based system called STRATFEED-DSS exclusively assists in identification of animal particles in feeds. A new strategy with microscopy as screening technique and either DNA or protein identification as confirmation technique is proposed. The advantages of this combination are the extremely low level of false negatives, low detection limits and the heat-resistant nature of microscopic detection, together with the possibility of a very specific identification of particles by one of the other methods.

Pinckaers V.

2004-01-01

54

Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition. PMID:20842395

Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

2011-04-01

55

Fermented empty fruit bunch (FEFB) as feed for ruminant animal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5 - 1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

1998-01-01

56

Energy use in the animal-feeds industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel and electricity use in the animal feeds industry is discussed. Data were collected by postal survey and by detailed energy survey from plant records. Energy conservation measures are discussed. Large energy savings are unlikely in lucerne pellet production but significant savings in imported fuel oil could be made by conversion to coal or other indigenous fuels. When heat pump technology has improved it may be economically feasible to use a heat pump to recover heat from the dryer outlet air and use it to preheat the incoming air stream. Electricity savings are unlikely in feed mills but the boiler fuel consumption can by reduced by better situation of boilers and upgrading of steam reticulation systems. Energy consumption in dog biscuit factories can be reduced by similar methods to those suggested in the biscuit baking industry report, in particular conversion to direct gas heating (where available) and waste heat recovery for hot water production offer potential savings. Methods used to manufacture processed animal foods differ between factories and a general list of conservation measures could not be prepared. Useful savings are likely by reduced baseload boiler fuel consumption and waste heat recovery for hot water production.

Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

1980-05-01

57

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Row Crops and their Relationship to Nitrate in Eastern Iowa Rivers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and fertilizer application to row crops may contribute to poor water quality in surface waters. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated nutrient concentrations and fluxes in four Eastern Iowa watersheds sampled between 1996-2004. We found that these watersheds contribute nearly 10% of annual nitrate flux entering the Gulf of Mexico, while representing only 1.5% of the contributing drainage basin. Mass budget analysis shows stream flow to be a major ...

Weldon, Mark B.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

2006-01-01

58

Determination of water in forages and animal feeds by Karl Fischer titration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oven methods for determining moisture (volatiles) in forages and other animal feeds are empirical. The moisture concentration obtained depends upon the time and temperature the sample was dried and is influenced by the presence of other volatiles than water. A validated reference method to measure water in forages and animal feeds could be used to evaluate the appropriateness of oven methods for various types of animal feeds and forages. Karl Fischer titration is a well-established method for determining water. However, thorough extraction of water from forages and feeds is a challenge because they often contain cellular structures that release water slowly. Water was successfully extracted into methanol-formamide (50 + 50) by high-speed homogenization and then titrated directly at 50 degrees C with a one-component Karl Fischer reagent based on imidazole. The method is described in detail, results of day-to-day repeatability and laboratory-to-laboratory reproducibility are reported, and preliminary comparison data between oven methods are provided. PMID:9477559

Van Erem, T; Thiex, N; Pohmer, J; Poffenbarger, W M; Smith, V; Patel, E

1998-01-01

59

Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb

Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben

2006-01-01

60

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author)

1994-02-02

 
 
 
 
61

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author).

Kume, Tamikazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

1994-01-01

62

Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal FeedFocus on Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation. Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON is typically found in more than 50% of the samples and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.

Isabelle P. Oswald

2012-10-01

63

DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE FOR USE AS ANIMAL FEED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure have become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by drying. Dried manure can be utilized as a feed for ruminants because of its high nitrogen content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drying temperature and depth, as well as the nutritional profile of dried manure and its suitability as an animal feed. Dried poultry manure contained sufficient levels of digestible energy, crude fiber, crude protein, crude fat, cobalt and iodine. Although dried poultry manure did not meet the dietary requirements for calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, sulfur or zinc it could be used as a feed stuff for ruminants after supplementation with the required nutrients. Heated air drying was most efficient at 60°C and at a depth of 3 cm. During drying poultry manure decreased in pH (8.4-6.9, protein content (43 to 39-43% and amino acid content. The greatest reductions in microbial population occurred at the highest temperature (60°C and the lowest manure depth (1cm. Reductions in the number of bacteria, mold/yeast and E. coli were 65-99, 74-99 and 99.97% respectively, Salmonellae was not detected in the dried product. Dried poultry manure was found to have a non-offensive odor. Odor intensity and offensiveness were reduced by 65 and 69% respectively during drying. Thin layer heated air drying of poultry manure between 40 and 60°C created a safe and nutritionally appropriate feed for ruminants.

A. E. Ghaly

2012-01-01

64

Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1 = -204.15+1.203xCP;R = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900 of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710, reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Luiz Vtor Oliveira Vidal

2012-06-01

65

Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our laboratory, we had studied disinfection of animal feeds by radiation, and these results contributed to commercial use of sterilisation on laboratory animal diets. We also studied radiation-disinfection of putrefactive moulds on corn and milo. On the basis of these studies, we investigated radiation disinfection of farm animal feeds. In this paper we present the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals on the market, and effect of radiation-inactivation of microorganisms. (author)

1980-10-30

66

Multidetermination of four nitrofurans in animal feeds by a sensitive and simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the polyclonal antibody against furazolidone was produced with furazolidone coupling to protein carriers by a diazotization method and glutaraldehyde reaction, respectively. The antibody obtained showed good specificity toward furazolidone and various cross-reactivity toward nitrofurantoin, nitrofurazone, and furaltadone. Then, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the antibody was first developed for multidetermination of four nitrofurans in animal feeds. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.2-2.1 ng/g depending on the component. After simple extraction, the fortified swine and broiler chicken feed samples were detected with recovery ranges of 75.9-86.4%. Results obtained from ELISA were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. Analysis of the unknown feed samples indicates that ELISA can be a practical tool for screening of nitrofurans in animal feeds before confirmation by HPLC. PMID:19231897

Li, Jun; Liu, Ju Xiang; Wang, Jian Ping

2009-03-25

67

Assessment of GE food safety using '-omics' techniques and long-term animal feeding studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the fact that a thorough, lengthy and costly evaluation of genetically engineered (GE) crop plants (including compositional analysis and toxicological tests) is imposed before marketing some European citizens remain sceptical of the safety of GE food and feed. In this context, are additional tests necessary? If so, what can we learn from them? To address these questions, we examined data from 60 recent high-throughput '-omics' comparisons between GE and non-GE crop lines and 17 recent long-term animal feeding studies (longer than the classical 90-day subchronic toxicological tests), as well as 16 multigenerational studies on animals. The '-omics' comparisons revealed that the genetic modification has less impact on plant gene expression and composition than that of conventional plant breeding. Moreover, environmental factors (such as field location, sampling time, or agricultural practices) have a greater impact than transgenesis. None of these '-omics' profiling studies has raised new safety concerns about GE varieties; neither did the long-term and multigenerational studies on animals. Therefore, there is no need to perform such long-term studies in a case-by-case approach, unless reasonable doubt still exists after conducting a 90-day feeding test. In addition, plant compositional analysis and '-omics' profiling do not indicate that toxicological tests should be mandatory. We discuss what complementary fundamental studies should be performed and how to choose the most efficient experimental design to assess risks associated with new GE traits. The possible need to update the current regulatory framework is discussed. PMID:23253614

Ricroch, Agns E

2013-05-25

68

Studying the elimination of pathogenic agents in laboratory animals feed by use of nuclear technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory animals are being used all around the world for different kinds of experiments in biological and medical sciences and related fields for the purposes such as prevention, control, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases in livestock, poultry, human, reproduction, breeding, etc. This is very important to keep in the breeding and reproduction environment of laboratory animals, pathogenic microorganisms as low as possible or completely remove them. The most prevailing and important way of such contamination is through feeding laboratory animals. In this research work, it is tried to use gamma radiation as a useful nuclear technique for decrease or resolve the problem. Two kinds of standard forms of diets consumed by rabbit and guinea pig in the form of small pellets and by mouse, rat and hamster in the form of big pellets (with different feed formula) and also two kinds of additive food i.e. dry milk and vitamin C have been examined. Un-irradiated samples have been used for control. Total of 226 samples were irradiated, among which optimum doses were found 25 kilo Gray for both small and big pellets, 18 kilo Gray for dry milk. Since there was not any contamination in vitamin C un-irradiated sample, irradiation was done only to observe the effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C compounds. (Author)

2002-10-15

69

Distillery effluents as animal feed: the use of condensed beet molasses stillage (CBMS) in broiler feeding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The trial was conducted on 176 Hubbard male broilers, allotted into four groups of 44 animals each. The control group received a CBMS-free diet and the other groups were given feed containing 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% CBMS, respectively. The trial started at 21 days of age and ended at 56 days of age. Growth rate was not affected by 2.5% CBMS. Feed efficiency was practically the same for the control group for the 2.5%-CBMS group but tended to worsen as the CBMS level increased. As far as dressing out percentages, health (checked by means of anatomo-phathological examination at slaughter), feather pattern and meat organoleptic characteristics were concerned, no differences could be detected. Water content and ash content of the carcasses tended to increase, whereas ether extract decreased as CBMS level increased. Fatty acid composition of abdominal fat pad was uniform for the four groups; in the case of myristic, oleic and linoleic acids significant differences were recorded, but these differences must be considered as biologically not relecent. Excreta water content increased as CBMS level increased.

Manfredo, M.; Cavani, C.

1980-09-01

70

Determination of aflatoxins B1 and M1 in animal feeds and liquid milk using thin layer chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal feed samples were collected from feeding troughs and analysed for levels of aflatoxins B1, a toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. When aflatoxin B1 is consumed by dairy cattle some of it is hydroxylated to form aflatoxin M1, which can appear in milk. Since aflatoxin M1, is also toxic and carcinogenic, it was determined in liquid milk. The determinations were carried out using thin-layer chromatography. Some of the feed samples were found to contain concentrations of aflatoxin B1 that were above maximum tolerated values in foods and feeds in various countries. Brewers grain and used poultry feed contained 133.4 ppb, while the barley husks had a maximum value of 27.4 ppb. The details of the experimental results and analytical methods used are presented.(author)

1996-01-01

71

An improved method for a rapid determination of phytase activity in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current direct colorimetric assay for phytase activity in feeds has interference from high P background and other factors. Our objective was to develop a rapid and reliable spin column method to accurately determine phytase activity in feed ingredients or complete diets. After the feed sample was extracted by stirring in 0.2 M citrate buffer, pH 5.5, for 30 min at room temperature, the oily layer of the supernatant fraction was removed by passing through an acrodisc syringe filter (0.45-microm HT Tuffryn membrane, Gelman Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI). The filtrate was then loaded onto a spin column (MW cutoff 30,000, Millipore, Bedford, MA) to remove free phosphate before the phytase activity assay. Compared with the direct assay, this new procedure improved both accuracy and reproducibility. When diets contained phytase at 0 to 1,500 U/kg (as fed), the CV for multiple assays of the same samples (n = 6) by the new method ranged from 1 to 6% compared with 28 to 39% by the direct method. A linear relationship was found between the added phytase activity in practical diets and the analyzed activity by the new method (r2 = 0.99; P < 0.01). In conclusion, the spin column method is an improved assay for phytase activity in animal feed, and may be used for quality control of phytase supplementation. PMID:15827251

Kim, T W; Lei, X G

2005-05-01

72

Do lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations promote nitrous oxide supersaturation?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal wastewater lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent the latest tendency in global animal farming, severely impacting the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions, including nitrous oxide (N2O). We hypothesized that lagoon wastewater could be supersaturated with N2O as part of incomplete microbial nitrification/denitrification processes, thereby regulating the N2O partitioning in the gaseous phase. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the magnitude of dissolved N2O concentrations in the lagoon; and (ii) to determine the extent to which supersaturation of N2O occurs in wastewater lagoons. Dissolved N2O concentrations in the wastewater samples were high, ranging from 0.4 to 40.5 ?g N2O mL-1. Calculated dissolved N2O concentrations from the experimentally measured partition coefficients were much greater than those typically expected in aquatic systems (2O mL-1). Knowledge of the factors controlling the magnitude of N2O supersaturation could potentially bridge mass balance differences between in situ measurements and global N2O models. - Supersaturation of nitrous oxide may occur in lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations.

2009-06-01

73

Validation and application of a robust yeast estrogen bioassay for the screening of estrogenic activity in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously we described the construction and properties of a rapid yeast bioassay stably expressing human estrogen receptor alpha (hERalpha) and yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein (yEGFP), the latter in response to estrogens. In the present study this yeast estrogen assay was validated as a qualitative screening method for the determination of estrogenic activity in animal feed. This validation was performed according to EC Decision 2002/657. Twenty blank animal feed samples, including milk replacers and wet and dry feed samples, were spiked with 17beta-estradiol (E2beta) at 5 ng g(-1), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) at 5 ng g(-1), diethylstilbestrol (DES) at 10 ng g(-1), zearalenone at 1.25 microg g(-1) or equal at 200 microg g(-1). All of these blank and low estrogen spiked feed samples fulfilled the CCalpha and CCbeta criterions, meaning that all 20 blank feed samples gave a signal below the determined decision limit CCalpha and were thus classified as compliant, and at least 19 out of the 20 spiked samples gave a signal above this CCalpha (beta = 5%) and were thus classified as suspect. The method was specific and estrogens in feed were stable for up to 98 days. In this study we also present long-term performance data and several examples of estrogens found in the routine screening of animal feed. This is the first successful example of a developed, validated and applied bioassay for the screening of hormonal substances in feed. PMID:16766455

Bovee, Toine F H; Bor, Gerrit; Heskamp, Henri H; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Nielen, Michel W F

2006-06-01

74

Feeding strategies for improving milk production from milch animals owned by small farmers in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last decade the National Dairy Development Board of India has researched and developed feeding strategies for lactating cattle and buffaloes fed on basal forage diets. Depending on the season and climate, these diets are largely mature forage from tropical pastures or crop residues, which are generally low in protein and of relatively low digestibility. Supplementation of the rumen microbial ecosystem with essential nutrients by providing each animal with a urea/molasses block stimulates production by improving feed digestibility, intake and the balance of nutrients available from the feed. Supplementation with a bypass protein to supply the animal directly with additional amino acids stimulates the efficiency of feed utilization by reducing the heat increment of feeding. In hot environments this reduces heat stress and allows feed intake to be maintained. These feeding strategies are now being applied to a large number of milch animals in the herds of small farmers in India. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

1989-02-20

75

Avian-specific real-time PCR assay for authenticity control in farm animal feeds and pet foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was developed for detection of an avian-specific DNA fragment (68bp) in farm animal and pet feeds. The specificity of the assay was verified against a wide representation of animal and plant species. Applicability assessment of the avian real-time PCR was conducted through representative analysis of two types of compound feeds: industrial farm animal feeds (n=60) subjected to extreme temperatures, and commercial dog and cat feeds (n=210). Results obtained demonstrated the suitability of the real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of low percentages of highly processed avian material in the feed samples analysed. Although quantification results were well reproducible under the experimental conditions tested, an accurate estimation of the target content in feeds is impossible in practice. Nevertheless, the method may be useful as an alternative tool for traceability purposes within the framework of feed control. PMID:24001810

Pegels, Nicolette; Gonzlez, Isabel; Garca, Teresa; Martn, Rosario

2014-01-01

76

ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: BROILER LITTER FEEDING TRIALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of broiler litter as a feedstuff was evaluated on the basis of results of feeding trials reported in the literature. Although the method of preparing or processing the broiler litter as a feed constituent (drying, composting or ensiling) influences its value, this assessm...

77

Statistical Methods and Tools for Hanford Staged Feed Tank Sampling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to technically evaluate the current approach to staged feed sampling of high-level waste (HLW) sludge to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for transfer from tank farms to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The current sampling and analysis approach is detailed in the document titled Initial Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria, 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014, Revision 0 (Arakali et al. 2011). The goal of this current work is to evaluate and provide recommendations to support a defensible, technical and statistical basis for the staged feed sampling approach that meets WAC data quality objectives (DQOs).

Fountain, Matthew S.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Peterson, Reid A.

2013-10-01

78

21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

... include one or more of the following: Barley, grain sorghums, maize (corn), oats...distillers grains, distillers solubles, flours, germ meals, gluten feeds, gluten meals, grits, groats, hominy feeds, malt sprouts, middlings, pearled,...

2009-04-01

79

Sampling feed for mycotoxins: acquiring knowledge from food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence and control of mycotoxins in feed and food are items of great interest to researchers, producers, manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In order to implement knowledge of control measures for mycotoxins in the entire food production chain, coordinated inspection programmes aimed to check the presence and concentration of mycotoxins in feedingstuffs are recommended by the Commission of the European Communities. Reliability of measured levels of mycotoxins in feed and food is greatly affected by the collection of representative samples. Because of the heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins, the variability associated with a mycotoxin test procedure usually depends heavily on the sampling plan. European legislation dealing with sampling plans for mycotoxins in foodstuffs has been recently revised. The aim of the following overview is to discuss the role of sampling in mycotoxin-contaminated feed by considering the evolution of legislation dealing with sampling plans for food. A sampling procedure is a multistage process and consists of three distinct phases: sampling, sample preparation and analysis. The variability associated with each step of a sampling procedure and the aspects related to feedstuffs, matrix/ mycotoxin combination and level of contamination are discussed.

Eleonora Fusi

2010-01-01

80

Radioimmunoassay determination of the effect on animal reproduction of alternative of feeding suplementation in dairy cows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal object of this trial was to evaluate the influence of three alternatives of feeding suplementation in dairy cows in the post-partum period in ecuadorian highlands. Thirty sic animals in fist lactation were used in this experiment and were divided in three groups according to the feed intake: Group A diet was 5 Kg. of a commercial concentrate mixture with 12 per cent of crude protein plus pasture ad libitum; Group B diet was green banans (Musa paradisiaca) and pasture and Group C diet was the control only pasture. Using Radioimmunoassay technique (RIA), progesterone values were determinated in milk from each cow. the sampling was sequential, two samples a week, starting 6 days after parturition, until the animal was pregnant or until the study was finished, 150 days after post-partum for each cow. This research allowed us to evaluate the ovaric post-partum activity of each group: Frequency and length of the oestrus cycles; efficiency of oestrus detection, calving-first, oestrus period, calving-conception length, conception rate, and services per conception. Additional datas were used in this study such as: milk production, palpations and treatments

1993-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed : Animal Feed Contamination: Effects on Livestock and Food Safety  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary products such as peels, pulpettes, molasses, whey, mask, oil cakes, etc. Contamination of by-products and possible impacts are presented.

Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja

2012-01-01

82

76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments  

Science.gov (United States)

...or animal food/feed (including pet food). DATES: Submit either electronic...or animal food/feed (including pet food): Conducting a hazard analysis...ready-to-eat food facilities, pet food facilities). Microbiological...

2011-05-23

83

Phytic phosphorus and phytase activity of animal Feed Ingredients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para determinar o fsforo total e ftico e, a atividade da fitase endgena de gros de cereais e oleaginosas e seus subprodutos, avaliaram-se ingredientes alimentcios que se utilizam na produo animal nos trpicos. Estes foram; milho amarelo, sorgo, trigo duro e farelo de arroz; dos subprodutos de [...] cereais, a farinha de grmen e farelo de milho desengordurado grosso e fino, farelo de trigo e polidura de arroz; das oleaginosas e subprodutos, a semente e farinha de algodo, e as farinhas de soja, palmiste e coco. O cido ftico determinou-se, em cinco amostras, mediante um mtodo colorimtrico e a atividade fitsica por um procedimento enzimtico colorimtrico. Alm disso, determinou-se, por mtodos convencionais, a composio qumica e mineral dos materiais avaliados. O contedo (%) de protena crua, extrato etreo, cinzas e composio mineral foi similar aos valores resenhados nas tabelas de composio de alimentos de diferentes pases. Os gros de cereais e subprodutos apresentaram concentraes de fsforo total variando de 0,12 a 1,57%. Nos gros de oleaginosas e seus subprodutos a concentrao de fsforo total variou de 0,43 a 1,34%. A concentrao de fsforo ftico (%) em cereais e oleaginosas variou de 0,08 a 0,49 e, para os subprodutos, de 0,24 a 1.13%. As equaes de regresso entre o fsforo total e ftico foram positivas e significativas nos cereais e subprodutos e nas oleaginosas e subprodutos. As correlaes foram significativas entre fsforo ftico e contedo de magnsio, potssio e clcio, nos cereais e seus subprodutos. A atividade fitsica (U/kg) foi significativamente mais elevada para o trigo (1.565). O arroz, o farelo de trigo e a polidura de arroz, apresentaram atividades maiores de 100 U/kg. Os gros e subprodutos restantes se consideram como materiais sem atividade fitsica. Abstract in spanish Para determinar fsforo total y ftico, y la actividad de fitasas endgenas de granos de cereales y oleaginosas y sus subproductos, se evaluaron ingredientes alimenticios utilizados en la produccin animal en los trpicos. Los cereales y sus subproductos fueron maz amarillo, sorgo, trigo duro, terc [...] erilla de arroz, harina de germen y afrecho de maz desgrasado grueso y fino, afrecho de trigo y pulitura de arroz. Las oleaginosas y sus subproductos fueron semilla y harina de algodn, y harinas de soya, palmiste y coco. El cido ftico se determin mediante un mtodo colorimtrico y la actividad fitsica por un procedimiento enzimtico-colorimtrico. Adems se determin, por mtodos convencionales, la composicin qumica y mineral de los materiales evaluados. El contenido (%) de protena cruda, extracto etreo, cenizas y composicin mineral fue similar a los valores de las tablas de composicin de alimentos. La concentracin de P total estuvo entre 0,12 y 1,57% en granos de cereales y sus subproductos, y entre 0,43 y 1,34% en granos de oleaginosas y sus subproductos. La concentracin de P ftico en cereales y oleaginosas vari entre 0,08 y 0,49% y en sus subproductos entre 0,24 y 1,13%. Las ecuaciones de regresin entre P total y ftico fueron positivas y significativas en los cereales y subproductos, y en las oleaginosas y subproductos. Las correlaciones fueron significativas entre P ftico y contenido de Mg, K y Ca en los cereales y subproductos. La actividad fitsica (U/kg) fue significativamente mayor para el trigo (1565). Arroz, afrecho de trigo y pulitura de arroz presentaron actividades >100U/kg. Los restantes granos y subproductos se consideran como materiales sin actividad fitsica. Abstract in english To determine total and phytic phosphorus and endogenous phytase activity in cereals, oilseeds and by-products, feed ingredients used in animal production in the tropics were evaluated. The cereals and by-products were yellow corn, sorghum, hard wheat, broken rice, wheat bran, fine and gross defatted [...] corn germ and bran

Susmira, Godoy; Claudio, Chicco; Franois, Meschy; Fanny, Requena.

84

The effect of animal feed from irradiated palm oil sludge on antibody forming of mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this experiment, 3 kinds of animal feed were, e.q. control (commercial product), non irradiated and irradiated palm oil sludge by using 60Co source with a 4 kGy dose. BALB-C mice of 3 months old were used, each group contains 5 animals. Before conducting the experiment the animals were injected with antibiotic to free them from Enterobacteriaceae. The animals were observed every 2 weeks by weighting them, blood were analyzed and after 10 weeks their antibody were analyzed. Animal feed were in the form of pellets and each animal was feed 5 g of pellets. The results were as follows, antibody formed by C (control), N (non irradiated sludge) and, R (irradiated sludge) were 37; 36.5; and 36.2 mg/nl, respectively. Apparently pellets which were made of palm oil sludge and commercial product produced not significantly different level of antibody. (author)

1998-01-01

85

21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 ...prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the...materials used for animal feed and pet food. [42 FR 14091, Mar. 15,...

2009-04-01

86

78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources...for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in the Federal Register...for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in the Federal...

2013-06-10

87

21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.  

Science.gov (United States)

...packaging materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 ...packaging materials for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the...materials used for animal feed and pet food. [42 FR 14091, Mar. 15,...

2009-04-01

88

78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources...for irradiation of animal feed and pet food to provide for the safe use of electron...and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food (21 CFR part 579) to provide...

2013-05-10

89

ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: CATTLE MANURE FEEDING TRIALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilization of 'as-collected' and processed beef cattle and dairy cow manure, manure screenings and anaerobically digested cattle manures was evaluated on the basis of the results of feeding trials reported in the literature. The maximum level of incorporating these manures i...

90

ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: POULTRY MANURE FEEDING TRIALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilization of dried poultry manure as a feedstuff was critically evaluated based upon feeding trial results reported in the literature. The assessment indicated that this material can have value as a feedstuff. The maximum and optimum levels of incorporating dried poultry ma...

91

Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

Katsuaki Sugiura

2009-09-01

92

Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

A. Priolo

2011-03-01

93

Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2. PMID:24634172

Meri, S; Cak?r, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Ar?, S

2014-01-01

94

The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium and amino acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine, The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet; T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM; T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM; T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM; T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM; T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.

CMI Caires

2010-03-01

95

Animals and People First. Why good animal welfare is important for feeding people, for trade and for the future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractLivestock contributes to both the potential and the problems of agriculture. Meat and animal products are important in peoples diet and also valuable trade goods. However, manure can cause pollution. One other issue receiving increased attention is the welfare offarm animals: this is a matter of public concern in many countries, particularly in Europe2. This paper explains why attention to farm animal welfare can help agriculture to feed people, to promote trade and to prevent future problems such as pollution and why ittherefore needs to be considered in the Agreement on Agriculture.

Dr Michael Appleby.

2007-12-01

96

REDUCING THE ECONOMIC RISK OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY BY ADAPTING ACQUISITION STRATEGIES FOR OPTIMAL FEED COMMODITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the costs of animal husbandry regardless of the animal species in question the most significant is that for feed. Among the different crop years, we can noticegreat divergences in the prices of seed feeds. This phenomenon is associated withsignificant seasonal factors in each year. These prices and yield fluctuationsincrease notably the economic risk to animal husbandry. In the course of ourresearch, we adapted and developed deterministic inventory models to createdifferent acquisition strategies. For us the most appropriate choice among thepossible strategies is that which is secured by maximum income, combined withalternative investment possibilities.

LAJOS NAGY

2013-12-01

97

Content of Heavy Metals in Animal Feeds and Manures from Farms of Different Scales in Northeast China  

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Full Text Available To determine the contents of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Cd and Pb in animal feeds and manures, 104 livestock feeds and 118 animal manure samples from farms of different herd size and located in northeast China were collected and their heavy metal concentrations were determined. The content of Cu, As and Cd ranged from 2.31,137.1 mg/kg dm, 0.0213.03 mg/kg dm and non-detectable (nd?31.65 mg/kg dm in pig feeds, 2.8898.08 mg Cu/kg dm, 0.026.42 mg As/kg dm and non-detectable (nd8.00 mg Cd/kg dm in poultry feeds, and their content in cattle feeds was similar to that in poultry feeds. The typical content in pig manures was 642.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 8.6 mg As/kg dm, and 15.1 mg Cd/kg dm, which reflected the metal contents in feeds. The typical contents in poultry manures were 65.6 mg Cu/kg dm, 3.3 mg As/kg dm and 1.6 mg Cd/kg dm while the contents in cattle manures were 31.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 2.5 mg As/kg dm and 0.5 mg Cd/kg dm. Animal manure is an important source of heavy metals to the environment in Northeast China.

Wei Li

2012-07-01

98

Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline, with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage disease. Yet, we do not believe starling control should be used as a stand alone tool to reduce S. enterica infections. Rather starling control could be used as part of a comprehensive disease management plan for concentrated animal feeding operations.

Bodenchuk Michael J

2011-02-01

99

75 FR 79320 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0612] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products...Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing Animals AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...carcinogenic concern used in food-producing animals. Specifically, the Agency is...

2010-12-20

100

Modification and Characterization of Phytase for Animal Feed Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic phosphate from phytic acid and are able to improve the nutritional quality of phytate rich diet. Monogastric animal such as poultry and fish have lack of significant activity to hydrolyze phytate that contribute to elimination of beneficial nutrient for growth therefore contribute to land pollution, eutrophication of ground water and aquatic environment. Besides, it leads to the negative effect on vitamin utilization that lead to the emaciation, r...

Noorbatcha, I. A.; Samsudin, N.; Salleh, H. M.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Determination of diclazuril in animal feed by liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is described for the determination of diclazuril (Janssen Research Compound R64433; trademark Clinacox) in chicken feed at the mg kg(-1) level. Compound R062646, a structure analogous to diclazuril, was used as the interna standard. The drug was extracted from food with acidified methanol. Diclazuril was then isolated by means of solid-phase extraction with a cartridge containing a C18 phase. The eluate was evaporated and the residue redissolved in dimethylformamide. An aliquot was injected onto a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic column and the drug substance quantified at 280 nm by an ultraviolet detector. Extraction (absolute) recoveries of 85% for both internal standard and diclazuril were obtained. The method is suitable for diclazuril concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 mg kg(-1). Method validation data are presented. PMID:1500465

De Kock, J; De Smet, M; Sneyers, R

1992-07-31

102

Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC, a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullets and laying hen, PKC can be used 30% and 20% respectively if supplemented with fat, methionine and lysine. PKC can be used 30% in diet for grower (30-60 kg and 50% in diet for finisher pigs (60-90 kg., respectively, if supplemented with lysine and cane molasses.

Kuprasert, S.

2001-11-01

103

78 FR 76059 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins  

Science.gov (United States)

...inclusion in such feeds has not been established for dairy cattle under the food additive regulation for selenium. DATES...573.920(c)(3)) does not provide for use in dairy cattle. For this reason, FDA is revising the...

2013-12-16

104

Modification and Characterization of Phytase for Animal Feed Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic phosphate from phytic acid and are able to improve the nutritional quality of phytate rich diet. Monogastric animal such as poultry and fish have lack of significant activity to hydrolyze phytate that contribute to elimination of beneficial nutrient for growth therefore contribute to land pollution, eutrophication of ground water and aquatic environment. Besides, it leads to the negative effect on vitamin utilization that lead to the emaciation, retarded growth and reproductive failure to animal. Due to the importance of, microbial sources for the commercial production of phytases, we have selected waste water bacterium phytase as the subject of interest in this study. In silico experiment is used to identify and examine the active site of waste water bacterium phytase. The factors influencing the ligand binding strength in the active site is analyzed and computational site directed mutagenesis experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of mutations on the binding strength. Multiple mutations of M216R/E219R/H17A, M216R/E219R/F254E and some other multiple mutations showed improvement in the binding strength, primarily due to the addition of hydrogen bond with the adjacent residues. Automated docking based on genetic algorithm is used to dock the phytate in the active site and Partial Mean Force (PMF scoring is used to calculate the strength of the binding before and after mutation.

I.A. Noorbatcha

2009-01-01

105

Predicting the risks from climate change to forage and crop production for animal feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Climate change is expected to bring warmer temperatures, changes to rainfall patterns, and increased frequency of extreme weather. Projections of climate impacts on feed crops show that there will likely be opportunities for increased productivity as well as considerable threats to crop productivity in different parts of the world over the next 20 to 50 years. On balance, we anticipate substantial risks to the volume, volatility, and quality of animal feed supply chains from climate change. ...

Wheeler, Tim; Reynolds, Chris

2013-01-01

106

Environmental sampling for Salmonella spp. in Colorado animal shelters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella enterica is an important zoonotic agent and nosocomial infections and epidemics have occurred in animal facilities. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in the environment in animal shelters. From 12 to 25 samples were taken from each shelter to represent environmental contamination. Samples were collected from surfaces in areas used by animals and in public access areas including animal receiving rooms, kennels, paediatric wards, treatment, visitation rooms, isolation, euthanasia, outdoor runs and play areas, reception rooms, animal transport vehicles, offices, break rooms and restrooms. Samples were tested for Salmonella and compared within shelters to identify high- and low-risk areas; and between shelters to identify differences in environmental contamination by geographical location, infection control policies, and shelter size characteristics. Twenty-eight per cent of sampled Colorado shelters had environmental Salmonella contamination. Two regions in the eastern 1/3 of the state had prevalences of 30% and 100%. Within-shelter sample prevalence ranged from 0 to 100%. Results of this study indicate that animal shelters can be frequently contaminated with Salmonella spp., a variety of Salmonella species may be present, contamination can be widespread within a facility and recovered isolates may harbour antibiotic resistance The findings from this study may influence and help focus educational policy on issues of infection control and zoonotic disease awareness in animal shelters. PMID:21083828

Steneroden, K K; Hill, A E; Salman, M D

2011-09-01

107

The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments wit [...] h 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium) and amino acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine), The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet); T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM); T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM); T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM); T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM); T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.

CMI, Caires; EA, Fernandes; NS, Fagundes; AP, Carvalho; MP, Maciel; BR, Oliveira.

108

Concentrated animal feeding operations, row crops, and their relationship to nitrate in eastern Iowa Rivers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and fertilizer application to row crops may contribute to poor water quality in surface waters. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated nutrient concentrations and fluxes in four Eastern Iowa watersheds sampled between 1996 and 2004. We found that these watersheds contribute nearly 10% of annual nitrate flux entering the Gulf of Mexico, while representing only 1.5% of the contributing drainage basin. Mass budget analysis shows streamflow to be a major loss of nitrogen (18% of total N output), second only to crop harvest (63%). The major watershed inputs of nitrogen include applied fertilizer for corn (54% of total N input) and nitrogen fixation by soybeans (26%). Despite the relatively small input from animal manure (approximately 5%), the results of spatial analysis indicate that row crop and CAFO densities are significantly and independently correlated to higher nitrate concentration in streams. Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.59 and 0.89 were found between nitrate concentration and row crop and CAFO density, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis produced a correlation for nitrate concentration with an R2 value of 85%. High spatial density of row crops and CAFOs are linked to the highest river nitrate concentrations (up to 15 mg/L normalized over five years). PMID:16749677

Weldon, Mark B; Hornbuckle, Keri C

2006-05-15

109

Application of gamma radiation on disinfestation feed grain based food for domestic animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed to realize a survey to identify the associated insects to feed the city Sao Paulo / SP and also to assess the effect of gamma radiation on food ration for domestic animals infested by pests. Samples of 20 stores, 'Pet Shop' in different regions in Sao Paulo / SP were subjected to trials of 1 and 45 days for collection of insects with the aid of plastic tray and screens of different sizes. The species Sitophilus zeamais, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Lasioderma serricorne and Oryzaephilus sp. showed a higher frequency. In assessing the effects of gamma radiation we used samples of maize, sunflower seeds and mix for rodents infested with adults of the species Sitophilus zeamais, Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, after the period of 7 to 10 days the insects were removed and samples subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation. The species Sitophilus zeamais and Lasioderma serricorne subjected doses from 0,25 to 1,50 kGy and species Plodia interpunctella doses from 0,10 to 2,0 kGy. After 40 days of irradiation was evaluated the number of insects emerged. The results of bioassays with Sitophilus zeamais and with Lasioderma serricorne demonstrated that doses starting at 0,5 kGy was sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and newly emerged larvae. The results with Plodia interpunctella from the 1,5 kGy, hasn't emerged adult insects, concluding that these doses were sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and larvae. (author)

2009-01-01

110

Evaluation of Nigerian animal feeds by particle-induced X-ray emission.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is need to evaluate the locally available animal feeds in Nigeria so as to be able to combine them in acceptable proportions to the animals to achieve the desired growth rate. The technique of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was employed for the evaluation of these locally available animal feeds, which include Panicum maximum (Guinea grass), Cynodon plectostachyum (grass), Leucaena leucephala (legume), Calopogonium mucunoides (legume), Gliricidia sepium (legume), Euphorbia polychrome (legume), Pueraria phaseloides (legume), and Centrosema pubescens (legume). The proton beam delivered by the 2.5-MV AN 2,000 Van de Graaff accelerator at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy was used for the PIXE measurements. Twenty-one different elements were detected at various concentrations and their nutritional effects on different animals are discussed. PMID:16217142

Olabanji, S O; Olubunmi, P; Ceccato, D; Buoso, M C; De Poli, M; Moschini, G

2005-11-01

111

Nutritional and Health Implications of Mycotoxins in Animal Feeds: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycotoxins are harmful substances produced by fungi in various foods and are estimated to affect as much as 25% of the world`s crop each year. Most of these mytocoxins belong to the three genera of fungi: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Although over 300 mytocoxins are known, those of most concern based on their toxicity and occurrence, are aflatoxin, vomitoxin, ochratoxin, zearaleone, fumonisin and T-2 toxin. They are produced in cereal grains as well as forages before, during and after harvest in various environmental conditions. The presence of mycotoxins in feeds may decrease feed intake and affect animal performance. In addition, the possible presence of toxic residues in edible animal product such as milk, meat and eggs may have some detrimental effects on human health. Fungal contamination affects both the organoleptic characteristics and the alimentary value of feeds and entails a risk of toxicosis. The biological effects of mycotoxin depend on the ingested amounts, number of occurring toxins, duration of exposure to mycotoxin and animal sensitivity. Mycotoxins display a diversity of chemical structures, accounting for their different biological effects. Depending on their precise nature, these toxins may be carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic, immunosuppressive, tremor genic, hemorrhagic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic. Controlling mould growth and mycotoxin production is very important to the feed manufacturer and livestock producer. Control of mould growth in feeds can be accomplished by keeping moisture low, feed fresh, equipment clean and using mould inhibitors. In addition, control of mycotoxins in animal diets would reduce the likelihood that mycotoxin residues would appear in animal products destined for human consumption.

K.E. Akande

2006-01-01

112

The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp. as Animal Feed in the Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The different meal forms that can be extracted are golden snail meal (30 % calcium and 15 % crude protein, golden snail meat meal (62 % crude protein and 3336 kcal/kg and golden shell meal (35 % calcium. Feeding trials indicate that golden snail meal can be a part of swine and chicken layer diets up to 15 %. Golden snail meat meal can be a part of broiler chicken diet up to 12 %. Feeding fresh and ground golden snail to ducks can replace 50 % of their diet under total confinement system. Whereas, golden snail meat meal (75 % of the diet plus rice bran can be beneficially fed to tilapia. With the information collated, golden snail can be a promising animal feed in the Philippines.

Serra, AB.

1997-01-01

113

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n = 650 were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n = 71 were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%, followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n = 14 were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxa-zole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline, whereas 80.3% (n = 57 were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprim-suflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

Godwin P. Kaaya

2012-06-01

114

Fermentation of Leucaena Leucocephala leaves for fuel, fertilizer, and animal feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reports on the successful series of novel investigations on the production of good quality fuel gas, along with fertilizer and mimosine-free animal feed by-products from leaves of Leucaena leucocephala. Discussion on a pilot plant specifically designed to produce fuel gas from Leucaena leaves is also presented.

Lewis, C.E.; Hales, A.L.; Minott, D.A.

1982-10-01

115

Effect of some animal feeds and oviposition substrates on Aedes oviposition in ovitraps in Cairns, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal feed pellets containing lupin seed or alfalfa were added to ovitraps set in Cairns, Australia. Although they collected fewer Aedes eggs than Centers for Disease Control enhanced ovitraps, they did outperform tap water alone. A wooden tongue depressor collected comparable number of Aedes eggs as a Masonite board and seed germination paper. PMID:14529089

Ritchie, S A

2001-09-01

116

Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatography-Mass pectrometry Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Melamine and Cyromazine in Animal Feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new method for simultaneous determination of melamine and cyromazine in animal feeds using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS was developed and validated. Samples were extracted with trichloroacetic acid solution cleaned up by cation exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges and derivatized with N, O-bis (trimethylsilyl trifluroacetamide containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane followed by GC separation and MS detection. The limits of quantification were 0.10 mg kg-1 for both melamine and cyromazine. Recoveries from feeds spiked at levels between 0.1 and 50 mg kg-1 ranged from 84.2-99.5% with Relative Standard Deviation (RSD -1 melamine. This validated method was successfully applied to commercial feed samples showing that it can be used as a routine tool for the surveillance and evaluation of the presence of melamine and cyromazine in animal feeds.

Liying Zhang

2011-01-01

117

Determination of lasalocid sodium in animal feeds and premixes by reversed-phase liquid chromatography: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the analysis of lasalocid sodium in premixes, complete animal feeds, and trace-level feeds was collaboratively studied. The method employs a 0.5% HCI acidified methanol extraction followed by 20 min sonication in a water bath heated to 40 degrees C. Samples are then shaken on a mechanical shaker for 1 h and stored overnight, followed by an additional 10 min shaking the following morning. Sample extracts are diluted if necessary with extractant, filtered, and injected onto an LC system. Determination of all lasalocid homologs is by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection at 314 nm excitation and 418 nm emission. Eight samples of drug premixes, medicated feeds, and mineral supplements, along with 2 samples for trace-level analysis were sent to 20 collaborators in the United States, Canada, and The Netherlands. Study data were returned by 17 laboratories. Two additional supplemental trace-level samples and a blank feed were provided to 15 of the collaborating laboratories, and test data were received from all 15 participants. For the drug premixes, medicated feeds, and mineral supplements, RSDr values (within-laboratory repeatability) ranged from 1.2 to 19.9%, RSDR values (among-laboratory reproducibility) ranged from 3.4 to 32.3%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.35 to 3.73. For the trace-level samples, only lasalocid A, the predominant homolog comprising > 90% of the sum of all homolog peak area, was quantified. All laboratories correctly identified the analyte. Although some instrument response was reported by a number of laboratories for the blank feed, all but one laboratory's results were well below the 1 mg/kg limit of quantification. RSDr values for the initial 2 trace-level samples were excessive, ranging from 51.6 to 64.4%. RSDR values ranged from 51.6 to 75.7%, and HorRat values ranged from 3.6 to 4.0. Data for the initial trace-level samples indicated that the test samples were improperly prepared to ensure homogeneity, and a new set of supplemental samples was provided to collaborators, with significantly improved results. RSDr values for the 2 supplemental trace-level samples ranged from 1.6 to 2.5%, RSDR values ranged from 5.6 to 9.2%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.43 to 0.62. PMID:18567291

Focht, Charles

2008-01-01

118

Scientific Opinion on the risk for public and animal health related to the presence of sterigmatocystin in food and feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on sterigmatocystin (STC in food and feed. STC is a polyketide mycotoxin that shares its biosynthetic pathway with aflatoxins. Following an EFSA call for data, analytical results from 247 food and 334 feed samples were submitted. In food, analytical results on STC were reported to be all below the limit of detection or limit of quantification. In feed, only four quantified results were reported. Therefore, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel concluded that the available occurrence data are too limited to carry out a reliable human and animal dietary exposure assessment. Acute oral toxicity of STC is relatively low, and liver and kidneys are the target organs. STC is mutagenic in both bacterial and mammalian cells after metabolic activation and forms DNA adducts. Tumourigenicity has been observed after oral, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous and dermal administration resulting in hepatocellular carcinomas, haemangiosarcomas in the liver, angiosarcomas in brown fat and lung adenomas. Since no exposure data were available, the margin of exposure approach for substances that are genotoxic and carcinogenic could not be applied for STC, and thus the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the risk for human health. Regarding animals, the Panel noted that STC is hepatotoxic in poultry and pigs, and nephrotoxic in poultry and toxic in several fish species. However, in the absence of exposure data for livestock, fish and companion animals, and given the limited knowledge on the adverse effects of STC, the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the risk for animal health. More occurrence data on STC in food and feed need to be collected to allow dietary exposure assessment. For food, methods with a limit of quantification of less than 1.5 g/kg should be applied.

EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

2013-06-01

119

Development and validation of an LC-UV method for the determination of sulfonamides in animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple LC-UV method was developed for the determination of residues of eight sulfonamides (sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimidine, sulfadoxine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadimethoxine) in six types of animal feed. C18, Oasis HLB, Plexa and Plexa PCX stationary phases were assessed for the clean-up step and the latter was chosen as it showed greater efficiency in the clean-up of interferences. Feed samples spiked with sulfonamides at 2 mg/kg were used to assess the trueness (recovery %) and precision of the method. Mean recovery values ranged from 47% to 66%, intra-day precision (RSD %) from 4% to 15% and inter-day precision (RSD %) from 7% to 18% in pig feed. Recoveries and intra-day precisions were also evaluated in rabbit, hen, cow, chicken and piglet feed matrices. Calibration curves with standards prepared in mobile phase and matrix-matched calibration curves were compared and the matrix effects were ascertained. The limits of detection and quantification in the feeds ranged from 74 to 265 g/kg and from 265 to 868 g/kg, respectively. PMID:21671426

Kumar, P; Company, R

2012-05-01

120

Assessment of animal productivity and methane production using an associative feeding strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methane production from ruminants is a loss of digestible energy thereby reducing animal productivity and is contributing to environmental pollution. In order to develop a beneficial strategy for improving animal productivity while conserving the environment the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a concentrate feeding strategy on the animal productivity and rumen methane production. In this experiment two feeding regimes, Diet-1 and Diet-2, were either fodder alone and with a 10% inclusion of concentrates in the forage diet feed as a phased sequence of 45 days of fodder alone and then 45 days of fodder plus concentrate. The diets were fed to four animal groups comprising of 5 animals in each. Throughout the experimental period, a fresh, chopped fodder of similar age (50-65 days age) was offered to the animals. Average dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ash and ether extract contents of the fodder were 21, 9.3, 31.7, 10.1 and 3.1%, respectively. Diet2 included a concentrate containing 88.0, 16.0, 8.1, 10.0, and 12.1% DM, CP, CF, Ash and EE, respectively. A decrease of 8.2 and 39.5% in group A and B with only minor a minor change in group C and D for feed intake was observed when the animals where feed Diet2. Weight gain for the four groups were 133, 422, 111 and 600 g per animal per day on Diet1 and 244, 688, 177 and 888 g per animal per day on Diet2 for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. With supplementation feeding strategy, there was an increase of 45.4, 38.7, 3.7 and 32.4% in weigh gain over fodder alone diet for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. This was associated with an improvement of 49.7, 62.9, 38.5 and 32% in feed to gain ratio for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. The DM digestibility was 22.9, 4.6, 4.7 and 8.4% higher in groups A, B, C and D, respectively when the groups were feed the fodder diets supplemented with concentrates. On fodder alone, the molar concentration of acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate was 68, 15, 11 and 23% and when concentrates were included 66, 18, 10 and 1.9% for fistulated cattle. Similarly, acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate were 62, 19, 13 and 3% on Diet1 and 60, 23, 12 and 2.8 on Diet2 for buffaloes. Concentrate supplementation reduced the acetate to propionate ratio in both cattle and buffaloes. Estimated methane production of 350, 300 g methane per animal/day in cattle and 312 and 278g per animal/day in buffalo on Diet1 and Diet2, respectively. It is concluded that methane losses from various classes of livestock could be minimized with integrated approach to nutrition as well as resulting in a better feed to gain ratio. (author)

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Antibiotic use in animal feed and its impact on human healt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria that cause disease in man is an issue of major concern. Although misuse of antibiotics in human medicine is the principal cause of the problem, antibiotic-resistant bacteria originating in animals are contributory factors, with some types of resistance in some species of bacteria. Antibiotics are added to animal feeds to treat and prevent infections and to improve growth and production. Until recently, the major concerns about incorporation of antibiotics in animal feeds related to antibiotic residues in products from treated animals. Although, in 1969, the Swann (1969) report drew attention to the potential for antibiotic-resistant bacteria to spread from treated animals via the food chain, there was little response until the detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in animals fed a related glycopeptide, avoparcin. Subsequently, attention started to focus on the issue and other examples of transfer of resistant bacteria through the food chain, such as enterococci resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin or to everninomicin, fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacters and multiresistant Escherichia coli, and salmonella such as Salmonella typhimurium DT104. Reviews and committees in many countries have highlighted the need for better control of licensing of antibiotics, and codes for prudent use of antibiotics by veterinary practitioners and farmers. The continued use of antibiotic growth promoters has been questioned and there is a need to ensure that antibiotics important in human medicine are not used therapeutically or prophylactically in animals. PMID:19087443

Barton, M D

2000-12-01

122

Characterizing non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were determined from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) in North Carolina. NMVOCs were measured in air samples collected in SUMMA and fused-silica lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Measurements were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn in each of the four seasonal sampling periods during the period June 2007 through April 2008. In each sampling period, nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn over a minimum of four different days during a period of 1 week. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were also made during the sampling period. In lagoon samples, six NMVOCs were identified that had significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. This included three alcohols (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and methanol), two ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) and an aldehyde (acetaldehyde). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.18 ?g m -2 min -1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 ?g m -2 min -1 for acetone, with seasonal fluxes highest in the summer for four (acetone, acetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and MEK) of the six compounds In barn samples, there were six NMVOCs that had significantly larger concentrations and emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. These consisted of two alcohols (methanol and ethanol), an aldehyde (acetaldehyde), two ketones (acetone and 2,3-butanedione), and a phenol (4-methylphenol). Overall average barn concentration ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. Overall average normalized barn emission rates ranged from 0.10 g day -1 AU -1 (1 AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day -1 AU -1 for ethanol. The NMVOCs, 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione, which have low odor thresholds (odor thresholds = 1.86 ppb and 0.068-0.264 ppb for 4-methylphenol, and = 4.37 ppb and 1.42-7.39 ppb for 2-3-butanedione) and an offensive odor were identified in canister samples. Both 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione barn concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds frequently. HAPs were identified in lagoon samples (methanol, acetaldehyde and MEK) and barn samples (methanol, acetaldehyde and 4-methylphenol) that were also classified as NMVOCs with significantly larger lagoon and barn emissions in comparison with other NMVOCs. The overall average lagoon fluxes and overall average normalized barn emissions for NMVOCs reported in this paper were used to estimate their North Carolina swine CAFO emissions. Of the NMVOCs, ethanol was estimated to have the largest North Carolina swine CAFO emission at 206,367 kg yr -1. The barns were found to have higher emissions than the lagoons for all NMVOCs, contributing between 68.6 to 100% of individual compounds estimated North Carolina swine CAFO emissions.

Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

2012-02-01

123

New approach for the quantification of processed animal proteins in feed using light microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A revision of European Union's total feed ban on animal proteins in feed will need robust quantification methods, especially for control analyses, if tolerance levels are to be introduced, as for fishmeal in ruminant feed. In 2006, a study conducted by the Community Reference Laboratory for Animal Proteins in feedstuffs (CRL-AP) demonstrated the deficiency of the official quantification method based on light microscopy. The study concluded that the method had to be revised. This paper puts forward an improved quantification method based on three elements: (1) the preparation of permanent slides with an optical adhesive preserving all morphological markers of bones necessary for accurate identification and precision counting; (2) the use of a counting grid eyepiece reticle; and (3) new definitions for correction factors for the estimated portions of animal particles in the sediment. This revised quantification method was tested on feeds adulterated at different levels with bovine meat and bone meal (MBM) and fishmeal, and it proved to be effortless to apply. The results obtained were very close to the expected values of contamination levels for both types of adulteration (MBM or fishmeal). Calculated values were not only replicable, but also reproducible. The advantages of the new approach, including the benefits of the optical adhesive used for permanent slide mounting and the experimental conditions that need to be met to implement the new method correctly, are discussed. PMID:20432096

Veys, P; Baeten, V

2010-07-01

124

Feeding Rate of Soil Animals in Different Ecosystems in Pati, Indonesia  

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Full Text Available The feeding activity of soil animals was measured by using bait lamina test in three main ecosystems, i.e. the teak forest, home garden and rainfed paddy field. Two additional ecosystems in rainfed paddy field, i.e. the old (permanently established bund around paddy fields and new bunds were examined as well. Three blocks of bait-lamina sticks (each block consisting of 16 individual sticks were exposed at each location. The bait lamina were retrieved from the soil after two days and visually assessed. Each hole is designated as fed (perforated or non-fed hole. The feeding rate is measured as the absolute number of fed holes. Soil animals in the old bunds showed the highest feeding activity (55.20%, followed by home garden (39.10%, rainfed paddy field (16.50%, teak forest (15.60%, and new bund (7.80%. The frequency of animals attack to the bait strips also indicated the similar pattern as their feeding activity, i.e. high in the old bunds (0.90, followed by home garden (0.70, teak forest (0.40, new bunds (0.40 and rainfed paddy field (0.30, respectively.

RAHAYU WIDYASTUTI

2006-09-01

125

Fatty acid analysis of subcutaneous fat from animals with a reliable and safe feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iberian pig fat characteristics depend on the type of feeding at the end of its finish-fattening period. The routine analysis to differentiate among the qualities of the feeding types given to the pigs in the fattening stage has been the use of fatty acid profiles by gas chromatography. Due to de doubts about the effectiveness of this analysis in the montanera period, the aim of this global study was to test the validity of various analytical methods to determine the feeding type of Iberian pigs, focusing on the fatty acid profile. Three montanera periods with a total of 749 samples from 38 batches have been studied; using a total of 144 dry-cured shoulder shanks, 99 of which are of known pig origin. Results showed that the determination of the fatty acid profile using gas chromatography is not a consistent method to classify the animals according to diet in the recebo category, although it provided good percentages of success for classifying the bellota and cebo categories.Las caractersticas de la grasa de cerdo Ibrico dependen del tipo de alimentacin recibida en el ltimo estado de engorde. El anlisis que se ha utilizado hasta ahora para diferenciar las diferentes calidades de alimentacin de los cerdos en este perodo ha sido el anlisis de los perfiles de cidos grasos de la grasa por tcnicas de cromatografa de gases. Debido a las dudas sobre la efectividad de esta tcnica en la montanera, el objetivo del proyecto global (RTA2008-0026 fue probar la validez de varios mtodos analticos para determinar el tipo de alimentacin del cerdo ibrico, centrndonos en este trabajo en el estudio de los perfiles de cidos grasos. Para el desarrollo de este estudio se utilizaron tres campaas de montanera con un total de 749 muestras de 38 partidas, y con 144 paletas de las cuales 99 tenan una trazabilidad completa. Los resultados mostraron que la determinacin de la alimentacin de los cerdos ibricos usando el anlisis del perfil de cidos grasos no es un mtodo consistente para clasificar los animales de acuerdo a la categora de recebo, mientras que para las categoras de bellota y cebo, los resultados encontrados mostraron unos buenos porcentajes de xito.

Moreno-Indias, I.

2013-04-01

126

Critical literature study on the cesium transfer feed/meat of domestic animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A literature study concerning the transfer of cesium from feed to meat of domestic and wild animals has been carried out regarding approx. 3200 publications of the period 1950-1979. General criteria for the influence of experimental conditions on the transfer factor have been found. The transfer factor of radioisotopes of cesium is always smaller by one order of magnitude after single ingestion than after continuous administration until an equilibrium of incorporation to excretion is attained. The transfer factor of growing animals is greater than that of adult animals where transfer factor is not a function of age. The sex of the animals has no influence on the transfer factor. This value decreases with increasing weight of the animals. From these findings average transfer factors have been derived as follows: cattle 0.03 +- 0.02; calf 0.43 +- 0.06; goat 0.20; sheep 0.11 +- 0.02; pig 0.26 +- 0.01; hen 4.5; reindeer/caribou 0.31 +- 0.07; deer 0.18 +- 0.03. These values have been extracted from the original literature and relate mainly to animals undergoing metabolic experiments at equilibrium. Only the transfer factors of deer and caribou have been evaluated from data of the radiocesium concentration in feed and in meat. (orig.)

1980-01-01

127

32P detection in animal and plant samples using Cerenkov  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P detection methodology in animal and plant tissue using the Cerenkov effect, liquid scintillation and Geiger-Muller techniques is studied. The Cerenckov effect shows to be more satisflying as to sensitivity, sample preparation, back ground and negligible cost per sample. Comparing the detection by means of Cerenkov effect with that by GM, the relative counting efficiency is about 100 times and 1,5 to 4 comparing to liquid scintillation detection

1977-01-01

128

Fast filtration for metabolome sampling of suspended animal cells  

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Abstract A new method for sampling suspended animal cells by fast filtration is presented that allows rapid quenching of cellular metabolism and efficient separation of the cells from culture medium. Compared to sampling with a microstructure heat exchanger or centrifugation without prior quenching, the adenylate energy charge and the measured concentrations especially of metabolites with a high turnover rate or of metabolites early in metabolic pathways were substantially higher. ...

2010-01-01

129

Regulating manure application discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the United States, reducing pollution from agriculture has received attention due to data suggesting that this is the leading source of impairment of many waterbodies. The federal government revised its regulations governing concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to enhance governmental oversight over sources of pollution. For the application of manure resulting in pollutant discharges, CAFOs need to implement nutrient management plans. A federal court affirmed the ability of the US federal government to oversee the application of manure from CAFOs that have discharges. Simultaneously, owners and operators of CAFOs who have implemented an appropriate nutrient management plan may forgo securing a permit if their discharges qualify under the agricultural stormwater discharge exemption. - New rules applying to the application of manure by large concentrated animal feeding operations should reduce water contamination

2006-06-01

130

Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals, and the effect of radiation inactivation of the microorganisms were investigated. The contamination of animal feeds was remarkable, and the number of total count in the mash for chicken and other animals was from 5.3 x 10"4 to 2.2 x 10"6 per gram. The number of coliforms was from 5.1 x 10"3 to 6.8 x 10"5 per gram and they were mainly Enterobacter and Klebsiella. The number of osmophilic moulds was from 9.6 x 10"2 to 4.5 x 10"5 per gram. In case of the mixed feeds in pellets, the total count was from 5.3 x 10"3 to 1.0 x 10"6 per gram. The contamination of fish meals was not remarkable, and only mixed fish meals were contaminated largely by faecal coliforms and others. The species of bacteria in the total count of mixed feeds were Bacilli, Micrococci, Enterobacteria and Klebsiellas, and the osmophilic moulds were Aspergilus glaucus group, A. gracilis and A. candidus. As the result, it seemed to be necessary to prevent the damage to feed stuff caused by the growth of moulds and insects and to eliminate pathogens. Osmopholic moulds are sensitive to radiation, and ere eliminated to below the identification limit by 0.2 Mrad irradation. Coliforms were more resistant to radiation, and eliminated by up to 0.8 Mrad of radiation. But some bacteria survived up to 1.5 Mrad dose. The irradiation at 0.5 Mrad seemed to be enough to reduce the total count to below 10"3 per gram, and to eliminate faecal coliforms from mixed feeds. (Kako, I.)

1981-01-01

131

Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals, and the effect of radiation inactivation of the microorganisms were investigated. The contamination of animal feeds was remarkable, and the number of total count in the mash for chicken and other animals was from 5.3 x 10/sup 4/ to 2.2 x 10/sup 6/ per gram. The number of coliforms was from 5.1 x 10/sup 3/ to 6.8 x 10/sup 5/ per gram and they were mainly Enterobacter and Klebsiella. The number of osmophilic moulds was from 9.6 x 10/sup 2/ to 4.5 x 10/sup 5/ per gram. In case of the mixed feeds in pellets, the total count was from 5.3 x 10/sup 3/ to 1.0 x 10/sup 6/ per gram. The contamination of fish meals was not remarkable, and only mixed fish meals were contaminated largely by faecal coliforms and others. The species of bacteria in the total count of mixed feeds were Bacilli, Micrococci, Enterobacteria and Klebsiellas, and the osmophilic moulds were Aspergilus glaucus group, A. gracilis and A. candidus. As the result, it seemed to be necessary to prevent the damage to feed stuff caused by the growth of moulds and insects and to eliminate pathogens. Osmopholic moulds are sensitive to radiation, and are eliminated to below the identification limit by 0.2 Mrad irradation. Coliforms were more resistant to radiation, and eliminated by up to 0.8 Mrad of radiation. But some bacteria survived up to 1.5 Mrad dose. The irradiation at 0.5 Mrad seemed to be enough to reduce the total count to below 10/sup 3/ per gram, and to eliminate faecal coliforms from mixed feeds.

Ito, H.; Kume, T.; Takehisa, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Iizuka, H.

1981-11-01

132

Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal FeedFocus on Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely o...

Streit, Elisabeth; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Tassis, Panagiotis; Tzika, Eleni; Marin, Daniela; Taranu, Ionelia; Tabuc, Cristina; Nicolau, Anca; Aprodu, Iuliana; Puel, Olivier; Oswald, Isabelle P.

2012-01-01

133

Relations between respiratory symptoms and sickness among workers in the animal feed industry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--The survey aimed at studying the associations between prevalent respiratory symptoms in an occupational population and sickness absence due to respiratory disorders. METHODS--A cross sectional survey among male workers in an animal feed mill was conducted. A total of 303 production workers and 102 office clerks completed a questionnaire on respiratory complaints, smoking habits, and occupational history. The questionnaire was used to identify workers with respiratory symptoms in th...

1994-01-01

134

Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating HazardsSearching for Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A scientific conference and workshop was held March 2004 in Iowa City, Iowa, that brought together environmental scientists from North America and Europe to address major environmental health issues associated with concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in large, industrialized livestock production facilities. After one and a half days of plenary sessions, five expert workgroups convened to consider the most relevant research areas, including respiratory health effects, modeling and m...

Thorne, Peter S.

2007-01-01

135

Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

1998-01-01

136

[Discussion of a biometrical model for the evaluation of feeding, age, and animal effects on transport properties of small intestinal mucosa].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is concerned with the question in which ways study results can depend on the choice of the statistical model and factors included in this model. This is shown using example data of a study dealing with the effects of an Enterococcus faecium as probiotic in the diet of pigs. We focused on the effects on transport properties of pig jejunum. The experimental design was the following: the sows and piglets were randomly assigned to two different feeding groups. The control group was fed a conventional diet and the experimental group was additionally supplemented with a probiotic preparation of Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415. The animals were divided into four age groups. Two samples of five animals of each feeding and age group were taken and mounted into conventional Ussing chambers. Glucose transport rates were measured by changes in short-circuit current (Isc) of the pig jejunum epithelium. The appropriate reference base for evaluation of effects of feeding or age on Isc is the variation between animals which are submitted to identical conditions relating to these factors. To refer explicitly to this variation a random animal effect has to be included in the statistical model of variance analysis. Otherwise the variation between animals could be underestimated. With the example data set conclusions for the factor "feeding" would be different depending on whether a random animal effect is included in the model or not. PMID:15233341

Lodemann, U; Dahms, S; Martens, H; Arndt, G

2004-05-01

137

Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

1997-10-13

138

Potential use of stevia rebaudiana in animal feeds / Empleo potencial de stevia rebaudiana en alimentacin animal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se estudi el perfil nutricional de hojas y tallos de Stevia rebaudiana y su potencial empleo en un modelo animal. Las hojas y tallos de Stevia rebaudiana tienen 16% y 6,7% de protena bruta y bajo contenido de grasa (2,6 y 1,1%) respectivamente. La grasa extrada mostr un predominio de cidos gras [...] os insaturados (65,8% y 71,4% para hojas y tallos respectivamente). El cido graso ms abundante en la hoja fue el linolnico (36%) y en el tallo, el linoleico (38%). La fibra bruta sobre materia seca desgrasada supuso el 6,8% para hojas y 45,4% para tallo. El contenido de K de hojas y tallos fue similar, la concentracin de Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn fue mayor en las hojas y al contrario para Na. Las pruebas con broilers establecieron que los valores de energa aparente, corregida para N y metabolizable verdadera, fueron 2113, 2098 y 2223 kcal/kg en hojas, y 1573, 1554 y 1675 kcal/kg en tallos respectivamente. La retencin de protena foliar y de los tallos por los broilers fue 63 y 65,7% respectivamente. El contenido de estevisido de las hojas fue 6,5% y el de rebaudisido A de 2,3%. Los valores correspondientes para los tallos fueron 0,69% y 0,3%. Las hojas de Stevia rebaudiana contienen otros atributos nutricionales adems de la alta concentracin de componentes endulzantes (estevisido y rebaudisido A). Abstract in english The nutritional profile of the leaves and stem of Stevia rebaudiana, and their potential utilization in an animal model were studied. Stevia leaves and stem had 16% and 6.7% crude protein and were low in fat content (2.6 and 1.1%) respectively. The fatty acid profile of fat showed a preponderance of [...] unsaturated fatty acids (65.8% and 71.4% for leaves and stem respectively). Linolenic acid was the most abundant fatty acid in stevia leaf oil (36%) whereas linoleic acid was the highest in stems (38%). The crude fiber contents on dry fat free basis were 6.8% and 45.4% for leaves and stem respectively. The K content of stevia leaves and stem were comparable; Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were higher in leaves and the opposite was true for Na. The tests with broiler chickens showed that apparent, nitrogen corrected, and true metabolisable energy values for leaves were 2113, 2098 and 2223 kcal/kg and for stems 1573, 1554 and 1675 kcal/kg respectively. Retention of the protein from the leaves and stems by chickens was 63% and 65.7% respectively. Stevia leaves contain other nutritional attributes besides of the sweetening components.

Atteh, J.; Onagbesan, O.; Tona, K.; Buyse, J.; Decuypere, E.; Geuns, J..

139

Determination of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at cross contamination levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

A confirmatory multi-residue method has been developed to allow for the detection, confirmation and quantification of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method can be used to determine halofuginone, robenidine, nicarbazin, diclazuril, decoquinate, semduramicin, lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin at levels relating to unavoidable carry over as stated in Regulation 2009/8/EC. Feed samples are extracted with water and acetonitrile with the addition of anhydrous magnesium sulphate and sodium chloride. The extract then undergoes a freezing out step before being diluted and injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. The LC-MS/MS system is run in MRM mode with both positive and negative electrospray ionisation and can confirm all eleven analytes in a run time of 19 min. The sensitivity of the method allows quantification and confirmation for all coccidiostats at a 0.5% carry over level. The method was validated over three days in accordance with of European legislation; Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation criteria of accuracy, precision, decision limit (CC?), and detection capability (CC?) along with measurement uncertainty are calculated for all analytes. The method was then successfully used to analyse a number of feed samples that contained various coccidiostat substances. PMID:21742113

Cronly, Mark; Behan, P; Foley, B; Malone, E; Shearan, P; Regan, L

2011-08-26

140

[Animal-derived feeds as possible vectors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Germany. 1. Comparative risk assessment for a single animal food of animal origin].  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of BSE cases in Germany after the ban of meat and bone meal for ruminant feed in 1994 requires a detailed investigation of animal derived feedstuffs regarding their specific risks as vectors for the disease. Accepting the theory that BSE is a prion transmitted disease, the theoretical infectious potential was calculated for animal derived feedstuffs. This calculation was based on the assumption, that risk material (brain, spinal cord) of one clinically diseased cattle was rendered in the process as established in Germany (133 degrees C, 3 bar, 20 min) or, alternatively, that one diseased animal was slaughtered resulting in normal processing of the by-products for human food production. From this risk assessment it became obvious that meat and bone meal was one, but probably not the most important source for the spreading of BSE. Taking into account the high sensitivity of calves it can be speculated that certain products, e.g. from bone processing (bone meal) and fat melting (mixed animal fats), commonly used for the formulation of milk replacers, might have been more important as pathways. As it can't be excluded retrospectively that infected meat and bone meal was imported from the UK, this non-calculable influence may have been related to the significance of the other products. The calculation model underlines that efficient removal of specified risk material (brain, spinal cord) and adequate processing (133 degrees C, 3 bar, 20 min) or alternatively other equivalent treatments of fats are prerequisites for minimising the risk of feed borne transmission of BSE by animal derived feedstuffs. The epidemiological consequences are part of a subsequent paper. PMID:11505845

Kamphues, J; Zentek, J; Oberthr, R C; Flachowsky, G; Coenen, M

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

Petr Mares

2014-02-01

142

Improvement in irradiation pasteurization on sugarcane bagasse for its fungal bioconversion to animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Goals of this study were to reduce radiation dose required for bagase pasteurization and to convert the pasteurized bagasse into animal feed by using fungal fermentation. Comparative study on the effectiveness of radiation decontamination on moisturized and dried bagasse showed different doses required for pasteurization. Radiation treatment on wetted substratum bags required 20 kGy, while dried bagasse needed only 10 kGy for pasteurization. In comparison with wetted bagasse substratum, the pasteurized dry bagasse has more dominant advantages because it can be kept for storage, transportation and distribution to household producers. Moisturizing substratum with tap water can be done just before inoculation with mycelial seed. Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse to ruminant feed by using fungal fermentation was investigated. The in sacco digestibility of fermented substratum increased with incubation period and it was higher than that of paddy rice straw and comparable to Pangola grass after 35 days of fermentation. As the digestibility of mushroom-harvested residue was still higher than that of non-fermented bagasse, the fermentation by using Pleurotus spp. could simultaneously provide edible mushroom and animal feed as well. (Author)

2002-10-15

143

Animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

1997-10-01

144

Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, and zearalenone (ZEN contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

Dong-Ho Kim

2013-12-01

145

76 FR 79697 - Withdrawal of Notices of Opportunity for a Hearing; Penicillin and Tetracycline Used in Animal Feed  

Science.gov (United States)

...Notices of Opportunity for a Hearing; Penicillin and Tetracycline Used in Animal Feed...to withdraw certain approved uses of penicillin and tetracyclines intended for use in...recommendations on the subtherapeutic uses of penicillin and tetracyclines. A...

2011-12-22

146

76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...guidance on preventive controls for food facilities that manufacture, process, pack, or hold human food or animal food/feed (including pet food). The Agency has received a request for an extension of the comment period for this notice....

2011-11-01

147

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) AS A FRAMEWORK FOR ADDRESSING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFOS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenges Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) directly pose to sustainability include their impact on human health, receiving water bodies, groundwater, and air quality. These challenges result from the large quantities of macronutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and pho...

148

Controlling the aflatoxin producing fungi contaminating animal feed by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results indicated that 9 from 24 isolates of fungi have the ability to produce aflatoxins either on synthetic medium or natural animal diet. Seven from the nine isolates producing aflatoxins belonged to genus Aspergillus and were held to five species namely A. terreus ,A. niger, A.flavus, A. orywae and A. nidulans. Meanwhile, only one species from genus penicillium was found to produce aflatoxin on both synthetic and animal diet media, while the remaining isolate, rhizopus nigricansm was found to produce aflatoxin on synthetic medium only. Aspergillus terreus isolates (1 and 3) were found to produce aflatoxins G 1 and G 2 on synthetic medium. On animal diet, strain (1) produced only aflatoxin G l, while strain (3) produced aflatoxin G 2 on the same animal diet. Exposure of these two strains to increasing doses of gamma rays up to 5 KGy decreased and finally prevented aflatoxin production. This dose was also found to be sufficient to eliminate all kinds of fungi contaminated animal feed.2 fig.,5 tab

1991-01-01

149

Graph animals, subgraph sampling and motif search in large networks  

CERN Document Server

We generalize a sampling algorithm for lattice animals (connected clusters on a regular lattice) to a Monte Carlo algorithm for `graph animals', i.e. connected subgraphs in arbitrary networks. As with the algorithm in [N. Kashtan et al., Bioinformatics 20, 1746 (2004)], it provides a weighted sample, but the computation of the weights is much faster (linear in the size of subgraphs, instead of super-exponential). This allows subgraphs with up to ten or more nodes to be sampled with very high statistics, from arbitrarily large networks. Using this together with a heuristic algorithm for rapidly classifying isomorphic graphs, we present results for two protein interaction networks obtained using the TAP high throughput method: one of Escherichia coli with 230 nodes and 695 links, and one for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with roughly ten times more nodes and links. We find in both cases that most connected subgraphs are strong motifs (Z-scores >10) or anti-motifs (Z-scores <-10) when the null model is the...

Baskerville, Kim; Paczuski, Maya

2007-01-01

150

Single-laboratory validation for the quantification of neomycin B and neomycin C in animal feeds by liquid chromatography fluorescence detection with post-column derivatization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method using ion-exchange liquid chromatographic (LC) separation, post-column derivatization, and fluorescence detection to quantify neomycin B and neomycin C in animal feeds has been developed and validated. Improved methodology is required to achieve positive identification of antibiotics present and to more accurately determine the amount of antibiotics in feeds. The method sample range covers additive levels found in type A, B, and C medicated feed products (50-0.005% wt/wt neomycin base). The linear range for the method covers 50-150% of expected sample concentrations. Average recovery from type A and B feeds, n = 9, was 100.4% neomycin with %RSD = 2.28. Average recovery from type C feeds and milk replacers, n = 9, was 97.5% neomycin with %RSD = 4.36. There were no interferences from soybean meal and milk replacer matrix components, oxytetracycline, or other aminoglycosides, with the exception of one gentamicin isomer, which co-elutes with neomycin B. However, neomycin and gentamicin are not a legal feed combination, and the presence of gentamicin can easily be discerned by the appearance of the 3 gentamicin homologs that do not interfere. Comparison of the proposed LC method to the microbiological method shows that the LC method provides comparable recoveries of neomycin from feed products throughout the range of concentrations found commercially. PMID:19382560

Driver, Julee Lynn; Thiex, Nancy; Raynie, Douglas; Ofitserova, Maria; Pickering, Michael

2009-01-01

151

Comparison of selective media for the recovery and enumeration of probiotic yeasts from animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six selective media (acidified malt extract agar, CHROMagar Candida, dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol, molybdate, oxytetracycline glucose yeast extract and Petrifilm Yeast and Mould agar) were examined for the recovery of three yeasts commonly used in animal feeds as probiotic additives (Candida pintolopesii, C. saitoana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The highest recovery was obtained on oxytetracycline glucose yeast extract agar, although this was susceptible to overgrowth by moulds. CHROMagar Candida also gave good recovery and species were easily discriminated by the differential colour formation of colonies. PMID:11482569

Bovill, R; Bew, J; Robinson, S

2001-07-20

152

Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge using reactor waste to obtain acceptable fertilizer or animal supplement feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a report of the Beneficial Uses Program. This program consists of a number of activities at Sandia Laboratories to develop the necessary technology for cost-beneficial use of a maximum amount of radioactive waste. Major activity is currently concentrated in the Waste Resources Utilization Program which has as its objective the use of cesium-134/137 as a gamma radiation source, coupled with modest heating, to treat sewage sludge to rid it of pathogenic organisms so that it may safely be used as a fertilizer or a feed supplement for ruminant animals. (author)

1976-06-11

153

Nutritional and Toxicological Assessment of White-Rot Fermented Animal Feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fungal fermented wheat straws as animal feeds have been evaluated for its toxicological and nutritional status in male rats (Holtzman strain). Digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients as well as fiber fractions were found significantly higher (P<0.05) in straw fermented with either Ganoderma sp. rckk02 (T3) or Crinipellis sp. RCK-1 (T4) than unfermented straw (T1) or straw fermented with Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (T2). The aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were either absent or present...

2012-01-01

154

Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, and zinc in animal feeding stuffs: interlaboratory collaborative studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A draft standard method is presented for the determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, K, Na, and Zn in animal feeding stuffs. The method specifies dry ashing of samples and detection by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The applicability of the method for various concentrations of the elements was tested in a series of 3 collaborative studies. The feeding stuffs investigated include pulp pellets, grass, mixed feed, fish meal, milk powder, maize, sheep feed, lupin, milocorn, feather meal, and blood meal. Relative standard deviations, repeatability, and reproducibility are given. The reproducibility of the method was acceptable for following approximate minimum quantities: Na and K, 1000 mg/kg; Zn, Mn, and Cu, 10 Mg/kg; Fe, 10-200 mg/kg, depending on the product.

de Ruig, W.

155

Ochratoxin A in feed of food-producing animals: an undesirable mycotoxin with health and performance effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, whose presence in feed- and foodstuffs is unavoidable. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the known mycotoxins with greatest public health and agro-economic significance. Several toxic effects have been ascribed following exposure, namely nephrotoxicity, as well negative impacts in the performance of farm animals, resulting in major economic implications. Of no less importance for the route of human exposure that can also embody the carry-over of OTA from feed into animal-derived products is also a concern. For all these reasons the present article updates the worldwide occurrence of OTA in different raw ingredients and finished feed destined to food-producing animals. After that a brief characterization of specie susceptibility and the major rationales is made. An historical overview of field outbreaks linked to OTA exposure in farm animals, concerning the implicated feeds, contamination levels and major clinical and productivity effects is presented. Finally a review of the major animal health and performance potential impacts of animals being reared on contaminated feed is made allied to a perspective regarding its co-occurrence with other mycotoxins, and simultaneous parasitic and bacterial infections. Ultimately, this article aims to be instructive and draw attention to a mycotoxin so often neglected and elapsed from the list of differential diagnosis in farm practice. For the unpredictability and unavoidability of occurrence, OTA will definitely be an enduring problem in animal production. PMID:21641127

Duarte, Sofia C; Lino, Celeste M; Pena, Angelina

2011-12-29

156

The impact of daily multiphase feeding on animal performance, body composition, nitrogen and phosphorus excretions, and feed costs in growing-finishing pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of feeding pigs in a three-phase feeding (3PF) system or a daily-phase feeding (DPF) system on growth performance, body composition, and N and P excretions was studied on 8 pens of 10 pigs each. Feeds for the 3PF and DPF treatments were obtained by mixing two feeds, one with a high nutrient concentration and the other with a low nutrient concentration. The DPF pigs tended (P=0.08) to consume more feed (+3.7%) than the 3PF pigs, but only during the first feeding phase. The DPF pigs consumed 7.3% less protein (PDPF pigs tended (P=0.08) to gain more weight (+2.4%) than the 3PF pigs, mainly because of faster growth (P=0.02) during the first feeding period. At the end of the experiment, total body protein mass was similar in the two treatment groups, but the DPF pigs had 8% more body lipids (P=0.04) than the 3PF pigs. Daily multiphase feeding reduced N excretion by 12% (PDPF program. Simulated feed intake and growth was similar to those observed in the animal experiment. In comparison with the simulated 3PF system, the feed cost for the DPF pigs was reduced by 1.0%, the simulated N and P intakes were reduced by 7.3% and 4.4%, respectively, and the expected N and P excretions were reduced by 12.6% and 6.6%, respectively. The concomitant adjustment of the dietary concentration of nutrients to match the evaluated requirements of pig populations can be an efficient approach to significantly reduce feeding costs and N and P excretions in pig production systems. PMID:24739349

Pomar, C; Pomar, J; Dubeau, F; Joannopoulos, E; Dussault, J-P

2014-05-01

157

Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors contributing to nutrient availability and animal performance.

?verland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene

2010-01-01

158

Pilot scale study - processing of palm empty fruit bunch into animal feed at sterifeed pilot plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5-1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

1998-01-01

159

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author)

1991-11-05

160

Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from animals and feed in Poland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fifty-seven Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from poultry, swine and animal feed in Poland during the years 1979-1998 and 2000-2002 were analysed with conventional and molecular techniques. Antimicrobial resistance as well as multiresistance was found, respectively, in 80.1 % and 56.1 % of the isolates and most frequently among isolates from 2000-2002. Of several phage types noted, DT104 was prevalent among poultry, swine and feed isolates. DT104, U302 and non-typable strains had a multiple resistant profile (ACSSuT) due to the presence of class I integrons. Pulse-field get electrophoresis of XbaI and BlnI digest showed high genomic similarity between the strains and confirmed clonal spread of S. Typhimurium infections. Plasmid profiling allowed further differentiation of the strains. We have, therefore, confirmed the appearance of S. Typhimurium DT104 showing genome integrated integron-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Poland. These findings are significant for public and animal health risks and document the dissemination of DT104 epidemic strains into new geographical regions.

Baggesen, Dorte Lau

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author).

Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Shoji (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Mutaat, H.H.; Awang, M.R.

1992-01-01

162

Do whole-food animal feeding studies have any value in the safety assessment of GM crops?  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin. PMID:23851038

Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo

2014-02-01

163

Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) waste is a cost effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO waste to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluat...

164

Validation of an official control method for enumeration of authorised probiotic yeast in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

An official control method in the framework of Council Directive 70/524/EEC for probiotic yeast used as feed additives was validated in a collaborative study by twenty laboratories in 12 European Countries. A pour plate method following ISO 7954 using chloramphenicol glucose yeast extract (CGYE) and a plate count method using CHROMagar Candida were used. Precision data in terms of repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) of the method using different feeding stuffs and three inoculation levels were determined. Yeast was present in the samples in mixtures with other probiotic feed additives at a lower, a higher concentration or not present. The enumeration of yeast on CGYE agar showed for the lower and higher concentration a RSD(r) of 2.4-4.9% and a RSD(R) of 7.7-8%, respectively and was preferred by the majority of labs. CHROMagar Candida had a RSD(r) of 1.9-2.8% and a RSD(R) of 1.9-5.9%. For routine analysis the use of the pour plate technique is recommended. CHROMagar Candida can be used for confirmation of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The methods are not recommended for mineral feeds. The results from this study are intended for consideration for adoption as CEN and ISO standards. PMID:12747423

Leuschner, Renata G K; Bew, Jan; Bertin, Grard

2003-03-01

165

Mycotoxins in horse feed: Incidence of deoxynivalenol in oat samples from stud farms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reports concerning mycotoxins in horse feed are very rare and are typically restricted to fumonisins. As a non-ruminant monogastric species, horses may be more sensitive to adverse effects of mycotoxins, but the most severe effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1) in equines is that it causes fatal leucoencephalomalacia. In recent years, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has evaluated several mycotoxins as undesirable substances in animal feed with the aim of establishing guidance val...

Uroevi? Miroslav I.; Jaji? Igor M.; Mili?i? eljka G.

2011-01-01

166

Nutrient Composition of Some Unconventional and Local Feed Resources Available in Senegal and Recoverable in Indigenous Chickens or Animal Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10 unconventional and local ingredients from Senegal including leguminous leaves (Leuceana leucocephala, Cassia tora, Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata, Sesbania rostrata, cucurbit (Citrullus vulgaris and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds, red and white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds and cockroaches (Blatta orientalis were collected, sun-dried, processed into meal and analyzed for their chemical and macro-mineral composition using internationally established procedures. The results showed that the samples Dry Matter (DM percent ranged from 89.3% (red cowpea to 94.9% (C. vulgaris. The Crude Protein (CP content ranged from 24.7% (white cowpea to 61.9% (cockroaches meal, with A. digitata leaves having the lowest value (12.9%. Citrullus and Hibiscus seeds meal recorded the highest (38.8% and 18.9% Ether Extract (EE values, followed respectively by cockroaches (11.1%, Moringa (9.8%, Leuceana (6.4% and Sesbania leaves meal (5.1%, while the others were below 4.5%. The crude fiber (CF content was globally high in the leaves, ranging from 11.7% (M. oleifera to 16.8% (C. tora while that of seeds and cockroaches ranged from 1.9% (white cowpea to 19% (Citrullus seeds. A. digitata leaves gave the highest ash content (25.2%, followed by Cassia (15.2%, Moringa (13.6%, Leuceana (11.4% and Sesbania leaves (7.1%, while the others were below 5.6%. The metabolizable energy (ME value calculated for seeds and cockroaches meal ranged from 3161 kcal/kg DM (cockroaches to 4270 kcal/kg DM (C. vulgaris and that of leaves from 1873 (A. digitata to 2888.9 kcal/kg DM (M. oleifera. Cassia leaves contained the highest level of calcium (3.1%, followed by Adansonia and Leuceana (1.81%, Moringa and Sesbania leaves (1.41%, whilst cockroaches, Hibiscus and Citrullus seeds meal recorded respectively 0.93, 0.81 and 0.55% of phosphorus. These results showed that all the ingredients samples contained appreciable quantities of all dietary nutrients tested for which more or less make them partial or complete substitutes for the conventional feed sources.

J.L. Hornick

2011-01-01

167

Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. Mean fractional GI absorption values in fasted adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 15 x 10-4; Pu(IV) bicarbonate, 20 x 10-4; Pu(IV) nitrate (pH2), 17 x 10-4; Pu(IV) citrate, 24 x 10-4; and Pu(IV) polymer, 3 x 10-4. Values in fed adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 1.4 x 10-4; Pu(IV) polymer, 0.3 x 10-4. Pu(VI) is the oxidation state in chlorinated drinking waters and Pu(IV) is the oxidation state in many untreated natural waters. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. Fractional GI absorption values obtained by this method were 23 +- 10 x 10-4 for fasted baboons (n=5) and 1.4 +- 0.9 x 10-4 for fed baboons (n=3). We have so far validated this method in one baboon and are currently completing validation in two additional animals. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state [Pu(VI) vs Pu(IV)] and administration medium (bicarbonate vs nitrate vs citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. 17 refs., 2 tabs

1985-04-16

168

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Danisco Animal Nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glycine betaine (betaine acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns for consumer safety. Users inhalation exposure to betaine is expected to be minimal. Betaine anhydrous should be considered irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes and a skin sensitiser. It is likely to cause skin sensitisation. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become efficacious in all animal species and categories when administered via feed or water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations on (i introduction of a maximum content for supplemental betaine in complete feed and water for drinking; (ii avoidance of simultaneous use of betaine in feed and water for drinking; and (iii avoidance of simultaneous inclusion of betaine and choline chloride in premixtures.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-05-01

169

Validation of the official control method based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for identification of authorised probiotic yeast in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Council Directive 70/524/EEC regulates the application of probiotic (microorganisms) additives in feeding stuffs. In the present study a method for the differentiation and strain identification of authorised probiotic Saccharomyces cereviseae strains in feeding stuffs by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was validated. Four different samples of animal feeding stuffs containing yeast at levels between 10(5) to 10(7) CFU/g were examined. Samples were enumerated on chloramphenicol glucose yeast extract agar and colonies were selected from these plates for DNA extraction and subsequent analysis. The PCR method using delta sequence primers produced an 'amplified sequence polymorphism' characteristic for the test strain. Feeds supplemented with one of four probiotic yeast strains each were analysed by seven of nine invited laboratories. All laboratories returned valid results with the exception of one laboratory that had insufficiently separated bands on the gel. The method had a good reproducibility for probiotic yeast isolates from feed of all four authorised probiotic yeast strains (APYS) CBS 493.94, APYS CNCM 1-1079, APYS CNCM 1-1077, APYS NCYC SC47 and of a commercially available yeast reference strain, NCYC 81. The PCR method is to be considered by CEN and ISO as official control method for identification of authorised probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from feeding stuffs. PMID:15368855

Leuschner, Renata G K; Bew, Jan; Fourcassier, P; Bertin, Grard

2004-08-01

170

Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatography-Mass pectrometry Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Melamine and Cyromazine in Animal Feeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new method for simultaneous determination of melamine and cyromazine in animal feeds using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and validated. Samples were extracted with trichloroacetic acid solution cleaned up by cation exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges and derivatized with N, O-bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluroacetamide containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane followed by GC separation and MS detection. The limits of quantification were 0.10 mg kg-1 for b...

Binru Shang; Yiqiang Chen; Zongyi Wang; Wenjun Yang; Liying Zhang

2011-01-01

171

Revisin: Utilizacin de la pulpa de caf en la alimentacin animal / Review: The use of coffee pulp in animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante el beneficio del caf se genera la pulpa, que al ser ensilada preserva sus caractersticas nutrimentales, tornndola de particular importancia para la alimentacin animal. En este artculo se revisan sus bondades y restricciones de su uso en la alimentacin animal. Durante el manejo intensiv [...] o del ganado bovino de carne en los pases tropicales, el uso de la pulpa del caf puede alcanzar entre 20 y 30% en las raciones. En vacas lecheras, la pulpa de caf ensilada puede ser incorporada a niveles entre 20 a 40% del concentrado y de 10 a 20% de la materia seca de la racin completa, sin disminuir la produccin de leche; aunque, en novillos puede reducir la ganancia de peso diaria. En ovinos, la inclusin de 15% de pulpa no afecta el crecimiento, los machos presentan mejor desempeo y la inclusin de 15% de pulpa tratada con urea y semilla de soya no afect el peso en las canales. Para las tilapias del Nilo, hubo mayor aumento de peso con mezcla de pulpa de caf ensilada, sin efecto txico; sin embargo, no es conveniente usarla fresca. Para el hbrido Cachamay no hubo diferencias en ganancia de peso entre las fases de alevines y adultos usndola hasta en 18% en la fase de alevines. Para los alevines de la tilapia roja, se puede usar la pulpa de caf hasta 20%, sin afectar los ndices productivos. En aves, la mejor respuesta de energa metabolizable se obtuvo cuando la pulpa fue ensilada con 5% de melaza. En gallos, proporciones superiores a 5% de pulpa de caf ocasion efectos dainos en la digestibilidad verdadera de la materia seca y en la energa metabolizable del animal. En conejos, la pulpa de caf puede ser utilizada hasta en 85% ensilada con melaza, mientras que en cerdos es posible emplear 20% en la etapa de crecimiento y 15% en la de acabado, sin ocasionar prdidas en los parmetros productivos. Abstract in english The processing of the cherry coffee generates the pulp, which improves its nutrimental characteristics once it is placed in a container with anaerobic environment to ferment, so it becomes of special importance for animal feeding. This work revises the goodness and restrictions of the pulp in animal [...] feeding. During the intensive managing of meat cattle, in the tropical countries, the use of the coffee pulp can reach between 20 and 30% in the rations. In dairy cows, the pulp can be incorporated in levels between 20 and 40% of the concentrate and from 10 to 20% of the dry matter of the ration without diminishing the production of milk; though in steers it can reduce the gain of daily weight. In sheeps, the incorporation of 15% of pulp does not affect the growth; the males present better perfomance, and the incorporation of 15% of pulp treated with urea and seed of soybean, did not affect the carcass weight. For the tilapias of the Nile, there was a greater increase of weight with mixture of ensiled pulp of coffee, without toxic effect; however, it is not suitable to use it fresh. For the Cachamay hybrid, there were not differences in gain of weight between the alevins phase and adults, using it until 18% in the alevins phase. For the Red Tilapia alevins, the pulp of coffee can be used until 20% without affecting the productive indexes. In birds, the best response of metabolizable energy was obtained when the pulp was ensiled with 5% of molass. In roosters, proportions superior to 5% of pulp of coffee, causes harmful effect in the real digestibility of the dry matter and in the metabolizable energy of the animal. In rabbits, the pulp of coffee ensiled with molass can be used until 85%; whereas in porks, it is possible to use 20% in the stage of growth and 15% in the stage of finished, without causing losses in the productive parameters.

Noriega Salazar, Adrianyela; Silva Acua, Ramn; Garca de Salcedo, Moraima.

172

Unravelling a vicious circle: animal feed marketed in Costa Rica contains irregular concentrations of tetracyclines and abundant oxytetracycline-resistant Gram-positive bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverse tetracyclines are used to prevent and control bacterial infections in livestock and farmed fish. These drugs are administered through the diet, but farmers seldom check whether feed contains antibiotic-resistant bacteria that may colonise their crops or transfer their resistance traits to species of veterinary relevance. To examine whether antibiotic dosage defines the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animal feed, we determined the concentration of parental compounds and epimers of oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline, as well as the abundance and resistance level of OTC-resistant bacteria in samples of fish (n=21), poultry (n=21), swine (n=21), and shrimp feed (n=21) marketed in Costa Rica. Fish feed contained the highest amounts of tetracyclines (119-8365mgkg(-1)) and the largest proportion of bacteria resistant to 10?g ml(-1) (1.8-92.4%) or 100?g ml(-1) of OTC (12.5-63.8%). Poultry (78-438mgkg(-1)) and swine (41-1076mgkg(-1)) feed had intermediate concentrations of tetracyclines and OTC-resistant bacteria (0.2-66% and 0.3-49%, respectively), whereas shrimp feed showed the lowest amounts of tetracyclines (21.5-50.3mgkg(-1)), no OTC and no culturable OTC-resistant bacteria. In line with these results, the MIC50 of OTC for 150 isolates from fish and poultry feed was >256gml(-1), while that of 150 bacteria isolated from swine feed was 192gml(-1). Phenotypic tests, fatty acid profiles and proteotypic analyses by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass-spectroscopy revealed that most OTC-resistant isolates were Gram-positive bacteria of low G+C% content from the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Clear correlations between OTC dosage and feed colonisation with OTC-resistant bacteria were seen in medicated feed for fish (r=0.179-0.651). Nonetheless, some unmedicated feed for fish, swine and poultry contained large populations of OTC-resistant bacteria, suggesting that raw materials and manufacturing processes may also influence carriage of OTC-resistant bacteria in animal feed. PMID:24660748

Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro, Margarita; Chavarra, Guadalupe; Rodrguez, Csar

2014-06-01

173

Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus effects on animal performance and meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM or fishmeal (WFM as protein source on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to wild or gamey flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively. No fish-related flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjl effekter p tillvxt, foderutnyttjande och kttkvalitet I vr underskning ingick 14 renar (8 kastrerade sarvar (hrkaroch 6 vajor fr att jmfra effekter av tv olika renfoder (baserade p korn, h och soja- (SBM eller fiskmjl (WFM som proteintillskott med avseende p tillvxt, foderutnyttjande och kttkvalitet. Kttprover frn naturbetande renar (n=4; 2 hrkar och 2 vajor frn Seward Peninsula inkluderades i studien fr att representera kvaliteten p traditionellt producerat renktt frn Alaska. Inga signifikanta skillnader i tillvxt observerades, varken mellan SBM- och WFM-grupperna eller mellan hrkar och vajor. Foderutnyttjandet var dock signifikant bttre hos WFM-renarna. Slaktutbytet var hgst fr renarna i SBM-gruppen, dremot rapporterades inga skillnader i levandevikt, slaktkroppsegenskaper, pH-vrde och temperatur i ytterfiln, skrmotstnd, frg eller vattenhllande frmga i kttet nr de tre grupperna av renar jmfrdes (SBM, WFM och naturbetande djur. Kttet frn de naturbetande renarna hade det signifikant hgsta innehllet av bde omega-3-fettsyror och av fleromttade fettsyror. Ktt frn SBM-renarna hade det hgsta innehllet av triglycerider och det lgsta innehllet av fosfolipider jmfrt med de andra tv grupperna. Den trnade smakpanelen kunde inte hitta ngra skillnader i sensoriska egenskaper hos kttet frn renarna i de tre olika grupperna. I en konsumentunderskning rapporterades kommentarer om olika vilt-relaterade bismaker i ktt frn naturbetande renar (24% av konsumenterna och frn WFM-gruppen (15% av konsumenterna, men inga fisk-liknande bismaker i kttet kunde pvisas. Att byta ut sojamjl mot fiskmjl som proteintillskott i renfoder hade inga negativa effekter p renarnas

Greg Finstad

2007-01-01

174

Lime treatment of keratinous materials for the generation of highly digestible animal feed: 1. Chicken feathers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken feather keratin was treated with lime (calcium hydroxide) to obtain a liquid product rich in amino acids and polypeptides that can be used as an animal feed supplement. The effect of treatment conditions and the properties of the soluble keratin were studied. At high temperatures (150 degrees C), 80% of feather keratin was solubilized within 25 min, whereas a relatively longer reaction time (300 min) is needed at moderate temperatures (100 degrees C). After 3h of hydrolysis at 150 degrees C, 95% of feather keratin was digested. For the recommended conditions (100 degrees C, 300 min, and 0.1g Ca(OH)(2)/g dry feather), after lime treatment, about 54% of calcium can be recovered by carbonating. In rumen fluid, ammonia production from soluble keratin was similar to that of soybean and cottonseed meals and was greatly less than that of urea, indicating that no ammonia toxicity will result from cattle being fed soluble keratin. PMID:16098740

Coward-Kelly, Guillermo; Chang, Vincent S; Agbogbo, Frank K; Holtzapple, Mark T

2006-07-01

175

78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2008-F-0151] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking...is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking...has noticed the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and...

2013-07-17

176

Capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescence detection for the separation and determination of thyreostatic drugs in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid, simple, and practical method for the determination of four of the most used thyreostatic drugs (methimazole, 2-thiouracil, 6-methyl-2-thiouracil, and 6-propyl-2-thiouracil) using CE coupled to electrochemiluminescence detection has been established, based on the electrochemiluminescence enhancement of tris(2,2-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) with these analytes. Parameters that affect separation and detection were optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the four analytes could be well separated within 11 min at the separation voltage of 16 kV in a running solution containing 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 9.0) and 1.0 10(-4) M Ru(bpy)(3)(2+), with a solution of 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 12.0) containing 1.0 10(-4) M Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) in the electrochemiluminescence detection cell. The detection limits for methimazole, 6-methyl-2-thiouracil, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil, and 2-thiouracil were 0.1, 0.05, 0.05, and 0.01 ?M, respectively. The proposed method was applied to analyze these drugs in spiked animal feed samples. The recoveries were 88.2?99.0 and 86.4?98.7% for the intraday and interday analyses, respectively. The RSDs were 2.7?4.8 and 1.8?5.0% for the intraday and interday analyses, respectively. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has promising applications in the detection of thyreostatic drugs in animal feeds. PMID:24610585

Kong, Dexian; Li, Qinglu; Chen, Lichan; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

2014-05-01

177

Scientific Opinion on the risk for public and animal health related to the presence of sterigmatocystin in food and feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on sterigmatocystin (STC) in food and feed. STC is a polyketide mycotoxin that shares its biosynthetic pathway with aflatoxins. Following an EFSA call for data, analytical results from 247 food and 334 feed samples were submitted. In food, analytical results on STC were reported to be all below the limit of detection or limit of quantification. In feed, only four quantified results w...

Efsa, Panel On Contaminants In The Food Chain

2013-01-01

178

Isotope analytics for the evaluation of the feeding influence on the isotope ratio in beef samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information about the origin of food and associated production systems has a high significance for food control. An extremely promising approach to obtain such information is the determination of isotope ratios of different elements. In this study the correlation of the isotope ratios C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, Mg-25/Mg-24, and Sr-87/Sr-86 in bovine samples (milk and urine) and the corresponding isotope ratios in feed was investigated. It was shown that in the bovine samples all four isotope ratios correlate with the isotope composition of the feed. The isotope ratios of strontium and magnesium have the advantage that they directly reflect the isotope ratios of the ingested feed since there is no isotope fractionation in the bovine organism which is in contrast to the case of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. From the present feeding study it is evident, that a feed change leads to a significant change in the delta C-13 values in milk and urine within 10 days already. For the deltaN-15 values the feed change was only visible in the bovine urine after 49 days. Investigations of cows from two different regions (Berlin/Germany and Goestling/Austria) kept at different feeding regimes revealed no differences in the N-15/N-14 and Mg-26/Mg-24 isotope ratios. The strongest correlation between the isotope ratio of the bovine samples and the kind of ingested feed was observed for the carbon isotope ratio. With this ratio even smallest differences in the feed composition were traceable in the bovine samples. Since different regions usually coincide with different feeding regimes, carbon isotope ratios can be used to distinguish bovine samples from different regions if the delta C-13 values of the ingested feed are different. Furthermore, the determination of strontium isotope ratios revealed significant differences between bovine and feed samples of Berlin and Goestling due to the different geologic realities. Hence the carbon and strontium isotope ratios allow the best discrimination between bovine samples of different locations. In some cases these ratios even show indications for the production system (conventional and organic cattle breeding).

2010-01-01

179

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Danisco Animal Nutrition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glycine betaine (betaine) acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete...

Efsa, Panel On Additives And Products Or Substances Used In Animal Feed

2013-01-01

180

Trace analysis of doxylamine succinate in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater by GC using a rubidium-sensitized nitrogen detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Doxylamine succinate, a drug used as a sleep-inducing agent, an antihistamine, and in a therapeutic formulation taken by pregnant women as an antinauseant, was scheduled for toxicological evaluation as part of a structure activity relationship study, with rats and mice, because a deficiency of such data exists with regard to many antihistamines. Analytical chemical procedures that ensure proper concentration, homogeneity, and stability of the drug in dosed feed, as well as the safety of personnel and the environment, were prerequisites for the toxicological tests. GC methods using a rubidium-sensitized nitrogen detector were developed for analysis of doxylamine succinate in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater at levels as low as 1 ppm, 100 ppb, and 100 ppb, respectively. Sample extracts were cleaned up by liquid-liquid partitioning, followed by additional cleanup on a column of silica gel. Data are presented concerning the stability of the drug in animal feed, extraction efficiencies, and the use of the silica gel cleanup column to separate the caffeine interference from doxylamine in extracts of human urine. Partition values and ancillary data concerning analysis of the drug in feed, by HPLC at levels as low as 10 ppm, are also reported.

Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Bowman, M.C.

1982-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Composio qumica da glicerina produzida por usinas de biodiesel no Brasil e potencial de uso na alimentao animal Chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and potential utilization in animal feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com a crescente produo de biodiesel no Brasil, aumenta tambm a produo de glicerina, co-produto dessa indstria. O principal componente da glicerina o glicerol, altamente energtico e, por isso, ela j vem sendo usada como alimento animal em vrios pases. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composio qumica da glicerina produzida por indstrias de biodiesel no Brasil e discutir seu potencial de utilizao na alimentao animal. Dezesseis usinas, responsveis por 85,1% do biodiesel produzido no pas, forneceram 41 amostras para anlise. Cromo, cdmio e chumbo no foram detectados em nenhuma das amostras estudadas. Apenas quatro usinas, responsveis por 36,8% da produo, produzem glicerina que atendem os parmetros estabelecidos pelo Ministrio da Agricultura, Pecuria e Abastecimento para os teores de umidade e glicerol. Apenas uma usina, responsvel por 14,1% da produo, produz glicerina apta para uso na alimentao de ruminantes, por no utilizar sebo bovino como matria prima para o biodiesel.The increasing production of biodiesel in Brazil also increases glycerin production, a co-product of this industry. The main component of glycerin, glycerol, is highly energetic and because of that, glycerin is already used as animal feed in many countries. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and discuss its potential utilization as animal feed. Forty one samples of glycerin from sixteen biodiesel plants, that together yield 85.1% of Brazilian biodiesel, were analyzed. Chromium, cadmium and lead were not detected in any studied sample. Only four plants, that together yield 36.8% of Brazilian glycerin, comply the glycerol and moisture content levels established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Only one, responsible for 14.1% of Brazilian glycerin, delivers glycerin with the potential to be used as ruminant feed once it doesn't use animal fat to produce biodiesel.

Jackson Silva e Oliveira

2013-03-01

182

Growing duckweed to recover nutrients from wastewaters and for production of fuel ethanol and animal feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lemnaceae or duckweed is an aquatic plant that can be used to recover nutrients from wastewaters. The grown duckweed can be a good resource of proteins and starch, and utilized for the production of value-added products such as animal feed and fuel ethanol. In the last eleven years we have been working on growing duckweed on anaerobically treated swine wastewater and utilizing the duckweed for fuel ethanol production. Duckweed strains that grew well on the swine wastewater were screened in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The selected duckweed strains were then tested for nutrient recovery under laboratory and field conditions. The rates of nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by the duckweed growing in the laboratory and field systems were determined in the study. The mechanisms of nutrient uptake by the duckweed and the growth of duckweed in a nutrient-limited environment have been studied. When there are nutrients (N and P) available in the wastewater, duckweed takes the nutrients from the wastewater to support its growth and to store the nutrients in its tissue. When the N and P are completely removed from the wastewater, duckweed can use its internally stored nutrients to keep its growth for a significant period of time. A modified Monod model has been developed to describe nitrogen transport in a duckweed-covered pond for nutrient recovery from anaerobically treated swine wastewater. Nutrient reserve in the duckweed biomass has been found the key to the kinetics of duckweed growth. Utilization of duckweed for value-added products has a good potential. Using duckweed to feed animals, poultry, and fish has been extensively studied with promising results. Duckweed is also an alternative starch source for fuel ethanol production. Spirodela polyrrhiza grown on anaerobically treated swine wastewater was found to have a starch content of 45.8% (dry weight). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the duckweed biomass with amylases yielded a hydrolysate with a reducing sugar content corresponding to 50.9% of the original dry duckweed biomass. Fermentation of the hydrolysate using yeast gave an ethanol yield of 25.8% of the original dry duckweed biomass. These results indicate that the duckweed biomass can produce significant quantities of starch that can be readily converted into ethanol. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Cheng, Jay J. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Stomp, Anne M. [Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States)

2009-01-15

183

The evaluation of a mupirocin-based selective medium for the enumeration of bifidobacteria from probiotic animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, MRS medium supplemented with cysteine hydrochloride and mupirocin, termed Bifidobacterium selective medium (BSM) was found to be elective for bifidobacteria but inhibitory to a wide range of non-bifidobacteria strains commonly included in probiotic animal feed. Bacilli, lactobacilli, lactococci and streptococci failed to form colonies on BSM and enterococci, pediococci and propionibacteria formed colonies 1 mm in size and could be readily distinguished. The addition of nystatin to BSM further inhibited Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BSM was successfully used to enumerate the bifidobacteria components, confirmed through fructose-6-phophate-phosphoketolase detection, present in two commercial probiotic feeds. The medium is recommended for the enumeration of bifidobacteria from animal feeds especially when not a numerically dominant component. PMID:15003683

Simpson, P J; Fitzgerald, G F; Stanton, C; Ross, R P

2004-04-01

184

The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

Tarrant, R C

2010-06-01

185

Multielemental analysis of agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by INAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with gamma-ray spectrometry was applied to determine As, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Sb, Se and Zn in the Brazilian agroindustrial by-products. These materials are widely used in ruminant feeding. The results obtained were compared with requirement and maximum tolerable concentrations. The general conclusions from the data obtained were: (1) many by-products presented concentrations of some essential elements lower than the requirement concentrations, while in some samples the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mg and Se exceeded by a little the maximum tolerable concentrations, (2) the elements As, Cd, Hg and Sb, generally considered toxic, showed concentrations lower than maximum tolerable values. (author)

2000-04-01

186

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-selenomethionine as feed additive for all animal species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Selenium is a trace element that is essential for vertebrates and involved in series of vital metabolic functions. Considering the purity of the L-selenomethionine (L-SeMet) under application and the metabolic pathways of SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel considers the use of L-SeMet as safe for all animal species, provided that the maximum total selenium level authorised in feed is respected. The use of in animal nutrition is expected to result in a similar increase in selenium deposition in animal ti...

2013-01-01

187

Extruded Leftover Food as Animal Feed: I. Effect of Extruded Feed on Growth and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.751.27 g. Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1 and without (type-2 were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia.

Ibrahim M. Al-Ruqaie

2007-01-01

188

Techno-economic evaluation of masonry type animal feed solar cooker in rural areas of an Indian state Rajasthan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilisation of animal draft power in agricultural operation and milk production is highly dependent on the feed and fodder. Properly cooked feed is digestive in nature and enhance milk production. Solar energy is promising option for slow cooking. Keeping this in view a masonry animal feed solar cooker (AFSC) was developed. It helps in the number of ways to improve the living standard of rural farmers and also reduce the CO2 emission by replacing conventional fossil fuel. The AFSC can replace the 100 per cent biomass and save about 424.80 kg of CO2 on annual basis and save about 24 INR per day. Usually women prepare animal feed in rural areas, hence cooking with AFSC save time and this time can be spear to take care of her family or in agricultural operation. This paper presents fuel replacement and reduction of carbon dioxide on annual basis and economic evaluation of AFSC. - Highlights: ? Considerable amount of energy can be saved on annual basis. ? This also helps to save the time and money of rural farmer. ? AFSC helps to reduce the greenhouse gas.

2013-01-01

189

Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages (AFRA project II-17 - RAF/5/041). Project summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Joint FAO/IAEA programme has supported animal production research in Africa for many years through country Technical Co-operation (TC) Projects, Regional Projects (AFRA) and Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). These activities have helped to build up the infrastructure needed in the countries concerned to conduct much of the research in animal reproduction and nutrition. In the past the Agency has provided technical assistance in defining reproductive indices of ruminant livestock species and identifying nutritional constraints to productivity of animals maintained on smallholder farms under various topographical and environmental conditions. In view of the satisfactory progress of AFRA Project VIII in identifying the major constraints to livestock productivity in the region, and the recognition of many Member States of the importance of supplementary feeding for improving milk and meat production, a regional strategy was proposed for developing affordable and sustainable supplementation packages for improving productivity from smallholder farms using locally available feed resources. The new Regional Project was initiated in 1997 with the following objectives: 1. To produce a supplementary feed in the form of a convenient and easy-to-use package for improving milk and meat production in peri-urban areas 2. To promote the uptake of this technology through demonstrations of its advantages in terms of increased productivity and benefit: cost ratio 3. To maximize the use of locally available feed material such as molasses, cereal bran, legume tree leaves, oil seed meals, etc. for feeding ruminant livestock, thereby reducing the use of high cost concentrate feeds 4. To promote technical co-operation amongst developing countries (TCDC) in the region and take advantage of established infrastructure and available human and technical resources to solve problems of common interest. From 1997 until 2000 the project has been operational with 13 Member States participating in various project activities. The project activities included Research Planning and Review Meetings, Expert Visits, Regional and National Training Workshops, Fellowship Training and Scientific Visits to National Agricultural Research Systems

2002-06-01

190

Synergistic effects and physiological responses of selected bacterial isolates from animal feed to four natural antimicrobials and two antibiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, 20 samples from three different sources of animal feed were investigated and six bacterial isolates were identified. The susceptibility of four natural antimicrobials, namely, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol, against six of these isolates was determined. Carvacrol and eugenol showed better inhibitory effects with larger zones of inhibition. The minimal inhibitory concentration for a range of antibiotics on the susceptibility of two isolates (namely, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Klebsiella oxytoca) was investigated using the VITEK 2 microbiological identification system. Both isolates showed a variety of resistance to 18 antibiotics. The minimal inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index of those two isolates for ampicillin and nitrofurantoin in combination with four phenolic compounds was determined. Synergistic interactions were found for most antimicrobial/antibiotic combinations; thymol and carvacrol were very effective (fractional inhibitory concentration ?0.5) in combination with all antibiotics tested against S. paucimobilis and K. oxytoca, respectively. Ultra performance liquid chromatography techniques were used to investigate the physiological effects of the four natural antimicrobials against those two isolates. Two identical peaks were found to be systematically different between cinnamaldehyde-treated and -untreated cells. The identity of the peaks is unknown and further investigation is needed. PMID:21612425

Zhang, DongLai; Hu, HuiPing; Rao, QinXiong; Zhao, ZhiHui

2011-10-01

191

Probiotic levels, chemical composition and fermentative characteristics in solid state fermentation of paper sludge for animal feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sludge paper of the industry treated with probiotics in solid state fermentation (SSF could be used as ingredient in rations for animal feeding. This study assessed the effect of four probiotic (Prozoot15? levels (PT on chemical and fermentative characteristics in SSF of the paper sludge (PS at controlled temperature (30C in laboratory scale. The tested treatments (T were: T1 (0% PS, T2 (50 g/kg PS, T3 (100 g/kg PS and T4 (150 g/kg PS, which were fermented at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, according to a completely randomized design, in a 4 4 factorial arrangement with six repetitions per sampling. All treatments included (g/kg DM 300 molasses, 15 urea, 20 ammonium sulfate, 9 calcium carbonate and 5 of vitamin and mineral premix, plus the PS which was substituted by the PT at 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg DM. The results showed a decrease in pH in all treatments at 24 h; however the lowest pH was at 72 h of fermentation. At 72 h of fermentation, the PT addition in T4 increased crude protein, true protein and yeast counts (P

Oscar Ruiz-Barrera

2013-12-01

192

The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium) and amino acids (methionine, c...

2010-01-01

193

Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs, tissue and feed samples in the State of Kuwait  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 238 locally produced and imported eggs, tissue (meat, poultry and aquacultured fish) and feed and feedstuffs samples were collected at different seasonal periods from different farms and retail outlets in Kuwait and screened for presence of beta-lactams, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, streptomycin, macrolides and chloramphenicol (799 tests) using Charm II system. The results indicated that all of the 222 tests performed on table egg samples were negative for the analyzed antimicrobial residues indicating adherence to the guidelines for microbial use and withdrawal. Similarly, all of the 268 tests performed on tissue samples were negative for the analyzed antimicrobial residues except for chloramphenicol. These chloramphenicol positive samples, all of the 66 tests performed were negative for beta-lactams residues. Out of the 79 feed and feedstuff samples analyzed for teracyclines residues, broiler diet and concentrate samples (5%) were above the tetracyclines MRL (100 ppb.). On the other hands, results have revealed a widespread of sulfonamide residues and to a less extent chloramphenicol in tested feed and feedstuff samples. The Charm II system was reliable for rapid screening of antimicrobial residues. In general, results obtained in our study necessitate more effective and well planned national antimicrobial residues surveillance programs focusing particularly on samples imported from highly risk sources. (author)

2007-01-01

194

Microscopic method in processed animal proteins identification in feed: applications of image analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processed animal proteins (PAP detection and identification in feedstuffs can be difficult in distinguishing among land animals, i.e. poultry and mammals. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of image analysis in PAP identification. For this purpose four reference samples containing poultry meals and four reference samples containing mammalian meat and bone meals were used. Each sample was analyzed using the microscopic method (98/88/EC. Bone fragments are characterized by similar morphological features (colours, shape, lacunae shape, lacunae distribution, etc. that make it diff i c u l t to distinguish between poultry and mammals. Through a digital camera and an image analysis software a total of 30 bone fragment lacunae images at X400 were obtained. For each image 29 geometric parameters related to the lacunae and 3 geometric parameters related to the canaliculae of lacunae, were measured using the image analysis software obtaining 960 observations. Of the 32 descriptors used two, the area of the lacunae and their perimeter, were able to explain 96.15% of the total variability of the data, even though their contribution was different (83.97% vs. 12.18%, respectively. Through these two descriptors it was possible to distinguish between mammalian and poultry lacunae, except in two cases (6.6%, in which poultry lacunae were wrongly classified as mammalian. This latter can be related with higher variability in the lacunae area recorded for mammals compared to poultry. On the basis of the present study, it can be concluded that image analysis represents a promising potential tool in PAP identification, that may provide accurate and reliable results in feedstuffs characterisation, analysis and control.

Savoini G

2004-01-01

195

A GIS-based data analysis platform for analyzing the time-varying quality of animal feed and its impact on the environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Swiss Feed Data Warehouse is a public service for companies, farmers and research institutions that provides detailed and up-to-date information about the concentration of nutrients in animal feed from all across Switzerland. The core of the Swiss Feed Data Warehouse is a carefully curated data warehouse with more than 2 million chemical analyses of 600 feed types and 400 nutrients. The nutrient measurements are enriched with geographical (as postal code and altitude), temporal (as harves...

2012-01-01

196

75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate  

Science.gov (United States)

...formerly Docket No. 2007F-0478) Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking...is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking...This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj...

2010-07-19

197

76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2009-F-0525] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking...is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking...This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj...

2011-02-09

198

Toxic effects of animal manures and sewage sludge as supplementary feeds for the common carp, Cyprinus carpio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Activated sludge, chicken manure and pig manure were tested for their toxic effects as supplementary feeds for the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The acute toxicity test showed that animal manures were more toxic than activated sludge (e.g., 96-h LC50 values for pig manure and chicken manure were 0.55% and 0.29%, respectively, while no effective value was revealed for activated sludge). This may be due to the inadequate processing of the manures which resulted in the release of harmful substances during decomposition. In general, body weights of all the fish fed the wastes decreased during the culture period. High heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn) were found accumulated in the flesh of the fish fed the wastes. It is suggested that waste materials should be pretreated and detoxified before using them as animal feeds.

Wong, M.H.; Cheung, Y.H.; Lau, W.M.

1982-06-01

199

Simultaneous determination of major type B trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in animal feed and raw materials using improved DSPE combined with LC-MS/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and reliable method for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and major type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenon X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol) in animal feed and raw materials has been developed and validated in this study. The method was based on an improved dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) followed by analysis using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Also, matrix-matched calibration curve (R(2)>0.99) was employed to minimize matrix effects and ensure accurate quantification. The recoveries during sample preparation process (including extraction and clean-up) ranged from 79.03% to 118.39%, with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 20% for all the analytes. The limit of quantification ranged from 5.0?g/kg for deoxynivalenol to 13.6?g/kg for fusarenon X. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of animal feed and corn. The pilot study showed that 37 out of 41 samples were contaminated with deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside at the levels of 6.0-121.0?g/kg. Most of the type B trichothecenes were also found with the exception of fusarenon X, at the contaminated levels of 10.0-1382?g/kg. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first scientific report on the co-occurrence of masked deoxynivalenol and type B trichothecenes in animal feed and raw materials. PMID:24935763

Zhao, Zhiyong; Rao, Qinxiong; Song, Suquan; Liu, Na; Han, Zheng; Hou, Jiafa; Wu, Aibo

2014-07-15

200

Domestic Animal Hosts Strongly Influence Human-Feeding Rates of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans in Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The host species composition in a household and their relative availability affect the host-feeding choices of blood-sucking insects and parasite transmission risks. We investigated four hypotheses regarding factors that affect blood-feeding rates, proportion of human-fed bugs (human blood index), and daily human-feeding rates of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease. Methods A cross-sectional survey collected triatomines in human sleeping quarters (domiciles) of 49 of 270 rural houses in northwestern Argentina. We developed an improved way of estimating the human-feeding rate of domestic T. infestans populations. We fitted generalized linear mixed-effects models to a global model with six explanatory variables (chicken blood index, dog blood index, bug stage, numbers of human residents, bug abundance, and maximum temperature during the night preceding bug catch) and three response variables (daily blood-feeding rate, human blood index, and daily human-feeding rate). Coefficients were estimated via multimodel inference with model averaging. Findings Median blood-feeding intervals per late-stage bug were 4.1 days, with large variations among households. The main bloodmeal sources were humans (68%), chickens (22%), and dogs (9%). Blood-feeding rates decreased with increases in the chicken blood index. Both the human blood index and daily human-feeding rate decreased substantially with increasing proportions of chicken- or dog-fed bugs, or the presence of chickens indoors. Improved calculations estimated the mean daily human-feeding rate per late-stage bug at 0.231 (95% confidence interval, 0.1570.305). Conclusions and Significance Based on the changing availability of chickens in domiciles during spring-summer and the much larger infectivity of dogs compared with humans, we infer that the net effects of chickens in the presence of transmission-competent hosts may be more adequately described by zoopotentiation than by zooprophylaxis. Domestic animals in domiciles profoundly affect the host-feeding choices, human-vector contact rates and parasite transmission predicted by a model based on these estimates.

Gurtler, Ricardo E.; Cecere, Maria C.; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Gurevitz, Juan M.; Fernandez, Maria del Pilar; Kitron, Uriel; Cohen, Joel E.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Tank 30 and 37 Supernatant Sample Cross-Check and Evaporator Feed Qualification Analysis-2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the analytical data reported by the F/H and Savannah River National Laboratories for the 2012 cross-check analysis for high level waste supernatant liquid samples from SRS Tanks 30 and 37. The intent of this Tank 30 and 37 sample analyses was to perform cross-checks against routine F/H Laboratory analyses (corrosion and evaporator feed qualification programs) using samples collected at the same time from both tanks as well as split samples from the tanks.

Oji, L. N.

2013-03-07

202

Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows  

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Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives investigated contained lauric acid, myristic acid, linseed oil, and calcium fumarate. These additives were included at 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, and 0.7% of dietary dry matter, respectively (treatment ADD). Exp...

2011-01-01

203

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of fumaric acid as a feed additive for all animal species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fumaric acid is currently authorised as a preservative in feedingstuffs for all animal species. Fumaric acid is considered safe for pigs and poultry provided that an expected use level of 20 000 mg/kg in complete diets for pigs and poultry is not exceeded. The margin of safety for pigs and poultry is approximately two. The tolerated fumaric acid concentration in complete diets for ruminants is higher. The margin of safety for pigs, poultry and ruminants is sufficiently high that setting a maximum content is not necessary. In contrast, the maximum safe level in milk replacer for veal calves (and probably other young mammals is provisionally estimated to be 10 000 mg/kg milk replacer, with no margin of safety. Fumaric acid is rapidly metabolised by well-recognised pathways, and neither fumarate nor its metabolites are expected to accumulate in animal tissues. Consequently, human exposure is not expected to be increased by the use of fumaric acid in animal nutrition. Fumaric acid is a severe irritant to eyes. Given the potential for eye irritation, the particle size and the dusting potential, exposure to other mucous membranes such as the respiratory tract may also be a concern and it is advisable to minimise exposure by inhalation. The use of fumaric acid in animal nutrition will not pose a risk to the environment. Fumaric acid has value as a food preservative only in the presence of significant moisture. Comparable situations in feed are limited to some feedingstuffs, feed processing and feeding techniques. In such situations, its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food and no further demonstration of efficacy is considered necessary. However, the FEEDAP Panel has reservations about the effectiveness of any preservative, including fumaric acid, in raw materials and compound feedingstuffs with a typical moisture content of ? 12 %.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-02-01

204

Racionalizao do uso de fora motriz em fbrica de rao / Management of motive power use in animal feed industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A falta de investimento no setor energtico, aliada sazonalidade de recursos naturais necessrios para a gerao de energia hidroeltrica, faz da racionalizao do uso de energia eltrica uma ferramenta de apoio imprescindvel para o crescimento do Pas. A rao animal pode representar entre 70 e [...] 80% do custo de produo da criao de animais. Sendo assim, importante o estudo da racionalizao do uso de energia em processos que utilizam intensivamente fora motriz, tais como as fbricas de rao. Na fbrica de rao estudada, os motores eltricos so utilizados principalmente para moagem e mistura de granulados e transporte. Com o objetivo de racionalizar o uso da energia eltrica, foi realizado estudo de adequao de fora motriz dos equipamentos da fbrica de rao da Indstria Pif Paf Alimentos. O ndice de carregamento mdio dos motores eltricos estudados foi de 48,6%. O potencial estimado total de economia com energia eltrica anual, utilizando-se sempre da melhor opo de adequao de fora motriz foi de R$ 24.426,50 ao ano (23,9%). Para que essas medidas sejam efetivadas, devem-se adequar tambm: (i) as exigncias eltricas do circuito, como ajuste de rels e escolha de fusveis; (ii) o horrio de funcionamento, e (iii) necessidade de implantao de sistema de armazenamento de rao. Abstract in english The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around [...] 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pi Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: (i) to adjust relays and to choose fuses, (ii) to schedule operation and (iii) to build storage facilities.

Carlos A., Teixeira; Delly, Oliveira Filho; Adlio F. de, Lacerda Filho; Jos H., Martins.

205

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of DL-selenomethionine as a feed additive for all animal species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DL-Selenomethionine (DL-SeMet consists of 40?% selenium, an essential trace element. DL-SeMet. It was tolerated by chickens for fattening at up to 1.5 mg selenium supplemented/kg feed; DL-SeMet is therefore safe for chickens for fattening provided total dietary selenium does not exceed 0.5 mg/kg complete feed; this conclusion is extended to all animal species. Based on available toxicity studies and previous assessments of closely related compounds, it is concluded that selenium from DL-SeMet does not elicit any adverse effects not expected in a selenium compound. The use of DL-SeMet in animal nutrition is expected to result in a similar increase in selenium deposition in animal tissues/products as that resulting from other sources of SeMet. To ensure consumer safety from consumption of food originating from animals fed DL-SeMet, dietary selenium supplementation from the additive should not exceed a maximum of 0.2 mg Se/kg complete feed. Although a DL-SeMet-containing additive did not release any measurable dust, the additive is considered as a hazard by inhalation, which requires protection measures for users since the additive is not the subject of authorisation, and selenium is highly toxic. The additive is not an irritant to skin and eyes and is not a dermal sensitiser. The use of DL-SeMet in feed does not pose an additional risk to the environment, compared with other sources of selenium for which it will substitute, as long as the maximum authorised content in complete feed is not exceeded. Sufficient evidence is provided that DL-SeMet is an effective source of selenium in chickens for fattening. Since there are no fundamental differences between target animals in the metabolism of SeMet and its use for the specific biological functions of selenium, the FEEDAP Panel extends its conclusion on the efficacy of DL-SeMet to all animal species and categories.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2014-02-01

206

IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State Universitys Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

Dr. Donal F. Day

2009-01-29

207

Fatty acid analysis of subcutaneous fat from animals with a reliable and safe feeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Iberian pig fat characteristics depend on the type of feeding at the end of its finish-fattening period. The routine analysis to differentiate among the qualities of the feeding types given to the pigs in the fattening stage has been the use of fatty acid profiles by gas chromatography. Due to de doubts about the effectiveness of this analysis in the montanera period, the aim of this global study was to test the validity of various analytical methods to determine the feeding type of Ib...

Sanabria, C.; Marti?n-mateos, M. J.; Gonza?lez-cantillo, N.; Moreno-indias, I.; Garci?a-casco, J. M.

2013-01-01

208

New feed additives based on phytogenics and acidifiers in animal nutrition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low regulations for feed additives use, has been changed in EU as well as in our country, especially in use of antibiotics as growth promotors. Along years it has investigated an alternative for antibiotics as growth promotors. Essential oilsand organic acids are one of alternative feed, which acting in a few of the most important directions: as antioxidants, metabolic upgraders, growth promotors and development of pathogenic microorganizms controllers, including moulds and bacterias and as e...

2007-01-01

209

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Emission measurements were made over all four seasonal periods. In each seasonal period, measurements were made from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn for 1 week. RSC and NMVOCs samples were collected using passivated canisters. Nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the lagoon and barn over each sampling period. The canisters were analyzed ex-situ using gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) measurements were made in-situ using a pulsed fluorescence H2S/SO2 analyzer. During sampling, measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made. H2S had the largest RSC flux, with an overall average lagoon flux of 1.33 mug m-2 min-1. The two main RSCs identified by the GC-FID, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), had overall average lagoon fluxes an order of magnitude lower, 0.12 and 0.09 mug m-2 min-1, respectively. Twelve significant NMVOCs were identified in lagoon samples (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, decanal, heptanal, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and 4-methylphenol). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.08 mug m-2 min-1 (4-methylphenol) to 2.11 mug m-2 min-1 (acetone). Seasonal H2S barn concentrations ranged from 72-631 ppb. DMS and DMDS seasonal concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. There were six significant NMVOCs identified in barn samples (methanol, ethanol, acetone 2-3 butanedione, acetaldehyde and 4-methylphenol). Their overall average NMVOCs concentrations ranged from 2.87 ppb (4-methylphenol) to 16.21 ppb (ethanol). The overall average barn normalized emissions were 3.3 g day-1 AU-1 (AU (animal unit) = 500 kg) for H2S, 0.018 g day-1 AU-1 for DMS and 0.037 g day -1 AU-1 for DMDS. Normalized overall average NMVOC emissions ranged from 0.45 g day-1 AU-1 for ethanol to 0.16 g day-1 AU-1 for acetaldehyde. Barn H2S concentrations were generally one to two orders of magnitude above their odor thresholds. DMDS concentrations also regularly exceeded the lower limit of an odor threshold. Four NMVOCs (2-3 butanedione, decanal, 4-methylphenol and nonanal) had barn concentrations exceeding an odor threshold. Using overall average lagoon and barn emissions, the emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina were estimated. H2S had the largest RSC emission with an estimated North Carolina emission of 1.46 million kg yr -1, which was 21% of total North Carolina H2S emissions. Ethanol was the NMVOC with the largest North Carolina emission with an emission of 206,367 kg yr-1.

Rumsey, Ian Cooper

210

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-selenomethionine as feed additive for all animal species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element that is essential for vertebrates and involved in series of vital metabolic functions. Considering the purity of the L-selenomethionine (L-SeMet under application and the metabolic pathways of SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel considers the use of L-SeMet as safe for all animal species, provided that the maximum total selenium level authorised in feed is respected. The use of in animal nutrition is expected to result in a similar increase in selenium deposition in animal tissues/products as that resulting from other sources of SeMet. To ensure consumer safety from consumption of food originating from animals fed L-SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel concludes that dietary selenium supplementation from the additive should not exceed a maximum of 0.2 mg Se/kg complete feed. In the absence of specific data, the additive should be considered as an irritant to skin and eyes, as a skin sensitiser and as potentially harmful by inhalation. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of L-SeMet in feed does not pose an additional risk to the environment, compared with other sources of selenium for which it will substitute, as long as the maximum authorised content in feedingstuffs is not exceeded. L-SeMet is an efficient source of selenium for all species. This conclusion is derived from studies with laying hens and pigs for fattening and, in the case of ruminants, from literature describing the microbial incorporation of selenium from organic sources in the rumen. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations concerning (i the specification, (ii the use of the compound in premixtures, (iii the use in water for drinking and (iv risk reduction when handling the additive.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-05-01

211

Animals  

... Animals Animals, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Animals Submit to Animals Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors ...Policy Title / Keyword Journal all Actuators Administrative Sciences Aerospace Agriculture Agronomy Algorithms Animals Antibiotics Antibodies Antioxidants Applied Sciences Arts Atmosphere Atoms Axioms Behavioral Sciences ...Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Animals Animals Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for ... 1 (2011) Animals Editors Journal Contact Animals Editorial Office MDPI AG, Klybeckstrasse 64, 4057 Basel, Switzerland E-Mail: animals@mdpi.com ...

212

Wide-scope analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues in animal feed by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fast and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous monitoring of >250 pesticides and veterinary drugs (VDs) in animal feed. A 'dilute-and-shoot' extraction with water and acetonitrile (1% formic acid) followed by a clean-up step with Florisil cartridges was applied. The extracts were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid analyser quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry using both positive and negative electrospray ionisation. The detection of the residues was accomplished by retention time and accurate mass using an in-house database. The identification of the detected compounds was carried out by searching of fragment ions for each compound and isotopic pattern. The optimised method was validated and recoveries ranged from 60% to 120% at three concentrations (10, 50 and 100 ?g kg(-1)) for 30%, 68% and 80% of compounds, respectively, included in the database (364) in chicken feed. Document SANCO 12495/2011 and Directive 2002/657/CE were used as guidelines for method validation. Intra-day and inter-day precisions, expressed as relative standard deviations, were lower than 20% for more than 90% of compounds. The limits of quantification ranged from 4 to 200 ?g kg(-1) for most analytes, which are sufficient to verify compliance of products with legal tolerances. The applicability of the procedure was further tested on different types of feed (chicken, hen, rabbit and horse feed), evaluating recoveries and repeatability. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 18 feed samples, detecting some VDs (sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, robenidin and monensin Na) and only one pesticide (chlorpyrifos). PMID:23712649

Aguilera-Luiz, Mara M; Romero-Gonzlez, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaos, Patricia; Martnez Vidal, Jos Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

2013-08-01

213

Composio qumica da glicerina produzida por usinas de biodiesel no Brasil e potencial de uso na alimentao animal / Chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and potential utilization in animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com a crescente produo de biodiesel no Brasil, aumenta tambm a produo de glicerina, co-produto dessa indstria. O principal componente da glicerina o glicerol, altamente energtico e, por isso, ela j vem sendo usada como alimento animal em vrios pases. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar [...] a composio qumica da glicerina produzida por indstrias de biodiesel no Brasil e discutir seu potencial de utilizao na alimentao animal. Dezesseis usinas, responsveis por 85,1% do biodiesel produzido no pas, forneceram 41 amostras para anlise. Cromo, cdmio e chumbo no foram detectados em nenhuma das amostras estudadas. Apenas quatro usinas, responsveis por 36,8% da produo, produzem glicerina que atendem os parmetros estabelecidos pelo Ministrio da Agricultura, Pecuria e Abastecimento para os teores de umidade e glicerol. Apenas uma usina, responsvel por 14,1% da produo, produz glicerina apta para uso na alimentao de ruminantes, por no utilizar sebo bovino como matria prima para o biodiesel. Abstract in english The increasing production of biodiesel in Brazil also increases glycerin production, a co-product of this industry. The main component of glycerin, glycerol, is highly energetic and because of that, glycerin is already used as animal feed in many countries. The objective of this paper was to evaluat [...] e the chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and discuss its potential utilization as animal feed. Forty one samples of glycerin from sixteen biodiesel plants, that together yield 85.1% of Brazilian biodiesel, were analyzed. Chromium, cadmium and lead were not detected in any studied sample. Only four plants, that together yield 36.8% of Brazilian glycerin, comply the glycerol and moisture content levels established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Only one, responsible for 14.1% of Brazilian glycerin, delivers glycerin with the potential to be used as ruminant feed once it doesn't use animal fat to produce biodiesel.

Oliveira, Jackson Silva e; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Freitas, Sidina Cordeiro de; Mller, Marcelo Dias.

214

Enterocytozoon bieneusi (microsporidia) in faecal samples from domestic animals from Galicia, Spain  

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In this survey we examined 87 domestic animal stool samples in order to detect the possible presence of microsporidia in animals in close contact with humans in Galicia (NW, Spain). The detection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores was confirmed in faecal samples from two dogs and one goat by polymerase chain reaction. None of the positive samples for microsporidia in the staining method were amplified with species-specific primers for Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem and E. cuniculi. Fo...

Lores, B.; Del Aguila, C.; Arias, C.

2002-01-01

215

Concentrations of U and Po in animal feed supplements, in poultry meat and in eggs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to assess the contribution of phosphate feed supplements to the radiation exposure of the population in Israel. The phosphates usually contain appreciable quantities of U and its daughters and the actual exposure of human consumers depends, to a very large extent, on the degree of equilibrium of the decay chain in the feed and through the metabolic process. The concentrations of 238U, 234U, 226Ra and 210Po (210Pb) in poultry feed supplements and in chicken meat (breasts, thighs) and organs (livers, spleens, gizzards) as well as in eggs were determined. From the results, the transfer coefficients of U and Po in chicken meat and in eggs were calculated. The effective dose equivalent to the Israeli population due to the consumption of poultry products which accounts for approximately 70% of all meat consumed in Israel is assessed to be 0.04 mSv y-1

1989-01-01

216

Monitoring total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitigation of bioaerosol emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) demands knowledge of bioaerosol concentrations feeding into an end-of-pipe air treatment process. The aim of this preliminary study was to measure total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations at the air exhaust of 18 commercial CAFOs and to examine their variability with animal operation type (swine farrowing, swine gestation, swine weaning, swine finishing, manure belt laying hen, and tom turkey) and season (cold, mild, and hot). The measured airborne concentrations of total endotoxin ranged from 98 to 23,157 endotoxin units (EU)/m3, and the airborne concentrations of total (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan ranged from 2.4 to 537.9 ng/m3. Animal operation type in this study had a significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan but no significant effect on their concentrations in total suspended particulate (TSP). Both endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan attained their highest airborne concentrations in visited tom turkey buildings. Comparatively, season had no significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin or (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan. Endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations in TSP dust appeared to increase as the weather became warmer, and this seasonal effect was significant in swine buildings. Elevated indoor temperatures in the hot season were considered to facilitate the growth and propagation of bacteria and fungi, thus leading to higher biocomponent concentrations in TSP. PMID:24282971

Yang, Xufei; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin; Su, Jingwei; Gates, Richard S

2013-10-01

217

The effect of feed contamination with mycotoxins on animals and ways for prevention and degradation of mycotoxins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that are capable of causing illness and sometimes death to animals and not only animals even humans. In 1960 it was established that some fungal metabolites, now called mycotoxins, that have a destructive effect on animal health, since then people were interested on the effect and the way to stop it. Among them, aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 & G2 synthesized mainly byAspergillus flavus/ Aspergillus parasiticus are known to induce severe effects on animal: can cause liver damage, decreased milk production, reduced reproductively and suppressed immunity in animals consuming low dietary concentrations, decreased feed intake and efficiency, weight loss, jaundice, drop in milk production, nervous signs, bleeding and death. The aim of this work was the isolation of aflatoxin producing fungi in order to investigate new ways that can determinate, inhibit or degradation of aflatoxin, ochratoxin, using lactic bacteria and yeast. A number of 17Aspergillus spp. isolates were obtained from wheat, barley, triticale, oats, and sunflower seeds and identified, based on macroscopic and microscopic features asA.flavus/A.parasiticus. The ability of aflatoxin biosynthesis was detected on PDA medium with ? cyclodextrine and sodium deoxycholate were evaluated by TLC and RIDA Screen R-biopharm. At this stage of experiments 3 fungal isolates, designated as GE2, G32, T11 were selected as aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and used for further analysis (molecular identification, interactions with LAB and yeasts.

Oana Ciobotaru

2014-05-01

218

Determination of water (moisture) and dry matter in animal feed, grain, and forage (plant tissue) by Karl Fischer titration: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Karl Fischer method for determining water (dry matter) in animal feed and forages was collaboratively studied. Water was extracted from animal feed or forage material into methanol-formamide (1 + 1) directly in the Karl Fischer titration vessel by high-speed homogenization. The water was titrated at 50 degrees C with one-component Karl Fischer reagent based on imidazole. Ten blind samples were sent to 9 collaborators in the United States, Canada, and Germany. The within-laboratory relative standard deviation (repeatability) ranged from 1.14 to 6.99% for water or from 0.09 to 0.56% for dry matter. Among-laboratory (including within-) relative standard deviation (reproducibility) ranged from 5.35 to 10.73%, or from 0.44 to 0.77% for dry matter. The authors recommend that the method be adopted as Official First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. A comparable alternative extraction procedure using boiling methanol is also recommended for Official First Action. PMID:11990014

Thiex, Nancy J; Van Erem, Terri

2002-01-01

219

Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats wit...

Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

2013-01-01

220

Youden analysis of Karl Fischer titration data from an interlaboratory study determining water in animal feed, grain, and forage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from a recent interlaboratory study of the determination of water (moisture) in animal feed, grain, and forage (plant tissue) by Karl Fischer titration were re-analyzed using Youden plots. The purpose was to show the unique ability these plots possess of separating random and systematic errors visually while providing numerical estimates of the precision and the systematic error of the method. Furthermore, the usefulness of the technique is underscored because AOAC INTERNATIONAL allows the use of matched pairs in collaborative studies to obtain estimates of repeatability and reproducibility. PMID:16526470

Jones, Frank E

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Effect of feed additives and animal shelter disinfectants on methane fermentation. Die Wirkung von Fuetterungszusaetzen und Stalldesinfektionsmitteln auf die Methangaerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first part of the work investigates the effect of potential inhibitors on the entire process of methane fermentation, including more scrupulous testing of some substances as regards the site of their action respectively the groups of organisms concerned. The second part reports on the action of two ionophoric substances, Monensin and Lasalocid, which are commonly used in animal feeding and exhibited interesting effects in the experiments on the total methane fermentation process, on pure cultures of methanogenic bacteria, i.e. on the organisms of the third degradation stage.

Hilpert, R.

1984-03-16

222

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...interstate commerce and found upon examination to be contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms: Bone meal, blood meal, crab meal, feather meal, fish meal, fish solubles, meat scraps, poultry meat meal, tankage, or other similar animal...

2010-04-01

223

Potencial de silagens de ramas de batata-doce para alimentao animal / Potential of silages of sweet-potato foliages for animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de silagens de ramas de diferentes clones de batata-doce para alimentao animal. O trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Forquilha localizada no Distrito de Batatal, municpio de Diamantina MG, no perodo de 23/12/2007 a 23/06/2008. O experimento foi conduzido no esquem [...] a de parcelas subdivididas em delineamento de blocos completos casualizados. Foram avaliadas a produtividade de matria verde e matria seca das ramas e a composio qumico-bromatolgica, alm do perfil fermentativo de suas silagens, em trs idades de colheita (120, 150 e 180 dias), em oito clones de batata doce. A produtividade de matria seca no variou com a poca de colheita das ramas, obtendo-se mdia de 6,01t ha-1. Os teores de matria seca nas ramas aumentaram com o ciclo da cultura, verificando-se teores mdios de 11,94; 12,16 e 19,62%, aos 120, 150 e 180 dias aps o corte, respectivamente. As silagens das ramas de batata-doce apresentaram altos teores proticos e energticos e adequado perfil fermentativo, portanto, apresentam potencial para utilizao na alimentao animal, independentemente dos clones. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the potential of silage derived from different clones of sweet potato for animal feed. The study was conducted at Forquilha Farm located in Batatal district, MG Diamantina in the period from 23/12/2007 to 23/06/2008. The experiment was conducted in split plot design in [...] a randomized complete block. It was evaluated the green and dry matter yield, the chemical composition and the fermentative profile of silage harvested on three dates (days 120, 150 and 180), of eight clones of sweet potato. The dry matter yield did not vary according to the harvest time of the branches, resulting in an average of 6.01t ha-1. The dry matter content in the stems increased with the growth cycle, and there are average levels of 11.94, 12.16 and 19.62% on days 120, 150 and 180 after cutting, respectively. The raw potato silage showed high protein content and adequate energy fermentation and therefore, potential for use in animal feed, regardless of clones.

Daniel Jos Silva, Viana; Valter Carvalho de, Andrade Jnior; Karina Guimares, Ribeiro; Nsia Andrade Villela Dessimoni, Pinto; Ir Pinheiro, Neiva; Jos Altair, Figueiredo; Vincius Teixeira, Lemos; Carlos Enrrik, Pedrosa; Alcinei Mstico, Azevedo.

224

Detection of bovine meat and bone meal in animal feed at a level of 0.1%.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the control of the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle via feedstuff, a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with ruminant-specific Bov-B SINE primers, SYBR Green fluorescence detection, and melting curve analysis. In formulated cattle and chicken feed samples spiked with pure bovine and sheep meat and bone meal heated at 133 degrees C for 20 min, a contamination level of 0.1% was detected. PMID:17225589

Aarts, Henk J M; Bouw, El M; Buntjer, Jaap B; Lenstra, Johannes A; Van Raamsdonk, Leo W D

2006-01-01

225

Application of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using pre-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde for the quantitative analysis of amino acids in adult and fetal sheep plasma, animal feeds and tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of amino acids in adult and fetal sheep plasma, liver, muscle and animal feeds was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using an automated data acquisition system and pre-column o-phthaldialdehyde derivatization. Of the seventeen amino acids in the standard mixture, fifteen including glycine and threonine were completely resolved in a total analysis time of 50 min. The clear resolution, high degree of precision and accuracy, relatively rapid analysis and the lack of interference from chemical contaminants in feed and tissue hydrolysates render this technique suitable for routine analysis of large numbers of biological samples of nutritional interest. PMID:6526901

Krishnamurti, C R; Heindze, A M; Galzy, G

1984-12-19

226

Radiation processing technology for feed mixes and litter for laboratory animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research was centred on feed mixes for laboratory rats and mice in conditions of germ-free and conventional breeding in isolators. Polyethylene was chosen as the most suitable packing material for radiation processing and subsequent storage. Pelleted diets and litter are packaged in three layers in 400x600 mm bags. 25 kGy for germ-free breeding and 50 kGy for gnotobiotic breeds of laboratory rats and mice were determined as being sufficient. The quality of processed diets and their effect on the weight and growth of rats is discussed. (Pu)

1984-11-01

227

Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

2002-06-01

228

Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: From domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transport of iodine in the mammary gland into breast milk plays a central role in various fields of prevention of thyroid diseases. First, a sufficient content of iodine in the mother's milk is necessary for normal brain development in the breastfed child. This is attained by expression during lactation in the mammary gland of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), also responsible for iodine transport in the thyroid. Milk iodine content varies with the iodine intake of the mother, and urinary iodine excretion in groups of mothers seems to be a valuable indicator of the iodine status of their breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake areas of the world. It can be speculated that a low-iodine content of mother's milk because of inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland may be one factor of importance for development of myxedematous cretinism.

Laurberg, P.; Andersen, S.

2002-01-01

229

Seleo de 39 variedades de cana-de-acar para a alimentao animal / Selection of 39 varieties of sugarcane for animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi desenvolvido no Instituto de Zootecnia, em Nova Odessa, SP, um experimento para avaliar 39 variedades de canas-de-acar, com vistas alimentao animal. As canas foram avaliadas atravs de anlise sob componentes principais e agrupamento. A anlise de agrupamento foi efetuada pelo mtodo UPGA [...] (unweighted pair group method with arithimetic average), levando-se em conta, 4 caracteres, produo de matria seca, teor de carboidratos totais no estruturais, teor de fibra insolvel em detergente neutro e degradabilidade efetiva da matria seca. Levando-se em conta apenas a qualidade e degradabilidade foram selecionados os grupos 6, 7, 8, 9 e 10. Incluindo na avaliao, a produo de matria seca, os grupos selecionados foram os de nmero 6, 8 e 9. Abstract in english It was developed at the Institute of Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, SP, an experiment to evaluate 39 sugarcanes, for animal feeding. The sugarcanes were evaluated through analysis of main components and grouping. The analysis of grouping was made by the method UPGA (unweighted pair group method with ari [...] thimetic average), being taken into account, 4 characters: production of dry matter, percentage of total carbohydrates available, percentage neutral detergent fiber and percentage of effective degradability of dry matter. Being taken into account just the quality and degradability the groups 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 were selected. Including in the evaluation, the production of dry matter, the selected groups were the one of number 6, 8 and 9.

Andrade, Joo Batista de; Ferrari Junior, Evaldo; Possenti, Rosana Aparecida; Otsuk, Ivani Pozar; Zimback, Lo; Landell, Marcos Guimares de Andrade.

230

Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55 for carcasses (animals found dead and 0.2% (13/5309 for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1 surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2 any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3 surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4 morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure.

Damien O. Joly

2012-04-01

231

Authentication of feeding fats: Classification of animal fats, fish oils and recycled cooking oils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the measurement of several markers and must take into account natural and technology-induced variation. The present study focuses on the identity prediction of three by-products of the fat industry (animal fats,...

Ruth, S. M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A. H.; Perez-garcia, R.; Kamp, H. J.; Codony, R.

2010-01-01

232

Quantitative analysis of penicillins in porcine tissues, milk and animal feed using derivatisation with piperidine and stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Penicillins are used universally in both human and veterinary medicine. The European Union (EU) has established maximum residue levels (MRLs) for most ss-lactam antibiotics in milk and animal tissues and included them in the National Residue Monitoring Programs. In this study, a novel method is described for the determination and confirmation of eight penicillins in porcine tissues, milk and animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To prevent degradation of penicillin residues during workup, a derivatisation procedure was developed, by which penicillins were converted to stable piperidine derivatives. Deuterated piperidine derivatives were synthesised for all relevant penicillins, enabling the use of isotope dilution for accurate quantification. Penicillin residues were derivatised in the crude extract with piperidine and isolated using solid-phase extraction. The penicillin piperidine derivatives were determined by LC-MS/MS. The method was validated at the current MRLs, which range from 25-300 microg kg(-1) in muscle and kidney to 4-30 microg kg(-1) in milk as well as at the target value of 100 microg kg(-1) chosen for animal feed, according to the EU requirements for a quantitative confirmatory method. Accuracy ranged from 94-113% (muscle), 83-111% (kidney) and 87-103% (milk) to 88-116% (animal feed). Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation (RSD)(r)) ranged from 5-13% (muscle, n = 18), 4-17% (kidney, n = 7) and 5-18% (milk, n = 7) to 11-32% (animal feed, n = 18). Inter-day precision (RSD(RL), n = 18) ranged from 6-23% (muscle) to 11-36% (animal feed). From the results, it was concluded that the method was fit for purpose at the target MRLs in animal tissue and target levels for animal feed. PMID:20186537

van Holthoon, Frdrique; Mulder, Patrick P J; van Bennekom, Eric O; Heskamp, Henri; Zuidema, Tina; van Rhijn, Hans J A

2010-04-01

233

Usage of Slaughtered Animal Rumen Fluid for Dry Matter Digestibility of Ruminant Feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the precision of rumen fluid of slaughtered sheep and cows as the inoculums in the in vitro digestibility technique and its comparison with in vivo apparent digestibility techniques for ten feeds. The following two in vitro and one in vivo technique were used. These were the in vitro slaughtered Sheep Rumen fluid Technique (SRT, the in vitro slaughtered Cattle Rumen fluid Technique (CRT and the in vivo Apparent Digestion Technique (ADT. Results from this study indicate that SRT and CRT have potential to be used for predicting in vivo DM digestibility. However, more research is required to modify both SRT and CRT to get better regression equation with low RSD and high correlation coefficient.

S. Koncagul

2006-01-01

234

Improvement of animal productivity through supplementary feeding with urea-mineral blocks (UMB) in Mongolia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The predominant feed resource available for ruminant production in Mongolia is low quality fibrous forages, which sometimes lack essential nutrients for optimal growth and production of livestock. Four formulations of urea-mineral block (UMB) were developed and tested with locally available low quality forages. In dairy cattle, the average daily intake of one of these formulations was 121 g and consumption resulted in an increase in the daily milk yield of 0.3 L/cow, with a cost : benefit ratio of 1 : 8.2. Training and extension activities are presently underway to extend this technology to ruminant-livestock keepers. A medicated block containing the plant Stelleria chamaejasme was also developed for use in sheep, resulting in substantial reductions in cestode egg counts in the faeces. Validation of these results will be necessary before recommendations for use can be made to farmers. (author)

2006-12-01

235

Bias in estimating animal travel distance: the effect of sampling frequency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1.?The distance travelled by animals is an important ecological variable that links behaviour, energetics and demography. It is usually measured by summing straight-line distances between intermittently sampled locations along continuous animal movement paths. The extent to which this approach underestimates travel distance remains a rarely addressed and unsolved problem, largely because true movement paths are rarely, if ever, available for comparison. Here, we use simulated movement paths...

Rowcliffe, J. M.; Carbone, C.; Kays, R.; Kranstauber, B.; Jansen, P. A.

2012-01-01

236

Bioaerosol sampling for airborne bacteria in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Airborne microorganisms within the hospital environment can potentially cause infection in susceptible patients. The objectives of this study were to identify, quantify, and determine the nosocomial potential of common airborne microorganisms present within a small animal teaching hospital. Methods: Bioaerosol sampling was done initially in all 11 rooms and, subsequently, weekly samples were taken from selected rooms over a 9-week period. Samples were collected twice (morning and ...

2013-01-01

237

Scientific Opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the presence of seeds of Ambrosia spp. in animal feed : Scientific Opinion, EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The European Commission requested EFSA to provide a scientific opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union and on the importance of feed materials, in particular bird feed, in the dispersion of Ambrosia spp. The genus Ambrosia (Asteraceae family) is distributed worldwide. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) has heavily colonised several areas of South-East Europe. Ambrosia spp., both in their native range and in invaded areas, are of public health concern due to the allergenic properties of their pollen. The NDA Panel concluded that inhalation of the plant pollen causes rhino-conjunctivitis and asthma, with skin allergies and food allergy playing minor roles. Ambrosia may cross-sensitize patients to other allergens, including food allergens. There is some evidence for allergenicity of Ambrosia pollen in animals. With regard to the effects on the environment of the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union, the PLH Panel concluded that there is no direct evidence that Ambrosia spp. cause extinction of plant species. However, there are some indications that A. artemisiifolia could become highly invasive in certain environmentally-valuable habitats and might be linked to an impoverishment of species richness, therefore further ecological studies are needed. The CONTAM Panel focused on the relative importance of animal feed, bird feed in particular, on the dispersion of Ambrosia. Ambrosia seeds may contaminate feed. However, animal feed materials compounded for use in livestock are extensively processed. This processing destroys Ambrosia seeds and hence the contribution of compounded feed to the dispersion of Ambrosia is considered to be negligible. Bird feed often contains significant quantities of Ambrosia seeds and remains unprocessed. Therefore, bird feed seems to play an important role in introducing Ambrosia to new, previously not infested areas.

Baker, R.; Candresse, T.

2010-01-01

238

Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (6732 days) than those in the control group (7336 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

2002-06-01

239

Effect of radiation treatment on protein quality and vitamin content of animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the effects of autoclaving and irradiation on the protein quality and vitamin content of various nutrients of laboratory animal diets. The protein quality and its amino acid composition was not significantly affected by a radiation dose as high as 7.0 Mrad, whereas the protein quality of autoclaved diet (1020C for 5 minutes) was significantly affected. Vitamin B1, B0 and ?-tocopherol appeared to be affected by irradiation, whereas autoclaving reduced the levels of vitamins A, B1 and E. (author)

1977-10-21

240

Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus effects on animal performance and meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM or fishmeal (WFM as protein source on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to wild or gamey flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively. No fish-related flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.

Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:

Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjl effekter p tillvxt, foderutnyttjande och kttkvalitet I vr underskning ingick 14 renar (8 kastrerade sarvar (hrkaroch 6 vajor fr att jmfra effekter av tv olika renfoder (baserade p korn, h och soja- (SBM eller fiskmjl (WFM som proteintillskott med avseende p tillvxt, foderutnyttjande och kttkvalitet. Kttprover frn naturbetande renar (n=4; 2 hrkar och 2 vajor frn Seward Peninsula inkluderades i studien fr att representera kvaliteten p traditionellt producerat renktt frn Alaska. Inga signifikanta skillnader i tillvxt observerades, varken mellan SBM- och WFM-grupperna eller mellan hrkar och vajor. Foderutnyttjandet var dock signifikant bttre hos WFM-renarna. Slaktutbytet var hgst fr renarna i SBM-gruppen, dremot rapporterades inga skillnader i levandevikt, slaktkroppsegenskaper, pH-vrde och temperatur i ytterfiln, skrmotstnd, frg eller vattenhllande frmga i kttet nr de tre grupperna av renar jmfrdes (SBM, WFM och naturbetande djur. Kttet frn de naturbetande renarna hade det signifikant hgsta innehllet av bde omega-3-fettsyror och av fleromttade fettsyror. Ktt frn SBM-renarna hade det hgsta innehllet av triglycerider och det lgsta innehllet av fosfolipider jmfrt med de andra tv grupperna. Den trnade smakpanelen kunde inte hitta ngra skillnader i sensoriska egenskaper hos kttet frn renarna i de tre olika grupperna. I en konsumentunderskning rapporterades kommentarer om olika vilt-relaterade bismaker i ktt frn naturbetande renar (24% av konsumenterna och frn WFM-gruppen (15% av konsumenterna, men inga fisk-liknande bismaker i kttet kunde pvisas. Att byta ut sojamjl mot fiskmjl som prote

Alexandra C. M. Oliveira

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Evaluation of two liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry platforms for quantification of monensin in animal feed and milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monensin is an anticoccidial drug that has been used as an additive in medicated feed. The United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has included monensin in the national surveillance schemes for residues in foodstuff. In this study, two simple, selective and rapid methods were developed to determine monensin content in animal feed and milk. The methods enabled the detection of monensin residues as low as 1 ppb. Moreover, the two methods were used as models to compare two common liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) platforms; an LC linear ion trap (LC/LIT) and an LC triple quadrupole (LC/QqQ). The two instrument platforms were evaluated for their matrix effect dependence, precision and accuracy. The LC/QqQ presented a lower limit of detection and limit of quantitation (LOD and LOQ) and showed less matrix dependence as compared to the LC/LIT. The LC/QqQ instrument also demonstrated a better intermediate precision. For example, the intermediate precision standard deviation calculated for 27 analyses across three days was 4% and 11% for LC/QqQ and LC/LIT, respectively. Overall, the LC/QqQ represents a better choice for analysis of monensin with respect to LOD, LOQ, matrix interference and precision. PMID:20411582

Dai, Susie Y; Herrman, Timothy J

2010-05-30

242

Evaluation of pre-PCR processing approaches for enumeration of Salmonella enterica in naturally contaminated animal feed  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three pre?PCR processing strategies for the detection and/or quantification of Salmonella in naturally contaminated soya bean meal were evaluated. Methods included: (i) flotation?qPCR [enumeration of intact Salmonella cells prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR)], (ii) MPN?PCR (modified most probable number method combined with qPCR) and (iii) qualitative culture enrichment PCR. The limit of quantification was 1·8 ? 102 CFU g??1 (flotation?qPCR) and 0·02 MPN g??1 (MPN?PCR). Fifteen naturally contaminated Salmonella positive soya bean meal samples from one lot were analysed in parallel with the three methods, using 2·5, 50 and 25 g of feed, respectively, resulting in detection of Salmonella in 6, 15 and 9 bags. Enumeration resulted in 1·8 ? 102??7·8 ? 103 CFU g??1 (flotation?qPCR) and 0·024 to >5·2 MPN g??1 (MPN?PCR). Except for differences in methodology, results obtained with the three techniques could be due to the presence of nonculturable Salmonella and/or a heterogeneous distribution of Salmonella in the material. The evaluated methods provide different possibilities to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in feed, together with the numbers of culturable, as well as nonculturable cells, and can be applied to generate data to allow more accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment for Salmonella in the feed chain.

Schelin, Jenny; Andersson, Gunnar

2014-01-01

243

Sampling methods and measurement strategies for dust and ammonia concentrations in production animal buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air contaminants (i.e. dust, microbes and gases) inside production animal buildings can harm the health and productivity of animals and the health and comfort of workers. The need to monitor and control indoor air quality in animal buildings exists. This study was conducted to review the sampling methods and strategies for measuring dust and ammonia concentrations in production animal buildings. Current technology for dust measurement includes integral dust samplers (total, inhalable and respirable dust samplers), real-time instruments (photometers and optical particle counter) and size-resolving samplers (cascade impactor, optical particle counter). Current technology for ammonia measurement includes tube or card sensors, electronic chemical sensors and light absorption sensors. Commonly used methods for production animal buildings include the filter sampler for total dust concentration, optical particle counter for number, concentration and size distribution and detector tube for ammonia concentration. Research is needed to evaluate other real-time instruments such as the photometer for dust and electrochemical diffusion sensor for ammonia. Additionally, research is needed to establish standard sampling procedures and strategies for production animal buildings. (author) 35 refs.

Maghirang, R.G. [Kansas State Univ., Dep. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Manhattan, KS (United States)

1996-12-31

244

Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of 'Envelopes,' each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward

2007-01-01

245

Development and validation of a method for the determination of sub-additive levels of virginiamycin in compound animal feeds by liquid chromatography  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A method for the detection of virginiamycin M1 as a marker compound of virginiamycin at sub-additive level in pig, calf, piglet, sow, poultry, cattle and laying hen feeds was developed and validated. Both UV detection at 230 nm and MS detection were applied. Virginiamycin M1 was extracted from animal feeds with ethyl acetate after wetting of the feed with water followed by clean-up on Sep-Pak silica gel and OASIS HLB cartridges. Analysis of extracts was carried out on an Inertsil ODS-2 column...

2001-01-01

246

REAL-TIME PCR DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN FOOD SAMPLES OF ANIMAL ORIGIN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to follow the contamination of food with Listeria monocytogenes by using Step One real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and SensiFAST SYBR Hi-ROX Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In 24 samples of food of animal origin without incubation were detected strains of Listeria monocytogenes in 15 samples (swabs). Nine samples were negative. Our results indicated that the real-time PCR assa...

2013-01-01

247

Improvement Utilization Efficiency of Sunflower Meal as a Feed for Ruminant Animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was conducted to study the effect of blood, formaldehyde, heating or roasting on sunflower meal including chemical composition, particle size, solubility, in vitro digestion coefficient, dry matter and nitrogen degradability and true nitrogen digestion coefficient. Results of chemical composition indicated that treatments caused high significant (P<0.01) differences in comparison with untreated meal particularly in protein. It was shown that treatment with blood or roasting caused an increase in protein percentage about 7.75% and 3.81%; respectively. Treatments casued a highly significant (P<0.01) increase in particle size and reduction in small particle ratio in comparison with untreated meal. Superiority was for blood treatment. Meanwhile, solubility results reflected no significant differences between used solutions . Different treatments tended to reduce solubility compared to untreated meal. Significant reduction (p<0.01) in nitrogen solubility was for treating meal with blood or roasting . Results indicated that treatment tended to reduce (P<0.01) dry and organic mater digestion coefficients in comparison with untreated meal. Dry matter and nitrogen degradability was greatly reduced (P<0.01) compared to untreated meal, especially blood and roasting treatments . True nitrogen digestion coefficient showed high significance (P<0.01) due to treatment . This study indicated that sunflower meal protein could be protected effectively from degradation in rumen by treatment with blood or roasting without any inverse effect on nitrogen digestion and absorbability in ruminant animal abomasum and small intestine. (authors) 32 refs., 6 tabs

2001-09-01

248

Shifting the pH Profile of Aspergillus niger PhyA Phytase To Match the Stomach pH Enhances Its Effectiveness as an Animal Feed Additive  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Environmental pollution by phosphorus from animal waste is a major problem in agriculture because simple-stomached animals, such as swine, poultry, and fish, cannot digest phosphorus (as phytate) present in plant feeds. To alleviate this problem, a phytase from Aspergillus niger PhyA is widely used as a feed additive to hydrolyze phytate-phosphorus. However, it has the lowest relative activity at the pH of the stomach (3.5), where the hydrolysis occurs. Our objective was to shift the pH optim...

Kim, Taewan; Mullaney, Edward J.; Porres, Jesus M.; Roneker, Karl R.; Crowe, Sarah; Rice, Sarah; Ko, Taegu; Ullah, Abul H. J.; Daly, Catherine B.; Welch, Ross; Lei, Xin Gen

2006-01-01

249

Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia / Modelagem matemtica para energia digestivel de ingredientes de origem animal para tilpias  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi a formulao de equaes para estimar a energia digestvel em alimentos para a tilpia. Foram utilizados valores obtidos na literatura da composio centesimal em protena bruta, extrato etreo, matria mineral e energia bruta (variveis independentes), bem como a energia [...] digestvel (varivel dependente) obtidos em ensaios biolgicos. Os dados foram submetidos regresso linear mltipla "stepwise backward". Foi realizada anlise de trilha para medir os efeitos diretos e indiretos de cada varivel independente sobre a dependente. Para validar o modelo foram utilizados dados de estudos independentes, e os valores obtidos em um ensaio de digestibilidade com juvenis de tilpia do Nilo, testando-se cinco farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO), utilizando o sistema de coleta de fezes de Guelph e xido de cromo (III) como indicador. A equao obtida no pode estimar os valores de energia digestvel (ED) de origem animal e est descrito a seguir: ED (kcalkg-1) = -2364,970+1,287 x EB;R = 0,775. Os coeficientes de trilha obtidos tem valores de mdios a baixo, sendo o maior efeito direto o da energia bruta (0,529), enquanto a proteina bruta apresentou o maior efeito indireto, via energia bruta (0,439). Abstract in english The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological [...] assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals (MBM) were used, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model is described below and cannot estimate digestible energy (DE) of animal origin: DE (kcal kg-1) = -2364.970+1.287xGE;R = 0.775. The path coefficients were medium or low, the highest direct effect was from gross energy (0.529), while the highest indirect effect was from crude protein, through gross energy (0.439).

Vidal, Luiz Vtor Oliveira; Furuya, Wilson Massamitu; Martins, Elias Nunes; Xavier, Tadeu Orlandi; Michelato, Mariana; Graciano, Thmis Sakaguti.

250

INAA of human and animal whole blood samples by short term reactor irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of 15 major, minor and trace elements in human and animal blood samples. Dry whole blood samples along with NBS and IAEA standards were irradiated for 5 min, 1 h, 5 h and 10 h with reactor thermal neutrons and counted using high resolution ?-spectrometry at successive intervals. Data for a new IAEA proposed CRM Mixed Human Diet (H-9) is reported. (author)

1986-11-03

251

Sodium hypophosphite as reducing agent for determination of submicrogram quantities of mercury in animal feeds and manures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reduction of mercury in samples of dairy cattle and chicken feed rations and manures prepared by acid digestion for determination by flameless atomic absorption is rapidly, smoothly, and quantitatively effected by sodium hypophosphite. The reducing agent is air-stable, is effective over a wide range of mercury concentrations, and is useful in the presence of many mineral acids commonly used for wet digestion of these matrices. The accuracy and precision obtained in determinations with this reagent are equivalent to those obtained using stannous chloride at the same conditions. Recovery efficiencies for the total analytical procedure were studied using cattle manure and feed rations spiked to 0.6 ppm Hg as phenylmercuric nitrate; the range of recoveries varied from 93 to 102% (97% average). The absolute detection limit of the method is 10 ng Hg, and the precision varies in the range of 2.2-6% for samples containing 3 ppt-10 ppm Hg. The advantages of sodium hypophosphite lie in the elimination of premature reduction of mercury caused by traces of stannous chloride adhering to the walls of the reaction vessel, the elimination of several wash steps in the determination, and the long shelf life of the reagent. PMID:7204314

El-Ahraf, A; Van Willis, W; Vinjamoori, D V

1981-01-01

252

Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being, policies targeting intermediate pollution and final pollution create incentives for the operator to examine the effects of other management practices to reduce pollution in addition to controlling the polluting inputs. Incentive-based mechanisms are slightly more cost-effective than quantity controls when seasonal emissions fluctuate. Our approach demonstrates the importance of taking into account the spatial & temporal dynamics in the rootzone and the integrated effects of water, nitrogen, and salinity on crop yield and nitrate emissions. It also highlights the significant role the environment can play in pollution control and the potential benefits from designing policies that acknowledge this role.oss of Total Net Farm Income Under Alternative Policies

Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

2012-12-01

253

Unusual animal-plant interaction: Feeding of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae) by ants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hollow pseudobulbs of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae; Central America) serve as domatia for many species of ants. The ants pack many of the pseudobulbs with debris including dead insects, plant material, and sand. Ants were fed 14C-labelled D-glucose in honey, killed, and placed in the pseudobulbs for up to eight weeks. Samples of plant tissue were harvested and tested for radioactivity after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The labelled material had moved into various parts of the plant and demonstrated direct nutrient uptake

1989-01-01

254

Ethics and animal numbers: informal analyses, uncertain sample sizes, inefficient replications, and type I errors.  

Science.gov (United States)

To obtain approval for the use vertebrate animals in research, an investigator must assure an ethics committee that the proposed number of animals is the minimum necessary to achieve a scientific goal. How does an investigator make that assurance? A power analysis is most accurate when the outcome is known before the study, which it rarely is. A 'pilot study' is appropriate only when the number of animals used is a tiny fraction of the numbers that will be invested in the main study because the data for the pilot animals cannot legitimately be used again in the main study without increasing the rate of type I errors (false discovery). Traditional significance testing requires the investigator to determine the final sample size before any data are collected and then to delay analysis of any of the data until all of the data are final. An investigator often learns at that point either that the sample size was larger than necessary or too small to achieve significance. Subjects cannot be added at this point in the study without increasing type I errors. In addition, journal reviewers may require more replications in quantitative studies than are truly necessary. Sequential stopping rules used with traditional significance tests allow incremental accumulation of data on a biomedical research problem so that significance, replicability, and use of a minimal number of animals can be assured without increasing type I errors. PMID:21838970

Fitts, Douglas A

2011-07-01

255

Occurrence and partition of antibiotics in the liquid and solid phases of swine wastewater from concentrated animal feeding operations in Shandong Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Swine wastewater represents an important pollution source of antibiotics in the environment; however, regional data about residual antibiotics in swine wastewater are very limited at present. This study investigated the concentrations of three classes of commonly used veterinary antibiotics, including five sulfonamides (SAs), three tetracyclines (TCs) and one macrolide (tiamulin, TIA), in swine wastewater collected from 21 concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) sites in Shandong Province, China. Both the liquid and solid (i.e., suspended solids) phases of swine wastewater were analyzed to determine the total concentration of each studied antibiotic. Results indicate that sulfamethazine had the highest median concentration (14.56 ?g L(-1)), followed by oxytetracycline (OTC, 8.05 ?g L(-1)) and chlortetracycline (CTC, 6.01 ?g L(-1)). The maximum detected concentration reached up to 2.02 mg L(-1) (OTC) and the highest detection frequency was 95.1% (CTC). The median concentrations and detection frequencies of antibiotics in winter samples were generally higher than those in summer samples (except CTC). The log Kd values were in the range of 1.31-1.96 for SAs, 2.05-2.33 for TCs, and 1.54-1.58 for TIA in swine wastewater. More TCs (14-28%) preferred to partition in the solid phase than SAs (2-10%) and TIA (5-10%), indicating that the suspended solids of swine wastewater may not be ignored. PMID:23493952

Ben, Weiwei; Pan, Xun; Qiang, Zhimin

2013-04-01

256

Application of Neutron Activation Analysis to the determination of essential and toxic elements in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para a determinacao de elementos essenciais e toxicos em subprodutos agroindustriais utilizados na alimentacao animal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present work the concentrations of essential elements Ca (calcium), CI (chlorine), K (potassium), Mg (magnesium), Na (sodium), Co (cobalt), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), Fe (iron), Mn (manganese). Mo (molybdenum), Se (selenium), V (vanadium) and Zn (zinc), the toxic elements As (arsenic), Cd (cadmium) and Hg (mercury) and the elements without defined functions to the animal metabolism, such as Br (bromine), Eu (europium). La (lanthanum), Rb (rubidium), Sb (antinomies), Sc (scandium), Ta (tantalum), Th (thorium) and U (uranium) were determined in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Forty samples of agroindustrial by-products were analyzed, six of which are from animal origin and the others are from vegetable origin. All these materials are widely used in bovine feeding, mainly in dry season, when the forage become scarce. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated by means of analysis of the following certified reference materials: Rice Flour NIES-CRM-10C, Pig Kidney BCR-CRM, Oyster Tissue NIST-SRM-1566a e Buffalo River Sediment NIST-SRM-2704. The results, in general, are lower than 10 %. The results for the most of essential minerals were lower than the toxic limit for animals, and they reached the minimum requirements for domestic animals, although some agroindustrial by-products showed concentrations lower than the requirement. For all samples, the concentrations of toxic minerals were lower than the toxic limit (author)

Teruya, Carla Mitie

1999-07-01

257

Solid sampling in analysis of animal organs by two-jet plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of high-power two-jet plasma capabilities for the direct multi-elemental analysis of animal organs was undertaken. The experimental conditions chosen allow the direct analysis of different animal organs after drying and grinding to powder (particle size 20-200 {mu}m). It was found that evaporation efficiency of the samples depends on the particle size and thermal stability of tissues and can be improved by reduction of a carrier gas flow. Calibration samples based on graphite powder and a tenfold dilution of powdered samples with buffer (graphite powder containing 15% NaCl) were used. 5-10 mg of the sample was quite enough to get the detection limits of elements at the level of 0.1-10 {mu}g g{sup -1}. A prior carbonization procedure (not ashing) makes it possible to decrease the detection limits of elements by an order of magnitude. The validation of the techniques was confirmed by the analysis of certified reference materials NIST 8414, BCR 278R and NCS ZC 81001 as well as by using different sample preparation procedures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-jet plasma was used for direct analysis of powdered animal organs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis of powders with particles 20-200 {mu}m in size was possible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calibration samples based on graphite powder were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization of the sample allows decreasing detection limits of elements.

Zaksas, Natalia P., E-mail: zak@niic.nsc.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrent' eva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nevinsky, Georgy A., E-mail: nevinsky@niboch.nsc.ru [Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrent' eva 8, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15

258

Growing spirodela polyrrhiza in Swine wastewater for the production of animal feed and fuel ethanol: a Pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the performance of Spirodela polyrrhiza grown in swine wastewater for protein and starch production under field conditions, a pilot-scale duckweed culture pond was installed at Barham Farm, Zebulon, North Carolina and operated from May to November 2010. The anaerobically treated swine wastewater was fed to the duckweed pond intermittently to provide nutrients for the growth of duckweed, and the duckweed biomass was harvested regularly from the pond and prepared as a protein- or starch-rich feedstock for the production of animal feed or fuel ethanol. Over the experimental period, the duckweed pond produced protein and starch at rates of 2.68 and 1.88 g m-2 day-1, respectively. During the same time, NH4-N and o-PO4-P in the wastewater were, respectively, removed at rates of 92.9 and 2.90 mmol m-2 day-1. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

2012-07-01

259

Engineered biocatalysts: applications for high efficiency animal feed and fermentable by-products of wood and agricultural waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enzymes or biocatalysts are important in industrial processes because being degradable they are used to replace chemicals of environmental concern in many applications such as the pulp bleaching process. The use of enzymes has also increased the efficiency of many manufacturing processes, and their use not only for environmental considerations but also for lowering the operating cost of manufacturing processes is in place. Despite these advantages enzymes have problems in their industrial applications. Enzymes from industrial microbes are fragile in nature and operate in moderate conditions of temperature and acidity, etc. Protein engineering which consists in the manipulation of their amino acids may be able to improve their performance characteristics. Some mention is made of their use in animal feed. There is a need to produce alternate fuels to gasoline, which produces carbon dioxide in combustion, such as ethanol to replace or reduce the use of gasoline. Cellulose, the major part of the plant`s biomass, is an attractive feedstock for the production of ethanol. Enzymatic degradation of cellulose or hemicellulose yields simple sugars, which are fermented into ethanol. One of the technological hurdles to the performance of the cellulose degrading enzymes is their specific activity and stability. This influences the economy and viability of the bio-ethanol production, and protein engineering may be able to improve these enzymes.

Sung, Wing L. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Biological Sciences

1999-11-01

260

Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wastes by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EBF) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13% and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30oC in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran. (author)

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

1993-10-01

262

Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindicus) as an alternative feed and water source for animals during the dry season in Eritrea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Throughout East Africa, animal feed resources fluctuate seasonally and are often of limited availability. Finding alternative feed resources that can sustain animal production during the long dry season is an essential need. Cactus is a drought-tolerant and succulent feed resource available throughout the year in Eritrea. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including increasing levels of spineless cactus in the diet of sheep fed urea-treated barley straw. Twenty four fat tailed Highland male sheep with mean live weight of 21.1 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments (T1-T4). Animals in T1 received urea (5%) -treated barley straw (UTBS) alone ad libitum, while those in T, T3 and T4 received ad libitum UTBS supplemented with 175 g, 350 g and 525 g of spineless cactus (dry matter [DM] basis), respectively. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant increases in DM intake (P 0.75d and 96.5 g/ kg BWt0.75d, respectively) as compared with the first two treatments (94.4 g/kg BWt0.75d and 87.6 g/kg BWt0.75d). Water intake was significantly decreased with the progressive increase in cactus intake. The highest BWt gain (51.9 g/d) was found when sheep received 350 g DM of cactus (T3), while the lowest was in the control diet (26.8 g/d). The metabolism data demonstrated that available energy intake (TDNI) was directly related to animal performance. In conclusion, feeding cactus with UTBS can significantly increase animal performance and feed intake, and reduced water intake. (author)

2009-06-08

263

Screening of plant and fungal metabolites in wheat, maize and animal feed using automated on-line clean-up coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of plant and fungal metabolites can occur in cereals and feed but only a limited number of target compounds are sought. This screening method is using a database of over 600 metabolites to establish contamination profiles in food and feed. Extracts were injected directly into an automated turbulent flow sample clean-up system, coupled to a liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometer (Orbitrap). Compound identification criteria for database searching were defined and the approach was validated by spiking plant and fungal metabolites into cereals and feed. A small survey of market samples (15) and quality control materials (9) of maize, wheat and feed was conducted using this method. Besides regulated and known secondary metabolites, fumiquinazoline F, fusarochromanone and dihydrofusarubin were identified for the first time in samples of maize and oats. This method enables clean-up of crude extracts within 18min and screening and confirmation of a wide range of different compound classes. PMID:24001842

Ates, Ebru; Godula, Michal; Stroka, Joerg; Senyuva, Hamide

2014-01-01

264

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper compounds (E4) as feed additives for all species: cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is safe for all animal species/categories up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feed. Consumption surveys include copper from foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with copper-containing compounds has not essentially changed over the last decade, no change in the contribution of foodstuffs originating from supplemented animals to the overall copper intake of consumers is expected. No concerns for ...

2013-01-01

265

Wet combination of vegetable and animal samples for radiometric determination of carbon-14  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wet combustion technique for large samples (2-12g) of vegetable and animal origin without their preliminary homogenization and drying is developed. The samples are treated by K_2Cr_2O_7 solution in concentrated H_2SO_4. The prepared carbon dioxide is absorbed by sodium hydroxide solution, and sodium carbonate is transformed into calcium carbonate. Carbon-14 is determined by a thick-layer dispersed scintillator method or thick-layer preparations, as well as liquid scintillation method, in the latter case CaCO_3 is transformed into benzene

1986-01-01

266

Preparation of animal tissue samples for the determination of 90Sr and actinides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A unique procedure permitting the determination of 90Sr and actinides in the same portion of sample with good chemical yields of all analytes is presented. Animal tissue samples containing bone are ashed, spiked with 232U, 242Pu, 243Am and 85Sr and are solubilized. The actinides and Sr are gathered and separated by a series of coprecipitations with cerium hydroxide and cerium fluoride. The laboratory method consistently results in high chemical yields of all the analytes and overcomes interferences from phosphates and calcium. (author) 7 refs.; 5 tabs

1989-01-01

267

Studies on the control of mold and its toxin in indirect foods(animal feeds) by radiation technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For determining susceptibility of the hazard fungi in feed to radiation, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mycotoxin free feed and reconfirm liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection of mycotoxin. The growth of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi in the feeds were completely inhibited at > 3 kGy of both radiations, and the zearalenone producing fungi in the feeds was controlled at > 5 kGy of both radiations. The growth and mycotoxin productivity of three fungi (aflatoxigenic, ochratoxigenic and zearalenone producing fungi) were fully controlled at > 7 kGy of gamma-irradiation. This means that the growth and mycotoxin productivity of fungi in feed could be fully inhibited by gamma-irradiation at > 7 kGy and the safety feed also can produce and preserve by the proper radiation level and hygienic management of feed factory and livestock raiser

Chung, Duck Hwa; Shim, Won Bo; Cho, Sik Bee; Nimakashim; Song, Jung Un [Gyungsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

2010-04-15

268

Studies on the control of mold and its toxin in indirect foods(animal feeds) by radiation technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For determining susceptibility of the hazard fungi in feed to radiation, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mycotoxin free feed and reconfirm liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection of mycotoxin. The growth of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi in the feeds were completely inhibited at > 3 kGy of both radiations, and the zearalenone producing fungi in the feeds was controlled at > 5 kGy of both radiations. The growth and mycotoxin productivity of three fungi (aflatoxigenic, ochratoxigenic and zearalenone producing fungi) were fully controlled at > 7 kGy of gamma-irradiation. This means that the growth and mycotoxin productivity of fungi in feed could be fully inhibited by gamma-irradiation at > 7 kGy and the safety feed also can produce and preserve by the proper radiation level and hygienic management of feed factory and livestock raiser

2010-01-01

269

In vitro rumen feed degradability assessed with DaisyII and batch culture: effect of sample size  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro degradability with DaisyII (D equipment is commonly performed with 0.5g of feed sample into each filter bag. Literature reported that a reduction of the ratio of sample size to bag surface could facilitate the release of soluble or fine particulate. A reduction of sample size to 0.25 g could improve the correlation between the measurements provided by D and the conventional batch culture (BC. This hypothesis was screened by analysing the results of 2 trials. In trial 1, 7 feeds were incubated for 48h with rumen fluid (3 runs x 4 replications both with D (0.5g/bag and BC; the regressions between the mean values provided for the various feeds in each run by the 2 methods either for NDF (NDFd and in vitro true DM (IVTDMD degradability, had R2 of 0.75 and 0.92 and RSD of 10.9 and 4.8%, respectively. In trial 2, 4 feeds were incubated (2 runs x 8 replications with D (0.25 g/bag and BC; the corresponding regressions for NDFd and IVTDMD showed R2 of 0.94 and 0.98 and RSD of 3.0 and 1.3%, respectively. A sample size of 0.25 g improved the precision of the measurements obtained with D.

Stefano Schiavon

2010-01-01

270

Overexpression of an Acidic Endo-?-1,3-1,4-glucanase in Transgenic Maize Seed for Direct Utilization in Animal Feed  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Incorporation of exogenous glucanase into animal feed is common practice to remove glucan, one of the anti-nutritional factors, for efficient nutrition absorption. The acidic endo-?-1,3-1,4-glucanase (Bgl7A) from Bispora sp. MEY-1 has excellent properties and represents a potential enzyme supplement to animal feed. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we successfully developed a transgenic maize producing a high level of Bgl7AM (codon modified Bgl7A) by constructing a recombinant vector driven by the embryo-specific promoter ZM-leg1A. Southern and Western blot analysis indicated the stable integration and specific expression of the transgene in maize seeds over four generations. The ?-glucanase activity of the transgenic maize seeds reached up to 779,800 U/kg, about 236-fold higher than that of non-transgenic maize. The ?-glucanase derived from the transgenic maize seeds had an optimal pH of 4.0 and was stable at pH 1.08.0, which is in agreement with the normal environment of digestive tract. Conclusion/Significance Our study offers a transgenic maize line that could be directly used in animal feed without any glucanase production, purification and supplementation, consequently simplifying the feed enzyme processing procedure.

Zhou, Xiaojin; Chen, Rumei; Yang, Peilong; Meng, Qingchang; Meng, Kun; Luo, Huiying; Yuan, Jianhua; Yao, Bin; Zhang, Wei

2013-01-01

271

CHARACTERIZATION OF A PRECIPITATE REACTOR FEED TANK (PRFT) SAMPLE FROM THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sample of from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) was pulled and sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in June of 2013. The PRFT in DWPF receives Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/ Monosodium Titanate (MST) material from the 512-S Facility via the 511-S Facility. This 2.2 L sample was to be used in small-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing in the Shielded Cells Facility of SRNL. A 1L sub-sample portion was characterized to determine the physical properties such as weight percent solids, density, particle size distribution and crystalline phase identification. Further chemical analysis of the PRFT filtrate and dissolved slurry included metals and anions as well as carbon and base analysis. This technical report describes the characterization and analysis of the PRFT sample from DWPF. At SRNL, the 2.2 L PRFT sample was composited from eleven separate samples received from DWPF. The visible solids were observed to be relatively quick settling which allowed for the rinsing of the original shipping vials with PRFT supernate on the same day as compositing. Most analyses were performed in triplicate except for particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PRFT slurry samples were dissolved using a mixed HNO3/HF acid for subsequent Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analyses performed by SRNL Analytical Development (AD). Per the task request for this work, analysis of the PRFT slurry and filtrate for metals, anions, carbon and base were primarily performed to support the planned chemical process cell testing and to provide additional component concentrations in addition to the limited data available from DWPF. Analysis of the insoluble solids portion of the PRFT slurry was aimed at detailed characterization of these solids (TGA, PSD, XRD and SEM) in support of the Salt IPT chemistry team. The overall conclusions from analyses performed in this study are that the PRFT slurry consists of 0.61 Wt.% insoluble MST solids suspended in a 0.77 M [Na+] caustic solution containing various anions such as nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, carbonate and oxalate. The corresponding measured sulfur level in the PRFT slurry, a critical element for determining how much of the PRFT slurry gets blended into the SRAT, is 0.437 Wt.% TS. The PRFT slurry does not contain insoluble oxalates nor significant quantities of high activity sludge solids. The lack of sludge solids has been alluded to by the Salt IPT chemistry team in citing that the mixing pump has been removed from Tank 49H, the feed tank to ARP-MCU, thus allowing the sludge solids to settle out. ? The PRFT aqueous slurry from DWPF was found to contain 5.96 Wt.% total dried solids. Of these total dried solids, relatively low levels of insoluble solids (0.61 Wt.%) were measured. The densities of both the filtrate and slurry were 1.05 g/mL. ? Particle size distribution of the PRFT solids in filtered caustic simulant and XRD analysis of washed/dried PRFT solids indicate that the PRFT slurry contains a bimodal distribution of particles in the range of 1 and 6 ?m and that the particles contain sodium titanium oxide hydroxide Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 crystalline material as determined by XRD. These data are in excellent agreement with similar data obtained from laboratory sampling of vendor supplied MST. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of washed/dried PRFT solids shows the particles to be like previous MST analyses consisting of irregular shaped micron-sized solids consisting primarily of Na and Ti. ? Thermogravimetric analysis of the washed and unwashed PRFT solids shows that the washed solids are very similar to MST solids. The TGA mass loss signal for the unwashed solids shows similar features to TGA performed on cellulose nitrate filter paper indicating significant presence of the deteriorated filter

Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.

2014-05-12

272

REAL-TIME PCR DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN FOOD SAMPLES OF ANIMAL ORIGIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow the contamination of food with Listeria monocytogenes by using Step One real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and SensiFAST SYBR Hi-ROX Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In 24 samples of food of animal origin without incubation were detected strains of Listeria monocytogenes in 15 samples (swabs. Nine samples were negative. Our results indicated that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Listeria monocytogenes in food of animal origin without incubation. This could prevent infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes, and also could benefit food manufacturing companies by extending their products shelf-life as well as saving the cost of warehousing their food products while awaiting pathogen testing results. The rapid real-time PCR-based method performed very well compared to the conventional method. It is a fast, simple, specific and sensitive way to detect nucleic acids, which could be used in clinical diagnostic tests in the future.

Jaroslav Pochop

2013-02-01

273

Free-range pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) ?? Effect of feeding strategy on growth, feed conversion and animal behaviour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The nutritional contributions from free-range foraging, growth, feed conversion and behaviour were investigated in 36 growing pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (JA) and fed concentrates restrictedly (30% of energy recommendations) or ad libitum. Compared to the ad libitum fed pigs, the pigs fed restrictedly had a significant lower daily gain (560 vs. 1224 g pig??1), improved feed conversion ratio (17.6 vs. 42.8 MJ ME concentrate kg??1 live weight gain) and spent more time foraging JA tubers (7.9 vs. 1.1%). It is estimated that pigs fed restrictedly found approximately 60% of their energy requirement from foraging in the range.

Kongsted, Anne Grete; Horsted, Klaus

2013-01-01

274

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for all animal species or categories based on a dossier submitted by Lohmann Animal Health GmbH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum authorised content of vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs and fish, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. The FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D for target animals but considers the current maximum contents temporarily acceptable pending a review of the recent scientific literature. The two vitamin sources under application are considered safe for the target animals provided the current maximum contents in feed are respected. Any administration of vitamin D3 via water for drinking could exceed the safe amounts of vitamin D and therefore represents a safety concern. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed, and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes, and as a dermal sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful. No environmental risk resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2014-02-01

275

Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indicus) as an alternative animal feed and water resource during dry season in Eritrea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal feed and water shortage is one of the main constraints for the livestock sector in arid and semi arid region of Eritrea. The major feed resource comes from the rangeland pasture and crop residue. The quality and availability of these feed resources decreases rapidly following the rainy season. This fluctuating pattern of animal feed supply results in a pattern of gain and loss in animal growth and performance. In a country like Eritrea where feed shortage is such a serious problem, utilization of multipurpose trees and shrubs such as cactus that can cope with low and erratic rain fall, high temperature poor soils, and required low energy inputs can serve as an alternative strategy to reduce the chronic animal feed and water shortage (Barbera et al., 1995). Therefore the aim of this research was to assess the potential of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindica) as an alternative source feed and water for ruminant animals fed poor quality crop residues during the dry season in Eritrea. A randomized complete block design was used to allocate 24 fat tailed Highland male sheep with initial mean live weight of 21.1kg in two replications and one of four feed treatment groups. Animal in T1 received ad libitum amount of urea treated barley straw alone, while those in T2, T3 and T4 received ad libitum urea treated barley straw supplemented with 175g, 350g and 525g of spineless cactus (DM basis), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, four sheep were transferred to metabolic crates for the digestibility trial. Data were analyzed using standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) with help of GENSTAT statistical producer software. Spineless cactus cladodes were high in water and ash content but low in crude protein and low in crude fibre. The energy content of cactus was 65% more than the urea treated straw. The effect of increasing level of spineless cactus on feed and water intake and weight gain is presented. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant increases in DMI (P <0.001) and body weight performance (P <0.05) while deceased in water consumption (P <0.001). The highest DMI was found in the last two treatments (101.81 and 96.48 BW0.75/d, respectively), compared with the first two treatments (94.35 and 87.57 for g/kg BW0.75/d, respectively). The trend of water intake of sheep with increasing level of spineless cactus pear is presented. Sheep in T1 consume more water (2 litres/d) than the other treatments (0.85, 0.51, 0.15 litres per day for T2, T3 and T4, respectively). In East African countries, during the drought season animal daily travelled for more than 14 km to reach to watering point (Ndikumana, 2002). This justify cactus's extremely important role in saving drinking water for livestock during the dry season. The highest body weight gain (51.9g/d) was found when sheep received 350g DM of cactus (T3), while the lowest was in the control diet (26.8g/d). About a 22% body weight improvement was achieved in this study, which is quite interesting as animals loss body weight normally during the dry season, although cactus pear is abundant and succulent in this season. In this study it was evident that cactus pear supplementation improves diet digestibility. The metabolism trial demonstrated that available energy intake (DOMI or TDNI) was directly related to animal performance in the feeding trial. In conclusion, feeding cactus in combination with urea treated barley straw can significantly increased animal performance and feed intake, and significantly reduced water intake. Therefore, utilization of cactus pear as an animal feed could play a significant role in promoting sustainable livestock production by providing with an alternative feed as well as water source. (author)

2009-06-08

276

Isolation of tick and mosquito-borne arboviruses from ticks sampled from livestock and wild animal hosts in Ijara District, Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service-protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne. PMID:23805790

Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

2013-09-01

277

Intra- and inter-laboratory validation of a dipstick immunoassay for the detection of tropane alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropane alkaloids (TAs) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by plants of, inter alia, the genera Datura (thorn apple) and Atropa (deadly nightshade). The most relevant TAs are (-)-L-hyoscyamine and (-)-L-scopolamine, which act as antagonists of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors and can induce a variety of distinct toxic syndromes in mammals (anti-cholinergic poisoning). The European Union has regulated the presence of seeds of Datura sp. in animal feeds, specifying that the content should not exceed 1000mgkg(-1) (Directive 2002/32/EC). For materials that have not been ground, visual screening methods are often used to comply with these regulations, but these cannot be used for ground materials and compound feeds. Immunological assays, preferably in dipstick format, can be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitor feedstuffs in an HACCP setting in control laboratories. So far no reports have been published on immunoassays that are capable of detecting both hyoscyamine and scopolamine with equal sensitivity and that can be used, preferably in dipstick format, for application as a fast screening tool in feed analysis. This study presents the results obtained for the in-house and inter-laboratory validation of a dipstick immunoassay for the detection of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in animal feed. The target level was set at 800gkg(-1) for the sum of both alkaloids. By using a representative set of compound feeds during validation and a robust study design, a reliable impression of the relevant characteristics of the assay could be obtained. The dipstick test displayed similar sensitivity towards the two alkaloids and it could be concluded that the test has a very low probability of producing a false-positive result at blank level or a false-negative result at target level. The assay can be used for monitoring of TAs in feedstuffs, but has also potential as a quick screening tool in food- or feed-related poisonings. PMID:24823431

Mulder, Patrick P J; von Holst, Christoph; Nivarlet, Noan; van Egmond, Hans P

2014-07-01

278

Scientific Opinion on safety and efficacy of zinc compounds (E6 as feed additives for all animal species: Zinc chelate of amino acids hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zinc from zinc chelate of amino acids hydrate would not exert additional or different adverse effects in target species than those observed for zinc from authorised inorganic sources. Consequently it is concluded that the zinc chelate of amino acids hydrate is a safe source of zinc for all animal species, considering the maximum authorised contents for total zinc in feedingstuffs. The use of zinc chelate of amino acids hydrate as feed additive is not expected to modify the current consumer exposure to zinc. Therefore, no concerns for consumer safety are expected from the use of zinc chelate of amino acids hydrate in animal nutrition up to the maximum authorised levels of total zinc in feedingstuffs. The additive should be considered as a skin and eye irritant and, due to its amino acid/peptide component, as a skin sensitiser. The risk of exposure by inhalation would be low. The use of zinc as a feed additive does not pose a direct concern for the soil compartment. However, there is a potential environmental concern related to drainage and run-off of zinc to surface water. Most vulnerable for these processes are acid sandy soils. In order to draw a final conclusion, some further refinement to the assessment of zinc-based feed additives in livestock needs to be considered, for which additional data would be required. The use of zinc-containing feed additives in aquaculture up to maximum authorised zinc level in feeds is not expected to pose an appreciable risk to the environment. Zinc chelate of amino acids hydrate is recognised as an efficacious source of zinc in meeting animal requirements.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2012-03-01

279

SUBTHERAPEUTIC USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN ANIMAL FEED: IN LIGHT OF AN UNRESOLVED CLASH OF EXPERT PARADIGMS SHOULD WE PUNT TO THE CONSUMER IN DECADE FOUR?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the early 1970s, the seemingly banal and nondescript matter of the subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in animal feed ignited a contentious debate in policy circles. For three decades now, this issue has periodically surfaced and resubmerged, each time provoking a heated but ultimately unresolved debate regarding the appropriate FDA regulation of the issue. FDA has on several instances taken initial action to find itself quickly restrained either by Congress or by its own ambiguous feelings ...

Barclay, Elizabeth

1998-01-01

280

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Patent Blue V (E 131 as feed additive for non food-producing animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patent Blue V (E131 is intended to add colour to feedingstuffs. It is applied for use in non food-producing animals only. The assessment is therefore limited to its safety for the target animals and the users and its efficacy. As no tolerance data were available, the safe feed concentration for target animals was derived from a NOAEL (no observable adverse effect level from a chronic toxicity study in mice. The maximum safe feed concentration of Patent Blue V is 250 mg/kg complete feed for non food-producing animals. Patent Blue V is not genotoxic. This conclusion is limited to Patent Blue V having a minimum purity of 90 % and containing not more than 1 % of leuco base. Patent Blue V is poorly absorbed and has low systemic toxicity. In the absence of data on irritancy, sensitisation and inhalation toxicity, it would be prudent to treat Patent Blue V as an irritant and a skin sensitiser and as toxic by inhalation. Although a demonstration of efficacy is not required for additives that are used for the same function in food, an assessment of efficacy with respect to different doses and the nature of the feedingstuffs and their processing was not possible. The safety assessment is based on a Patent Blue V with a specification different from that currently used for the food additive. It is strongly recommended that the specification should be adjusted to match that of the product used in the critical genotoxicity study (in vivo comet assay. The specification for the feed additive should be: Patent Blue V with a minimum purity of 90 % and containing not more than 1 % of leuco base.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zhizeng Wang,1 Dejuan Zhi,2 Yang Zhao,1 Hailong Zhang,2 Xin Wang,2 Yi Ru,1 Hongyu Li1,2 1MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Institute of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Although high melamine (MEL intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 g/kg, 1,000 g/kg, and 800 g/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. Keywords: melamine, selenium nanoparticles, test strip, milk, animal feed, dairy food

Wang ZZ

2014-04-01

282

Bioaerosol sampling for airborne bacteria in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Airborne microorganisms within the hospital environment can potentially cause infection in susceptible patients. The objectives of this study were to identify, quantify, and determine the nosocomial potential of common airborne microorganisms present within a small animal teaching hospital. Methods: Bioaerosol sampling was done initially in all 11 rooms and, subsequently, weekly samples were taken from selected rooms over a 9-week period. Samples were collected twice (morning and afternoon at each site on each sampling day. The rooms were divided into two groups: Group 1, in which morning sampling was post-cleaning and afternoon sampling was during activity, and Group 2, in which morning sampling was pre-cleaning and afternoon sampling was post-cleaning. The total aerobic bacterial plate counts per m3 and bacterial identification were done using standard microbiological methods. Results: A total of 14 bacterial genera were isolated with the most frequent being Micrococcus spp. followed by species of Corynebacterium, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus. There was a significant interaction between location and time for rooms in Group 1 (p=0.0028 but not in Group 2 (p>0.05. Microbial counts for rooms in Group 2 were significantly greater in the mornings than in the afternoon (p=0.0049. The microbial counts were also significantly different between some rooms (p=0.0333. Conclusion: The detection of significantly higher airborne microbial loads in different rooms at different times of the day suggests that the probability of acquiring nosocomial infections is higher at these times and locations.

Tisha A. M. Harper

2013-08-01

283

Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although high melamine (MEL) intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 ?g/kg, 1,000 ?g/kg, and 800 ?g/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. PMID:24729705

Wang, Zhizeng; Zhi, Dejuan; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Xin; Ru, Yi; Li, Hongyu

2014-01-01

284

The Impact of Individual Daily Feeding on Animal Performance and Excretion of Nitrogen and Phosphorous in Growing Pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of feeding growing pigs with a traditional three-phase or with an individual daily feeding system on growth performance, the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus was studied in two pens of twenty pigs each. There is no significant difference in average daily feed intake between these two groups (p = 0.11 but the average daily lysine intake is lower significantly (-21.9% in individual daily feeding group (p<0.001. Compare to the three-phase groups, the protein intake during the experiment period was 13.4% less in the pigs fed with individual daily diet (p = 0.01, however with a greater ADG (+5.3%, p = 0.29. Individual daily feeding pigs reduced nitrogen and phosphorus intake, respectively by 17.0 and 9.7% and the corresponding excretions were reduced, respectively by 40.5 and 31.2%. In conclusion, the individual daily feeding method is an effective method that can reduce the intake of nitrogen and phosphorus and then reduce the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion and the feed cost.

Gong-She Yang

2011-01-01

285

Efecto de la alimentacin animal sobre la calidad microbiolgicade estircoles usados como fertilizantes / Effect of animal feeding on the microbiological quality of manures used as fertilizers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de evaluar la relacin entre el tipo de dieta recibida por los animales sobre la calidad microbiolgica de las excretas de bovinos, aves y cerdos y su uso como fertilizantes, se recolectaron muestras de las correspondientes excretas animales (EA), en granjas ubicadas en distintas lo [...] calidades de los estados Aragua, Carabobo y Yaracuy. En un diseo experimental completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones, se compararon los siguientes tratamientos basados en tres tipos de excretas: vacuno o bosta (B), de gallina o gallinaza (G) y porcino o cerdaza (C), en combinacin con dos diferentes dietas alimenticias (D1 y D2), diferentes en cada caso, suministrados a los animales. Se les determin el contenido de bacterias y hongos totales, bacterias coliformes totales y fecales. No se observ una respuesta concreta relacionada con la dieta sobre el nmero bacterias y hongos presentes en las EA estudiadas. El mayor nmero de bacterias se encontr en la bosta y el mayor numero de hongos en la gallinaza. En general, la cantidad de coliformes fecales, encontradas en las EA estudiadas, estuvo en el rango de 2 x 106 a 7 x 107 NMP/g. Estos valores excedieron los valores permitidos para estos patgenos en materiales orgnicos de origen animal para su uso como fertilizantes orgnicos. La bosta con ambas dietas mostr tener el menor grado de estabilizacin, determinada en base a la cantidad de C mineralizado. En base a las similitudes encontradas entre las variables estudiadas, los tratamientos fueron agrupadas, mediante un anlisis cluster, de acuerdo a sus cargas microbianas, patgenos, o de condiciones de fertilizacin, encontrndose tres grupos claramente definidos: Grupo I: BD1 y BD2; Grupo II: GD1, GD2 y CD1 y el Grupo III: CD2. El primer grupo tuvo una condicin menos estable asociado a la mineralizacin y aun mayor nmero de bacterias, el segundo fue estable como abono orgnico y con capacidad para inmovilizar menor cantidad de N, pero con un alto riesgo para la salud pblica por su carga de patgenos. El tercer grupo, de altsimo riesgo para la salud pblica, potencialmente lo cuestiona en su uso como fertilizante orgnico. Abstract in english To evaluate the relationship between type of diet and microbiology quality of cow, hen, and pig manure used as fertilizers, we collected samples of each manure (M) from farms located in Aragua, Carabobo, and Yaracuy states, Venezuela. On the basis of a completely randomized experimental design with [...] four repetitions, the following treatments were compared: bovine (B), poultry (G), and pork (C) manures, in combination with two different types of diets (D1 and D2) provided to the animals, for six treatments. Samples were processed and analyzed for total bacteria and fungi contents, and total and fecal coliform bacteria. There was not a specific effect of the type of diet on the number of bacteria and fungi among the manures. The higher content of bacteria and fungi was observed in bovine and poultry manures, respectively. In general, the amount of fecal coliforms found in the manures ranked between 2 x 106 to 7 x 107 MPN/g. These values exceed those values internationally allowed for these pathogens in the manures used as fertilizers. Manures were grouped on the basis of their similarities of microbial loads, pathogens or fertilizer conditions, in three well defined groups: I: BD1 and BD2, II: GD1, GD2 and CD1, and III: CD2. Group I, with less stable conditions, was associated to the mineralization and higher number of bacteria. The second was more stable as organic fertilizer with lesser capacity to immobilize the N, but with a high risk for the public health due to its high load of pathogens. The third group had the highest risk for public health that compromises its use as organic fertilizer.

Yusmary, Espinoza; Marcos J, Hernndez Z; Teresa V, Barrera Ch; Nstor E, Obispo.

286

Effect of concentrate level on feeding behavior and rumen and blood parameters in dairy goats: Relationships between behavioral and physiological parameters and effect of between-animal variability.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work aimed first to compare 2 diets differing in their percentage of concentrate [low (LO): 30% concentrate vs. High (HI): 60% concentrate] by measuring simultaneously feeding behavior, rumen parameters, blood and plasma parameters, and milk yield and composition in 8 mid-lactation goats. The second aim was to study the interrelationships between these variables and to analyze the between-animal variability to better understand the between-animal differences in acidosis susceptibility. All of the animals received the 2 diets ad libitum as total mixed ration according to a crossover design of two 4-wk periods. Mean daily DMI was similar between the 2 diets but the variability was higher for the HI than for the LO diet. Goats produced more milk when fed the HI diet compared with the LO diet but with a lower fat:protein ratio (0.81 vs. 0.99). They ate more rapidly the HI than the LO diet but stopped eating sooner after the afternoon feed allowance, and spent less time chewing. The increase in concentrate percentage modified rumen parameters: the pH and acetate:propionate ratio decreased and total VFA, ammonia, and soluble carbohydrate concentrations increased. Hematocrit, plasma NEFA, and blood K and Ca concentrations decreased but glycemia and uremia increased. Other parameters were not modified: milk fat content, blood pH, and bicarbonate and Na concentrations. A large between-animal variability was detected for all the measured parameters, especially for feeding behavior, with important consequences on rumen and blood parameters. This work confirmed the effects of a high percentage of concentrate on feeding behavior, rumen and blood parameters, and milk production, and some known relationships such as the positive link between rumen pH and chewing index. It also pointed out other relationships between parameters seldom measured at the same time, such as rumen redox potential or blood pH and chewing index, or the negative link between blood and rumen pH. When the animals spent a lot of time chewing, they probably produced a lot of saliva that buffered the rumen pH and prevented them from suffering from subacute ruminal acidosis. However, they used part of their blood bicarbonates reserve, which might have induced metabolic acidosis, as rumen and blood pH were inversely related. This could explain why some animals suffer from acidosis and others do not in a herd receiving the same diet, and why some animals seem to suffer more from subacute ruminal acidosis and others from metabolic acidosis. PMID:24952476

Giger-Reverdin, S; Rigalma, K; Desnoyers, M; Sauvant, D; Duvaux-Ponter, C

2014-07-01

287

METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

GRIFFIN PW

2009-08-27

288

METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING and SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

2009-01-01

289

The black economic empowerment in the animal feed milling industry in South Africa / by Louis Lukas Swanepoel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Broad base black economic empowerment redresses historical and social inequalities in a manner that does not have a negative impact on existing enterprises. Transforming existing agribusinesses create opportunities for black businessmen to contribute to the economy of the country. The Balanced Feed Manufacturers Association was established in 1945 when the need for better structuring in the industry and a mouthpiece for the feed industry to liaise with inter alia the government, was identifie...

2007-01-01

290

Application of advanced synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy to animal nutrition and feed science: a novel approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform IR (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive and bioanalytical technique. This technique, taking advantage of synchrotron light brightness and a small effective source size, is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry within the microstructures of a biological tissue without the destruction of inherent structures at ultraspatial resolutions within cellular dimensions. This is in contrast to traditional 'wet' chemical methods, which, during processing for analysis, often result in the destruction of the intrinsic structures of feeds. To date there has been very little application of this technique to the study of feed materials in relation to animal nutrient utilisation. The present article reviews four applications of the SR-FTIR bioanalytical technique as a novel approach in animal nutrition and feed science research. Application 1 showed that using the SR-FTIR technique, intensities and the distribution of the biological components (such as lignin, protein, lipid, structural and non-structural carbohydrates and their ratios) in the microstructure of plant tissue within cellular dimensions could be imaged. The implication from this study is that we can chemically define the intrinsic feed structure and compare feed tissues according to spectroscopic characteristics, functional groups, spatial distribution and chemical intensity. Application 2 showed that the ultrastructural-chemical makeup and density of yellow- and brown-seeded Brassica rape could be explored. This structural-chemical information could be used for the prediction of rapeseed quality and nutritive value for man and animals and for rapeseed breeding programmes for selecting superior varieties for special purposes. More research is required to define the extent of differences that exist between the yellow- and brown-seeded Brassica rape. Application 3 showed with the SR-FTIR technique that chemical differences in the ultrastructural matrix of endosperm tissue between Harrington (malting-type) and Valier (feed-type) barley in relation to rumen degradation characteristics could be identified. The results indicated that the greater association of the protein matrix with the starch granules in the endosperm tissue of Valier barley may limit the access of ruminal micro-organisms to the starch granules and thus reduce the rate and extent of rumen degradation relative to that of Harrington barley. It is the first time that the microstructural matrix in the endosperm of barley has been revealed by using the SR-FTIR technique, which makes it possible to link feed intrinsic structures to nutrient utilisation and digestive behaviour in ruminants. Application 4 showed with the SR-FTIR technique that the chemical features of various feed protein (amide I) secondary structures (such as feather, wheat, oats and barley) could be quantified. With a multi-component fitting program (Lorentz function), the results showed feather containing about 88% beta-sheet and 4% alpha-helix, barley containing about 17% beta-sheet and 71% alpha-helix; oats containing about 2% beta-sheet and 92% alpha-helix; and wheat containing about 42% beta-sheet and 50% alpha-helix. The relative percentage of the two may influence protein value. A high percentage of beta-sheet may reduce the access of gastrointestinal digestive enzymes to the protein structure. Further study is required on feed protein secondary structures in relation to enzyme accessibility and digestibility. In conclusion, the SR-FTIR technique can be used for feed science and animal nutrition research. However, the main disadvantage of this technique is the requirement for a special light source; a synchrotron beam. PMID:15613249

Yu, P

2004-12-01

291

Monoclonal antibody-based fluorescence polarization immunoassay for high throughput screening of furaltadone and its metabolite AMOZ in animal feeds and tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and fast homogeneous fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA) was developed for the determination of furaltadone and its metabolite 3-amino-5-methylmorpholino-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ). Monoclonal antibody with high cross-reactivity to furaltadone and the nitrophenyl derivative of AMOZ (NPAMOZ) were produced against a novel immunogen and the effects of several synthesized tracers on FPIA sensitivity studied. The proposed FPIA, using an optimum antibody and tracer pair, had an IC?? of 4.3 g L? and limit of detection at 0.6 g L? for furaltadone, and 2.7 gL? and 0.3 g L? for NPAMOZ. Recoveries of furaltadone from animal feeds by FPIA ranged from 79.6 to 87.7%, while recoveries of AMOZ from animal tissues ranged from 72.9 to 83.1%. Good correlation (R>0.99) between the results of this FPIA and a standard analytical method was obtained. The FPIA does not require separation or washing steps and the total time required for equilibrium of the antibody-tracer interaction is only 10 min. These results indicated that the proposed FPIA offers great potential and utility for the high throughput screening of furaltadone residues in animal feed and its metabolite AMOZ residues in animal tissues. PMID:23445479

Xu, Zhen-Lin; Zhang, Shi-Wei; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Shen, Yu-Dong; Lei, Hong-Tao; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Eremin, Sergei A; Yang, Jin-Yi; Wang, Hong

2013-07-01

292

Improving animal productivity through meeting nutrient deficiencies with multi-nutrient blocks, enhancing utilization efficiency of alternate feed resources, and controlling internal parasites: A summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Livestock farming is crucially important for provision of animal-based food products for the population, and as a source of income for many resource-poor farmers in developing countries. With the increase in human population and economic growth of many Asian countries, the demand for livestock products is likely to double in the coming 20 years. However, the main constraint to livestock development in these countries is the scarcity and fluctuation in the quality and quantity of the year-around animal feed supply. Increased populations and industrialization are making arable land scarce and in addition a large area of the available arable land is being degraded due to human activities. For sustainable development of the livestock sector it is essential for RCA (Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific) member countries to secure sufficient supplies of balanced feeds from resources which do not compete with human food. The conventional feeds such as soya bean, groundnut, rapeseed meals etc. are either not available or are available at very high cost. Most of the RCA member states have recognized the need to efficiently utilize locally available feed resources such as tree and shrub leaves, agro-industrial by-products and other lesser-known and new plants adapted to the harsh conditions and capable of growing in poor, marginal and degraded soils. A severe setback impacted to the livestock industry during the nineties by the financial crisis in Indonesia, Thailand, South Korea and Malaysia has played an important role in highlighting the importance of research and development in this area. Another important limiting factor for enhancing animal productivity in tropical countries is the heavy internal parasitic load in livestock. The development of economically viable and environmentally friendly strategies and their strategic use for controlling internal parasites were also identified by the participating countries as one of the priority areas to be addressed in the project

2006-12-01

293

Development of a multi-channel waveform sampling ASIC for animal PET with DOI information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector module for high-resolution animal PET with depth-of-interaction (DOI) information has been proposed. It consists of finely granulated scintillators individually coupled to each pixel of a multi-array Avalanche Photodiode. Scintillators of different decay times are stacked as in a phoswich detector to provide DOI information by pulse shape discrimination. Since each channel will be readout individually for high sensitivity and spatial resolution, a power efficient and highly integrated multi-channel Waveform Sampling Front-End (WSFE) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) have been developed. Each channel of the WSFE ASIC consists of a preamplifier, a variable gain amplifier and a fast Analog to Digital Converter to digitize signals at an early stage

2004-06-01

294

Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in African countries. The ruminants in the smallholder sector depend on natural pasture and fibrous crop residues for their survival, growth, reproduction and production. Since quality and quantity of the natural pasture vary with season, animals dependent on it are subjected to nutritional stress in the dry season when feed resources are senesced and in short supply leading to decreased animal productivity. The main objective of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project 11-17 (RAF/5/041) was the improvement of ruminant livestock production in AFRA Member States. It had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'Self-coating Radioimmunoassay' technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The project has developed a number of feed supplementation packages using feed resources available on-farm and by-products from agro-industrial processes. The packages involve the use of multi-nutrient blocks containing molasses and urea or poultry litter, ensilage of fibrous crop residues with poultry litter, leguminous fodder, mineral blocks etc. These packages have been evaluated on-station and on-farm to assess their potential to enhance productivity of ruminants. The cost-benefit ratio for feeding supplementation packages has been established. As a result of their use, income of the farmers has been shown to increase substantially. Needless to say, the scientists, agricultural extension officers, policy makers and the governments must work hand-in-hand to capitalize on this and ensure wider application and extension of the packages, and develop strategies for sustaining them. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone has been used in this project mainly for the assessment of ovarian activity in order to evaluate reproductive performance in animals that are subjected to different feed supplementation strategies. It was, however, realised that this technique has potential to monitor and improve existing support services to livestock farmers such as artificial insemination and to introduce new services such as early diagnosis of non-pregnancy and infertility. In order to ensure future sustainability of the RIA for use in such applications, the work on the second component has now been taken under a new project (RAF/5/046). This publication contains the results presented by the scientists of National Agricultural Research Systems of African countries who participated in the Final Review meeting held in Cairo, Egypt from 25 to 29 November 2000, which dealt with only the nutrition component, Development and Field Evaluation of Feed Supplementation Strategies. This publication also contains some selected papers presented at the National Training Workshop on Field Evaluation and Development of the Dry Season Feed Supplementation Packages for Ruminant Animals in the Traditional Smallholder Farms organized with financial assistance from the IAEA, from 25 to 29 July 1999, in Lusaka, Zambia

2000-11-25

295

Extraction of hemicellulose from ryegrass straw for the production of glucose isomerase and use of the resulting straw residue for animal feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hemicellulose fraction of ryegrass straw was extracted with NaOH and used for the production of glucose isomerase by Streptomyces flavogriseus. The level of hemicellulose extracted increased proportionately with increasing NaOH concentration up to about 4%, then the rate of increase slowed down. Hemicellulose extraction was facilitated by the combined application of heat and NaOH. Approximately 15% hemicellulose (12% as pentosan) could be obtained by treating straw with 4% NaOH for either 3 hours at 90/sup 0/C or 24 hour at room temperature. The highest level (3.04 units/ml culture) of intracellular glucose isomerase was obtained when the organism was grown at 30 degrees Centigrade for two days on 2% straw hemicellulose. The organism also produced a high yield of glucose isomerase on xylose or xylan. The NaOH treated straw residue, after removal of hemicellulose, had approximately 75% higher digestibility and 20% higher feed efficiency for weanling meadow voles than untreated straw, but almost the equivalent to that obtained by NaOH treatment without removal of the hemicellulose. Thus, the residue could be used as animal feed. A process for the production of glucose isomerase and animal feed from ryegrass straw was also proposed.

Chen, W.P.; Anderson, A.W.

1980-03-01

296

Strontium 90 content in bone samples of deer and domestic animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative radioecological determination of 90Sr content in leg bone samples of wild deer from Bulgaria (Veliko Tyrnovo), rain deer from Finland (Lapland) and domestic cows and pigs from Bulgaria have been carried out. The study includes four Finish rain deer, three of them 1-5 Y old, shut in 1991, and one - 13.5 Y old, shut in 1974, two Bulgarian deer, 5-6 Y old, shut in 1991, two cows and a pig killed in 1991. The samples have been prepared by a standard procedure. The fumic nitric acid method has been used for chemical separation of 90Sr, and a low background beta plastic scintillation device - for counting, The results show that the contamination effect is better expressed in the wild animals due to their specific open air manner of life. The 90Sr activities vary from 41,5 to 136.9 Bq/kg bone in the Bulgarian deer, from 219.5 to 386.1 Bq/kg bone in the three younger Finish deer, and from 1921.0 to 1967.9 Bq/kg bone in the oldest rain deer. The higher 90Sr values in the samples of the Finish deer can be connected with the specific trophic chain of these animals and the important role in it of lichen. The quantity of 90Sr in the investigated pig is 10-20 times lower than its content in the deer (2.1 - 4.4 Bq/kg bone). It is explained with the pig's age (10 months old) and the diet based on food grown about 5 years after Chernobyl. There is no significant difference in 90Sr content of the cows' and deer's samples. This is due to their very similar zoological systems of eating and similar trophic chains (open pasture). The data obtained show a good reproducibility proved by the similar values of the radiochemical yields achieved (60-70%) in each of the analysis made. 1 tab., 1 refs

1993-07-01

297

Detection and genetic characterization of foot?and?mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A total of 1501 oral swab samples from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between July 2008 and August 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot?and?mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA. The oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets in Pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in Afghanistan (n = 61) and both the live animal markets in Tajikistan (n = 120) all tested negative. However, 2 of 129 (?2%) samples from Gondal and 11 of 123 (9%) from Chichawatni markets in Pakistan were positive for FMDV RNA. Similarly, 12 of 81 (15%) samples from Kabul and 10 of 20 (50%) from Badakhshan in Afghanistan were found to be positive. Serotypes A and O of FMDV were identified within these samples. Oral swab samples were also collected from dairy colonies in Harbanspura, Lahore (n = 232) and Nagori, Karachi (n = 136), but all tested negative for FMDV. In the Landhi dairy colony, Pakistan, a cohort of 179 apparently healthy animals was studied. On their arrival within the colony, thirty?nine (22%) of these animals were found positive for FMDV RNA (serotype A was identified), while 130 (72.6%) had antibodies to FMDV non?structural proteins. Thus, newly introduced animals may be a significant source of the disease in the colony. Only two animals from the cohort were detected as becoming positive for FMDV RNA during a follow?up period of 4 months; however, only 10 animals remained negative for anti?NSP antibodies during this period.

Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, G.

2012-01-01

298

Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this systematic review was to collect data concerning the effects of diets containing GM maize, potato, soybean, rice, or triticale on animal health. We examined 12 long-term studies (of more than 90 days, up to 2 years in duration) and 12 multigenerational studies (from 2 to 5 generations). We referenced the 90-day studies on GM feed for which long-term or multigenerational study data were available. Many parameters have been examined using biochemical analyses, histological examination of specific organs, hematology and the detection of transgenic DNA. The statistical findings and methods have been considered from each study. Results from all the 24 studies do not suggest any health hazards and, in general, there were no statistically significant differences within parameters observed. However, some small differences were observed, though these fell within the normal variation range of the considered parameter and thus had no biological or toxicological significance. If required, a 90-day feeding study performed in rodents, according to the OECD Test Guideline, is generally considered sufficient in order to evaluate the health effects of GM feed. The studies reviewed present evidence to show that GM plants are nutritionally equivalent to their non-GM counterparts and can be safely used in food and feed. PMID:22155268

Snell, Chelsea; Bernheim, Aude; Berg, Jean-Baptiste; Kuntz, Marcel; Pascal, Grard; Paris, Alain; Ricroch, Agns E

2012-03-01

299

Improving animal productivity and reproductive efficiency: Strategic supplementation of feeds with legume forages and non-conventional plant resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Identification and evaluation of potential plant resources and their dissemination among rural farmers have been attempted. The work was done in three phases. In the first phase, laboratory evaluation of proximate components, in vitro digestibility and energy contents was carried out. Fifteen plant species were evaluated in this phase. Some of the plant species (Sesbania, Dhaincha, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were promising, containing relatively large amounts of protein (18 - 34%) and having high digestibility values (53 - 60%). Some species contained reasonably good levels of metabolizd energy (6.5- 8.5 MJ/kg). In the second phase, four promising species (Sesbania, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were offered as supplements to lactating and growing cattle, in four in vivo feeding trials carried out on-station. Supplementation with Sesbania gave significantly (P <0.01) higher milk yields, resulting from increased feed intake and digestibility of organic matter (OM) and crude fibre (CF). Lathyrus also gave similar results in terms of milk yield and digestibility but had little effect on feed intake. Leucaena supplementation also significantly (P <0.05) increased milk yield but not feed intake or digestibility. Crotalaria gave a significant (P <0.05) increase in live-weight gain of growing calves. In the third phase, Sesbania, Lthyrus and Leucaena forages were grown by rural smallholders for feeding to their cattle. The forages were fed to lactating cows as supplements to straw-based diets. All the forage supplements resulted in increased milk yield compared to the control diets, however, Sesbania gave the best result in terms of output. The practice of cultivating legume forages and feeding to cattle receiving straw diets created enormous interest among the farmers as the increase in milk yield was cost effective. (author)

2006-12-01

300

Importance of sampling design and analysis in animal population studies: a comment on Sergio et al  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The use of predators as indicators and umbrellas in conservation has been criticized. In the Trentino region, Sergio et al. (2006; hereafter SEA) counted almost twice as many bird species in quadrats located in raptor territories than in controls. However, SEA detected astonishingly few species. We used contemporary Swiss Breeding Bird Survey data from an adjacent region and a novel statistical model that corrects for overlooked species to estimate the expected number of bird species per quadrat in that region. 2. There are two anomalies in SEA which render their results ambiguous. First, SEA detected on average only 6.8 species, whereas a value of 32 might be expected. Hence, they probably overlooked almost 80% of all species. Secondly, the precision of their mean species counts was greater in two-thirds of cases than in the unlikely case that all quadrats harboured exactly the same number of equally detectable species. This suggests that they detected consistently only a biased, unrepresentative subset of species. 3. Conceptually, expected species counts are the product of true species number and species detectability p. Plenty of factors may affect p, including date, hour, observer, previous knowledge of a site and mobbing behaviour of passerines in the presence of predators. Such differences in p between raptor and control quadrats could have easily created the observed effects. Without a method that corrects for such biases, or without quantitative evidence that species detectability was indeed similar between raptor and control quadrats, the meaning of SEA's counts is hard to evaluate. Therefore, the evidence presented by SEA in favour of raptors as indicator species for enhanced levels of biodiversity remains inconclusive. 4. Synthesis and application. Ecologists should pay greater attention to sampling design and analysis in animal population estimation. Species richness estimation means sampling a community. Samples should be representative for the community studied and the sampling fraction among communities compared should be the same on average, otherwise formal estimation approaches must be applied to avoid misleading inference.

Kery, M.; Royle, J.A.; Schmid, H.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Determination of nitrofurans in animal feeds by liquid chromatography-UV photodiode array detection and liquid chromatography-ionspray tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the EU, the use of nitrofurans is prohibited in food production animals. For this reason detection of these compounds in feedingstuffs, at whatever limit, constitutes an offence under EU legislation. This detection generally involves the use of analytical methods with limits of quantification lowers than 1 mg kg(-1). These procedures are unsuitable for the detection and confirmation of trace amounts of nitrofurans in feedingstuffs due to contamination. It is well known that very low concentrations of these compounds can be the source of residues of nitrofuran metabolites in meat and other edible products obtained from animals consuming the contaminated feed. The present multi-compound method was capable of measuring very low concentrations of nitrofurantoin (NFT), nitrofurazone (NFZ), furazolidone (FZD) and furaltadone (FTD) in animal feed using nifuroxazide (NXZ) as internal standard. Following ethyl acetate extraction at mild alkaline conditions and purification on NH2 column, the nitrofurans are determined using liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (LC-DAD). It was observed a CCalpha ranged from 50 to 100 microg kg(-1). The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) procedure was used to confirm the identity of the suspected presence of any of the nitrofuran compounds. PMID:17386735

Barbosa, Jorge; Moura, Sara; Barbosa, Rita; Ramos, Fernando; da Silveira, Maria Irene Noronha

2007-03-14

302

SPECIATION OF ARSENIC ANIMAL FEED ADDITIVES BY MICROBORE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenylarsonic compounds have been used as poultry and swine feed additives for the purpose of growth promotion and disease prevention. Owing to the lack of suitable analytical methods, however, knowledge of their metabolism, environmental fate and impact remains incomplete. In or...

303

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2) as feed additives for all animal species: calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide, based on a dossier submitted by Ajay Europe SARL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide as sources of iodine is considered safe for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses, cats and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3, 6 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two scenarios applying the currently authorised maximum iodine contents in feed and reduced contents. T...

Efsa, Panel On Additives And Products Or Substances Used In Animal Feed

2013-01-01

304

Relaes planta-animal em ambiente pastoril heterogneo: padres de deslocamento e uso de estaes alimentares / Plant-animal relationships in a heterogeneous pastoral environment: displacement patterns and feeding station use  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se como o padro de deslocamento e de utilizao de estaes alimentares podem ser afetados por alturas de manejo de 4, 8, 12 e 16 cm numa pastagem nativa. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e duas repeties no tempo e no espao. Os animais experime [...] ntais foram avaliados por meio de testes de pastejo de 45 minutos, para determinao dos nmero de bocados, nmero de estaes alimentares e nmero de passos, utilizando-se contadores, com exceo do nmero de bocados, que foi registrado pelo aparelho IGER Behaviour Recorder. Observou-se correlao positiva entre altura do pasto e massa de forragem e correlao negativa entre alturas do pasto e densidade de forragem. As variveis avaliadas diferiram entre bezerras e ovelhas. O nmero de estaes alimentares por minuto diminuiu de forma quadrtica com o aumento da altura do pasto. O nmero de bocados por estao alimentar visitada e o tempo por estao alimentar aumentaram de forma quadrtica com o aumento da altura do pasto e foram afetados negativamente pela baixa densidade de forragem nos estratos superiores das maiores alturas do pasto. Na altura de 12 cm, as bezerras executaram mais bocados por estao alimentar e permaneceram mais tempo em cada estao alimentar; o mesmo foi observado na altura de 8 cm para as ovelhas. medida que menos estaes alimentares foram utilizadas, como resposta s variveis anteriores, os animais andaram mais a passos mais lentos. Em alturas do pasto entre 8 e 12 cm, os animais permanecem mais tempo pastejando nas estaes alimentares e percorrem distncias maiores procura de novos locais para o pastejo. Abstract in english This study assessed how the displacement patterns and feeding station used can be affected by sward heights of 4, 8, 12 and 16 cm. A randomized complete design was used with two replication in time and space. The animals were evaluated by 45- minute grazing tests, to determine the number of bites, n [...] umber of feeding stations and number of steps using counters, except for number of bites, which was registered by the IGER Behaviour Recorder device. A positive correlation was observed between sward height and herbage mass, and negative correlation between sward height and herbage bulk density. Differences between female calves and ewes were observed in all variables evaluated. The number of feeding station per minute decreased quadratically with increasing sward height. The number of bites per feeding station and time per feeding station increased quadratically with increasing sward height and were affected negatively by the lower herbage bulk density in the upper strata of the higher sward heights. Female calves, at 12 cm sward height, carried out more bites per feeding station and remained longer at each feeding station. The same behaviour was observed for ewes at 8 cm sward height. As less feeding stations were used, as a response to the previous variables, the animals walked more with slower steps. Thus, at sward heights between 8 and 12 cm the animals remained more time grazing each feeding station and covered longer distances searching for new grazing sites.

Edna Nunes, Gonalves; Paulo Csar de Faccio, Carvalho; Thais, Devincenzi; Marlia Lazzarotto Terra, Lopes; Fabiana Kellermann de, Freitas; Aino Victor vila, Jacques.

305

Short communication: measurements of methane emissions from feed samples in filter bags or dispersed in the medium in an in vitro gas production system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to compare methane (CH4) emissions from different feeds when incubated within filter bags for in vitro analysis or directly dispersed in the medium in an automated gas in vitro system. Four different concentrates and 4 forages were used in this study. Two lactating Swedish Red cows were used for the collection of rumen fluid. Feed samples were milled to pass a 1.0-mm screen. Aliquots (0.5 g) of samples were weighed directly in the bottles or within the F 0285 filter bags that were placed in the bottles. Gas samples were taken during 24 and 48 h of incubation, and CH4 concentration was determined. The data were analyzed using a general linear model. Feeds differed significantly in CH4 emission both at 24 and at 48 h of incubation. The interaction between feed and method on methane emission in vitro was significant, indicating that the ranking of feeds was not consistent between the methods. Generally, greater amounts of CH4 were emitted from samples directly dispersed in the medium compared with those incubated within the filter bags, which could be a result of lower microbial activity within the filter bags. The ratio of CH4 to total gas was greater when the feeds were incubated within bags compared with samples directly dispersed in the medium. Incubating samples in filter bags during 48 h of incubation cannot be recommended for determination of CH4 emission of feeds in vitro. PMID:23628246

Ramin, M; Krizsan, S J; Jan?k, F; Huhtanen, P

2013-07-01

306

Scientific Opinion on safety and efficacy of cobalt compounds (E3) as feed additives for all animal species: Cobaltous acetate tetrahydrate, basic cobaltous carbonate monohydrate and cobaltous sulphate heptahydrate, based on a dossier submitted by TREAC EEIG  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cobalt(III) is a component of cobalamin. Its essentiality as trace element results from the capacity of certain animal species to synthesise cobalamin by the gastrointestinal microbiota. Feeding supplemental cobalt from the additives under application up to the maximum total content in feed set in EU is considered safe for all animal species/categories; margin of safety is around 10. Cobalt is predominantly excreted via faecal route. Absorbed cobalt follows aqueous excretion routes. ...

2012-01-01

307

Validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening for quinolones in egg, poultry muscle and feed samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quinolones are a group of chemotherapeutic agents with an excellent efficiency against poultry pathogens. Two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests have been applied in parallel for the qualitative screening analysis of several quinolones in eggs, poultry muscle and feeds at the required levels. During the validation study, carried out according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria, two different sample treatments were compared in foods: the simple and fast procedure suggested by the kit producer (Euro-Diagnostica) and a more complex solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample preparation. The results demonstrated that the method based on SPE clean up exhibited better characteristic performances, particularly in eggs for which lower detection levels are required. Despite the fact that screening methods should be rapid and cheap, the use of non-chromatographic techniques such as ELISA for multiresidual detection of a class of substances involves some additional attention to sample preparation. PMID:19286040

Scortichini, Giampiero; Annunziata, Loredana; Di Girolamo, Valeria; Buratti, Roberta; Galarini, Roberta

2009-04-01

308

Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

Stuart, M.L.

1995-09-01

309

Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of 137Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff

1995-01-01

310

Eficincia bioeconmica de estratgias de alimentao em sistemas de produo de leite: 1. Produo por animal e por rea Bioeconomic evaluation of feeding strategies in milk production systems: 1. Production per animal and per area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se aplicar um modelo de simulao para avaliao bioeconmica de estratgias de alimentao para rebanhos leiteiros e avaliar a produtividade fsica e a eficincia bioeconmica de sistemas de alimentao com diversas estratgias de alimentao base de volumosos para vacas de cinco nveis de produo de leite. Utilizou-se uma plataforma computacional desenvolvida com os programas CNCPS v.5.0 e planilhas eletrnicas do Microsoft Excell, de forma a simular a produo e as exigncias de nutrientes de uma lactao completa para vacas de diferentes nveis de produo. Foram realizadas anlises econmicas em sete estratgias de alimentao. A avaliao da receita subtrada dos custos com alimentao (RMCA comprovou interao entre a estratgia de alimentao e o nvel de produo de leite. As estratgias com alimentao base de silagem de milho durante a poca da seca e pastagens na poca das guas resultaram em maiores RMCA para todos os nveis de produo de leite, apesar de as demais estratgias apresentarem resultados prximos dependendo do nvel de produo de leite. Nas estratgias avaliadas, quanto maior a produo de leite por vaca maior a produtividade (PROD/ha e a RMCA por rea (RMCA/ha. Quanto maior a capacidade de suporte dos volumosos, ou quanto maior a taxa de lotao que determinada rea foi submetida, considerando determinada estratgia de alimentao e determinado nvel de produo de leite, maior a PROD/ha e RMCA/ha. Para a RMCA por vaca, volumosos de maior densidade energtica resultam em diminuio dos custos de alimentao e aumento da receita por animal. A RMCA/ha fortemente influenciada pela capacidade de suporte das forrageiras em todos os nveis de produo.This work was carried out to apply a simulation model for the bioeconomic evaluation of feeding strategies for dairy herds and evaluate the physical productivity and the bioeconomic efficiency of feeding systems for dairy cows using feeding forage based strategies for cows with five levels of milk yield. An computational platform developed with the programs CNCPS v5.0 and electronic spreadsheets of Microsoft Excell was used, in way to simulate the production and demands of nutrients of a complete lactation for cows of different milk yield levels. Economic analyses in seven strategies of feeding were carried out. The income over feed costs (RMCA showed interaction among the feeding strategy with the milk yield levels. The strategies based on corn silage during the dry season and pastures during rain season resulted in higher RMCA for all milk yield levels, although the other feeding strategies present closed results, depending on the milk yield level. In the evaluated strategies, as higher was the milk yield per cow, greater was the productivity (PROD/ha and the RMCA per area (RMCA/ha. As higher was the carrying capacity of forages or the stoking rate, which determined area was submitted, considering determined feeding strategy and milk production level, higher was PROD/ha and the RMCA/ha. For RMCA per cow, forages of greater energy density result in decreased feeding costs and increase in the income per animal. The RMCA/ha was strongly influenced by the support capacity of the forages, in all milk yield levels.

Francisco Palma Renn

2008-04-01

311

Eficincia bioeconmica de estratgias de alimentao em sistemas de produo de leite: 1. Produo por animal e por rea / Bioeconomic evaluation of feeding strategies in milk production systems: 1. Production per animal and per area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se aplicar um modelo de simulao para avaliao bioeconmica de estratgias de alimentao para rebanhos leiteiros e avaliar a produtividade fsica e a eficincia bioeconmica de sistemas de alimentao com diversas estratgias de alimentao base de volumosos para vacas de cinco nveis [...] de produo de leite. Utilizou-se uma plataforma computacional desenvolvida com os programas CNCPS v.5.0 e planilhas eletrnicas do Microsoft Excell, de forma a simular a produo e as exigncias de nutrientes de uma lactao completa para vacas de diferentes nveis de produo. Foram realizadas anlises econmicas em sete estratgias de alimentao. A avaliao da receita subtrada dos custos com alimentao (RMCA) comprovou interao entre a estratgia de alimentao e o nvel de produo de leite. As estratgias com alimentao base de silagem de milho durante a poca da seca e pastagens na poca das guas resultaram em maiores RMCA para todos os nveis de produo de leite, apesar de as demais estratgias apresentarem resultados prximos dependendo do nvel de produo de leite. Nas estratgias avaliadas, quanto maior a produo de leite por vaca maior a produtividade (PROD/ha) e a RMCA por rea (RMCA/ha). Quanto maior a capacidade de suporte dos volumosos, ou quanto maior a taxa de lotao que determinada rea foi submetida, considerando determinada estratgia de alimentao e determinado nvel de produo de leite, maior a PROD/ha e RMCA/ha. Para a RMCA por vaca, volumosos de maior densidade energtica resultam em diminuio dos custos de alimentao e aumento da receita por animal. A RMCA/ha fortemente influenciada pela capacidade de suporte das forrageiras em todos os nveis de produo. Abstract in english This work was carried out to apply a simulation model for the bioeconomic evaluation of feeding strategies for dairy herds and evaluate the physical productivity and the bioeconomic efficiency of feeding systems for dairy cows using feeding forage based strategies for cows with five levels of milk y [...] ield. An computational platform developed with the programs CNCPS v5.0 and electronic spreadsheets of Microsoft Excell was used, in way to simulate the production and demands of nutrients of a complete lactation for cows of different milk yield levels. Economic analyses in seven strategies of feeding were carried out. The income over feed costs (RMCA) showed interaction among the feeding strategy with the milk yield levels. The strategies based on corn silage during the dry season and pastures during rain season resulted in higher RMCA for all milk yield levels, although the other feeding strategies present closed results, depending on the milk yield level. In the evaluated strategies, as higher was the milk yield per cow, greater was the productivity (PROD/ha) and the RMCA per area (RMCA/ha). As higher was the carrying capacity of forages or the stoking rate, which determined area was submitted, considering determined feeding strategy and milk production level, higher was PROD/ha and the RMCA/ha. For RMCA per cow, forages of greater energy density result in decreased feeding costs and increase in the income per animal. The RMCA/ha was strongly influenced by the support capacity of the forages, in all milk yield levels.

Renn, Francisco Palma; Pereira, Jos Carlos; Leite, Carlos Antnio Moreira; Rodrigues, Marcelo Teixeira; Campos, Oriel Fajardo de; Fonseca, Dilermando Miranda da; Renn, Luciana Navajas.

312

Arrangement for the analysis of feed water- and condensate samples of power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of the feedwater- and condensate sample of condensation heat power plants and nuclear power plants results from the determination of the concentrations of salt and NH3. The sample is led through a multistep concentrator with evaporators. On the outlet of the evaporator are throttles for the outlet of the steam-gas-mixture. The throttle on the first evaporator is designed in a way that carbonic acid escapes from the sample, which is measured by a conductivity transmitter. A conductivity transmitter with an outlet signal that is proportional to the NH3 content is also located on the throttle of the second evaporator. (RW)

1979-01-01

313

Determination of melamine in animal feed based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis and dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled on-line with strong cation-exchange resin clean-up.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a new method was developed for the determination of melamine (MEL) in animal feed. The method was based on the on-line coupling of dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) to strong cation-exchange (SCX) resin clean-up. The MEL was first extracted by 90% acidified methanol aqueous solution (v/v, pH = 3) under the action of microwave energy, and then the extract was cooled and passed through the SCX resin. Thus, the protonated MEL was retained on the resin through ion exchange interaction and the sample matrixes were washed out. Some obvious benefits were achieved, such as acceleration of analytical process, together with reduction in manual handling, risk of contamination, loss of analyte, and sample consumption. Finally, the analyte was separated by a liquid chromatograph with a SCX analytical column, and then identified and quantitatived by a tandem mass spectrometry with positive ionization mode and multiple-reaction monitoring. The DMAE parameters were optimized by the Box-Behnken design. The linearity of quantification obtained by analyzing matrix-matched standards is in the range of 50-5,000 ng g(-1). The limit of detection and limit of quantification obtained are 12.3 and 41.0 ng g(-1), respectively. The mean intra- and inter-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviations with three fortified levels (50, 250, and 500 ng g(-1)) are 5.1% and 7.3%, respectively, and the recoveries of MEL are in the range of 76.1-93.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine MEL in different animal feeds obtained from the local market. MEL was detectable with the contents of 279, 136, and 742 ng g(-1) in three samples. PMID:19756536

Chen, Ligang; Zeng, Qinglei; Du, Xiaobo; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Xiaopan; Xu, Yang; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Ding, Lan

2009-11-01

314

[Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and seneciosis in farm animals. Part 2: clinical signs, species-specific sensitivity, food residues, feed contamination, limit values].  

Science.gov (United States)

At the forefront of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) poisoning is the chronic ingestion of contaminated hay, which causes liver damage resulting in an ongoing fatal liver cirrhosis or in the veno-occlusive disease in liver or lung, respectively. The symptomatology of PA-poisoning is not identical for all animal species, and also includes central nervous symptoms. In affected horses significantly elevated levels of hepatogenic serum enzymes and an increase of the retention time for bromosulfophthalein indicates the fatal outcome of the intoxication. Chronic seneciosis of horses is incurable. Rabbits, Japanese quails, and guinea pigs are regarded as poison-resistant species. Sheep and in particular goats are insensitive unless extremely high amounts of plants which exceed the animal's body weight by several-fold are ingested. In contrast, pigs, cattle, and horses as well as chicken and likewise man are very sensitive to poisonings by PA-containing plants. In sensitive animal species a very small amount of contaminated dry hay is needed to exceed the daily dose of 1g/kg body weight PA which is taken as harmless for man by health authorities. Therefore, all feed with visible pieces of Senecio jacobaea plants are not acceptable as animal fodder and should be destroyed. PMID:22167081

Petzinger, E

2011-01-01

315

Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of iron compounds (E1) as feed additives for all species: iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, as source of iron is considered safe for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iron in complete feed, with the exception of bovines and poultry for which the maximum tolerated level is 450 mg/kg complete feed, and pets, for which the maximum tolerated level is 600 mg/kg complete feed. The FEEDAP Panel is not in the position to derive a maximum safe iron concentration in feed for horses o...

2013-01-01

316

Isotope analytics for the evaluation of the feeding influence on the isotope ratio in beef samples; Isotopenanalytik zur Bestimmung des Einflusses der Ernaehrung auf die Isotopenzusammensetzung in Rinderproben  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information about the origin of food and associated production systems has a high significance for food control. An extremely promising approach to obtain such information is the determination of isotope ratios of different elements. In this study the correlation of the isotope ratios C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, Mg-25/Mg-24, and Sr-87/Sr-86 in bovine samples (milk and urine) and the corresponding isotope ratios in feed was investigated. It was shown that in the bovine samples all four isotope ratios correlate with the isotope composition of the feed. The isotope ratios of strontium and magnesium have the advantage that they directly reflect the isotope ratios of the ingested feed since there is no isotope fractionation in the bovine organism which is in contrast to the case of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. From the present feeding study it is evident, that a feed change leads to a significant change in the delta C-13 values in milk and urine within 10 days already. For the deltaN-15 values the feed change was only visible in the bovine urine after 49 days. Investigations of cows from two different regions (Berlin/Germany and Goestling/Austria) kept at different feeding regimes revealed no differences in the N-15/N-14 and Mg-26/Mg-24 isotope ratios. The strongest correlation between the isotope ratio of the bovine samples and the kind of ingested feed was observed for the carbon isotope ratio. With this ratio even smallest differences in the feed composition were traceable in the bovine samples. Since different regions usually coincide with different feeding regimes, carbon isotope ratios can be used to distinguish bovine samples from different regions if the delta C-13 values of the ingested feed are different. Furthermore, the determination of strontium isotope ratios revealed significant differences between bovine and feed samples of Berlin and Goestling due to the different geologic realities. Hence the carbon and strontium isotope ratios allow the best discrimination between bovine samples of different locations. In some cases these ratios even show indications for the production system (conventional and organic cattle breeding).

Herwig, Nadine

2010-11-17

317

Development and validation of a method for the determination of sub-additive levels of virginiamycin in compound animal feeds by liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for the detection of virginiamycin M1 as a marker compound of virginiamycin at sub-additive level in pig, calf, piglet, sow, poultry, cattle and laying hen feeds was developed and validated. Both UV detection at 230 nm and MS detection were applied. Virginiamycin M1 was extracted from animal feeds with ethyl acetate after wetting of the feed with water followed by clean-up on Sep-Pak silica gel and OASIS HLB cartridges. Analysis of extracts was carried out on an Inertsil ODS-2 column with acetonitrile-water-formic acid as the mobile phase and UV detection at 230 nm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 2.7 mg kg(-1). The proposed method was validated at a target species dependent minimum required performance limit (MRPL), at 2MRPL and at 5MRPL levels in pig, calf, piglet, sow, poultry, cattle and laying hen feeds. Recoveries at target species dependent MRPL levels ranged from 38 to 67%, within-day repeatabilities from 7 to 19% and within-laboratory reproducibilities from 13 to 27%. The proposed UV method is primarily suitable for screening purposes at subadditive levels, but semi-quantitative data can also be produced. Three MS detection modes (ion-source CID, full MS and MS2) were tested as an alternative and/or extension to UV detection. The selectivity and sensitivity of both LC-MS2 and LC-MS were much better than those of UV detection at 230 nm. PMID:11534601

Hajee, C A; van Rhijn, H J; Lasaroms, J J; Keukens, H J; de Jong, J

2001-08-01

318

Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of iron compounds (E1 as feed additives for all species: iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, as source of iron is considered safe for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iron in complete feed, with the exception of bovines and poultry for which the maximum tolerated level is 450 mg/kg complete feed, and pets, for which the maximum tolerated level is 600 mg/kg complete feed. The FEEDAP Panel is not in the position to derive a maximum safe iron concentration in feed for horses or fish. Consumption surveys include iron-containing foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with iron-containing compounds has not essentially changed during the last decades, it is reasonable to assume that the iron levels in food of animal origin used in exposure scenarios originated from animals fed iron-supplemented diets. Since iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, will be used as a substitute for other iron compounds, its use in animal nutrition would not modify consumer exposure to iron. The additive should be considered as a skin, eye and respiratory irritant and, owing to its residual peptide component, as a skin/respiratory sensitiser. Considering the high background concentration of iron in soil and water, the supplementation of feed with iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, is not expected to pose an environmental risk. Iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, is an effective source of iron for all animal species and categories. The FEEDAP Panel recommends that the maximum iron contents in complete feed be reduced as follows: bovines and poultry, 450 mg Fe/kg; and pets, 600 mg Fe/kg.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-07-01

319

Caractersticas y potencialidades de Moringa oleifera, Lamark: Una alternativa para la alimentacin animal / Characteristics and potential of Moringa oleifera, Lamark: An alternative for animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Moringa oleifera es la especie ms conocida del gnero Moringa. Es un rbol originario del sur del Himalaya, el nordeste de la India, Bangladesh, Afganistn y Pakistn. Se encuentra diseminado en una gran parte del planeta y en Amrica Central; se conoce con diversos nombres comunes: palo jeringa, a [...] cacia y jazmn francs, entre otros. El presente artculo trata diferentes aspectos de esta especie, tales como: su origen y distribucin, los factores agronmicos y la produccin de biomasa, la composicin qumica y su utilizacin. Es una planta que se destaca por sus mltiples usos y adaptacin a diferentes condiciones edafoclimticas, por lo que constituye una opcin para la alimentacin, sobre todo en los pases tropicales. Se concluye que la arbustiva M. oleifera tiene una gran plasticidad ecolgica, ya que es capaz de adaptarse a las ms diversas condiciones de suelo y clima. Su valor nutricional y los elevados rendimientos de biomasa, la hacen un recurso fitogentico de importancia en los sistemas de produccin. Adems es una planta que se puede emplear como cerca viva, cortina rompevientos, abono verde y para la produccin de etanol y goma, entre otros; de ah que sea una especie interesante para el trpico. Abstract in english Moringa oleifera is the most widely known species of the Moringa genus. It is a tree which originated in the south of the Himalayas, northeast India, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is distributed over a large part of the planet and in Central America; it is known with different common name [...] s: drumstick tree, acacia and French jasmine, among others. This paper addresses different aspects of this species, such as: its origin and distribution, agronomic factors and biomass production, chemical composition and utilization. It is a plant which stands out for its multiple usages and adaptation to different edaphoclimatic conditions, for which it constitutes a choice for feeding, especially in tropical countries. The tree M. oleifera is concluded to have large ecological plasticity, because it is capable of adapting to the most diverse soil and climate conditions. Its nutritional value and high biomass yields make it an important plant genetic resource in production systems. It is also a plant which can be used as living fence, windbreak, green manure and for ethanol and gum production, etc.; hence it is an interesting species for the tropics.

Prez, A; Snchez, Tania; Armengol, Nayda; Reyes, F.

320

Ethics and Animal Numbers: Informal Analyses, Uncertain Sample Sizes, Inefficient Replications, and Type I Errors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To obtain approval for the use vertebrate animals in research, an investigator must assure an ethics committee that the proposed number of animals is the minimum necessary to achieve a scientific goal. How does an investigator make that assurance? A power analysis is most accurate when the outcome is known before the study, which it rarely is. A pilot study is appropriate only when the number of animals used is a tiny fraction of the numbers that will be invested in the main study becau...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Antimicrobial Growth Promoters Used in Animal Feed: Effects of Less Well Known Antibiotics on Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

There are not many data available on antibiotics used solely in animals and almost exclusively for growth promotion. These products include bambermycin, avilamycin, efrotomycin, and the ionophore antibiotics (monensin, salinomycin, narasin, and lasalocid). Information is also scarce for bacitracin used only marginally in human and veterinary medicine and for streptogramin antibiotics. The mechanisms of action of and resistance mechanisms against these antibiotics are described. Special emphasis is given to the prevalence of resistance among gram-positive bacteria isolated from animals and humans. Since no susceptibility breakpoints are available for most of the antibiotics discussed, an alternative approach to the interpretation of MICs is presented. Also, some pharmacokinetic data and information on the influence of these products on the intestinal flora are presented.

Butaye, Patrick; Devriese, Luc A.; Haesebrouck, Freddy

2003-01-01

322

New EU legislation for risk assessment of GM food: no scientific justification for mandatory animal feeding trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

This commentary focuses on the potential added value of and need for (sub)-chronic testing of whole genetically modified (GM) foods in rodents to assess their safety. Such routine testing should not be required since, due to apparent weaknesses in the approach, it does not add to current risk assessment of GM foods. Moreover, the demand for routine testing using animals is in conflict with the European Union (EU) Commission's efforts to reduce animal experimentation. Regulating agencies in the EU are invited to respect the sound scientific principles applied to the risk assessment of foods derived from GM plants and not to interfere in the risk assessment by introducing extra requirements based on pseudo-scientific or political considerations. PMID:23786622

Kuiper, Harry A; Kok, Esther J; Davies, Howard V

2013-09-01

323

Decontamination and detoxification strategies for the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in animal feed and the effectiveness of microbial biodegradation  

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Abstract Deoxynivalenol (DON) is of great importance among food contaminants because of its frequent occurrence in toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide. Since the toxin production depends strongly on environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity, a Fusarium toxin contamination can not be avoided completely. Therefore, exposure to this toxin is a permanent health risk for both humans and farm animals. As cereal crops are commonly contaminated with DON and an...

2010-01-01

324

Antimicrobial Growth Promoters Used in Animal Feed: Effects of Less Well Known Antibiotics on Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are not many data available on antibiotics used solely in animals and almost exclusively for growth promotion. These products include bambermycin, avilamycin, efrotomycin, and the ionophore antibiotics (monensin, salinomycin, narasin, and lasalocid). Information is also scarce for bacitracin used only marginally in human and veterinary medicine and for streptogramin antibiotics. The mechanisms of action of and resistance mechanisms against these antibiotics are described. Special emphas...

2003-01-01

325

Examining the nexus between domestic violence and animal abuse in a national sample of service providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Companion animals play a complex role in families impacted by violence. An outlet of emotional support for victims, the family pet often becomes a target for physical abuse. Results from a comprehensive e-survey of domestic violence shelters nationwide (N = 767) highlight both improvements and existing gaps in service provision for domestic violence victims and their pets. Quantitative and qualitative data noted frequently encountered obstacles to successful shelter seeking by abuse victims with companion animals including a lack of availability, funding, space, and reliable programming. Although results indicate an overall improvement in organizational awareness, fewer than half of surveyed shelters include intake questions about animals. Continued awareness and an expansion of services is needed to create viable safety planning strategies and reliable alternatives for women with companion animals in order to improve the likelihood that abuse victims will seek escape and refuge for themselves, their children, and their pets. PMID:22594221

Krienert, Jessie L; Walsh, Jeffrey A; Matthews, Kevin; McConkey, Kelly

2012-01-01

326

Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma. 204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition. Red palm oil decreased total chicken plasma cholesterol, confirming the cholesterol reducing effect of this dietary oil.

2013-01-01

327

Degradation of caffeine by microorganisms and potential use of decaffeinated coffee husk and pulp in animal feeding / Degradao de cafena por microrganismos e o emprego da palha e polpa de caf descafeinados na alimentao animal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A palha e a polpa de caf so subprodutos obtidos durante o processamento do caf, aps a colheita. A primeira produzida quando o caf processado pela via seca, enquanto que a outra, pela via mida. Como no Brasil predomina a produo de caf pela primeira via, o volume de palha enorme. Alm d [...] o seu uso como adubo orgnico, pouco tem sido a utilizao da palha para outras finalidades, devido principalmente ao volume que ela ocupa. Particularmente sua utilizao na formulao de raes para animais, a presena de taninos e cafena diminuem sua aceitao e palatabilidade. Nesta reviso discute-se a degradao de cafena por microrganismos, particularmente bactrias, com vistas na sua utilizao para descafeinar a palha e polpa de caf para uso na alimentao animal. Inicialmente comenta-se sobre as rotas bioqumicas da degradao de cafena por microrganismos. Na segunda parte da reviso so levantados os problemas referentes aos efeitos fisiolgicos da cafena em animais, limitando seu uso na composio de raes. A terceira parte da reviso aborda a questo da possibilidade do uso de microrganismos para diminuir o teor do alcalide na palha e polpa de caf, aumentando a aceitao pelos animais, logo, permitindo sua maior adio em raes em substituio aos cereais. Abstract in english Coffee husk and coffee pulp are coffee processing by-products. Coffee husk is obtained when harvested coffee is processed by the dry method, and coffee pulp is produced by the wet method. In Brazil, coffee is usually processed by the dry method, therefore an expressive amount of husk is obtained eve [...] ry year. Some of the husk is used as organic fertilizer but, other applications are very limited, mainly because it is a bulky product. The presence of tannins and caffeine diminish acceptability and palatability of husk by animals. This review discuss degradation of caffeine by microorganisms, with special attention to bacterial, biological decaffeination of coffee husk and pulp and its subsequent use on animal feeding. The known biochemical routes of caffeine degradation by microorganisms are initially discussed; problems concerning physiological effects in animals, focusing on the limitations imposed by caffeine as an antiphysiological component are raised; the use of microorganisms to decaffeinate coffee husk and pulp is discussed. The discussions offer a view on decreasing caffeine content of coffee husk and pulp, which would allow the use of larger amounts of these products in animal feeding, partially replacing traditional components such as cereal grains.

Paulo, Mazzafera.

328

Effects of Childhood Adversity on Bullying and Cruelty to Animals in the United States: Findings from a National Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined effects of type of and cumulative burden of childhood adversities on bullying and cruelty to animals in the United States. Data were derived from Waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Structured psychiatric interviews were

Vaughn, Michael G.; Fu, Qiang; Beaver, Kevin M.; DeLisi, Matt; Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.

2011-01-01

329

Optimal Condition for Determination of Zinc Bacitracin, Polymyxin B, Oxytetracycline and Sulfacetamide in Animal Feed by Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography  

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Abstract Separation of zinc bacitracin, polymyxin B, oxytetracycline and sulfacetamide in animal feedstuff by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was developed. The running buffer was 20 mmol L-1 borate 20 mmol L-1 phosphate, pH 8.4, containing 20 mmol L-1 sodium dodecylsulphate and 10 % (v/v) methanol. MEKC was performed at 25?C, the applied voltage was 25 kV and running pressure of 10 mbar was applied. Simultaneous UV detection for all analytes was at 215 nm...

2008-01-01

330

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of fumaric acid as a feed additive for all animal species  

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Fumaric acid is currently authorised as a preservative in feedingstuffs for all animal species. Fumaric acid is considered safe for pigs and poultry provided that an expected use level of 20 000 mg/kg in complete diets for pigs and poultry is not exceeded. The margin of safety for pigs and poultry is approximately two. The tolerated fumaric acid concentration in complete diets for ruminants is higher. The margin of safety for pigs, poultry and ruminants is sufficiently high that setting a max...

2013-01-01

331

Standard-free method for hoof samples taken from domestic animals such as cow, calf, pony and sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A standard-free method for hoof samples taken from cattle such as cow, calf, pony and sheep has been developed in order to estimate the state of health of these animals. The standard-free method developed for human nails was confirmed to be applicable to quantitative analysis of hoof samples since the shape of continuous X-rays is almost the same for nail and hoof taken from these ungulate animals. Accuracy and sensitivity of the present standard method were examined by comparing the results with those obtained by an internal-standard method combined with a chemical-ashing method, and it is confirmed that the method is applicable to hoof samples taken from domestic animals of many species. The method allows us to quantitatively analyze untreated hoof samples and to prepare the targets without complicated preparation technique which often brings ambiguous factors such as elemental loss from the sample and contamination of the sample during preparation procedure. It is also confirmed that halogens, which are important elements for estimating the state of health and are mostly lost during chemical-ashing, can be analyzed without problem by the present method. It is found that elemental concentration of more than twenty elements can be constantly analyzed and it is expected to be quite useful in order to estimate the state of health and to make diagnosis of domestic animals. It is also confirmed that elemental concentration of essential elements in hoof is not so changed depending on the positions in the sliced sample along both horizontal and vertical axis. (author)

2009-01-01

332

Communal Rangeland Rest in Arid Area, a Tool for Facing Animal Feed Costs and Drought Mitigation: The Case of Chenini Community, Southern Tunisia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out at the communal rangeland in the community of Chenini, Southern Tunisia aiming at assessing the effect of the rest technique on plant cover dynamics and productivity. In both protected and grazed (control rangelands, total plant cover, species richness as well as biomass production and range value were determined. The results showed considerable and positive effects of protection on the parameters scored. The short term protection (2 years only permitted an increase of the rangeland production of about about 352000 forage units, an equivalent of 352 tones barley. In addition to the conservation of biodiversity and natural resources, the communal rangeland rest may be considered as an interesting technical option and tool to face the increase of animal feeding resources costs and to mitigate drought in Southern Tunisia.

Azaiez Ouled Belgacem

2008-01-01

333

Feed safety in the feed supply chain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth?promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

Pinotti, L.

2011-01-01

334

Mtodos de determinao dos teores de amido e pectina em alimentos para animais (Determination methods of starch and pectin levels in animal feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A separao dos carboidratos no fibrosos (CNF em fraes nutricionalmente mais relevantes, por meio de anlises de seus componentes, tais como cidos orgnicos, mono e oligossacardeos, amido e fibra solvel contribuem para avanos na formulao de dietas. A pectina, embora seja um carboidrato associado parede celular, no covalentemente unida s pores lignificadas e completamente digerida no rmen (90 a 100%. Com a importncia destes compostos na alimentao de ruminantes, esta reviso tem por objetivo descrever alguns mtodos de avaliao de amido e pectina em alimentos para animais. The separation of non fiber carbohydrates (NFC in nutritionally more relevant fractions, by analysis of its components, such as organic acids, mono and oligosaccharides, starch and soluble fiber contribute to advances in diet formulation. Pectin, although an cellular wall associated carbohydrate, is not covalent linked to lignified portions and is completely digested in the rumen (90 and 100%. With the importance of these components in ruminant feeding, this revision has the objective of describe some starch and pectin evaluation methods in animal feeds

Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

2006-01-01

335

Animal Feed Additive and the Effect of the Fusarium Toxin Deoxynivalenol on the Electrophysiological Measurement of Transepithelial Ion Transport of Young Chickens with Ussing Chamber Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presence of mycotoxins in poultry feeds is a significant factor for financial losses to animal industries. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated feed by chickens causes injury to the gastrointestinal tract. DON has negative effects on the active transport of some nutrients in the small intestine of chickens. We tested the hypothesis that prefeeding with probiotic (Eubacterium sp. or inulin, as a prebiotic, would attenuate these effects. Whereas, there is evidence in chicken that dietary supplementation with probiotic and prebiotic affect the intestinal microflora, increased the paracellular permeability and increased the villus length and villus area of the small intestine. The question of whether these changes affect the toxic effects of DON on the electrogenic glucose transport in the chicken intestine or not needs to be clarified. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of DON in the presence or absence of dietary (Eubacterium sp. or inulin on the electrophysiological response of the gut to glucose. The results indicated that in the absence of clinical signs and without impaired performance, DON appeared to alter the gut function of broilers. The addition of Eubacterium sp. may be useful in counteracting the toxic effects of DON on intestinal glucose transport. But, the dietary inulin supplementation of the broilers improved the glucose transport in the presence of DON and kept it at normal levels.

W.A. Awad

2009-01-01

336

Different periods of feed restriction before compensatory growth in Belgian Blue bulls: I. animal performance, nitrogen balance, meat characteristics, and fat composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls were maintained at a rate of gain of .5 kg/d during four periods of time, 115 (G2), 239 (G3), or 411 (G4) d (low growth period, LGP), before fattening (rapid growth period, RGP). Ten control animals (CG) were fed a diet rich in energy and protein. The G2, G3, and G4 were fed a diet low in energy and protein and the same diet as CG during RGP. Live weight was recorded biweekly, feed intake (FI) daily, and nitrogen balance at three times for each group. At the slaughterhouse, the 7, 8, and 9th ribs were removed to determine carcass composition, meat quality, and meat and fat composition. Compensatory growth reached a maximum 2 mo after refeeding and then decreased rapidly, leading to a sharp increase in the feed conversion ratio. Nitrogen balance was higher in compensating groups ( P < .05). Compensating animals had higher carcass connective and adipose tissue contents (P < .05) but lower meat fat content (P < .05). Cattle exhibiting compensatory growth had higher redness, yellowness, cooking losses, and drip losses, but had lower Warner-Bratzler peak shear force values. The saturated fatty acid content of the fat decreased with the duration of the LGP. During the first 2 mo after refeeding, compensatory growth in double-muscled bulls was ascribed to one or more of the following mechanisms: higher FI, lower maintenance requirements, or better efficiency of lean meat production. Compensatory growth at the expense of higher FI increased peripheral fat but decreased intramuscular fat deposition. PMID:9464906

Hornick, J L; Van Eenaeme, C; Clinquart, A; Diez, M; Istasse, L

1998-01-01

337

FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY FOR FISHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for commercial manufacturers to produce very small quantities of specialized feeds. Most feed mills will only produce custom formulations in quantities of more than one ton, and medicated feeds are usually sold in 50-pound bags. Small fish farmers, hobbyists and laboratory technicians are, therefore, left with the option of buying large quantities of expensive feed, which often goes to waste. Small quantities of fish feeds can be made quite easily in the laboratory, classroom, or at home, with common ingredients and simple kitchen or laboratory equipment. Hence, this review provides the knowledge about the fish feed formulation and feeding technology concerned with the live feed for fish larvae, fish feeds, fish feed ingredients, common fish feed stuffs, animal and plant sources of feeds for culture fish, and fish feeding methods.

Govind Pandey

2013-03-01

338

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine (betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glycine betaine (betaine) acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride as feed additives up to a supplemen...

Efsa, Panel On Additives And Products Or Substances Used In Animal Feed

2013-01-01

339

Confirmatory analysis of 17beta-boldenone, 17alpha-boldenone and androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione in bovine urine, faeces, feed and skin swab samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The origin, i.e. natural occurrence or illegal treatment, of findings of 17alpha-boldenone (alpha-Bol) and 17beta-boldenone (beta-Bol) in urine and faeces of cattle is under debate within the European Union. A liquid chromatographic positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometric method is presented for the confirmatory analysis of 17beta-boldenone, 17alpha-boldenone and an important metabolite/precursor androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD), using deuterium-labelled 17beta-boldenone (beta-Bol-d3) as internal standard. Detailed sample preparation procedures were developed for a variety of sample matrices such as bovine urine, faeces, feed and skin swab samples. The method was validated as a quantitative confirmatory method according to the latest EU guidelines and shows good precision, linearity and accuracy data, and CCalpha and CCbeta values of 0.1-0.3 and 0.4-1.0 ng/ml, respectively. Currently, the method has been successfully applied to suspect urine samples for more than a year, and occasionally to faeces, feed and swab samples as well. Results obtained from untreated and treated animals are given and their impact on the debate about the origin of residues of 17beta-boldenone is critically discussed. Finally, preliminary data about the degree of conjugation of boldenone residues are presented and a simple procedure for discrimination between residues from abuse versus natural origin is proposed. PMID:14751796

Nielen, Michel W F; Rutgers, Paula; van Bennekom, Eric O; Lasaroms, Johan J P; van Rhijn, J A Hans

2004-03-01

340

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Trouw Nutritional International B.V.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glycine betaine (betaine) acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed...

Efsa, Panel On Additives And Products Or Substances Used In Animal Feed

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2) as feed additives for all animal species: calcium iodate anhydrous, based on a dossier submitted by Calibre Europe SPRL/BVBA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of calcium iodate anhydrous as a source of iodine is considered safe for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses, cats and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3, 6 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two scenarios applying the currently authorised maximum iodine contents in feed and reduced contents. The iodine content of...

Efsa, Panel On Additives And Products Or Substances Used In Animal Feed

2013-01-01

342

Continued studies of the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium by rodents: relationships to feeding regimen and age of animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In mice that are consuming food ad libitum the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium (and its subsequent retention in liver and skeleton) has been shown to be a factor of about 10 lower than it is in the fasted anaimal. It has been found that the time required to achieve the fasted state is less than two hours for mice that are at the end of their diurnal, inactive phase and between 4 and 8 hours for mice that are 4 hours into their active phase. The absorption of plutonium appears to depend on the nature of materials in the G.I. tract, i.e., properties of the food consumed, rather than amounts present. The fractional absorption of plutonium from the G.I. tract by the rat decreases with age in the unweaned animal, from 7 x 10"-_3 on day 1 to 3 x 10"-_3 on day 19 (the latter value being the same as that for the fasted adult) and with weaning to 1 x 10"-_4 on day 29

1982-11-01

343

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Trouw Nutritional International B.V.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glycine betaine (betaine acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns for consumer safety. In the absence of data, betaine anhydrous should be considered hazardous by inhalation, irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes and a skin sensitiser. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become efficacious in all animal species and categories when administered via feed or water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations on (i introduction of a maximum content for supplemental betaine in complete feed and water for drinking; (ii avoidance of simultaneous use of betaine in feed and water for drinking; and (iii avoidance of simultaneous inclusion of betaine and choline chloride in premixtures.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-05-01

344

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine (betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glycine betaine (betaine acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride as feed additives up to a supplementation rate of 2 000 mg betaine/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns for consumer safety. In the absence of data, betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride should be considered hazardous by inhalation, as irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes, and skin sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become efficacious in all animal species and categories when administered via feed or water for drinking. Betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride are considered as nutritionally equivalent sources of betaine. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations on (i introduction of a maximum content for supplemental betaine in complete feed and water for drinking; (ii avoidance of simultaneous use of betaine in feed and water for drinking; (iii avoidance of simultaneous inclusion of betaine and choline chloride in premixtures; and (iv protection of users when handling the additives.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-05-01

345

Estimating the abundance of clustered animal population by using adaptive cluster sampling and negative binomial distribution  

Science.gov (United States)

An estimator for finding the abundance of a rare, clustered and mobile population has been introduced. This model is based on adaptive cluster sampling (ACS) to identify the location of the population and negative binomial distribution to estimate the total in each site. To identify the location of the population we consider both sampling with replacement (WR) and sampling without replacement (WOR). Some mathematical properties of the model are also developed.

Bo, Yizhou; Shifa, Naima

2013-09-01

346

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2 as feed additives for all animal species: calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide, based on a dossier submitted by Ajay Europe SARL  

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Full Text Available The use of calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide as sources of iodine is considered safe for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses, cats and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3, 6 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two scenarios applying the currently authorised maximum iodine contents in feed and reduced contents. The iodine content of food of animal origin, if produced taking account of the currently authorised maximum content of iodine in feed, would represent a substantial risk to high consumers. The risk would originate primarily from the consumption of milk and to a minor extent from consumption of eggs. The UL for adults (600 g/day would be exceeded by a factor of 2, and that for toddlers (200 g/day by a factor of 4. If the authorised maximum iodine in feed for dairy cows and laying hens were reduced to 2 and 3 mg I/kg feed, respectively, the exposure of adult consumers would be below the UL. However, iodine intake in high-consuming toddlers would remain above the UL (1.6-fold. In the absence of data, the additives are considered as irritant to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract, and as dermal sensitisers. Exposure by inhalation should be avoided. The use of the additives in animal nutrition is not expected to pose a risk to the environment. Calcium iodate and potassium iodide are efficacious sources of iodine to meet animal requirements. The FEEDAP Panel recommends that the maximum iodine contents in complete feed be reduced as follows: dairy cows and minor dairy ruminants, 2 mg I/kg; laying hens, 3 mg I/kg; horses, 3 mg I/kg; cats, 6 mg I/kg and dogs, 4 mg I/kg.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-02-01

347

Work plan for shale oil study paraho/sohio refinery samples cellular bioassays animal toxicology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A proposed approach to answering questions of relative toxicities of shale oil process materials and refinery products involves a parallel, two-level program. Level one is cellular bioassays which will accumulate baseline data on typical effluents and emissions and ascertain how the relative toxicity of major effluents and fractions thereof vary as a function of changes in process conditions. Biological-effects studies using cellular assays will also provide an essential data base for eventual determination of correlation with whole animal, acute, and chronic, toxic effects. Level two consists of the mammalian toxicity bioassays which will involve characterization of the acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity of primary process precursors and products.

Rao, T. K.; Epler, J. L.

1979-01-01

348

A Survey of occurrence of toxogenic fungi and mycotoxins in pig feed samples-Use in evaluation of risk assessment  

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Full Text Available In order to assess of risk assessment, the aim of this paper was to provide good and detailed insight into the level of contamination of complete feedmixes intended for fattening swine from mycotoxin-producing fungi and mycotoxins (n=18. Isolation and quantitative enumeration of fungal propagules were done on solid media using the standard microbiological procedure. These plates were incubated the number of colonies was determined and thent on the basis of characteristic colonies and microscopic analysis was performed to identify genera and species of moulds. Isolates identified as Aspergillus and Penicillium species were subjected to molecular characterization of the presence of genes responsible for the synthesis of OTA (polyketide synthase gene-PKS. Total fungal counts (CFU/g ranged from 0,5x105 do 4x106. From a total samples analysed, seven samples had fungal counts higher than the limit established by Serbian regulations (3x105. During a mycological analysis of complete feedmixes intended for fattening swine, a total of six genera and 14 species of moulds were identified of which the most frequent one was of the genus Penicillium (94,4% while the moulds from Fusarium genere isolated in 55,5% and Paecilomyces in 44,4% of the samples from investigated localities. Other fungi from the genera Aspergillus (22%, Mycor (11,1% and Alternaria (5,5% were represented in a less amount. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a set of 18 isolates of the DNA belonging to families Penicillium and Aspergillus. The sequences of PCR reaction products in three samples were compared with nucleotide sequences of genes for poliketid synthase (PKS from Penicillium species and found that the samples possess PKS sequence. The traditional methods for identification of ochratoxin-producing fungi are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Rapid and specific detection of ochratoxinproducing fungi is important for ensuring microbiological quality and safety of feed and food. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(7.000: 305-311

Dragan Milicevic

349

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin) is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplemen...

Efsa, Panel On Additives And Products Or Substances Used In Animal Feed

2013-01-01

350

Safety assessment and feeding value for pigs, poultry and ruminant animals of pest protected (Bt plants and herbicide tolerant (glyphosate, glufosinate plants: interpretation of experimental results observed worldwide on GM plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New varieties of plants resistant to pests and/or tolerant to specific herbicides such as maize, soybean, cotton, sugarbeets, canola, have been recently developed by using genetic transformation (GT. These plants contain detectable specificactive recombinant DNA (rDNA and their derived protein. Since they have not been selected for a modification oftheir chemical composition, they can be considered as substantially equivalent to their parents or to commercial varietiesfor their content in nutrients and anti-nutritional factors. However, insect protected maize is less contaminated by mycotoxinsthan its parental counterpart conferring a higher degree of safety to animal feeds. The new feeds, grain and derivatives,and whole plants have been intensively tested in vivo up to 216 days for their safety and their nutritional equivalencefor monogastric farm animals (pig, poultry and ruminants (dairy cows, steers, lambs. The present article is basedon the interpretation and the summary of the scientific results published in original reviewed journals either as full papers(33 or as abstracts (33 available through September 2003. For the duration of the experiments adapted to the species,feed intake, weight gain, milk yield and nutritional equivalence expressed as feed conversion and/or digestibility of nutrientshave never been affected by feeding animals diets containing GT plants. In addition, in all the experimental animals,the body and carcass composition, the composition of milk and animal tissues, as well as the sensory properties of meatare not modified by the use of feeds derived from GT plants. Furthermore, the health of animals, their physiological characteristicsand the survival rate are also not affected.The presence of rDNA and derived proteins can be recognized and quantified in feeds in the case of glyphosate resistant soybeanand canola and in the case of insect protected maize. However, rDNA has never been recovered either in milk, or in liver,spleen and muscles tissues of animals, or in rumen bacteria. On the basis of these data, it can be suggested that in vivo testson high producing animals are necessary and sufficient to evaluate the safety and the nutritional value of new GT plants.

Aim Aumaitre

2010-01-01

351

Development, validation and accreditation of a method for the determination of Pb, Cd, Cu and As in seafood and fish feed samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid, sensitive, accurate and precise method for the determination of Pb, Cd, As and Cu in seafood and fish feed samples by Simultaneous Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was developed in regard to Council Directive 333/2007EC and ISO/IEC 17025 (2005). Different approaches were investigated in order to shorten the analysis time, always taking into account the sensitivity. For method validation, precision (repeatability and reproducibility) and accuracy by addition recovery tests have been assessed as performance criteria. The expanded uncertainties based on the Eurachem/Citac Guidelines were calculated. The method was accredited by the Hellenic Accreditation System and it was applied for an 8 years study in seafood (n=202) and fish feeds (n=275) from the Greek market. The annual and seasonal variation of the elemental content and correlation among the elemental content in fish feeds and the respective fish samples were also accomplished. PMID:24423504

Psoma, A K; Pasias, I N; Rousis, N I; Barkonikos, K A; Thomaidis, N S

2014-05-15

352

Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Commercial Fish Feed: An Initial Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The control of mycotoxins is a global challenge not only in human consumption but also in nutrition of farm animals including aquatic species. Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), are common contaminants of animal feed but no study reported the occurrence of both mycotoxins in fish feed so far. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of DON and ZEN in samples of commercial fish feed designed for nutrition of cyprinids collected from central Europe. A ...

Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Burkhardt-holm, Patricia; Valenta, Hana; Da?nicke, Sven

2013-01-01

353

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers and measures should be taken to minimise inhalation exposure. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-02-01

354

APROVECHAMIENTO DE LAS CARACTERSTICAS NUTRICIONALES DEL ALMENDRO DE LA INDIA (Terminalia catappa L.) COMO SUPLEMENTO EN LA ALIMENTACIN ANIMAL / NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INDIAN ALMOND Terminalia catappa L.) AS A SUPPLEMENT IN ANIMAL FEEDING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar nutricionalmente la semilla del almendro de la india (Terminalia catappa) para tres estados de madurez: E1 verde; E2 intermedio y E3 maduro, como una alternativa de suplemento en la alimentacin animal. Materiales y mtodos. Se determinaron las caractersticas fisicoqumicas de la [...] pulpa de los frutos y se les extrajo la semilla a la cual se les realiz el anlisis bromatolgico mediante los mtodos oficiales de anlisis qumico AOAC. A la grasa extrada de la semilla se le realiz un perfil de composicin de cidos grasos por medio de la tcnica de cromatografa gaseosa acoplada a espectrometra de masas. Resultados. Para la semilla se obtuvo en promedio: grasa 54%, protena 24%, ceniza 4%, fibra 12% y humedad 45%. Los datos se procesaron utilizando un anlisis de varianza (ANOVA). Los estados de madurez, presentaron diferencias estadsticas (p?0,05) de composicin para la semilla; mientras que para las variables fisicoqumicas de la pulpa, pH, acidez y grados Brix, arrojaron resultados no significativos. El perfil de cidos grasos del aceite de la semilla para E1, E2 y E3, mostraron similitud en ciertos componentes. Conclusin. Teniendo en cuenta la composicin nutricional de la semilla de almendro (Terminalia catappa) y su elevado valor en protena (24%), grasa (54%), fibra (12%), es posible su aprovechamiento para la industrializacin e inclusin en concentrados para la alimentacin animal. Abstract in english Objective. to evaluate the nutritional uses of Indian almond seed Terminalia catappa for three states of ripeness (green E1, intermediate E2 and E3 ripe) as a supplement alternative in animal feeding. Materials and methods. Physiochemical characteristics of fruit pulp were measured and the seed was [...] extracted and subjected to compositional analysis according to the Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC, 1980). A fatty acid profile was performed on the extracted fat using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Results. The Seeds contained: fat 54%, protein 24%, ash 4%, fiber 12% and moisture 45%. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The state of ripeness presented statistical differences (p?0,05) in composition of the seed. While for the physiochemical variables of pulp, pH, acidity and Brix grades, results were not significant. The fatty acid profile of seed oil for E1, E2 and E3 showed similarity in certain components. Conclusions. Due to their nutritional composition and their high values for protein (24%), fat (54%) and fiber (12%), the Indian almond (Terminalia catappa) and their high value in protein (24%), fat (54%), fiber (12%), it is possible their usemay be used for industrialization and the creation of concentrate for animal feeding.

Guillermo, Arrzola P; Helmooth, Buelvas D; Yenis, Arrieta D.

355

Determination of penicillins in milk of animal origin by capillary electrophoresis: is sample treatment the bottleneck for routine laboratories?  

Science.gov (United States)

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is increasingly being used not only for research purposes but also for routine analyses. The latter, however, are especially difficult when the analytes are present at very low concentrations in complex food samples (e.g. penicillins in milk of animal origin). No study of the difficulties encountered in daily practice in sample treatments for the determination of penicillins (PENs) in milk by CE has to our knowledge been reported. Rather than reviewing the main uses of CE for determining PENs in different types of samples, this paper focuses on the weaknesses of available methods for this purpose, which originate in sample treatment rather than in a lack of robustness of the CE technique. Some problems which, based on our own experience, often confront sample treatment and method development in this context are discussed here. Clearly, the greatest source of error in this context is sample processing, which must provide optimal extraction and preconcentration of analytes, and extracts compatible with the separation technique to be used. In this respect, using time-consuming procedures can cause the loss of variable amounts of analytes in different steps. Interestingly, dramatically simplifying the sample preparation process can detract from sensitivity but lead to increased recoveries. As with any methodological development in routine analysis, acceptable results can only be obtained by considering all potentially influential factors. PMID:24401387

Piero, Mara-Ysabel; Bauza, Roberto; Arce, Lourdes; Valcrcel, Miguel

2014-02-15

356

Estimate of beta and gamma contamination in vegetable and animal biologic samples using GM detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the use of a large area Geiger-Mueller Detector (GMD) with aluminium window of 50 mm thickness (3,4 mg/cm2) in a measuring chain in order to estimate the beta and gamma contamination of biologic samples. The technical data for GMD are: - window area for gamma radiation: 300 cm2; - grid transmission: 80%; - operating voltage: 1100 - 1300 V; - minimum detectable beta energy: 125 keV; - dead time: 250 ms; - background (shielded with 100 mm Pb + 1 mm Cu): 6 pulses/s; - service life: 5 x 108 counts. Using this GMD together with a set of large area beta standard sources and a set of point gamma sources we could estimate beta and gamma contamination in the energy range 125 keV - 2.5 MeV for biologic samples. (authors)

1997-01-01

357

Animal welfare assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

Vu?ini? Marijana

2008-01-01

358

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper compounds (E4 as feed additives for all species: cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is safe for all animal species/categories up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feed. Consumption surveys include copper from foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with copper-containing compounds has not essentially changed over the last decade, no change in the contribution of foodstuffs originating from supplemented animals to the overall copper intake of consumers is expected. No concerns for consumer safety are expected from the use of cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate in animal nutrition, which would substitute for other copper sources. The additive should be considered as a skin and eye irritant and, owing to its amino acid/peptide component, as a skin/respiratory sensitiser. Potential risks to soil organisms have been identified as a result of the application of piglet manure. Levels of copper in other types of manure are too low to create a potential risk within the timescale considered. There might also be a potential environmental concern related to the contamination of sediment resulting from drainage and the run-off of copper to surface water. In order to draw a final conclusion, further model validation is needed and some further refinement to the assessment of copper-based feed additives in livestock needs to be considered, for which additional data would be required. The use of copper-containing additives in aquaculture up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feeds is not expected to pose an appreciable risk to the environment. The extent to which copper-resistant bacteria contribute to the overall antibiotic resistance situation cannot be quantified at present. Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is recognised as an efficacious source of copper to meet animal requirements.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP