WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Mycotoxins in fungal contaminated samples of animal feed from western Canada, 1982-1994.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Feed samples from 94 cases involving fungal contamination and suspected mycotoxicosis of farm animals in western Canada were examined during 1982-1994 to assess the incidence of mycotoxins. Samples were analyzed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, and the fungal estrogen zearalenone. Samples infected with Fusarium fungi were additionally assayed for nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-x, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin. Mycotoxin...

Abramson, D.; Mills, J. T.; Marquardt, R. R.; Frohlich, A. A.

1997-01-01

2

ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

3

Rapid and Specific Detection of Salmonella spp. in Animal Feed Samples by PCR after Culture Enrichment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in t...

Lo?fstro?m, Charlotta; Knutsson, Rickard; Axelsson, Ce; Ra?dstro?m, Peter

2004-01-01

4

Demands on sample preparation of milk, milk products, plants, animal feeds, fertilizers and soil for radioactivity monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to achieve comparability of measurement and analysis results, sample preparation rules have to be strictly observed by all laboratories concerned. Subsequently, considerations concerning sample preparation of milk, milk products, plants, animal feeds, fertilizers and soil, as far as laid down in the rules of measurement instructions for environmental radioactivity monitoring and detection of radioactive emissions from nuclear facilities, are touched. New developments in analysis and measurement techniques involving a possible simplification of sample preparation are outlined. (orig./DG)

5

Radiation pasteurization of animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Short-term feeding tests with day old single comb White Leghorn cockerels were undertaken to test the proposition that radiation pasteurization of animal feed would result in improved performance of animals or birds consuming that feed. This assumes that animal feed frequently harbours pathogens which deleteriously affect the consuming animal or bird, and that irradiation destroys those pathogens. In five of six tests completed to date, using separate lots of feed ingredients in each, radiation pasteurization resulted in statistically significant improvements in feed consumption, weight gain and/or feed conversion efficiency

6

Irradiation effect on animal feeds and feedstuffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of ?-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)

7

ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFOS) FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES (PRESENTATION)  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids) which ...

8

Cellulase and Dairy Animal Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of cellulase is of great significance in present day biotechnology. Cellulose biodegradation by cellulases, produced by numerous microorganisms is very important in several agricultural and waste treatment processes. The development of microbial strains, media composition and process control has including submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation all contributed to achievements of high levels of cellulases for subsequent applications. One of these important applications is supplementing diets of farm animals with cellulases to improve feed utilization and animal performance by enhancing fiber degradation. Dairy cows feed forge treated with a cellulase enzyme preparations ate more feed and produced 5-25% more milk. This review provides an over view of the main variables to be considered for cellulase production from agricultural residues for animal feeding.

H.H. Azzaz

2010-01-01

9

Demands on the sampling of milk, plants, animal feeds, fertilizers and soil for radioactivity monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conclusions were drawn from experience gathered after the Chernobyl accident, and relevant principles formulated. Considerations for sampling are presented. The exact execution of the routine program will be the criterion of succeeding, also in case of an event, to manage monitoring along appropriate, orderly lines, and to make optimum use of the possibilities offered by IMIS. (orig./DG)

10

Ammonia disinfection of animal feeds --laboratory study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal feeds may be contaminated, accidentally or maliciously, with a number of zoonotic bacteria. Animal infections with these bacterial agents, whether or not they cause animal disease, may lead to human illnesses. Anhydrous ammonia was introduced on farms in developed countries as a high-nitrogen soil amendment, but later found use in enhancing crude protein in low-quality roughage fed to ruminants and in neutralizing mycotoxins in fungus-infested feed grains. Although ammonia has been known to be effective against bacteria in other contexts (e.g., manure, community sewage sludge, seeds for sprouting, and boneless lean beef trimmings), it appears that the antibacterial effect of ammoniating animal feeds had not been tested. In the present study, samples of roughage (wheat straw, corn silage) and concentrates (corn grain, cottonseed) produced as animal feed were contaminated with dried-on zoonotic bacteria (Salmonella Newport in all; Campylobacte jejuni, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica in corn grain only). Disinfection with anhydrous ammonia gas was conducted for 24 h at room temperature ( 25 degrees C). The treatment was least effective in silage because the silage alone showed strong antibacterial activity, which may have been slightly reduced by ammoniation. In the other three feeds, depending on the initial level of contamination, ammonia destruction of >or= 5 log10 cfu/g (99.999%) of the selected contaminant was usually observed. PMID:18155794

Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Riemann, Hans P; Hajmeer, Maha N; Gomez, Edward L; Razavilar, Vadood; Cliver, Dean O

2008-02-29

11

21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for...Labeling Requirements § 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients. (a) An animal feed shall be exempt from the...

2010-04-01

12

21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL...feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new...

2010-04-01

13

Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

14

Determination of PCDDs and PCDFs in different animal feed ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

As result of a study to control feedstuff, analyses were carried out to evaluate the contamination caused by PCDDs and PCDFs in different animal feed ingredients. Thirty two samples were selected, including ingredients of animal and mineral origin. For samples of mineral origin, some additives widely employed as binder and anticaking agents, such as bentonite, damoline, kaolin, magnesite, sepiolite and zeolite were selected. And, for ingredients of animal origin, samples of hemoglobin, animal fat, fish oil, fish meal and meat and bone meal were analyzed. The levels ranged from 0.52 to 9.08 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat for samples of animal origin, and from 0.05 to 460.59 pg WHO-TEQ/g for samples of mineral origin. The higher concentrations were observed for the kaolin samples that presented high levels of dioxin contamination. PMID:12002467

Eljarrat, E; Caixach, J; Rivera, J

2002-03-01

15

Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emphasis in recent years on livestock farming as a means of increasing the availability of animal protein in India has led to a spurt in the commercial production of a variety of cattle and poultry feeds. Adverse climatic conditions have posed problems of insect infestation and spoilage due to microorganisms, for which radiation treatment of prepacked feeds could provide a solution. The wholesomeness of an irradiated (0.2 and 2.5 Mrad) diet composed of wheat, shrimp, milk powder, vegetable and oil has been investigated in long term feeding studies involving five successive generations of rats. Growth, foodintake, longevity and mortality remained comparable between control and test groups of animals. Reproductive performance as judged by fertility index, litter size and weaning index were also similar. Examination of the animals sacrified at the age of 23-24 months for gross pathological manifestations including tumor incidence did not indicate any significant differences between the control and the test groups. Judged by a variety of parameters, the rearing of rats for upto five generations on an irradiated diet had no adverse influences on their health. (author)

16

76 FR 16534 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol; Correction AGENCY...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Accordingly, 21 CFR part 558...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2011-03-24

17

76 FR 60721 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin AGENCY...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2011-09-30

18

77 FR 24138 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2012-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin AGENCY: Food and Drug...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2012-04-23

19

75 FR 7555 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bacitracin Zinc; Nicarbazin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bacitracin Zinc; Nicarbazin...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2010-02-22

20

77 FR 58021 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2012-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin AGENCY: Food and Drug...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 3. The authority citation...

2012-09-19

 
 
 
 
21

75 FR 20917 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2010-04-22

22

77 FR 22667 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2012-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin AGENCY: Food and Drug...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2012-04-17

23

75 FR 9334 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Chlortetracycline  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Chlortetracycline AGENCY: Food...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2010-03-02

24

75 FR 34361 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol AGENCY: Food and...21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation...

2010-06-17

25

21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510...approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. Each applicant shall...

2010-04-01

26

Utilizing waste activated sludge for animal feeding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Activated sludge has a high protein content and is a good source of B-group vitamins and generally also of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe and K). Propionibacterium freudenreichii can be readily incorporated into the activated sludge to synthesize vitamin B12, particularly high vitamin yields being obtained with sewage mixed with dairy waste. Numerous examples of successful use of activated sludge in animal feeding are given.

Beszedits, S.

1981-01-01

27

78 FR 79299 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2013-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins; Correction...The document amended the animal drug regulations to remove dairy...loose-mineral medicated feeds containing bambermycins...

2013-12-30

28

21 CFR 573.380 - Ethoxyquin in animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. 573.380 Section 573.380...Listing § 573.380 Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. Ethoxyquin (1,2-dihydro-6-ethoxy-2...4-trimethylquinoline) may be safely used in animal feeds, when incorporated therein...

2010-04-01

29

21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL...reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new...

2010-04-01

30

78 FR 41401 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Draft Animal Feed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collection; Comment Request; Draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards...collection associated with the draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards...information technology. Draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program...

2013-07-10

31

Determination of processed animal proteins, including meat and bone meal, in animal feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of processed animal proteins (PAP), including meat and bone meal (MBM) from various species, in animal feed was investigated. It was demonstrated that microscopy is the most reliable method for enforcing the current total MBM ban in the European Uion (EU). It was shown that near infrared microscopy (NIRM) applied to the sediment fraction of the sample is a very reliable tool for the detection of meat and bone meal in feed. The technique was suggested to be an alternative method f...

Gizzi, G.; Holst, C.; Baeten, V.; Berben, G.; Raamsdonk, L. W. D.

2004-01-01

32

Screening of mycotoxins in animal feed from the region of Vojvodina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper shows the results of screening of mycotoxins in animal feed originating from the region of Vojvodina. Permanent screening is needed on all levels of production and storage, as well as the use of known methods to reduce mould contamination or toxin content in feedstuffs and feed. A total of 56 representative samples were collected from feed companies from the region of Vojvodina. Samples were collected during February 2009. The collected samples included 41 samples of feedstuffs (so...

Koki? Bojana M.; ?abarkapa Ivana S.; Levi? Jovanka D.; Mandi? Anamarija I.; Mati? Jovana J.; Ivanov Dušica S.

2009-01-01

33

Investigations on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in animal feeding-stuffs and cereals ; samples drawn in the Netherlands in 1995  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1995 investigations were carried out on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in grain for human consumption and in various types of fodder and grain for animal consumption. The sampled lots were intended for the Netherlands market. The samples tested originating from lots for human consumption comprised domestic and imported grains from a large commercial supplier of raw materials for the bakery industry. Ochratoxin A was found to occur at a concentration of 8,7 mug/kg i...

Ea, Sizoo; Hp, Egmond

2012-01-01

34

77 FR 14272 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds  

Science.gov (United States)

...Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal...For increased rate of Feed continuously 000986 weight gain, improved as...

2012-03-09

35

Mass Spectrometric Monitoring of Animal Feed for BSE Spread  

Science.gov (United States)

The researchers in London have developed an emerging technology that utilizes mass spectrometry to detect processed animal protein (PAP) in animal feed. The amount of animal protein in the feed can be determined by the ratio of the hydrolyzed gelatine signal at m/z 1044 to an internal standard signal at m/z 556.

King, Angela G.

2004-01-01

36

Near infrared spectroscopy for enforcement of European legislation concerning the use of animal by-products in animal feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper summarises the work done in the framework of two R&D projects aimed to demonstrate the contribution of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to help the enforcement of the European legislation governing the use of animal by-products in animal feeds. Three different types of animal feed products were studied: compound feeds (CFs, animal protein byproducts meals (APBPs and animal fats by-products (AFBPs. The quantitative and qualitative chemometric models produced with a large collection of compound feed samples (n = 1005 ground and 523 unground have demonstrated, that NIRS can be used for the detection and quantification of the meat and bone meal (MBM added to compound feeds. Discriminant models produced with unground samples produced 100% of correctly classified samples in two cloned instruments placed in two different locations. The results also show that two dimensions NIR spectra of Animal By-Products (ABP, animal meals and fats may contain information about the animal species or group of species from which the ABPs were produced. However, further work is needed to enlarge the sample bank and the spectral libraries with well authenticated samples in order to increase the robustness of the quantitative and qualitative NIRS models. The paper opens expectations for using NIRS for the enforcement of legislation concerning the use of ABPs in animal feeds. More research and demonstration efforts have to be done in order to obtain more definitive and robust predictive models and for optimising its implementation either at-line, on-line and in-line in feed factories and inspection laboratories.

Martnez A.

2005-01-01

37

21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs for which an approved medicated feed mill...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW...

2010-04-01

38

Automatic real-time pair-feeding system for animals  

Science.gov (United States)

A pair feeding method and apparatus are provided for experimental animals wherein the amount of food consumed is immediately delivered to a normal or control animal so that there is a qualitative, quantitative and chronological correctness in the pair feeding of the two animals. This feeding mechanism delivers precisely measured amounts of food to a feeder. Circuitry is provided between master and slave feeders so that there is virtually no chance of a malfunction of the feeding apparatus, causing erratic results. Recording equipment is also provided so that an hourly record is kept of food delivery.

Leon, H. A.; Connolly, J. P.; Hitchman, M. J.; Humbert, J. E. (inventors)

1974-01-01

39

Bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the growth, the absorption and the dynamics of phosphorus and calcium phosphates of high fluorine content , triple superphosphates (TSP) and two sedimentary phosphates Riecito (RIO) and Monte Fresco (MONTE) vs dicalcium phosphate (DICAL), they were carried out two experiments with sheep. In the first one, with a duration of 360 days, the group (six animals) consumed DICAL, and at the 330 day of feeding it was divided in two groups, one under the same treatment and to the other one it was added 500 ppm of fluorine like NaF (DICAL+F). In this experiment the growth was evaluated, and at the end of the period, it was determined the phosphorus and calcium absorption and kinetics, the retention of fluorine in different sources, as well as the bony mineralization. In the second experiment, with a duration of 30 days, the phosphorus absorption and kinetics, as and the retention of fluorine in the sources under study, were determined. In both experiments, for the dynamic studies it was used the isotopic dilution technique, by means of the dosage, through jugular injection, of 200 uCi 32P and, for via oral, 200 uCi 45Ca. The weight gained (g / animal /day ) was 75, 87, 56 and 53 for DICAL, RIO, MONTE and TSP, respectively, with significant differences (P'0.05) in favor of DICAL and RIO. The true absorption of phosphorus (%), for the fed animals during 30 and 360 days, respectively, was 73 and 76 for DICAL, 40 and 57 for RIO, 36 and 57 for MONTE and, 79 and 71 for TSP, being significantly higher (P'0.05), for both periods, the values of DICAL and TSP. The evaluation of 12 months of absorption of RIVER and MONTE was higher than during the period of 30 days. The absorption of calcium at the 362 days was higher for DICAL and RIO in relation to MONTE and TSP. The addition of fluorine during 30 days didn't affect the calcium and phosphorus absorption. The run time to reach the maximum level of specific activity of calcium in blood was higher for RIO, MONTE and TSP. The run time corresponding to the mobilization of hematic phosphorus to the different compartments (inter, intracells and bony) were higher for RIO, MONTE and TSP, for the two times of feeding DICAL+F in relation to DICAL; while for calcium, DICAL went superior to RIO, MONTE, DICAL+F and TSP, in the same order, indicating that fluorine increased the half time for the absorption and diminished the half time for the compartamental mobilization. The bony mineralization (density: g / cc; ashes: %) was bigger for DICAL and TSP and minor for RIO and MONTE, without differences between DICAL and DICAL. The specific activity in bone was smaller for DICAL than for RIO, MONTE and TSP, as much for 32P than for 45Ca. The accumulation of fluorine (ppm) in the bony tissue was bigger (P'0.05) for TSP (3033) and MONTE (2100), in relation to RIO (1767), DICAL+F (1633) and DICAL (1333). It is concluded that the phosphates of RIO and MONTE have a smaller bioavailability in connection with DICAL and TSP, and that the addition of fluorine in DICAL doesn't modify the phosphorus absorption but the calcium kinetics at blood level and the specific activity in the bony tissue, indicating a possible effect on the absorption and metabolism of that element

40

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions § 558...disease prevention. etc.) uses in animal feed of antibiotic and sulfonamide drugs...force on the use of antibiotics in animal feeds. All persons or firms...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Presence and content of kynurenic acid in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was found to be an antagonist of iontropic glutamate receptors and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, it was documented that KYNA is an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptors which are mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also found that KYNA is present in the gastrointestinal tract and that its concentration gradually increases along it. The origin of KYNA in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. Both might be synthesized from tryptophan in it or absorbed from food and other dietary products. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of KYNA in animal feed. The results indicate that the highest concentration of KYNA was found in animal feeds intended for livestock. The lower amount of KYNA was detected in animal feeds for fish. Interestingly, the lowest amount of KYNA was found in dog and cat feeds. Furthermore, an analysis of KYNA content in animal food ingredients was conducted. The concentration of KYNA found in one of the ingredients - rapeseed meal - was several times higher in comparison to animal feeds studied. The content of KYNA in the remaining feed ingredients tested was significantly lower. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in animal feeds. There is a need for further detailed analysis leading to establishing a set of guidelines for animal feeding. PMID:25040314

Turski, M P; Zgrajka, W; Siwicki, A K; Paluszkiewicz, P

2015-02-01

42

21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs for which an approved medicated...Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs for which an approved...

2010-04-01

43

Present status of radiation treatment of animal feeds in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes the studies in Japan on the irradiation of laboratory animal diets and farm animal feedstuffs. From the microbiological inactivation curve of laboratory animal diets, the irradiation doses of 2.5 approximately 3.5 Mrad seem to be suitable for sterilization of animal diets. The absence of toxic effects on animals can be demonstrated by feeding studies. The elimination of salmonellae and other species of Enterobacteriaceae in feedstuffs could be achieved by irradiation with 0.5 approximately 0.6 Mrad. The growth of moulds in feeds would not occur at this dose level. However, an adverse effect is observed on chicks fed with fatty diet irradiated at 3 and 6 Mrad. It is suggested that a promising application of radiation treatment to the feeding of farm animals is irradiation at low dose levels of 0.5 approximately 0.6 Mrad. (author)

44

75 FR 15610 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of...

2010-03-30

45

21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES...use for the products may include animal feed. The term includes renderers...and that are intended for use in animal feed shall take the following...

2010-04-01

46

21 CFR 589.1 - Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed. 589.1 Section 589...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED General Provisions §...

2010-04-01

47

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...Rulings and Decisions § 500.35 Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with...

2010-04-01

48

40 CFR 406.70 - Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory. 406.70 Section...GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Animal Feed Subcategory § 406.70 Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

49

78 FR 52774 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Animal Feed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collection; Comment Request; Animal Feed Network (Pet Event Tracking Network...Prevent Spread of Pet Food and Animal Feed Related Diseases AGENCY: Food...paperwork burden to the public of the Animal Feed Network, which includes the...

2013-08-26

50

76 FR 78599 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Reporting...Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Reporting...concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) as defined...Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

2011-12-19

51

Traceability of processed animal proteins with varying texture in feed: determination with microscopic and polymerase Chain Reaction methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To test the traceability of different animal components that could enter the feed chain two methods for the determination of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed ? classical microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-analysis ? were applied in the following study. To determine PAPs of varying but defined structure different animal meals were produced artificially and analysed after spiking to a set of 13 compound feed samples. The aims of the study were (i) to compare the capacity a...

Hormisch D.E.

2004-01-01

52

Changes in heavy metal contents in animal feeds and manures in an intensive animal production region of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 360 feed and manure samples were collected from 150 animal farms in Jiangsu Province, China and analyzed for heavy metals. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in animal feeds were 15.9-2041.8 and undetected-392.1 mg/kg respectively, while Hg, As, Pb, Cd, and Cr in all feeds were below 10 mg/kg. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Cr in animal manures were 8.4-1726, 39.5-11379, and 1.0-1602 mg/kg respectively, while As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were Pb were not statistically correlated between the feed and the manure. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were highest in pig feed and manure, followed by poultry and dairy feeds and manures. During 1990-2008, Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Cd contents increased by 771%, 410%, 420%, 220%, and 63% in pig manure, 212%, 95%, 200%, 791%, and -63% in dairy manure, and 181%, 197%, 1500%, 261, and 196% in poultry manure. Most of the increases occurred from 2002 to 2008, which reflects the extensive use of feed additives after 2002. In contrast, Pb and Hg in manures continuously decreased from 1990 to 2008. The results suggest that the heavy metal contents in animal manure have been greatly increased over 18 years and the contribution of manures to soil should be considered. PMID:24649675

Wang, Hui; Dong, Yuanhua; Yang, Yunya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhang, Xumei

2013-12-01

53

Animal feed controls implemented in Japan for the eradication of bovine spongiform encephalopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in Japan in September 2001, the Japanese government introduced a series of animal feed control measures to reduce the risk of the spread of the disease from a feed source. To ensure the proper implementation of these measures, the Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Centre conducted audit inspections of feed importers, producers, distributors and end-users. The audit inspections include on-site inspection of the feed plants, warehouses, farms and other related premises and the laboratory analysis of feed samples taken from these premises to check for the presence of animal protein. The results of inspections conducted in recent years indicate good compliance with the feed control measures.

Katsuaki Sugiura

2009-06-01

54

REMOTE SENSING FOR DETECTING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

55

Confined Animal Feeding Operations as Amplifiers of Influenza  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Influenza pandemics occur when a novel influenza strain, often of animal origin, becomes transmissible between humans. Domestic animal species such as poultry or swine in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) could serve as local amplifiers for such a new strain of influenza. A mathematical model is used to examine the transmission dynamics of a new influenza virus among three sequentially linked populations: the CAFO species, the CAFO workers (the bridging population), and the rest of t...

Saenz, Roberto A.; Hethcote, Herbert W.; Gray, Gregory C.

2006-01-01

56

Determination of processed animal proteins in feed: the performance characteristics of classical microscopy and immunoassays.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Species specific detection and detection of groups of species such as ruminants is required according to European legislation dealing with the safe use of animal by-products in animal nutrition. Various methods are applied to the analysis of feed samples for the presence of banned processed animal proteins (PAPs) including meat and bone meal (MBM). Classical microscopy as described in the Commission Directive EC/2003/126 is the only official method to detect the presence o...

Von Holst, Christoph; Boix, Ana; Baeten, Vincent; Vancutsem, Jeroen; Berben, Gilbert

2006-01-01

57

Salmonellae in foods and animal feeding stuffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the problem of Salmonella infections in foods and feeding stuffs is emphasized, an account is given of the current ways of manufacturing bone meal, meat meal, blood meal, fish meal, fish flour, egg products and coconut. The effectiveness in eliminating salmonellae and the chance and possible sources of recontamination are described for each production method. Besides heat treatment, fumigation by ethylene oxide and irradiation with gamma rays are considered. The bacteriological tests required to establish the effectiveness of treatment are also discussed, as well as the effect of the treatment on the nutritive value of the product. (author). 50 refs, 4 tabs

58

Effect of stocking density on social, feeding, and lying behavior of prepartum dairy animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prepartum stocking density on social, lying, and feeding behavior of dairy animals and to investigate the relationship between social rank and stocking density. In total, 756 Jersey animals were enrolled in the study approximately 4 wk before expected calving date. This study used 8 experimental units (4 replicates × 2 pens/treatment per replicate), and at each replicate, one pen each of nulliparous and parous (primiparous and multiparous) animals per treatment was enrolled. The 2 treatments were 80% stocking density (80D, 38 animals per pen; each pen with 48 headlocks and 44 stalls) and 100% stocking density (100D, 48 animals per pen). Parous animals were housed separately from nulliparous animals. Animals at 254±3d of gestation were balanced for parity (parous vs. nulliparous) and projected 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield (only parous animals) and randomly assigned to either 80D or 100D. Displacements from the feed bunk were measured for 3h after fresh feed delivery on d 2, 5, and 7 of each week. Feeding behavior was measured for 24-h periods (using 10-min video scan sampling) on d 2, 5, and 7 on wk 1 of every replicate and d 2 and 5 for the following 4 wk. A displacement index (proportion of successful displacements from the feed bunk relative to all displacements the animal was involved in) was calculated for each animal and used to categorize animals into ranking categories of high, middle, and low. Seventy nulliparous and 64 parous focal animals in the 80D treatment and 89 nulliparous and 74 parous focal animals in the 100D were used to describe lying behavior (measured with data loggers). Animals housed at 80D had fewer daily displacements from the feed bunk than those housed at 100D (15.2±1.0 vs. 21.3±1.0 per day). Daily feeding times differed between nulliparous and parous animals at the 2 stocking densities. Nulliparous 80D animals spent 12.4±5.0 fewer minutes per day feeding than nulliparous 100D animals, whereas 100D parous animals tended to spend 7.6±4.5 fewer minutes per day feeding than 80D parous animals. The 2 treatments were not different in the number of lying bouts or lying-bout duration; lying time was longer for 100D on d -33, -29, and -26 and shorter on d -7, -5, and 0 than 80D. The interaction between treatment, parity, and social rank was associated with lying and feeding times. In summary, animals in the 80D treatment had a lower number of displacements from the feed bunk and spent more time lying down near parturition than 100D animals, and 80D nulliparous animals had reduced daily feeding time compared with 100D nulliparous animals. Although these results showed some potential behavior benefits of a prepartum stocking density of 80% compared with 100%, observed changes were small. However, greater stocking density cannot be recommended; more research is needed to evaluate the effects of stocking densities greater than 100% and with other breeds of cattle besides Jersey. PMID:25465554

Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Silva, P R B; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

2015-01-01

59

21 CFR 510.7 - Consignees of new animal drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed. 510.7 Section 510.7...drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed. (a) A new animal drug intended for use in the manufacture of animal feed shall be deemed to be...

2010-04-01

60

Mycotoxin detoxication of animal feed by different adsorbents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins represents a worldwide problem for farmers. These toxins originate from molds whose growth on living and stored plants is almost unavoidable particularly under moist conditions. Mycotoxin-containing feed can cause serious diseases in farm animals resulting in suffering and even death and thus can cause substantial economic losses. The most applied method for protecting animals against mycotoxicosis is the utilization of adsorbents mixed with the feed which are supposed to bind the mycotoxins efficiently in the gastro-intestinal tract. Aluminosilicates are the preferred adsorbents, followed by activated charcoal and special polymers. The efficiency of mycotoxin binders, however, differs considerably depending mainly on the chemical structure of both the adsorbent and the toxin. This review describes the most important types of adsorbents and the respective mechanisms of adsorption. Data of the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of detoxication are given. PMID:11439224

Huwig, A; Freimund, S; Käppeli, O; Dutler, H

2001-06-20

 
 
 
 
61

Antibiotics in animal feed and their role in resistance development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animals and humans constitute overlapping reservoirs of resistance, and consequently use of antimicrobials in animals can impact on public health. For example, the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in food-animals is associated with the use of avoparcin, a glycopeptide antibiotic used as a feed additive for the growth promotion of animals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci and vancomycin resistance determinants can therefore spread from animals to humans. The bans on avoparcin and other antibiotics as growth promoters in the EU have provided scientists with a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the withdrawal of a major antimicrobial selective pressure on the occurrence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The data shows that although the levels of resistance in animals and food, and consequently in humans, has been markedly reduced after the termination of use, the effects on animal health and productivity have been very minor.

Wegener, Henrik Caspar

2003-01-01

62

76 FR 65109 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin  

Science.gov (United States)

...Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...melengestrol acetate, monensin, and tylosin. DATES: This rule is effective October...RUMENSIN (monensin, USP), and TYLAN (tylosin phosphate) single-ingredient Type...

2011-10-20

63

Radionuclides in Animal Feed (Poultry) 'Assessment of Radiation Dose'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work a comprehensive study has been carried out for the determination of presents evaluation of effective dose due to consumption of chicken fed by fodders collected from four major Sudanese companies (Hader, Koudjs, Wifi and Preconex SPN.V). The concentrations of radionuclides in the thirty two (32) feed samples have been determined by gamma spectrometry using NaI(Tl) detector. Radionuclides observed were: Pb-212 (daughter of Th-238), Pb-214, Bi-214 (daughters of U-238), Cs-137 and K-40 concentration. In additives the activity concentration of these radionuclides has found in the following ranges: 0.81 - 22.06 Bq/kg, 0.59 - 32.07 Bq/kg, 0.64 - 15.77 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 2.02 Bq/kg and 33.58 - 204.61 Bq/kg respectively. In feed concentrates activity concentration ranges has: 0.73 - 13.79 Bq/kg, 0.33 - 20.04 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 1.67 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 0.28 Bq/kg, 26.86 - 99.21 Bq/kg respectively. In fodders the activity concentration ranges has: 1.25 - 1.52 Bq/kg, 0.12 - 1.24 Bq/kg, 0.51 - 1.25 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 0.61 Bq/kg, 11.94 - 127.88 Bq/kg respectively. The 'animal product' activity concentration ranges has: 0.31 - 1.65 Bq/kg, 0.22 - 1.11 Bq/kg, 0.26 - 1.07 Bq/kg, 0.03 - 0.51 Bq/kg, 14.07 - 79.93 Bq/kg respectively. High concentrations (233.3 Bq/Kg) has typically found in toxo(additive); the lowest concentration (27.9 Bq/Kg ) has found in concentrate for layers and animal product. The total average effective dose due to the different feed-stuff has estimated and found to be 5.89x10-6±3.11x10-6mSv/y and 13.9 x 10-7 ± 7.24 x 10-7mSv/y for age categories 7-12 y and >17 y respectively. If compared with the limits - Radioactivity Levels Permitted in foodstuffs Part 1 the Saudi Standards, Metrology and quality (300 Bq/Kg) and ICRP,FAO organization (5 mSv/y) - these values are very low. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

64

77 FR 9528 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...Part 500 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; N-Methyl-2- Pyrrolidone...the URL. List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 500 Animal drugs, Animal feeds, Cancer, Labeling, Packaging and...

2012-02-17

65

Control tools to detect processed animal proteins in feed and in animal by-products: specificity and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AbstractThis paper reviews the current situation with regard to a total feed ban on the use of processed animal proteins in feed for meat producing animals within the EU. The scientific aspects surrounding the development of control tools are discussed. In particular, focus is given to methods for marking those materials prohibited in animal feeds and for the determination of species specificity in those proteins that are potentially allowed in animal feeds. The overall objective is that the ...

Sl, Woodgate; van den Hoven S.; Vaessen J.; Margry R.

2009-01-01

66

Salmonella species and serotypes isolated from farm animals, animal feed, sewage, and sludge in Saudi Arabia*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 264 salmonellae representing 65 different species and serotypes were isolated for the first time in Saudi Arabia, from various animal species, animal feed, sewage, and sludge. The six most frequently isolated Salmonella species or serotypes were: livingstone, concord, “S. schottmuelleri” (invalid), lille, S. typhimurium, and cerro.

Nabbut, N. H.; Barbour, E. K.; Al-nakhli, H. M.

1982-01-01

67

21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED...consumption (meat, milk, and eggs). Investigations by the Food and Drug Administration...in turn caused PCB residues in the milk of dairy cows consuming...sampled and tested to determine whether it...

2010-04-01

68

Treatment of animal feeds with ionizing radiation. V: Petition and clearance for radicidized poultry feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience obtained in Israel regarding procedures for petitioning and granting clearance for irradiated food is briefly reviewed. The Israel Ministry of Health deliberated on the approach to be taken towards irradiated farm animal feed, since feed is normally dealt with under Ministry of Agriculture Plant Protection Division Regulations. A similar situation existed in Canada, where the Feed and Fertilizer Section, Plant Products Division, granted clearance of radicidized poultry feed. However, since the meat of farm animals raised on radicidized feed is to be consumed by humans, and is thus included in the definition of food in the Public Health (Rules as to Food) Ordinance, the Ministry of Health finally decided that it would require a regular petition. The petition to clear irradiated poultry feed is described in detail. It is based on local studies as well as on the detailed material prepared by the Canadian authorities in their petition and the clearance. The petition was submitted in October 1972 and clearance was obtained in July 1973. The implementation of the legislative requirements in the forthcoming pilot scale test, aimed at radicidization of 300 tons of poultry feed, is considered in detail. (author)

69

Treatment of Animal Feeds with Ionizing Radiation. V: Petition and Clearance for Radicidized Poultry Feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience obtained in Israel regarding procedures for petitioning and granting clearance for irradiated food is briefly reviewed. The Israel Ministry of Health deliberated on the approach to be taken towards irradiated farm animal feed, since feed is normally dealt with under Ministry of Agriculture Plant Protection Division regulations. A similar situation existed in Canada, where the Feed and Fertilizer Section, Plant Products Division, granted clearance of radicidized poultry feed. However, since the meat of farm animals raised on radicidized feed is to be consumed by humans, and is thus included in the definition of food in the Public Health (Rules as to Food) Ordinance, the Ministry of Health finally decided that it would require a regular petition. The petition to clear irradiated poultry feed is described in detail. It is based on local studies as well as on the detailed material prepared by the Canadian authorities in their petition and the clearance. The petition was submitted in October 1972 and clearance was obtained in July 1973. The implementation of the legislative requirements in the forthcoming pilot scale test, aimed at radicidization of 300 tons of poultry feed, is considered in detail. (author)

70

Livestock feed for domestic animals in and around Rokkasho, Aomori  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides that will be released from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, which is now under construction in Rokkasho Village. The consumption rate of livestock feed eaten by domestic animals is an important factor for the estimation of radioactive material transfer to the animals. We surveyed the amount of livestock feed in and around Rokkasho Village by means of questionnaires to stockbreeding farmers. The questionnaires were distributed to 90 farmers who kept one of five kinds of domestic animals or poultry; milking cattle, beef cattle, hogs, broilers and laying hens. Several farming companies were also included as subjects. Recovery of the questionnaires was 59%. The hogs, broilers and laying hens were fed compound feeds consisting of imported materials. The feed for milking cattle and beef cattle consisted of grass, field corn and other concentrates. The consumption rates of grass and field corn for dairy cattle were 22.5 kg-fresh d-1 and 8.3 kg-fresh d-1, respectively. The grass and field corn consumption rate for beef cattle were 2.8 kg-fresh d-1 and 0.3 kg-fresh d-1, respectively. All of these rates were lower than those used for dose assessment of the reprocessing plant. (author)

71

75 FR 24394 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2010-N-0002] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug Application; Buquinolate...those portions that reflect approval of two new animal drug applications...

2010-05-05

72

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal) samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n = 650) were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n = 71) were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isol...

Kaaya, Godwin P.; Chimwamurombe, Percy M.; Elisabetta Di Giannatale; Shilangale, Renatus P.

2012-01-01

73

Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low

74

Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

2013-08-01

75

Treatment of animal feeds with ionizing radiation. VI. Technological and economic feasibility of poultry feed radicidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salmonella contamination of farm animals in Israel has increased significantly, particularly on poultry farms, and is causing severe losses and a high incidence of infected poultry products. EEC regulations regarding poultry meat require rejection of batches containing salmonella microorganisms. Feed flour is considered to be one of the principal sources of contamination and effective treatment of the feed is one of the most important steps in reducing flock contamination. The Israel authorities have passed a new regulation requiring breeders to buy only salmonella-free poultry feed. Salmonella-free poultry feed can be produced by pelletization or by treatment with ionizing radiation, using gamma or electron sources. From the view point of radicidation both types of radiation are equally effective. Both types of sources are suited to on-line treatment of products in feed mills, but each has its advantages and disadvantages in practice. Whereas gamma irradiation facilities will allow thick layers of product, they require considerable shielding and nearly continuous operation to be economically justifiable. The low energy electron accelerators allow treatment of flour only (pellets cannot be treated), but are easily adaptable to the fluctuating flow of products in a feed mill, at relatively low treatment cost. Breeders, contrary to broilers, require feed flour and not pellets. Hence electron irradiation would tend to yield a product more in compliance with the new regulduct more in compliance with the new regulation than pelletization, which requires crushing and which may leave Salmonella in the feed. The economic feasibility of an electron accelerator-based radicidation process in an existing feed mill is examined. (author)

76

Treatment of Animal Feeds with Ionizing Radiation: VI. Technological and Economic Feasibility of Poultry Feed Radicidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salmonella contamination of farm animals in Israel has increased significantly, particularly on poultry farms, and is causing severe losses and a high incidence of infected poultry products. EEC regulations regarding poultry meat require rejection of batches containing salmonella microorganisms. Feed flour is considered to be one of the principal sources of contamination and effective treatment of the feed is one of the most important steps in reducing flock contamination. The Israel authorities have passed a new regulation requiring breeders to buy only salmonella-free poultry feed. Salmonella-free poultry feed can be produced by pelletization or by treatment with ionizing radiation, using gamma or electron sources. From the view point of radicidation both types of radiation are equally effective. Both types of sources are suited to on-line treatment of products in feed mills, but each has its advantages and disadvantages in practice. Whereas gamma irradiation facilities will allow thick layers of product, they require considerable shielding and nearly continuous operation to be economically justifiable. The low energy electron accelerators allow treatment of flour only (pellets cannot be treated), but are easily adaptable to the fluctuating flow of products in a feed mill, at relatively low treatment cost. Breeders, contrary to broilers, require feed flour and not pellets. Hence electron irradiation would tend to yield a product more in compliance with the new regulduct more in compliance with the new regulation than pelletization, which requires crushing and which may leave Salmonella in the feed. The economic feasibility of an electron accelerator-based radicidation process in an existing feed mill is examined. (author)

77

21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Trace minerals added to animal feeds. 582.80 Section 582.80 Food and...Provisions § 582.80 Trace minerals added to animal feeds. These substances added to animal feeds as nutritional dietary supplements...

2010-04-01

78

21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29 Section 500.29...29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug Administration...generally recognized as safe for use in animal feed and is a food additive...

2010-04-01

79

Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

2008-04-01

80

21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.  

Science.gov (United States)

...resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section...resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food. Regulations...to packaging materials used for animal feed and pet food. [42 FR...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section...packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations...to packaging materials used for animal feed and pet food. [42 FR...

2010-04-01

82

21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45...production, handling, and storage of animal feed. (a) Polychlorinated...PCB's have directly contaminated animal feeds as a result of industrial...

2010-04-01

83

21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Cattle materials prohibited in animal feed include: (i) The entire...otherwise effectively excluded from animal feed; (iv) Mechanically separated...Cattle materials prohibited in animal feed do not include: (A)...

2010-04-01

84

9 CFR 95.13 - Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry...use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry...use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals if such products are...

2010-01-01

85

76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments...pack, or hold human food or animal food/feed (including pet food)....

2011-11-01

86

9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. ...products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. ...for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

2010-01-01

87

21 CFR 2.35 - Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...shipment or storage of food and animal feed. 2.35 Section 2.35 Food...shipment or storage of food and animal feed. (a) Investigations...revealed practices whereby food and animal feed stored or shipped in...

2010-04-01

88

Parent-Reported Feeding and Feeding Problems in a Sample of Dutch Toddlers  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with their parents. Results show that three meals a day…

de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

2007-01-01

89

[Study on the method of using ICP-MS to determine microelements in the animal feed].  

Science.gov (United States)

The method for the determination of microelements such as Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Pb, As and Se in the animal feed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was developed. The operation parameters, spectrum interference, matrix effect and memorial effect were studied in detail. Under optimal condition, the detection limits of these nine elements were from 2.03 x 10(-3) to 3.17 microg x L(-1), and the linear range was over three orders with a correlation coefficient above 0.999. This method was applied directly to determine microelements in real samples involving the standard wheat powder, formular feed and pre-mix feed. The determination results of microelements in the standard wheat powder accorded with reference results. The recovery of microelements in the formular feed was from 86% to 115%, and the relative standard deviations < or = 8.2% (n = 6). The results of elements content in the pre-mix feed were identical with those determined by national standard method. This method is simple, sensitive, accurate and can perform simultaneous multi-elements determination compared with conventional method of animal feed determination. The results were satisfactory. PMID:18051542

Wang, Pei-Long; Su, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Sheng; Wang, Tong; Zhu, Ruo-Hua

2007-09-01

90

Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition. PMID:20842395

Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

2011-04-01

91

Screening of mycotoxins in animal feed from the region of Vojvodina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows the results of screening of mycotoxins in animal feed originating from the region of Vojvodina. Permanent screening is needed on all levels of production and storage, as well as the use of known methods to reduce mould contamination or toxin content in feedstuffs and feed. A total of 56 representative samples were collected from feed companies from the region of Vojvodina. Samples were collected during February 2009. The collected samples included 41 samples of feedstuffs (soybean, soybean meal, soybean grits, soybean cake, maize, sunflower meal, barley, wheat feed flour, rapeseed meal, dehydrated sugar beet pulps, alfalfa meal, yeast, dried whey, fish meal, meat-bone meal and 15 samples of complete feedingstuffs. The amounts of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol were determined. Screening method for the analysis was done using Neogen Veratox® testing kits. The test itself is a competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA. Mycotoxins were present in 71.4% of the samples, but the values determined were below the maximum allowed limits for both Serbian and EC reference values. Zearalenone was found with the highest incidence (57.1% of samples, followed by ochratoxin A (37.5%, fumonisin (33.9%, deoxynivalenol (14.3% and aflatoxins (3.6%.

Koki? Bojana M.

2009-01-01

92

Trace elements in animal feed and animal tissues: a correlation study by neutron activation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of 12 trace elements have been determined in the Hindustan Lever rat and mice feed by neutron activation method without chemical separation, employing a 64 ccGe(Li) detector and a 4096 channel pulse height analyser. These concentrations are Fe (386 +- 43), Zn(19 +- 0.6), Cr(1.05 +- 0.34), Co(0.256 +- 0.005), Se(0.156 +- 0.027), Rb(3.16 +- 0.18), Sb(0.014 +- 0.008), Sc(0.410 +- 0.028), Hg(0.129 +- 0.053), Eu(0.165 +- 0.006), Cs(0.935 +- 0.067) and Hf(0.037 +- 0.011)?g per g of dry weight. These concentrations have been compared with the concentrations of these elements in tissues of the rats kept on this feed. The concentrations of essential trace element, viz Fe, Zn, Co and Se in the feed and the rat tissues have been found to be comparable in magnitude. Cr, though an essential element, is found at a lower level in rat tissues, as compared to that in feed. The non-essential trace elements namely Rb, Sb, Sc, Hg, Eu and Hf, detected in the animal feed, except Sb, are either totally absent or much lower in concentrations in the rat tissues. This indicates that non-essential trace elements are poorly absorbed by the animal systems compared to the essential trace elements. (author)

93

Sensitive Quantification of Aflatoxin B1 in Animal Feeds, Corn Feed Grain, and Yellow Corn Meal Using Immunomagnetic Bead-Based Recovery and Real-Time Immunoquantitative-PCR  

Science.gov (United States)

Aflatoxins are considered unavoidable natural mycotoxins encountered in foods, animal feeds, and feed grains. In this study, we demonstrate the application of our recently developed real-time immunoquantitative PCR (RT iq-PCR) assay for sensitive detection and quantification of aflatoxins in poultry feed, two types of dairy feed (1 and 2), horse feed, whole kernel corn feed grains, and retail yellow ground corn meal. Upon testing methanol/water (60:40) extractions of the above samples using competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the aflatoxin content was found to be animal and human health, the RT iq-PCR method described in this study can be useful for quantifying low natural aflatoxin levels in complex matrices of food or animal feed samples without the requirement of extra sample cleanup. PMID:25474493

Babu, Dinesh; Muriana, Peter M.

2014-01-01

94

Radicidation and radappertization of animal feeds in Israel, 1968-1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contamination of animal feed and animal products with salmonellae and other enteric microorganisms has considerably increased in recent years. This has resulted in commensurate increases in the incidence of salmonellosis and other enteric diseases in both animals and humans. The development of radappertization for laboratory animal feeds and of radicidation for farm animal feeds over the last ten years in Israel is reviewed. The products considered were radappertized feeds for SPF rodent colonies and for commercial SPF poultry flocks, and radicidized feed for breeder and broiler flocks. In the latter case microbiological, biological, technological and economic aspects are considered. The petition and clearance for radicidized poultry feed are briefly discussed. The potential use of radicidation in the preparation of animal feeds from organic wastes, i.e. putrescibles in household garbage and sewage sludge, is outlined, and the factors involved are evaluated. (author)

95

A novel PCR-based method to enumerate Salmonella in animal feed  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animal feed can serve as a reservoir for Salmonella in the food production chain. Therefore, it is important to have rapid and sensitive methods for detection and quantification. In this study, a novel approach for quantification of low numbers of Salmonella in feed samples was developed. The protocol included a PCR based method combined with an optimised most probable number (MPN) scheme. The PCR method included an enrichment step in buffered peptone water (BPW) at 37ºC for 18 ± 2 h, followed by centrifugation of a withdrawn 1-ml BPW aliquot. DNA was extracted by an automated procedure from the pellet and subjected to real-time PCR. The qualitative PCR method was compared to a reference culture method using modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassilades (MSRV) agar plates (ISO 6579, Amd D, 2007). Of 81 naturally or artificially contaminated samples tested (soya meal, rape seed meal, rape seed cake and pellets) only three gave results that differed between the PCR and MSRV methods. Ct values for naturally contaminated samples were higher compared to samples artificially contaminated with low numbers (approx. 2 CFU/25 g feed) of stressed Salmonella. To allow quantification of low numbers of Salmonella in feed the developed PCR method was combined with an MPN approach. The traditional MPN scheme was modified in order to make the procedure less laborious, time consuming and costly, as well as being better adjusted to enumerate Salmonella in feed samples. This was achieved using two different approaches: (i) the dilution scheme was adjusted to better enumerate the low numbers presumably found in feed and (ii) the selective enrichment steps were replaced by the qualitative PCR method. In conclusion, the developed PCR method can be used as an alternative method for detecting low numbers of Salmonella in feed samples. In combination with the novel MPN scheme, it can also be employed to generate quantitative data. Studies are in progress to further validate the performance on a larger number of naturally contaminated feed samples and to generate quantitative data on naturally contaminated feed.

Löfström, Charlotta; Andersson, Gunnar

2010-01-01

96

Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation. Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON is typically found in more than 50% of the samples and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins  and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.

Isabelle P. Oswald

2012-10-01

97

CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS AS A SOURCE OF EDCS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, there is an estimated 376,000 animal feed operations, generating approximately 128 billion pounds of waste each year. A facility is an animal feed operation (AFO) if animals are stabled/confined, or fed/maintained, for 45 days or more within any 12-month per...

98

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...reservoir in the target animal as compared to that...subtherapeutic use in animal feeds. Drug efficacy...the National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council...that drug for use in animal feeds under section...hatchability where birds are suffering stress from...

2010-04-01

99

Traceability of processed animal proteins with varying texture in feed: determination with microscopic and polymerase Chain Reaction methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To test the traceability of different animal components that could enter the feed chain two methods for the determination of processed animal proteins (PAPs in feed ? classical microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-analysis ? were applied in the following study. To determine PAPs of varying but defined structure different animal meals were produced artificially and analysed after spiking to a set of 13 compound feed samples. The aims of the study were (i to compare the capacity and the limits of both methods with respect to the determination of animal constituents of varying composition, (ii to verify a correct interpretation of the results from each method and (iii to determine an optimum application area for each method. Both methods complemented each other. The microscopic approach allowed a reproducible, high sensitive and quantitative determination of animal ingredients with morphological detectable structures, and in the presence of bone fragments a d i fferentiation between fish and terrestrial animals was possible simultaneously. The PCR-analysis provided the detection of animal ingredients in feed even in absence of visible structures but fishmeal was not detected in a sufficient manner by the chosen screening setup. However, the PCR-method enabled to differentiate between animal groups or species and to identify animal species. The methods complemented each other not only in the analytical features but also regarding the results produced by the detection of two different analytical targets of PAPs, morphological structures and gene sequences, r e s p e c t i v e l y. Suitable data regarding the presence of their analytical targets were produced by each method, but a combination of both methods enabled furthermore to report correct results regarding the presence of the artificially composed PAPs in the feed samples. It was concluded that a combination of microscopy and PCR-analysis is reasonable for special application purposes to determine PAPs in feed: while microscopy provides reliable results also in highly processed feed with wellpreserved morphological animal structures even with highly degraded genomic material, PCR provides applicable results in feed samples with preserved genomic animal material even after the separation of morphological structures. These specialties have to be considered for the choice of capable analytical methods and even for a correct evaluation of the results obtained from these methods in highly processed feed. An interpretation scheme based on the results of the study was proposed.

Hormisch D.E.

2004-01-01

100

Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. PMID:17384782

Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S; Kline, Joel N; Avery, Rachel; Bønløkke, Jakob H; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Dosman, James A; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A

2007-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb

Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben

2006-01-01

102

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author)

103

IMEP-32: Determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin : A Collaborative Trial Report  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A collaborative study, IMEP-32, was conducted in accordance with international protocols to determine the performance characteristics of an analytical method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin. The method would support Directive No 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed [1] where it is indicated that "Upon request of the competent authorities, the responsible operator must perform an analysis to demonstrate that the content of inorganic arsenic is lower than 2 ppm". The method is based on solid phase extraction (SPE) separation of inorganic arsenic from organoarsenic compounds followed by detection with hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The collaborative study investigated different types of samples of marine origin, including complete feed (unspiked and spiked), fish meal (unspiked and spiked), fish fillet (spiked) and a lobster hepatopancreas (unspiked). In total seven samples were investigated within the concentration range of 0.07 – 2.6 mg kg-1. The test samples were dispatched to 23 laboratories in 12 different countries. Nineteen participants reported results. The performance characteristics are presented in this report. All method performance characteristics obtained in the frame of this collaborative trial indicates that the proposed SPE-HG-AAS standard method is fit for the intended analytical purpose.

Sloth, Jens JØrgen; Cordeiro, Fernando

2011-01-01

104

Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy's extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative sampling directly from the large Tank Farm tanks is a difficult, if not unsolvable enterprise due to limi

105

Animation of Sample Loop HPLC Injections  

Science.gov (United States)

This site deals specifically with sample loop injections in liquid chromatography. The animations are short (one to two minutes) and can easily be shown in class as part of a lecture. They are extremely helpful in illustrating key components and concepts of chromatographic systems. Users are encouraged to explore the site and the other brief animations as well. Separate links to other simulations by the same company (TRSL) are listed below.

106

DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE FOR USE AS ANIMAL FEED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure have become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by drying. Dried manure can be utilized as a feed for ruminants because of its high nitrogen content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drying temperature and depth, as well as the nutritional profile of dried manure and its suitability as an animal feed. Dried poultry manure contained sufficient levels of digestible energy, crude fiber, crude protein, crude fat, cobalt and iodine. Although dried poultry manure did not meet the dietary requirements for calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, sulfur or zinc it could be used as a feed stuff for ruminants after supplementation with the required nutrients. Heated air drying was most efficient at 60°C and at a depth of 3 cm. During drying poultry manure decreased in pH (8.4-6.9, protein content (43 to 39-43% and amino acid content. The greatest reductions in microbial population occurred at the highest temperature (60°C and the lowest manure depth (1cm. Reductions in the number of bacteria, mold/yeast and E. coli were 65-99, 74-99 and 99.97% respectively, Salmonellae was not detected in the dried product. Dried poultry manure was found to have a non-offensive odor. Odor intensity and offensiveness were reduced by 65 and 69% respectively during drying. Thin layer heated air drying of poultry manure between 40 and 60°C created a safe and nutritionally appropriate feed for ruminants.

A. E. Ghaly

2012-01-01

107

Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were use [...] d. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Luiz Vítor Oliveira, Vidal; Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Elias Nunes, Martins; Tadeu Orlandi, Xavier; Mariana, Michelato; Themis Sakaguti, Graciano.

1346-13-01

108

Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1 = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900 of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710, reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal

2012-06-01

109

Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants. PMID:25190554

Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer D; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Friis-Wandall, Søren; Simonsen, Yvonne; Broesbøl-Jensen, Birgitte; Bonnichsen, Rikke

2014-01-01

110

Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants.

Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit

2014-01-01

111

Measures to be taken in case of environmental contamination by radionuclides - food and animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a recommendation on emergency plans under preparation by the Strahlenschutzkommission, methods are compiled which 1) prevent or reduce the contamination of animal feeds and food to be expected before, during or immediately after deposition; 2) influence the transfer of nuclides in animal feeds and food after deposition; 3) reduce contamination of animal feeds and food by treating the input materials, and 4) serve the alternative use or elimination if the maximum permissible values in animal feeds and food are exceeded. Method, feasbility, efficiency and decision-making foundations are represented in the form of tables. (orig./DG)

112

Determining mycotoxins in baby foods and animal feeds using stable isotope dilution and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a stable isotope dilution assay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine multiple mycotoxins in baby foods and animal feeds. Samples were fortified with [(13)C]-uniformly labeled mycotoxins as internal standards ([(13)C]-IS) and prepared by solvent extraction (50% acetonitrile in water) and filtration, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Mycotoxins in each sample were quantitated with the corresponding [(13)C]-IS. In general, recoveries of aflatoxins (2-100 ng/g), deoxynivalenol, fumonisins (50-2000 ng/g), ochratoxin A (20-1000 ng/kg), T-2 toxin, and zearalenone (40-2000 ng/g) in tested matrices (grain/rice/oatmeal-based formula, animal feed, dry cat/dog food) ranged from 70 to 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) foods and animal feeds, without using conventional standard addition or matrix-matched calibration standards to correct for matrix effects. PMID:25153173

Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Trucksess, Mary W

2014-09-10

113

Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) – effects on animal performance and meat quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females) were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM) or fishmeal (WFM) as protein source) on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females) on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference...

Finstad, Greg; Wiklund, Eva; Long, Kristy; Rincker, Phillip J.; Oliveira, Alexandra C. M.; Bechtel, Peter J.

2009-01-01

114

Studying the elimination of pathogenic agents in laboratory animals feed by use of nuclear technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory animals are being used all around the world for different kinds of experiments in biological and medical sciences and related fields for the purposes such as prevention, control, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases in livestock, poultry, human, reproduction, breeding, etc. This is very important to keep in the breeding and reproduction environment of laboratory animals, pathogenic microorganisms as low as possible or completely remove them. The most prevailing and important way of such contamination is through feeding laboratory animals. In this research work, it is tried to use gamma radiation as a useful nuclear technique for decrease or resolve the problem. Two kinds of standard forms of diets consumed by rabbit and guinea pig in the form of small pellets and by mouse, rat and hamster in the form of big pellets (with different feed formula) and also two kinds of additive food i.e. dry milk and vitamin C have been examined. Un-irradiated samples have been used for control. Total of 226 samples were irradiated, among which optimum doses were found 25 kilo Gray for both small and big pellets, 18 kilo Gray for dry milk. Since there was not any contamination in vitamin C un-irradiated sample, irradiation was done only to observe the effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C compounds. (Author)

115

Determination of aflatoxins B1 and M1 in animal feeds and liquid milk using thin layer chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal feed samples were collected from feeding troughs and analysed for levels of aflatoxins B1, a toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. When aflatoxin B1 is consumed by dairy cattle some of it is hydroxylated to form aflatoxin M1, which can appear in milk. Since aflatoxin M1, is also toxic and carcinogenic, it was determined in liquid milk. The determinations were carried out using thin-layer chromatography. Some of the feed samples were found to contain concentrations of aflatoxin B1 that were above maximum tolerated values in foods and feeds in various countries. Brewers grain and used poultry feed contained 133.4 ppb, while the barley husks had a maximum value of 27.4 ppb. The details of the experimental results and analytical methods used are presented.(author)

116

Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantag is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

117

Transmission of Aflatoxins from Animal Feeds to Raw and Pasteurized Milk in Shiraz City and its Suburbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: There are a lot of fungi in the air and our environment that grow and reproduce if the temperature and humidity are suitable. Aspergillus flavus and parasilicus are among the most important food contaminants which have a role in food poisoning. These fungi secrete poisons which contaminate animal feed as well as the milk we get from the animals fed with these foods. Methods: In this study, a total of 428 samples of raw, pasteurized milk and animal feeds were examined in different seasons of the year using ELISA or TLC method. Results: The results revealed that in 43.36% of the animal feed samples, the contamination level was above the permissible level of aflatoxin B1 (20ppb. In 38.03% of raw and 14.42% of pasteurized milk samples, the contamination level was above the permissible level (0.5 ppb. It was also found out that the contamination level was higher in summer and autumn than that in winter and spring. This could be due to higher humidity in autumn and higher temperature in summer. This study also showed that the percentage of contamination in corn was higher. A high percentage of contamination was also found in recycled bread in the samples of AL. The contamination level was low in Fal. Fa, bran and straw samples. Conclusion: Based on these findings, there seems to be a pressing need for controlling aflatoxin contamination in animal feeds and prevention of the use of contaminated animal feeds such as corn and recycled bread. Also rotten analysis of milk and its products is necessary to be performed periodically for detection of aflatoxin contamination.

R Ghasemi

2009-07-01

118

Do lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations promote nitrous oxide supersaturation?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal wastewater lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent the latest tendency in global animal farming, severely impacting the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions, including nitrous oxide (N2O). We hypothesized that lagoon wastewater could be supersaturated with N2O as part of incomplete microbial nitrification/denitrification processes, thereby regulating the N2O partitioning in the gaseous phase. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the magnitude of dissolved N2O concentrations in the lagoon; and (ii) to determine the extent to which supersaturation of N2O occurs in wastewater lagoons. Dissolved N2O concentrations in the wastewater samples were high, ranging from 0.4 to 40.5 ?g N2O mL-1. Calculated dissolved N2O concentrations from the experimentally measured partition coefficients were much greater than those typically expected in aquatic systems (2O mL-1). Knowledge of the factors controlling the magnitude of N2O supersaturation could potentially bridge mass balance differences between in situ measurements and global N2O models. - Supersaturation of nitrous oxide may occur in lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations.

119

78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam...X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed...regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in...regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared...

2013-06-10

120

Avian-specific real-time PCR assay for authenticity control in farm animal feeds and pet foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was developed for detection of an avian-specific DNA fragment (68bp) in farm animal and pet feeds. The specificity of the assay was verified against a wide representation of animal and plant species. Applicability assessment of the avian real-time PCR was conducted through representative analysis of two types of compound feeds: industrial farm animal feeds (n=60) subjected to extreme temperatures, and commercial dog and cat feeds (n=210). Results obtained demonstrated the suitability of the real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of low percentages of highly processed avian material in the feed samples analysed. Although quantification results were well reproducible under the experimental conditions tested, an accurate estimation of the target content in feeds is impossible in practice. Nevertheless, the method may be useful as an alternative tool for traceability purposes within the framework of feed control. PMID:24001810

Pegels, Nicolette; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Feeding strategies for improving milk production from milch animals owned by small farmers in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last decade the National Dairy Development Board of India has researched and developed feeding strategies for lactating cattle and buffaloes fed on basal forage diets. Depending on the season and climate, these diets are largely mature forage from tropical pastures or crop residues, which are generally low in protein and of relatively low digestibility. Supplementation of the rumen microbial ecosystem with essential nutrients by providing each animal with a urea/molasses block stimulates production by improving feed digestibility, intake and the balance of nutrients available from the feed. Supplementation with a bypass protein to supply the animal directly with additional amino acids stimulates the efficiency of feed utilization by reducing the heat increment of feeding. In hot environments this reduces heat stress and allows feed intake to be maintained. These feeding strategies are now being applied to a large number of milch animals in the herds of small farmers in India. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

122

Detection of prohibited animal products in livestock feeds by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of amplicons produced from a mitochondrial DNA region between the tRNA(Lys) and ATPase8 genes was applied for the detection of animal product within livestock feeds. Identification of prohibited animal (cattle, elk, sheep, deer, and goat) and nonprohibited animal (pig and horse) products from North America was possible based on the differential display of the single-stranded DNA fragments for the different animal species on SSCP gels. This method allowed specific detection and identification of mixed genomic DNA from different animal species. Trace amounts of cattle-derived materials were also detected in pig meat and bone meal and in grain-based feeds fortified with 10, 5, 1, or 0% porcine meat and bone meal. This study demonstrates the applicability of SSCP analyses to successfully identify the origin of animal species derived materials potentially present in animal feeds. PMID:20051214

Huby-Chilton, Florence; Murphy, Johanna; Chilton, Neil B; Gajadhar, Alvin A; Blais, Burton W

2010-01-01

123

Radioimmunoassay determination of the effect on animal reproduction of alternative of feeding suplementation in dairy cows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal object of this trial was to evaluate the influence of three alternatives of feeding suplementation in dairy cows in the post-partum period in ecuadorian highlands. Thirty sic animals in fist lactation were used in this experiment and were divided in three groups according to the feed intake: Group A diet was 5 Kg. of a commercial concentrate mixture with 12 per cent of crude protein plus pasture ad libitum; Group B diet was green banans (Musa paradisiaca) and pasture and Group C diet was the control only pasture. Using Radioimmunoassay technique (RIA), progesterone values were determinated in milk from each cow. the sampling was sequential, two samples a week, starting 6 days after parturition, until the animal was pregnant or until the study was finished, 150 days after post-partum for each cow. This research allowed us to evaluate the ovaric post-partum activity of each group: Frequency and length of the oestrus cycles; efficiency of oestrus detection, calving-first, oestrus period, calving-conception length, conception rate, and services per conception. Additional datas were used in this study such as: milk production, palpations and treatments

124

POTENTIAL OF CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS (CAFOS) TO CONTRIBUTE ESTROGENS TO THE ENVIRONMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Confined Animal Feed Operations (CAFOs) are a growing industry, with a trend towards fewer operations with higher concentrations of animals. Animals are either fed and/or treated with many different types of pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics and hormones, which can end up in...

125

Analysis of particle-borne odorants emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Airborne particles are known to serve as a carrier of odors emanating from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, limited quantitative data about particle-borne odorants preclude an accurate assessment of the role of particles in odor transport. This study collected total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 ?m) at the air exhaust of eight types of CAFOs (swine: farrowing, gestation, weaning, and finishing; poultry: manure-belt layer hen, tom turkey, chicken broiler, and cage-free layer hen; in total 20 animal buildings) in multiple seasons, and examined the variability in particle odorant composition with animal operation type, season, and particle size. Fifty-seven non-sulfur-containing odorants were identified and quantitated, including carbonyls, alcohols, acids, phenols, and nitrogen-containing compounds. They in total accounted for 2.19±1.52% TSP and 4.97±3.25% PM10 mass. Acetic acid and ethanol were most abundant but less odor-contributing than phenylacetic acid, indole, dodecanoic acid, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, as determined by odor activity value. Particle odorant composition varied significantly with animal operation type, season, and particle size. The TSP and PM10 samples from swine gestation buildings, for example, showed distinctly different odorant compositions than those from tom turkey buildings. The summer TSP and PM10 samples contained in general lower concentrations of short-chain fatty acids but higher concentrations of long-chain fatty acids, aldehydes, and short-chain alcohols than the winter samples. Compared to TSP, PM10 samples from different types of CAFOs shared a more similar odorant composition, contained higher odorant concentrations per mass of particles, and accounted for on average 53.2% of the odor strength of their corresponding TSP samples. PMID:24863138

Yang, Xufei; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin

2014-08-15

126

Evaluation of the effect of mycotoxin binders in animal feed on the analytical performance of standardised methods for the determination of mycotoxins in feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, the use of substances that can suppress or reduce absorption, promote the excretion of mycotoxins or modify their mode of action in feed, so-called mycotoxin binders, has been officially allowed in the European Union as technological feed additives. The influence of the addition of mycotoxin binders to animal feed on the analytical performance of the official methods for the determination of mycotoxins was studied and the results are presented. Where possible standardised methods for analysis were applied. Samples of 20 commercial mycotoxin binders were collected from various companies. The following mycotoxins were included in the study: aflatoxin B?, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B? and B?, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A binder (or binders combined in a group) was mixed with feed material containing the mycotoxin, and the feed material was analysed. For data evaluation, the mean values were compared by Student's t-test (an independent two-sample t-test with unequal sample sizes and equal variance). The repeatability standard deviation of each method was used as an estimate of method variability. No significant differences (p = 0.05) in mycotoxin levels between binder-free material and the material containing different binders were found. Further, the possible effects of binder addition in combination with processing (pelletising) on the amount of aflatoxin B? determined in feed were studied. Three commercial mycotoxin binders containing hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) as the main component were used in these experiments. Feed samples with and without mycotoxin binders were pelletised with and without steam treatment. After pelletising, materials were analysed for AFB?. Only the combination pelletising and a mixture of binders added at a total level of 1.2% had a significant effect (41% reduction) on the amount of AFB? determined. PMID:22971076

Kolosova, A; Stroka, J

2012-01-01

127

Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed : Animal Feed Contamination: Effects on Livestock and Food Safety  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary products such as peels, pulpettes, molasses, whey, mask, oil cakes, etc. Contamination of by-products and possible impacts are presented.

Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja

2012-01-01

128

9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry...and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry...and similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals,...

2010-01-01

129

9 CFR 95.13 - Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements...STATES § 95.13 Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements...without further restrictions for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals...

2010-01-01

130

76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments  

Science.gov (United States)

...or hold human food or animal food/feed (including...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On March 19, 2009...respect to human food or animal food/feed (including...Microbiological and other testing used to help ensure the...specific human food and animal food/feed....

2011-05-23

131

Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry.

Muzaffer Denli

2010-05-01

132

The effect of animal feed from irradiated palm oil sludge on antibody forming of mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this experiment, 3 kinds of animal feed were, e.q. control (commercial product), non irradiated and irradiated palm oil sludge by using 60Co source with a 4 kGy dose. BALB-C mice of 3 months old were used, each group contains 5 animals. Before conducting the experiment the animals were injected with antibiotic to free them from Enterobacteriaceae. The animals were observed every 2 weeks by weighting them, blood were analyzed and after 10 weeks their antibody were analyzed. Animal feed were in the form of pellets and each animal was feed 5 g of pellets. The results were as follows, antibody formed by C (control), N (non irradiated sludge) and, R (irradiated sludge) were 37; 36.5; and 36.2 mg/nl, respectively. Apparently pellets which were made of palm oil sludge and commercial product produced not significantly different level of antibody. (author)

133

Identification and detection of animal- and tissue-specific marker in animal by-products and animal feed to reduce the transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, new analytical methods for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed and by-products are described. Due to the enforcement of legislation against transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of the European Union and of the planned relaxation of this, it needs urgent development of species-specific detection methods, in particular to prevent the entry of bovine material in the feed chain. The aim of this study was the development and validation of immunological method...

Kreuz, Grit

2013-01-01

134

21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...These substances added to animal feeds as nutritional dietary supplements are generally recognized as safe when added... Sodium iodide. Thymol iodide. Iron Iron ammonium citrate. Iron carbonate. Iron chloride. Iron...

2010-04-01

135

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville...Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Office of New Animal Drug...effective for the therapeutic purposes will be permitted in feed...

2010-04-01

136

Determination of aflatoxins in animal feeds by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with isotope dilution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study is to develop a simple, fast method for detection of aflatoxins in animal feeds. Simultaneous quantitation of four aflatoxins (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1) and AFG(2)) in animal feeds was achieved in a single liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) run. The solid-phase extraction cleanup step is eliminated with the stable isotope dilution method. Matrix effects were observed and overcome by isotope dilution. The method was tested in a variety of animal feed matrices and proved to be accurate and reliable. Method ruggedness tests resulted in recoveries of 78% to 122% with an intra-day assay precision of 2% to 15% and an inter-day assay precision of 3% to 17%. These results indicate that this method is suitable for quantitation of aflatoxins in animal feeds. PMID:21491528

Li, Wei; Herrman, Timothy J; Dai, Susie Y

2011-05-15

137

Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91), followed by S. Dublin (n = 82). There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates w...

Boqvist, S.; Hansson, I.; Nord Bjerselius, U.; Hamilton, C.; Wahlstro?m, H.; Noll, B.; Tysen, E.; Engvall, A.

2003-01-01

138

Phytic phosphorus and phytase activity of animal Feed Ingredients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para determinar o fósforo total e fítico e, a atividade da fitase endógena de grãos de cereais e oleaginosas e seus subprodutos, avaliaram-se ingredientes alimentícios que se utilizam na produção animal nos trópicos. Estes foram; milho amarelo, sorgo, trigo duro e farelo de arroz; dos subprodutos de [...] cereais, a farinha de gérmen e farelo de milho desengordurado grosso e fino, farelo de trigo e polidura de arroz; das oleaginosas e subprodutos, a semente e farinha de algodão, e as farinhas de soja, palmiste e coco. O ácido fítico determinou-se, em cinco amostras, mediante um método colorimétrico e a atividade fitásica por um procedimento enzimático colorimétrico. Além disso, determinou-se, por métodos convencionais, a composição química e mineral dos materiais avaliados. O conteúdo (%) de proteína crua, extrato etéreo, cinzas e composição mineral foi similar aos valores resenhados nas tabelas de composição de alimentos de diferentes países. Os grãos de cereais e subprodutos apresentaram concentrações de fósforo total variando de 0,12 a 1,57%. Nos grãos de oleaginosas e seus subprodutos a concentração de fósforo total variou de 0,43 a 1,34%. A concentração de fósforo fítico (%) em cereais e oleaginosas variou de 0,08 a 0,49 e, para os subprodutos, de 0,24 a 1.13%. As equações de regressão entre o fósforo total e fítico foram positivas e significativas nos cereais e subprodutos e nas oleaginosas e subprodutos. As correlações foram significativas entre fósforo fítico e conteúdo de magnésio, potássio e cálcio, nos cereais e seus subprodutos. A atividade fitásica (U/kg) foi significativamente mais elevada para o trigo (1.565). O arroz, o farelo de trigo e a polidura de arroz, apresentaram atividades maiores de 100 U/kg. Os grãos e subprodutos restantes se consideram como materiais sem atividade fitásica. Abstract in spanish Para determinar fósforo total y fítico, y la actividad de fitasas endógenas de granos de cereales y oleaginosas y sus subproductos, se evaluaron ingredientes alimenticios utilizados en la producción animal en los trópicos. Los cereales y sus subproductos fueron maíz amarillo, sorgo, trigo duro, terc [...] erilla de arroz, harina de germen y afrecho de maíz desgrasado grueso y fino, afrecho de trigo y pulitura de arroz. Las oleaginosas y sus subproductos fueron semilla y harina de algodón, y harinas de soya, palmiste y coco. El ácido fítico se determinó mediante un método colorimétrico y la actividad fitásica por un procedimiento enzimático-colorimétrico. Además se determinó, por métodos convencionales, la composición química y mineral de los materiales evaluados. El contenido (%) de proteína cruda, extracto etéreo, cenizas y composición mineral fue similar a los valores de las tablas de composición de alimentos. La concentración de P total estuvo entre 0,12 y 1,57% en granos de cereales y sus subproductos, y entre 0,43 y 1,34% en granos de oleaginosas y sus subproductos. La concentración de P fítico en cereales y oleaginosas varió entre 0,08 y 0,49% y en sus subproductos entre 0,24 y 1,13%. Las ecuaciones de regresión entre P total y fítico fueron positivas y significativas en los cereales y subproductos, y en las oleaginosas y subproductos. Las correlaciones fueron significativas entre P fítico y contenido de Mg, K y Ca en los cereales y subproductos. La actividad fitásica (U/kg) fue significativamente mayor para el trigo (1565). Arroz, afrecho de trigo y pulitura de arroz presentaron actividades >100U/kg. Los restantes granos y subproductos se consideran como materiales sin actividad fitásica. Abstract in english To determine total and phytic phosphorus and endogenous phytase activity in cereals, oilseeds and by-products, feed ingredients used in animal production in the tropics were evaluated. The cereals and by-products were yellow corn, sorghum, hard wheat, broken rice, wheat bran, fine and gross defatted [...] corn germ and bran

Susmira, Godoy; Claudio, Chicco; François, Meschy; Fanny, Requena.

2005-01-01

139

Sensitive Quantification of Aflatoxin B1 in Animal Feeds, Corn Feed Grain, and Yellow Corn Meal Using Immunomagnetic Bead-Based Recovery and Real-Time Immunoquantitative-PCR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aflatoxins are considered unavoidable natural mycotoxins encountered in foods, animal feeds, and feed grains. In this study, we demonstrate the application of our recently developed real-time immunoquantitative PCR (RT iq-PCR assay for sensitive detection and quantification of aflatoxins in poultry feed, two types of dairy feed (1 and 2, horse feed, whole kernel corn feed grains, and retail yellow ground corn meal. Upon testing methanol/water (60:40 extractions of the above samples using competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the aflatoxin content was found to be <20 ?g/kg. The RT iq-PCR assay exhibited high antigen hook effect in samples containing aflatoxin levels higher than the quantification limits (0.1–10 ?g/kg, addressed by comparing the quantification results of undiluted and diluted extracts. In testing the reliability of the immuno-PCR assay, samples were spiked with 200 ?g/kg of aflatoxin B1, but the recovery of spiked aflatoxin was found to be poor. Considering the significance of determining trace levels of aflatoxins and their serious implications for animal and human health, the RT iq-PCR method described in this study can be useful for quantifying low natural aflatoxin levels in complex matrices of food or animal feed samples without the requirement of extra sample cleanup.

Dinesh Babu

2014-12-01

140

ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: CATTLE MANURE FEEDING TRIALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilization of 'as-collected' and processed beef cattle and dairy cow manure, manure screenings and anaerobically digested cattle manures was evaluated on the basis of the results of feeding trials reported in the literature. The maximum level of incorporating these manures i...

 
 
 
 
141

Content of Heavy Metals in Animal Feeds and Manures from Farms of Different Scales in Northeast China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the contents of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Cd and Pb in animal feeds and manures, 104 livestock feeds and 118 animal manure samples from farms of different herd size and located in northeast China were collected and their heavy metal concentrations were determined. The content of Cu, As and Cd ranged from 2.3–1,137.1 mg/kg dm, 0.02–13.03 mg/kg dm and non-detectable (nd?31.65 mg/kg dm in pig feeds, 2.88–98.08 mg Cu/kg dm, 0.02–6.42 mg As/kg dm and non-detectable (nd–8.00 mg Cd/kg dm in poultry feeds, and their content in cattle feeds was similar to that in poultry feeds. The typical content in pig manures was 642.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 8.6 mg As/kg dm, and 15.1 mg Cd/kg dm, which reflected the metal contents in feeds. The typical contents in poultry manures were 65.6 mg Cu/kg dm, 3.3 mg As/kg dm and 1.6 mg Cd/kg dm while the contents in cattle manures were 31.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 2.5 mg As/kg dm and 0.5 mg Cd/kg dm. Animal manure is an important source of heavy metals to the environment in Northeast China.

Wei Li

2012-07-01

142

Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline, with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage disease. Yet, we do not believe starling control should be used as a stand alone tool to reduce S. enterica infections. Rather starling control could be used as part of a comprehensive disease management plan for concentrated animal feeding operations.

Bodenchuk Michael J

2011-02-01

143

Statistical Methods and Tools for Hanford Staged Feed Tank Sampling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to technically evaluate the current approach to staged feed sampling of high-level waste (HLW) sludge to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for transfer from tank farms to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The current sampling and analysis approach is detailed in the document titled Initial Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria, 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014, Revision 0 (Arakali et al. 2011). The goal of this current work is to evaluate and provide recommendations to support a defensible, technical and statistical basis for the staged feed sampling approach that meets WAC data quality objectives (DQOs).

Fountain, Matthew S.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Peterson, Reid A.

2013-10-01

144

Infant formula samples and breast feeding among Philippine urban poor.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was performed on the maternity wards of three public hospitals in Cebu City, Philippines to determine whether the distribution of free samples of infant formula reduced the likelihood that mothers would breast feed or caused mothers to terminate nursing early. Samples were given or withheld alternately for 2 week intervals to mothers as they left maternity wards. They were followed for 8 months in the first experiment (N = 273) and for 2 months in a replication (N = 284). We found that there were no statistically significant differences between those who received samples and those who did not in initiation or maintenance of breast feeding. Mothers in both groups frequently turned to mixed schedules, but these varied from day to day depending on money to buy other forms of milk, or on the mother's health, or her plan to be away from the baby for one or more feeding periods. After the baby reached an age of 2-3 months, mothers, with few exceptions, used diluted sweetened condensed milk as a supplement and/or substitute for their own milk. It was found that, while mothers recognize the nutritional, economic and health benefits of breast feeding, they may terminate early on the basis of folk beliefs. Receiving formula samples, however, had no measured effect on their breast feeding practices. PMID:4012357

Guthrie, G M; Guthrie, H A; Fernandez, T L; Estrera, N O

1985-01-01

145

78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms  

Science.gov (United States)

...that processed fish meal, poultry meal, meat meal, tankage, or other animal byproducts...with Salmonella microorganisms: Bone meal, blood meal, crab meal, feather meal, fish meal, fish solubles, meat scraps, poultry meat meal,...

2013-07-16

146

EVALUATION OF THE LEVELS OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN ANIMAL FEEDS  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to measure the levels of dioxin-like compounds in the feeds of terrestrial food animals - cattle, swine, and poultry - and to understand their contribution to the dioxin-like levels found in the animals. It is an ongoing effort involving several phase...

147

A SEMI-AUTOMATED APPROACH FOR DETECTING AND LOCATING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS OVER REGIONAL AREAS  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

148

Sterilization by irradiation of feed for axenic or heteroxenic laboratory animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sterilization by irradiation of animal feeds is promising. The objective of experiments presented is to determine if integrated dose (44 kGy) has an influence on breeding performances and on animal behavior. Results show that not only nothing abnormal is constated but performances are better than those obtained with an autoclave in an important breeding center in conditions perfectly analyzed

149

21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements...neither contain nor are food additives as defined...collective names are the products defined by the Association...Animal products, marine products, and milk...of the following: Algae meals,...

2010-04-01

150

The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium and amino acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine, The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet; T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM; T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM; T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM; T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM; T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.

CMI Caires

2010-03-01

151

Hepatitis E virus and coliphages in waters proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

North Carolina is the second leading state in pork production in the United States, with over 10 million swine. Swine manure in NC is typically collected and stored in open-pit lagoons before the liquid waste is sprayed onto agricultural fields for disposal. Components of this waste may be able to impact surface water quality with the potential for human exposure. This study examined viruses of public health concern in creeks adjacent to swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) spray fields. Surface water samples (n=154) were collected from public access waters in proximity to swine CAFO spray fields for six months and were tested for hepatitis E virus (HEV) and coliphages. HEV was detected in one sample. Somatic coliphages were detected in 98% of samples (geometric mean 24 ± 4.1 PFU per 100 ml), and F+ coliphages were detected in 85% of samples (geometric mean 6.8 ± 5.0 PFU per 100 ml). Only 3% (21) of the F+ coliphage isolates were RNA phage, and all of the F+ RNA coliphages belonged to genogroup I. Although the pervasiveness of swine CAFOs in this area prevented a comparison with samples from un-impacted sites, the near ubiquity of coliphages, as well as the presence of HEV, suggests that current waste management practices may be associated with the dissemination of viruses of public health concern in waters proximal to CAFO spray fields. PMID:25461050

Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Myers, Kevin; Pisanic, Nora; Heaney, Christopher; Stewart, Jill

2015-02-01

152

Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

A. Priolo

2011-03-01

153

Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especiall...

Muzaffer Denli; Perez, Jose F.

2010-01-01

154

Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury as undesirable substances in animal feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Toxic mineral elements occur naturally in the environment as a result of natural causes, as well as industrial and agricultural practices. Among existing toxic mineral elements, the most important are arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, which are harmful to animals’ health. This review provides evidence on the occurrence of these four toxic mineral elements in the environment and potentially in animal feeds, where considered as undesirable substances, as well as their bioavailability and their effects in animals.

Vasileios Anastasios Bampidis

2013-05-01

155

Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm kernel cake (PKC), a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullet...

Kuprasert, S.; Watanasit, S.

2001-01-01

156

Potential of annual legumes for utilization in animal feeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pea and common vetch have been successfully grown for green forage and forage dry matter production, with yields higher than 30 t ha-1 of green forage and 7 t ha-1 of forage dry matter. Pea and faba bean have the greatest potential as feed annual legumes, with more than 5,000 kg ha-1 and harvest indexes of nearly 0.50. When cut in the stages of full flowering and first pods forming, the average crude protein content of forage dry matter in most annual legumes ranges about 200 g kg-1. Although...

Mihailovi? V.; Miki? A.; ?upina B.

2007-01-01

157

21 CFR 573.380 - Ethoxyquin in animal feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for use only: (1) As a chemical preservative for retarding oxidation of carotene, xanthophylls, and vitamins A and E in animal...2) as an aid in preventing the development of organic peroxides in canned pet food. (b) The maximum quantity of...

2010-04-01

158

USE OF SORGHUM IN FEEDING OF AGRICULTURAL ANIMALS AND POULTRY ????????????? ????? ? ????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ? ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article is dedicated to the problem of sorghum use in the rations for agricultural animals and poultry. Grain sorghum, the nutritious properties of which are same or exceed those of maize, can be the major crop in the structure of combined fodder for poultry

??n?n?n?? I. S.

2012-01-01

159

Influence of hay and animal feed exposure on respiratory status: a longitudinal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to study respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in farmers, with particular attention to the influence of handling hay, straw and animal feed. From a cohort recruited in 1993-1994, 219 (82.6%) dairy farmers, 130 (62.5%) nondairy agricultural workers and 99 (66.4%) controls were re-evaluated in 2006. They answered medical and occupational questionnaires, underwent spirometric tests at both evaluations and pulse oximetry in 2006. Dairy and nondairy agricultural workers showed an increased risk for usual morning phlegm (adjusted OR 4.27 (95% CI 1.41-12.95) and 3.59 (95% CI 1.16-11.10), respectively). Animal feed handling was associated with increased risks of wheezing (p = 0.01) and usual morning phlegm (p = 0.04); hay or straw handling was associated with increased risk of wheezing (p = 0.008). Adjusting for smoking, age, height, sex and altitude, dairy farmers had greater declines in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity ratio (p = 0.01) than controls. An increased decline in FEV(1) for all agricultural workers was associated with animal feed handling, both measured as a categorical (currently versus never handling; p = 0.05) or quantitative value (years of exposure during the survey period; p = 0.03). Hay, straw or animal feed handling represents a risk factor of bronchial symptoms and, for animal feed only, of accelerated decline in expiratory flows. PMID:21030452

Thaon, I; Thiebaut, A; Jochault, L; Lefebvre, A; Laplante, J J; Dalphin, J C

2011-04-01

160

Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers

 
 
 
 
161

Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers.

Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Fernández-Cruz, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain); Bertelsen, U. [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Renshaw, D.W. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Peltonen, K. [Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland); Anadon, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid (Spain); Feil, A. [ForschungsinstitutFuttermitteltechnik, Braunschweig (Germany); Sanders, P. [AFSSA, LERMVD, Fougères (France); Wester, P. [RIVM, Food and Consumer Safety, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2013-08-01

162

Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers. PMID:21215766

Dorne, J L C M; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Bertelsen, U; Renshaw, D W; Peltonen, K; Anadon, A; Feil, A; Sanders, P; Wester, P; Fink-Gremmels, J

2013-08-01

163

Modification and Characterization of Phytase for Animal Feed Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic phosphate from phytic acid and are able to improve the nutritional quality of phytate rich diet. Monogastric animal such as poultry and fish have lack of significant activity to hydrolyze phytate that contribute to elimination of beneficial nutrient for growth therefore contribute to land pollution, eutrophication of ground water and aquatic environment. Besides, it leads to the negative effect on vitamin utilization that lead to the emaciation, r...

Noorbatcha, I. A.; Samsudin, N.; Salleh, H. M.

2009-01-01

164

Arsenic pollution of agricultural soils by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can cause soil arsenic pollution due to the widespread use of organoarsenic feed additives. This study investigated the arsenic pollution of surface soils in a typical CAFO zone, in comparison with that of agricultural soils in the Pearl River Delta, China. The mean soil arsenic contents in the CAFO zone were elevated compared to those in the local background and agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta region. Chemical speciation analysis showed that the soils in the CAFO zone were clearly contaminated by the organoarsenic feed additive, p-arsanilic acid (ASA). Transformation of ASA to inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in the surface soils was also observed. Although the potential ecological risk posed by the arsenic in the surface soils was relatively low in the CAFO zone, continuous discharge of organoarsenic feed additives could cause accumulation of arsenic and thus deserves significant attention. PMID:25036941

Liu, Xueping; Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Hu, Erdan; Xie, Xiande; Wang, Lingling; Cheng, Hefa

2015-01-01

165

Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC, a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullets and laying hen, PKC can be used 30% and 20% respectively if supplemented with fat, methionine and lysine. PKC can be used 30% in diet for grower (30-60 kg and 50% in diet for finisher pigs (60-90 kg., respectively, if supplemented with lysine and cane molasses.

Kuprasert, S.

2001-11-01

166

21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...leakage has occurred that resulted in direct contamination of animal feed with...1) Coatings or paints for use on the contact surfaces of feed storage areas may not...apply to electrical transformers and condensers containing PCB's in sealed...

2010-04-01

167

77 FR 4228 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin  

Science.gov (United States)

...NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co. The supplemental NADA provides for approval of...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co., Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN...

2012-01-27

168

76 FR 79064 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin  

Science.gov (United States)

...NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co. The supplemental NADA revises a manufacturing specification...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co., Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN...

2011-12-21

169

75 FR 5887 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Ractopamine; Monensin  

Science.gov (United States)

...NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co. The NADA provides for use of single-ingredient...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly [[Page 5888

2010-02-05

170

75 FR 60308 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol  

Science.gov (United States)

...medicated feeds containing melengestrol acetate, monensin, and tylosin phosphate for heifers fed in confinement for slaughter. These...138-870 for use of liquid MGA 500, RUMENSIN, and TYLAN (tylosin phosphate) single- ingredient Type A medicated articles...

2010-09-30

171

Techno-economic feasibility of animal feed production from empty fruit bunches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been shown in our laboratory that EFB has the potential to be converted into animal feeds through the process of fermentation; and also use as media for mushroom growing (1). Irradiation of EFB at doses above 10 kGy followed by fermentation can reduce crude fibre (CF) content to almost 20-30% and crude protein (CP) content elevated to 10-15% from 50% and 2% respectively (2)(3). The end-product of fermentation displayed all the characteristics of animal feed, and at these levels of CF and CP can be utilised for feeding ruminants. Further reduction of CF and raising of CP can result in the products suitable for feeding non-ruminants such as poultry and pigs. Following the successful conversion of raw EFB into foodstuff for ruminant in the laboratory, there is an urgent need to evaluate whether such products could be mass-produced economically at larger scale for further feeding-trials. Pilot plant has to be set up to simulate the actual commercial production process before any technology transfer can be undertaken. The main objective of this paper is to report firstly, the economic and financial feasibility of the production process at pilot level. Secondly, preliminary evaluation on the cost of production of animal feed from EFB

172

Modification and Characterization of Phytase for Animal Feed Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic phosphate from phytic acid and are able to improve the nutritional quality of phytate rich diet. Monogastric animal such as poultry and fish have lack of significant activity to hydrolyze phytate that contribute to elimination of beneficial nutrient for growth therefore contribute to land pollution, eutrophication of ground water and aquatic environment. Besides, it leads to the negative effect on vitamin utilization that lead to the emaciation, retarded growth and reproductive failure to animal. Due to the importance of, microbial sources for the commercial production of phytases, we have selected waste water bacterium phytase as the subject of interest in this study. In silico experiment is used to identify and examine the active site of waste water bacterium phytase. The factors influencing the ligand binding strength in the active site is analyzed and computational site directed mutagenesis experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of mutations on the binding strength. Multiple mutations of M216R/E219R/H17A, M216R/E219R/F254E and some other multiple mutations showed improvement in the binding strength, primarily due to the addition of hydrogen bond with the adjacent residues. Automated docking based on genetic algorithm is used to dock the phytate in the active site and Partial Mean Force (PMF scoring is used to calculate the strength of the binding before and after mutation.

I.A. Noorbatcha

2009-01-01

173

An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Enforcing the ban on meat-and-bone meal in feed for farmed animals, and especially ruminants, is considered an important measure to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The authors describe current analytical methods for the detection and identification of animal tissues in feed. In addition, recently approved requirements, such as the ban of intra-species recycling (practice of feeding an animal species with proteins derived from the bodies, or parts of bodies, of the same...

Gizzi, G.; Raamsdonk, L. W. D.; Baeten, V.; Murray, I.; Berben, G.; Brambilla, G.; Holst, C.

2003-01-01

174

Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

2015-04-01

175

Mycotoxins in horse feed: Incidence of deoxynivalenol in oat samples from stud farms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reports concerning mycotoxins in horse feed are very rare and are typically restricted to fumonisins. As a non-ruminant monogastric species, horses may be more sensitive to adverse effects of mycotoxins, but the most severe effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1 in equines is that it causes fatal leucoencephalomalacia. In recent years, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has evaluated several mycotoxins as “undesirable substances in animal feed” with the aim of establishing guidance values for the feed industry. In its evaluation of deoxynivalenol (DON, EFSA concluded that this toxin exhibited toxic effects in all species, but that horses were more tolerant towards this toxin than pigs. According to the available data, a systematic survey on mycotoxins in horse feed in Serbia has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of mycotoxins in horse feed in Vojvodina. Samples of oats for horse consumption, collected in 2010, were analyzed by enzyme immunoassays (ELISA for deoxynivalenol contamination. Twelve samples of oats were taken from twelve horse studs, with sport, school and hobby horses.

Uroševi? Miroslav I.

2011-01-01

176

The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments wit [...] h 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium) and amino acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine), The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet); T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM); T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM); T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM); T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM); T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.

CMI, Caires; EA, Fernandes; NS, Fagundes; AP, Carvalho; MP, Maciel; BR, Oliveira.

2010-03-01

177

Evaluation of Nigerian animal feeds by particle-induced X-ray emission.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is need to evaluate the locally available animal feeds in Nigeria so as to be able to combine them in acceptable proportions to the animals to achieve the desired growth rate. The technique of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was employed for the evaluation of these locally available animal feeds, which include Panicum maximum (Guinea grass), Cynodon plectostachyum (grass), Leucaena leucephala (legume), Calopogonium mucunoides (legume), Gliricidia sepium (legume), Euphorbia polychrome (legume), Pueraria phaseloides (legume), and Centrosema pubescens (legume). The proton beam delivered by the 2.5-MV AN 2,000 Van de Graaff accelerator at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy was used for the PIXE measurements. Twenty-one different elements were detected at various concentrations and their nutritional effects on different animals are discussed. PMID:16217142

Olabanji, S O; Olubunmi, P; Ceccato, D; Buoso, M C; De Poli, M; Moschini, G

2005-11-01

178

Radionuclides in Animal Feed (Poultry) 'Assessment of Radiation Dose'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work a comprehensive study has been carried out for the determination of presents evaluation of effective dose due to consumption of chicken fed by fodders collected from four major Sudanese companies (Hader, Koudjs, Wifi and Preconex SPN.V). The concentrations of radionuclides in the thirty two (32) feed samples have been determined by gamma spectrometry using NaI(Tl) detector. Radionuclides observed were: Pb-212 (daughter of Th-238), Pb-214, Bi-214 (daughters of U-238), Cs-137 and K-40 concentration. In additives the activity concentration of these radionuclides has found in the following ranges: 0.81 - 22.06 Bq/kg, 0.59 - 32.07 Bq/kg, 0.64 - 15.77 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 2.02 Bq/kg and 33.58 - 204.61 Bq/kg respectively. In feed concentrates activity concentration ranges has: 0.73 - 13.79 Bq/kg, 0.33 - 20.04 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 1.67 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 0.28 Bq/kg, 26.86 - 99.21 Bq/kg respectively. In fodders the activity concentration ranges has: 1.25 - 1.52 Bq/kg, 0.12 - 1.24 Bq/kg, 0.51 - 1.25 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 0.61 Bq/kg, 11.94 - 127.88 Bq/kg respectively. The 'animal product' activity concentration ranges has: 0.31 - 1.65 Bq/kg, 0.22 - 1.11 Bq/kg, 0.26 - 1.07 Bq/kg, 0.03 - 0.51 Bq/kg, 14.07 - 79.93 Bq/kg respectively. High concentrations (233.3 Bq/Kg) has typically found in toxo(additive); the lowest concentration (27.9 Bq/Kg ) has found in concentrate for layers and animal product. The total average effective dose due to the different feed-stuff has estimated and found to be 5.89x10{sup -6}±3.11x10{sup -6}mSv/y and 13.9 x 10{sup -7} ± 7.24 x 10{sup -7}mSv/y for age categories 7-12 y and >17 y respectively. If compared with the limits - Radioactivity Levels Permitted in foodstuffs Part 1 the Saudi Standards, Metrology and quality (300 Bq/Kg) and ICRP,FAO organization (5 mSv/y) - these values are very low. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

Algadi, S.; Salih, I. [Radiation Safety Institute (Sudan)

2014-07-01

179

Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2. PMID:24634172

Meriç, S; Cak?r, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Ar?, S

2014-01-01

180

The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction of genetically modified (GM) food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on anim...

Petr Mares; Tunde Jurikova Pokorna; Jiri Sochor; Ladislav Zeman; Mojmir Baron; Jiri Mlcek; Stefan Balla

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury as undesirable substances in animal feeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Toxic mineral elements occur naturally in the environment as a result of natural causes, as well as industrial and agricultural practices. Among existing toxic mineral elements, the most important are arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, which are harmful to animals’ health. This review provides evidence on the occurrence of these four toxic mineral elements in the environment and potentially in animal feeds, where considered as undesirable substances, as well as their bioavailability and th...

Vasileios Anastasios Bampidis; Eleonora Nistor; Dimosthenis Nitas

2013-01-01

182

Scientific Opinion on the risk for public and animal health related to the presence of sterigmatocystin in food and feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on sterigmatocystin (STC in food and feed. STC is a polyketide mycotoxin that shares its biosynthetic pathway with aflatoxins. Following an EFSA call for data, analytical results from 247 food and 334 feed samples were submitted. In food, analytical results on STC were reported to be all below the limit of detection or limit of quantification. In feed, only four quantified results were reported. Therefore, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel concluded that the available occurrence data are too limited to carry out a reliable human and animal dietary exposure assessment. Acute oral toxicity of STC is relatively low, and liver and kidneys are the target organs. STC is mutagenic in both bacterial and mammalian cells after metabolic activation and forms DNA adducts. Tumourigenicity has been observed after oral, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous and dermal administration resulting in hepatocellular carcinomas, haemangiosarcomas in the liver, angiosarcomas in brown fat and lung adenomas. Since no exposure data were available, the margin of exposure approach for substances that are genotoxic and carcinogenic could not be applied for STC, and thus the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the risk for human health. Regarding animals, the Panel noted that STC is hepatotoxic in poultry and pigs, and nephrotoxic in poultry and toxic in several fish species. However, in the absence of exposure data for livestock, fish and companion animals, and given the limited knowledge on the adverse effects of STC, the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the risk for animal health. More occurrence data on STC in food and feed need to be collected to allow dietary exposure assessment. For food, methods with a limit of quantification of less than 1.5 µg/kg should be applied.

EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

2013-06-01

183

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n = 650 were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n = 71 were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%, followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n = 14 were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxa-zole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline, whereas 80.3% (n = 57 were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprim-suflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

Godwin P. Kaaya

2012-06-01

184

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal) samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n=650) were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n=71) were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%), followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n=14) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline), whereas 80.3% (n=57) were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprimsuflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem. PMID:22718330

Shilangale, Renatus P; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Chimwamurombe, Percy M; Kaaya, Godwin P

2012-01-01

185

The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp. as Animal Feed in the Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The different meal forms that can be extracted are golden snail meal (30 % calcium and 15 % crude protein, golden snail meat meal (62 % crude protein and 3336 kcal/kg and golden shell meal (35 % calcium. Feeding trials indicate that golden snail meal can be a part of swine and chicken layer diets up to 15 %. Golden snail meat meal can be a part of broiler chicken diet up to 12 %. Feeding fresh and ground golden snail to ducks can replace 50 % of their diet under total confinement system. Whereas, golden snail meat meal (75 % of the diet plus rice bran can be beneficially fed to tilapia. With the information collated, golden snail can be a promising animal feed in the Philippines.

Serra, AB.

1997-01-01

186

Assessment of animal productivity and methane production using an associative feeding strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methane production from ruminants is a loss of digestible energy thereby reducing animal productivity and is contributing to environmental pollution. In order to develop a beneficial strategy for improving animal productivity while conserving the environment the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a concentrate feeding strategy on the animal productivity and rumen methane production. In this experiment two feeding regimes, Diet-1 and Diet-2, were either fodder alone and with a 10% inclusion of concentrates in the forage diet feed as a phased sequence of 45 days of fodder alone and then 45 days of fodder plus concentrate. The diets were fed to four animal groups comprising of 5 animals in each. Throughout the experimental period, a fresh, chopped fodder of similar age (50-65 days age) was offered to the animals. Average dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ash and ether extract contents of the fodder were 21, 9.3, 31.7, 10.1 and 3.1%, respectively. Diet2 included a concentrate containing 88.0, 16.0, 8.1, 10.0, and 12.1% DM, CP, CF, Ash and EE, respectively. A decrease of 8.2 and 39.5% in group A and B with only minor a minor change in group C and D for feed intake was observed when the animals where feed Diet2. Weight gain for the four groups were 133, 422, 111 and 600 g per animal per day on Diet1 and 244, 688, 177 and 888 g per animal per day on Diet2 for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. With supplementation feeding strategy, th With supplementation feeding strategy, there was an increase of 45.4, 38.7, 3.7 and 32.4% in weigh gain over fodder alone diet for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. This was associated with an improvement of 49.7, 62.9, 38.5 and 32% in feed to gain ratio for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. The DM digestibility was 22.9, 4.6, 4.7 and 8.4% higher in groups A, B, C and D, respectively when the groups were feed the fodder diets supplemented with concentrates. On fodder alone, the molar concentration of acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate was 68, 15, 11 and 23% and when concentrates were included 66, 18, 10 and 1.9% for fistulated cattle. Similarly, acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate were 62, 19, 13 and 3% on Diet1 and 60, 23, 12 and 2.8 on Diet2 for buffaloes. Concentrate supplementation reduced the acetate to propionate ratio in both cattle and buffaloes. Estimated methane production of 350, 300 g methane per animal/day in cattle and 312 and 278g per animal/day in buffalo on Diet1 and Diet2, respectively. It is concluded that methane losses from various classes of livestock could be minimized with integrated approach to nutrition as well as resulting in a better feed to gain ratio. (author)

187

Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs), and zearalenone (ZEN) contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying) exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and ...

Dong-Ho Kim; In-Hye Lee; Woo-Hyun Do; Woo-Seon Nam; Hua Li; Han-Sub Jang; Chan Lee

2013-01-01

188

MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPACT OF CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS (CAFOS) ON SURFACE AND GROUND WATER QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation seeks to determine the microbiological impact of agricultural activities and confined animal feed operations (CAFOs) on surface and ground water in the Northwest Central Oklahoma. The first phase of the investigation will be carried on in collaboration with U...

189

Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations  

Science.gov (United States)

Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 ??g/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

2002-01-01

190

78 FR 76059 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins  

Science.gov (United States)

...for dairy cattle under the food additive regulation for selenium. DATES: This...noticed that the animal drug regulations for bambermycins free-choice...selenium. However, the food additive regulation for selenium in...

2013-12-16

191

Silkworm feeding as the source of the animal protein for human  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlled Ecological Life-Support System CELSS which is also called Bioregenerative Life Support System has been considered now as the most advanced and complicated Closed Ecological System in the world Based on the construction principle of the CELSS the resources could be permanently regenerated so the flexibility and security for long-term spaceflight and lunar-base missions could be improved The cost could be also decreased CELSS is more appropriated for long-term manned spaceflight and applied for the possibility of long-term space missions or planetary probe in the lower cost The increasing closure and reliability is considered as the development and integrality direction of Life-Support System LSS The LSS closure and configuration is mainly depended on the human space diet composition Vast researches have been carried on this aspect but these researches mainly concentrate on the space vegetable protein exploitation The animal protein supply is still a problem the solution should be found and the LSS constitution analysis also deserves being explored Many animals have been taken into account to provide the animal proteins nowadays world-wide animals selection mainly focus on the poultry for instance sheep chicken fish etc But the poultry feeding exist many problems such as the long growth periods low efficiency complex feeding procedures and capacious feeding space and these animals also cause the water and air pollution The complete food composition is often depended on the features of the nation diet habit Chinese have

Yunan, Y.; Tang, L.; Liu, H.

192

Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plates) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Abstract A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172 samples was carried out to verify the performance characteristics. The detection level for tylosin/virginiamycin/spiramycin, expressed in microbiological activity, was 1 mg ...

Pol-hofstad, Irene

2008-01-01

193

21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission...cattle origin materials in the food or feed of all animals to...Ca 3a-46), American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS), 5th...be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied...

2010-04-01

194

The presence of potential toxigenic fungi in animal feed with particular rewiev on species of genera Aspergillus and Fusarium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of potential toxigenic fungi genera was investigated in 72 samples of different kinds of animal feed. A total five genera of fungi were isolated and identified with followed degree of frequency: Aspergillus (79,17%), Rhizopus (70,83%), Penicillium (68,06%), Fusarium (51,39%) i Mucor (30,56%). The most frequent of the species of fungi from genera Aspergillus and Fusarium were isolated: A. flavus (73,61%), A. fumigatus (31,94%), A. ohraceus (23,16%), A. niger (4,17%), F. verticilli...

Krnjaja Vesna; Levi? J.; Tomi? Zorica; Stojanovi? Lj.; Trenkovski S.; Neši? Zorica; Marinkov G.

2007-01-01

195

New approach for the quantification of processed animal proteins in feed using light microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A revision of European Union's total feed ban on animal proteins in feed will need robust quantification methods, especially for control analyses, if tolerance levels are to be introduced, as for fishmeal in ruminant feed. In 2006, a study conducted by the Community Reference Laboratory for Animal Proteins in feedstuffs (CRL-AP) demonstrated the deficiency of the official quantification method based on light microscopy. The study concluded that the method had to be revised. This paper puts forward an improved quantification method based on three elements: (1) the preparation of permanent slides with an optical adhesive preserving all morphological markers of bones necessary for accurate identification and precision counting; (2) the use of a counting grid eyepiece reticle; and (3) new definitions for correction factors for the estimated portions of animal particles in the sediment. This revised quantification method was tested on feeds adulterated at different levels with bovine meat and bone meal (MBM) and fishmeal, and it proved to be effortless to apply. The results obtained were very close to the expected values of contamination levels for both types of adulteration (MBM or fishmeal). Calculated values were not only replicable, but also reproducible. The advantages of the new approach, including the benefits of the optical adhesive used for permanent slide mounting and the experimental conditions that need to be met to implement the new method correctly, are discussed. PMID:20432096

Veys, P; Baeten, V

2010-07-01

196

Major ionic compositions of fine particulate matter in an animal feeding operation facility and its vicinity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal feeding operations (AFOs) produce particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. Investigation of the chemical composition of PM2.5 inside and in the local vicinity of AFOs can help to understand the impact of the AFO emissions on ambient secondary PM formation. This study was conducted on a commercial egg production farm in North Carolina. Samples of PM2.5 were collected from five stations, with one located in an egg production house and the otherfour located in the vicinity ofthe farm alongfour wind directions. The major ions of NH4+, Na+, K+, SO4(2-), Cl-, and NO3- were analyzed using ion chromatography (IC). In the house, the mostly abundant ions were SO4(2-), Cl-, and K+. At ambient stations, SO4(2-), and NH4+ were the two most abundant ions. In the house, NH4+, SO4(2-), and NO3- accounted for only 10% of the PM2.5 mass; at ambient locations, NH4+, SO4(2-), and NO3- accounted for 36-41% of the PM2.5 mass. In the house, NH4+ had small seasonal variations indicating that gas- phase NH3. was not the only major force driving its gas-particle partitioning. At the ambient stations, NH4+ had the highest concentrations in summer In the house, K+, Na+, and Cl- were highly correlated with each other In ambient locations, SO4(2-) and NH4+ had a strong correlation, whereas in the house, SO4(2-) and NH4+ had a very weak correlation. Ambient temperature and solar radiation were positively correlated with NH4+ and SO4(2-). This study suggests that secondary PM formation inside the animal house was not an important source of PM2.5. In the vicinity, NH3 emissions had greater impact on PM2.5 formation. PMID:25509549

Li, Qian-feng; Wang-Li, Lingjuan; Liu, Zifei; Jayanty, R K M; Shah, Sanjay B; Bloomfield, Peter

2014-11-01

197

Graph animals, subgraph sampling and motif search in large networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We generalize a sampling algorithm for lattice animals (connected clusters on a regular lattice) to a Monte Carlo algorithm for `graph animals', i.e. connected subgraphs in arbitrary networks. As with the algorithm in [N. Kashtan et al., Bioinformatics 20, 1746 (2004)], it provides a weighted sample, but the computation of the weights is much faster (linear in the size of subgraphs, instead of super-exponential). This allows subgraphs with up to ten or more nodes to be sampl...

Baskerville, Kim; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

2007-01-01

198

Removal of Metallic Objects from Animal Feeds: Development and Studies on a new machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple machine was designed by the authors to remove different metallic objects from animal feed stuff. A series of experiments were conducted to judge the efficiency of the machine whose results revealed that the device could remove almost 100% of magnetic metallic objects and 50-62% of non-magnetic metallic material from different feed stuffs. Metallic objects were more efficiently removed from wheat, barley and alfalfa than hay. The rate of removal of nails and wire pieces was higher than that of needles.

S. Jafari Shoorijeh

2008-08-01

199

ANIMAL NUTRITION. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION UNITS, ANIMAL NUTRITION, FEED CHARACTERISTICS, VITAMINS, MINERALS. FINAL REPORT NUMBER 12.  

Science.gov (United States)

PRINCIPLES AND FACTS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE ANIMAL NUTRITION PRACTICES WERE IDENTIFIED BY EXAMINATION OF RECENT SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. UTILIZING THIS INFORMATION, THE AUTHOR INVOLVED 16 VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL USE OF A UNIT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS. INSTRUCTIONAL RESULTS WERE NOT AVAILABLE AT THE…

LONG, GILBERT A.

200

Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine–cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine–uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ? Melamine in food and feed. ? Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ? Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ? Recent EFSA risk assessment. ? Animal and human health.

Dorne, Jean Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Doerge, Daniel R. [NCTR, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Vandenbroeck, Marc [Unit on Contaminants, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, Johanna [University of Utrecht (Netherlands); Mennes, Wim [RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Knutsen, Helle K. [Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Vernazza, Francesco [Dietary and Chemical Monitoring, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Castle, Laurence [FERA, York (United Kingdom); Edler, Lutz [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Benford, Diane [Food Standard Agency, London (United Kingdom)

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine–cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine–uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ? Melamine in food and feed. ? Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ? Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ? Recent EFSA risk assessment. ? Animal and human health

202

[Discussion of a biometrical model for the evaluation of feeding, age, and animal effects on transport properties of small intestinal mucosa].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is concerned with the question in which ways study results can depend on the choice of the statistical model and factors included in this model. This is shown using example data of a study dealing with the effects of an Enterococcus faecium as probiotic in the diet of pigs. We focused on the effects on transport properties of pig jejunum. The experimental design was the following: the sows and piglets were randomly assigned to two different feeding groups. The control group was fed a conventional diet and the experimental group was additionally supplemented with a probiotic preparation of Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415. The animals were divided into four age groups. Two samples of five animals of each feeding and age group were taken and mounted into conventional Ussing chambers. Glucose transport rates were measured by changes in short-circuit current (Isc) of the pig jejunum epithelium. The appropriate reference base for evaluation of effects of feeding or age on Isc is the variation between animals which are submitted to identical conditions relating to these factors. To refer explicitly to this variation a random animal effect has to be included in the statistical model of variance analysis. Otherwise the variation between animals could be underestimated. With the example data set conclusions for the factor "feeding" would be different depending on whether a random animal effect is included in the model or not. PMID:15233341

Lodemann, U; Dahms, S; Martens, H; Arndt, G

2004-05-01

203

Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

204

Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state [Pu(VI) vs. Pu(IV)] and administration medium (bicarbonate vs. nitrate vs. citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. (author)

205

Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals, and the effect of radiation inactivation of the microorganisms were investigated. The contamination of animal feeds was remarkable, and the number of total count in the mash for chicken and other animals was from 5.3 x 104 to 2.2 x 106 per gram. The number of coliforms was from 5.1 x 103 to 6.8 x 105 per gram and they were mainly Enterobacter and Klebsiella. The number of osmophilic moulds was from 9.6 x 102 to 4.5 x 105 per gram. In case of the mixed feeds in pellets, the total count was from 5.3 x 103 to 1.0 x 106 per gram. The contamination of fish meals was not remarkable, and only mixed fish meals were contaminated largely by faecal coliforms and others. The species of bacteria in the total count of mixed feeds were Bacilli, Micrococci, Enterobacteria and Klebsiellas, and the osmophilic moulds were Aspergilus glaucus group, A. gracilis and A. candidus. As the result, it seemed to be necessary to prevent the damage to feed stuff caused by the growth of moulds and insects and to eliminate pathogens. Osmopholic moulds are sensitive to radiation, and ere eliminated to below the identification limit by 0.2 Mrad irradation. Coliforms were more resistant to radiation, and eliminated by up to 0.8 Mrad of radiation. But some bacteria survived up to 1.5 Mrad dose. The irradiation at 0.5 Mrad seemed to be enhe irradiation at 0.5 Mrad seemed to be enough to reduce the total count to below 103 per gram, and to eliminate faecal coliforms from mixed feeds. (Kako, I.)

206

Stabilization of returned dairy products by ensiling with straw and molasses for animal feeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Returned dairy products which are transferred to landfills might add to the environmental pollution. Such products have a high nutritional value for ruminants, but they should be stabilized to enable their use as cattle feed. The purpose of the current study was to examine stabilization of returned dairy products by ensiling in combinations with straw and molasses for animal feeding. Treatments included combinations of milk and cottage cheese with straw and molasses. Results indicate that such products ensile well with straw, and after 3 d of ensiling the pH decreased to around 4.0. It was necessary to supplement cottage cheese with molasses, to supply a carbohydrate source for the lactic acid fermentation. The major fermentation product was lactic acid. Percentage of ammonia N (of total N) was generally higher in the silages made with cottage cheese than in those made with milk; the highest percentage (16%) was measured in the second experiment in the silages prepared with cottage cheese and straw. The study indicates the potential of stabilizing returned dairy products for animal feeding along with straw and molasses. There may also be potential for large dairy farms, or groups of smaller farms, to ensile waste milk with straw for later use as feed. PMID:12741558

Weinberg, Z G; Ashbell, G; Chen, Y

2003-04-01

207

Whey Fermentation by Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens for Production of a Succinate-Based Animal Feed Additive  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anaerobic fermentation processes for the production of a succinate-rich animal feed supplement from raw whey were investigated with batch, continuous, and variable-volume fed-batch cultures with Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens. The highest succinate yield, 90%, was obtained in a variable-volume fed-batch process in comparison to 80% yield in a batch cultivation mode. In continuous culture, succinate productivity was 3 g/liter/h, and the yield was 60%. Under conditions of excess CO2, mor...

Samuelov, Nissim S.; Datta, Rathin; Jain, Mahendra K.; Zeikus, J. Gregory

1999-01-01

208

Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely o...

Oswald, Isabelle P.; Olivier Puel; Iuliana Aprodu; Cristina Tabuc; Anca Nicolau; Daniela Marin; Ionelia Taranu; Panagiotis Tassis; Eleni Tzika; Gerd Schatzmayr; Elisabeth Streit

2012-01-01

209

Background for protective action recommendations: accidental radioactive contamination of food and animal feeds. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides background material for the development of FDA's Protective Action Recommendations: Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Food and Animal Feeds. The rationale, dosimetric and agricultural transport models for the Protective Action Guides are presented, along with information on dietary intake. In addition, the document contains a discussion of field methods of analysis of radionuclides deposited on the ground or contained in milk and herbage. Various protective actions are described and evaluated, and a cost-effectiveness analysis for the recommendations performed

210

Impacts of Waste from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations on Water Quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on a...

Burkholder, Joann; Libra, Bob; Weyer, Peter; Heathcote, Susan; Kolpin, Dana; Thorne, Peter S.; Wichman, Michael

2006-01-01

211

Determination of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at cross contamination levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

A confirmatory multi-residue method has been developed to allow for the detection, confirmation and quantification of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method can be used to determine halofuginone, robenidine, nicarbazin, diclazuril, decoquinate, semduramicin, lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin at levels relating to unavoidable carry over as stated in Regulation 2009/8/EC. Feed samples are extracted with water and acetonitrile with the addition of anhydrous magnesium sulphate and sodium chloride. The extract then undergoes a freezing out step before being diluted and injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. The LC-MS/MS system is run in MRM mode with both positive and negative electrospray ionisation and can confirm all eleven analytes in a run time of 19 min. The sensitivity of the method allows quantification and confirmation for all coccidiostats at a 0.5% carry over level. The method was validated over three days in accordance with of European legislation; Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation criteria of accuracy, precision, decision limit (CC?), and detection capability (CC?) along with measurement uncertainty are calculated for all analytes. The method was then successfully used to analyse a number of feed samples that contained various coccidiostat substances. PMID:21742113

Cronly, Mark; Behan, P; Foley, B; Malone, E; Shearan, P; Regan, L

2011-08-26

212

Transformation of Beauveria bassiana to produce EGFP in Tenebrio molitor for use as animal feed additives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts are underway to develop more effective and safer animal feed additives. Entomopathogenic fungi can be considered practical expression platforms of functional genes within insects which have been used as animal feed additives. In this work, as a model, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene was expressed in yellow mealworms, Tenebrio molitor by highly infective Beauveria bassiana ERL1170. Among seven test isolates, ERL1170 treatment showed 57.1% and 98.3% mortality of mealworms 2 and 5 days after infection, respectively. The fungal transformation vector, pABeG containing the egfp gene, was inserted into the genomic DNA of ERL1170 using the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method. This resulted in the generation of the transformant, Bb-egfp#3, which showed the highest level of fluorescence. Bb-egfp#3-treated mealworms gradually turned dark brown, and in 7-days mealworm sections showed a strong fluorescence. This did not occur in the wild-type strain. This work suggests that further valuable proteins can be efficiently produced in this mealworm-based fungal expression platform, thereby increasing the value of mealworms in the animal feed additive industry. PMID:23651432

Kim, Jae Su; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Se Jin; Lee, Ju Hyun; Fu, Zhenli; Skinner, Margaret; Parker, Bruce L; Je, Yeon Ho

2013-07-01

213

Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

214

Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

1998-03-01

215

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern, as a result of changes in livestock production methods. RSC emissions were determined from a swine CAFO in North Carolina. RSC measurements were made over a period of ?1 week from both the barn and lagoon during each of the four seasonal periods from June 2007 to April 2008. During sampling, meteorological and other environmental parameters were measured continuously. Seasonal hydrogen sulfide (H2S) barn concentrations ranged from 72 to 631 ppb. Seasonal dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH3SCH3) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS; CH3S2CH3) concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower, ranging from 0.18 to 0.89 ppb and 0.47 to 1.02 ppb, respectively. The overall average barn emission rate was 3.3 g day-1 AU-1 (AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for H2S, which was approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the DMS and DMDS overall average emissions rates, determined as 0.017 g day-1 AU-1 and 0.036 g day-1 AU-1, respectively. The overall average lagoon flux was 1.33 ?g m-2 min-1 for H2S, which was approximately an order of magnitude higher than the overall average DMS (0.12 ?g m-2 min-1) and DMDS (0.09 ?g m-2 min-1) lagoon fluxes. The overall average lagoon emission for H2S (0.038 g day-1 AU-1) was also approximately an order of magnitude higher than the overall average DMS (0.0034 g day-1 AU-1) and DMDS (0.0028 g day-1 AU-1) emissions. H2S, DMS and DMDS have offensive odors and low odor thresholds. Over all four sampling seasons, 77% of 15 min averaged H2S barn concentrations were an order of magnitude above the average odor threshold. During these sampling periods, however, DMS and DMDS concentrations did not exceed their odor thresholds. The overall average barn and lagoon emissions from this study were used to help estimate barn, lagoon and total (barn + lagoon) RSC emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina. Total (barn + lagoon) H2S emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina were estimated to be 1.22*106 kg yr-1. The barns had significantly higher H2S emissions than the lagoons, contributing ?98% of total North Carolina H2S swine CAFO emissions. Total (barn + lagoon) emissions for DMS and DMDS were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower, with barns contributing ?86% and ?93% of total emissions, respectively. H2S swine CAFO emissions were estimated to contribute ?18% of North Carolina H2S emissions.

Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

2014-09-01

216

The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

Petr Mares

2014-02-01

217

Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine-cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine-uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. PMID:22306862

Dorne, Jean Lou; Doerge, Daniel R; Vandenbroeck, Marc; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Mennes, Wim; Knutsen, Helle K; Vernazza, Francesco; Castle, Laurence; Edler, Lutz; Benford, Diane

2013-08-01

218

Potential use of stevia rebaudiana in animal feeds / Empleo potencial de stevia rebaudiana en alimentación animal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se estudió el perfil nutricional de hojas y tallos de Stevia rebaudiana y su potencial empleo en un modelo animal. Las hojas y tallos de Stevia rebaudiana tienen 16% y 6,7% de proteína bruta y bajo contenido de grasa (2,6 y 1,1%) respectivamente. La grasa extraída mostró un predominio de ácidos gras [...] os insaturados (65,8% y 71,4% para hojas y tallos respectivamente). El ácido graso más abundante en la hoja fue el linolénico (36%) y en el tallo, el linoleico (38%). La fibra bruta sobre materia seca desgrasada supuso el 6,8% para hojas y 45,4% para tallo. El contenido de K de hojas y tallos fue similar, la concentración de Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn fue mayor en las hojas y al contrario para Na. Las pruebas con broilers establecieron que los valores de energía aparente, corregida para N y metabolizable verdadera, fueron 2113, 2098 y 2223 kcal/kg en hojas, y 1573, 1554 y 1675 kcal/kg en tallos respectivamente. La retención de proteína foliar y de los tallos por los broilers fue 63 y 65,7% respectivamente. El contenido de esteviósido de las hojas fue 6,5% y el de rebaudiósido A de 2,3%. Los valores correspondientes para los tallos fueron 0,69% y 0,3%. Las hojas de Stevia rebaudiana contienen otros atributos nutricionales además de la alta concentración de componentes endulzantes (esteviósido y rebaudiósido A). Abstract in english The nutritional profile of the leaves and stem of Stevia rebaudiana, and their potential utilization in an animal model were studied. Stevia leaves and stem had 16% and 6.7% crude protein and were low in fat content (2.6 and 1.1%) respectively. The fatty acid profile of fat showed a preponderance of [...] unsaturated fatty acids (65.8% and 71.4% for leaves and stem respectively). Linolenic acid was the most abundant fatty acid in stevia leaf oil (36%) whereas linoleic acid was the highest in stems (38%). The crude fiber contents on dry fat free basis were 6.8% and 45.4% for leaves and stem respectively. The K content of stevia leaves and stem were comparable; Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were higher in leaves and the opposite was true for Na. The tests with broiler chickens showed that apparent, nitrogen corrected, and true metabolisable energy values for leaves were 2113, 2098 and 2223 kcal/kg and for stems 1573, 1554 and 1675 kcal/kg respectively. Retention of the protein from the leaves and stems by chickens was 63% and 65.7% respectively. Stevia leaves contain other nutritional attributes besides of the sweetening components.

J., Atteh; O., Onagbesan; K., Tona; J., Buyse; E., Decuypere; J., Geuns.

2011-03-01

219

Improvement in irradiation pasteurization on sugarcane bagasse for its fungal bioconversion to animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Goals of this study were to reduce radiation dose required for bagase pasteurization and to convert the pasteurized bagasse into animal feed by using fungal fermentation. Comparative study on the effectiveness of radiation decontamination on moisturized and dried bagasse showed different doses required for pasteurization. Radiation treatment on wetted substratum bags required 20 kGy, while dried bagasse needed only 10 kGy for pasteurization. In comparison with wetted bagasse substratum, the pasteurized dry bagasse has more dominant advantages because it can be kept for storage, transportation and distribution to household producers. Moisturizing substratum with tap water can be done just before inoculation with mycelial seed. Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse to ruminant feed by using fungal fermentation was investigated. The in sacco digestibility of fermented substratum increased with incubation period and it was higher than that of paddy rice straw and comparable to Pangola grass after 35 days of fermentation. As the digestibility of mushroom-harvested residue was still higher than that of non-fermented bagasse, the fermentation by using Pleurotus spp. could simultaneously provide edible mushroom and animal feed as well. (Author)

220

Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, and zinc in animal feeding stuffs: interlaboratory collaborative studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A draft standard method is presented for the determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, K, Na, and Zn in animal feeding stuffs. The method specifies dry ashing of samples and detection by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The applicability of the method for various concentrations of the elements was tested in a series of 3 collaborative studies. The feeding stuffs investigated include pulp pellets, grass, mixed feed, fish meal, milk powder, maize, sheep feed, lupin, milocorn, feather meal, and blood meal. Relative standard deviations, repeatability, and reproducibility are given. The reproducibility of the method was acceptable for following approximate minimum quantities: Na and K, 1000 mg/kg; Zn, Mn, and Cu, 10 Mg/kg; Fe, 10-200 mg/kg, depending on the product.

de Ruig, W.

 
 
 
 
221

Recommendation concerning maximum permissible radioactivity in animal feeds in case of a nuclear accident or other type of radiological emergency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SSK in its advice to the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety recommends to abstain from determining maximum permissible values to be applied in such cases of emergency. If, however, official limits are to be given, the following should be considered: (1) Distinction has to be made between animal feeds not subject to restrictive application with regard to time, animal species, or food chain (meat, milk, eggs), and those animal feeds whose application is subject to restrictions defined. (2) Maximum permissible activity data for animal feeds for restricted use should be ten times the value determined for non-restricted feeds. As to consultations within the EC on supplemtary tables to EC Directive No. 3954/87, the SSK presented its proposals in tables, using transfer factors from the literature concerning assessment of maximum permissible chronic intake of Cs-137, I-131, Sr-90, Pu-239, Am-241 by productive livestock (bovine, goats, sheep, swine, poultry). (HP)

222

Probiotic levels, chemical composition and fermentative characteristics in solid state fermentation of paper sludge for animal feeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sludge paper of the industry treated with probiotics in solid state fermentation (SSF) could be used as ingredient in rations for animal feeding. This study assessed the effect of four probiotic (Prozoot15?) levels (PT) o...

Oscar Ruiz-Barrera; Yamicela Castillo-Castillo; Lisie Maite Carrillo-Chan; Jaime Salinas-Chavira; Claudio Arzola-Alvarez; Jesús López-Morones; Alberto Grado-Ahuir

2013-01-01

223

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) AS A FRAMEWORK FOR ADDRESSING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFOS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenges Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) directly pose to sustainability include their impact on human health, receiving water bodies, groundwater, and air quality. These challenges result from the large quantities of macronutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and pho...

224

Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, and zearalenone (ZEN contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

Dong-Ho Kim

2013-12-01

225

Effect of feeding and genetics on animal health and clinical laboratory parameters in an organic dairy operation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rising milk yield is mostly considered as a reason for increasing problems in animal health. Especially breeding for high yield is subject to criticism. However, the heritability of most diseases is low making management and feeding more important. Organic farming regulations considerably limit management aspects including ratio of concentrates in the feeding ration, as well as allowable feedstuffs and medication. These restrictions limit feeding according to dairy cow requirement and migh...

Pieper, Laura

2011-01-01

226

40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).  

Science.gov (United States)

... (1) Animal feeding operation (“AFO”) means a lot or facility (other than...feeding operation (“CAFO”) means an AFO that is defined as a Large CAFO or as...ownership are considered to be a single AFO for the purposes of determining the...

2010-07-01

227

GC-MS method development and validation for anabolic steroids in feed samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A GC-MS method for the determination of AAS used as growth promoting agents using SIM in piglet feed samples has been developed and validated, using testosterone as internal standard. The formation of volatile steroid derivatives was carried out by derivatization with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The optimum separation was achieved using a Zebron ZB-5 column under a gradient temperature elution, allowing the separation of steroids in 18 min. The required sample treatment process was discussed. A leaching using ACN, saponification using a binary NaOH/MgCl2 solution, and LLE using ethyl acetate were finally selected. Method validation has been carried out according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria established for quantitative confirmatory methods. The extraction efficiencies, CCalpha and CCbeta for these compounds were in the ranges 78-98%, 10-21 and 18-35 mug/kg, respectively. The repeatability and the within-laboratory reproducibility at 1, 1.5, and 2 CCbeta concentration levels were smaller than 8.2, 7.5, and 5.8% and 12.2, 9.5, and 7.5%, respectively. Accuracy was in the 99-103% range. The robustness was evaluated using the Youden robustness test. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of steroids spiked in different kinds of animal feed samples with satisfactory results. PMID:18264990

Muñiz-Valencia, Roberto; Ceballos-Magaña, Silvia G; Gonzalo-Lumbreras, Raquel; Santos-Montes, Ana; Izquierdo-Hornillos, Roberto

2008-03-01

228

Animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

229

Treatment of animal feeds with ionizing radiation. II. Effects of gamma radicidation on the biological value of poultry feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poultry is a major local meat source which is often contaminated with salmonella. A major source of contamination was found to be salmonella-infected poultry feed. Since gamma radiation at doses of up to 1 Mrad reduced salmonella populations in feed by 6 to 7 logs, this study was undertaken to determine if radicidized poultry feed can be used as a step in reducing contamination of poultry without affecting breeder flock performance and longevity. Two breeder flocks, each comprising 300 hens and 50 roosters, were kept in separate coops. One flock was fed untreated feed, while the feed of the other was radicidized at 1 Mrad, which resulted in a level of less than 10 enterobacteria per gram. The flocks were studied for over 12 months, from the emergence of chicks to the end of 6 months of egg production. The quantity of feed supply was controlled to ensure early detection of detrimental effects on the biological value of the feed. For the first 8 weeks, when the feed was freely supplied, no differences were observed in feed utilization or growth. After limited feeding was started, no significant differences were observed in feed utilization and in total amount of feed consumed. The number of fertile eggs, the feed consumption per egg, the age at which the first egg was laid, mortality and the total weight after 22 weeks and 12 1/4 months were practically equivalent in both flocks. Chicks obtained from both flocks showed no significant differences in weight or in feed utiicant differences in weight or in feed utilization. (author)

230

Treatment of Animal Feeds with Ionizing Radiation II: Effects of Gamma Radicidation on the Biological Value of Poultry Feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poultry is a major local meat source which is often contaminated with salmonella. A major source of contamination was found to be salmonella-infected poultry feed. Since gamma radiation at doses of up to 1 Mrad reduced salmonella populations in feed by 6 to 7 logs, this study was undertaken to determine if radicidized poultry feed can be used as a step in reducing contamination of poultry without affecting breeder flock performance and longevity. Two breeder flocks, each comprising 300 hens and 50 roosters, were kept in separate coops. One flock was fed untreated feed, while the feed of the other was radicidized at 1 Mrad, which resulted in a level of less than 10 enterobacteria per gram. The flocks Were studied for over 12 months, from the emergence of chicks to the end of 6 months of egg production. The quantity of feed supply was controlled to ensure early detection of detrimental effects on the biological value of the feed. For the first 8 weeks, when the feed was freely supplied, no differences were observed in feed utilization or growth. After limited feeding was started, no significant differences were observed in feed utilization and in total amount of feed consumed. The number of fertile eggs, the feed consumption per egg, the age at which the first egg was laid, mortality and the total weight after 22 weeks and 12¼ months were practically equivalent in both flocks. Chicks obtained from both flocks showed no significant differences in weight or in feed utilint differences in weight or in feed utilization. (author)

231

Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172 samples was carried out to verify the performance characteristics. The detection level for tylosin/virginiamycin/spiramycin, expressed in microbiological activity, was 1 mg kg-1 (false-positives, 2%; f...

Pol-hofstad, I.; Lankveld, W. D. M.; Tomassen, M. J. H.; Jong, J.; Egmond, H. J.

2008-01-01

232

Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatography-Mass pectrometry Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Melamine and Cyromazine in Animal Feeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new method for simultaneous determination of melamine and cyromazine in animal feeds using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and validated. Samples were extracted with trichloroacetic acid solution cleaned up by cation exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges and derivatized with N, O-bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluroacetamide containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane followed by GC separation and MS detection. The limits of quantification were 0.10 mg kg-1 for b...

Liying Zhang; Wenjun Yang; Zongyi Wang; Yiqiang Chen; Binru Shang

2011-01-01

233

Do whole-food animal feeding studies have any value in the safety assessment of GM crops?  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin. PMID:23851038

Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo

2014-02-01

234

Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors contributing to nutrient availability and animal performance.

Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene

2010-01-01

235

Animal feed contamination by PCDDs-PCDFs in Italy in years 2002-2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), are ubiquitous toxic contaminants mainly originating from thermal and incineration processes and representing a potential risk for human health. Various studies show that environmental levels have decreased during the last 20 years. In contrast to this trend several cases of specific contamination have caused high PCDD and PCDF levels in feedstuffs. It is important to monitor the dioxin contamination of feed to avoid large scale feed contamination and to decrease human exposure to dioxins. In Italy PCDDs and PCDFs monitoring has been introduced in the National Residues Surveillance Plan (NRSP) since 1999 and all relevant laboratory tests have been carried out at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise (ISO/IEC 17025 accredited), following designation by the Ministry of Health. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCDD/Fs levels and congener distribution patterns in different animal feed in Italy, collected in the period 2002-2003.

Ceci, R.; Diletti, G.; Torreti, L.; Benedictis, A. De; Scortichini, G. [Ist. Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Abruzzo e del Molise (Italy)

2004-09-15

236

Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

2007-01-01

237

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author)

238

Production of ethanol, pulp fibre and animal feed from low grade hardwoods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The utilization of hardwoods is limited because most vessels and ray (parenchyma) cells are very short and not valuable for paper making. In a new catalyzed nitric acid hardwood pulping process the long fibre fraction is recovered, bleached and used to produce a good quality paper pulp. About 70% of the wood fibre can be recovered for sale as pulp with the remaining 30% as short fibres used to produce ethanol. The process does not require expensive high temperature and pressure equipment because the acid concentration and pulping temperatures are relatively low and the process takes place at atmospheric pressure. The process is environmentally friendly because it is possible to bleach the pulp fibres without using chlorine, consequently avoiding the production of environmental hazards such as dioxins. In addition, options exist for recovering used acid and ammonia bleaching agent for the production of either microbial protein for animal feed or as an ammonium nitrate fertilizer. The short fibre fraction is enzymatically hydrolyzed to liberate the wood sugars which are simultaneously fermented by yeasts to produce ethanol. The sugars left in the used acid and wash waters are used as a substrate for the growth of an acid-tolerant yeast-like fungus Scytalidium acidophilum, thereby producing fungal protein animal feed supplement, while removing the biochemical oxygen demand of the waste water. Pulp and ethanol production data and pulp quality data from both bench-scale experiment and pilot plant are presented. A preliminary economic assessment is included. 43 refs., 25 figs., 19 tabs.

Wilson, J.J.; Gauthier, Y.

1990-12-01

239

Effect of Operational Parameters on Solid State Fermentation of Cassava Peel to an Enriched Animal Feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Response surface methodology based on the Face-Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD was employed to determine the effects of process conditions on the production of an enriched animal feed from cassava peel by a locally isolated white rot fungus Panus tigrinus (M609RQY. Seventeen experimental runs based on three parameters (pH, inoculum size and moisture content as designated by FCCD were carried out under solid state fermentation. The effect of these parameters on lignin degradation in cassava peel was evaluated. Statistical analysis of the results showed that, only moisture content exerted a highly significant effect (p<0.01 on lignin degradation. The optimum parameter combination was found at 70% v/w of moisture content, 6% v/w inoculum size and pH of 5.30. Under this optimum, 50.62% lignin loss was obtained. This study presents a viable option to the management of cassava peel for production of value-added-product animal feed.

Md. Zahangir Alam

2012-01-01

240

Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from animals and feed in Poland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fifty-seven Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from poultry, swine and animal feed in Poland during the years 1979-1998 and 2000-2002 were analysed with conventional and molecular techniques. Antimicrobial resistance as well as multiresistance was found, respectively, in 80.1 % and 56.1 % of the isolates and most frequently among isolates from 2000-2002. Of several phage types noted, DT104 was prevalent among poultry, swine and feed isolates. DT104, U302 and non-typable strains had a multiple resistant profile (ACSSuT) due to the presence of class I integrons. Pulse-field get electrophoresis of XbaI and BlnI digest showed high genomic similarity between the strains and confirmed clonal spread of S. Typhimurium infections. Plasmid profiling allowed further differentiation of the strains. We have, therefore, confirmed the appearance of S. Typhimurium DT104 showing genome integrated integron-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Poland. These findings are significant for public and animal health risks and document the dissemination of DT104 epidemic strains into new geographical regions.

Wasyl, D.; Sandvang, D.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations: implications for nurses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in livestock farming over the last 50 years have led to the increase of large-scale livestock farms called concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These farms pose a threat to the environment by polluting the air and nearby ground and surface waters. In addition, adverse health effects have been found in CAFO workers and CAFO neighbors. A multitude of respiratory effects have been noted by workers and neighbors, some of which are severe enough to cause workers to leave the industry. The mental health of CAFO neighbors appears to suffer as well, mainly because of noxious odors and stress. Concentrated animal feeding operations also contribute to the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which have the potential to harm populations nationwide. Although research is being done on this topic around the world, the nursing literature contains very little information on health effects from CAFOs. Occupational, community, and public health nurses should be aware of the dangers from CAFOs and should participate in caring practices, research, and advocacy to diminish the risks. PMID:20838176

McElroy, Katie G

2010-01-01

242

Nutrient Composition of Some Unconventional and Local Feed Resources Available in Senegal and Recoverable in Indigenous Chickens or Animal Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10 unconventional and local ingredients from Senegal including leguminous leaves (Leuceana leucocephala, Cassia tora, Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata, Sesbania rostrata, cucurbit (Citrullus vulgaris and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds, red and white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds and cockroaches (Blatta orientalis were collected, sun-dried, processed into meal and analyzed for their chemical and macro-mineral composition using internationally established procedures. The results showed that the samples Dry Matter (DM percent ranged from 89.3% (red cowpea to 94.9% (C. vulgaris. The Crude Protein (CP content ranged from 24.7% (white cowpea to 61.9% (cockroaches meal, with A. digitata leaves having the lowest value (12.9%. Citrullus and Hibiscus seeds meal recorded the highest (38.8% and 18.9% Ether Extract (EE values, followed respectively by cockroaches (11.1%, Moringa (9.8%, Leuceana (6.4% and Sesbania leaves meal (5.1%, while the others were below 4.5%. The crude fiber (CF content was globally high in the leaves, ranging from 11.7% (M. oleifera to 16.8% (C. tora while that of seeds and cockroaches ranged from 1.9% (white cowpea to 19% (Citrullus seeds. A. digitata leaves gave the highest ash content (25.2%, followed by Cassia (15.2%, Moringa (13.6%, Leuceana (11.4% and Sesbania leaves (7.1%, while the others were below 5.6%. The metabolizable energy (ME value calculated for seeds and cockroaches meal ranged from 3161 kcal/kg DM (cockroaches to 4270 kcal/kg DM (C. vulgaris and that of leaves from 1873 (A. digitata to 2888.9 kcal/kg DM (M. oleifera. Cassia leaves contained the highest level of calcium (3.1%, followed by Adansonia and Leuceana (1.81%, Moringa and Sesbania leaves (1.41%, whilst cockroaches, Hibiscus and Citrullus seeds meal recorded respectively 0.93, 0.81 and 0.55% of phosphorus. These results showed that all the ingredients samples contained appreciable quantities of all dietary nutrients tested for which more or less make them partial or complete substitutes for the conventional feed sources.

J.L. Hornick

2011-01-01

243

Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. Mean fractional GI absorption values in fasted adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 15 x 10-4; Pu(IV) bicarbonate, 20 x 10-4; Pu(IV) nitrate (pH2), 17 x 10-4; Pu(IV) citrate, 24 x 10-4; and Pu(IV) polymer, 3 x 10-4. Values in fed adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 1.4 x 10-4; Pu(IV) polymer, 0.3 x 10-4. Pu(VI) is the oxidation state in chlorinated drinking waters and Pu(IV) is the oxidation state in many untreated natural waters. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. Fractional GI absorption values obtained by this method were 23 +- 10 x 10-4 for fasted baboons (n=5) and 1.4 +- 0.9 x 10-4 for fed baboons (n=3). We have so far validated this method in one baboon and are currently completing validation in two additional animals. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state [Pu(VI) vs Pu(IV)] and administration medium (bicarbonate vs nitrate vs citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. 17 refs., 2 tabs

244

Application of Neutron Activation Analysis to the determination of essential and toxic elements in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work the concentrations of essential elements Ca (calcium), CI (chlorine), K (potassium), Mg (magnesium), Na (sodium), Co (cobalt), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), Fe (iron), Mn (manganese). Mo (molybdenum), Se (selenium), V (vanadium) and Zn (zinc), the toxic elements As (arsenic), Cd (cadmium) and Hg (mercury) and the elements without defined functions to the animal metabolism, such as Br (bromine), Eu (europium). La (lanthanum), Rb (rubidium), Sb (antinomies), Sc (scandium), Ta (tantalum), Th (thorium) and U (uranium) were determined in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Forty samples of agroindustrial by-products were analyzed, six of which are from animal origin and the others are from vegetable origin. All these materials are widely used in bovine feeding, mainly in dry season, when the forage become scarce. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated by means of analysis of the following certified reference materials: Rice Flour NIES-CRM-10C, Pig Kidney BCR-CRM, Oyster Tissue NIST-SRM-1566a e Buffalo River Sediment NIST-SRM-2704. The results, in general, are lower than 10 %. The results for the most of essential minerals were lower than the toxic limit for animals, and they reached the minimum requirements for domestic animals, although some agroindustrial by-products showed concentrations lower than the requirement. For all samples, the concentrations of toxic minerals were lower than the toxic limit (author)

245

Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus – effects on animal performance and meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM or fishmeal (WFM as protein source on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to “wild’ or “gamey” flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively. No “fish-related” flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjøl – effekter på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet I vår undersökning ingick 14 renar (8 kastrerade sarvar (härkaroch 6 vajor för att jämföra effekter av två olika renfoder (baserade på korn, hö och soja- (SBM eller fiskmjöl (WFM som proteintillskott med avseende på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet. Köttprover från naturbetande renar (n=4; 2 härkar och 2 vajor från Seward Peninsula inkluderades i studien för att representera kvaliteten på traditionellt producerat renkött från Alaska. Inga signifikanta skillnader i tillväxt observerades, varken mellan SBM- och WFM-grupperna eller mellan härkar och vajor. Foderutnyttjandet var dock signifikant bättre hos WFM-renarna. Slaktutbytet var högst för renarna i SBM-gruppen, däremot rapporterades inga skillnader i levandevikt, slaktkroppsegenskaper, pH-värde och temperatur i ytterfilén, skärmotstånd, färg eller vattenhållande förmåga i köttet när de tre grupperna av renar jämfördes (SBM, WFM och naturbetande djur. Köttet från de naturbetande renarna hade det signifikant högsta innehållet av både omega-3-fettsyror och av fleromättade fettsyror. Kött från SBM-renarna hade det högsta innehållet av triglycerider och det lägsta innehållet av fosfolipider jämfört med de andra två grupperna. Den tränade smakpanelen kunde inte hitta några skillnader i sensoriska egenskaper hos köttet från renarna i de tre olika grupperna. I en konsumentundersökning rapporterades kommentarer om olika ”vilt-relaterade” bismaker i kött från naturbetande renar (24% av konsumenterna och från WFM-gruppen (15% av konsumenterna, men inga ”fisk-liknande” bismaker i köttet kunde påvisas. Att byta ut sojamjöl mot fiskmjöl som proteintillskott i renfoder hade inga negativa effekter på renarnas

Greg Finstad

2009-01-01

246

Scientific Opinion on the risk for public and animal health related to the presence of sterigmatocystin in food and feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on sterigmatocystin (STC) in food and feed. STC is a polyketide mycotoxin that shares its biosynthetic pathway with aflatoxins. Following an EFSA call for data, analytical results from 247 food and 334 feed samples were submitted. In food, analytical results on STC were reported to be all below the limit of detection or limit of quantification. In feed, only four quantified results w...

Efsa, Panel On Contaminants In The Food Chain

2013-01-01

247

Revisión: Utilización de la pulpa de café en la alimentación animal / Review: The use of coffee pulp in animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante el beneficio del café se genera la pulpa, que al ser ensilada preserva sus características nutrimentales, tornándola de particular importancia para la alimentación animal. En este artículo se revisan sus bondades y restricciones de su uso en la alimentación animal. Durante el manejo intensiv [...] o del ganado bovino de carne en los países tropicales, el uso de la pulpa del café puede alcanzar entre 20 y 30% en las raciones. En vacas lecheras, la pulpa de café ensilada puede ser incorporada a niveles entre 20 a 40% del concentrado y de 10 a 20% de la materia seca de la ración completa, sin disminuir la producción de leche; aunque, en novillos puede reducir la ganancia de peso diaria. En ovinos, la inclusión de 15% de pulpa no afecta el crecimiento, los machos presentan mejor desempeño y la inclusión de 15% de pulpa tratada con urea y semilla de soya no afectó el peso en las canales. Para las tilapias del Nilo, hubo mayor aumento de peso con mezcla de pulpa de café ensilada, sin efecto tóxico; sin embargo, no es conveniente usarla fresca. Para el híbrido Cachamay no hubo diferencias en ganancia de peso entre las fases de alevines y adultos usándola hasta en 18% en la fase de alevines. Para los alevines de la tilapia roja, se puede usar la pulpa de café hasta 20%, sin afectar los índices productivos. En aves, la mejor respuesta de energía metabolizable se obtuvo cuando la pulpa fue ensilada con 5% de melaza. En gallos, proporciones superiores a 5% de pulpa de café ocasionó efectos dañinos en la digestibilidad verdadera de la materia seca y en la energía metabolizable del animal. En conejos, la pulpa de café puede ser utilizada hasta en 85% ensilada con melaza, mientras que en cerdos es posible emplear 20% en la etapa de crecimiento y 15% en la de acabado, sin ocasionar pérdidas en los parámetros productivos. Abstract in english The processing of the cherry coffee generates the pulp, which improves its nutrimental characteristics once it is placed in a container with anaerobic environment to ferment, so it becomes of special importance for animal feeding. This work revises the goodness and restrictions of the pulp in animal [...] feeding. During the intensive managing of meat cattle, in the tropical countries, the use of the coffee pulp can reach between 20 and 30% in the rations. In dairy cows, the pulp can be incorporated in levels between 20 and 40% of the concentrate and from 10 to 20% of the dry matter of the ration without diminishing the production of milk; though in steers it can reduce the gain of daily weight. In sheeps, the incorporation of 15% of pulp does not affect the growth; the males present better perfomance, and the incorporation of 15% of pulp treated with urea and seed of soybean, did not affect the carcass weight. For the tilapias of the Nile, there was a greater increase of weight with mixture of ensiled pulp of coffee, without toxic effect; however, it is not suitable to use it fresh. For the Cachamay hybrid, there were not differences in gain of weight between the alevins phase and adults, using it until 18% in the alevins phase. For the Red Tilapia alevins, the pulp of coffee can be used until 20% without affecting the productive indexes. In birds, the best response of metabolizable energy was obtained when the pulp was ensiled with 5% of molass. In roosters, proportions superior to 5% of pulp of coffee, causes harmful effect in the real digestibility of the dry matter and in the metabolizable energy of the animal. In rabbits, the pulp of coffee ensiled with molass can be used until 85%; whereas in porks, it is possible to use 20% in the stage of growth and 15% in the stage of finished, without causing losses in the productive parameters.

Adrianyela, Noriega Salazar; Ramón, Silva Acuña; Moraima, García de Salcedo.

2008-12-01

248

Animals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

1997-10-01

249

76 FR 16533 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide...portions that reflect approval of eight new animal drug applications. The final...portions that reflect approval of eight new animal drug applications. The...

2011-03-24

250

Efficiency of ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride mixture for fumigation of important animal feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been found that animal feeds like crushed barley, crushed gram and wheat bran can be effectively disinfested by fumigation with 3:1 mixture of ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride at a dosage of 2.5 gallons per 1,000 cuft. The lowest average atmospheric temperatures, at which the fumigation for 48 hours and for 72 hours was found effective, were 28.6 and 24.15 degree celcius respectively. It was also found that the order of susceptibility of the three test insects, viz. Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Trogoderma granerium Everts and Latheticus oryzae Watrh and their various stages varied considerably. in all cases, adults and pupae were found to be more susceptible than larvae.

H. G. Khalsa

2014-05-01

251

78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2008-F-0151] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking...is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking...has noticed the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and...

2013-07-17

252

Utilisation of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work aims to utilise wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content while Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimise the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40 °C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp.. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared to the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing. PMID:25189407

Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

2014-09-01

253

Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) manure is a cost-effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO manure to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of land-applied CAFO manure on fish populations and communities. Water chemistry including hormone, pesticide, and nutrient concentrations was characterized from study sites along with fish assemblage structure, growth, and endocrine disruption assessed in selected fish species. Although most CAFO water samples had hormone concentrations 30 ng/L each during the period of spawning, hatching, and development for resident fishes. CAFO sites had lower fish species richness, and fishes exhibited faster somatic growth and lower reproductive condition compared to individuals from the reference site. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to CAFO ditchwater during early developmental stages exhibited significantly skewed sex ratios toward males. Maximum observed hormone concentrations were well above the lowest observable effect concentrations for these hormones; however, complexities at the field scale make it difficult to directly relate hormone concentration and impacts on fish. Complicating factors include the consistent presence of pesticides and nutrients, and the difference in temperature and stream architecture of the CAFO-impacted ditches compared to the reference site (e.g., channelization, bottom substrate, shallow pools, and riparian cover). PMID:23171355

Leet, Jessica K; Lee, Linda S; Gall, Heather E; Goforth, Reuben R; Sassman, Stephen; Gordon, Denise A; Lazorchak, James M; Smith, Mark E; Jafvert, Chad T; Javfert, Chad T; Sepúlveda, Maria S

2012-12-18

254

Validation of an open-formula, diagnostic real-time PCR method for 20-hr detection of Salmonella in animal feeds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A comparative study of a 20-hr, non-commercial, open-formula PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL 187, for detection of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) on 81 artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water for 16 ± 2 h followed by a magnetic beads based semi automated DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis, including an internal amplification control. The limit of detection (LOD50) was found to be 7.19 and 7.24 CFU/sample for the PCR method and NMKL187, respectively. A very good correlation between results obtained by the two methods were found (Cohe?s kappa = 0.92). The relative accuracy, relative sensitivity and relative specificity were found to be 97.5%, 102.0% and 96.6%, respectively. This method is the fastest open PCR based analysis protocol for detection of Salmonella in feed samples. Implementing rapid methods such as the one validated in this study can speed up Salmonella testing of feed for food-producing animals

Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

255

Composição química da glicerina produzida por usinas de biodiesel no Brasil e potencial de uso na alimentação animal Chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and potential utilization in animal feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com a crescente produção de biodiesel no Brasil, aumenta também a produção de glicerina, co-produto dessa indústria. O principal componente da glicerina é o glicerol, altamente energético e, por isso, ela já vem sendo usada como alimento animal em vários países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química da glicerina produzida por indústrias de biodiesel no Brasil e discutir seu potencial de utilização na alimentação animal. Dezesseis usinas, responsáveis por 85,1% do biodiesel produzido no país, forneceram 41 amostras para análise. Cromo, cádmio e chumbo não foram detectados em nenhuma das amostras estudadas. Apenas quatro usinas, responsáveis por 36,8% da produção, produzem glicerina que atendem os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento para os teores de umidade e glicerol. Apenas uma usina, responsável por 14,1% da produção, produz glicerina apta para uso na alimentação de ruminantes, por não utilizar sebo bovino como matéria prima para o biodiesel.The increasing production of biodiesel in Brazil also increases glycerin production, a co-product of this industry. The main component of glycerin, glycerol, is highly energetic and because of that, glycerin is already used as animal feed in many countries. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and discuss its potential utilization as animal feed. Forty one samples of glycerin from sixteen biodiesel plants, that together yield 85.1% of Brazilian biodiesel, were analyzed. Chromium, cadmium and lead were not detected in any studied sample. Only four plants, that together yield 36.8% of Brazilian glycerin, comply the glycerol and moisture content levels established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Only one, responsible for 14.1% of Brazilian glycerin, delivers glycerin with the potential to be used as ruminant feed once it doesn't use animal fat to produce biodiesel.

Jackson Silva e Oliveira

2013-03-01

256

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-selenomethionine as feed additive for all animal species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Selenium is a trace element that is essential for vertebrates and involved in series of vital metabolic functions. Considering the purity of the L-selenomethionine (L-SeMet) under application and the metabolic pathways of SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel considers the use of L-SeMet as safe for all animal species, provided that the maximum total selenium level authorised in feed is respected. The use of in animal nutrition is expected to result in a similar increase in selenium deposition in animal ti...

Efsa, Panel On Additives And Products Or Substances Used In Animal Feed

2013-01-01

257

Influence of Gamma-Irradiation On the Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Myco toxigenic Moulds in Cereals and Animal Feed stuffs in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the period 2003-2005. 370 samples of cereals and animal feed stuffs were examined for toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 showed the highest incidence rate, it occurred in 26.5% of all samples analyzed, the highest levels being found in peanut meal at 3000-5000 ?g/Kg. Ochratoxin A and citrinin were detected in commodities at low rate. The most prevalent fungi were Aspergillus spp. which were found in 63.8% of all samples, whereas, Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. identified in 25.7 and 22.4%. respectively. Also, the present study revealed that aflatoxin B1 was detected at low level 95?g/kg after treatment of samples with 20 kGy and there was no detectives of aflatoxin B1 at 40 kGy. Application of radiation at 25 kGy was sufficient for complete destruction of citrinin, whereas application of radiation at 30 kGy reduced the levels of ochratoxin A by 97% in the animal feed stuffs

258

Multielemental analysis of agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by INAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with gamma-ray spectrometry was applied to determine As, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Sb, Se and Zn in the Brazilian agroindustrial by-products. These materials are widely used in ruminant feeding. The results obtained were compared with requirement and maximum tolerable concentrations. The general conclusions from the data obtained were: (1) many by-products presented concentrations of some essential elements lower than the requirement concentrations, while in some samples the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mg and Se exceeded by a little the maximum tolerable concentrations, (2) the elements As, Cd, Hg and Sb, generally considered toxic, showed concentrations lower than maximum tolerable values. (author)

259

The effect of animal fat and vegetable oil supplementation of feeds of different energy concentration upon the digestibility of nutrients and some blood parameters in rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of mixed animal fat and sunflower oil supplementation (5%) of a feed of medium (12.02 MJ DE/kg) and low (8.54 MJ DE/kg) energy concentration upon the digestibility of nutrients and on some blood parameters was investigated. The ether-extractable content of feed and faecal samples was determined by diethyl ether extraction (after Soxhlet) and the total (true) fat level was measured by the method of Stoldt (1952), viz. petroleum ether extraction of samples pretreated with 4 N HCl. In the majority of cases the voluntary feed intake decreased after the addition of animal fat or vegetable oil. Mixed animal fat supplementation significantly (by 5 and 11 units) improved the digestibility of the ether extract if added to either of the basal diets. The digestibility of crude fibre and N-free extract increased only in the case of the basal diet of low energy concentration (by 4 and 7 units, respectively). Sunflower oil addition produced changes of the same tendency (9, 9, 28 and 5 units). The digestibility of the crude protein was practically not altered by either supplementation. The total fat content of feed and faecal samples proved to be higher than that of the ether extract, on an average by 27 and 100%, respectively. Consequently, the digestibility coefficients of the total fat are by 10 units lower than those of the ether extract. The DE concentrations, calculated by means of the digestible ether extract or the total fat content, differed significantly only between the basal diets. The addition of mixed animal fat to either of the basal diets increased the blood concentration of total lipids (by 18 and 32%, respectively), while that of sunflower oil did not cause such an alteration. Neither fat nor oil supplementation had an effect on the cholesterol level of the blood plasma. Both the animal fat and the vegetable oil surplus modified the fatty acid composition of blood lipids. It was characteristic of each treatment that the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. PMID:2099602

Fekete, S; Hullár, I; Fébel, H; Bokori, J

1990-01-01

260

Extruded Leftover Food as Animal Feed: I. Effect of Extruded Feed on Growth and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75±1.27 g. Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1 and without (type-2 were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia.

Ibrahim M. Al-Ruqaie

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Determining the availability of sediment-bound trace metals to aquatic deposit-feeding animals  

Science.gov (United States)

Physicochemical form affects, by as much as 1000 fold, the uptake rate by deposit-feeding clams of metals bound to sediments. The strength of metal binding to the different sedimentary binding substrates controls this effect. Statistical studies that were spatially intensive (comparing 35 stations in 17 estuaries) and temporally intensive (2 stations through 2 years time) indicate that sediments control the availability of Ag, Cd, Co, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Mn, and possibly Cu to clams and polychaete worms in nature. Metal concentrations removed from sediments by chemical extractants generally follow availability better than do total metal concentrations, but the specific extractant differs among different metals. Concentrations of binding substrates (Fe, Mn, organic carbon, humic substances) also statistically explain a proportion of the variance of metal concentrations in the animals, suggesting that metal partitioning among substrates in sediments is an important control on metal availability. The specific substrates which contribute to availability also differ among metals. Statistical assessment of metal form in sediments suggested that different substrates compete for the partitioning of metals, that each metal is partitioned among a variety of forms in an oxidized sediment, and that partitioning will vary with the physicochemical characteristics of the sediments. (USGS)

Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, D.J.; Thomson, E.A.; Johansson, C.; Jenne, E.A.; Bryan, G.W.

1980-01-01

262

Isotope analytics for the evaluation of the feeding influence on the isotope ratio in beef samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information about the origin of food and associated production systems has a high significance for food control. An extremely promising approach to obtain such information is the determination of isotope ratios of different elements. In this study the correlation of the isotope ratios C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, Mg-25/Mg-24, and Sr-87/Sr-86 in bovine samples (milk and urine) and the corresponding isotope ratios in feed was investigated. It was shown that in the bovine samples all four isotope ratios correlate with the isotope composition of the feed. The isotope ratios of strontium and magnesium have the advantage that they directly reflect the isotope ratios of the ingested feed since there is no isotope fractionation in the bovine organism which is in contrast to the case of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. From the present feeding study it is evident, that a feed change leads to a significant change in the delta C-13 values in milk and urine within 10 days already. For the deltaN-15 values the feed change was only visible in the bovine urine after 49 days. Investigations of cows from two different regions (Berlin/Germany and Goestling/Austria) kept at different feeding regimes revealed no differences in the N-15/N-14 and Mg-26/Mg-24 isotope ratios. The strongest correlation between the isotope ratio of the bovine samples and the kind of ingested feed was observed for the carbon isotope ratio. With this ratio even smallest differences in the feed composition were traceable in the bovine samples. Since different regions usually coincide with different feeding regimes, carbon isotope ratios can be used to distinguish bovine samples from different regions if the delta C-13 values of the ingested feed are different. Furthermore, the determination of strontium isotope ratios revealed significant differences between bovine and feed samples of Berlin and Goestling due to the different geologic realities. Hence the carbon and strontium isotope ratios allow the best discrimination between bovine samples of different locations. In some cases these ratios even show indications for the production system (conventional and organic cattle breeding).

263

Solar energy project and biogas for animal feed production and jelly; Projeto de energia solar e biogas para producao de racao animal e geleia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a study for utilization of surplus of horticulture industry for the production of jam and sweet from the fruit pulp and the manufacture of animal feed, organic fertilizer and biogas from the waste of this production. It also presents the equipment development of low-cost construction and operation that enables high energy efficiency (without heat loss) and can then be traded with greater advantage over other products on the market.

Moura, J.P. de; Selvam, P.V.P.; Silva, R.T. da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mails: johnsonmoura@yahoo.com.br, tatianesil@gmail.com

2006-07-01

264

Proposed food and drug administration protection action guides for human food and animal feed: Rationale and limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Food and Drug Administration is proposing Protective Action Guides (PAG's) to be used in the event that a radiological incident results in the radioactive contamination of human food and animal feed. PAG's are proposed for two levels of response: (1) PREVENTIVE PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should take protective action to prevent or reduce the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed. (2) EMERGENCY PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should isolate food containing radioactivity to prevent its introduction into commerce and determine whether condemnation or another disposition is appropriate. Derived response levels, which are defined as the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed corresponding to the above PAG's, are proposed for radionuclides of most significance. The presentation will discuss the supporting rationale as well as the numerical limits for the PAG's. This rationale is based on the process of risk assessment and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. The risk assessment compares the risk of radiation exposure to the risk from prevalent hazards accepted by society and from variability of the natural radiation environment. The cost-benefit analysis is limited to protective actions efficacious in the reduction of iodine-131 dose to the thyroid via the milk pathway (condemnation and use of stored feed). In addition, the metabolic and agricultural transfer models that were nd agricultural transfer models that were used to calculate derived response levels will be described briefly. (author)

265

75 FR 55676 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Chloramphenicol; Lincomycin; Pyrantel Tartrate; and Tylosin Phosphate and Sulfamethazine AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final...

2010-09-14

266

Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages (AFRA project II-17 - RAF/5/041). Project summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Joint FAO/IAEA programme has supported animal production research in Africa for many years through country Technical Co-operation (TC) Projects, Regional Projects (AFRA) and Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). These activities have helped to build up the infrastructure needed in the countries concerned to conduct much of the research in animal reproduction and nutrition. In the past the Agency has provided technical assistance in defining reproductive indices of ruminant livestock species and identifying nutritional constraints to productivity of animals maintained on smallholder farms under various topographical and environmental conditions. In view of the satisfactory progress of AFRA Project VIII in identifying the major constraints to livestock productivity in the region, and the recognition of many Member States of the importance of supplementary feeding for improving milk and meat production, a regional strategy was proposed for developing affordable and sustainable supplementation packages for improving productivity from smallholder farms using locally available feed resources. The new Regional Project was initiated in 1997 with the following objectives: 1. To produce a supplementary feed in the form of a convenient and easy-to-use package for improving milk and meat production in peri-urban areas 2. To promote the uptake of this technology through demonstrations of its advantages in terms of increased productivity and benefit: cost ratio 3. To maximize the use of locally available feed material such as molasses, cereal bran, legume tree leaves, oil seed meals, etc. for feeding ruminant livestock, thereby reducing the use of high cost concentrate feeds 4. To promote technical co-operation amongst developing countries (TCDC) in the region and take advantage of established infrastructure and available human and technical resources to solve problems of common interest. From 1997 until 2000 the project has been operational with 13 Member States participating in various project activities. The project activities included Research Planning and Review Meetings, Expert Visits, Regional and National Training Workshops, Fellowship Training and Scientific Visits to National Agricultural Research Systems

267

Probiotic levels, chemical composition and fermentative characteristics in solid state fermentation of paper sludge for animal feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sludge paper of the industry treated with probiotics in solid state fermentation (SSF could be used as ingredient in rations for animal feeding. This study assessed the effect of four probiotic (Prozoot15? levels (PT on chemical and fermentative characteristics in SSF of the paper sludge (PS at controlled temperature (30°C in laboratory scale. The tested treatments (T were: T1 (0% PS, T2 (50 g/kg PS, T3 (100 g/kg PS and T4 (150 g/kg PS, which were fermented at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, according to a completely randomized design, in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement with six repetitions per sampling. All treatments included (g/kg DM 300 molasses, 15 urea, 20 ammonium sulfate, 9 calcium carbonate and 5 of vitamin and mineral premix, plus the PS which was substituted by the PT at 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg DM. The results showed a decrease in pH in all treatments at 24 h; however the lowest pH was at 72 h of fermentation. At 72 h of fermentation, the PT addition in T4 increased crude protein, true protein and yeast counts (P

Oscar Ruiz-Barrera

2013-12-01

268

Effects on pulmonary health of neighboring residents of concentrated animal feeding operations: exposure assessed using optimized estimation technique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Potential adverse health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which were also shown in the authors' Lower Saxony Lung Study, are of public concern. The authors aimed to investigate pulmonary health effect of neighboring residents assessed using optimized estimation technique. Annual ammonia emission was measured to assess the emission from CAFO and from surrounding fields. Location of sampling points was optimized using cluster analysis. Individual exposure of 457 nonfarm subjects was interpolated by weighting method. Mean estimated annual ammonia levels varied between 16 and 24 ?g/m³. Higher exposed participants were more likely to be sensitized against ubiquitous allergens as compared to lower exposed subjects (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-13.2). In addition, they showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV?) (adjusted mean difference in % of predicted -8%; 95% CI -13% to -3%). The authors' previous findings that CAFOs may contribute to burden of respiratory diseases were confirmed by this study.

Schulze, Anja; Römmelt, Horst

2012-01-01

269

Critical evaluation of the literature concerning the transfer feed/meat of strontium, radium, technetium in domestic animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A literature study concerning the transfer of Sr, Ra, Te, Co and Fe from feed to meat of domestic animals has been carried out. Approx. 4200 publications from 1950-1980 have been evaluated. General criteria for the influence of experimental conditions on the transfer factor have been pointed out. The transfer factor of growing animals is greater than that of adult animals. After completion of growth the transfer factor is independent of age. The transfer factors differ with various animal species. From these findings the following average transfer factors meat/feed in d/kg have been derived during steady state equilibrium between daily intake and excretion of the isotope. For Sr: cattle 6x10-4, calf 2x10-3, sheep 2,1x10-3, goat 3.3x10-3, pig 3,6x10-4, hen 1,8x10-2. For Ra: cattle 6x10-4, pig 2,6x10-4, caribou 2,3x10-3. These values have been derived mainly from metabolic experiments and from literature values of concentrations in feed and meat. For Te, Co and Fe it was not possible to find relevant values. A transfer factor for Tc of 8x10-3 d/kg for beef was derived indirectly using values of meat and vegetables. (orig.)

270

The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

Tarrant, R C

2010-06-01

271

Simultaneous determination of major type B trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in animal feed and raw materials using improved DSPE combined with LC-MS/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and reliable method for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and major type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenon X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol) in animal feed and raw materials has been developed and validated in this study. The method was based on an improved dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) followed by analysis using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Also, matrix-matched calibration curve (R(2)>0.99) was employed to minimize matrix effects and ensure accurate quantification. The recoveries during sample preparation process (including extraction and clean-up) ranged from 79.03% to 118.39%, with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 20% for all the analytes. The limit of quantification ranged from 5.0 ?g/kg for deoxynivalenol to 13.6 ?g/kg for fusarenon X. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of animal feed and corn. The pilot study showed that 37 out of 41 samples were contaminated with deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside at the levels of 6.0-121.0 ?g/kg. Most of the type B trichothecenes were also found with the exception of fusarenon X, at the contaminated levels of 10.0-1,382 ?g/kg. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first scientific report on the co-occurrence of masked deoxynivalenol and type B trichothecenes in animal feed and raw materials. PMID:24935763

Zhao, Zhiyong; Rao, Qinxiong; Song, Suquan; Liu, Na; Han, Zheng; Hou, Jiafa; Wu, Aibo

2014-07-15

272

Zinc and copper in animal feed – development of resistance and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in bacteria of animal origin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Farmed animals such as pig and poultry receive additional Zn and Cu in their diets due to supplementing elements in compound feed as well as medical remedies. Enteral bacteria in farmed animals are shown to develop resistance to trace elements such as Zn and Cu. Resistance to Zn is often linked with resistance to methicillin in staphylococci, and Zn supplementation to animal feed may increase the proportion of multiresistant E. coli in the gut. Resistance to Cu in bacteria, in particular enterococci, is often associated with resistance to antimicrobial drugs like macrolides and glycopeptides (e.g. vancomycin. Such resistant bacteria may be transferred from the food-producing animals to humans (farmers, veterinarians, and consumers. Data on dose-response relation for Zn/Cu exposure and resistance are lacking; however, it seems more likely that a resistance-driven effect occurs at high trace element exposure than at more basal exposure levels. There is also lack of data which could demonstrate whether Zn/Cu-resistant bacteria may acquire antibiotic resistance genes/become antibiotics resistant, or if antibiotics-resistant bacteria are more capable to become Zn/Cu resistant than antibiotics-susceptible bacteria. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between Zn/Cu and antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

Siamak Yazdankhah

2014-09-01

273

Multistage Solvent Extraction for High Yield Oil and Animal Feed Production from Toxic Jatropha Curcas Meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the possibility for the production of high yield oil and phorbol esters removal from Thai toxic Jatropha curcas meal. Optimum oil recovery by hexane extraction to obtain high oil yield was accomplished in three stages of batch extraction, following which the de-oiled meal was further determined for the optimum conditions for removal of phorbol esters (PEs by aqueous ethanol extraction from the first to the third stage of batch extraction with the aim of yielding detoxified de-oiled meal product for using as a raw material in animal feed. The optimum conditions for oil extraction was three-stage extraction with each stage operated at 1:3 (wt/v of toxic meal to hexane at 40°C for 30 min. These conditions gave 100% of de-oiling efficiency compared with the Soxhlet extraction method. The optimum conditions for PEs removal from the de-oiled meal involved two-stage extraction with each stage operated at 1:3 (wt/v of de-oiled meal to aqueous ethanol at 50°C for 30 min. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode, was used to confirm the PEs residue in the detoxified de-oiled meal. The confirmation showed that the two stages of PEs extraction could removed 100% of the PEs from the de-oiled meal. The results from our study can provide the basis for the efficient commercial production of both Jatropha curcas oil and detoxified de-oiled meal.

Rayakorn NOKKAEW

2015-02-01

274

Relative exposure to swine animal feeding operations and childhood asthma prevalence in an agricultural cohort.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) have become the model of livestock production throughout the United States. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an increase in adverse respiratory symptoms among workers at AFOs. However, the impact on communities surrounding these facilities is still being investigated. We evaluated the association between relative environmental exposure to AFOs and the prevalence of prescribed medication for wheeze and/or childhood asthma in rural Iowa. Demographic and health information on 565 children aged 0-17 was obtained from a previous population-based cohort study while data on the AFOs were collected from publically available tax records. We created a metric of each child's relative environmental exposure to swine CAFOs which incorporated the size of the AFO as well as distance and wind direction. We determined the association between self-reported prescription medication for wheeze and/or self-reported physician diagnosed asthma and relative exposure while controlling for recognized risk factors using correlated logistic regression. The prevalence of childhood asthma in the cohort was 11.0% while 22.7% of children had been previously prescribed medication for wheeze or had a lifetime asthma diagnosis. Children with a larger relative environmental exposure to AFOs had a significantly increased odds of both outcomes (OR=1.51, p=0.014 asthma; OR=1.38, p=0.023 asthma or medication for wheeze). When stratified into exposure quartiles a linear trend was observed with asthma or medication for wheeze as the dependent variable but not with asthma alone. This study is the first to investigate children's cumulative relative exposure to smaller AFOs and adds to the growing volume of literature supporting a link between proximity to swine AFOs and adverse respiratory health. PMID:23332647

Pavilonis, Brian T; Sanderson, Wayne T; Merchant, James A

2013-04-01

275

Convective transport of pollutants from eastern Colorado concentrated animal feeding operations into the Rocky Mountains  

Science.gov (United States)

As the population of the urban corridor along the eastern Front Range grows at an unprecedented rate, concern about pollutant transport into the Rocky Mountains is on the rise. The confluence of mountain meteorology and major pollution sources conspire to transport pollutants across the Front Range, especially nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, orgN, and NO3-) from concentrated animal feeding operations and urban regions, into the Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountains have coarse-textured soils which disallow the uptake nitrogen-rich precipitation, allowing most ions in precipitation to reach, be stored in, and eutrophicate alpine terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The focus of this study was to examine the meteorological conditions in which atmospheric deposition of pollutants at two mountain sites was anomalously high due to convective transport. We looked at 19 years (1994-2013) of precipitation and wet deposition data from two National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NAPD) sites in the Rocky Mountains: Beaver Meadows (CO19) and Loch Vale (CO98). Loch Vale (3159 m) and Beaver Meadows (2477 m) are located approximately 11 km apart but differ in height by 682 m resulting in different seasonal precipitation composition and totals. The Advanced Research WRF model was used to simulate the meteorology at a high resolution for the progression of the upslope event that led to high nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains. Data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was used to observe and verify synoptic conditions produced by the WRF model that influenced the high-deposition events. Dispersion plumes showed a mesoscale mountain circulation caused by differential heating between mountains-tops and the plains was the main driver of the westward convective transport towards the mountains. Additionally and unexpectedly, a lee trough and high precipitable water values associated with a cold front played significant roles in the nitrogen deposition into the Rocky Mountains.

Pina, A.; Denning, A.; Schumacher, R. S.

2013-12-01

276

Quantitative Analysis of Food and Feed Samples with Droplet Digital PCR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for routine analysis in food and feed samples was demonstrated with the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of GMOs in products. However, its use is limited for detecting and quantifying very small numbers of DNA targets, as in some complex food and feed matrices. Using ddPCR duplex as...

Morisset, Dany; S?tebih, Dejan; Milavec, Mojca; Gruden, Kristina; Z?el, Jana

2013-01-01

277

The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium) and amino acids (methionine, c...

Cmi, Caires; Ea, Fernandes; Ns, Fagundes; Ap, Carvalho; Mp, Maciel; Br, Oliveira

2010-01-01

278

Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO 4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17??-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000??g/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R 2=0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R 2=0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO 4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R 2=0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO 4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO 4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ciparis, S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Voshell, J.R.

2012-01-01

279

Effect of creatine addition in feeds containing animal meals on the performance and carcass yield of broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed exclusively vegetable diets and diets containing animal meal with the addition of creatine or not after day 8. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed according to a compl [...] etely randomized experimental design into six treatments with six replicates each. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated, to which animal meals and creatine were included or not. Diets were formulated to contain equal mineral (calcium, phosphorus and sodium) and amino acid (available methionine + cystine, lysine and threonine) levels. The following treatments were applied: A. control (diet based on corn and soybean meal); B. control + creatine (600g/ton); C. inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM), D. inclusion of 5% MBM + creatine (600g/ton), E. inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM), F. inclusion 5% BM + creatine (600g/ton). Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass yield and viability were evaluated. At 42 days of age, BM dietary inclusion impaired weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The inclusion of MBM affected only feed conversion ratio. The addition of creatine ito the diet with BM improved weight gain when compared with the BM diet with no creatine. The addition of creatine to the diet containing 5% BM improved weight gain when compared with the same diet without the use of the additive.

CMC, Carvalho; EA, Fernandes; AP de, Carvalho; MP, Maciel; RM, Caires; NS, Fagundes.

2013-09-01

280

Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives investigated contained lauric acid, myristic acid, linseed oil, and calcium fumarate. These additives were included at 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, and 0.7% of dietary dry matter, respectively (treatment ADD). Exp...

Zijderveld, S. M.; Fonken, B. C. J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W. J. J.; Perdok, H. B.; Fokkink, W. B.; Newbold, J. R.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Racionalização do uso de força motriz em fábrica de ração / Management of motive power use in animal feed industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A falta de investimento no setor energético, aliada à sazonalidade de recursos naturais necessários para a geração de energia hidroelétrica, faz da racionalização do uso de energia elétrica uma ferramenta de apoio imprescindível para o crescimento do País. A ração animal pode representar entre 70 e [...] 80% do custo de produção da criação de animais. Sendo assim, é importante o estudo da racionalização do uso de energia em processos que utilizam intensivamente força motriz, tais como as fábricas de ração. Na fábrica de ração estudada, os motores elétricos são utilizados principalmente para moagem e mistura de granulados e transporte. Com o objetivo de racionalizar o uso da energia elétrica, foi realizado estudo de adequação de força motriz dos equipamentos da fábrica de ração da Indústria Pif Paf Alimentos. O índice de carregamento médio dos motores elétricos estudados foi de 48,6%. O potencial estimado total de economia com energia elétrica anual, utilizando-se sempre da melhor opção de adequação de força motriz foi de R$ 24.426,50 ao ano (23,9%). Para que essas medidas sejam efetivadas, devem-se adequar também: (i) as exigências elétricas do circuito, como ajuste de relés e escolha de fusíveis; (ii) o horário de funcionamento, e (iii) necessidade de implantação de sistema de armazenamento de ração. Abstract in english The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around [...] 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pi Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: (i) to adjust relays and to choose fuses, (ii) to schedule operation and (iii) to build storage facilities.

Carlos A., Teixeira; Delly, Oliveira Filho; Adílio F. de, Lacerda Filho; José H., Martins.

2005-08-01

282

75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate  

Science.gov (United States)

...formerly Docket No. 2007F-0478) Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking...is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking...This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj...

2010-07-19

283

76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2009-F-0525] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking...is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking...This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj...

2011-02-09

284

Radionuclides in animal tissue samples from various regions of Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of the concentration of radioactive substances in animal species from various regions of Austria has been carried out. For bone and liver of deer, radionuclide concentrations typical for central Europe were found. The content of 90Sr were higher in gasteropod shells than in deer bone. Similar concentrations of 90Sr were found in isopods as in snail shells related to fresh weight, but related to Ca content the values in isopods were higher than in all other animals. Based on these results, a study of snail shells and of isopods as bioindicators for 90Sr content in environmental control is indicated. In tissue samples of the same species, but from different regions of Austria, the fallout radionuclide concentrations were found to be related to altitude (90Sr) and to the amount of precipitation (137Cs). These correlation differences could point to a different deposition behaviours of 90Sr and 137Cs, the former being deposited mainly with solid precipitation. This seems plausible since aerosols carried over continental distances show a high sulfate content and alkaline earth metal sulfates are less soluble than alkali sulfates. Examination of absolute concentration values related to fresh tissue weight show high fallout radionuclide concentrations, as compared to natural radionuclide concentration, especially in hard tissues. These fallout levels constitute a significant radioactive load on the biosphere. Due to the long physical half-life of 90Sr and 137Cs, this situation will remain virtually unchanged during the next decades, even if no further nuclear weapons tests are carried out. (G.G.)

285

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Emission measurements were made over all four seasonal periods. In each seasonal period, measurements were made from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn for ˜1 week. RSC and NMVOCs samples were collected using passivated canisters. Nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the lagoon and barn over each sampling period. The canisters were analyzed ex-situ using gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) measurements were made in-situ using a pulsed fluorescence H2S/SO2 analyzer. During sampling, measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made. H2S had the largest RSC flux, with an overall average lagoon flux of 1.33 mug m-2 min-1. The two main RSCs identified by the GC-FID, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), had overall average lagoon fluxes an order of magnitude lower, 0.12 and 0.09 mug m-2 min-1, respectively. Twelve significant NMVOCs were identified in lagoon samples (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, decanal, heptanal, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and 4-methylphenol). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.08 mug m-2 min-1 (4-methylphenol) to 2.11 mug m-2 min-1 (acetone). Seasonal H2S barn concentrations ranged from 72-631 ppb. DMS and DMDS seasonal concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. There were six significant NMVOCs identified in barn samples (methanol, ethanol, acetone 2-3 butanedione, acetaldehyde and 4-methylphenol). Their overall average NMVOCs concentrations ranged from 2.87 ppb (4-methylphenol) to 16.21 ppb (ethanol). The overall average barn normalized emissions were 3.3 g day-1 AU-1 (AU (animal unit) = 500 kg) for H2S, 0.018 g day-1 AU-1 for DMS and 0.037 g day -1 AU-1 for DMDS. Normalized overall average NMVOC emissions ranged from 0.45 g day-1 AU-1 for ethanol to 0.16 g day-1 AU-1 for acetaldehyde. Barn H2S concentrations were generally one to two orders of magnitude above their odor thresholds. DMDS concentrations also regularly exceeded the lower limit of an odor threshold. Four NMVOCs (2-3 butanedione, decanal, 4-methylphenol and nonanal) had barn concentrations exceeding an odor threshold. Using overall average lagoon and barn emissions, the emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina were estimated. H2S had the largest RSC emission with an estimated North Carolina emission of 1.46 million kg yr -1, which was ˜21% of total North Carolina H2S emissions. Ethanol was the NMVOC with the largest North Carolina emission with an emission of 206,367 kg yr-1.

Rumsey, Ian Cooper

286

IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

Dr. Donal F. Day

2009-01-29

287

Wide-scope analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues in animal feed by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fast and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous monitoring of >250 pesticides and veterinary drugs (VDs) in animal feed. A 'dilute-and-shoot' extraction with water and acetonitrile (1% formic acid) followed by a clean-up step with Florisil cartridges was applied. The extracts were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid analyser quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry using both positive and negative electrospray ionisation. The detection of the residues was accomplished by retention time and accurate mass using an in-house database. The identification of the detected compounds was carried out by searching of fragment ions for each compound and isotopic pattern. The optimised method was validated and recoveries ranged from 60% to 120% at three concentrations (10, 50 and 100 ?g kg(-1)) for 30%, 68% and 80% of compounds, respectively, included in the database (364) in chicken feed. Document SANCO 12495/2011 and Directive 2002/657/CE were used as guidelines for method validation. Intra-day and inter-day precisions, expressed as relative standard deviations, were lower than 20% for more than 90% of compounds. The limits of quantification ranged from 4 to 200 ?g kg(-1) for most analytes, which are sufficient to verify compliance of products with legal tolerances. The applicability of the procedure was further tested on different types of feed (chicken, hen, rabbit and horse feed), evaluating recoveries and repeatability. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 18 feed samples, detecting some VDs (sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, robenidin and monensin Na) and only one pesticide (chlorpyrifos). PMID:23712649

Aguilera-Luiz, María M; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

2013-08-01

288

Application of inulin-type fructans in animal feed and pet food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The inulin-type fructans are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are fermented in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals and pets. This review focuses on the various effects of inulin-type fructans in pigs, poultry, calves and companion animals. Effects of the inulin-type fructans on gut microflora, digestion and availability of nutrients, gut morphology, fermentation characteristics and animal performance are discussed. Inulin-type fructans can support animal performance and health by a...

Verdonk, J. M. A. J.; Shim, S. B.; Leeuwen, P.; Verstegen, M. W. A.

2005-01-01

289

Composição química da glicerina produzida por usinas de biodiesel no Brasil e potencial de uso na alimentação animal / Chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and potential utilization in animal feeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com a crescente produção de biodiesel no Brasil, aumenta também a produção de glicerina, co-produto dessa indústria. O principal componente da glicerina é o glicerol, altamente energético e, por isso, ela já vem sendo usada como alimento animal em vários países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar [...] a composição química da glicerina produzida por indústrias de biodiesel no Brasil e discutir seu potencial de utilização na alimentação animal. Dezesseis usinas, responsáveis por 85,1% do biodiesel produzido no país, forneceram 41 amostras para análise. Cromo, cádmio e chumbo não foram detectados em nenhuma das amostras estudadas. Apenas quatro usinas, responsáveis por 36,8% da produção, produzem glicerina que atendem os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento para os teores de umidade e glicerol. Apenas uma usina, responsável por 14,1% da produção, produz glicerina apta para uso na alimentação de ruminantes, por não utilizar sebo bovino como matéria prima para o biodiesel. Abstract in english The increasing production of biodiesel in Brazil also increases glycerin production, a co-product of this industry. The main component of glycerin, glycerol, is highly energetic and because of that, glycerin is already used as animal feed in many countries. The objective of this paper was to evaluat [...] e the chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and discuss its potential utilization as animal feed. Forty one samples of glycerin from sixteen biodiesel plants, that together yield 85.1% of Brazilian biodiesel, were analyzed. Chromium, cadmium and lead were not detected in any studied sample. Only four plants, that together yield 36.8% of Brazilian glycerin, comply the glycerol and moisture content levels established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Only one, responsible for 14.1% of Brazilian glycerin, delivers glycerin with the potential to be used as ruminant feed once it doesn't use animal fat to produce biodiesel.

Jackson Silva e, Oliveira; Rosemar, Antoniassi; Sidinéa Cordeiro de, Freitas; Marcelo Dias, Müller.

2013-03-01

290

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...processed fish meal, poultry meal, meat meal...be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria, an organism...be contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms: Bone...solubles, meat scraps, poultry meat meal,...

2010-04-01

291

New feed additives based on phytogenics and acidifiers in animal nutrition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low regulations for feed additives use, has been changed in EU as well as in our country, especially in use of antibiotics as growth promotors. Along years it has investigated an alternative for antibiotics as growth promotors. Essential oilsand organic acids are one of alternative feed, which acting in a few of the most important directions: as antioxidants, metabolic upgraders, growth promotors and development of pathogenic microorganizms controllers, including moulds and bacterias and as e...

Levi? J.; Sredanovi? S.; ?uragi? O.; Jaki? D.; Levi? Lj.; Pavkov S.

2007-01-01

292

Microbial and Nutrient Concentration and Load Data During Stormwater Runoff at a Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, 2006-2007  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes water-quality and hydrologic data collected during 2006-2007 to characterize bacteria and nutrient loads associated with overland runoff and subsurface tile drainage in spray fields at a swine concentrated animal feeding operation. Four monitoring locations were established at the Lizzie Research Site in the North Carolina Coastal Plain Physiographic Province for collecting discharge and water-quality data during stormwater-runoff events. Water stage was measured continuously at each monitoring location. A stage-discharge relation was developed for each site and was used to compute instantaneous discharge values for collected samples. Water-quality samples were collected for five storm events during 2006-2007 for analysis of nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria. Instantaneous loads of nitrite plus nitrate, total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci were computed for selected times during the five storm events.

Harden, Stephen L.

2008-01-01

293

Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs, tissue and feed samples in the State of Kuwait  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 238 locally produced and imported eggs, tissue (meat, poultry and aquacultured fish) and feed and feedstuffs samples were collected at different seasonal periods from different farms and retail outlets in Kuwait and screened for presence of beta-lactams, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, streptomycin, macrolides and chloramphenicol (799 tests) using Charm II system. The results indicated that all of the 222 tests performed on table egg samples were negative for the analyzed antimicrobial residues indicating adherence to the guidelines for microbial use and withdrawal. Similarly, all of the 268 tests performed on tissue samples were negative for the analyzed antimicrobial residues except for chloramphenicol. These chloramphenicol positive samples, all of the 66 tests performed were negative for beta-lactams residues. Out of the 79 feed and feedstuff samples analyzed for teracyclines residues, broiler diet and concentrate samples (5%) were above the tetracyclines MRL (100 ppb.). On the other hands, results have revealed a widespread of sulfonamide residues and to a less extent chloramphenicol in tested feed and feedstuff samples. The Charm II system was reliable for rapid screening of antimicrobial residues. In general, results obtained in our study necessitate more effective and well planned national antimicrobial residues surveillance programs focusing particularly on samples imported from highly risk sources. (author)

294

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-selenomethionine as feed additive for all animal species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element that is essential for vertebrates and involved in series of vital metabolic functions. Considering the purity of the L-selenomethionine (L-SeMet under application and the metabolic pathways of SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel considers the use of L-SeMet as safe for all animal species, provided that the maximum total selenium level authorised in feed is respected. The use of in animal nutrition is expected to result in a similar increase in selenium deposition in animal tissues/products as that resulting from other sources of SeMet. To ensure consumer safety from consumption of food originating from animals fed L-SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel concludes that dietary selenium supplementation from the additive should not exceed a maximum of 0.2 mg Se/kg complete feed. In the absence of specific data, the additive should be considered as an irritant to skin and eyes, as a skin sensitiser and as potentially harmful by inhalation. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of L-SeMet in feed does not pose an additional risk to the environment, compared with other sources of selenium for which it will substitute, as long as the maximum authorised content in feedingstuffs is not exceeded. L-SeMet is an efficient source of selenium for all species. This conclusion is derived from studies with laying hens and pigs for fattening and, in the case of ruminants, from literature describing the microbial incorporation of selenium from organic sources in the rumen. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations concerning (i the specification, (ii the use of the compound in premixtures, (iii the use in water for drinking and (iv risk reduction when handling the additive.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2013-05-01

295

Monitoring total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitigation of bioaerosol emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) demands knowledge of bioaerosol concentrations feeding into an end-of-pipe air treatment process. The aim of this preliminary study was to measure total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations at the air exhaust of 18 commercial CAFOs and to examine their variability with animal operation type (swine farrowing, swine gestation, swine weaning, swine finishing, manure belt laying hen, and tom turkey) and season (cold, mild, and hot). The measured airborne concentrations of total endotoxin ranged from 98 to 23,157 endotoxin units (EU)/m3, and the airborne concentrations of total (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan ranged from 2.4 to 537.9 ng/m3. Animal operation type in this study had a significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan but no significant effect on their concentrations in total suspended particulate (TSP). Both endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan attained their highest airborne concentrations in visited tom turkey buildings. Comparatively, season had no significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin or (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan. Endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations in TSP dust appeared to increase as the weather became warmer, and this seasonal effect was significant in swine buildings. Elevated indoor temperatures in the hot season were considered to facilitate the growth and propagation of bacteria and fungi, thus leading to higher biocomponent concentrations in TSP. PMID:24282971

Yang, Xufei; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin; Su, Jingwei; Gates, Richard S

2013-10-01

296

Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge to eliminate pathogens for safe use as fertilizer and animal feed supplement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a research program titled ''Waste Resources Utilization'' using a new technique called thermoradiation to destroy pathogenic organisms in sewage sludge. The thermoradiated sewage sludge will be used to study the feasibility of use for safe land application as fertilizer and soil conditioner and use as a feed supplement for ruminant animals. Experiments to date have shown good results for sludge disinfection of resistant bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Thermoradiation experiments are being carried out at a temperature of 650C combined with 160 krad gamma dose for a total of 2000 pounds of dried treated sludge. The sludge will be shipped to New Mexico State University for the feeding studies and land application studies. (auth)

297

Concentrations of U and Po in animal feed supplements, in poultry meat and in eggs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to assess the contribution of phosphate feed supplements to the radiation exposure of the population in Israel. The phosphates usually contain appreciable quantities of U and its daughters and the actual exposure of human consumers depends, to a very large extent, on the degree of equilibrium of the decay chain in the feed and through the metabolic process. The concentrations of 238U, 234U, 226Ra and 210Po (210Pb) in poultry feed supplements and in chicken meat (breasts, thighs) and organs (livers, spleens, gizzards) as well as in eggs were determined. From the results, the transfer coefficients of U and Po in chicken meat and in eggs were calculated. The effective dose equivalent to the Israeli population due to the consumption of poultry products which accounts for approximately 70% of all meat consumed in Israel is assessed to be 0.04 mSv y-1

298

The effect of feed contamination with mycotoxins on animals and ways for prevention and degradation of mycotoxins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that are capable of causing illness and sometimes death to animals and not only animals even humans. In 1960 it was established that some fungal metabolites, now called mycotoxins, that have a destructive effect on animal health, since then people were interested on the effect and the way to stop it. Among them, aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 & G2 synthesized mainly byAspergillus flavus/ Aspergillus parasiticus are known to induce severe effects on animal: can cause liver damage, decreased milk production, reduced reproductively and suppressed immunity in animals consuming low dietary concentrations, decreased feed intake and efficiency, weight loss, jaundice, drop in milk production, nervous signs, bleeding and death. The aim of this work was the isolation of aflatoxin producing fungi in order to investigate new ways that can determinate, inhibit or degradation of aflatoxin, ochratoxin, using lactic bacteria and yeast. A number of 17Aspergillus spp. isolates were obtained from wheat, barley, triticale, oats, and sunflower seeds and identified, based on macroscopic and microscopic features as A.flavus/A.parasiticus. The ability of aflatoxin biosynthesis was detected on PDA medium with ? cyclodextrine and sodium deoxycholate were evaluated by TLC and RIDA Screen R-biopharm. At this stage of experiments 3 fungal isolates, designated as GE2, G32, T11 were selected as aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and used for further analysis (molecular identification, interactions with LAB and yeasts.  

Oana Ciobotaru

2014-05-01

299

Scientific Opinion on risks for animal and public health related to the presence of nivalenol in food and feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nivalenol is a mycotoxin produced by various Fusarium species. The European Commission (EC asked the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to human and animal health related to the presence of nivalenol in food and feed. A total of 13 164 results for nivalenol in food, feed and unprocessed grains, collected in 2001-2011 from 18 European countries, were available for the evaluation. The highest mean concentrations for nivalenol were observed in oats, maize, barley and wheat and products thereof. Grains and grain-based foods, in particular bread and rolls, grain milling products, pasta, fine bakery wares and breakfast cereals, made the largest contribution to nivalenol exposure for humans. Animal exposure to nivalenol is primarily from consuming cereal grains and cereal by-products. The available information on the toxicokinetics of nivalenol is incomplete. Evidence exists for metabolic de-epoxidation in some species. Based on the data available, the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel concluded that the overall weight of evidence is that nivalenol is unlikely to be genotoxic. Toxic effects of nivalenol include immunotoxicity and haematotoxicity. A reduction in white blood cell (WBC counts in a 90-day rat study was identified as the critical effect for human risk assessment. Using these data and a benchmark dose analysis the CONTAM Panel established a tolerable daily intake (TDI of 1.2 µg/kg b.w. per day. All chronic human dietary exposures to nivalenol estimated, based on the available occurrence data in food, are below the TDI, and are therefore not a health concern. No toxicity data were identified for ruminants, rabbits, fish and companion animals but lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels were identified in pigs and poultry. Based on estimates of exposure the risk of adverse health effects of feed containing nivalenol is low for both these species.

EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

2013-06-01

300

Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

 
 
 
 
301

Use of the EFSA Standard Sample Description for the reporting of data on the control of pesticide residues in food and feed according to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 (revision 1)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 on Maximum Residue Levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin requires the Member States to monitor pesticide residue levels in food commodities and submit the monitoring results to EFSA and the European Commission. In 2009, EFSA developed the Standard Sample Description (SSD), which is a standardised model for the reporting of harmonised data on analytical measurements of chemical substances occurring in food, feed and water. This docum...

European Food Safety Authority

2013-01-01

302

Use of the EFSA Standard Sample Description (SSD) for the reporting of data on the control of pesticide residues in food and feed according to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 (Version: 2013 Data Collection)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 on Maximum Residue Levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin requires the Member States to monitor pesticide residue levels in food commodities and submit the monitoring results to EFSA and the European Commission. In 2009, EFSA developed the Standard Sample Description (SSD), which is a standardised model for the reporting of harmonised data on analytical measurements of chemical substances occurring in food, feed and water. This docum...

European Food Safety Authority

2014-01-01

303

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for all other antibiotics by October 17...the nitrofuran drugs by March 4...the Center for Veterinary Medicine on protocol...to: Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation... (1) Those antibiotic,...

2010-04-01

304

Diversity and Population Structure of Bovine Fecal-Derived Microorganisms from Different Animal Feeding Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but in odor emissions, agricultural land nutrient loading, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, our understanding of the specif...

305

21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as specified in § 589.2001; inspected meat products which have been cooked and...animals unfit for human consumption, or meat scraps. The term includes persons...to, cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, deer, elk, and antelopes. (b) Food...

2010-04-01

306

21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...consult with the Center for Veterinary Medicine on protocol design and plans...Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville...Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Office of New Animal...

2010-04-01

307

77 FR 42679 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2040-AF22 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal...in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations at 40 CFR...are potential sources of nitrogen, phosphorus, pathogens, and other...

2012-07-20

308

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...that processed fish meal, poultry meal, meat meal, tankage, and other animal...with Salmonella microorganisms: Bone meal, blood meal, crab meal, feather meal, fish meal, fish solubles, meat scraps, poultry meat meal,...

2010-04-01

309

Detection of bovine meat and bone meal in animal feed at a level of 0.1%  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the control of the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle via feedstuff, a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with ruminant-specific Bov-B SINE primers, SYBR® Green fluorescence detection, and melting curve analysis. In formulated cattle and chicken feed samples spiked with pure bovine and sheep meat and bone meal heated at 133°C for 20 min, a contamination level of 0.1% was detected

Aarts, H. J. M.; Bouw, E. M.; Buntjer, J. B.; Lenstra, J. A.; Raamsdonk, L. W. D.

2006-01-01

310

9 CFR 95.13 - Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry.  

Science.gov (United States)

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Section 95.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

2010-01-01

311

Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional pop survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from biotechnology must be shown to be pure, potent, safe and effective when used according to label recommendations. The Canadian regulatory system relies on the 'precautionary principle' in its approach to regulate the 'product' instead of the 'process'. The regulatory framework captures transgenic animals under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). Food from transgenic animals is assessed for safety by Health Canada under its Novel Foods Regulations of the Food and Drugs Act. Feed containing any genetically modified organism is considered Novel Feed under the Feeds Act and Regulations. The regulation of veterinary biologics, in an effort to prevent and diagnose infectious diseases of animals, relies on effective science-based regulatory controls under the Health of Animals Act and Regulations. The Canadian system of regulation for feeds, veterinary biologics and transgenic animals could be useful to developing countries in the process of establishing an effective framework for new regulations. (author)

312

Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

313

[Occupational hygiene and health hazards related to concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions of harmful agents, inherent in the intensive production of pigs, create an important problem concerning the protection of workers' health. Concentration of many animals on relatively small areas contributes to high air contaminations inside swine confinement buildings. They are mostly induced by bioaerosols, such as organic dust, microorganisms, endotoxins, glucans and irritant gases. In view of the health care and safety of people employed in animal farming, it is crucial to conduct research involving a comprehensive evaluation of exposure to occupational hazards, indicating their level determinants and increasing the scientific information on dose-response relations. This article presents the review of the literature on the process of pig farming in Poland, including legislation, occupational hygiene and potential risk for the health of animal-handling workers. PMID:20677432

Buczy?ska, Alina; Szadkowska-Sta?czyk, Irena

2010-01-01

314

Enterocytozoon bieneusi (microsporidia in faecal samples from domestic animals from Galicia, Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this survey we examined 87 domestic animal stool samples in order to detect the possible presence of microsporidia in animals in close contact with humans in Galicia (NW, Spain. The detection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores was confirmed in faecal samples from two dogs and one goat by polymerase chain reaction. None of the positive samples for microsporidia in the staining method were amplified with species-specific primers for Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem and E. cuniculi. Four rabbits faecal samples reacted with anti-E. cuniculi serum. Our results could indicate the importance of domestic animals as zoonotic reservoirs of microsporidial human infections.

Lores B

2002-01-01

315

Community structures of fecal bacteria in cattle from different animal feeding operations  

Science.gov (United States)

The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provid...

316

Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus – effects on animal performance and meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM or fishmeal (WFM as protein source on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to “wild’ or “gamey” flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively. No “fish-related” flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.

Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:

Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjøl – effekter på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet I vår undersökning ingick 14 renar (8 kastrerade sarvar (härkaroch 6 vajor för att jämföra effekter av två olika renfoder (baserade på korn, hö och soja- (SBM eller fiskmjöl (WFM som proteintillskott med avseende på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet. Köttprover från naturbetande renar (n=4; 2 härkar och 2 vajor från Seward Peninsula inkluderades i studien för att representera kvaliteten på traditionellt producerat renkött från Alaska. Inga signifikanta skillnader i tillväxt observerades, varken mellan SBM- och WFM-grupperna eller mellan härkar och vajor. Foderutnyttjandet var dock signifikant bättre hos WFM-renarna. Slaktutbytet var högst för renarna i SBM-gruppen, däremot rapporterades inga skillnader i levandevikt, slaktkroppsegenskaper, pH-värde och temperatur i ytterfilén, skärmotstånd, färg eller vattenhållande förmåga i köttet när de tre grupperna av renar jämfördes (SBM, WFM och naturbetande djur. Köttet från de naturbetande renarna hade det signifikant högsta innehållet av både omega-3-fettsyror och av fleromättade fettsyror. Kött från SBM-renarna hade det högsta innehållet av triglycerider och det lägsta innehållet av fosfolipider jämfört med de andra två grupperna. Den tränade smakpanelen kunde inte hitta några skillnader i sensoriska egenskaper hos köttet från renarna i de tre olika grupperna. I en konsumentundersökning rapporterades kommentarer om olika ”vilt-relaterade” bismaker i kött från naturbetande renar (24% av konsumenterna och från WFM-gruppen (15% av konsumenterna, men inga ”fisk-liknande” bismaker i köttet kunde påvisas. Att byta ut sojamjöl mot fiskmjöl som prote

Alexandra C. M. Oliveira

2007-01-01

317

Effect of Positioning of Feed Samples in Two Segments of the Rumen on In-situ Degradability of Feed Stuffs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of positioning of Sorghum Stover and groundnut haulms at dorsal and ventral segments of rumen was investigated using Nylon bags for 4, 24 and 48 hours incubation in the rumen of two cannulated bulls. The 24 hour dry matter (DM disappearance values were 60.05 (dorsal segment, 58.93 (ventral segments for the groundnut haulm and 14.65 (dorsal segment, 15.75 (ventral segments for Sorghum Stover respectively, with the following corresponding rates of degradability (C value 0.010, 0.009, 0.005 and 0.004 respectively. The results showed no significant effect of positioning in the rumen. Expectedly the groundnut haulms were however degraded more than the Sorghum Stover, making the dry matter from the latter more available to the host animal than those of the former. The difference in the rate of degradation between groundnut haulm and sorghum stover must have rested on the degree of exposure of the degradable samples to the various rumen microbial species rather than that of rumen positioning of those feedstuff samples

S. Bogoro

2006-01-01

318

Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

319

Authentication of feeding fats: classification of animal fats, fish oils and recycled cooking oils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the measurement of several markers and must take into account natural and technology-induced variation. The present study focuses on the identity prediction of three by-products of the fat industry (animal fats,...

Ruth, S. M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A. H.; Perez-garcia, R.; Kamp, H. J.; Codony, R.

2010-01-01

320

X-ray diffraction analysis of particles ingested by filter-feeding animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The size and relative abundance of mineral particles ingested by two filter-feeding aquatic insects, Simulium vittatum Zett. (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Different minerals representing different particle size categories were supplied larval black flies and mosquitoes. Since minerals possess characteristic diffraction properties, their presence and relative abundance can be determined. Early instars of the black fly ingested and retained particles of three different size ranges: however, more coarse particles relative to fine particles were retained by smaller instars as compared with the larger instars. With mosquito larvae, there was a proportional increase in coarser material ingested with increasing age and size of larvae. Other applications of this method are discussed. (Auth.)

 
 
 
 
321

Evans Blue as a Simple Method to Discriminate Mosquitoes’ Feeding Choice on Small Laboratory Animals  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable. Principal Findings By using Evans blue (EB) vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquito’s choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host), either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat. Significance Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc) and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment. PMID:25333369

Maciel, Ceres; Fujita, André; Gueroni, Daniele I.; Ramos, Anderson D.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Sá-Nunes, Anderson

2014-01-01

322

Evaluation of pre-PCR processing approaches for enumeration of Salmonella enterica in naturally contaminated animal feed  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three pre?PCR processing strategies for the detection and/or quantification of Salmonella in naturally contaminated soya bean meal were evaluated. Methods included: (i) flotation?qPCR [enumeration of intact Salmonella cells prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR)], (ii) MPN?PCR (modified most probable number method combined with qPCR) and (iii) qualitative culture enrichment PCR. The limit of quantification was 1·8 × 102 CFU g?1 (flotation?qPCR) and 0·02 MPN g?1 (MPN?PCR). Fifteen naturally contaminated Salmonella positive soya bean meal samples from one lot were analysed in parallel with the three methods, using 2·5, 50 and 25 g of feed, respectively, resulting in detection of Salmonella in 6, 15 and 9 bags. Enumeration resulted in 1·8 × 102–7·8 × 103 CFU g?1 (flotation?qPCR) and 0·024 to >5·2 MPN g?1 (MPN?PCR). Except for differences in methodology, results obtained with the three techniques could be due to the presence of nonculturable Salmonella and/or a heterogeneous distribution of Salmonella in the material. The evaluated methods provide different possibilities to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in feed, together with the numbers of culturable, as well as nonculturable cells, and can be applied to generate data to allow more accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment for Salmonella in the feed chain.

Schelin, Jenny; Andersson, Gunnar

2014-01-01

323

Evaluation of two liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry platforms for quantification of monensin in animal feed and milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monensin is an anticoccidial drug that has been used as an additive in medicated feed. The United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has included monensin in the national surveillance schemes for residues in foodstuff. In this study, two simple, selective and rapid methods were developed to determine monensin content in animal feed and milk. The methods enabled the detection of monensin residues as low as 1 ppb. Moreover, the two methods were used as models to compare two common liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) platforms; an LC linear ion trap (LC/LIT) and an LC triple quadrupole (LC/QqQ). The two instrument platforms were evaluated for their matrix effect dependence, precision and accuracy. The LC/QqQ presented a lower limit of detection and limit of quantitation (LOD and LOQ) and showed less matrix dependence as compared to the LC/LIT. The LC/QqQ instrument also demonstrated a better intermediate precision. For example, the intermediate precision standard deviation calculated for 27 analyses across three days was 4% and 11% for LC/QqQ and LC/LIT, respectively. Overall, the LC/QqQ represents a better choice for analysis of monensin with respect to LOD, LOQ, matrix interference and precision. PMID:20411582

Dai, Susie Y; Herrman, Timothy J

2010-05-30

324

Effect of radiation treatment on protein quality and vitamin content of animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the effects of autoclaving and irradiation on the protein quality and vitamin content of various nutrients of laboratory animal diets. The protein quality and its amino acid composition was not significantly affected by a radiation dose as high as 7.0 Mrad, whereas the protein quality of autoclaved diet (1020C for 5 minutes) was significantly affected. Vitamin B1, B0 and ?-tocopherol appeared to be affected by irradiation, whereas autoclaving reduced the levels of vitamins A, B1 and E. (author)

325

Effects of pretreatment of wheat bran on the quality of protein-rich residue for animal feeding and on monosaccharide release for ethanol production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of hydrothermal conditions for pretreating wheat bran on the quality of residual protein for animal feeding, and on monosaccharide release for ethanol production were studied according to a 4 × 2 × 2 design with the factors, temperature (120, 140, 160, and 180 °C), acidity (pH 2.3 and 3.9), and retention time (5 and 10 min). Temperature affected the quality of residual protein for animal feeding. Pretreatment at 120 and 140 °C did not affect O-methylisourea-reactive lysine in ...

Borne, J. J. G. C.; Kabel, M. A.; Briens, M.; Poel, A. F. B.; Hendriks, W. H.

2012-01-01

326

9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Section 95.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS...tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or...

2010-01-01

327

Quantitative analysis of food and feed samples with droplet digital PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for routine analysis in food and feed samples was demonstrated with the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of GMOs in products. However, its use is limited for detecting and quantifying very small numbers of DNA targets, as in some complex food and feed matrices. Using ddPCR duplex assay, we have measured the absolute numbers of MON810 transgene and hmg maize reference gene copies in DNA samples. Key performance parameters of the assay were determined. The ddPCR system is shown to offer precise absolute and relative quantification of targets, without the need for calibration curves. The sensitivity (five target DNA copies) of the ddPCR assay compares well with those of individual qPCR assays and of the chamber digital PCR (cdPCR) approach. It offers a dynamic range over four orders of magnitude, greater than that of cdPCR. Moreover, when compared to qPCR, the ddPCR assay showed better repeatability at low target concentrations and a greater tolerance to inhibitors. Finally, ddPCR throughput and cost are advantageous relative to those of qPCR for routine GMO quantification. It is thus concluded that ddPCR technology can be applied for routine quantification of GMOs, or any other domain where quantitative analysis of food and feed samples is needed. PMID:23658750

Morisset, Dany; Štebih, Dejan; Milavec, Mojca; Gruden, Kristina; Žel, Jana

2013-01-01

328

Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being, policies targeting intermediate pollution and final pollution create incentives for the operator to examine the effects of other management practices to reduce pollution in addition to controlling the polluting inputs. Incentive-based mechanisms are slightly more cost-effective than quantity controls when seasonal emissions fluctuate. Our approach demonstrates the importance of taking into account the spatial & temporal dynamics in the rootzone and the integrated effects of water, nitrogen, and salinity on crop yield and nitrate emissions. It also highlights the significant role the environment can play in pollution control and the potential benefits from designing policies that acknowledge this role.oss of Total Net Farm Income Under Alternative Policies

Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

2012-12-01

329

Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia / Modelagem matemática para energia digestivel de ingredientes de origem animal para tilápias  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi a formulação de equações para estimar a energia digestível em alimentos para a tilápia. Foram utilizados valores obtidos na literatura da composição centesimal em proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, matéria mineral e energia bruta (variáveis independentes), bem como a energia [...] digestível (variável dependente) obtidos em ensaios biológicos. Os dados foram submetidos à regressão linear múltipla "stepwise backward". Foi realizada análise de trilha para medir os efeitos diretos e indiretos de cada variável independente sobre a dependente. Para validar o modelo foram utilizados dados de estudos independentes, e os valores obtidos em um ensaio de digestibilidade com juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, testando-se cinco farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO), utilizando o sistema de coleta de fezes de Guelph e óxido de cromo (III) como indicador. A equação obtida não pode estimar os valores de energia digestível (ED) de origem animal e está descrito a seguir: ED (kcalkg-1) = -2364,970+1,287 x EB;R² = 0,775. Os coeficientes de trilha obtidos tem valores de médios a baixo, sendo o maior efeito direto o da energia bruta (0,529), enquanto a proteina bruta apresentou o maior efeito indireto, via energia bruta (0,439). Abstract in english The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological [...] assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals (MBM) were used, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model is described below and cannot estimate digestible energy (DE) of animal origin: DE (kcal kg-1) = -2364.970+1.287xGE;R² = 0.775. The path coefficients were medium or low, the highest direct effect was from gross energy (0.529), while the highest indirect effect was from crude protein, through gross energy (0.439).

Luiz Vítor Oliveira, Vidal; Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Elias Nunes, Martins; Tadeu Orlandi, Xavier; Mariana, Michelato; Thêmis Sakaguti, Graciano.

2012-09-01

330

Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats wit...

Sindy Neumann; Sabine Pestel; Kai Lienemann; Philipp Pagel; Christina Schreier; Werner Kremer; Fritz Huber

2013-01-01

331

Improvement Utilization Efficiency of Sunflower Meal as a Feed for Ruminant Animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was conducted to study the effect of blood, formaldehyde, heating or roasting on sunflower meal including chemical composition, particle size, solubility, in vitro digestion coefficient, dry matter and nitrogen degradability and true nitrogen digestion coefficient. Results of chemical composition indicated that treatments caused high significant (P<0.01) differences in comparison with untreated meal particularly in protein. It was shown that treatment with blood or roasting caused an increase in protein percentage about 7.75% and 3.81%; respectively. Treatments casued a highly significant (P<0.01) increase in particle size and reduction in small particle ratio in comparison with untreated meal. Superiority was for blood treatment. Meanwhile, solubility results reflected no significant differences between used solutions . Different treatments tended to reduce solubility compared to untreated meal. Significant reduction (p<0.01) in nitrogen solubility was for treating meal with blood or roasting . Results indicated that treatment tended to reduce (P<0.01) dry and organic mater digestion coefficients in comparison with untreated meal. Dry matter and nitrogen degradability was greatly reduced (P<0.01) compared to untreated meal, especially blood and roasting treatments . True nitrogen digestion coefficient showed high significance (P<0.01) due to treatment . This study indicated that sunflower meal protein could be protected effectively from degradation in rrotected effectively from degradation in rumen by treatment with blood or roasting without any inverse effect on nitrogen digestion and absorbability in ruminant animal abomasum and small intestine. (authors) 32 refs., 6 tabs

332

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper compounds (E4) as feed additives for all animal species: cupric sulphate pentahydrate based on a dossier submitted by Manica S.p.A.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Copper sulphate pentahydrate is safe for all animal species up to the maximum total copper content authorised in feed. No concerns for consumer safety are expected from the use of the feed additive. The maximum residue limits (MRLs) for copper in foods of animal origin established by European Union pesticides legislation are not consistent with legal practices in animal nutrition. As copper is an essential micronutrient, the FEEDAP Panel is not in favour of establishing MRLs for animal produc...

Efsa, Panel On Additives And Products Or Substances Used In Animal Feed

2012-01-01

333

Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55 for carcasses (animals found dead and 0.2% (13/5309 for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1 surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2 any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3 surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4 morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure.

Damien O. Joly

2012-04-01

334

Animations  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Christopher Griffith

335

21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 589.2001...or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Purpose...further reduce the risk of the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)...

2010-04-01

336

Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wastes by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EBF) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13% and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30oC in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran. (author)

337

Assessment of an aerosol treatment to improve air quality in a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO).  

Science.gov (United States)

Poor air quality within swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) poses a threat to workers, the surrounding community, and farm production. Accordingly, the current study was conducted to evaluate a technology for reducing air pollution including particulate matter (PM), viable bacteria, and ammonia within such a facility. The technology consists of an acid-oil-alcohol aerosol applied daily. Its effectiveness was evaluated by comparing air quality from before to after treatment and between treated and untreated sides of a barn separated by an impervious partition. On the untreated side, air quality was typical for a swine CAFO, with mean PM2.5 of 0.28 mg/m3 and PM(TOT) of 1.5 mg/m3. The treatment yielded a reduction in PM concentration of 75-90% from before to after treatment. Effectiveness increased with time, application, and particle size (40% reduction for 1 microm and 90% for >10 microm). Airborne bacteria levels (total bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and gram-positive cocci) decreased one logarithmic unit after treatment. In contrast, treatment had no effect on ammonia concentrations. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in yielding exposure and emission reductions. PMID:16475347

Rule, Ana M; Chapin, Amy R; McCarthy, Sheila A; Gibson, Kristen E; Schwab, Kellogg J; Buckley, Timothy J

2005-12-15

338

Antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. The panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the Americas. Samples were isolated in the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in Brazil. In addition to the fixed virus samples CVS-31/96-IP, preserved in mouse brain, and PV-BHK/97, preserved in cel...

Favoretto, Silvana Regina; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Cunha, Elenice Maria S.; Aguiar, Elizabeth A. C.; Silva, Luzia Helena Q.; Sodre?, Miriam M.; Souza, Maria Conceic?a?o A. M.; Kotait, Ivanete

2002-01-01

339

Variations among animals when estimating the undegradable fraction of fiber in forage samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the variability among animals regarding the critical time to estimate the undegradable fraction of fiber (ct using an in situ incubation procedure. Five rumenfistulated Nellore steers were used to estimate the degradation profile of fiber. Animals were fed a standard diet with an 80:20 forage:concentrate ratio. Sugarcane, signal grass hay, corn silage and fresh elephant grass samples were assessed. Samples were put in F57 Ankom® bags and were incubated in the rumens of the animals for 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240 and 312 hours. The degradation profiles were interpreted using a mixed non-linear model in which a random effect was associated with the degradation rate. For sugarcane, signal grass hay and corn silage, there were no significant variations among animals regarding the fractional degradation rate of neutral and acid detergent fiber; consequently, the ct required to estimate the undegradable fiber fraction did not vary among animals for those forages. However, a significant variability among animals was found for the fresh elephant grass. The results seem to suggest that the variability among animals regarding the degradation rate of fibrous components can be significant.

Cláudia Batista Sampaio

2014-10-01

340

Feasibility of feeding yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) in bioregenerative life support systems as a source of animal protein for humans  

Science.gov (United States)

In bioregenerative life support systems, using inedible plant biomass to feed animals can provide animal protein for astronauts, while at the same time treating with wastes so as to increase the degree of system closure. In this study, the potential of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) as an animal candidate in the system was analyzed. The feasibility of feeding T. molitor with inedible parts of wheat and vegetable was studied. To improve the feed quality of wheat straw, three methods of fermentation were tested. A feeding regime was designed to contain a proper proportion of bran, straw and old leaves. The results showed that T. molitor larvae fed on the plant waste diets grew healthily, their fresh and dry weight reached 56.15% and 46.76% of the larvae fed on a conventional diet (control), respectively. The economic coefficient of the larvae was 16.07%, which was 88.05% of the control. The protein and fat contents of the larvae were 76.14% and 6.44% on dry weigh basis, respectively. Through the processes of facultative anaerobic fermentation and larval consumption, the straw lost about 47.79% of the initial dry weight, and its lignocellulose had a degradation of about 45.74%. Wheat germination test indicated that the frass of T. molitor needs a certain treatment before the addition to the cultivation substrate.

Li, LeYuan; Zhao, ZhiRuo; Liu, Hong

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Studies on the control of mold and its toxin in indirect foods(animal feeds) by radiation technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For determining susceptibility of the hazard fungi in feed to radiation, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mycotoxin free feed and reconfirm liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection of mycotoxin. The growth of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi in the feeds were completely inhibited at > 3 kGy of both radiations, and the zearalenone producing fungi in the feeds was controlled at > 5 kGy of both radiations. The growth and mycotoxin productivity of three fungi (aflatoxigenic, ochratoxigenic and zearalenone producing fungi) were fully controlled at > 7 kGy of gamma-irradiation. This means that the growth and mycotoxin productivity of fungi in feed could be fully inhibited by gamma-irradiation at > 7 kGy and the safety feed also can produce and preserve by the proper radiation level and hygienic management of feed factory and livestock raiser

342

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for all animal species or categories based on a dossier submitted by Lohmann Animal Health GmbH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum authorised content of vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs and fish, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. The FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D for target animals but considers the current maximum contents temporarily acceptable pending a review of the recent scientific literature. The two vitamin sources under application are considered safe for the target animals provided the current maximum contents in feed are respected. Any administration of vitamin D3 via water for drinking could exceed the safe amounts of vitamin D and therefore represents a safety concern. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed, and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes, and as a dermal sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful. No environmental risk resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2014-02-01

343

Free-range pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Effect of feeding strategy on growth, feed conversion and animal behaviour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The nutritional contributions from free-range foraging, growth, feed conversion and behaviour were investigated in 36 growing pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (JA) and fed concentrates restrictedly (30% of energy recommendations) or ad libitum. Compared to the ad libitum fed pigs, the pigs fed restrictedly had a significant lower daily gain (560 vs. 1224 g pig?1), improved feed conversion ratio (17.6 vs. 42.8 MJ ME concentrate kg?1 live weight gain) and spent more time foraging JA tubers (7.9 vs. 1.1%). It is estimated that pigs fed restrictedly found approximately 60% of their energy requirement from foraging in the range.

Kongsted, Anne Grete; Horsted, Klaus

2013-01-01

344

21 CFR 558.6 - Veterinary feed directive drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General...feed, including identification of the species of animals, and the location of the animals....

2010-04-01

345

Parental predictors of children's animal abuse: findings from a national and intergenerational sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the intra- and intergenerational links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal abuse by analyzing a national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,614 individuals collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study from 1990 to 2004. Using multilevel random-intercept regression modeling, parents' own history of animal abuse is predictive of their later involvement in IPV perpetration and victimization, net of important controls. In turn, parents' IPV violent perpetration (but not violent victimization) is predictive of their children's history of animal abuse-measured 14 years later. Intergenerational continuity of animal abuse, however, is not significant. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are the study's limitations, and future research directions. PMID:24777142

Knight, Kelly E; Ellis, Colter; Simmons, Sara B

2014-11-01

346

Isolation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strain from fecal samples of zoo animal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats) were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive petting zoo animals was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by agglutination with E. coli O157:H7 latex reagent (Oxoid), identified among the isolates, which showed that multiple E. coli strains were isolated from one petting zoo animal, in which a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli strains; E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture of 2?g of petting zoo animal feces. In contrast, strains other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of petting zoo animals without enrichment. PMID:24489514

Mohammed Hamzah, Aseel; Mohammed Hussein, Aseel; Mahmoud Khalef, Jenan

2013-01-01

347

Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 3: diversion of crops grown for human consumption to animal feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report forms part of a series describing a study to evaluate selected options for the management of food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. This report considers the scope for the redirection of contaminated foods grown for human consumption to animal feeds and addresses whether crops grown for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for animal production systems; what the likely impact on contamination levels in animal products is; whether amounts of waste food could be reduced in the event of a nuclear accident; and whether the option is acceptable to the farming industry, retail trade and consumers. The study identified that foods intended for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for beef cattle and sheep and, to a limited extent, for breeding sows but it is essential that a suitable nutritional balance is maintained. The scope to provide suitable alternative diets is, however, limited and is dependent upon the time of year at which the deposition occurs. If crops were contaminated at the relevant CFIL, not all of the alternative diets considered would result in animal products that were below the corresponding CFIL value, thus limiting any benefit in implementing the option. Except possibly in the most extreme of circumstances, this management option would not be considered acceptable by consumers or by the retail trade and farmers would only implement such a measure if there was a suitable market for the resultant produce. Thisble market for the resultant produce. This work was undertaken under the Environmental Assessments Department and Emergency Response Group's Quality Management System, which has been approved by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance to the Quality Management Standards ISO 9001:2000 and TickIT Guide Issue 5, certificate number 956546. (author)

348

Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P solid floors with or without bedding (P types. Sex modulated the effect of the number of feeder places/pig on FCR (P < 0.05), with a gradual reduction of FCR in entire males and females when increasing feeder space allowance. Genetics tended to modulate the effect of diets' CP content on FCR (P < 0.10). Overall, these results may contribute to the improvement of the welfare and performance of growing-finishing pigs by a better knowledge of the influence of the rearing environment and may help optimize the feeding strategies in current production systems. PMID:23217231

Averós, X; Brossard, L; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Edwards, S A; Meunier-Salaün, M C

2012-08-01

349

Determination of manganese, copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum in animal blood sample by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique of neutron activation analysis had been applied to the determination of Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mo in animal blood sample as supplied by IAEA for intercomparison purposes. One gram of the sample was found to contain 0.3786+-0.0019 ug Mn, 1.4146+-0.0025 ug cu, 16.5713+-0.0607 ug Zn, 2.7025+-0.0446 mg Fe and 0.0305 +-0.0013 ug Mo

350

Animal Performance, Feeding Behaviour and Carcass Traits of Feedlot Cattle Diet Fed With Agro-Industrial By-Product as Fat Source  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In feedlot system is particularly important to reduce the cattle feeding cost without impact on the animal gain and carcass, in this sense, aimed with this study to evaluate animal performance and carcass traits of the young Nellore male (n = 40) finished with agro-industrial by-products in feedlot diet. The addition of cottonseed by-product (CSB) was based on the ether extract (EE) contents in the feedlot diet: 3, 4 and 5%; and two other reference treatments were also tested...

Angelo Polizel Neto; Roc?a, Roberto O.; Branco, Renata H.; Bonilha, Sarah M. F.; Andrade, Ernani N.; Corvino, Tatiane L. S.; Gomes, Helen F. B.

2014-01-01

351

Intra- and inter-laboratory validation of a dipstick immunoassay for the detection of tropane alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropane alkaloids (TAs) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by plants of, inter alia, the genera Datura (thorn apple) and Atropa (deadly nightshade). The most relevant TAs are (-)-L-hyoscyamine and (-)-L-scopolamine, which act as antagonists of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors and can induce a variety of distinct toxic syndromes in mammals (anti-cholinergic poisoning). The European Union has regulated the presence of seeds of Datura sp. in animal feeds, specifying that the content should not exceed 1000 mg kg(-1) (Directive 2002/32/EC). For materials that have not been ground, visual screening methods are often used to comply with these regulations, but these cannot be used for ground materials and compound feeds. Immunological assays, preferably in dipstick format, can be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitor feedstuffs in an HACCP setting in control laboratories. So far no reports have been published on immunoassays that are capable of detecting both hyoscyamine and scopolamine with equal sensitivity and that can be used, preferably in dipstick format, for application as a fast screening tool in feed analysis. This study presents the results obtained for the in-house and inter-laboratory validation of a dipstick immunoassay for the detection of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in animal feed. The target level was set at 800 µg kg(-1) for the sum of both alkaloids. By using a representative set of compound feeds during validation and a robust study design, a reliable impression of the relevant characteristics of the assay could be obtained. The dipstick test displayed similar sensitivity towards the two alkaloids and it could be concluded that the test has a very low probability of producing a false-positive result at blank level or a false-negative result at target level. The assay can be used for monitoring of TAs in feedstuffs, but has also potential as a quick screening tool in food- or feed-related poisonings. PMID:24823431

Mulder, Patrick P J; von Holst, Christoph; Nivarlet, Noan; van Egmond, Hans P

2014-01-01

352

Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zhizeng Wang,1 Dejuan Zhi,2 Yang Zhao,1 Hailong Zhang,2 Xin Wang,2 Yi Ru,1 Hongyu Li1,2 1MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Institute of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Although high melamine (MEL intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 µg/kg, 1,000 µg/kg, and 800 µg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. Keywords: melamine, selenium nanoparticles, test strip, milk, animal feed, dairy food

Wang ZZ

2014-04-01

353

Framework for an automated multi-gas sensor system for long-term monitoring of regulated and greenhouse gas fluxes from animal feeding operations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public concerns for regulated and greenhouse gas (RGHG) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs) have continued to increase as population expansion encroaches on rural farming areas. Reduction of RGHG emissions is becoming a critical management strategy. To establish appropriate mitigation strategies, including developing gas emissions regulations for farming operations, an accurate gas emission monitoring system is a critical element for management. The primary mechanism for release o...

Yeager, Kristen

2011-01-01

354

Evaluation of the Validity of three Criteria for Sampling and Analyzing DST Wastes in Support of Waste Feed Delivery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document summarizes the analysis of 3 basic criteria for the sampling systems that will provide waste validation samples of tank waste feeds prior to delivery to the waste treatment and immobilization plant where the wastes will be converted to glass forms. The assessed criteria includes sampling through a 4-inch riser, sampling while a mixer pump is operating, and the deployment of an at-tank analysis system. The assessment, based on the Phase I, 3S6 waste feed scenario, indicated that for high level waste, sampling through a 4-inch riser is not required but sampling while mixer pumps are operating will be required. For low activity waste, sampling through a 4-inch riser will be required but sampling while mixer pumps are operating is not required. The assessment indicated that an at-tank analysis system to provide tank mixing/settling (homogeneity) status is not needed since the number of tanks providing LAW feed was expanded and the payment basis in the original privatization contract has been modified

355

Yield and protein quality of thermophilic Bacillus spp. biomass related to thermophilic aerobic digestion of agricultural wastes for animal feed supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacillus spp. responsible for thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) of agricultural wastes were studied for their growth rate, yield and protein quality (amino acid profile) under conditions that approximate full-scale waste digestion as pointers to the capacity of TAD to achieve protein enrichment of wastes for reuse in animal feeding. Specific growth rates of the thermophiles varied with temperature and aeration rates. For Bacillus coagulans, the highest specific growth rate was 1.98 muh(-1); for Bacillus licheniformis 2.56 muh(-1) and for Bacillus stearothermophilus 2.63 muh(-1). Molar yield of B. stearothermophilus on glucose increased with temperature to a peak of 0.404 g g(-1) at 50 degrees C before declining. Peak concentration of overflow metabolite (acetate) increased from 10 mmol at 45 degrees C to 34 mmol at 65 degrees C before declining. Accumulation of biomass in all three isolates decreased with increase in temperature while protein content of biomass increased. Highest biomass protein (79%) was obtained in B. stearothermophilus at 70 degrees C. Content of most essential amino acids of the biomass improved with temperature. Amino acid profile of the biomass was comparable to or superior to the FAO standard for SCP intended for use in animal feeding. Culture condition (waste digestion condition) may be manipulated to optimize protein yield and quality of waste digested by TAD for recycling in animal feed. PMID:17664065

Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

2008-05-01

356

Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although high melamine (MEL) intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 ?g/kg, 1,000 ?g/kg, and 800 ?g/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. PMID:24729705

Wang, Zhizeng; Zhi, Dejuan; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Xin; Ru, Yi; Li, Hongyu

2014-01-01

357

9 CFR 95.13 - Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed...ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.13 Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed...Steamed or degelatinized or special steamed bone meal, which, in the normal process...

2010-01-01

358

Effect of concentrate level on feeding behavior and rumen and blood parameters in dairy goats: relationships between behavioral and physiological parameters and effect of between-animal variability.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work aimed first to compare 2 diets differing in their percentage of concentrate [low (LO): 30% concentrate vs. High (HI): 60% concentrate] by measuring simultaneously feeding behavior, rumen parameters, blood and plasma parameters, and milk yield and composition in 8 mid-lactation goats. The second aim was to study the interrelationships between these variables and to analyze the between-animal variability to better understand the between-animal differences in acidosis susceptibility. All of the animals received the 2 diets ad libitum as total mixed ration according to a crossover design of two 4-wk periods. Mean daily DMI was similar between the 2 diets but the variability was higher for the HI than for the LO diet. Goats produced more milk when fed the HI diet compared with the LO diet but with a lower fat:protein ratio (0.81 vs. 0.99). They ate more rapidly the HI than the LO diet but stopped eating sooner after the afternoon feed allowance, and spent less time chewing. The increase in concentrate percentage modified rumen parameters: the pH and acetate:propionate ratio decreased and total VFA, ammonia, and soluble carbohydrate concentrations increased. Hematocrit, plasma NEFA, and blood K and Ca concentrations decreased but glycemia and uremia increased. Other parameters were not modified: milk fat content, blood pH, and bicarbonate and Na concentrations. A large between-animal variability was detected for all the measured parameters, especially for feeding behavior, with important consequences on rumen and blood parameters. This work confirmed the effects of a high percentage of concentrate on feeding behavior, rumen and blood parameters, and milk production, and some known relationships such as the positive link between rumen pH and chewing index. It also pointed out other relationships between parameters seldom measured at the same time, such as rumen redox potential or blood pH and chewing index, or the negative link between blood and rumen pH. When the animals spent a lot of time chewing, they probably produced a lot of saliva that buffered the rumen pH and prevented them from suffering from subacute ruminal acidosis. However, they used part of their blood bicarbonates reserve, which might have induced metabolic acidosis, as rumen and blood pH were inversely related. This could explain why some animals suffer from acidosis and others do not in a herd receiving the same diet, and why some animals seem to suffer more from subacute ruminal acidosis and others from metabolic acidosis. PMID:24952476

Giger-Reverdin, S; Rigalma, K; Desnoyers, M; Sauvant, D; Duvaux-Ponter, C

2014-07-01

359

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper chelate of L-lysinate-HCl as feed additive for all animal species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Copper chelate of L-lysinate-HCl, provided as powder and as granulate, is intended for use as a copper source in animal nutrition. Tolerance studies with chicken for fattening and weaned piglets, allowed the FEEDAP Panel to conclude that copper chelate of L-lysinate-HCl is a safe source of copper for all animal species, provided that the maximum copper contents authorised in feed are respected. The supplementation of feeds with copper from copper chelate of L-lysinate-HCl up to the maximum authorised copper levels is not expected to result in a different copper deposition in edible tissues/products than the standard inorganic source cupric sulphate pentahydrate. No concerns for consumer safety will arise from the use of the additive in animal nutrition, provided that the maximum copper contents authorised in feed are respected. The powder form of copper chelate of L-lysinate-HCl should be considered as a risk by inhalation; exposure by inhalation should be minimised. Neither form of the additive is a dermal irritant but the powder form is an eye irritant. In the absence of data, it is considered prudent to regard both forms as potential skin sensitisers. Copper chelate of L-lysinate-HCl is intended to be a substitute for other authorised copper additives; it will therefore not further increase the environmental burden from copper. Copper chelate of L-lysinate-HCl is an efficacious source of copper in meeting animal requirements. The Panel made some recommendations regarding the Description and Conditions of use of the additive and the maximum residue limits established for copper in animal tissues and products.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2014-07-01

360

In vitro rumen feed degradability assessed with DaisyII and batch culture: effect of sample size  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro degradability with DaisyII (D equipment is commonly performed with 0.5g of feed sample into each filter bag. Literature reported that a reduction of the ratio of sample size to bag surface could facilitate the release of soluble or fine particulate. A reduction of sample size to 0.25 g could improve the correlation between the measurements provided by D and the conventional batch culture (BC. This hypothesis was screened by analysing the results of 2 trials. In trial 1, 7 feeds were incubated for 48h with rumen fluid (3 runs x 4 replications both with D (0.5g/bag and BC; the regressions between the mean values provided for the various feeds in each run by the 2 methods either for NDF (NDFd and in vitro true DM (IVTDMD degradability, had R2 of 0.75 and 0.92 and RSD of 10.9 and 4.8%, respectively. In trial 2, 4 feeds were incubated (2 runs x 8 replications with D (0.25 g/bag and BC; the corresponding regressions for NDFd and IVTDMD showed R2 of 0.94 and 0.98 and RSD of 3.0 and 1.3%, respectively. A sample size of 0.25 g improved the precision of the measurements obtained with D.

Stefano Schiavon

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Efecto de la alimentación animal sobre la calidad microbiológicade estiércoles usados como fertilizantes / Effect of animal feeding on the microbiological quality of manures used as fertilizers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de evaluar la relación entre el tipo de dieta recibida por los animales sobre la calidad microbiológica de las excretas de bovinos, aves y cerdos y su uso como fertilizantes, se recolectaron muestras de las correspondientes excretas animales (EA), en granjas ubicadas en distintas lo [...] calidades de los estados Aragua, Carabobo y Yaracuy. En un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones, se compararon los siguientes tratamientos basados en tres tipos de excretas: vacuno o bosta (B), de gallina o gallinaza (G) y porcino o cerdaza (C), en combinación con dos diferentes dietas alimenticias (D1 y D2), diferentes en cada caso, suministrados a los animales. Se les determinó el contenido de bacterias y hongos totales, bacterias coliformes totales y fecales. No se observó una respuesta concreta relacionada con la dieta sobre el número bacterias y hongos presentes en las EA estudiadas. El mayor número de bacterias se encontró en la bosta y el mayor numero de hongos en la gallinaza. En general, la cantidad de coliformes fecales, encontradas en las EA estudiadas, estuvo en el rango de 2 x 106 a 7 x 107 NMP/g. Estos valores excedieron los valores permitidos para estos patógenos en materiales orgánicos de origen animal para su uso como fertilizantes orgánicos. La bosta con ambas dietas mostró tener el menor grado de estabilización, determinada en base a la cantidad de C mineralizado. En base a las similitudes encontradas entre las variables estudiadas, los tratamientos fueron agrupadas, mediante un análisis cluster, de acuerdo a sus cargas microbianas, patógenos, o de condiciones de fertilización, encontrándose tres grupos claramente definidos: Grupo I: BD1 y BD2; Grupo II: GD1, GD2 y CD1 y el Grupo III: CD2. El primer grupo tuvo una condición menos estable asociado a la mineralización y aun mayor número de bacterias, el segundo fue estable como abono orgánico y con capacidad para inmovilizar menor cantidad de N, pero con un alto riesgo para la salud pública por su carga de patógenos. El tercer grupo, de altísimo riesgo para la salud pública, potencialmente lo cuestiona en su uso como fertilizante orgánico. Abstract in english To evaluate the relationship between type of diet and microbiology quality of cow, hen, and pig manure used as fertilizers, we collected samples of each manure (M) from farms located in Aragua, Carabobo, and Yaracuy states, Venezuela. On the basis of a completely randomized experimental design with [...] four repetitions, the following treatments were compared: bovine (B), poultry (G), and pork (C) manures, in combination with two different types of diets (D1 and D2) provided to the animals, for six treatments. Samples were processed and analyzed for total bacteria and fungi contents, and total and fecal coliform bacteria. There was not a specific effect of the type of diet on the number of bacteria and fungi among the manures. The higher content of bacteria and fungi was observed in bovine and poultry manures, respectively. In general, the amount of fecal coliforms found in the manures ranked between 2 x 106 to 7 x 107 MPN/g. These values exceed those values internationally allowed for these pathogens in the manures used as fertilizers. Manures were grouped on the basis of their similarities of microbial loads, pathogens or fertilizer conditions, in three well defined groups: I: BD1 and BD2, II: GD1, GD2 and CD1, and III: CD2. Group I, with less stable conditions, was associated to the mineralization and higher number of bacteria. The second was more stable as organic fertilizer with lesser capacity to immobilize the N, but with a high risk for the public health due to its high load of pathogens. The third group had the highest risk for public health that compromises its use as organic fertilizer.

Yusmary, Espinoza; Marcos J, Hernández Z; Teresa V, Barrera Ch; Néstor E, Obispo.

2009-03-01

362

ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb ). In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperatur...

Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat And Rozina Sardar

2001-01-01

363

Performance Assessment of Pregnant Ewes Fed Broiler Litter as Feed Supplement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four low cost feed samples were formulated using 0, 25, 50 and 75% levels of broiler litter processed into feed along with other feed ingredients. All the animals were dewormed using Ivermectin and dipped against ticks and fleas using diazintol. Estrus was artificially synchronized in all the animals using Prostaglandin 2F-alpha, the animals were mated with rams of known fertility and lineage bred. They were evaluated in a pregnancy and pre-weaning growth trial. All the ewes were weigh...

Ososanya, T. O.; Odedire, J. A.; Oyeyemi, M. O.

2007-01-01

364

Effect of Concentrated Feed Allowance on Behavioral Traits in Young Female Goats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different concentrate feed allowances on behavioral traits in young female goats. Concentrate feed was offered to control (C) group animals at 2% of live weight, whereas ad libitum (AL) group animals were offered ad libitum concentrate feed. Animals were allowed to graze for 4 h in the pasture and spent the rest of the time indoor. Behavioral observations were carried out once a week for 14 weeks via Time-Sampling Method. F...

Yaman Yurtman, I.; Cem Goncu; Turker Savas

2005-01-01

365

75 FR 79320 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...color additive, or new animal drug will be found in any edible...respective S m and therefore consumption of tissues containing these...be expected to ensure that consumption of food derived from animals...the carcinogenic new animal drug would result in no...

2010-12-20

366

Solid sampling in analysis of animal organs by two-jet plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of high-power two-jet plasma capabilities for the direct multi-elemental analysis of animal organs was undertaken. The experimental conditions chosen allow the direct analysis of different animal organs after drying and grinding to powder (particle size 20-200 {mu}m). It was found that evaporation efficiency of the samples depends on the particle size and thermal stability of tissues and can be improved by reduction of a carrier gas flow. Calibration samples based on graphite powder and a tenfold dilution of powdered samples with buffer (graphite powder containing 15% NaCl) were used. 5-10 mg of the sample was quite enough to get the detection limits of elements at the level of 0.1-10 {mu}g g{sup -1}. A prior carbonization procedure (not ashing) makes it possible to decrease the detection limits of elements by an order of magnitude. The validation of the techniques was confirmed by the analysis of certified reference materials NIST 8414, BCR 278R and NCS ZC 81001 as well as by using different sample preparation procedures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-jet plasma was used for direct analysis of powdered animal organs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis of powders with particles 20-200 {mu}m in size was possible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calibration samples based on graphite powder were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization of the sample allows decreasing detection limits of elements.

Zaksas, Natalia P., E-mail: zak@niic.nsc.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrent' eva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nevinsky, Georgy A., E-mail: nevinsky@niboch.nsc.ru [Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrent' eva 8, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15

367

40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).  

Science.gov (United States)

...is not limited to feed silos, silage bunkers, and bedding materials. The waste...Director, by certified mail or equivalent method of documentation, a certification that...Director by certified mail or equivalent method of documentation. A certification...

2010-07-01

368

21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

2010-04-01

369

21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

2010-04-01

370

Propolis and essential oils additives in the diets improved animal performance and feed efficiency of bulls finished in feedlot / Propolis e óleos essenciais na dieta melhoraram o desempenho animal e eficiência alimentar de bovinos não castrados terminados em confinamento  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da adição de própolis e óleos essenciais sobre o desempenho animal, ingestão de alimentos, digestibilidade aparente, características de carcaça de bovinos não castrados terminados em confinamento. Trinta bovinos (½ Aberdeen Angus vs. ½ Nelore) foram [...] designados ao acaso para uma das três dietas (Controle - CON, Própolis - PRO e Óleos essenciais - OIL) e mantidos em confinamento (baias individuais) durante 55 dias. A dieta CON era composta de 45% de silagem de milho, 40% de concentrado (milho moído, farelo de soja, calcário e sal mineral) e 15% de glicerina. O grupo PRO recebeu a mesma dieta que o grupo controle mais 3 gramas animal dia-1 propolis seco adicionado ao concentrado. O grupo OIL recebeu a mesma dieta que o controle mais gramas animal dia¹ de óleos essenciais (óleos de mamona e caju) adicionados ao concentrado. O peso final, ganho médio diário, eficiência alimentar e peso de carcaça quente foram melhores para os bovinos suplementados com óleos essenciais e própolis do que para os animais da dieta controle. A ingestão de alimentos, digestibilidade aparente, conformação de carcaça e composição de tecidos não foram alterados pela adição de aditivos. A adição de própolis e óleos essenciais na dieta de bovinos melhorou o desempenho animal e peso de carcaça. Abstract in english This work was realized to evaluate the effect of natural additives as propolis or essential oils addition on animal performance, feed intake, apparent digestibility and carcass characteristics of bulls finished in feedlot. Thirty bulls (½ Aberdeen Angus vs. ½ Nellore) were randomly assigned in one o [...] f three diets (control - CON, propolis - PRO and essential oils - OIL) and kept in feedlot (individual pen) during 55 days. CON diet consists of 45% corn silage, 40% concentrate (cracked corn, soybean meal, limestone and mineral salt) and 15% glycerine. The PRO group received same diet that control plus 3 grams to animal day-1 of propolis dry added to the concentrate. The OIL oils group received same diet that control and 3 grams to animal day-1 of essential oils (cashew and castor oils) added to the concentrate. Final weight, average daily gain, feed efficiency and hot carcass weightwere better for bulls supplemented with essential oils and propolis than for bulls fed control diet. The feed intake, apparent digestibility, carcass conformation and tissue composition were unaffected by the additives addition. The addition of propolis and essential oils in the diets of bulls finished in feedlot improve animal performance and carcass weight.

Maribel Velandia, Valero; Rodolpho Martin do, Prado; Fernando, Zawadzki; Carlos Emanuel, Eiras; Grasiele Scaramal, Madrona; Ivanor Nunes do, Prado.

2014-12-01

371

Clenbuterol Residues in Bovine Feed and Meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the β-agonist, clenbuterol in bovine feeds and meat in North and South of Mexico. Clenbuterol is used illegally as growth promoter in animal feeding in farms animals due to muscle hypertrophy and lipolisis effect. In Mexico, there is a suspected in their unlicensed use in certain commercial feedlots. Total 16 food samples and 90 samples of meat were analyzed by 2 commercially clenbuterol enzyme immunoassays kits. The samples were collected during 2006. Approximately, 75% of the animal feed samples and 16.6 % of meat analyzed were found positives in levels ranged 2525-53787 ppt and 0.1-2.3 ?g kg-1. These information indicate that the abuse of clenbuterol during the last 5 years is not declining in some farms of Mexico with a health human risk.

2008-01-01

372

Isolation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 Strain from Fecal Samples of Zoo Animal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats) were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned...

Aseel Mohammed Hamzah; Aseel Mohammed Hussein; Jenan Mahmoud Khalef

2013-01-01

373

Rapid, sensitive PCR-based detection of mycoplasmas in simulated samples of animal sera.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A fast and simple method to detect mycoplasmal contamination in simulated samples of animal sera by using a PCR was developed. The following five mycoplasma species that are major cell culture contaminants belonging to the class Mollicutes were investigated: Mycoplasma arginini, Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma orale, and Mycoplasma fermentans. After a concentration step involving seeded sera, genus-specific primers were used to amplify a 717-bp DNA fragment within the...

Dussurget, O.; Roulland-dussoix, D.

1994-01-01

374

CHARACTERIZATION OF A PRECIPITATE REACTOR FEED TANK (PRFT) SAMPLE FROM THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sample of from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) was pulled and sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in June of 2013. The PRFT in DWPF receives Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/ Monosodium Titanate (MST) material from the 512-S Facility via the 511-S Facility. This 2.2 L sample was to be used in small-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing in the Shielded Cells Facility of SRNL. A 1L sub-sample portion was characterized to determine the physical properties such as weight percent solids, density, particle size distribution and crystalline phase identification. Further chemical analysis of the PRFT filtrate and dissolved slurry included metals and anions as well as carbon and base analysis. This technical report describes the characterization and analysis of the PRFT sample from DWPF. At SRNL, the 2.2 L PRFT sample was composited from eleven separate samples received from DWPF. The visible solids were observed to be relatively quick settling which allowed for the rinsing of the original shipping vials with PRFT supernate on the same day as compositing. Most analyses were performed in triplicate except for particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PRFT slurry samples were dissolved using a mixed HNO3/HF acid for subsequent Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analyses performed by SRNL Analytical Development (AD). Per the task request for this work, analysis of the PRFT slurry and filtrate for metals, anions, carbon and base were primarily performed to support the planned chemical process cell testing and to provide additional component concentrations in addition to the limited data available from DWPF. Analysis of the insoluble solids portion of the PRFT slurry was aimed at detailed characterization of these solids (TGA, PSD, XRD and SEM) in support of the Salt IPT chemistry team. The overall conclusions from analyses performed in this study are that the PRFT slurry consists of 0.61 Wt.% insoluble MST solids suspended in a 0.77 M [Na+] caustic solution containing various anions such as nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, carbonate and oxalate. The corresponding measured sulfur level in the PRFT slurry, a critical element for determining how much of the PRFT slurry gets blended into the SRAT, is 0.437 Wt.% TS. The PRFT slurry does not contain insoluble oxalates nor significant quantities of high activity sludge solids. The lack of sludge solids has been alluded to by the Salt IPT chemistry team in citing that the mixing pump has been removed from Tank 49H, the feed tank to ARP-MCU, thus allowing the sludge solids to settle out. ? The PRFT aqueous slurry from DWPF was found to contain 5.96 Wt.% total dried solids. Of these total dried solids, relatively low levels of insoluble solids (0.61 Wt.%) were measured. The densities of both the filtrate and slurry were 1.05 g/mL. ? Particle size distribution of the PRFT solids in filtered caustic simulant and XRD analysis of washed/dried PRFT solids indicate that the PRFT slurry contains a bimodal distribution of particles in the range of 1 and 6 ?m and that the particles contain sodium titanium oxide hydroxide Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 crystalline material as determined by XRD. These data are in excellent agreement with similar data obtained from laboratory sampling of vendor supplied MST. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of washed/dried PRFT solids shows the particles to be like previous MST analyses consisting of irregular shaped micron-sized solids consisting primarily of Na and Ti. ? Thermogravimetric analysis of the washed and unwashed PRFT solids shows that the washed solids are very similar to MST solids. The TGA mass loss signal for the unwashed solids shows similar features to TGA performed on cellulose nitrate filter paper indicating significant presence of the deteriorated filter

Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.

2014-05-12

375

The effect of feed contamination with mycotoxins on animals and ways for prevention and degradation of mycotoxins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that are capable of causing illness and sometimes death to animals and not only animals even humans. In 1960 it was established that some fungal metabolites, now called mycotoxins, that have a destructive effect on animal health, since then people were interested on the effect and the way to stop it. Among them, aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 & G2 synthesized mainly byAspergillus flavus/ Aspergillus parasiticus are known to induce...

Oana Ciobotaru; Iulian Alexandru Grosu; Calina Petruta Cornea

2014-01-01

376

Determination of nitrofurans in animal feeds by liquid chromatography-UV photodiode array detection and liquid chromatography-ionspray tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the EU, the use of nitrofurans is prohibited in food production animals. For this reason detection of these compounds in feedingstuffs, at whatever limit, constitutes an offence under EU legislation. This detection generally involves the use of analytical methods with limits of quantification lowers than 1 mg kg(-1). These procedures are unsuitable for the detection and confirmation of trace amounts of nitrofurans in feedingstuffs due to contamination. It is well known that very low concentrations of these compounds can be the source of residues of nitrofuran metabolites in meat and other edible products obtained from animals consuming the contaminated feed. The present multi-compound method was capable of measuring very low concentrations of nitrofurantoin (NFT), nitrofurazone (NFZ), furazolidone (FZD) and furaltadone (FTD) in animal feed using nifuroxazide (NXZ) as internal standard. Following ethyl acetate extraction at mild alkaline conditions and purification on NH2 column, the nitrofurans are determined using liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (LC-DAD). It was observed a CCalpha ranged from 50 to 100 microg kg(-1). The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) procedure was used to confirm the identity of the suspected presence of any of the nitrofuran compounds. PMID:17386735

Barbosa, Jorge; Moura, Sara; Barbosa, Rita; Ramos, Fernando; da Silveira, Maria Irene Noronha

2007-03-14

377

Development of an immunoaffinity chromatography column for selective extraction of a new agonist phenylethylamine A from feed, meat and liver samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenylethanolamine A (PA) is a new emerged ?-adrenergic agonist that has been illegally used as an animal feed additive for growth promotion in China. In this study, an immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column for selective extraction of PA from swine feed, meat and liver samples was developed. The IAC column was constructed by covalently coupling specific polyclonal antibody (Ab) against PA to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B and packed into a common solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The extraction conditions including loading, washing and eluting solutions were carefully optimized. Under optimal conditions, the IAC column was characterized in terms of maximum capacity, selectivity, extraction recovery and stability. The maximum capacity of the ICA for PA extraction was found to be 239.4ng. For selectivity testing, 100ng of other three ?-adrenergic agonists (clenbuterol, ractopamine and salbutamol) was separately loaded onto the column, and it was observed that the tested compounds could not be captured on the column, e.g. the column could only selectively recognize PA. The recovery of the IAC for PA extraction was found within 96.47-101.98% when 10, 50 and 100ng PA were separately loaded onto IAC column. The IAC column was also applied to real sample extraction. Swine feed, meat and liver samples were collected and spiked with PA in range of 1.0-20ngg(-1). The spiked and unspiked samples were extracted by IAC column and measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was found that there was no detectable PA in the blank samples, and the extraction recoveries of the IAC for PA from the spiked samples were within 89.48-104.89%. The stability of the column was also tested. It was showed that after 35 times repeated usage, 60% of the maximum capacity was still remained. The proposed IAC was proven to be a feasible extraction method for PA from different matrices with the properties of high maximum capacity, selectivity, extraction efficiency and stability. PMID:24342511

Mei, Liyun; Cao, Biyun; Yang, Hong; Xie, Yun; Xu, Shouming; Deng, Anping

2014-01-15

378

Improving animal productivity and reproductive efficiency: Strategic supplementation of feeds with legume forages and non-conventional plant resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Identification and evaluation of potential plant resources and their dissemination among rural farmers have been attempted. The work was done in three phases. In the first phase, laboratory evaluation of proximate components, in vitro digestibility and energy contents was carried out. Fifteen plant species were evaluated in this phase. Some of the plant species (Sesbania, Dhaincha, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were promising, containing relatively large amounts of protein (18 - 34%) and having high digestibility values (53 - 60%). Some species contained reasonably good levels of metabolizd energy (6.5- 8.5 MJ/kg). In the second phase, four promising species (Sesbania, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were offered as supplements to lactating and growing cattle, in four in vivo feeding trials carried out on-station. Supplementation with Sesbania gave significantly (P <0.01) higher milk yields, resulting from increased feed intake and digestibility of organic matter (OM) and crude fibre (CF). Lathyrus also gave similar results in terms of milk yield and digestibility but had little effect on feed intake. Leucaena supplementation also significantly (P <0.05) increased milk yield but not feed intake or digestibility. Crotalaria gave a significant (P <0.05) increase in live-weight gain of growing calves. In the third phase, Sesbania, Lthyrus and Leucaena forages were grown by rural smallholders for feeding to their cattle. The forages were fed to lactating cows as she forages were fed to lactating cows as supplements to straw-based diets. All the forage supplements resulted in increased milk yield compared to the control diets, however, Sesbania gave the best result in terms of output. The practice of cultivating legume forages and feeding to cattle receiving straw diets created enormous interest among the farmers as the increase in milk yield was cost effective. (author)

379

REAL-TIME PCR DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN FOOD SAMPLES OF ANIMAL ORIGIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow the contamination of food with Listeria monocytogenes by using Step One real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and SensiFAST SYBR Hi-ROX Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In 24 samples of food of animal origin without incubation were detected strains of Listeria monocytogenes in 15 samples (swabs. Nine samples were negative. Our results indicated that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Listeria monocytogenes in food of animal origin without incubation. This could prevent infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes, and also could benefit food manufacturing companies by extending their product’s shelf-life as well as saving the cost of warehousing their food products while awaiting pathogen testing results. The rapid real-time PCR-based method performed very well compared to the conventional method. It is a fast, simple, specific and sensitive way to detect nucleic acids, which could be used in clinical diagnostic tests in the future.

Jaroslav Pochop

2013-02-01

380

Determination of melamine in animal feed based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis and dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled on-line with strong cation-exchange resin clean-up.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a new method was developed for the determination of melamine (MEL) in animal feed. The method was based on the on-line coupling of dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) to strong cation-exchange (SCX) resin clean-up. The MEL was first extracted by 90% acidified methanol aqueous solution (v/v, pH = 3) under the action of microwave energy, and then the extract was cooled and passed through the SCX resin. Thus, the protonated MEL was retained on the resin through ion exchange interaction and the sample matrixes were washed out. Some obvious benefits were achieved, such as acceleration of analytical process, together with reduction in manual handling, risk of contamination, loss of analyte, and sample consumption. Finally, the analyte was separated by a liquid chromatograph with a SCX analytical column, and then identified and quantitatived by a tandem mass spectrometry with positive ionization mode and multiple-reaction monitoring. The DMAE parameters were optimized by the Box-Behnken design. The linearity of quantification obtained by analyzing matrix-matched standards is in the range of 50-5,000 ng g(-1). The limit of detection and limit of quantification obtained are 12.3 and 41.0 ng g(-1), respectively. The mean intra- and inter-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviations with three fortified levels (50, 250, and 500 ng g(-1)) are 5.1% and 7.3%, respectively, and the recoveries of MEL are in the range of 76.1-93.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine MEL in different animal feeds obtained from the local market. MEL was detectable with the contents of 279, 136, and 742 ng g(-1) in three samples. PMID:19756536

Chen, Ligang; Zeng, Qinglei; Du, Xiaobo; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Xiaopan; Xu, Yang; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Ding, Lan

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
381

Aptidões de genótipos de batata-doce para consumo humano, produção de etanol e alimentação animal / Aptitudes of sweet potato genotypes for fresh consumption, ethanol production and animal feed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar a aptidão de genótipos de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas) para consumo humano, produção de etanol e alimentação animal, por meio de índices de aptidão. Os índices de aptidão corresponderam às médias dos valores das variáveis padronizadas para 16 característica [...] s de interesse, ponderadas por pesos atribuídos a cada característica, conforme a aptidão avaliada. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições e 39 genótipos: 36 acessos da coleção de germoplasma da Universidade Federal de Lavras e três cultivares comerciais (Palmas, Brazlândia-Branca e Brazlândia-Rosada). Oito genótipos foram considerados aptos à produção de etanol, 11 à alimentação animal e 11 ao consumo humano, incluindo as cultivares Palmas e Brazlândia-Branca. Os acessos UFLA07-12, UFLA07-31, UFLA07-43, UFLA07-49 e UFLA07-53 apresentaram aptidão para produção de etanol, alimentação animal e consumo humano. O índice de seleção é eficiente para estabelecer aptidões para genótipos de batata-doce. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify agronomic aptitudes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) genotypes for fresh consumption, ethanol production, and animal feed, using aptitude indices. The aptitude indices were established as the weighted means of standardized variables for 16 traits of intere [...] st, using different weights for each trait according to the evaluated aptitude. The experimental design was a completely randomized block, with two replicates and 39 sweet potato genotypes: 36 accessions of the germplasm collection of Universidade Federal de Lavras (Brazil) and three commercial cultivars (Palmas, Brazlândia-Branca e Brazlândia-Rosada). Eight genotypes were considered apt to ethanol production, 11 to animal feed, and 11 to human consumption, including the cultivars Palmas and Brazlândia-Branca. The accessions UFLA07-12, UFLA07-31, UFLA07-43, UFLA07-49, and UFLA07-53 showed aptitude for ethanol production, animal feed and human consumption. The selection index is efficient in establishing aptitudes for sweet potato genotypes.

Álvaro Carlos, Gonçalves Neto; Wilson Roberto, Maluf; Luiz Antonio Augusto, Gomes; Ranoel José de Sousa, Gonçalves; Vanisse de Fátima, Silva; André, Lasmar.

1513-15-01

382

Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens’ feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched y...

Nyquist, Nicole F.; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

2013-01-01

383

Generated steam for animal feed factory. Green gas production from residual waste; Opgewekte stoom naar diervoederfabriek. Groengasproductie uit restafval gewonnen en benut  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste processor Attero in Wijster, the Netherlands, is optimizing the processing to enable more energy (heat and green gas) extraction and deployment. The incineration plant that is located next to the waste treatment plant will become more efficient by supplying part of the generated steam to a nearby animal feed factory. [Dutch] Afvalverwerker Attero in Wijster optimaliseert het verwerkingsproces, zodat meer energie (warmte en groen gas) kan worden gewonnen en benut. De verbrandingsinstallatie die de afvalverwerker op dezelfde locatie heeft, wordt efficienter door een deel van de opgewekte stoom aan een nabijgelegen diervoederfabriek te leveren.

Vollebregt, R.

2012-01-15

384

METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

GRIFFIN PW

2009-08-27

385

METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING and SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

386

Animal Performance, Feeding Behaviour and Carcass Traits of Feedlot Cattle Diet Fed With Agro-Industrial By-Product as Fat Source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In feedlot system is particularly important to reduce the cattle feeding cost without impact on the animal gain and carcass, in this sense, aimed with this study to evaluate animal performance and carcass traits of the young Nellore male (n = 40 finished with agro-industrial by-products in feedlot diet. The addition of cottonseed by-product (CSB was based on the ether extract (EE contents in the feedlot diet: 3, 4 and 5%; and two other reference treatments were also tested, with 3 and 5% of EE content and soybean by-product (SOB as fat source, totalling five experimental diets. In diets with 3% EE, CSB did not alter performance, gain cost or carcass traits compared to the SOB. In diets with 5% EE, animals fed with CSB showed greater dry matter (DM intake than animals fed with SOB (10.34 versus 8.94 kg/day, but because CSB is a cheaper ingredient than SOB, it reduced the gain cost from 1.60 to 1.35 US$/kg. The CBS used in diet with 3, 4 and 5% EE increased the daily gain (1.17, 1.38 and 1.50 kg/day and the rumination time (225, 338 and 370 min/day, respectively. So, CSB does not change the carcass traits nor the feeding behaviour when compared to SOB. The increased of CSB concentration in the diet raised the daily gain, DM intake and rumination time, with no changes in carcass traits.

Angelo Polizel Neto

2014-05-01

387

Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of iron compounds (E1) as feed additives for all species: iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, as source of iron is considered safe for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iron in complete feed, with the exception of bovines and poultry for which the maximum tolerated level is 450 mg/kg complete feed, and pets, for which the maximum tolerated level is 600 mg/kg complete feed. The FEEDAP Panel is not in the position to derive a maximum safe iron concentration in feed for horses o...

Efsa, Panel On Additives And Products Or Substances Used In Animal Feed

2013-01-01

388

40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).  

Science.gov (United States)

...ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program... (3) The term land application area means land...swimming, washing, or spray cooling of animals...milkrooms, milking centers, cowyards...operator must submit an application for an individual...

2010-07-01

389

40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).  

Science.gov (United States)

...AFO facilities; direct contact swimming, washing...water which comes into contact with any raw materials...or otherwise come into direct contact with the animals confined...a CAFO for the first time after April 14,...

2010-07-01

390

New EU Legislation for risk assessment of GM food: no scientific justification for mandatory animal feeding trails (Online first)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This commentary focuses on the potential added value of and need for (sub)-chronic testing of whole genetically modified (GM) foods in rodents to assess their safety. Such routine testing should not be required since, due to apparent weaknesses in the approach, it does not add to current risk assessment of GM foods. Moreover, the demand for routine testing using animals is in conflict with the European Union (EU) Commission's efforts to reduce animal experimentation. Regulating agencies in th...

Kuiper, H. A.; Kok, E. J.; Davies, H. V.

2013-01-01

391

Antigenic typing of Brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. The panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the Americas. Samples were isolated in the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in Brazil. In addition to the fixed virus samples CVS-31/96-IP, preserved in mouse brain, and PV-BHK/97, preserved in cell culture, a total of 330 rabies virus samples were isolated from dogs, cats, cattle, horses, bats, sheep, goat, swine, foxes, marmosets, coati and humans. Six antigenic variants that were compatible with the pre-established monoclonal antibodies panel were defined: numbers 2 (dog), 3 (Desmodus rotundus), 4 (Tadarida brasiliensis), 5 (vampire bat from Venezuela), 6 (Lasiurus cinereus) and Lab (reacted to all used antibodies). Six unknown profiles, not compatible with the panel, were also found. Samples isolated from insectivore bats showed the greatest variability and the most commonly isolated variant was variant-3 (Desmodus rotundus). These findings may be related to the existence of multiple independent transmission cycles, involving different bat species. PMID:12048546

Favoretto, Silvana Regina; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Cunha, Elenice Maria S; Aguiar, Elizabeth A C; Silva, Luzia Helena Q; Sodre, Miriam M; Souza, Maria Conceição A M; Kotait, Ivanete

2002-01-01

392

Detection of banned nitrofuran metabolites in animal plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of nitrofurans as veterinary drugs in food-producing animals has been banned in the EU since the 1990s. Monitoring programs in the EU are based on the detection of protein-bound metabolites after slaughter. An UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for pre slaughter determination of four nitrofuran metabolites (AHD, AOZ, SEM, AMOZ) in animal plasma (bovine, ovine, equine and porcine). This method is proposed as an alternative method for on-farm surveillance. Plasma samples were derivatised with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde and subsequently extracted with organic solvent. Extracts were concentrated and then analysed by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Inter-species recovery for AHD, AOZ, SEM and AMOZ was 72, 74, 57 and 71%, respectively. Decision limits (CC?) were calculated from within laboratory reproducibility experiments to be 0.070, 0.059, 0.071 and 0.054 ?g kg(-1), respectively. In addition, the assay was applied to incurred plasma samples taken from pigs treated with furazolidone. PMID:21185239

Radovnikovic, Anita; Moloney, Mary; Byrne, Paddy; Danaher, Martin

2011-01-15

393

Feed safety in the feed supply chain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth?promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

Pinotti, L.

2011-01-01

394

FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY FOR FISHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for commercial manufacturers to produce very small quantities of specialized feeds. Most feed mills will only produce custom formulations in quantities of more than one ton, and medicated feeds are usually sold in 50-pound bags. Small fish farmers, hobbyists and laboratory technicians are, therefore, left with the option of buying large quantities of expensive feed, which often goes to waste. Small quantities of fish feeds can be made quite easily in the laboratory, classroom, or at home, with common ingredients and simple kitchen or laboratory equipment. Hence, this review provides the knowledge about the fish feed formulation and feeding technology concerned with the live feed for fish larvae, fish feeds, fish feed ingredients, common fish feed stuffs, animal and plant sources of feeds for culture fish, and fish feeding methods.

Govind Pandey

2013-03-01

395

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin K3 (menadione sodium bisulphite and menadione nicotinamide bisulphite as a feed additive for all animal species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vitamin K describes a group of lipophilic vitamins that exist naturally in two forms: vitamin K1 (phylloquinone, found in green plants and vitamin K2 (a group of menaquinones synthesised by bacteria in the intestine. Vitamin K3 (or menadione is a synthetic form of vitamin K without a side chain. To become active, menadione needs to undergo prenylation. Vitamins K1, K2 and K3 are metabolically activated in the liver to become co-factors in the activation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, which are important for normal blood coagulation, and normality of bones and arteries (Gla proteins. Acute toxicity of menadione or its derivatives is reached at levels exceeding the requirements by a factor of at least 1 000. Menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB and menadione nicotinamide bisulphite (MNB are safe for all animal species at practical use levels in feed. The use of MSB in water for drinking is likely to increase the exposure of target animals to chromium(VI. Therefore, the FEEDAP Panel has concerns about the safety of MSB when administered by this route. The use of MSB and MNB in animal nutrition does not give rise to safety concerns for consumers. MSB is an eye irritant; in the absence of adequate data, the additive should be considered as a skin sensitiser. In the absence of data, MNB should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as a skin sensitiser. Considering the high dusting potential of MSB and MNB, the absence of data on inhalation toxicity and the chromium(VI content of dust, inhalation exposure resulting from handling of MSB and MNB could be hazardous. The use of MSB and MNB in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. MSB and MNB are regarded as effective sources of vitamin K in animal nutrition.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2014-01-01

396

Detection and genetic characterization of foot?and?mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A total of 1501 oral swab samples from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between July 2008 and August 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot?and?mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA. The oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets in Pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in Afghanistan (n = 61) and both the live animal markets in Tajikistan (n = 120) all tested negative. However, 2 of 129 (?2%) samples from Gondal and 11 of 123 (9%) from Chichawatni markets in Pakistan were positive for FMDV RNA. Similarly, 12 of 81 (15%) samples from Kabul and 10 of 20 (50%) from Badakhshan in Afghanistan were found to be positive. Serotypes A and O of FMDV were identified within these samples. Oral swab samples were also collected from dairy colonies in Harbanspura, Lahore (n = 232) and Nagori, Karachi (n = 136), but all tested negative for FMDV. In the Landhi dairy colony, Pakistan, a cohort of 179 apparently healthy animals was studied. On their arrival within the colony, thirty?nine (22%) of these <