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Sample records for anastrepha suspensa diptera

  1. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method

  2. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  3. Embryonic transcriptome analysis of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    The embryonic transcriptome of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, was sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing in an effort to isolate embryonic promoters and genes involved in programmed cell death. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA pooled from various time points in embryogenesis usi...

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on the sterility and behavioral quality of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Pupae of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) were irradiated 2 days before adult eclosion in an air atmosphere with 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy of gamma radiation (Co-60). The radiation effects on sterility and other parameters of quality and behavior of males and females of Caribbean fly were established. Males became fully sterile with a dose of 50 Gy and females laid no eggs when exposed to 25 Gy. Radiation had no significant effect on adult eclosion, sex ratio, flight ability and irritability, but female mortality was affected significantly by radiation, showing higher survival rates in low dosage treatments. The mating behavior of the males was reduced significantly by increasing the radiation doses. (author)

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on the sterility and behavioral quality of the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew (Diptera:Tephritidae Efeitos da radiação gama na esterilização e comportamento da mosca-do-caribe, Anastrepha suspensa (Low (Diptera:Tephritidae

    J.M.M. Walder

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew were irradiated 2 days before adult eclosión in an air atmosphere with 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy of gamma radiation (Co-60. The radiation effects on sterility and other parameters of quality and behavior of males and females of caribfly were established. Males became fully sterile with a dose of 50 Gy and females laid no eggs when exposed to 25 Gy. Radiation had no significant effect on adult eclosion, sex ratio, flight ability and irritability, but female mortality was affected significantly by radiation, showing higher survival rates in low dosage treatments. The mating behavior of the males was reduced significantly by increasing the radiation doses.Pupas de Anastrepha suspensa (Loew foram irradiadas dois dias antes da emergência dos adultos em atmosfera de ar com as doses de 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 e 70 Gy de radiação gama (Co-60. Foram avaliados os efeitos da radiação sobre a esterilidade e outros parâmetros de qualidade e comportamento de machos e fêmeas de mosca-do-caribe. Machos tornaram-se totalmente estéreis com uma dose de 50 Gy e as fêmeas não ovipositaram quando expostas a 25 Gy. A radiação não teve efeito significativo sobre a taxa de emergência de adultos, na razão sexual, na habilidade de vôo e na irritabilidade desses insetos. Somente a mortalidade das fêmeas foi afetada significativamente pela radiação, causando unia maior sobrevivência nas dosagens mais baixas. A atividade de acasalamento dos machos foi reduzida significativamente com o incremento da dosagem de radiação.

  6. RESPONSE OF ANASTREPHA SUSPENSA TO LIQUID PROTEIN BAITS AND SYNTHETIC LURE FORMULATIONS

    The host list for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), includes nearly 100 fruit trees including citrus. In south Florida, it is primarily a pest of dooryard fruit trees including Surinam cherry, Eugenia uniflora; loquat, Eriobotrya japonica; and tropical almond, Terminalia catappa;...

  7. Development and reproductive biology of the egg-pupal parasite, Fopius arisanus in Anastrepha suspensa, a new tephritid host

    Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan) (=Opius oophilus Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary egg parasite (parasitoid) that attacks tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and first instars (Haramoto 1953, Clausen et al. 1965, Harris and Okamoto 1991). It completes its development within the host's larva and pupa and emerges from the latter as an adult and as such, is an egg-pupal endoparasite. F. arisanus is known to attack at least seven tephritid fruit fly species (Wharton and Gilstrap 1983) and appears to be the only egg-pupal parasite of tephritids in the Western Hemisphere. It is considered to be the most successful of the parasites that attack the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann) in Hawaii (Knipling 1995), resulting in 74-92% of total parasites recovered from both host species (Wong and Ramadan 1987). However, in Malaysia, Palacio et al. (1992) found that F. arisanus was outcompeted by the larval endoparasite, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in multiple parasitised B. dorsalis. While several larval parasites of tephritids had been cultured successfully in the laboratory (Ramadan 1991) and utilised in inundative release programmes, F. arisanus proved difficult to maintain in culture. In recent years, a laboratory strain of F. arisanus (termed the 'Harris strain') has been established on B. dorsalis (Harris and Okamoto 1991). Efforts are currently in progress to mass rear this strain on the Medfly and other tephritid pests. F. arisanus was first released into Florida from Hawaii in 1974-75 as a biological control agent against the Caribbean fruit fly (Caribfly) Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) but this was unsuccessful (Baranowski et al. 1993). Interestingly, it was also introduced into Costa Rica from Hawaii and was subsequently reared from puparia of Anastrepha spp. (Wharton et al. 1981), indicating its

  8. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author)

  9. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  10. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R., E-mail: Nancy.Epsky@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Paul.Kendra@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Bob.Heath@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SHRS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    2006-07-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  11. Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martin

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006-2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). Confirming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not find evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the first time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Vibora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This finding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800 m above sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit fly, a finding that may be taken as evidence of

  12. Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), sterile insect technique programme in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996

    Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, Loew, sterile insect technique program in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996. Application of sterilization techniques to Anastrepha suspensa in Florida was conducted as early as 1970 in Key West. In 1988-1990, releases of sterile flies were made in a 20 km2 urban area in southwestern Florida adjacent to commercial citrus. With the intent to integrate a sterile insect technique system within a fly-free management program for the caribfly, additional tests are being conducted both within a major citrus production area and in an isolated urban location of the mid to lower Florida peninsula. Tests at the former site measures the synergistic effect of augmenting sterile fly releases with parasitoids, whereas the latter studies will define the efficacy of reduced numbers of sterile flies released per acre than is standard in medfly and medfly eradication and suppression programs. Discussed here is the progress of an ongoing project to measure the benefits of SIT as it applies to caribfly export protocols. (author)

  13. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Brazil

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder; Renata Morelli; Karen Zamboni Costa; Kenya Martins Faggioni; Patrícia Alessandra Sanches; Beatriz Aguiar Jordão Paranhos; José Maurício Simões Bento; Maria de Lourdes Zamboni Costa

    2014-01-01

    Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) kept under fully artificial conditions. E...

  14. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C. A.; Roberto A. Zucchi

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha spe...

  15. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  16. Host plant record for the fruit flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C A; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the "Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce". This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  17. New species of and taxonomic notes on Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Seven new species of Anastrepha are described: A. conflua (Costa Rica), A. levefasciata (Peru), A. nolazcoae (Peru), A. paradentata (Mexico), A. raveni (Peru), A. trivittata (Brazil: Amazonas), and A. woodleyi (Bolivia). Anastrepha nunezae Steyskal, 1977, is recognized as a synonym of A. mucronota S...

  18. Short-term anoxic conditioning hormesis boosts antioxidant defenses, lowers oxidative damage following irradiation and enhances male sexual performance in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    Most organisms are repeatedly exposed to oxidative stress from multiple sources throughout their lifetimes, potentially affecting all aspects of organismal performance. Here we test whether exposure to a conditioning bout of anoxia early in adulthood induces a hormetic response that confers resistance to oxidative stress and enhances male sexual performance later in life in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. Anoxic conditioning of adults prior to emergence led to an increase in antioxidant capacity driven by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. When exposed to gamma irradiation, a strong oxidative stressor, males that received anoxic conditioning had lower lipid and protein oxidative damage at sexual maturity. Anoxia conditioning led to greater male sexual competitiveness compared with unconditioned males when both were irradiated, although there was no effect of anoxia conditioning on mating competitiveness in unirradiated males. Anoxia also led to higher adult emergence rates and greater flight ability in irradiation-stressed flies while preserving steriity. Thus, hormetic treatments that increased antioxidant enzyme activity also improved male performance after irradiation, suggesting that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in mediating the relationship between oxidative stress and sexual selection. Furthermore, our work has important applied implications for the sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method of insect pest control where males are sterilized by irradiation and deployed in the field to disrupt pest populations via mating. We suggest that hormetic treatments specifically designed to enhance antioxidant activity may produce more sexually competitive sterile males, thus improving the efficacy and economy of SIT programs. (author)

  19. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at four sites in Guánica, Puerto Rico; one forest fragment in Ponce, Puerto Rico; in a commercial mango orchard in Guayanilla, PR; and an experimental carambola orcha...

  20. A revision of the Anastrepha robusta species group (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    The Anastrepha robusta species group is revised to include the following 29 species: A. amaryllis Tigrero (Ecuador), A. amazonensis, n. sp. (Brazil: Amazonas), A. bella, n. sp. (Panamá), A. binodosa Stone (Colombia, Brazil: Amazonas, Pará), A. concava Greene (Costa Rica to Ecuador and Brazil: Amazon...

  1. Ammonia Formulations and Capture of Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted in numbers to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principle components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important ...

  2. Preliminary studies for the colonization of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    A series of trials were carried out with the aim of collecting preliminary data for the colonization of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina. Trials were focused on evaluating adequate oviposition media as well as their effect on fly demographic parameters; the effect of cage population densities on demographic parameters was also considered; for A. serpentina, egg disinfection treatments by organic acids was assayed, and a screening study was carried out for suitable pupation media. Nylon-made egging mesh resulted in the most efficient oviposition medium, while low insect densities provided the best conditions for increased rates of fly fertility. Organic acids (methyl-p-hydroxy-benzoic) were found to hamper egg hatch, while a variety of pupation media provided improved fly emergence rates vs. the naked pupation method. (author)

  3. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:26470310

  4. Predation of Fruit Fly Larvae Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae by Ants in Grove

    W. D. Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on evidence that ants are population regulatory agents, we examined their efficiency in predation of fruit fly larvae Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae. Hence, we considered the differences among species of fruit trees, the degree of soil compaction, and the content of soil moisture as variables that would explain predation by ants because these variables affect burying time of larvae. We carried out the experiment in an orchard containing various fruit bearing trees, of which the guava (Psidium guajava Linn., jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell. Berg., and mango trees (Mangifera indica Linn. were chosen for observations of Anastrepha. We offered live Anastrepha larvae on soil beneath the tree crowns. We observed for 10 min whether ants removed the larvae or the larvae buried themselves. Eight ant species were responsible for removing 1/4 of the larvae offered. The Pheidole Westwood, 1839 ants were the most efficient genus, removing 93% of the larvae. In compacted and dry soils, the rate of predation by ants was greater. Therefore, this study showed that ants, along with specific soil characteristics, may be important regulators of fruit fly populations and contribute to natural pest control in orchards.

  5. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author)

  6. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Brazil

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.

  7. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Tucuman, Argentina

    Full text: In 1916, Rust recorded Anastrepha fraterculus, the ''South American fruit fly (SAFF)'', in Tucuman. Since 1910, the citrus area in the province has increased rapidly and SAFF has become an important pest. New varieties and management practices were also introduced in the region. Guavas (Psidium guajava) and peaches (Prunus persica) were the main host fruits of SAFF in Tucuman, but cherimoya (Anona chirimoya) and apricots (Prunus armeniaca) were also important. After the beginning of rains, populations increase in spring and develop mainly on peaches in November and December. Afterwards, SAFF attacks guava, where a peak population is attained in February or March. Guava is the principal wild host of SAFF in Tucuman. Compared with the forest where guava trees were frequent, citrus orchards covered a small area in the 1920's. Therefore SAFF populations increased in the wild guavas and invaded early oranges and grapefruits afterwards. Even though high numbers of punctures were observed in citrus skin, few larvae developed. The oils present in the skin kill high number of eggs. Moreover the larvae have to go through the albedo and hardly reach the pulp. Nevertheless the injury produced by the ovipositor allows microorganisms to rot the fruit. In 1918, rots produced 50% of damage in fruits which suffered premature ripening and fell. Only in very thin skinned and overripened fruit, larval development was registered. Some authors observed larval development in the field but Schult, in laboratory tests, found few eggs and never registered larval development. Between 1920 and 1945 studies with bait-traps were carried out to establish the seasonal occurrence of the fly and some control measures were tested. Poisoned baits were used against this pest, and biological control by inoculation of parasitoids were also employed. Cages with parasitized pupae were distributed to farmers. The emerged flies were kept within the cage and a sieve allowed the emerged parasites

  8. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author)

  9. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species. PMID:26396199

  10. Progress on the artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    With the purpose of evaluating post-harvest quarantine treatments for fruits in Colombia, we have established experimental colonies of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA), plant quarantine Laboratory Ibague (Tol.) at 24 deg. C, 70-80% RH, and 10 hr light. The procedures and results refer only to A. fraterculus from September 1994 to September 1996. The first adults, obtained from Coffea arabica L. cherries, were initially multiplied in fruits and later put on artificial diet. The handling procedures, diets and data collected are adapted from those established by USDA-ARA 1981, Celedonio et al. 1989, Gonzalez et al. Martinez et al. 1987, and others, that were used for Anastrepha spp. The average percentages of recuperation between stages that were hatched 66.0±1.0; first to third instar larvae 28.12±14.4; third instar larvae to pupae 81.80±3.0; pupae to adult 75.82±3.4. Additional data related to partial mortality of the stages are also discussed. The average recuperation from eggs to third instar larvae of 17.57%, and from eggs to emerged adults of 9.5±4.9, is low and indicates the necessity of doing basic research to improve the procedures. (author)

  11. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author)

  12. Enhancing mating performance after juvenile hormone treatment in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae): a differential response in males and females acts as a physiological sexing system

    Methoprene treatment can reduce the time required for sexual maturation in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Wiedemann) males under laboratory conditions, supporting its use as a treatment for sterile males within the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Here we evaluated sexu...

  13. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. PMID:26616467

  14. Field evaluation of potential fruit-derived lures for Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that a nine-component blend (ethyl butyrate, isopropyl butyrate, hexan-1-ol, propyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, isopentyl butyrate, ethyl benzoate, and ethyl octanoate) isolated from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) fruit are attractive to both sexes of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in laboratory and field cage tests. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of traps baited with the nine-component blend in capturing wild A. obliqua in a mango, Mangifera indica L. variety Ataulfo) orchard. In addition, we tested other S. mombin-derived lures to determine whether any of these effectively mimic the nine-component blend in attracting A. obliqua. In all trials, we compared the attractiveness of the S. mombin-derived lures against hydrolyzed protein, the standard bait for monitoring A. obliqua. We found that, in some trials, there was no difference in the number of females caught by traps baited with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. In other trials, traps baited with hydrolyzed protein captured more females than traps baited with the nine-component blend. For males, in general there were no differences in the number of flies caught by traps baited either with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with other S. mombin-derived lures captured fewer A. obliqua than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with S. mombin-derived lures caught fewer species of nontarget tephritid flies and nontarget insects than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. PMID:20069833

  15. Detection of Caribbean fruit fly [(Anastrepha suspensa Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)]-infested grapefruit with portable gas chromatography

    New technologies are being sought by plant protection officials to more quickly and efficiently identify concealed pests in imported commodities. The zNose portable gas chromatography unit was investigated as a tool for identifying organic volatile signatures indicative of Caribbean fruit fly infest...

  16. Laboratory and field cage studies on female-targeted attract-and-kill bait stations for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    A matrix was developed for use as a base for bait station for pest tephritid fruit flies. The matrix consists of a wax, a hardener and emulsifier, and can be used with a variety of insecticides and other additives. Bait stations were formed into plugs to approximate a sphere shape or into strips of ...

  17. The influence of prior experience with artificial fruits on the ovipositioning behavior of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Patrícia L. F. Gregório

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae, is a leading pest of Brazilian fruit crops. This study evaluated how prior experience with artificial fruits containing peach and/or guabiroba pulp influenced the ovipositing behavior of A. fraterculus. Insects 15-21 days old were exposed to four treatments: 1 experience with guabiroba, Campomanesia xanthocarpa O. Berg (Myrtaceae; 2 experience with peach, Prunus persica (L. Batsch (Chimarrita cultivar; Rosaceae; 3 experience with both fruits; and 4 no experience (naive. Naive females and females experienced with guabiroba pulp and with both fruits (peach and guabiroba oviposited and showed dragging and puncturing behavior on substrates containing guabiroba, but females that were only exposed to peach pulp did not show a preference for any substrate. The study shows that prior experience with substrate influences ovipositing behavior in A. fraterculus.

  18. Nutritive value of diets with different carbohydrates for adult Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Tânia Mara de Lima Fontellas; Fernando Sérgio Zucoloto

    1999-01-01

    Adult Tephritidae, especially of the genus Anastrepha (Schiner, 1868), have been observed to feed on a wide variety of natural diets. The fruit on which they feed, in general, are rich in sugar content, chiefly glucose, frutose and sucrose, which are also the sugars that those insects utilise better. Neither the behavioural mechanisms, nor the physiological ones, that control food selection by insects, are well known. Because some of those aspects are not known for the species Anastrepha obli...

  19. Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae no campus da ESALQ-USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo

    Keiko Uramoto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido na área abrangida pelo campus da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz da Universidade de São Paulo, no município de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. Teve como objetivos, determinar a composição do gênero Anastrepha Schiner e verificar a associação das espécies de plantas hospedeiras, estabelecidas na área, com as espécies de Anastrepha. Foram examinadas 23.277 fêmeas de Anastrepha coletadas por meio de armadilhas McPhail e 18 espécies pertencentes a nove grupos de espécies foram registradas. Um total de 563 amostras de frutos pertencentes a nove famílias e, pelo menos, 23 espécies de plantas foi coletado em 47 estações de capturas. Foram identificadas 10.243 fêmeas e das 18 espécies de Anastrepha capturadas em armadilhas somente seis emergiram das amostras de frutos: A. bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wied., A. obliqua (Macquart, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, A. serpentina (Wied. e A. sororcula Zucchi. A. fraterculus infestou maior diversidade de frutos. Os hospedeiros preferidos de A. obliqua foram as espécies da família Anacardiaceae. A. pseudoparallela e A. serpentina infestaram exclusivamente Passifloraceae e Sapotaceae, respectivamente. A. fraterculus é registrada pela primeira vez em sapoti (Manilkara zapota L. no Brasil.Biodiversity of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae at the ESALQ-USP campus, Piracicaba, São Paulo. The aim of this study was to determine the number of species of Anastrepha Schiner at the campus and to verify the association between host plant species and Anastrepha species in this area. A total of 23,277 females of Anastrepha collected in McPhail traps was examined, and 18 species belonging to nine species groups were recorded. A total of 563 fruit samples representing at least 23 plant species from nine families was collected in 47 capture sites. A total of 10,243 females was identified. Of the 18 Anastrepha species captured in traps

  20. Experiments of different compounds to attract Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Information regarding eight experiments carried out between 2001 and 2004 to determine the responses of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae) to several attractants in fruit orchards in Costa Rica is presented. In a mixed coffee and citrus orchard where population levels where low in Corralar (2002 and 2004). In a guava orchard where population levels where low in 2002 and higher in 2004 in Pocora,. In a mango farm where population levels were high in Esparza (2001 and 2003). The Flies per trap per day index (FTD) obtained in mango in 2001 was 0.12 for Torula Yeast, for Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB) + Putrescine (PT) the FTD was 0.054 and for NuLure it was 0.053. In 2003 the highest attraction was obtained using NuLure (FTD = 0.025), AA+PT (FTD 0.019), 1/2AA+PT (FTD = 0.013) and Torula Yeast (FTD = 0.0077). In guava (February to April of 2004) the highest FTD was obtained with NuLure(FTD 0.11), with 1/2AA+PT (FTD = 0.07) and with Torula Yeast (FTD = 0.05). In the September - October, 2004, experiments the attraction was better using NuLure (FTD = 0.04), followed by 1/4AA+AB+1/4PT (FTD = 0.02) and by 1/2AA+PT and 1/2AA+1/4PT both with a 0.01 FTD. In the mixed coffee and citrus orchard (November - December of 2002) the highest FTD was for the NuLure, Torula Yeast and 1/2AA+PT. The differences in the concentration of AA in the formulations of 1/2, 1 and 2AA+PT, did not yield sufficient data to be able to make a conclusion. With a single 1/2AA+PT, the FTD was 0.0008, with 1AA+PT it was zero, and with 2AA+PT it was 0.004. The formulation of 1AA+PT+TMA yielded an FTD of 0.004, and the same was obtained with 2AA+PT. In 2004, the largest number of A. obliqua was captured with NuLure (FTD = 0.0053). The Easy traps with the same attractant had a FTD of 0.001. In the formulations with AA, those with 1/2AA+PT captured the largest number of flies. The data obtained in all these experiments indicate that NuLure and Torula Yeast were better attractants to capture A. obliqua in

  1. Development of a larval diet for the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Mass-rearing protocols must be developed. In particular, a cost-effective larval diet, to implement the sterile insect technique against Anastrepha fratercculus (Wiedemann). The key elements of this diet are the optimal nutrients and their concentrations, diet supports or bulking agents, and the pH ...

  2. Methoprene treatment reduces the pre-copulatory period in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males

    Anastrepha fraterculus is a major fruit pest in South America. Ongoing studies encourage the implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest. Sexual readiness of sterile males is a key point for SIT. The time required for A. fraterculus males to become sexually mature is unkn...

  3. Evaluation of techniques for C and ASG banding of the mitotic chromosomes of Anastrepha species (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Denise Selivon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods previously described by Canovai et al. (Caryologia 47: 241-247, 1994 which produced C and ASG bands in mitotic chromosomes of Ceratitis capitata were applied to the chromosomes of several Anastrepha species. Metaphase plate yield was substantially increased by use of imaginal disks together with cerebral ganglia. The C-bands were quite prominent allowing the resolution of tiny blocks of heterochromatin. The ASG method produced G-like banded chromosomes, which permitted recognition of each individual chromosome. These simple techniques do not require special equipment and may be valuable for karyotype variability studies in fruit flies and other DipteraTécnicas descritas anteriormente por Canovai et al. (Caryologia 47: 241-247, 1994, que produzem bandas C e ASG nos cromossomos mitóticos de Ceratitis capitata, foram testadas com os cromossomos de várias espécies de Anastrepha. O número de metáfases analisáveis aumentou significativamente quando, além dos gânglios cerebrais, discos imaginais foram utilizados nas preparações. O bandamento tipo C produzido foi bastante conspícuo, permitindo inclusive a resolução de pequenos blocos de heterocromatina. O método ASG produziu uma fração significativa de metáfases cujos cromossomos apresentavam um nítido bandamento do tipo G, que permitiu diferenciar cada cromossomo do cariótipo. Essas técnicas simples, aplicadas sem a necessidade de equipamento especial, podem ser úteis para estudos de variabilidade cariotípica intra ou inter-específica

  4. Controle químico de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae em laboratório Chemical control of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae in laboratory

    Priscila Lang Scoz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de quatro novos grupos químicos de inseticidas incluindo avermectina (benzoato de emamectina, éter piretróide (etofemprox, neoniconitnóide (imidacloprid, thiacloprid e thiamethoxan e naturalyte (spinosad foram avaliados em laboratório (25 ± 3ºC, umidade relativa de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas, visando ao controle de adultos e ovos/larvas de Anastrepha fraterculus comparando-os com os fosforados fenthion e thrichlorphon. O benzoato de emamectina não foi eficiente no controle de adultos de A. fraterculus via contato e ingestão. O etofenprox, imidacloprid, spinosad e thiamethoxan foram eficientes no controle de adultos de A. fraterculus via contato e ingestão, proporcionando maior mortalidade via ingestão. Os novos inseticidas não provocaram mortalidade significativa de ovos/larvas de A. fraterculus localizados no interior de maçãs, enquanto que os fosforados fenthion e thrichlorphon resultaram em 100% de mortalidade das fases imaturas e adultos. Os novos inseticidas apresentam potencial para uso nas iscas tóxicas, substituindo os fosforados para o controle de adultos.The South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important pest of temperate fruit crops. The effect of four new inseticide groups to replace organophosphate compounds for A. fraterculus control was evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 3ºC, relative humity of 70 ± 10% and 12:12 L:D. Emamectin benzoate, etofenprox, imidacloprid, spinosad, thiacloprid and thiamethoxan were evaluated to control adults by contact and ingestion and against eggs/larvae inside apple fruits compared with fenthion and thrichlorphon. Emamectin benzoate was not efficient to control adults of A. fraterculus by contact and ingestion. Etofenprox, imidacloprid, spinosad and thiamethoxan were efficient to control adults by contact and ingestion being more toxic by ingestion. No new insecticide controlled eggs/larvae inside apple fruit while organophosphate

  5. Neurosecretory cells of third-instar larvae of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Isabel C Boleli

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosecretory cells of the nervous system of third-instar larvae of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart, 1835 were located and described histomorphologically. Six groups of neurosecretory cells were identified in the brain and one group in the ventral ganglion. The groups differed in position, cell size and staining characteristics. Four of these groups appear to he active throughout the third instar and three, from the prepupal period.

  6. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

  7. Karyotype relationships among Anastrepha bistrigata, A. striata and A. serpentina (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Denise Selivon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The species of Anastrepha are arranged into 17 intrageneric groups. Recently, it was proposed that two species of the striata group, Anastrepha striata and A. bistrigata, might be realocated to serpentina group. Anastrepha bistrigata and A. serpentina have an X1X2Y/X1X1 X2X2 sex chromosome system while A. striata has a XY/XX system. It was previously proposed that the karyotype of A. bistrigata could be derived from that of A. striata by an Y:A fusion, and that the karyotype of A. serpentina would be derived from another, hypothetical karyotype. In the present report sequential staining with DAPI and chromomycin A3 (CMA3, followed by C-banding, revealed that the C-banded heterochromatic blocks of the sex chromosomes of A. bistrigata have different affinities to fluorochromes in comparison to the chromosomes of A. striata, from which they have hypothetically derived. The chromosomes of A. serpentina show substantial differences in their cytochemical properties compared to their A. bistrigata and A. striata counterparts. The FISH technique showed that the ribosomal gene sequences are located in DAPI- or DAPI/CMA3-positive heterochromatic blocks of the sex chromosomes, one site on the Y chromosome and one site on the X chromosome (X1 in A. bistrigata and A. serpentina. The data suggest that the karyotype of A. striata and A. bistrigata could be derived from a common ancestral karyotype, while the A. serpentina karyotype probably has a distinct origin.

  8. Comportamento sexual de Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (Diptera, Tephritidae em laboratório Sexual behavior of Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (Diptera, Tephritidae in laboratory

    Michelli C. N. Facholi-Bendassolli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, 1979, é uma das espécies de mosca-das-frutas mais disseminadas no País, sendo considerada a praga-chave que causa os maiores danos à produção de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., 1758 no Brasil. Em vista da importância desta espécie no complexo de pragas naturais da fruticultura brasileira e, em face à escassez de dados sobre sua biologia e comportamento, este trabalho teve por objetivo obter informações sobre a idade de maturação sexual de A. sororcula em laboratório e descrever seu comportamento reprodutivo. Os machos atingiram a maturidade sexual entre 7 e 18 dias após a emergência, com a maioria dos indivíduos tornando-se sexualmente maduros entre 10 e 13 dias de idade. Exibiram comportamento de sinalização às fêmeas, caracterizado pela distensão da região pleural do abdome, formando uma pequena bolsa de cada lado e, eversão de uma diminuta bolsa membranosa de cutícula retal que circunda a área anal. Durante este processo, os machos realizaram rápidos movimentos de vibração das asas, produzindo sinais audíveis. Uma gotícula foi liberada da região anal durante os movimentos de vibração alar. Após a atração das fêmeas, os machos realizaram uma série de movimentos elaborados de cortejo. As fêmeas alcançaram a maturação sexual entre 14 e 24 dias da emergência, com a maioria tornando-se sexualmente madura aos 19 dias de idade. A exibição diária das atividades sexuais foi confinada quase que exclusivamente ao período das 16:00-17:30h. A. sororcula apresentou um acentuado padrão de protandria.Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, 1979, is a fruit fly species that can be considered a key pest to the production of guava (Psidium guajava L., 1758, fruit tree which has a wide distribution in Brazil. In view of the importance of this species as a natural pest of Brazilian horticulture and, considering the lack of data about its biology and behavior, the aim of this paper is to obtain

  9. INSETICIDAS VEGETAIS NO CONTROLE DE Anastrepha spp. (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM POMAR DE GOIABA

    Francisco Roberto Azevedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de inseticidas vegetais sobre Anastrepha spp. em pomar de goiaba, realizaram-se pesquisas em Barbalha, de 6 de maio a 24 de junho de 2011, testando Pironat®, Rotenat® e Natuneem®. Para avaliar o efeito sobre adultos, instalaram-se 20 armadilhas McPhail iscadas com proteína hidrolisada de milho a 5%, quantificando-se o número de insetos capturados. Na avaliação do efeito sobre larvas, colheram-se ao acaso 100 frutos maduros, verificando-se a presença de larvas vivas e mortas. Foram feitas três aplicações em ambos os experimentos com o auxílio de um atomizador costal motorizado, sendo as avaliações realizadas semanalmente. O extrato pirolenhoso do Pironat® repele satisfatoriamente adultos de Anastrepha spp., enquanto que a azadiractina presente no Natuneem® promove efeito inseticida sobre as larvas nas condições de campo, sendo estes produtos mais eficazes para o controle da praga a partir da segunda aplicação. Embora estes produtos vegetais não cheguem a causar 100% de controle, eles podem ser utilizados em programas de Manejo Agroecológico de Anastrepha spp. em pomares de goiaba, pois além de baratos, são de fácil aplicação e não provocam impacto ambiental em termos de risco de resíduos tóxicos nos frutos. Use este espaço para escrever o resumo.

  10. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  11. Egg length of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae according to oviposition rate and maternal age

    Isabel C. Boleli

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of the entire egg, micropile and vitellus regions of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart, 1835 were measured during all opposition period. Obtained values were compared among them and with oviposition rate. The smallest eggs were produced during the first 35 oviposition days, period where the highest oviposition rate occured. The decrease in egg length was found to be due to a descrease in the vitellus region. Micropile length was found to be pratically constant throughout oviposition. Furthermore, no relationship between maternal age and length was detectable.

  12. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  13. Responses of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae to pesticides used in organic fruit production Respuestas de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae a plaguicidas utilizados en la producción orgánica de frutas

    Ricardo Bisotto-de-Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, is an economically important pest of fruit production in Southern Brazil. In organically managed orchards the species has traditionally been controlled with oils, plant extracts, and solutions such as pyroligneous extract and lime sulfur. The objectives of this study were to examine the possible deterrent effect of pesticides with the highest electroantennographic bioactivity on fruit flies and to assess their effects on the viability of pupae in treated fruits. Antennae were exposed to pyroligneous extract (BioPirol7M®, 0.4%, lime sulfur solution (SulFertilizantes, 1%, neem (Organic Neem®, 0.5%, and rotenone (Rotenat®, 0.6%, taking into account fly sex, age and reproductive status. Pupal viability was assessed for larvae reared in papaya (Carica papaya var. Calyman and guava (Psidium guajava var. Paluma fruits treated with the pesticides that generated the strongest electrophysiological responses. The bioactivity of A. fraterculus antennae was highest when stimulated with pyroligneous extract and lime sulfur solution, for young and mated flies. Neither substance inhibited oviposition and larval development in treated fruits, a result that has important implications for A. fraterculus management in organic systems.La mosca sudamericana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, es una plaga de importancia económica en la producción de frutas en el sur de Brasil. En huertos bajo manejo orgánico la especie se controla tradicionalmente con aceites, extractos vegetales y soluciones como el extracto piroleñoso y sulfuro de cal. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar el posible efecto disuasivo de los plaguicidas que presentan la más alta bioactividad electroantenográficas en moscas de la fruta y evaluar sus efectos sobre la viabilidad de las pupas en frutas tratadas. Las antenas fueron expuestas al extracto piroleñoso (BioPirol 7M®, 0,4%, solución de

  14. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications.

    Aluja, M; Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Birke, A; Rull, J; Niogret, J; Epsky, N

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the main tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity, and fertility were recorded, ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. Infestation rates, developmental time, and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars 'Vishi,' '74-82,' and 'Brooks' were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while "Tommy,' 'Sensation,' and 'Ataulfo "niño"' (parthenocarpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. 'Edward,' 'Kent,' 'Brooks late,' 'Palmer, and 'Ataulfo' exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. We highlight the important role of Ataulfo "niño" as pest reservoir if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks. PMID:24665723

  15. Current knowledge of the species complex Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Brazil.

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Bravo, Iara Sordi Joachim; Dias, Vanessa; Roriz, Alzira Kelly Passos; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Mendonça, Adriana de Lima; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão; do Nascimento, Ruth Rufino

    2015-01-01

    The study of the species complex Anastrepha fraterculus (Af complex) in Brazil is especially important in a taxonomical, evolutionary and pest management context, because there are evidences that some of them may occur in sympatry. In this review, we analyzed the main results supporting evidences that three cryptic species occur in Brazil. The taxonomical and phylogenetic relationships based on eggshell morphology, adult morphometrics, as well as cytotaxonomy and genetic differentiations are discussed. We also review available information on sexual behavior including acoustic communication of males during courtship and sexual incompatibility; and chemical signals involved in the communication between sexes, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examined the role of long- and short-range pheromones (male-produced volatiles and cuticular hydrocarbons, respectively), their implications in sexual isolation, and their possible use for chemotaxonomic differentiation of the putative species of the Af complex. PMID:26798261

  16. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied) is the most important fruit fly in Colombia. It has been trapped from the sea level up to 2000 m of altitude, but is is more abundant in the coffee growing area located at 1300 to 1700 masl, with temperatures between 18 to 22 deg. C (-min 11 deg. C,-max 25 deg. C). The main host in that area is Coffea arabica L., but it also has 14 additional identified hosts that belong to 9 families. In the hot climates from 0 to 1000 m of altitude it breeds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) and guava (Psidium guayava L:). The pest has not been stabilised in the cultivated upper lands between 2300-2600 masl. (author)

  17. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Cresoni-Pereira Carla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed.

  18. Relevant genetic differentiation among Brazilian populations of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Manni, Mosè; Lima, Kátia Manuela; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Lanzavecchia, Silvia Beatriz; Juri, Marianela; Vera, Teresa; Cladera, Jorge; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gasperi, Giuliano; Silva, Janisete Gomes; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We used a population genetic approach to detect the presence of genetic diversity among six populations of Anastrepha fraterculus across Brazil. To this aim, we used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers, which may capture the presence of differentiative processes across the genome in distinct populations. Spatial analyses of molecular variance were used to identify groups of populations that are both genetically and geographically homogeneous while also being maximally differentiated from each other. The spatial analysis of genetic diversity indicates that the levels of diversity among the six populations vary significantly on an eco-geographical basis. Particularly, altitude seems to represent a differentiating adaptation, as the main genetic differentiation is detected between the two populations present at higher altitudes and the other four populations at sea level. The data, together with the outcomes from different cluster analyses, identify a genetic diversity pattern that overlaps with the distribution of the known morphotypes in the Brazilian area. PMID:26798258

  19. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae). PMID:26624697

  20. Response of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to synthetic attractants in Colombia

    Efficient trapping systems for Anastrepha spp is an essential requirement for integrated fruit fly management. In order to find more efficient attractants for this genus, food-based attractants were tested in two orchards in Colombia against A. obliqua, A. striata and A. fraterculus populations. Six experiments were carried out from 2001 to 2004, four of them were done in a mango orchard and the other two in a coffee plantation. The synthetic food attractants tested were different combination of Ammonium Acetate (AA), Putrescine (PT), Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB) and Trimethylamine (TMA); the controls were NuLure and Torula. Attractants were placed in Multilure traps using equidistant spacing of 28 m. Trap catches were recorded twice per week for a total of eight weeks. Traps were serviced once per week and rotated after each service. The experimental design was random blocks with five repetitions. In experiments 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, NuLure and Torula were statistically the best attractants, however, synthetic lures caught more flies than the controls in the fourth one, when climate was hot and dry: 1/2AA+PT, 1/2AB+PT and 1/4AB+PT were the best attractant for males of A. obliqua and 1/2AA+PT and 1/4AB+PT were the best for females. In some repetitions the synthetic lures capture more or equal numbers of flies than the controls, perhaps when in the previous days the weather was hot and dry. Attractants in general caught a larger number of old females than young or mature females in the first tests, but the mature females were predominant in the fourth one when the synthetic attractants showed to be better. Fruit flies showed different response to attractants depending on sex, species and climatic conditions. More studies are needed in order to improve trapping systems for Anastrepha. (author)

  1. The gene transformer of anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera, tephritidae and its evolution in insects.

    María Fernanda Ruiz

    Full Text Available In the tephritids Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, the gene transformer acts as the memory device for sex determination, via an auto-regulatory function; and functional Tra protein is produced only in females. This paper investigates the evolution of the gene tra, which was characterised in twelve tephritid species belonging to the less extensively analysed genus Anastrepha. Our study provided the following major conclusions. Firstly, the memory device mechanism used by this gene in sex determination in tephritids likely existed in the common ancestor of the Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha phylogenetic lineages. This mechanism would represent the ancestral state with respect to the extant cascade seen in the more evolved Drosophila lineage. Secondly, Transformer2-specific binding intronic splicing silencer sites were found in the splicing regulatory region of transformer but not in doublesex pre-mRNAs in these tephritids. Thus, these sites probably provide the discriminating feature for the putative dual splicing activity of the Tra-Tra2 complex in tephritids. It acts as a splicing activator in dsx pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the female-specific exon promotes the inclusion of this exon into the mature mRNA, and as a splicing inhibitor in tra pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the male-specific exons prevents the inclusion of these exons into the mature mRNA. Further, a highly conserved region was found in the specific amino-terminal region of the tephritid Tra protein that might be involved in Tra auto-regulatory function and hence in its repressive splicing behaviour. Finally, the Tra proteins conserved the SR dipeptides, which are essential for Tra functionality.

  2. Use of gamma radiation against Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) (Diptera, Tephritidae) for disinfestation of mangoes for exportation

    The gamma radiation doses to attend quarantine requirements of importing countries, by disinfecting mango fruits from Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) is studied. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed during the embryonic development. Doses up to 40 Gy for C. capitata and up to 100 Gy for A. Fraterculus and A. Obliqua did not affect pupation of 4-,5-,6- and 7-day-old larvae, irradiated 'in vitro'. Larvae of C. capitata were more resistant than A. Obliqua and A. Fraterculus. Larvae of A. Obliqua were more resistant than A. Fraterculus. The dose of 125.5 Gy fulfilled the criteria for efficacy, which prevented emergence of the adults of three fruit fly species studied. (author)

  3. Influence of Methoprene on Pheromone Emission and Sexual Maturation of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) males.

    Muñoz-Barrios, Rodolfo; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo; Gómez-Simuta, Yeudiel; Malo, Edi A

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that the application of juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, reduces the time required for sexual maturation and enhances mating success in several species of tephritid fruit flies. This study examined the effect of different concentrations of methoprene incorporated into the diet of adult flies and distinct sugar:protein (S:P) ratios on sexual maturity and pheromone emission of Anastrepha obliqua males. Diets with 0.2 and 0.5% of methoprene accelerated sexual maturation of males compared with untreated males. In subsequent assays, the enhancement of male pheromone emission and sexual maturation by the incorporation of 0.02% methoprene into a 24:1 (S: P) diet was confirmed. Among the volatiles released by males, (Z)-3-nonenol and (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadienol were emitted at higher quantities by flies treated with methoprene than untreated ones. The results show that methoprene accelerates sexual maturation of mass-reared A. obliqua males and increases their mating propensity. This would reduce the time required to attain sexual maturation by sterile males, thus decreasing fly handling costs and improving the efficacy of the sterile insect technique. PMID:26797870

  4. Induction of sterility in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) by gamma radiation

    In relation to the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), we analyzed the effect on adult fertility of different doses of gamma irradiation and the age of pupae at the time of irradiation. In a first experiment, we applied doses of 50, 70, and 90 Gy to pupae at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h before adult emergence. In a second experiment we irradiated pupae 48 h before emergence with 20, 40, and 60 Gy and estimated male and female fertility and sperm transfer by irradiated males. The results indicated pupal age at irradiation does not significantly affect male fertility. If males irradiated with 60 Gy are crossed to non-irradiated females the fertility is about 1%. Females irradiated with 40 Gy did not lay eggs independently of the male to which they mated. No significant effects of radiation were observed with respect to the ability of males to transfer sperm. A dose of 70 Gy applied 48 h before adult emergence induces 100% sterility in both males and females. (author)

  5. Selection of oviposition sites by wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on the nutritional composition

    Few works have studied in detail the types of nutrients associated to hosts which are attractive to females of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and influence the choice of the oviposition site. The relationship of the males in the physiology and in the behavior of those females has also been scarcely studied and some ecological relationships seem to be quite important for the knowledge of this species' biology. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the discriminatory behavior of A. obliqua between oviposition sites containing different nutrients. The presence of the male and the nutritional status of the female were also considered in this work. Two experiments were developed: in the first, the preference of A. obliqua females between artificial oviposition substrates was evaluated; in the second, females were submitted to two types of artificial oviposition substrates in the presence and in the absence of males and were fed either on a poor diet or on an adequate diet concerning sucrose concentration. In the first experiment, A. obliqua showed higher preference for substrates containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. Substrate containing only yeast was the second most accepted. Offspring development and adult feeding may have determined the choice for the substrate containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. In addition, the presence of protein in the brewer's yeast may indicate nutritional quality to the females in a more accurate way than the sucrose. In the second experiment, the brewer's yeast was the most accepted by the females. The male absence was also an important factor in the selection of hosts and in the egg production of A. obliqua. (author)

  6. Compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) after irradiation treatment

    We evaluated under semi-natural field cage conditions sexual compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain (LAB) compared to a wild population (TUC) of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). The LAB strain is produced under semi-mass rearing conditions at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres facility (Tucuman, Argentina). Wild flies were obtained at Horco Molle (Tucuman, Argentina) from infested guava fruits. LAB pupae were irradiated (60Co) 48 h before adult emergence. The tested doses were 0 (control), 40, 70, and 100 Gy. Twenty-five males and 25 females each of TUC and LAB were released into cages and mating pairs collected. Only 1 irradiation dose was considered at a time. Females were separated and allowed to lay eggs into artificial fruits to estimate induced sterility from the corresponding hatching rate. Copulation start time did not differ significantly between strains nor among irradiation treatments. Copulation duration showed highly significant differences among irradiation doses, but no differences between strains. The index of sexual isolation (ISI) and the relative sterility index (RSI) indices indicated that LAB and TUC are fully compatible, males from TUC and LAB did not differ in mating competitiveness, and irradiation within the range tested did not affect these indices. Non-irradiated LAB females exhibited higher mating propensity than TUC ones. However, a significant reduction in the female relative performance index (FRPI) index was observed with increasing irradiation dose. The analysis of induced sterility indicated that treatment with 40 Gy reduces male fertility from about 80% to 0.75%, and higher doses produce total sterility. In females, the 40 Gy dose reduces fertility to about 2% and higher doses prevent egg laying. (author)

  7. The Genetics of Eye Color Colour Mutants of the Fruit Fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Full text: The fruit fly Anastrepha ludens is one of the most important pests attacking commercial fruits such as citrus and mangoes, and having a great quarantine importance in Mexico. As a control method, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is currently in use because of its effectiveness and advantages. However, its performance would be greatly enhanced by the development of a genetic sexing system that allows release of males only. Recently, the National Campaign of Fruit Flies has initiated a project to develop a genetic sexing strain of A. ludens. In order to find the appropriate genetic markers, some adult mutants have been isolated from the mass-rearing colony. These mutants are being studied in order to interpret their segregation mechanisms and to better understand the genetics of this species. Three different mutants that exhibit violet, red and yellow eyes have been found. The yellow eyes mutant possesses also white bands in the thorax. In contrast, the wild type shows green eyes with an orange mark in the centre. Additionally, wild type eyes exhibit iridescence that range from yellow to green. Conversely, a bright red background characterises eyes of the red eye mutant. The violet eye phenotype is characterised by a violet tint in the eye centre and two different iridescences, green or blue. Among all mutants, only one of them (yellow eyes) was isolated from the mass-rearing population, and then crossed with the wild type to carry on the inbreeding and screening procedures. The fly colonies were reared until F6 generation before starting with the protocols of the crosses. The offspring of the violet eye x violet eye cross was violet eye and wild type in the proportion 2:1, but the fertility rate was greatly reduced. This suggests that the mutation would be lethal as homozygous. When reciprocal crosses with the wild type were made, the F1 offspring yielded two phenotypic classes: wild type and violet eye in the ratio 1:1. A similar phenotype ratio is

  8. AVALIAÇÃO DE ATRATIVOS ALIMENTARES E ARMADILHAS PARA O MONITORAMENTO DE ANASTREPHA FRATERCULUS (WIEDEMANN, 1830 (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE NA CULTURA DO PESSEGUEIRO (PRUNUS PERSICA (L. BATSH EVALUATION OF FOOD LURES AND TRAPS FOR MONITORING SOUTH AMERICAN FRUIT FLY ANASTREPHA FRATERCULUS (WIEDEMANN, 1830 (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE IN PEACH (PRUNUS PERSICA (L. BATSH, ORCHARDS

    Priscila Lang Scoz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus é uma das principais pragas da cultura do pessegueiro (Prunus persica no sul do Brasil, podendo ocasionar perdas de até 100% da produção. Neste trabalho, foram avaliados atrativos alimentares e armadilhas para o monitoramento de A. fraterculus em pomares de pessegueiro na região da Serra Gaúcha, RS, principal pólo produtor da fruta para consumo “in natura” do Estado. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar a captura de adultos de A. fraterculus com a levedura torula formulada em pastilha (2,5% e a proteína hidrolisada (Nolure® a 5% no primeiro experimento e a proteína hidrolisada (Bio Anastrepha® a 5% e o atrativo Anastrepha Lure® (putrecina associada ao sulfato de amônia, veiculado na forma de sachê no segundo. Nos dois experimentos foi utilizada a armadilha McPhail contendo suco de uva a 25% como atrativo padrão. A eficiência de armadilhas construídas a partir de garrafas PET (Polietileno Tereftalado de dois litros, transparente e verde, foi comparado com a armadilha-padrão McPhail, utilizando suco de uva a 25% como atrativo. A levedura torula (2,5% foi significativamente superior ao suco de uva a 25% e a proteína hidrolisada na captura de adultos de A. fraterculus, os quais equivaleram-se entre si. O Anastrepha lure® não foi eficaz na captura de adultos da espécie. Os modelos alternativos de armadilhas foram equivalentes ao modelo McPhail na captura de adultos de A. fraterculus.The South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the most important peach pests (Prunus persica in Southern Brazil, causing damages of up to 100% of their total production. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of food lures and traps for monitoring A. fraterculus in a commercial peach orchard. Two experiments were undertaken evaluating torula yeast (2,5% hydrolyzed protein (Nolure® at 5% and hydrolyzed protein (Bio

  9. Parasitóides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae de Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae in the state of Acre, Brazil

    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência de parasitóides em moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha Schiner no estado do Acre. No município de Bujari foram encontrados os braconídeos Opius bellus Gahan (72,5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26,8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0,7% associados a A. obliqua (Macquart em frutos de taperebá (Spondias mombin L., com parasitismo de 29,5%. No município de Rio Branco, em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., ocorreu somente D. areolatus em A. obliqua com parasitismo de 2,7%.This paper records the first parasitoids occurrence on Anastrepha Schiner fruit flies in the state of Acre, Brazil. In the Bujari County there occurred the braconids Opius bellus Gahan (72.5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26.8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0.7% associated with A. obliqua (Macquart in tapereba fruits (Spondias mombin L., with parasitism of 29.5%. In guajava fruits (Psidium guajava L. at Rio Branco County, only D. areolatus on A. obliqua occurred, with parasitism of 2.7%.

  10. Gamma radiation effects on ovarian development of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and its relationship to sterile fly identification

    Caribbean fruit fly pupae were subjected late in their development to gamma radiation (Cs-137) doses of 0, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy. Twelve hours after the eclosion, adults were transferred into small cages and held under 14 hour photophase at 26@*C and 70% RH. Ovarian dissections were performed at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after adult eclosion. Irradiated females showed abnormally-developed ovaries and doses of 25 Gy and higher caused severe atrophy. Regeneration was not observed. All irradiated females possessed hypertrophied accessory glands, probably due to accumulation of secretions normally used to lubricate the oviduct

  11. Influence of methoprene and dietary protein on maturation and sexual performance of sterile, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Juvenile hormone levels and adult diet have important effects on the attractiveness and competitiveness of the male Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Mexican fruit fly). Since the success of the sterile insect technique requires the release of males that can compete in the wild, these effects are very impor...

  12. X-ray doses to safely release the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on Anastrepha fraterculus larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Bachmann, G. E.; Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Conte, C. A.; Devescovi, F.; Milla, F. H.; Cladera, J. L.; Segura, D. F.; Viscarret, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 9 (2015), s. 1092-1103. ISSN 0958-3157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological control * gamma rays * Anastrepha fraterculus Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2014

  13. Development, genetic and cytogenetic analyses of genetic sexing strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Meza Hernández, José Salvador; García-Martínez, Víctor; Ibañez-Palacios, Jorge; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha ludens is among the pests that have a major impact on México's economy because it attacks fruits as citrus and mangoes. The Mexican Federal government uses integrated pest management to control A. ludens through the Programa Nacional Moscas de la Fruta [National Fruit Fly Program, SAGARPA-SENASICA]. One of the main components of this program is the sterile insect technique (SIT), which is used to control field populations of the pest by releasing sterile flies. Results T...

  14. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Nelson A Canal; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus , is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the mor...

  15. Disinfestation of apples attacked by the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation of cobalt-60

    Apples, cv. Gala, artificially infested during 72 hours with adults of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) were irradiated with the following gamma radiation doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, at the dose rate of 1048 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic bags with 80 ml of sugar cane bagasse. The bags were maintained in a rearing room at temperature 21 - 24 deg C, 65 - 75% R H, and photo period of 12 hours. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults. (author)

  16. Establishment of a colony of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under relaxed mass-rearing conditions in Mexico

    Several studies have suggested that maintaining a line of insects under laboratory conditions reduces their biological attributes. With this principle in mind, the mass production of Anastrepha ludens originating from a colony raised under relaxed rearing conditions was evaluated over a period of three years. The results of the evaluation indicated that insects kept under these conditions reached their larval maturity in 10 days, and attained a greater weight, which has a direct influence on pupal quality. In adult cages having a fly density of 70,000 individuals, there was a lower level of stress which favored fecundity. Fertility was apparently not affected by the cage density. These results suggest that keeping a production line under relaxed conditions optimizes insect production and promotes higher quality. (author)

  17. Comparison of longevity between a laboratory strain and a natural population of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) under field cage conditions

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is one of the most destructive fruit pests in this region, infesting major fruit crops. Implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated approach against this species requires information on the survival of mass-reared and sterilized insects in the field and their ability to mate with wild females. The survival rates in field cages of both non-irradiated and irradiated laboratory flies were compared with that of wild flies. Both types of laboratory flies survived longer than their wild counterparts over the 8 days under the experimental conditions. The irradiation dose (70 Gy) did not affect survival of the laboratory reared flies. Our results improve the prospect of integrating the SIT into the control of A. fraterculus populations in Argentina. (author)

  18. Establishment of a colony of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under relaxed mass-rearing conditions in Mexico

    Orozco-Davila, Dina; Hernandez, Refugio; Solis, Eduardo; Quintero, J. Luis; Dominguez, Julio, E-mail: dorozco1@prodigy.net.m [United States Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology; Sigma Space Corporation, MD(United States); Programa Moscamed Moscafrut-Desarrollo de Metodos, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that maintaining a line of insects under laboratory conditions reduces their biological attributes. With this principle in mind, the mass production of Anastrepha ludens originating from a colony raised under relaxed rearing conditions was evaluated over a period of three years. The results of the evaluation indicated that insects kept under these conditions reached their larval maturity in 10 days, and attained a greater weight, which has a direct influence on pupal quality. In adult cages having a fly density of 70,000 individuals, there was a lower level of stress which favored fecundity. Fertility was apparently not affected by the cage density. These results suggest that keeping a production line under relaxed conditions optimizes insect production and promotes higher quality. (author)

  19. Efeitos das misturas de alguns alimentos na produção de óvulos em Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Creusa Maria Message; Fernando Sérgio Zucoloto

    1989-01-01

    Effect of mixtures of some foods on egg production in the fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua. Several diets based on mixtures of different foods (brewer's yeast Boneg, wheat germ Boneg and gevral Lederle) were tested for their effect on egg production in Anastrepha obliqua. The best results were obtained with the mixture of brewer's yeast and wheat germ.

  20. Efeitos das misturas de alguns alimentos na produção de óvulos em Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Creusa Maria Message

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of mixtures of some foods on egg production in the fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua. Several diets based on mixtures of different foods (brewer's yeast Boneg, wheat germ Boneg and gevral Lederle were tested for their effect on egg production in Anastrepha obliqua. The best results were obtained with the mixture of brewer's yeast and wheat germ.

  1. Percepção química e visual de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae em laboratório Chemical and visual perception of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae in laboratory

    Patrícia L. F. Gregorio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-das-frutas-sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830, é uma das principais pragas da fruticultura no Brasil. Durante a alimentação, as larvas fazem galerias nos frutos, alterando o sabor e prejudicando a produção e comercialização dos mesmos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar fatores envolvidos na escolha do hospedeiro por A. fraterculus. Foram avaliadas as respostas eletroantenográficas de machos e fêmeas a extratos etanólicos de frutos verdes e maduros de pessegueiro - Prunus persica, cultivar Chimarrita (Rosaceae, pitangueira - Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae, guabirobeira - Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Myrtaceae e araçazeiro - Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae. Foram também observadas as influências da cor (amarela, verde e vermelha e da composição do substrato de oviposição (polpas de araçá, guabiroba, pitanga e pêssego na fecundidade da espécie. As respostas eletroantenográficas de fêmeas foram significativamente distintas para os extratos de guabiroba verde e madura, araçá maduro e pitanga verde. Em antenas de machos, as maiores despolarizações médias foram registradas em resposta aos extratos de guabiroba verde e madura, araçá verde e maduro e pitanga verde. As respostas eletrofisiológicas geradas não diferiram estatisticamente entre os sexos, para todos os tratamentos. A cor do substrato não afetou a oviposição. As fêmeas ovipositaram mais nos substratos contendo polpa de pêssego e de guabiroba, quando comparados aos respectivos controles.The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 is one of the greatest threats to the fruit growing industry in Brazil. During the feeding process, the larvae build galleries within the fruit, altering the flavor and damaging its production and commercialization. The present work had as its objective to study the factors involved in the choice of the host by A. fraterculus. Electroantennographic responses of the males and

  2. Viabilidad de huevos y modelo de jaula para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae Viability of eggs and screen cage model for mass artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Juliana García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la viabilidad de huevos y el modelo de jaula apropiada para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann. Los resultados muestran que el periodo de máxima oviposición ocurre durante los primeros 10 días en jaulas modelo Mediana, lo cual permite obtener el volumen de huevos necesario para alimentar el pie de cría de A. fraterculus en una cría masiva. Considerando que se encontró relación positiva entre el volumen de huevos ovipositados y el porcentaje de eclosión de huevos, en un periodo de 21 días de colecta, este periodo coincide además con los valores de eclosión más altos. Entre los modelos de jaulas evaluadas: Mediana, Grande y Mission; el modelo Mediana mostró los mejores resultados al evaluar el número de ía con un valor promedio de 11,4. La jaula que mostró menores resultados fue el modelo Mission, con un valor promedio de 4,6 huevos/hembra/día. Las jaulas grandes mostraron valores menores a las jaulas Medianas, pero las diferencias fueron no significativas. Los buenos valores registrados en las jaulas Medianas posiblemente se deban a la estructura de la jaula, que presentó la cara interna dividida en muchos compartimientos, lo cual mejora la distribución de las moscas adultas y previene la mortalidad temprana por hacinamiento en la base o en el techo de la jaula.The aim of this study was to determine the viability of eggs and cage model suitable for artificial mass rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann. The results show that the period of maximum oviposition occurs during the first 10 days in Medium cages which allows to obtain the necessary volume of eggs to feed the foot of rearing of A. fraterculus in a mass rearing. Considering that a positive relationship was found between the volume of eggs oviposited and the hatchability percentage in a period of 21 days of collection, this period coincides with the highest values of hatching. Among the

  3. Sexual Competitiveness of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Males Exposed to Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi Essential Oils.

    Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host. PMID:26470173

  4. Fungi that cause rot in bunches of grape identified in adult fruit flies (Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Ruben Machota Jr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann is the main species of frugivorous insect that damages berries of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi associated with bunch rot present in the body of adults of A. fraterculus collected in a commercial vineyard. From January to February 2011, adults of A. fraterculus were collected from a commercial vineyard of green grapes using adapted McPhail traps. In laboratory, flies bodies were divided into four parts (head, legs, wings, and ovipositor in Petri dishes with PDA medium to evaluate microorganisms associated. Six adult females of A. fraterculus collected in the field were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM to identify spores of fungi. Phytopathogenic microorganisms were found in all sectioned parts. Fungal spores were recorded adhered to the body of adult females of A. fraterculus. The main species of fungi found in the body parts of A. fraterculus were Cladosporium spp. (20.2% of the obtained colonies, Botrytis cinerea Pers. (12.9%, Colletotrichum spp. (10.1%, Penicillium spp. (10.1%, Fusarium spp. (7.7%, followed by Rhizopus spp., Trichoderma spp. and Aspergillus spp., suggesting that the insect can serve as a mechanical vector of spores increasing damage in the vineyards.

  5. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália. PMID:26911161

  6. Effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae against immature stages of Anastrepha fraterculus fruitfly (Diptera : Tephritidae Eficácia de Metarhizium anisopliae a estágios imaturos de Anastrepha fraterculus a mosca das frutas (Diptera : Tephritidae

    Ricardo Henry Rodrigues Destéfano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Hyphomycetes : Moniliales strain E9, isolated from the pasture spittlebug Deois flavopicta (Hemiptera : Cercopidae, against larvae, prepupae and pupae stage and emergent adults of Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruitfly. The bioassay was carried out simulating field conditions, on autoclaved (AS and non-autoclaved (NAS soil from typical citrus orchards in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil. Various concentrations of conidia were incorporated into the soil the mortality, calculated based on the percentage of adult emergence, was 86% for the highest conidia concentrations: 2.52 x 10(10 for AS and 2.52 x 10(10 for NAS. The lethal concentration (LC50, expressed as conidia concentration, was 8.44 x 10(9 conidia/g of soil (S for AS and 12.23 x 10(9 conidia/g of soil for NAS.O estudo avaliou a eficácia de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, (Hyphomycetes : Moniliales linhagem E9, isolada da cigarrinha das pastagens Deois flavopicta (Hemiptera : Cercopidae, contra larvas, prepupas, pupas e adultos emergentes de Anastreha fraterculus, a mosca Sul Americana das frutas. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos simulando condições de campo em solo autoclavado (AS e não autoclavado (NAS de pomares típicos de citros no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Várias concentrações de conídios foram incorporadas no solo. A mortalidade calculada sobre a porcentagem de adultos emergentes, foi de 86% para as concentrações mais altas de conídios: 2,52 x 10(10 para AS e 2,52 x 10(10 para NAS. A concentração letal (LC50 expressa pela concentração de conídios, foi 8,44 x 10(9 conídios/g de solo para AS e 12,2 x 10(9 conídios/g/S para NAS.

  7. SUSCETIBILIDADE DE GENÓTIPOS DE MACIEIRA A Anastrepha fraterculus (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE INFESTAÇÃO

    JANAÍNA PEREIRA DOS SANTOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O estudo objetivou registrar as injúrias de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, em dois estádios de desenvolvimento dos frutos das macieiras M-11/00 e ‘Catarina’, submetidos a três condições de infestação a campo, na safra de 2011/2012. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar mantido sob manejo orgânico, na Estação Experimental da Epagri de Caçador-SC. O número médio de moscas foi avaliado semanalmente, com quatro armadilhas do tipo McPhail. Frutos imaturos e maduros da seleção M-11/00 e da cultivar Catarina foram submetidos às condições de infestação artificial, controlada e natural. No início da frutificação, após o raleio, em cada genótipo, 500 frutos foram aleatoriamente ensacados com embalagens de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Os frutos submetidos à infestação artificial foram envoltos, individualmente, por uma gaiola contendo duas fêmeas acasaladas de A. fraterculus, que permaneceram por três dias para oviposição. Na infestação controlada, no mesmo dia da instalação das gaiolas, frutos protegidos tiveram as embalagens retiradas para que ficassem por três dias expostos. Frutos não ensacados foram utilizados para avaliar a infestação natural. Em cada estádio de desenvolvimento, foram registrados os valores dos atributos físico-químicos dos frutos. O número médio de A. fraterculus durante a safra foi de 3,08 moscas/armadilha/ semana. Na seleção M-11/00, em todas as condições de infestação, o número médio de larvas e pupários foi maior em frutos maduros. Na cv. Catarina, estes números não diferiram entre as condições de infestação nem entre os estádios de desenvolvimento. Pupários de A. fraterculus não foram observados em frutos de ‘Catarina’, e nesta cultivar constatou-se maior acidez e menor relação sólidos solúveis/acidez.

  8. Capture of Anastrepha sororcula (Diptera: Tephritidae in McPhail and Jackson traps with food attractant and virgin adults

    Christiane dos Santos Felix

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This stady evaluated the capture of A. sororcula in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin adults and food attractant in two orchards. The first was the orchard of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (OUFGD and the second, the orchard of the Sindicato Rural de Dourados (OSRD. The capture of A. sororcula in McPhail and Jackson traps was carried out using the corn hydrolysed protein (CHP, control (no flies, virgin males (5, 10 and 15, five virgin females and five virgin couples. The average number of the flies caught in the traps with the corn hydrolysed protein was signifícantly higher than all the other treatments. There was no significant capture of A. sororcula females in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin males, females or the couples.As moscas-das-frutas constituem um grupo de pragas responsáveis por grandes prejuízos econômicos à fruticultura mundial. Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, é a principal espécie de tefritídeo que ataca a goiaba em Mato Grosso do Sul. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas com atrativo alimentar e adultos virgens, em dois ambientes. Os bioensaios iniciaram-se com a criação de A. sororcula no Laboratório de Insetos Frugívoros da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD. As pesquisas de campo foram desenvolvidas nos pomares da UFGD e do Sindicato Rural de Dourados (SRD-MS. A captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas McPhail e Jackson foi avaliada para os tratamentos: proteína hidrolisada de milho, testemunha (sem moscas, machos virgens (5, 10 e 15, 5 fêmeas virgens e 5 casais. O número médio de indivíduos capturados nas armadilhas com proteína foi significativamente maior que nos demais tratamentos. O número médio de adultos de A. sororcula, capturado com o tratamento proteína no SRD foi significativamente superior ao do pomar da UFGD. Não ocorreu captura significativa de fêmeas de A. sororcula nas armadilhas com

  9. Effect of continuous rearing on courtship acoustics of five braconid parasitoids, candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species

    The courtship acoustics of five species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae), were compared between recently colonized individuals and those continuously reared 70-148 generations. During...

  10. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The IT...

  11. Effects of bait age and prior protein feeding on cumulative time dependent mortality of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to GF-120 Spinosad baits.

    A fruit fly bait to attract and kill adult fruit flies (GF-120, Dow Agro-Science) was tested to determine effects of pre-treatment diet and ageing of GF-120 bait prior to use on cumulative mortality rates of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Leow), Tephritidae). Bait effectiveness depends o...

  12. Adult population dynamics of the bolivian fruit flies Anastrepha sp. (Diptera: Tephritidae at Municipality Coroico, Department of The La Paz, Bolivia

    Gonzáles Manuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in Paco (1603 msnm communities, it Marca (1511 msnm and Capellania (1720 msnm, of the Municipality of Coroico, department of La Paz, Bolivia. In orchards frutícolas semicomerciales, they settled 15 traps distributed McPhail in a similar way among areas, five for community, sampling" "points. The censuses were carried out with an interval of 15 days, they were identified and they quantified the mature flies of the fruit. For the captures of the individuals, they settled the traps McPhail, using the attractive (Buminal one and as conserving borax. The traps were distributed in representative parcels, having as main cultivations, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, guava and avocado. The identification taxonómica of the captured species was carried out in the laboratory of the National Program of Control of Flies of the fruit (PROMOSCA, clerk of the National Service of Agricultural Sanity and Alimentary (SENASAG Inocuidad. 1210 mature flies of the fruit were captures, those that grouped for species, sex, capture dates and community, corresponding to the seven carried out censuses. The species of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedeman were identified, Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha serpentine (Wiedeman, Anastrepha sp, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, Blepharoneura sp Loew, Hexaresta sp Hering, Hexachaeta sp Loew, Tomoplagia sp Coquillett, Tetreuaresta sp Hendel, being that of more presence Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedeman with 818 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, with 354. The temperature and presence of spices put up frutícolas of flies of the fruit in maturation state explain the observed fluctuations.

  13. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  14. MONITORAMENTO POPULACIONAL DE Anastrepha spp. (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM POMAR DE MANGA (Mangifera indica L. NO MUNICÍPIO DE JABOTICABAL – SP

    Wilson Carlos Pazini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The population monitoring of agricultural pests is an important tool to select the best control methodto be employed in a determined culture. Thus, the objective of this research was analyze the population fluctuation of Anastrepha spp. correlated with the mango tree phenology and the meteorological elements, temperature, relative humidity and pluviometric precipitation. The study was conducted between Mach 2009 to August 2010 in Jaboticabal, SP. For Anastrepha spp. monitoring, we randomly installed five yellow stick traps in an experimental orchard composed by a collection of mango varieties. These traps were replaced every fifteen days and carried to the Laboratory of Ecological Selectivity of the Department of Plant Protection (FCAV/UNESP to evaluate the sampled specimens. The meteorological data were recorded at the FCAV/UNESP Meteorological Station, located approximately 200 m from the study area. The results showed that the greater and more consistent Anastrepha spp. population density is between the spring and summer seasons, particularly related to the mature fruits. A weak positive correlation is observed between maximum temperature (°C and relative humitidy (% when compared with the Anastrepha spp. population density. There is moderate positive correlation between minimum and medium temperatures (°C and accumuluted pluviometric precipitation (mm when compared with the said agricultural pest.O monitoramento populacional de insetos considerados pragas agrícolas constitui uma importante ferramenta para a escolha do melhor método de controle a ser empregado em determinada cultura. Desta forma, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar a flutuação populacional de Anastrepha spp. correlacionada com a fenologia da mangueira e com os elementos meteorológicos, temperatura, umidade relativa e precipitação pluviométrica. O estudo foi desenvolvido no período entre março de 2009 a agosto de 2010 no município de Jaboticabal, SP. Para o

  15. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava,Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque,Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo,P.A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and t...

  16. Preferencia de anastrepha ludens (loew) (diptera: tephritidae) por volátiles de frutos verdes o amarillos de mango y naranja

    María de Jesús García Ramírez; Juan Cibrián Tovar; René Arzufí Barrera; José López Collado; Marcos Soto Hernández

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó la respuesta de la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), a volátiles de frutos verdes y amarillos de mango (Mangifera indica L. var. Haden), y naranja (Citrus aurantium L. var. Valencia). Grupos de moscas hembras y machos fueron evaluados en estado de precópula y postcópula. En los resultados de preferencia, los volátiles de los frutos verdes de mango y naranja atrajeron un mayor número de moscas en comparación con las otras opciones (p #8804;0.05). Las hembras y los...

  17. Selección de cepas de hongos entomopatógenos para el manejo de anastrepha obliqua (macquart, 1835) (diptera: tephritidae) en colombia

    Osorio-Fajardo, Armando; Nelson A Canal

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluaron 15 cepas de los hongos entomopatógenos Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae sobre adultos de un día de edad de la mosca de la fruta Anastrepha obliqua. El trabajo se realizó con el fin de seleccionar las cepas más virulentas al insecto y estudiar el efecto sobre los adultos jóvenes cuando el hongo era aplicado antes de la emergencia. Mediante un screening con una concentración de 1x107 conidias/mL se seleccionaron las tres cepas más virulentas, siendo dos de ellas de Beauv...

  18. Faunistic analysis of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) on a guava orchard under organic management in the municipality of Una, Bahia, Brazil

    We carried out a study to characterize fruit fly populations on an organic guava orchard (Psidium guajava cv. Paluma) in the municipality of Una, southern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using faunistic analysis of the adult fruit f y specimens captured in McPhail traps from January 2004 through March 2007. A total of 22,673 specimens of Anastrepha (15,306 females and 7,367 males) were captured. Thirteen species of Anastrepha were recorded. A. fraterculus and A. obliqua were the more frequent and dominant species, accounting for 90.1% of all females captured in the traps. A. fraterculus was the predominant species (more frequent, constant and dominant). The high value of the Simpson index (0.62) and the low values of Shannon-Wiener (0.83) and equitability (0.49) indices indicated the dominance and high frequency of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua on the guava orchard despite the presence of other fruit species as potential hosts of fruit flies. (author)

  19. Comparison of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains: Effect of Hypoxia, Fly Density, Chilling Period, and Food Type on Fly Quality.

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lía; Hernández, Emilio; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The use of genetic sexing strain (GSS) insects in the sterile insect technique (SIT) makes necessary the revision of quality parameters of some stressful steps used during the packing process for aerial release because of possible differences in tolerance between fly strains. Here, we determined the effect of three periods of hypoxia (12, 24, and 36 h at pupal stage), three cage densities (1.0, 1.3, and 1.5 flies/cm2), two different foods (protein/sugar (1/24) and Mubarqui), and three chilling times (20 min [control], 90, and 180 min) on the quality parameters of flies of two Anastrepha ludens (Loew) strains (bisexual and GSS Tapachula-7). In general, the response to stressful conditions of both fly strains was qualitatively equivalent but quantitatively different, as flies of both strains responded equally to the stressful factors; however, flies of Tapachula-7 exhibited lower quality parameters than the control flies. Thus, hypoxia affected the flying ability but not the emergence or longevity of flies. The food type affected the adult weight; protein/sugar produced heavier flies that also survived longer and had a greater mating propensity. Flies under the lowest density were better fliers that those at the other two densities. Increasing chilling time reduced flight ability but not longevity or mating propensity. The implications of these findings for the use of A. ludens GSS in SIT programs are discussed herein. PMID:26685109

  20. Regional-Scale Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in the Citrus Region of Santa Engracia, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Vanoye-Eligio, Venancio; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Pérez-Castañeda, Roberto; Gaona-García, Griselda; Lara-Villalon, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Large citrus areas in Tamaulipas are affected by Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations. Here we report the findings of a spatio-temporal analysis of A. ludens on an extended citrus area from 2008-2011 aimed at analyzing the probabilities of A. ludens infestation and developing an infestation risk classification for citrus production. A Geographic Information System combined with the indicator kriging geostatistics technique was used to assess A. ludens adult densities in the spring and fall. During the spring, our models predicted higher probabilities of infestation in the western region, close to the Sierra Madre Oriental, than in the east. Although a patchy distribution of probabilities was observed in the fall, there was a trend toward higher probabilities of infestation in the west than east. The final raster models summarized the probability maps using a three-tiered infestation risk classification (low-, medium-, and high risk). These models confirmed the greater infestation risk in the west in both seasons. These risk classification data support arguments for the use of the sterile insect technique and biological control in this extended citrus area and will have practical implications for the area-wide integrated pest management carried out by the National Program Against Fruit Flies in Tamaulipas, Mexico. PMID:26470306

  1. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola, E-mail: ewillink@eeaoc.org.a [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  2. Remating behavior in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) females is affected by male juvenile hormone analog treatment but not by male sterilization.

    Abraham, S; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Peralta, P A; Yusef, V; Ruiz, J; Cladera, J L; Vera, M T; Segura, D F

    2013-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been proposed as an area-wide method to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). This technique requires sterilization, a procedure that affects, along with other factors, the ability of males to modulate female sexual receptivity after copulation. Numerous pre-release treatments have been proposed to counteract the detrimental effects of irradiation, rearing and handling and increase SIT effectiveness. These include treating newly emerged males with a juvenile hormone mimic (methoprene) or supplying protein to the male's diet to accelerate sexual maturation prior to release. Here, we examine how male irradiation, methoprene treatment and protein intake affect remating behavior and the amount of sperm stored in inseminated females. In field cage experiments, we found that irradiated laboratory males were equally able to modulate female remating behavior as fertile wild males. However, females mated with 6-day-old, methoprene-treated males remated more and sooner than females mated with naturally matured males, either sterile or wild. Protein intake by males was not sufficient to overcome reduced ability of methoprene-treated males to induce refractory periods in females as lengthy as those induced by wild and naturally matured males. The amount of sperm stored by females was not affected by male irradiation, methoprene treatment or protein intake. This finding revealed that factors in addition to sperm volume intervene in regulating female receptivity after copulation. Implications for SIT are discussed. PMID:23340454

  3. Acoustic courtship songs in males of the fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae associated with geography, mass rearing and courtship success

    R.D Briceño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been used successfully to control or eradicate fruit flies. The commonly observed inferiority of mass-reared males, compared with wild males, when they are paired with wild females, is apparently due to their inadequate courtship. Anastrepha ludens males produce two types of wing vibration during courtship and mating, the "calling sound" and the "premating or precopulatory sound". There were clear differences in the calling songs between successful and unsuccessful courtships in sterile (irradiated and fertile Mexican flies. Among sterile flies, successful males produce longer buzzes, shorter interpulses and a higher power spectrum in the signal. Fertile flies showed the same trend. For mating songs a significant difference occurred in two parameters: power spectrum between sterile and fertile flies with respect to the type of song, and the signal duration and intensity were greater in non-irradiated flies. Calling songs of wild flies compared with laboratory grown flies from Mexico had shorter interpulses, longer pulses, and a greater power spectrum. However, in the case of premating songs, the only difference was in the intensity, which was significantly greater in wild males. An unexpected result was not observing pulses during pheromone deposition in wild males from Costa Rica. Comparing the premating songs of wild flies from Costa Rica and Mexico, no significant differences were observed in the duration, and the intensity of the signal was slightly greater in flies from Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 257-265. Epub 2009 November 30.

  4. The presence of the sexual partner and nutritional condition alter the Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart (Diptera: Tephritidae) protein discrimination threshold

    The minimum protein amount that Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart can detect in its alimentary source is variable, though the causes of such variation are not very well known. In this study, the authors tested whether the sexual partners nutritional condition and presence devoid of direct contact alter the A. obliqua protein discrimination threshold. Male and female insects were assigned to groups as follows: (1) newly emerged, (2) deprived of protein source (yeast) during 18 days, (3) non-yeast-deprived during 18 days, (4) yeast-deprived in the presence of equally yeast-deprived sexual partners, (5) yeast-deprived in the presence of non-yeast-deprived partners, (6) non-yeast-deprived with yeast-deprived partners and (7) non-yeast-deprived with non-yeast-deprived partners. The sexual partners were maintained apart by a transparent plastic screen with small holes. Not only the males presence but also their nutritional condition have altered the females discrimination threshold, particularly when the females were deprived and when non- deprived females cohabited with deprived males. Therefore, the females threshold was determined by their own nutritional condition in addition to recognition of the males nutritional condition. The males discrimination threshold was higher for non-deprived subjects than for the deprived ones. The occurrence of responses in the absence of direct contact between males and females has shown that they may use a chemical mechanism for mutual recognition of the sexual partner nutritional condition. (author)

  5. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  6. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  7. Acoustic courtship songs in males of the fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae associated with geography, mass rearing and courtship success

    R.D Briceño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been used successfully to control or eradicate fruit flies. The commonly observed inferiority of mass-reared males, compared with wild males, when they are paired with wild females, is apparently due to their inadequate courtship. Anastrepha ludens males produce two types of wing vibration during courtship and mating, the "calling sound" and the "premating or precopulatory sound". There were clear differences in the calling songs between successful and unsuccessful courtships in sterile (irradiated and fertile Mexican flies. Among sterile flies, successful males produce longer buzzes, shorter interpulses and a higher power spectrum in the signal. Fertile flies showed the same trend. For mating songs a significant difference occurred in two parameters: power spectrum between sterile and fertile flies with respect to the type of song, and the signal duration and intensity were greater in non-irradiated flies. Calling songs of wild flies compared with laboratory grown flies from Mexico had shorter interpulses, longer pulses, and a greater power spectrum. However, in the case of premating songs, the only difference was in the intensity, which was significantly greater in wild males. An unexpected result was not observing pulses during pheromone deposition in wild males from Costa Rica. Comparing the premating songs of wild flies from Costa Rica and Mexico, no significant differences were observed in the duration, and the intensity of the signal was slightly greater in flies from Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 257-265. Epub 2009 November 30.La técnica estéril del insecto (SIT se ha utilizado con éxito para controlar o para suprimir las moscas de fruta y su impacto en los cultivos. La inferioridad comúnmente observada de machos criados masivamente, comparada con los machos silvestres, cuando se aparean con las hembras silvestres es al parecer debido a su inadecuado cortejo. Los machos de Anastrepha

  8. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins

  9. Sexual behavior and male volatile compounds in wild and mass-reared strains of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) held under different colony management regimes.

    Bosa, Carlos Felipe; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Valle-Mora, Javier; Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    We compared the calling and mating behavior and volatile release of wild males Anastrepha ludens (Loew) with males from 4 mass-reared strains: (i) a standard mass-reared colony (control), (ii) a genetic sexing strain (Tap-7), (iii) a colony started from males selected on their survival and mating competitiveness abilities (selected), and (iv) a hybrid colony started by crossing wild males with control females. Selected and wild males were more competitive, achieving more matings under field cage conditions. Mass-reared strains showed higher percentages of pheromone calling males under field conditions except for Tap-7 males, which showed the highest percentages of pheromone calling males under laboratory cage conditions. For mature males of all strains, field-cage calling behavior increased during the last hour before sunset, with almost a 2 fold increase exhibited by wild males during the last half hour. The highest peak mating activity of the 4 mass-reared strains occurred 30 min earlier than for wild males. By means of solid phase microextraction (SPME) plus gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the composition of volatiles released by males was analyzed and quantified. Wild males emitted significantly less amounts of (E,E)-α-farnesene but emitted significantly more amounts of (E,E)-suspensolide as they aged than mass-reared males. Within the 4 mass-reared strains, Tap-7 released significantly more amounts of (E,E)-α-farnesene and hybrid more of (E,E)-suspensolide. Differences in chemical composition could be explained by the intrinsic characteristics of the strains and the colony management regimes. Characterization of calling behavior and age changes of volatile composition between wild and mass-reared strains could explain the differences in mating competitiveness and may be useful for optimizing the sterile insect technique in A. ludens. PMID:25339372

  10. Effect of host plant chemistry on genetic differentiation and reduction of gene flow among Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations exploiting sympatric, synchronic hosts.

    Oroño, Luis; Paulin, Laura; Alberti, Andrea C; Hilal, Mirna; Ovruski, Sergio; Vilardi, Juan C; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Herbivore host specialization includes changes in behavior, driven by locally induced adaptations to specific plants. These adaptations often result in sexual isolation that can be gauged through detection of reduced gene flow between host associated populations. Hypothetically, reduced gene flow can be mediated both by differential response to specific plant kairomones and by the influence of larval diet on some adult traits such as pheromone composition. These hypotheses could serve as a model to explain rapid radiation of phytophagous tephritid fruit flies, a group that includes several complexes of cryptic species. The South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is a complex of at least seven cryptic species among which pheromone mediated sexual isolation resulted in rapid differentiation. Cryptic species also exhibit differences in host affiliation. In search of a model explaining rapid radiation in this group, we studied host plant chemical composition and genetic structure of three host associated sympatric populations of A. fraterculus. Chemical composition among host plant fruit varied widely both for nutrient and potentially toxic secondary metabolite content. Adaptation to plant chemistry appears to have produced population differentiation. We found host mediated differentiation to be stronger between populations exploiting sympatric synchronic hosts differing in chemical composition, than between populations that exploit hosts that fruit in succession. Gene flow among such host associated populations was extremely low. We propose as a working hypothesis for future research, that for those differences to persist over time, isolating mechanisms such as male produced sex pheromones and female preferences resulting from adaptation to different larval diets should evolve. PMID:23905743

  11. Demographic analysis of mass-reared Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Tucumán, Argentina Análisis demográfico de la cría masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae en Tucumán, Argentina

    Héctor E. Jaldo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of a lab-adapted mass reared strain of Anastrepha fraterculus at 24°C constant temperature was 41 days, including the preoviposition period. Mortality rates of 8%, 22%, 22%, 5%, and 43% were recorded for eggs, larvae, pupae, adults (preoviposition stage and adults (reproductive stage, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase was 0.065, the net fecundity rate was 120.4, and the gross fecundity rate was 328.4. In a stable population, 22% would be eggs, 53% larvae, 18% pupae, 4% preoviposition adults, and 3% reproductive adults.El ciclo de vida de Anastrepha fraterculus en cría masiva a temperatura constante de 24°C fue de 41 días, incluyendo el período de preoviposición. Las mortalidades para huevo, larva, pupa, adultos en preoviposición y adultos reproductivos fueron de 8%, 22%, 22%, 5% y 43%, respectivamente. La tasa intrínseca de incremento natural fue de 0,065, la tasa de fertilidad neta fue de 120,4, y la tasa de fertilidad bruta fue de 328,4. En una población estable 22% debería ser huevos, 53% larvas, 18% pupas, 4% adultos en preoviposición y 3% adultos en etapa reproductiva.

  12. Flutuação populacional de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae na Região Oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil Population fluctuation of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae in the Western Region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies are the major pests in fruit orchards and require a frequent insecticide aplication control, which increases production cost and chemical residues in fruits. Adults of Anastrepha fraterculus were sampled from twelve peach, plum, orange, tangerine and acid lime orchards in four counties in the Western Region of Santa Catarina. Modified McPhail plastic traps, baited with glucose 10%, were used to collect the flies from October 1998 to September 2000. Trap monitoring, bait replacement and fruit flies sorting by species and sex were done weekly. A total of 4,164 specimens of A. fraterculus was collected and highest population was registered in the county of Chapecó (64,8% of all sampled flies. Adults were collected all year long, with the highest population peaks occurring from December and January, although the fluctuation was different for each fruit species due to their particular phenology and in different years. Positive correlation among temperature, atmospheric humidity and population levels of adults of A. fraterculus was observed. According to the degree days obtained for each year, 4851.9, 4632.9 and 4983.7, respectively in 1998, 1999 and 2000, it was established that A. fraterculus could present an average of 11.2 generations a year.

  13. Biology of Anastrepha fraterculus

    This paper presents available (published) information on specific abiotic factors, such as temperature, humidity, and lighting on the life cycle of Anastrepha fraterculus, henceforth AF. AF displays holometabolous development: egg, larva (development is completed in three instars), pupa and free living adults. (author)

  14. Efficacy of sterile releases of Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) against wild populations in urban hosts adjacent to commercial citrus

    The sterile male release technique was tested either as an alternative to fumigation or as a supplement to a fly-free management program in 1988 for control of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). The test area consisted of 19-28 sq. kilometers with a corresponding non-sterile fly release area. Releases began in January, 1988, and continued generally through June 1990. Efficacy was measured by determining the presence or absence of flies using an aggressive trapping program. Suppression of wild A. suspensa in the first year could not be measured easily but, by the end of the third year, measurable reduction was evident

  15. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae) Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B.; Cladera, Jorge L.; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6) pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications. PMID:27362546

  16. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae) Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member.

    Gariou-Papalexiou, Angeliki; Giardini, María Cecilia; Augustinos, Antonios A; Drosopoulou, Elena; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B; Cladera, Jorge L; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6) pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications. PMID:27362546

  17. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member.

    Angeliki Gariou-Papalexiou

    Full Text Available Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6 pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT applications.

  18. Male Courtship Behavior of the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, from an Argentinean Laboratory Strain

    Gomez Cendra, P.; Calcagno, G; Belluscio, L; Vilardi, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest of fruit species of warm regions of the Americas, including Argentina. Some authors claim that this taxon includes a group of cryptic species. In order to evaluate possible targets of sexual selection, it is necessary to analyze ethological aspects of male courtship and identify particular steps that strongly influence mating success. A mating test designed to evaluate behavioral differences betwe...

  19. Optimización del proceso de cría de Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) utilizando una dieta larvaria a base de almidón pre-gelatinizado

    J. Pedro RIVERA; Emilio HERNÁNDEZ; Jorge TOLEDO; Bigail BRAVO; Salvador, Miguel; Yeudiel GÓMEZ

    2012-01-01

    La dieta larvaria para cría masiva de la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) representa el 30% del costo de producción y genera una gran cantidad de desechos sólidos con alto contenido de proteína como resultado de un bajo aprovechamiento por las larvas. Para reducir los costos de producción y la cantidad de desechos sólidos generados, se desarrolló una dieta texturizada con almidón pre-gelatinizado, con la cual se incrementó la producción en comparación con una dieta estanda...

  20. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  1. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens.

    Schetelig, M F; Targovska, A; Meza, J S; Bourtzis, K; Handler, A M

    2016-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations. SIT has been improved for larval pests by the development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we describe the extension of this approach to the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, using a Tet-off driver construct with the Tet-transactivator (tTA) under embryo-specific Anastrepha suspensa serendipity α (As-sry-α) promoter regulation. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA acts upon a Tet-response element linked to the pro-apoptotic cell death gene lethal effector, head involuation defective (hid), from A. ludens (Alhid(Ala2) ) that contains a sex-specific intron splicing cassette, resulting in female-specific expression of the lethal effector. Parental adults double-homozygous for the driver/effector vectors were expected to yield male-only progeny when reared on Tet-free diet, but a complete lack of oviposited eggs resulted for each of the three strains tested. Ovary dissection revealed nonvitellogenic oocytes in all strains that was reversible by feeding females tetracycline for 5 days after eclosion, resulting in male-only adults in one strain. Presumably the sry-α promoter exhibits prezygotic maternal expression as well as zygotic embryonic expression in A. ludens, resulting in a Tet-off sterility effect in addition to female-specific lethality. PMID:27135433

  2. Specific bibliography on Anastrepha fraterculus

    Most publications on Anastrepha fraterculus are in the literature sources from South America, and papers were published in Spanish or Portuguese. Many literature sources mentioned in this list are not indexed in entomological abstracts and, consequently, are not easily available outside their home state or country. Due to this fact, the inclusion of a list of specific bibliography on A. fraterculus could be a help for researchers and students interested in fruit flies. In this list are included only references directly dealing with Anastrepha fraterculus. Obviously, many more references exist that consider this species, but general or non-specific work or data concerning A. fraterculus were not included in the present list. (author)

  3. Taxonomic status of Anastrepha fraterculus

    There has long been speculation that nominal Anastrepha fraterculus comprises more than a single biological species. Herein is a review of data supporting the hypothesis that multiple cryptic species are present. Evidence includes unusual variation in pest status, morphology, karyotypes, isozymes, mitochondrial DNA and cuticular hydrocarbon. The data strongly support the notion of multiple cryptic species. However, it is not yet possible to state how many species may be involved or to delineate them by diagnostic morphology, distribution, host plants or behavior. A combination of methodologies will be needed to resolve the complex. (author)

  4. La suspensa mola de Columela y las molae oleariae

    Sáez Fernández, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo se plantea como un estado de la cuestión sobre la llamada mola olearia , término erróneamente atribuido a Columela, ya que éste alude a una suspensa mola para la molturación de aceitunas. Tras un estudio de fuentes escritas y hallazgos ar - queológicos de la Bética y de la Mauritania Tingitana se llega a la conclusión de que se trató de una adaptación del molino de cereales para la molturación de aceitunas, puesto en funcion...

  5. Evaluating the quality of the Mexican fruit-fly, Anastrepha ludens, as host for the parasitoid Melittobia digitata

    J.M. González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the presence of Melittobia digitata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and its associations with its natural hosts in Veracruz, Mexico. The parasitoid was confirmed to be present and found to attack prepupae of Trypoxylon and Sceliphron (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae and Sphecidae, respectively mud daubers as well as pupae of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae. Since A. ludens is a very important pest of citrus and mango in Mexico and Central America, we evaluated, in laboratory experiments, the quality of A. ludens as host of M. digitata comparing the development of the parasitoid in another unrelated fly species (Sarcophaga [Neobellieria] bullata (Diptera: Sarcophagidae and in mud dauber wasps (Trypoxylon sp. and Sceliphron sp.. The Mexican fruit fly appears to be a good-quality host for M. digitata, and the results are discussed in the context of their possible interest as a natural enemy of A. ludens.

  6. Characterization of the proteasome ß2 subunit gene and its mutant allele in the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Conditional lethal release (CLR) is a proposed variation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the biological control of pest insects that would result from the release of transgenic insects carrying dominant conditional lethal genes. After mating with pest insects in the field, lethal gene exp...

  7. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua.

    Scally, M; Into, F; Thomas, D B; Ruiz-Arce, R; Barr, N B; Schuenzel, E L

    2016-08-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific relationships within A. obliqua as well as interspecific relationships to other Anastrepha species using a multi-locus data set comprising nine loci (seven nuclear, two mitochondrial) with 105 operational taxonomic units. The results based on a concatenated set of nuclear loci strongly support the monophyly of A. obliqua and most of the other species previously identified by morphology. A split between Peruvian A. obliqua samples and those from other locations was also identified. These results contrast with prior findings of relationships within A. obliqua based on mitochondrial data, as we found a marked discrepancy between nuclear and mitochondrial loci. These analyses suggest that introgression, particularly between A. obliqua and fraterculus species, may be one explanation for the discrepancy and the high mitochondrial diversity reported for A. obliqua could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting. PMID:27126185

  8. Sex Pheromone Investigation of Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Attraction of virgin females to odor of calling males was demonstrated. This sex pheromone mediated attraction occurred during the latter half of a 13-h photophase but not during the first half of the day. Two major components of emissions of calling males, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) and 2,5-dihyd...

  9. Color preference of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae Preferência de cor por Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Guillermo López-Guillén

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The color preference of A. obliqua was evaluated in two-choice tests. The results showed that both sexes were attracted to wavelengths ranging from 340 nm to 670 nm, although the broad major peak of attraction occurred between 380 and 570 nm.A preferência de cor por A. obliqua foi avaliada em testes de dupla escolha. Os resultados mostraram que ambos os sexos foram atraídos aos comprimentos de onda que variam de 340 nm a de 670 nm, embora o principal pico da atração de A. obliqua tenha ocorrido entre 380 e 570 nm.

  10. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable. PMID:22812118

  11. Experiments of attractants for Anastrepha striata in Costa Rica

    The experiments were carried out in several orchards that are hosts of anastrepha striata (diptera: tephritidae). The orchards are: (1) grecia canton (year 2001) which is a mix coffee and orange orchard, (2) esparza canton (2002 and 2003) which is a mango orchard, (3) pocora (2002 and 2004) which is a guava orchard, and 4) corralar (2002 and 2004) which is also a mixed coffee and orange orchard. The purpose was to determine the responses of the guava fruit fly a. Striata to seven attractants: (a) nulure, (b) ammonium acetate (aa) at a release rate of 150μg nh4/hour + putrescine (pt), (c) aa at 300μg nh4/hour + pt, d) aa at 600μg nh4/hour +pt, e) ammonium bicarbonate (ab) at 300μg nh4/hour + pt, f) aa at 300μg nh4/hour + pt + trimethylamine and g) torula yeast. Each experiment lasted eight weeks, with a change of the attractants every four weeks and biweekly collecting of the captured fruit flies and non-target insects. The data are expressed by means of flies per trap per day (ftd). In the experiment carried out in pocora (2004) and in corrralar (2002 and 2004) the highest ftd was obtained with nulure (0.92, 0.021 and 0.02, respectively). In esparza (2002) and pocora (2002) the largest ftd was obtained with torula (0.03 and 0.12, respectively) and the second best was nulure. In grecia (2001) and in esparza (2003) the best attractant was the mixture of ammonium acetate with putrescine. In grecia (2001), pocora (2004) and corralar (2002), the second best was torula yeast. Important information on the presence, abundance and fluctuation of a. Striata populations was obtained under diverse climatic conditions and crop phenology. This information serves as an important basis to continue studies on the effectiveness of trapping systems used against this fruit fly species and potential use of bait stations. (author)

  12. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids. PMID:22251652

  13. Flutuação populacional de adultos de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. em cultivo protegido e convencional de videira Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. adult seasonal fluctuation in plastic covering and conventional grapevine cultivation

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-das-frutas sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Tephritidae, é considerada praga-chave das fruteiras de clima temperado na região Sul do Brasil. No entanto, poucas informações encontram-se disponíveis quando a espécie está associada à cultura da videira. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da cobertura plástica sobre a população de adultos de A. fraterculus durante o ciclo de cultivo da videira cv. Moscato Giallo. O experimento foi conduzido nos ciclos de 2005/06 e 2006/07, em vinhedo comercial localizado em Flores da Cunha-RS (latitude 29° 06' sul, longitude 51° 20' oeste e altitude de 541 m, coberto com plástico impermeável tipo ráfia (160 µm de 12 fileiras com 35 m, deixando-se cinco fileiras sem cobertura (controle. Os adultos foram monitorados nas duas áreas com armadilhas McPhail, utilizando-se como atrativo de proteína hidrolisada (BioAnastrepha® a 5%, no período de outubro a abril, nos dois ciclos. O pico populacional da espécie, nos dois ciclos, foi observado no período de maturação da uva. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas nas capturas entre as áreas, concluindo-se que a cobertura plástica não afeta a mobilidade e a flutuação populacional de A. fraterculus em cultivo protegido de videira.The South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the most important pests of temperate fruits in Southern Brazil. Little information regarded to pest damage is available when this insect is associated with vineyards. In this work was evaluated the plastic cover effect on seasonal fluctuation of A. fraterculus adults in vineyards of cv. Moscato Giallo. The experiment was conducted on 2005/06 and 2006/07 seasons in a vineyard located in Flores da Cunha, RS (latitude 29° 06' South, longitude 51° 20' West and altitude 541 m, covered with an impermeable plastic cloth (2.65 m x 160 µm, in 12 rows with 35 m, with five rows

  14. Breeding technique of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) for genetic studies

    Various samples of Anastrepha fraterculus from different areas in Argentina were obtained to develop artificial breeding in the laboratory. Based on a modification of Salles's method, an improved artificial rearing of the species was developed with satisfactory results for genetic analysis. The advances made will contribute towards the search for genetic mechanisms for control. (author)

  15. Distribution of Anastrepha spp. in carambola orchards: Evidence for migration

    Carambola orchards in Juana Diaz, Corozal, and Isabela, PR, were monitored for Anastrepha spp. fruit flies using Multi-lure traps baited with putrescine and ammonium acetate. The number of flies at various locations within the orchards were statistically compared with the expected distribution if fl...

  16. Synthetic attractants for Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico

    The efficacy of synthetic attractants in the capture of Anastrepha fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua and A. serpentina) was tested in three commercial orchards of known fruit fly hosts: mango (Mangifera indica L.), mammy (Calocarpum mammosum L.) and Mexican plum (Spondias purpurea L.) in Chiapas, Mexico. Among the synthetic attractants tested, we found that Ammonium Acetate (AA) plus Putrescine (PT) in a liquid trap was often the best combination for attracting flies. Interestingly, the reduction of release rate of AA increases the capture of fruit flies. We also found that Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB) plus PT in a wet trap was effective in a Mexican plum orchard in comparison with the other combinations of synthetic attractants. However, the synthetic attractants in dry traps were not effective and always presented the lowest Captures. (author)

  17. A new species of Anastrepha from Colombia related to Mexican fruit fly (Díptera: Tephritidae

    ALLEM L NORRBOM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha manizaliensis Norrbom & Korytkowski, new species, is described from Colombia. lt breeds in fruit of Juglans neotropica Diels (Juglandaceae, commonly known in Colombia as "cedro negro". The new species was previously confused with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew, a major pest of citrus and mango, leading to quarantine problems, bul true A. ludens does not occur in Colombia.

  18. On the Stereoselective Synthesis of (+)-Pinoresinol in Forsythia Suspensa from its Achiral Precursor, Coniferyl Alcohol

    Davin, Laurence B.; Bedgar, Diana L.; Katayama, Takeshi; Lewis, Norman G.

    1992-01-01

    The residue from Forsythia suspensa stems, upon removal of soluble enzymes, has provided the first evidence for a stereoselective coupling enzyme in lignan biosynthesis. This preparation catalyses the preferred formation (ca 65%) of (+)-[8,8'- C-14] pinoresinol from [8-C-14]coniferyl alcohol in the absence of exogenously provided cofactors; addition of H2O2 had little effect on enantiomeric composition. However, when NAD and malate were supplied, the stereoselectivity of the coupling reaction was significantly enhanced and pinoresinol consisting of ca 80% of the (+)-antipode was obtained. Clearly, the insoluble residue contains a specific coupling enzyme which catalyses (+)-pinoresinol formation from coniferyl alcohol. By contrast, when [8- C-14] sinapyl alcohol was employed as substrate, only racemic syringaresinols were formed: this non-stereoselective peroxidase-catalysed coupling reaction presumably accounts for the low levels of (-)-pinoresinol encountered in this system when coniferyl alcohol is used as a substrate.

  19. Comparison of Fruits of Forsythia suspensa at Two Different Maturation Stages by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Jinping Jia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Forsythiae Fructus (FF, the dried fruit of Forsythia suspensa, has been widely used as a heat-clearing and detoxifying herbal medicine in China. Green FF (GF and ripe FF (RF are fruits of Forsythia suspensa at different maturity stages collected about a month apart. FF undergoes a complex series of physical and biochemical changes during fruit ripening. However, the clinical uses of GF and RF have not been distinguished to date. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of GF and RF, NMR-based metabolomics coupled with HPLC and UV spectrophotometry methods were adopted in this study. Furthermore, the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of 50% methanol extracts of GF and RF were also evaluated. A total of 27 metabolites were identified based on NMR data, and eight of them were found to be different between the GF and RF groups. The GF group contained higher levels of forsythoside A, forsythoside C, cornoside, rutin, phillyrin and gallic acid and lower levels of rengyol and β-glucose compared with the RF group. The antioxidant activity of GF was higher than that of RF, but no significant difference was observed between the antibacterial activities of GF and RF. Given our results showing their distinct chemical compositions, we propose that NMR-based metabolic profiling can be used to discriminate between GF and RF. Differences in the chemical and biological activities of GF and RF, as well as their clinical efficacies in traditional Chinese medicine should be systematically investigated in future studies.

  20. Hongos patógenos asociados a “moscas de la fruta” (Diptera: Tephritidae) en el sector austral de Las Yungas del noroeste argentino

    Albornoz Medina, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    La presencia en Argentina de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (especie nativa) y Ceratitis capitata (especie exótica) limitan la exportación de frutas y hortalizas al estado fresco, ya que estas plagas son de importancia cuarentenaria. A nivel mundial existe una tendencia a disminuir el empleo de plaguicidas de sintesis contra “moscas de la fruta”, debido fundamentalmente a los efectos nocivos de estos sobre el ambiente y la salud humana, sumado a la necesidad de la conservación ...

  1. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose ≥20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  3. Current knowledge of the species complex Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Brazil

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Hernández-Ortiz, V.; Bravo, I. S. J.; Dias, V.; Roriz, A. K. P.; Laumann, R. A.; Mendonca, A. L.; Paranhos, B. A. J.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 211-237. ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * cryptic species * taxonomy * sexual behavior * chemical communication Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2014 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6228

  4. Intraspecific variation of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) species complex

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Mendonca, A. L.; Pompeiano, A.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 9 (2015), s. 679-689. ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : chemotaxonomy * GCxGC/TOFMS * multiple factorial analyses * putative species * South American fruit fly Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2014

  5. Identification of male-borne attractants in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Milet-Pinheiro, P.; Navarro, D. M. A.; De Aquino, N. C.; Ferreira, L. L.; Tavares, R. F.; Correia da Silva, R. C.; Lima-Mendonca, A.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Mendonca, A. L.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2015), s. 115-122. ISSN 0937-7409 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * sexual pheromone * male-borne attractants * GC-EAD * behavioral activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.923, year: 2014

  6. Pheromone analyses of the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) cryptic species complex

    Břízová, Radka; Mendonca, A. L.; Vaníčková, L.; Mendonca, Al. L.; Da Silva, C. E.; Tomčala, Aleš; Paranhos, B. A. J.; Dias, V. S.; Joachim-Bravo, I. S.; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2013), s. 1107-1115. ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * GCxGC/TOE-MS * principal component analysis (PCA) Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2013

  7. Isolation and identification of the pheromone components of the Argentine population of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Kalinová, Blanka; Břízová, Radka; Vaníčková, L.; Hoskovec, Michal; Bachmann, G.; Vera, M. T.; Nascimento, R. R.

    Bogotá: -, 2014. s. 88. [ALAEQ 2014. Congress of the Latin American Association of Chemical Ecology /3./. 18.11.2014-21.11.2014, Bogotá] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13AR018 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fruit flies * male sex pheromones * populations Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  8. Notes on the present situation of Anastrepha fraterculus in Argentina

    Behavioural and karyotypical results from Anastrepha fraterculus samples received in our laboratory during the period 92-94 are discussed. The work represents the partial situation of this pest in Argentina. Data from guava fruits indicate 1) that the oviposition behaviour does not agree with the autocontrol mechanism via ODP previously described, 2) that a selection mechanism associated to fruit size and quality exists, allowing the female to choose the oviposition site, 3) if different varieties of fruits are available, then the fly shows preference for one of them. The oviposition behaviour in samples of peaches is different from that observed on guava samples and agrees with the ODP mechanism. In some localities, A. fraterculus and C. capitata share the same substrate or fruit (same unit). Samples from commercial oranges do not show evidence of Anastrepha attack. A more frequent karyotype fArg 1 (wild type karyotype) as well as high karyotypic variation, mainly measured through the polymorphism of sexual chromosomes, are present within different geographic populations sharing the same host species. To date, we do not have enough information to associate a particular behaviour to a karyotype. The chromosomal analysis is merely descriptive. (author)

  9. Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae in maize (Zea mays L. and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskal in Brazil

    Ivan Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae in maize (Zea mays L. and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskalin Brazil. Species of Euxesta (Diptera, Ulidiidae, known as silk flies or ear flies, are becoming increasingly important as maize insect pests in South America, although very little is known about them in Brazil. The larvae of some species of this genus initially damage female reproductive tissues, and then the developing kernels on the ear. As a result of feeding, fermentation and associated odors cause complete loss of the grain because it is no longer fit for human or livestock consumption. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the incidence of Euxesta spp. in Brazilian maize fields and to determine the most prevalent species using two different hydrolyzed protein foods attractants, BioAnastrepha® (hydrolyzed maize protein and Torula, placed inside McPhail traps. The two species identified were E. eluta Loew and E. mazorca Steyskal, the latter being a new record from Brazil. Between the two species, E. eluta was the more abundant in maize fields. Both attractants were efficient in capturing the two species. However, BioAnastrepha® captured significantly more insects than Torula.

  10. Standardization of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) female trapping for use in sterile insect programmes. Catamarca, Argentina, 1995-1997

    The main objective of the study was to assess Ceratitis capitata Wied. (medfly) female trapping with new traps and attractants in varying ecological conditions as part of a co-ordinated international programme. Trials were carried out between 1995 and 1997, using seven types of traps baited with the various combination of sexual and food attractants. Different methods for insects retention were also tested. For these trials, protocols established by the International Atomic Energy Agency were followed. The Jackson Trap with Trimedlure plugs proved to be the most efficient for capture of medfly males, while International Pheromone's McPhail Trap was the most efficient for the capture of females, when used with a combination of all three new attractants (FA-3) consisting of ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine plus the toxicant DDVP for insect retention. The new traps and attractants also captured flies belonging to genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). (author)

  11. Morphological characterization of the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus

    Bartolucci, Andrea, E-mail: andreabartolucci@iscamen.com.a [Instituto de Sanidad y Calidad Agropecuaria de Mendoza (ISCAMEN), Mendoza (Argentina); Vera, M. Teresa [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), (Argentina); Yusef, Veronica [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza; Oviedo, Andrea [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Field identification of released sterile insects is a major issue for eradication and suppression programs. Irradiated flies are normally identified by the presence of a fluorescent dye. When a fly lacks fluorescent dye, determination of gonadal state is necessary to identified between sterile or fertile flies. This is particularly relevant when population levels have decreased. Animal and identification is required to be as unequivocal as possible. Here we describe the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus of different ages and we compare it with that of fertile flies in order to provide a diagnosis tool. Fertile and irradiated A. fraterculus were dissected from the day of emergence and until 15 days of age. Gross morphology was described and the gonads were measured. Germ cells were visualized in the testis. The reproductive systems of both males and females contained the same structures as other Anastrepha species. From day 1 to day 3, there were no detectable differences between irradiated and fertile males. The growing region encompassed half the testis total length and there was no free sperm in the seminal vesicle. On day 4 the presence of free sperm was seen in the seminal vesicle. At this stage irradiated males started differentiating from fertile ones: the growing region reduced in size and totally disappeared by day 11; sperm bundle zones occupied most of the testis; spermatids lost their triangular shape and sperm remained in the seminal vesicle without moving into the apical region. Testis length and width of irradiated males did not differ from fertile males. In females, the maturation of the ovaries involved a change in size that was more pronounced in the length of the ovary. This became noticeable at day 3. At this stage, the formation of yolk and the basal follicle began in fertile females and the oocyte had the same size as the trophocytes. From this point, the oocyte started growing. After day 8, the maturing oocyte reached

  12. Diptera. Chapter 10

    Marcela Skuhravá

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the 19,400 native species and 125 families forming the European diptera fauna, 98 species (less than 0.5% in 22 families are alien to Europe. These aliens constitute 66 species (18 families of the suborder Brachycera and 32 species (4 families of the suborder Nematocera. By family in this category, there are 23 Cecidomyiidae species, 18 Drosophilidae, nine Phoridae, eight Tachinidae and seven Culicidae. Another 32 fly species belonging to five families are considered to be alien in Europe. These invasives native to other European countries are composed of 14 species of Cecidomyiidae, seven Syrphidae, five Culicidae and three species each of Anthomyiidae and Tephritidae. The date of the first record in Europe is known for 84 alien species. Arrivals of alien species of Diptera have accelerated rapidly since the second half of the 20th century. North America appears to be the dominant contributor of the alien flies. The majority of alien Diptera were introduced into or within Europe unintentionally, with only three predators released intentionally for biological control. Alien Diptera are predominantly phytophagous (35.6%, while a lesser portion are zoophagous (28.6% or detrivorous/mycetophagous (29.6%. Ecological impacts on native fauna and flora have not been documented for any of the alien species established in Europe. However, 14 alien species have economic impacts on crops.

  13. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  14. Radiation-induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase in Caribbean fruit fly larvae (diptera:tephritidae) as the basis for a simple test of irradiation

    First instars of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100, and 150 Gy doses from a Cs-137 source, and observed for whole body melanization as late third instars. Control larvae rapidly melanized, whereas larvae irradiated at ≥20 Gy failed to show typical melanization after freezing and thawing. Assays of phenoloxidase in control and irradiated larvae showed greatly decreased enzyme activity at ≥20 Gy and substantial reduction at lower doses. Larvae were also irradiated on the 1st d of each instar, and phenoloxidase activity was determined when they became late third instars. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of the first instar and on 1st d of the second instar has ∼90% or greater reduction in phenoloxidase activity as late third instars. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of the instar had ∼50% reduction in phenoloxidase activity at the time they became late third instars leaving the food to pupate. A simple spot test for phenoloxidase was developed that produced a red color with a crushed control larvae and no color with a larva irradiated at ≥25 Gy. The radiation induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase activity, and a simple spot test may serve as tests for irradiation treatment of Caribbean fruit fly larvae. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus: Variability with Sex and Age

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Svatoš, Aleš; Kroiss, J.; Kaltenpoth, M.; do Nascimento, R. R.; Hoskovec, Michal; Břízová, Radka; Kalinová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 9 (2012), s. 1133-1142. ISSN 0098-0331 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anastrepha fratercules species complex * cuticular hydrocarbons * sex-specific differences * age-dependent production Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  16. New insights in the definition of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Břízová, Radka; Cáceres-Barrios, C.; Canal, N.; Castaneda, R.; Nascimento, R.; Silva, J.; Hendrichs, J.; Hernández-Ortiz, V.; Joachim-Bravo, I.; Kalinová, Blanka; Lima, K.; Malacrida, A.; Roriz, K.; Rull, J.; Segura, D.; Steck, G.; Teal, P.; Vaníčková, L.; Vreysen, M.

    Bangkok: Siam Print, 2014 - (Malavasi, A.; Cardoso-Pereira, R.; Orankanok, W.). s. 44 ISBN 978-616-358-012-2. [ISFFEI 2014. International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance /9./. 12.05.2014-16.05.2014, Bangkok] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anastrepha fraterculus * cryptic species * integrative taxonomy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  17. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses

    Dina Orozco-Dávila; Maria de Lourdes Adriano-Anaya; Luis Quintero-Fong; Miguel Salvador-Figueroa

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiati...

  18. Characterisation of the chemical profiles of Brazilian and Andean morphotypes belonging to the Anastrepha fraterculus complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, A.; Ferreira, L. L.; De Aquino, N. C.; Tavares, R. F.; Rodriguez, L. D.; Mendonca, A. L.; Canal, N. A.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 193-209. ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cryptic species * chemotaxonomy * GCxGC/MS * PCA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2014 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6224

  19. Pheromone communication in Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae): A comparison of the volatiles and salivary gland extracts of two wild populations

    Goncalves, G. B.; Silva, C. E.; Mendonca, A. D. L.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Tomčala, Aleš; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2013), s. 1365-1374. ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : salivary glands * volatile compounds * sex attractant * wild population * gas chromatography - mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2013

  20. Karyotype study of the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in Argentina

    The most frequent karyotype of Anastrepha fraterculus in Argentina is described here on the basis of mitotic metaphase morphology. It was named ''fraterculus Arg 1''. The diploid number is 2n=10+XX/XY and in males it comprises five homomorphic pairs and one heteomorphic pair, the latter being the sexual pair. Samples from different populations were cytologically analyzed, and ''fraterculus Arg 1'' is present in all of them at a high frequency (about 60%). A typical C band pattern of the X chromosome was found only in the Montecarlo (Misiones province) population. (author)

  1. Parasitóides (Braconidae associados à Anastrepha (Tephritidae em frutos hospedeiros do litoral sul da Bahia Parasitoids (Braconidae associated with Anastrepha (Tephritidae in host fruits on the southern coast of Bahia, Brazil

    Maria Aparecida Leão Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os organismos que atuam no controle biológico natural dos tefritídeos, os representantes da família Braconidae constituem-se no mecanismo de parasitismo natural mais atuante, e na região Neotropical, representantes de Opiinae são os principais agentes de controle de Anastrepha. Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer a percentagem de parasitismo e as espécies de braconídeos associados às fruteiras cultivadas em municípios da região Litoral Sul da Bahia. No período de agosto de 2005 a março de 2008, coletaram-se frutos hospedeiros de moscas-das-frutas de diversas espécies botânicas, e dos frutos foram obtidas as seguintes espécies de Anastrepha: A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. bahiensis, A serpentina, A. sororcula e A. zenildae. Do total de 838 exemplares de braconídeos, 21,36% foram da espécie Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, provenientes de cajá, carambola, goiaba, manga e pitanga; 4,42% da espécie Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck obtidos dos frutos de cajá, carambola e goiaba, e apenas um exemplar da espécie Opius bellus Gahan (0,12% que emergiu da amostra de goiaba. A espécie Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (74,10% foi predominante e emergiu dos pupários provenientes de todos os frutos hospedeiros coletados, provavelmente pela maior eficiência desta espécie em localizar as larvas dos tefritídeos. A percentagem média de parasitismo de Anastrepha spp. foi de 4,45%.Among the organisms acting in the natural biological control of tephritids, members of the family Braconidae are the most active form of natural parasite, and in Neotropical regions, members of Opiinae are the main control agents of Anastrepha. The objective of this work was to discover the percentage of parasitism and the species of braconid associated with fruit trees growing in cities on the southern coast of Bahia. During the period of August, 2005 to March, 2008, hosts fruits of fruit flies from several plant species were collected and from the

  2. A checklist of the species of Anastrepha with the families of their host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids in Brazil

    Many surveys on fruit flies have already been carried out by several researchers in Brazil while others are still going on. Most of these surveys were conducted in areas where no studies had been previously done. With these surveys, new species and new records of species were found in Brazil. Also, in this decade, several surveys on fruit fly braconid parasitoids were conducted. These data have been summarised recently, because of the great interest in the biological control of fruit flies in Brazil. Research on eucoilid fruit fly parasitoids have been largely neglected. However, taxonomic studies are being conducted on eucoilids associated with frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) in Brazil. All the data on fruit flies, host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids are unfortunately scattered in the literature and frequently are only published as dissertations or congress abstracts which are not widely available. Even when submitted for publication, papers take a long time to come out in Brazil. Consequently, it is very difficult to get a list of the Anastrepha species in Brazil, or to determine which host plant species are associated with them. These data are of particular interest in the case of economically important species, especially those considered as quarantine pests. Therefore, such a list is very useful for regulatory entomologists and pest management programmes by listing the Anastrepha species in Brazil and their associated host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids. The objective of this paper is to gather some available records of the Anastrepha species, their host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids (Braconidae and Eucoilidae) published in Brazil. Due to the space limitation of this paper, only families of the host plants of the Anastrepha species are presented. In fact, this work is part of a research which deals with the preparation of a database for the Anastrepha species in Brazil

  3. 7 CFR 305.31 - Irradiation treatment of imported regulated articles for certain plant pests.

    2010-01-01

    ... Drug Administration under 21 CFR part 179. (2) Be constructed so as to provide physically separate... Anastrepha suspensa Caribbean fruit fly 70 Aspidiotus destructor Coconut scale 150 Bactrocera jarvisi...

  4. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

  5. Procedures for mass rearing the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua

    A series of bioassays resulted in a promising colony of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) for artificial production. A new model circular cage has been designed to achieve an increase in density of adults per cages, thus resulting in an increase in egg production. A bioassay for best egg production as well as constant hydration of eggs until collection time was chosen. Cotton fabric gave the best results of the fabrics used in the oviposition panel. A new diet based on corn cob particles and with citrus acid instead of hydrochloric acid was tested and showed promising results in good production, quality and less risk in handling. The optimum humidity range for larva to pupa conversion was found to be 70-80%. (author)

  6. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  7. Trials to determine levels of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) on fruit and artificial oviposition devices

    The current work was conducted in order to determine the level of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus on fresh mangos and artificial oviposition devices. Four trials were carried out during which freshly harvested fruit was exposed to wild South American adult fruit flies. The following viable oviposition/day/kg of fruit (viable ovipositions = emerged adults) were established: 79.16, 71.25, 83.6 and 60.6. The trials were carried out at 25 deg. C - 28 deg. C and 60%-80% relative humidity. Beginning with the first generation one trial was carried out which confirmed the acceptance of sexually mature females to oviposit on red oviposition devices consisting of wax-covered cloth. However, red plastic containers with holes of 0.5 mm did not produce good results. (author)

  8. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    Orono, Luis E.; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. van; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Martin, Cristina B.; Schliserman, Pablo; Ovruski, Sergio M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  9. Mass rearing of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, Mexico

    A description of the present methods for mass rearing Anastrepha ludens, known as the Mexican fruit fly, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, is given. Important contributions and improvements are described for the rearing stages, e.g. egg production and incubation, larvae diets, lab conditions for the development of larvae and pupae, larvae and pupae handling and environmental control. (author)

  10. Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    Jere Kahanpää; Kaj Winqvist; Theo Zeegers

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera ’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae , Asilidae , Athericidae , Bombyliidae , Mythicomyiidae , Rhagionidae , Scenopinidae , Stratiomyidae , Tabanidae , Therevidae , Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae .

  11. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological effectiveness

  12. Current status and perspectives for management of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in apple orchards in Brazil

    Pomiculture is a recent activity in southern Brazil. The first apple orchards were installed in the early 1970s. Recently, the area grown with apples exceeded 30,000 ha, concentrated in the regions of Fraiburgo and Sao Joaquim (state of Santa Catarina) and Vacaria and Bom Jesus (state of Rio Grande do Sul). Part of the 600,000 tons that are harvested every year is exported to the USA and European countries. Some exotic apple pests were unintentionally introduced, like the European red mite (Panonychuls ulmi Koch) and the Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta Busck). Furthermore, some native species of insects became important pests, as in the South American apple leafroller (Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick) and the South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The South American fruit fly is the best-studied pest of apples in Brazil regarding its biology and ecology. In this paper, we synthesise the information available and discuss the feasibility of adopting new control methods. Most experiments were conducted in Vacaria where A. fraterculus populations reach levels as high as 150 flies/trap day in some years. Sixteen species of Anastrepha occur in the region of Vacaria and only A. fraterculus is considered economically important (Kovaleski et al., submitted). In addition to the typical morphology of A. fraterculus, the morphotype CSS (Selivon et al. 1996) was detected in McPhail traps and infested native fruits. The second most frequent species of Anastrepha is A. dissimilis Stone. It may be responsible for more than 20% of fruit flies in commercial apple orchards in some periods of the year (November-January) but does not attack apples (Kovaleski 1997). Adult population fluctuation has been studied for the last four years using plastic McPhail traps containing grape juice at 25% (v/v) as attractant. It is more efficient than corn protein hydrolysate, vinegar, and sugarcane molasses (Kovaleski et al. 1995) and is widely used by apple growers as the

  13. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Adriano-Anaya, Maria de Lourdes; Quintero-Fong, Luis; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed. PMID:26274926

  14. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Dina Orozco-Dávila

    Full Text Available A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew, Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed.

  15. Contribución al Estudio de las Moscas Anastrephas en Colombia.

    González Mendoza Rafael

    1952-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Colombia tiene amplias posibilidades de desarrollar una industria frutícola floreciente dadas las excepcionales condiciones de ubicación geográfica, diversidad de climas y de suelos. 2. La deficiente producción frutera actual es el resultado de una reunión de factores adversos, entre los que resalta el desconocimiento de los problemas científicos que afectan a dicha industria. En este aspecto, los problemas fitosanitarios, abandonados y faltos de investigación, ocupan lugar preponderante. 3. Las moscas Anastrephas constituyen la plaga más importante de la fruticultura nacional, y por esta razón, un estudio sobre estos insectos es un tema de importancia. 4. Las principales "moscas de las frutas" pertenecen dentro de la familia Trypetidae, a los géneros: Dacus, Rhaglethis, Ceratitis, Dactrocera y Anastrepha. 5. Los nombres comunes con que se conocen las moscas Anastrephas varían de un país a otro y se relacionan particularmente con el lugar de origen de las distintas especies o la fruta determinada como preterida por la mosca en una localidad. En Colombia la denominación vernácula más difundida es la de "gusano de las frutas". También se nombra el insecto como "mosca o gusano del mango" o "gusano de la guayaba". 6. Los nombres científicos de las moscas distinguen a una, gran cantidad de especies. En Colombia, varios autores han reportado la existencia de las especies A.fraterculus, A. ludens, A. mombinpracoptans, A. pikeli y A. serpentina. Todas estas especies inciden en las regiones colombianas comprendidas entre 0 y 2000 metros de altura, es decir, en casi todas las regiones agrícolas importantes (frutales, café, cacao de temperaturas entre 14° y 30° C. 7. Las moscas Anastrephas están confinadas casi exclusivamente al continente americano entre las latitudes 27° N. y 35° S. Particularmente, la especie A. fraterculus, una de las más difundidas en Colombia, fué determinada por Wiedemann (1830

  16. Mixture-amount design and response surface modeling to assess the effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids on developmental performance of Anastrepha ludens

    A mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling were used to study the effects of three flavonoids and two phenolic acids, alone or in mixtures, in an artificial larval diet on the development and survival of Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens [Loew]). Pupal weight, percentage o...

  17. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs; Esterilizacao de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com raios-X para programas de tecnica do inseto esteril

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional {gamma} radiation from {sup 60}Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of {gamma} rays (thus, a RBE{approx}1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of {gamma} rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE{approx}1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE{approx}0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE{approx}1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and {gamma} rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no

  18. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the fertility, fecundity, emergence, flight ability and longevity under stress in A. fraterculus irradiated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy. The radiation source was a gamma irradiator with a Co-60 (Gamma beam-650) located in the same laboratory. The tests were performed under the following environmental conditions: 26 +- 1 deg C, 70 +- 5% RH and photoperiod of 12:12. The dose of gamma radiation sterilization for male A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus was determined with 70 Gy. Irradiates females, even with the lower dose of 40 Gy, laid no eggs, possibly due to atrophy of the ovaries caused by radiation. The radiation did not affect the other quality parameters such as insect emergence, longevity and ability to fly. (author)

  19. 连翘不同产地与不同炮制品中4种成分的含量测定%Determination of Four Components in Forsythia suspensa from Different Habitats and Different Processed Products by HPLC

    刘瑞; 张振秋; 李伟铭; 周翠

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立了不同产地及不同炮制品连翘中咖啡酸、连翘酯苷A、连翘苷、牛蒡苷元四种成分的HPLC测定方法.方法:采用反相高效液相色谱法,Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm)色谱柱;流动相乙腈-0.4%醋酸水梯度洗脱;检测波长0~20 min,323 nm;20~30 min,330 nm;30~50 min,277 nm;50~55 min,280 nm;柱温30℃;流速1.0 mL·min-1;进样量20μL.结果:不同产地及不同炮制品连翘中4种成分含量差异显著.结论:此方法可用于检测连翘中四种成分的含量,为连翘的质量评价提供依据.%Objective: The HPLC method was developed to determine Caffeic acid, Forsythoside A,Forsythin, Arctigenin in Forsythia suspense from different habitats and different processed products.Method: Using RP-HPLC, Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 (4.6 mm × 250 mm,5 μm) columns, mobile phase acetonitrile-0.4% aqueous acetic acid solution by HPLC linear gradient elution method.The detection wavelength 0-20 min, 323 nm, 20-30 min, 330 nm, 30-50 min, 277 nm, 50-55 min, 280 nm, column temperature 30 ℃, velocity 1.0 mL·min-1, the injection volume 20 μL.Result: The level of four components in F.suspensa from different habitats and different processed products is significantly different.Conclusion: The method can be used for the simultaneous determination of four components in F.suspensa, which provides a scientific basis for quality assessment to F.suspensa.

  20. Optimization of Semi-bionic Extraction Technology of Forsythia Suspensa by Uniform Design%均匀设计法优选连翘半仿生提取工艺

    黄良永; 孟斐; 杨光义

    2014-01-01

    目的::优选连翘的半仿生提取工艺条件。方法:以连翘酯苷A、连翘苷的含量和干浸膏得率为综合评价指标,采用均匀设计法优选连翘半仿生提取工艺。结果:通过优化试验并将试验结果经过DPS数据处理,确定最优条件并结合生产实际,确定三煎用水的pH依次为2.0,7.0,10.0;煎煮时间依次为:1,0.5,0.5 h。结论:本法为连翘的优化提取提供了理论依据。%Objective:To optimize semi-bionic extraction(SBE)of Forsythia suspensa. Methods: The best conditions of semi-bionic extraction of Forsythia suspense were screened by uniform design with the total content of forsythoside A,and forsythin and dried extract weight as the indices. Results:The results of the uniform design were analyzed by DPS data, and combined with the industrial production conditions, the optimal extraction technology was as follows:the pH value of water in the three-time extraction was 2. 0,7. 0 and 10. 0 with the extraction time of 1. 0h,0. 5h and 0. 5h, respectively. Conclusion: The technology provides a theoretical basis for the extraction optimization of Forsythia suspensa.

  1. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina

    Cladera, Jorge L.; Vilardi, Juan C.; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F.; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in differen...

  2. Droogboeketten als vector voor exoten (Diptera: Tephritidae)?

    Smit, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Everlasting flowers as a vector for exotic insects (Diptera: Tephritidae)? In this paper two rearing occasions of exotic fruit fly species of the genus Terellia are documented. Terellia fuscicornis (Loew, 1844) was reared from a ‘tropical’ plant (probably a thistle species) of unknown origin. Terellia longicauda (Meigen, 1830) was reared from Cirsium rivulare from southern France. On both occasions the plants were left to dry to serve as everlasting flowers. The differences between these exot...

  3. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    Beatriz Vicoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot, but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes. Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  4. Variação na infestação de mosca-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e parasitismo em diferentes fases de frutificação em mirtaceas nativas no Rio Grande do Sul

    Diogo Ricardo Pereira Rêgo

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. The fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is an important pest of fruit production in Rio Grande do Sul. A. fraterculus presents native and exotic hosts, according to fruiting time. The objective of this study was compare infestation rate, the intensity of infestation of fruit fly and parasitism in four native Myrtaceae. The fruits were stored under ambient conditions until flies or parasitoids emergence. These evaluation were made in fruits collected from the canopy and soil, and between stages of ripening of the canopy. The largest infestation rate of fruit fly occurred in guava (89.5% and the lowest in feijoa (67%. The intensity of infestation per fruit was highest in guava (17.33 and lowest in red strawberry guava (1.62. The highest rate of puparia per gram of fruit was obtained in the feijoa (0.50 and the lowest in guava (0.22. The highest parasitism rate was in feijoa (21.40% and the lowest in yellow strawberry guava (2.81%. A greater occurrence of this pest in guava and feijoa revealing highest attractiveness in these hosts. Feijoa is a repository for native parasitodes species.

  5. The familes Lonchopteridae, Opetiidae and Pipunculidae of Malta (Diptera, Aschiza)

    Ebejer, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    An account is given of the three Aschiza families of Diptera: one species of Lonchopteridae, one species of Opetiidae and four species of Pipunculidae that occur in Malta and which are all new records for this country

  6. Moscas frugívoras (Diptera, Tephritoidea coletadas em Aquidauana, MS Frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea collected in Aquidauana, MS

    Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil as moscas frugívoras são pragas importantes de frutas e hortaliças. O conhecimento da flutuação populacional dessas espécies em cada bioma é um importante requisito para a adoção de estratégia de controle de pragas nos agroecossistemas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade de espécies de moscas-das-frutas infestantes de frutas silvestres e cultivadas em Aquidauana, MS. Vinte e uma espécies de frutas foram amostradas de fevereiro de 2003 a janeiro de 2004. As espécies de Tephritidae encontradas foram: Anastrepha striata Schiner, 1868, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. Os frugívoros Lonchaeidae e Muscidae encontrados foram: Neosilba sp. e Atherigona orientalis (Schiner, 1868, respectivamente. Um total de 2.568 moscas foram coletadas, das quais 2.394 representadas pela mosca-do-Mediterrâneo C. capitata. A associação entre moscas frugívoras e espécies de frutas é discutida.In Brazil, frugivorous flies represent important pests of fruits and vegetables. Information on populational fluctuation of these species in each biome is an important requirement for the adoption of a strategy of pest control in the agroecosystems. The objective of this paper is to assess the diversity of fruit fly species occurring in wild and cultived fruits in Aquidauana, MS. Twenty-nine fruit species were sampled from February 2003 to January 2004. The Tephritidae species recovered were: Anastrepha striata Schiner, 1868, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. The frugivorous Lonchaeidae and Muscidae recovered were: Neosilba sp. and Atherigona orientalis (Schiner, 1868, respectively. A total of 2.568 flies were obtained, from which 2.394 flies were the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata. The association between frugivorous flies and the fruit species is discussed.

  7. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  8. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Criacao massal em dieta liquida e radioesterilizacao da mosca-sulamericana Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Kamiya, Aline Cristiane

    2010-07-01

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the fertility, fecundity, emergence, flight ability and longevity under stress in A. fraterculus irradiated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy. The radiation source was a gamma irradiator with a Co-60 (Gamma beam-650) located in the same laboratory. The tests were performed under the following environmental conditions: 26 +- 1 deg C, 70 +- 5% RH and photoperiod of 12:12. The dose of gamma radiation sterilization for male A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus was determined with 70 Gy. Irradiates females, even with the lower dose of 40 Gy, laid no eggs, possibly due to atrophy of the ovaries caused by radiation. The radiation did not affect the other quality parameters such as insect emergence, longevity and ability to fly. (author)

  9. Male Sexual Behavior and Pheromone Emission Is Enhanced by Exposure to Guava Fruit Volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus.

    Guillermo E Bachmann

    Full Text Available Plant chemicals can affect reproductive strategies of tephritid fruit flies by influencing sex pheromone communication and increasing male mating competitiveness.We explored whether exposure of Anastrepha fraterculus males to guava fruit volatiles and to a synthetic blend of volatile compounds released by this fruit affects the sexual performance of wild and laboratory flies. By means of bioassays and pheromone collection we investigated the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.Guava volatile exposure enhanced male mating success and positively affected male calling behavior and pheromone release in laboratory and wild males. Changes in male behavior appear to be particularly important during the initial phase of the sexual activity period, when most of the mating pairs are formed. Exposure of laboratory males to a subset of guava fruit volatiles enhanced mating success, showing that the response to the fruit might be mimicked artificially.Volatiles of guava seem to influence male mating success through an enhancement of chemical and physical signals related to the communication between sexes. This finding has important implications for the management of this pest species through the Sterile Insect Technique. We discuss the possibility of using artificial blends to improve the sexual competitiveness of sterile males.

  10. Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Forsythosides from the Leaf of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl and Subsequent Separation and Purification by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    Sun, Yinshi; Hou, Zhiguang; Liu, Zhengbo; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    An ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE) method was developed for the extraction of the two forsythosides, namely forsythosides I and A from the leaf of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl. Three kinds of l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different alkyl chain and anion were investigated. The results indicated that ionic liquids showed remarkable effects on the extraction yields of forsythosides. In addition, several ILUAE ultrasonic parameters, such as the solvent concentration, solvent to solid ratio and extraction time have been optimized. Under these optimal conditions (e.g., with 0.6 M [C6MIM]Br, solvent to solid ratio of 15 mL/g and extraction time of 10 min), this approach gained the highest extraction yields of forsythoside I (0.89%) and forsythoside A (10.74%). Meanwhile, forsythosides in the ILUAE extract were separated and purified successfully through the high-speed counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate-ethanol-acetic acid-water (4 : 1 : 0.25 : 6, v/v). 5.4 mg of forsythoside I and 59.7 mg of forsythoside A were obtained from 120 mg of the prepurified sample in one-step separation, with the purity of 96.1 and 97.9%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were identified by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C NMR. PMID:27165571

  11. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  12. Revision of the subfamily Rogenhoferinae stat. nov. (Diptera, Cuterebridae

    José Henrique Guimarães

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Rogenhoferinae stat. nov. (Diptera, Cuterebridae is revised. Two genera are recognized: Rogenhofera Brauer (Type-species, trigonophora Brauer and Andinocutereba Guimarães (Type-species, fassleri Guimarães. Five species are recorded in Rogenhofera, one R. lopesi is described as new. Key to species, illustrations and distribution are presented.

  13. De wapenvlieg Clitellaria ephippium terug van weggeweest (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    Korf, W.; Leij, van der, A.

    2000-01-01

    Clitellaria ephippium, rediscovered in the Netherlands after 100 years (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Clitellaria ephippium has been found in the Netherlands only between 1870 and 1880 near Venlo. In 1999 a female of this beautifully coloured fly was caught near Tegelen. This locality is very close to the first site, in the northern part of the province of Limburg.

  14. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  15. Ethology of Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox) (Diptera: Asilidae) in Wyoming

    In southwest Wyoming, Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox), hunted primarily from the surface of the sandy substrate in a greasewood community. Prey, captured in flight, represented four insect orders with Diptera and Hymenoptera predominating. Courtship consisted of the male approaching the female from...

  16. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  17. Vegetable leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and their plant hosts in Bangladesh

    Mazumdar, S.; B.A. Bhuiya

    2014-01-01

    Most leafminer flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are serious polyphytophagous insect pests of vegetables. In the present communication an account of four species of agromyzid flies, viz., Liriomyza chinensis (Kato), L. sativae Blanchard, Melanagromyza obtusa Malloch and Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) is provided. Of these, L. chinensis is new to Bangladesh fauna. All these agromyzids were reared from 17 economic vegetable host plants in Bangladesh.

  18. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  19. Species of Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae) inside freshwater sponges in Brazil

    Fabio de Oliveira Roque; Susana Trivinho-Strixino; Sheyla Regina Marques Couceiro; Neusa Hamada; Cecília Volkmer-Ribeiro; Maria Conceição Messias

    2004-01-01

    Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae) inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae) no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  20. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.

    Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication

  1. Himenópteros parasitóides de larvas de Anastrepha spp. em frutos de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. na região de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brasil Himenopterous parasitoids of Anastrepha spp. larvae, in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. In divinópolis region, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de conhecer os parasitóides de moscas-da-fruta na região de Divinópolis-MG. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação, sendo individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas adultas ou de seus parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha foi a espécie mais comum, com 44,5%.The objective of this work was to identify the parasitoids of fruit flies in Divinópolis-MG region. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha was the most common specie with a frequency of 44,5%.

  2. Functional comparison of three transformer gene introns regulating conditional female lethality

    The trasformer gene plays a critical role in the sex determination pathways of many insects. We cloned two transformer gene introns from Anastrepha suspensa, the Caribbean fruit fly. These introns have sequences that putatively have a role in sex-specific splicing patterns that affect sex determinat...

  3. First record of Coptera haywardi Loiácono (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) as a parasitoid of fruit-infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in Brazil

    Aguiar Menezes, Elen L.; Menezes, Eurípedes B.; Loiácono, Marta Susana

    2003-01-01

    This study reports the first occurrence of Coptera haywardi Loiácono as a pupal parasitoid of fruit-infesting Tephritidae in Brazil. We reared this diapriid from fruits of Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry) infested by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi. We also identified two other species of pupal parasitoids: Pachrycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani and Spalangia endius Walker (Pteromalidae). Four species of larval-pupal parasitoids were also recorded: Doryctob...

  4. Invloed van inundatie van graslanden op terrestrische dansmuggen (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Moller Pilot, H.

    2005-01-01

    Influence of flooding on terrestrial chironomids in grassland (Diptera: Chironomidae) Although flooding is an important factor for the invertebrate fauna of grassland, not much is published on this topic. As in other groups the different species of terrestrial Chironomidae display different reactions during flooding. Some larvae will move to drier parts, others remain on the spot. All species can survive for some time submerged in water, but the uptake of water can be a problem, especially in...

  5. De boorvlieg Tephritis acanthiophilopsis nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Smit, J.T.; Aartsen, van, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The fruitfly Tephritis acanthiophilopsis new for the Netherlands (Diptera: Tephritidae) The first record of Tephritis acanthiophilopsis Hering, 1938 for the Netherlands is presented. A single male was collected with a malaisetrap on the ‘Stampersplaat’, a shoal in the ‘Grevelingen’, just north of the town of Brouwershaven, province of Zeeland. The genus Tephritis Latreille, 1804 is characterized and the difference between the two Dutch species of the cometa-group is illustrated.

  6. De boorvlieg Trupanea amoena nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Smit, J.T.; Hamers, B

    2006-01-01

    The fruitfly Trupanea amoena new for the Netherlands (Diptera: Tephritidae) The first record of Trupanea amoena (Von Frauenfeld, 1857) is given. A female was photographed at the Kunderberg near the town of Voerendaal, province of Limburg. The genus is characterized and a key to the two Northwest European species is given, as well as the differences with the similar Tephritis cometa (Loew, 1840). All three species are illustrated and the distribution of both Trupanea species in the Netherlands...

  7. Larval endoparasitoids (Hymenoptera of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea reared from fruits of the cerrado of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul , Brazil

    Manoel A. Uchôa-Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a five years survey of endoparasitoids obtained from the larvae of frugivorous Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae flies. The insects were reared from cultivated and wild fruits collected in areas of the cerrado in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The flies obtained from 14 host fruit species were eight Anastrepha species, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Tephritidae; Dasiops sp. and Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae. Eleven parasitoid species were collected: Braconidae - Asobara anastrephae (Muesebek, 1958, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, D. fluminensis (Costa Lima, 1938, Opius bellus Gahan, 1930 and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913; Figitidae - Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower, 1919, Odontosema anastrephae (Borgmeier, 1935 and Trybliographa infuscata Gallardo, Díaz & Uchôa-Fernandes, 2000 and, Pteromalidae - Spalangia gemina Boucek, 1963 and S. endius Walker, 1839. In all cases only one parasitoid emerged per puparium. D. areolatus was the most abundant and frequent parasitoid of fruit fly species, as was L. anastrephae in Neosilba spp. larvae. This is the first record of A. nordlanderi in the midwestern Brazilian region.

  8. New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Jesus, Cristiane R. de; Oliveira, Manoela N. de; Silva, Ricardo A. da [EMBRAPA Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Pereira, Julia D.B. [Universidade Federal do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Souza Filho, Miguel F. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa Neto, Salustiano V. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Marinho, Claudia F.; Zucchi, Roberto A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2008-11-15

    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fl y species. This is the fi rst record of P. amapa as a fruit fl y host. C. cognatum is the fi rst host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the fi rst records of parasitoids for this species. (author)

  9. New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fl y species. This is the fi rst record of P. amapa as a fruit fl y host. C. cognatum is the fi rst host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the fi rst records of parasitoids for this species. (author)

  10. Revisão de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) Revision of Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    1999-01-01

    Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) a neotropical genus with ten species is revised. Redescriptions of eight species were made: E. nuda Hull, 1971, E. amabilis (Wulp, 1881), E. beckeri Lamas & Couri, 1998, E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830), E. caminaria (Wiedemann, 1830), E. knutsoni Hull, 1971, E. maracajula Hull, 1971 and E. truxalia Hull, 1971, with illustrations of the types, male terminalia and spermathecae. Two synonymies - E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830), syn.: E. bicinc...

  11. Monographical study for the identification and control of diptera pest species on Romanian wheat crops

    Dana Malschi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1978-2006, the agro-ecological research on the main species of wheat diptera pests,on integrated control systems and strategy of their management were performed, as part of sustainabledevelopment technology of wheat crop. The studies approached the species characteristics, the attackdiagnosis, the parallel evolution of populations and losses, insecticides effect, the biological efficiency andselective moment of treatments; the main objectives were: integrated diptera pest control and forecastof losses, protection and use of the natural reservoir of entomophagous in regional diptera populationslimitation, in cereal agroecosystems. The research proved the crucial role of entomophagous as naturalpredators, and their efficiency in decreasing wheat pests abundance, in normal conditions.

  12. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  13. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  14. 山西太岳山连翘群落优势种种间关系%Interspecific relationships of dominant species in Forsythia suspensa communities in Taiyue Mountain of Shanxi, China

    胡贝娟; 张钦弟; 张玲; 毕润成

    2013-01-01

    Based on the 2×2 contingency table, and by adopting χ2 -test, variance ratio (VR) , Pearson' s correlation, and Spearman' s rank correlation, a quantitative study was conducted on the interspecific association among the 300 species pairs of 25 dominant species in Forsythia suspensa communities in Taiyue Mountain, Shanxi of China. The variance analysis showed that the overall interspecific association of the 25 dominant species was not significant, and the species distribution was relatively independent. The χ2 test showed that there were 138 species pairs in positive association, and 150 species pairs in negative association, with the association ratio being 0. 92. The Pearson' s correlation coefficient test showed that 100 species pairs were in positive association, and 199 species pairs were in negative association, with the association ratio being 0.5. The Spearman' s rank correlation coefficient test showed that 121 species pairs were in positive association, and 179 species pairs were in negative association, with the association ratio being 0. 67. Compared with χ2 test, Pearson' s correlation coefficient and Spearman' s rank correlation coefficient tests had higher sensitivity. According to the adaptation ways of the species to the environment and the leading ecological factors, in combination with principal components analysis, the 25 dominant species were divided into four ecological species groups.%基于2×2列联表,采用方差比率法、x2检验、Pearson相关系数和Spearman秩相关数检验等数量分析方法对山西太岳山连翘群落中25个优势种、300个种对间的种间关联性进行定量研究.方差分析表明,25个优势种群的总体种间关联性呈不显著关联,种的分布相对独立.x2检验有138个种对呈正相关,150对种对呈负相关,正负关联比为0.92;Pearson相关系数检验有100个种对呈正相关,199对种对呈负相关,正负关联比例为0.5;Spearman秩相关系数检验121

  15. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    Valéria C Maia; Nava, Dori E.

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  16. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  17. Can consumption of antioxidant rich mushrooms extend longevity?: antioxidant activity of Pleurotus spp. and its effects on Mexican fruit flies' (Anastrepha ludens) longevity.

    Sánchez, José E; Jiménez-Pérez, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    The variability of antioxidant capacity of 14 strains of the edible oyster mushroom Pleurotus spp. was determined, and the effect of selected mushroom supplements on the longevity of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of the fruiting bodies was determined by three different methods, measuring the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts, the OH radical scavenging capacity, and the total phenol content. The inhibition percentage of the DPPH radical varied between 32.6 and 85.7% and total phenols varied between 30.6 and 143.3 mg/g. The strains with the highest (Pleurotus djamor ECS-0142) and lowest (Pleurotus ostreatus ECS-1123) antioxidant capacity were selected to study their effect on the survival, life expectancy, and mortality of the Mexican fruit fly A. ludens. The results demonstrated differing responses between male and female flies. High concentrations of mushrooms (5 and 20%) in the diet resulted in a decrease in life expectancy. However, flies on the diet with 1% P. djamor ECS-0142 showed slightly but significantly greater survival than those on the control diet. The possible adverse effect of protein content in mushroom extracts is discussed. PMID:26499817

  18. Determination of optimum irradiation doses in respect of the competitiveness of sterile males of Anastrepha ludens (Loew); attraction to colour traps and to sexual attractants

    Fruit cultivation is of great socio-economic importance in Mexico and covers an area of 650,000 ha. One of the most important pests is the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Its study is of topical importance since the Directorate General of Plant Health (SARH) and the United States Department of Agriculture have embarked on a joint control and eradication programme through APHIS. The results relate mainly to the effect of gamma radiation on sexual competitiveness and behaviour. The radiation was applied in the pupal phase three days before emergence, and sterility and sexual competitiveness were studied in the laboratory and in the field. The following conclusions were reached: (a) The males showed 90% sterility at 4 krad and practically 100% at 6 krad. A dose between 3 and 5 krad may be sufficient to obtain a high degree of sterility with a minimum of effect on sexual competitiveness; (b) 'solar' yellow increases the efficiency of traps by a factor of three to five; (c) the live-male bait attracts the greatest number of flies of both sexes, and the male was found to secrete a sex pheromone and an aggregation pheromone; (d) in all cases a significantly higher number of normal than irradiated flies were captured in the traps. This at least shows that the dose of 6 krad affects the adults' flying capacity or perception of attractants. Colouring also reduced the number of flies attracted. (author)

  19. Species of Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges in Brazil

    Fabio de Oliveira Roque

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  20. Monographical study for the identification and control of diptera pest species on Romanian wheat crops

    Dana Malschi

    2009-01-01

    During 1978-2006, the agro-ecological research on the main species of wheat diptera pests,on integrated control systems and strategy of their management were performed, as part of sustainabledevelopment technology of wheat crop. The studies approached the species characteristics, the attackdiagnosis, the parallel evolution of populations and losses, insecticides effect, the biological efficiency andselective moment of treatments; the main objectives were: integrated diptera pest control and f...

  1. First Report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Commercial Fruits and Vegetables in Pennsylvania

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months ...

  2. A New Species of Chyliza (Diptera, Psilidae from Iran

    Khaghaninia S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A New Species of Chyliza (Diptera, Psilidae from Iran. Khaghaninia, S., Gharajedaghi, Ya. — Chyliza (Dasyna qaradaghi from Iran (type locality: Qaradagh Forests (Qala Deresi, East Azerbaijan Province is described. C. qaradaghi Khaghaninia et Gharajedaghi, sp. n. is similar to Chyliza (Dasyna extenuata (Rossi, 1790 in having arista thickened in basal third with dense black hairs and lacking anteroventral comb of black spinules on male fore tibia. New species differs from C. extenuata by head yellow, only occiput partly black and hind tibia largely black; C. extenuata has head completely black and hind tibia yellow. Both species differ also by the shape of male genitalia.

  3. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  4. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  5. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambolas infested with Caribbean fruit flies

    Carambolas infested with the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation. Probit 9 was estimated to be 22.95 Gy (95% fiducial limits 16.68 Gy - 49.73 Gy). Over 100,000 immature A. suspensa infesting carambolas were treated at 50 Gy with no adult survivors. This dose did not cause any observable damage to the fruit. The 50 Gy dose satisfies quarantine requirements for treatment of fruits exposed from fruit fly infested areas. (author)

  6. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.); advances in artificial rearing, taxonomic status and biological studies. Proceedings of a workshop

    One of the fruit flies of major concern, because of its economic and quarantine importance in the Americas, is the exotic Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, which is established throughout the Central and South American countries, excluding Chile. Chile, Mexico and the USA have conducted multi-million dollar campaigns to prevent the establishment of this and other exotic fruit flies in their respective territories, in support of the development of important fruit production and export industries. Other important fruit fly species, which are native to the American continent, are those of the genus Anastrepha. In this group, of most economic importance are A. obliqua and A. ludens for Mexico and some Central American countries and A. fraterculus and A. obliqua for South America. In this publication, attention is focused on A. fraterculus, the South American fruit fly. This species, as it is presently recognized, occurs from Mexico to Argentina and is reported from approximately 80 host plants, including commercial fruits of economic importance, such as mango, citrus, guava, apple and coffee. As A. fraterculus if considered to be of high economic and quarantine importance in many countries in South America, it is justifiable to recommend and promote the implementation of activities to strengthen knowledge of the species and develop techniques for its control and/or eradication. The development of sterile insect technique (SIT) and other biological control methods are very encouraging alternatives, as can be seen from examples in Mexico and the USA, where these approaches are in use against A. ludens and A. obliqua

  7. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    Jere Kahanpää

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980. The number of true flies (Diptera known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase, Pipunculidae (98%, and Chironomidae (90%.

  8. Dispersal and longevity of mass-released, sterilized Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Trap-back experiments using McPhail traps were conducted to study dispersal and longevity of mass-released, sterile Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). The flies were released at 3 ecologically different sites in northern Mexico. Some flies were recaptured up to 9 km from the release point. However, standard distance was estimated using a regression model that indicated 240 m was the typical dispersal distance. The life expectancy of the released flies from the time of release varied from 5 to 10 d. Greatest longevity, up to 22 wk, occurred during the winter months

  9. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains. PMID:23926790

  10. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae. PMID:26003979

  11. Winter flight of flies (Diptera in Hongneung Arboretum, Seoul, Korea

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter phenology (diapause and activity of insects is expected to change more significantly than that of other seasons, because temperature will increase more in winter than in other seasons in temperate regions. However, studies on winter phenology of insects are rare. It is expected that winter flights of flies (Diptera will increase as climate warms. This study aims to find the relationship between flight of flies and temperature. The survey on flies and weather (temperature and rainfall was carried out in the Hongneung Arboretum in Seoul, Korea. Flies were collected weekly from December 2012 to February 2013 using sweeping and Malaise trap. In the survey, 106 flies belonging to 28 morphospecies and 17 families were collected. Richness and abundance of flies were positively correlated with temperature.

  12. Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Marcelo A Maldonado

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the potential capability of transporting and passing infective pathogens of some blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Mihályi's danger-index was calculated for seven species. The original equation was modified to include synanthropic information to discriminate between asynanthropic, hemisynanthropic, and eusynanthropic status. Three groups were recognized, of which Phaenicia cluvia and Musca domestica proved the flies with lowest index value (D = 2.93 and 3.00 respectively; Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Sarconesia chlorogaster presented a significantly higher index value (p < 0.10; D = 4.28, 4.44 and 5.66 respectively and C. megacephala, C. vicina and P. sericata appear to represent the heaviest potential sanitary risk with the highest index value (p < 0.10; D = 15.54, 16.88 and 12.49 respectively.

  13. Polytene Chromosome Analysis of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Farzana Yesmin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation constitutes a first effort to study the polytene chromosomes of Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae. It is a serious pest of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex group, infesting various types of fruits and vegetables in Southeast Asia, Australia and the Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse each arm of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of this species individually. The tips, distinguishing characteristics as well as significant landmarks are recognized in each chromosome arm. Photographic illustrations of the chromosomes is presented and discussed. The information can be used for comparative studies among species of the tephritid genera which facilitate the development of novel control methods.

  14. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Aedes vigilax (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two main clades of the medically significant saltmarsh mosquito Aedes vigilax Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) were obtained using combined Illumina and Sanger sequencing. The two 15,877 bp circular genomes share 99.0% nucleotide identity and encode 37 genes with identical gene arrangement similar to previously published Culicidae species with a non-coding A + T rich region between rns and tRNA-Ile. Protein initiation codon is ATN apart from ND5 (GTG) and COX1 (TCG). Eight protein-coding genes encode full TAA stop codon, while five are completed by mRNA polyadenylation. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:26099979

  15. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  16. Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae

    Márcia S. Couri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae is a very well represented genus in the Neotropical Region, known from almost 100 species. In Bolivia, it is known only from four species: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata and N. recedens, all described by Stein. The study of material from South America deposited at Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, enabled the description of one new species to science. A key for the recognition of the five species known to Bolivia is given.

  17. Revisão de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Revision of Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae a neotropical genus with ten species is revised. Redescriptions of eight species were made: E. nuda Hull, 1971, E. amabilis (Wulp, 1881, E. beckeri Lamas & Couri, 1998, E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830, E. caminaria (Wiedemann, 1830, E. knutsoni Hull, 1971, E. maracajula Hull, 1971 and E. truxalia Hull, 1971, with illustrations of the types, male terminalia and spermathecae. Two synonymies - E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830, syn.: E. bicincta Hull, 1971; and E. nuda Hull, 1971, syn.: E. shannoni Hull, 1971 - are proposed. A key to species are presented except to E. goyaz (Macquart, 1840 and E. aperta (Macquart, 1847, which were not included in this study, as no material was examined.

  18. First records of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    L. Boumans; J.-Y. Zimmer; F. Verheggen

    2009-01-01

    The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central

  19. Checklist of the 'lower Brachycera' of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera).

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the 'lower Brachycera' of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  20. A New Species of Megarhyphus,an Interesting Discovery from the Lower Jurassic of England(Diptera,Anisopodidae)

    Ewa KRZEMI(N)SKA; Robert A. CORAM; Wies(l)aw KRZEMI(N)SKI

    2010-01-01

    The oldest representative of the genus Megarhyphus Kovalev(Diptera:Anisopodidae)is described from the Lower Jurassic(Sinemurian)of England.A summary of our knowledge of Jurassic Anisopodidae is given.

  1. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  2. Identification of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry

    Dvořák, V.; Halada, Petr; Hlaváčková, K.; Dokianakis, E.; Volf, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 21 (2014), s. 1-7. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : diptera * phlebotomine sand flies * MALDI * human pathogens Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  3. Population fluctuation of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae in peach and passion fruit orchards in Iraceminha, Santa Catarina

    Sheila Alberti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was learn more about the population fluctuation of fruit flies in peach and passion fruit orchards in the municipality of Iraceminha, Santa Catarina. In order to carry out the survey, McPhail traps were set up with 10% inverted glucose from April 2006 to March 2007. Captured flies were identified at the Laboratório de Entomologia at UNOCHAPECÓ. The collected females belonged to twelve species and four genera. The adults of Anastrepha fraterculus were trapped during all seasons, with a population peak in October 2006 in the peach orchards. The population levels of Anastrepha grandis remained higher during the first five months in the passion fruit orchard. There were low infestation rates by flies of the genera Ceratitis, Blepharoneura and Tomoplagia when compared to flies of the genus Anastrepha. The results showed that the presence of flies in the orchards was associated with the availability of host fruit and not with climatic conditions.

  4. Species of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: in a transect of the Amazonian Rainforest in Oiapoque, Amapá, Brazil

    Rose B. Rodrigues Trindade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of fruit flies (Tephritidae were surveyed in a transect of the Amazonian Rainforest in the district of Clevelândia do Norte, municipality of Oiapoque, state of Amapá, Brazil. This study describes the diversity of fruit fly species sampled inside this transect (2.2 linear km. Eleven McPhail traps were serviced weekly from June 2002 to June 2003. A total of 55 samples were obtained, totaling 125 specimens of Tephritidae. Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 was the most abundant and diverse genus, with 18 species caught. Two new species, A. oiapoquensis Norrbom & Uchôa, 2011 and A. siculigera Norrbom & Uchôa, 2011, were discovered in this survey. Anastrepha coronilli Carrejo & González, 1993 (n = 40 was the most abundant species. Six species, Anastrepha amita Zucchi, 1979, A. duckei Lima, 1934, A. flavipennis Greene, 1934, A. minensis Lima, 1937, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, 1873, and A. submunda Lima, 1937, are recorded for the first time from Amapá. Three of them, A. minensis, A. pseudoparallela, and A. submunda, are reported for the first time from northern Brazil. This paper updates to 36 the number of frugivorous species of Tephritidae in Amapá.

  5. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  6. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo [Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura (IICA), Chiapas (Mexico); Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Programa Moscafrut

    2010-07-15

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  7. Fourier analysis of wing beat signals: assessing the effects of genetic alterations of flight muscle structure in Diptera.

    Hyatt, C J; Maughan, D W

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining and analyzing the wing beat frequency in Diptera is presented. This method uses an optical tachometer to measure Diptera wing movement during flight. The resulting signal from the optical measurement is analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique, and the dominant frequency peak in the Fourier spectrum is selected as the wing beat frequency. Also described is a method for determining quantitatively the degree of variability of the wing beat frequency about...

  8. A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae) from Chiapas, Mexico

    Woodley, Norman E.

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae), P. imitator, n. sp., is described from Chiapas, Mexico. The new species is compared to previously described species and diagnostic notes are presented for separation of Paraberismyia from Berismyia Giglio-Tos.

  9. Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae

    Márcia S. Couri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae is a very well represented genus in the Neotropical Region, known from almost 100 species. In Bolivia, it is known only from four species: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata and N. recedens, all described by Stein. The study of material from South America deposited at Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, enabled the description of one new species to science. A key for the recognition of the five species known to Bolivia is given.Neodexiopsis Malloch da Bolivia com descrição de uma espécie nova (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae é um gênero muito bem representado na região Neotropical, conhecido por quase 100 espécies. Na Bolívia, ele é conhecido por apenas quatro espécies: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata e N. recedens, todas descritas por Stein. O estudo do material da América do Sul depositado no Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, permitiu a descrição de uma nova espécie para a ciência. Uma chave para o reconhecimento das cinco espécies presentes na Bolívia é fornecida.

  10. A remarkable new species of Eutrichopoda Townsend, 1908 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae).

    Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-01-01

    A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini. PMID:27395220

  11. The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence

    Lambkin, Christine L.; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Pape, Thomas; Courtney, Greg W.; Skevington, Jeffrey H.; Meier, Rudolf; Yeates, David K.; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Wiegmann, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the megadiverse insect order Diptera (flies) have successfully colonized all continents and nearly all habitats. There are more than 154 000 described fly species, representing 1012% of animal species. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of such a large component of global...

  12. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western and Central Washington

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species R. zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple p...

  13. Corrections and additions to Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera (Tabanidae of Coscarón & Papavero (2009

    Augusto Loureiro Henriques

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.

  14. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  15. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  16. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae Extratos de Melia azedarach L. e sua atividade sobre Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

    Marise M. O. Cabral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.Os extratos brutos e as frações obtidas das sementes de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae foram testados em Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Os bioensaios mostraram inibição no desenvolvimento pós-embrionário das moscas e um significativo aumento do período larva recém eclodida- adulto. Além disso, o peso pupal foi reduzido e a proporção sexual alterada. Foi observada toxicidade para os ovos das moscas.

  17. Análise cladística de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) Cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    1999-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae), a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci =...

  18. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  19. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  20. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  1. Host plant susceptibility to the swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Hallett, Rebecca H

    2007-08-01

    The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge. PMID:17849887

  2. Mushroom host influence on Lycoriella mali (Diptera: Sciaridae) life cycle.

    O'Connor, L; Keil, C B

    2005-04-01

    Lycoriella mali Fitch (Diptera: Sciaridae) infests mushroom crops early in the crop cycle. Recent observations in mushroom houses indicated a difference in emergence time and size of adult L. mali developing on various strains of commercial mushrooms. Samples of adult flies from isolated mushroom houses growing Portabella mushrooms were significantly heavier then those from oyster mushroom houses, whereas flies from shiitake mushroom houses were lightest in weight. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on four strains and species of Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. After the adults emerged, females were weighed, mated, and allowed to oviposit. The number of eggs laid increased as the weight of the female increased. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on eight strains and species of mushrooms. Flies were reared for four generations on each host mushroom mycelium then switched to different host mushrooms. Overall, the hybrid strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricomycetideae) was the most favorable host for L. mali, whereas the wild strain of A. bisporus was the least favorable host. Mushroom hosts influence developmental time, survivorship, weight, and reproduction of L. mali. PMID:15889722

  3. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae Tetraspanins

    Edwin K. Murungi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps, all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.

  4. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed. PMID:26470275

  5. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Steffan, Shawn A; Lee, Jana C; Singleton, Merritt E; Vilaire, Auriel; Walsh, Doug B; Lavine, Laura S; Patten, Kim

    2013-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the United States. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies were conducted to assess whether cranberries may serve as hosts for D. suzukii. In the first study, the suitability of ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were assayed by examining adult oviposition and larval development in no-choice trials. In the second study, wounded and unwounded fruit were examined as potential hosts in choice and no-choice trials. Our first study showed that ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were unsuitable hosts (few eggs were laid, with no surviving puparia). In the wounded and unwounded berry study, no larvae survived to adulthood among unwounded berries. Within wounded fruit, D. suzukii readily fed and developed into adults. Together, these results suggest that unwounded cranberries--whether ripe, unripe, or over-ripe--are unsuitable as hosts for D. suzukii. Wounded rotting cranberries, however, can serve as hosts. Across the landscape, cranberry marshes with rotting fruit may contribute to D. suzukii source-sink dynamics. PMID:24498743

  6. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Claudia Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation.

  7. Bioenergetic and kinematic consequences of limblessness in larval Diptera.

    Berrigan, D; Lighton, J R

    1993-06-01

    We report the cost of transport and kinematics of terrestrial locomotion by larval blowflies (Protophormia terraenovae, Diptera: Calliphoridae). We contrast inter- and intra-individual methods for estimating minimum cost of transport (MCOT) and the relationship between speed, contraction frequency and distance traveled per contraction. The minimum cost of transport calculated from intra-individual data is 2297 +/- 317 J kg-1 m-1 (S.E.M.) and the MCOT calculated from inter-individual comparisons is statistically indistinguishable at 1910 +/- 327 J kg-1 m-1. These values are almost ten times higher than the predicted value for a similar-sized limbed arthropod. Fly larvae travel by repeated peristaltic contractions and individual contractions cost about the same amount as individual strides in limbed insects. Both contraction frequency and distance traveled per contraction increase linearly with speed. Doubling the contraction frequency or the distance traveled per contraction approximately doubles speed. The cost of transport in fly larvae is among the highest recorded for terrestrial locomotion, confirming the suggestion that biomechanical and kinematic properties of limbless organisms with hydraulic skeletons lead to very high costs of transport. PMID:8340729

  8. Chironomid (Diptera, Chironomidae species assemblages in northeastern Algerian hydrosystems

    N. Chaib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.

  9. Ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em mangueiras (Mangifera indica L. em Boa Vista, Roraima = The occurrence of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae in mango (Mangifera indica L. in Boa Vista, Roraima

    Adriana Bezerra Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo foi conduzido no período de junho de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em pomares comerciais de manga das variedades: Tommy Atkins, Haden e Palmer sendo 3 ha de cada cultivar, localizado na região do Bom Intento no Município de Boa Vista. Os espécimes de moscas-das-frutas foram coletados, por meio de armadilhas, confeccionadas com garrafas pet, que foram penduradas na copa das árvores a 1,60 m de altura. Como atrativo alimentar foi utilizado 200 mL de suco de maracujá a 30%. Foram utilizadas nove armadilhas, sendo uma armadilha por hectare. Semanalmente as armadilhas eram examinadas, ocasião em que se substituía o atrativo e os insetos capturados retirados e colocados em frascos de vidro devidamente etiquetados e transportados ao Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Roraima. As identificações dos espécimes foram feitas no Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia - INPA. No período de oito meses foram coletados 24 espécimes adultos do gênero Anastrepha (nove fêmeas e 15 machos. Quatro espécies foram identificadas: A. serpentina, A. striata, A. obliqua e A. turpinae. A maior frequência foi A. serpentina (44,44%, seguida de A. striata e A. obliqua ambas com 22,22% e A. turpinae com 11,11%. Os meses de maior ocorrência de Anastrepha spp. foram junho, julho e agosto. Este é o primeiro registro da espécie Anastrepha turpinae Stone, 1942, em Roraima. The study was done during th period of June 2007 to January of 2008, in commercial mango orchards having: 3 ha of cv. Tommy Atkins, 3 ha of cv. Haden. and 3 ha of cv. Palmer, located at Bom Intento in the municipal district of Boa Vista - RR. The specimens of fruit flies were collected, by trapping, made with transparent bottles pet, which were hung in the cup of the trees at 1.60 m of height. 200 mL of passion fruit juice (30% was used as an attractant feed; 9 traps were used, being one trap for hectare. Weekly The traps were

  10. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein. PMID:26695221

  11. [Mode of formation of the flight muscles in a nematocerous Diptera].

    Lebart-Pedebas, M C; Auber, J

    1982-01-01

    An electron microscope study was conducted on the origin of the dorsal longitudinal muscles of a Nematocerous Diptera (Chironomus). These imaginal muscles arise from three pairs of slender larval muscles that are characterized by the presence of myoblasts located beneath the basal lamina and adhering to the sarcoplasmic membrane. During the last larval instar the myoblasts increase in number, each of the associated muscle fibers loses its contractile material and splits longitudinally into two to form six columns of sarcoplasm. Differentiation of the fibrillar material begins in each of the six muscle rudiments after the adhering myoblasts have become incorporated. There are several possible origins for these myoblasts: they may be embryonic cells that persist in association with the larval muscle fibers; or --as in the case of Cyclorrhaphous Diptera-- they may migrate from elsewhere to invest these fibers. PMID:7138012

  12. First report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in commercial fruits and vegetables in Pennsylvania.

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the flesh fly, Parasarcophaga portschinskyi (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    Shi, Jian; Guo, Yadong; Zhang, Chaoyue; Zhou, Yong; Yan, Jie; Liao, Huidan; Lagabaiyila, Zha

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Parasarcophaga portschinskyi (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a forensically important entomology was sequenced for the first time. The 14,929 bp circular genome contains the 37 genes found in a typical Metazoan genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. It also contains one non-coding A + T-rich region. All the protein initiation codons are ATN, except for cox1 that begins with TCG. Each of the base composition on heavy strand was as follows A: 38.94%, G: 9.69%, C: 14.13%, T: 37.24% and the A + T content 76.18%. The mitochondrial genome of Parasarcophaga portschinskyi presented will be valuable for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the family Sarcophagidae and order Diptera, and could be used to identify favorable genetic markers for species identifications for forensic purposes. PMID:25319282

  14. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel’s Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations

    Jeffrey Freeman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there.

  15. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in China.

    Zhang, Hengduan; Xing, Dan; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunxiao; Zhao, Tongyan

    2016-07-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) is presented using traditional Sanger sequencing. Its mitogenome are 16,660 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a non-coding A + T rich region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition on heavy strand was as follows - A: 40.1%, G: 8.2%, C: 11.9%, T: 39.8% and the A + T content 79.9%. The results of phylogenetic analyzes showed that the Ae. albopictus has closed relationship with the family Culicidae and order Diptera. PMID:26114325

  16. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Franz Gerald; Zacharopoulou Antigone; Caceres Carlos; Schetelig Marc F; Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dep...

  17. A new species of Anabarhynchus ( Diptera : Therevidae ) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    David Ferguson; David Yeates

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae  ( Diptera ) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchus kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Meg...

  18. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    Magdi El-Hawagry; Hathal Al Dhafer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species ( Bombyliidae , Diptera ) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of...

  19. Overwintering Biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California

    NELMS, BRITTANY M.; Macedo, Paula A.; KOTHERA, LINDA; Savage, Harry M.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2013-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar un...

  20. The evolution of water balance in Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae): correlations with climate

    Kleynhans, Elsje; Terblanche, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The water balance of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) has significant implications for understanding biogeography and climate change responses in these African disease vectors. Although moisture is important for tsetse population dynamics, evolutionary responses of Glossina water balance to climate have been relatively poorly explored and earlier studies may have been confounded by several factors. Here, using a physiological and GIS climate database, we investigate potential interspecific...

  1. De larven van het geslacht Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclatuur en tabel tot de soorten (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Moller Pillot, H.K.M.; Wiersma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The larvae of the genus Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclature and key to the species (Diptera: Chironomidae). A review is given of the identities of groups and taxa of Einfeldia in the larval stage as given in the literature. Three species remain on the Dutch list: E. carbonaria (Meigen), E. dissidens (Walker) and E. pagana (Meigen). A key is presented to identify these species. Corrections are given to update a previously given key (Moller Pillot, 1984).

  2. [Genetic Differentiation of Populations of Baikal Endemic Sergentia baicalensis Tshern. (Diptera, Chironomidae)].

    Kravtsova, L S; Bukin, Yu S; Peretolchina, T E; Shcherbakov, D Yu

    2015-07-01

    The population structure of endemic species Sergentia baicalensis (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Lake Baikal was studied using the first subunit of the cytochrome C oxidase mitochondrial gene (Col). Two populations inhabiting different basins of this lake, the southern-central and northern, were detected. It was confirmed that the divergence time of this species was dated to Late Miocene (9.53 ± 3.9 Mya), during the period when geographically separated basins existed in the Baikal rift zone. PMID:26410937

  3. Introduction to the Asilidae Fauna (Insecta: Diptera) of Fars Province, Iran

    SAGHAEI, Nazila; Ostovan,Hadi; SHOJAEI, Mahmoud; HAYAT, Rüstem

    2009-01-01

    Fars province in the south of Iran was surveyed for Asilidae (Insecta: Diptera) during 2006-2007. Twenty six species, belonging to 19 genera and 7 subfamilies: Apocleinae (5 species), Asilinae (7 species), Dasypogoninae (2 species), Laphriinae (2 species), Laphystiinae (1 species), Leptogastrinae (1 species) and Stenopogoninae (8 species), were recorded. Of these, 5 species are new to the fauna of Iran. Additionally 2 subfamilies, 10 genera, and 22 species were recorded for the first time fro...

  4. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu; Claudio J.B. de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Ch...

  5. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color

    Kirkpatrick, D. M.; McGhee, P. S.; Hermann, S. L.; Gut, L. J.; Miller, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white backgr...

  6. Review and Phylogenetic Evaluation of Associations between Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) and Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Menno Reemer

    2013-01-01

    The immature stages of hoverflies of the subfamily Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) develop in ant nests, as predators of the ant brood. The present paper reviews published and unpublished records of associations of Microdontinae with ants, in order to discuss the following questions. (1) Are all Microdontinae associated with ants? (2) Are Microdontinae associated with all ants? (3) Are particular clades of Microdontinae associated with particular clades of ants? (4) Are Microdontinae assoc...

  7. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  8. Some Streblidae and Nycteribiidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) from Maracá Island, Roraima, Brazil

    Graciolli Gustavo; Linardi Pedro Marcos

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen species in five genera of Streblidae and two species in two genera of Nycteribiidae, collected in Maracá Island, State of Roraima, Brazil are presented with comments on bat hosts and geographical distribution. A total of 42 specimens of Diptera and 17 bats were captured from 1987 to 1988, integrating the "Maracá Project". All species of ectoparasites represent new geographic records for Roraima.

  9. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru)

    Analía Gladys Autino; Guillermo Luis Claps; Rubén Marcos Barquez; María Mónica Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni) are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the departme...

  10. Some Streblidae and Nycteribiidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea from Maracá Island, Roraima, Brazil

    Graciolli Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen species in five genera of Streblidae and two species in two genera of Nycteribiidae, collected in Maracá Island, State of Roraima, Brazil are presented with comments on bat hosts and geographical distribution. A total of 42 specimens of Diptera and 17 bats were captured from 1987 to 1988, integrating the "Maracá Project". All species of ectoparasites represent new geographic records for Roraima.

  11. Synanthropic trends in urban andextraurban taxocenoses of Sarcophaginae (Diptera in three central european cities

    Dalibor Povolny

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to characterize the synanthropic trends in Sarcophaginae of three Central European cities, viz. Brno, Bratislava and Budapest. The polar ordination of both sarcophagine taxa and of their taxocenoses revealed clear-cut trends towards culturophily and synanthropy in the male preconnubial aggregations of Sarchophaginae evidencing that this group of high Diptera represent an excellent model for the study of this phenomenon.

  12. The first records of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Iran

    S. Khaghaninia; Kazerani, F.

    2014-01-01

    Based on collected specimens from Arasbaran Forests during 2013, four species belonging to 3 genera of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera; Stratiomyidae) [Actina chalybea Meigen, 1804; Beris schaposchnikowi Pleske, 1926; Beris clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767) and Chorisops nagatomii Rozkošný, 1979] were recognised, which are recorded for the first time from Iran. A key to the studied species is provided, as well as diagnostic characters along with photos of the studied species; their geographical dist...

  13. The first records of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae from Iran

    S. Khaghaninia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on collected specimens from Arasbaran Forests during 2013, four species belonging to 3 genera of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera; Stratiomyidae [Actina chalybea Meigen, 1804; Beris schaposchnikowi Pleske, 1926; Beris clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767 and Chorisops nagatomii Rozkošný, 1979] were recognised, which are recorded for the first time from Iran. A key to the studied species is provided, as well as diagnostic characters along with photos of the studied species; their geographical distributions are discussed.

  14. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2011-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified l...

  15. Spook and Spookier code for stage-specific components of the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway in Diptera

    Ono, Hajime; Rewitz, Kim; Shinoda, Tetsu;

    2006-01-01

    that catalyze the terminal hydroxylation steps in the conversion of cholesterol to the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. These P450s are conserved in other insects and each is thought to function throughout development as the sole mediator of a particular biosynthetic step since, where analyzed, each...... Bombyx and Manduca that is expressed in both embryos and larva. These studies suggest an evolutionary split between Diptera and Lepidoptera in how the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway is regulated during development....

  16. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Labud Valeria Alejandra; Semenas Liliana Graciela; Laos Francisca

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia) attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collec...

  17. A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae

    Hüseyin Özdikmen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae. A junior homonym was detected among neotropical sciarid flies genera and the following replacement name is proposed: Novaniarella nom. nov. for Aniarella Enderlein, 1911 (nec Bolivar, 1906. Accordingly, new combinations are herein proposed for the species currently included in this genus: Novaniarella azteca (Lane, 1959 comb. nov., Novaniarella brevis (Rubsaamen, 1894 comb. nov. and Novaniarella pelluscens (Enderlein, 1911 comb. nov.

  18. The crane flies (Diptera: Tipuloidea) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Petersen, Matthew J.; Parker, Charles R.; Bernard, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    The list of crane flies (Diptera: Ptychopteridae, Tipuloidea, Trichoceridae) known from Great Smoky Mountains National Park is updated. Sampling in association with the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Great Smoky Mountains National Park resulted in the addition of 107 new Park records, bringing the current list to 250 species. This species assemblage is much richer than those of surrounding areas, although similar in composition. Total richness is estimated to be between 450 and 500 species for Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  19. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu; Claudio J. B. de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.

  20. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.

  1. Modelling the Northward Expansion of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) under Future Climate Scenarios

    Zuliani, Anna; Massolo, Alessandro; Lysyk, Timothy; Johnson, Gregory; Marshall, Shawn; Berger, Kathryn; Cork, Susan Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is affecting the distribution of pathogens and their arthropod vectors worldwide, particularly at northern latitudes. The distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) plays a key role in affecting the emergence and spread of significant vector borne diseases such as Bluetongue (BT) and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) at the border between USA and Canada. We used 50 presence points for C. sonorensis collected in Montana (USA) and south-central Alberta (Ca...

  2. Morphology and Developmental Rate of the Blow Fly, Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Forensic Entomology Applications

    Nophawan Bunchu; Chinnapat Thaipakdee; Apichat Vitta; Sangob Sanit; Kom Sukontason; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

    2012-01-01

    Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a forensically important blow fly species presented in many countries. In this study, we determined the morphology of all stages and the developmental rate of H. ligurriens reared under natural ambient conditions in Phitsanulok province, northern Thailand. Morphological features of all stages based on observing under a light microscope were described and demonstrated in order to use for identification purpose. Moreover, development time in e...

  3. Parasitoids of Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Southeast Turkey with 3 New Records

    ÇIKMAN, Emine; BEYARSLAN, Ahmet; CİVELEK, Hasan Sungur

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine parasitoid species of the family Agromyzidae (Diptera) in Diyarbakır and Mardin provinces during 2002-2004. Infested leaves with leafminer larvae were collected from both cultivated and non-cultivated plants twice a month. The adult parasitoids were obtained by rearing from infested leaves in the laboratory. Five parasitoid species belonging to the Braconidae (Hymenoptera) were found. These species, Bracon kirgisorum Telenga, 1936, Opius basali...

  4. Wing shape is influenced by environmental variability in Polietina orbitalis (Stein) (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Victor Michelon Alves; Maurício Osvaldo Moura; Claudio J. B. de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We measured variation and covariation in wing morphology in six populations of the fly Polietina orbitalis (Stein) (Diptera: Muscidae) to test for geographic morphological structure. Additionally, we examined the role of environmental variables in determining geographic variation in wing shape. We sampled five populations in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil (Colombo, Fênix, Guarapuava, Jundiaí do Sul and Ponta Grossa), and one in Paraguay (Mbaracayú). We choose 15 landmarks to de...

  5. Revision of the Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera described by J. Macquart

    José A. Rafael

    Full Text Available Four Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera are revised: Aplomera pachymera (Macquart, 1838, A. gayi Macquart, 1838, Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 and E. polita Macquart, 1838. Aplomera chilensis (Bezzi, 1909 was also studied and it is being considered junior synonym of A. pachymera. Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of A. gayi Macquart, 1838. Lectotype is being designated for A. pachymera, A. chilensis and E. polita. Illustration of terminalia and photomicrographs of wings are also included.

  6. First record of spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Montenegro

    Snježana Hrnčić; Sanja Radonjić

    2015-01-01

    The spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest originating from Southeast Asia. It was detected for the first time in Europe in 2008 (Spain and Italy) and subsequently in other European countries. It is a highly polyphagous pest that infests healthy, ripening fruit and presents a serious threat to fruit production, particularly of soft skinned fruit. In the first half of October 2013, a new fruit fly sp...

  7. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  8. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Labud Valeria Alejandra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  9. Análise cladística de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae, a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci = 79, ri = 80 and length 115. The monophiletism of Euprepina was supported by two synapomorphies.

  10. Lista faunística de los Quironómidos (Diptera, Chironomidae) de Madrid (España)

    Soriano, O.; Cobo, F.

    2006-01-01

    A check list of the Chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae) recorded from Madrid is provided for the first time. New unpublished records are included, of which six are new for the Iberian Peninsula. 218 species were found, coming from both lotic and lenitic environments.

    En el presente trabajo se aporta por primera vez una lista faunística de los quironómidos (Diptera, Chironomidae) citados en Madrid. También se añaden citas inéditas, siendo seis de ellas nuevas citas para la p...

  11. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  12. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera

    Jere Kahanpää

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae.

  13. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  14. Influence of methoprene and protein on survival, maturation and sexual performance of male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), like many other polifagous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae), adopts a lek as mating system. The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires the release of sterile males able to survive on the field, to compete with wild males, and attrac...

  15. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  16. Captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera:Tephritidae) and non-target insects on red spheres versus yellow spheres and panels

    Sticky red spheres can be used to capture western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), but whether they capture more flies than yellow spheres and panels is poorly known. The objective of this study was to compare fly captures on red spheres versus yellow traps so...

  17. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  18. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  19. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  20. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil

    Gustavo Graciolli; Alexsander Araújo Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae). Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934), Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographic...

  1. Diptera, Ceratopogonidae Newman, 1834: new records of biting and predaceous midges from Iberá wetlands, Argentina

    Spinelli, Gustavo Ricardo; Pablo I. Marino; Mauad, Melina

    2012-01-01

    The first Argentina records of four species of biting and predaceous midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are provided from the Iberá wetlands in Corrientes Province: Forcipomyia (Euprojoannisia) unica Bystrak and Wirth, Echinohelea blantoni Wirth, Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth and Ratanaworabhan and Paryphoconusgrandis Macfie. This is the first record of the predaceous midge genus, Echinohelea Macfie, from Argentina. © 2012 Check List and Authors.

  2. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  3. Reduction in Emergence of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sweet Cherries with Different Egg and Larval Distributions Using Newer Insecticides

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...

  4. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, Anapeza Gagné and Pellacara Gagné, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Fara...

  5. New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.

    The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA, Agricultural Research Service scientists in Gainesville, FL and Israeli scientists regularly c...

  6. Morfologia comparada das terminálias masculina e feminina dos rhagionidae (Diptera, Tabanomorpha) neotropicais

    Daniel D.D. Carmo; Charles Morphy D. Santos

    2011-01-01

    Apresentamos uma investigação comparativa da morfologia das terminálias masculina e feminina de gêneros da família Rhagionidae (Diptera, Brachycera, Tabanomorpha) com distribuição neotropical. Partindo do plano básico de Brachycera, hipóteses de homologias entre as peças reprodutivas foram analisadas em um contexto comparativo. Os resultados sugerem que as condições presentes em Rhagionidae são no geral muito modificadas quando comparadas com o ancestral comum mais recente de Brachycera. Este...

  7. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    David Ferguson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic A. kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001, but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.

  8. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria.

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2014-01-01

    Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchusoceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchuskampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113. PMID:25349526

  9. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-01-01

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.  PMID:25544092

  10. On the biology of Symbiocladius rhithrogenae (ZAVREL, 1924) (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Chornohora Mts., Ukraine

    Gilka, W.; Klonowska-Olejnik, M.; Godunko, Roman J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, - (2007), s. 285-291. ISSN 0032-3780 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Grant ostatní: Institute of Environmental Sciences(PL) BW/V/INOS/4/06; Institute of Environmental Sciences(PL) DS/WBiNoZ/INoS/756/06; INTAS Fellowship Grant for Young Scientists(BE) 05-109-4162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Symbiocladius rhithrogenae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  11. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica. PMID:26642812

  13. First record of fruit fly, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Bangladesh

    The presence of Dacus (Callantra) longicornis Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) was detected for the first time in Bangladesh. An adult male fly was collected on 27th July, 2008 from small kitchen garden of Ganakbari, Savar area, containing various cucurbit crops viz., Cucurbita maxima (D.), Trichosanthus cucumerina (L.), Luffa acutungula (L.) etc. using a Mcphail trap baited with cue-lure. The fruit fly specimen were distinguished by the presence of a red-brown scutum, anatergite fuscous, face with a pair of black spots, abdomen petiolate with elongated abdominal tergite-1, cells bc and c fuscous, costal band overlapping R4+5, and absence of fore femoral spines. (author)

  14. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation. PMID:18209717

  15. Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) como responsable de miasis nosocomiales en Costa Rica

    Ólger Calderón-Arguedas; Sileny Luna; Guiselle Miranda; Adriana Troyo

    2014-01-01

    Se presentan dos casos de miasis nosocomiales, ocurridos en hospitales costarricenses, cuyo agente etiológico identificado fue Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). El primero tuvo lugar como infestación de una herida quirúrgica secundaria a una cirugía de abdomen, en la cual se observaron larvas de mosca asociadas con una secreción purulenta. Dicho cuadro conllevó la ejecución de una laparotomía exploratoria para descartar la presencia de más larvas, y el lavado de la cavidad per...

  16. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  17. Biología de Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en enclaves representativos de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Chordá Olmos, Francisco Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Los mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) es uno de los grupos de insectos de mayor notoriedad en Salud Pública no sólo por su molesta picadura sino, sobre todo, por la gran variedad y cantidad de enfermedades que transmiten al ser humano y a los animales. Entre ellas hay que destacar la Malaria, el Dengue, la Fiebre amarilla, el Virus del Oeste del Nilo, el Chikungunya, las Filariasis y diversas Encefalitis que anualmente afectan a millones de personas en todo el mundo. Para el control de las po...

  18. Two torymid species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Torymidae developing on Artemisia gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two parasitoid wasps, Torymus artemisiae Mayr and Torymoides violaceus (Nikol’skaya, were reared on Artemisia herba-alba (Asteraceae galles, in central Iran. Torymus artemisiae and T. violaceus were developed from the gall midges: Rhopalomyia navasi Tavares and R. hispanica Tavares, respectively. The occurrence of these two parasitic wasps in Iran, and their associations with R. navasi and R. hispanica, are new. Data on the wasps’ biological associations and geographical distribution are provided. The parasitoid compositions of the genus Rhopalomyia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were also discussed.

  19. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  20. Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids.

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary ectoparasitoid were also attacked by the ants and fell prey to spider webs. PMID:12489400

  1. Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

    Karlla Patrícia Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae. The male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 is described and illustrated for the first time based on material housed in the entomological collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. This monotypic subgenus has been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, first in the state of Amazonas and now in the state of Pará. The general structure of the male terminalia is similar that of other Lepidodexia, especially of the subgenus Lepidodexia, by the short distiphallus, juxta with apical projection, and vesica with a membranous spinous lobe.Descrição do macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. O macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez, com base em material depositado na coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Esse subgênero monotípico tem sido registrado na Floresta Amazônica brasileira, primeiramente no estado do Amazonas e agora no Pará. A estrutura geral da terminália masculina é similar a de outras espécies de Lepidodexia, especialmente do subgênero Lepidodexia, pelo distifalo curto, juxta com projeção apical e vesica com lobo membranoso e espinhoso.

  2. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Chave pictórica para a identificação das espécies de Sarcophagidae (Diptera de potencial importância forense do sul do Brasil. Espécies da subfamília Sarcophaginae são importantes para a entomologia forense devido ao seu hábito necrófago. Este trabalho apresenta uma chave pictórica para a identificação de 22 espécies de Sarcophaginae de 10 gêneros encontradas na região sul do Brasil. São fornecidas fotografias dos principais estruturas das espécies, principalmente da terminália masculina.

  3. Parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae coletados em pupários no substrato rim bovino Parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae collected in pupae in the bovine kidney

    Jean Patrick Bonani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo, identificar as principais espécies de parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, em Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, cujas larvas foram alimentadas com rim bovino. As coletas foram realizadas durante o período de agosto de 2003 a março de 2004. Um total de 921 parasitóides foram coletados em 942 pupas dessa mosca. A prevalência natural de parasitismo foi de 97%.The study aimed at identifying the main parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. The larvae were feed on bovine kidney. Samplings were conducted from August 2003 to March 2004, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 921 parasitoids in 942 pupae fly were collected. The prevalence natural parasitism was 97%.

  4. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: fanniidae no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae is reported. Pupae of F. pusio were collected in traps using human feces to attract the adults. Ten pupae were obtained, of which two were parasitized by S. nigroaenea, thus demonstrating a parasitism rate of 20.0%.

  5. Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea in Argentina, with information on the biology of the genus Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea en Argentina, con información sobre la biología del género

    Raúl E. Campos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first literature record of the genus Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae from South America (Neotropical Region. New information on the biological cycle of Stenomicra species in the wild is provided, and four species of the genus Eryngium L. (Apiaceae are recorded as host plants for immature stages of this taxon. The specimens of Stenomicra sp. were collected in Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.En este estudio, se publica por primera vez para Sudamérica (Región Neotropical el género Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae. Se aporta información sobre su ciclo biológico en condiciones naturales y se mencionan cuatro especies del género Eryngium L. (Apiaceae, como plantas hospedadoras de los estados inmaduros. Los ejemplares de Stenomicra sp. fueron colectados en Sierra de la Ventana, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  6. Historical biogeography of the Fanniidae (Insecta, Diptera): A commentary on the age of the family Biogeografia histórica de Fanniidae (Insecta, Diptera): Un comentario sobre la edad de la familia

    PETER LOWENBERG-NETO; Kirstern L. F. Haseyama; Claudio J. B. de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    In a study on Fanniidae biogeography, Dominguez & Roig-Juñent (2011) argued that the family had a Pangeic origin, Late Jurassic/early Cretaceous (~146 Ma). However, recent literature on Diptera supports that Schizophora radiation occurred during Cenozoic. Fanniidae is a widespread taxon and it was interpreted under the maximum vicariance paradigm; the consequence was an analysis with no alternative hypothesis, but Pangeic origin. We verified that Fanniidae historical narrative was incongruent...

  7. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) como inimigo natural de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), no Brasil

    C.H. Marchiori; L. A. Pereira; O. M. S. Filho

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which wascollected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individual...

  8. Calliphoridae (Diptera) from wild, suburban, and urban sites at three Southeast Patagonian localities: Calliphoridae (Diptera) de ambientes no habitados, suburbanos y urbanos en tres localidades del sudeste patagónico

    Juan C. Mariluis; Juan A. Schnack; Pablo P. Mulieri; Luciano D. Patitucci

    2008-01-01

    Species composition, relative abundance, sex ratio and habitat preference of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Caleta Olivia, Puerto Deseado, and Puerto San Julián (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina) were studied during late spring and summer in 2004-2005. Results showed a higher prevalence of the exotic species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen) at urban sites over the natives, Compsomyops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy) and Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wied...

  9. Diversity, distribution and floral specificity of tangle-veined flies (Diptera: Nemestrinidae) in north west Patagonia, Argentina Diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de nemestrínidos (Diptera) en el noroeste de la Patagonia, Argentina

    MARIANO DEVOTO; DIEGO MEDAN

    2006-01-01

    Tangle-veined flies (Nemestrinidae) constitute a primitive and rather widespread family among Diptera. The genus Trichophthalma occurs in Australia and South America and is the only one in the family with a typically Gondwanian, disjoint distribution. The ecology and distribution of most southern South American species of this genus remains virtually unknown. We studied the diversity, distribution and flower specificity of flower-visiting species of the genus Trichophthalma in the temperate f...

  10. Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea) in Argentina, with information on the biology of the genus Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea) en Argentina, con información sobre la biología del género

    Campos, Raúl E.; María C Gramajo; Mercedes Lizarralde de Grosso

    2010-01-01

    This is the first literature record of the genus Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae) from South America (Neotropical Region). New information on the biological cycle of Stenomicra species in the wild is provided, and four species of the genus Eryngium L. (Apiaceae) are recorded as host plants for immature stages of this taxon. The specimens of Stenomicra sp. were collected in Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.En este estudio, se publica por primera vez para Su...

  11. Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids Inimigos naturais do galhador Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): formigas predadoras e parasitóides

    M. de S., Jr. MENDONÇA; H. P. Romanowski

    2002-01-01

    Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary e...

  12. The skeletomuscular system of the larva of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophilidae, Diptera): a contribution to the morphology of a model organism.

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Schneeberg, Katharina; Löffler, Andreas; Hünefeld, Frank; Meier, Rudolf; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-01-01

    The morphological features of the third instar larva of the most important insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, are documented for the first time using a broad spectrum of modern morphological techniques. External structures of the body wall, the cephaloskeleton, and the musculature are described and illustrated. Additional information about other internal organs is provided. The systematic implications of the findings are discussed briefly. Internal apomorphic features of Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha are confirmed for Drosophila. Despite the intensive investigations of the phylogeny of the megadiverse Diptera, evolutionary reconstructions are still impeded by the scarcity of anatomical data for brachyceran larvae. The available morphological information for the life stages of three insect model organisms -D. melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae), Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) - is addressed briefly. The usefulness of a combination of traditional and innovative techniques for an optimized acquisition of anatomical data for different life stages is highlighted. PMID:23010508

  13. First records of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Boumans, L.; Zimmer, J.-Y.; Verheggen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central Europe during the past decades. The first documented findings in Belgium are discussed, together with general information on the biology and recognition of the species.

  14. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3rd palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  15. Orientisargidae fam. n., a new Jurassic family of Archisargoidea (Diptera, Brachycera), with review of Archisargidae from China

    Zhang Junfeng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A pair of fly impressions is described as a new species of a new genus, Orientisargus illecebrosus gen. et sp. n., referred to a new family Orientisargidae fam. n. within Archisargoidea of Brachycera, Diptera. The systematic position of Orientisargidae is discussed. Daohugosargus gen. n. is proposed for Sharasargus eximius KY Zhang et al., 2008. Uranorhagionidae is a junior synonym for Archisargidae. Meanwhile, Mostovskisarginae is a junior synonym for Uranorhagionidae. Mostovskisarg...

  16. Bush Blitz aids description of three new species and a new genus of Australian beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Exoprosopini)

    Christine Lambkin; Justin Bartlett

    2011-01-01

    Bush Blitz is a three-year multimillion dollar program to document the plants and animals in hundreds of properties across Australia’s National Reserve System. The core focus is on nature discovery – identifying and describing new species of plants and animals. The Bush Blitz program has enabled the collection and description of beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from surveys in Western Australia and Queensland. Three new species of Australian beeflies belonging to the Exoprosopini a...

  17. High altitude Chironomidae (Diptera) of Serra da Estrela (Portugal): Additions to the Portuguese and Iberian Peninsula fauna

    Rieradevall, M.; M.L. Chaves; Prat, N.

    2007-01-01

    A Chironomidae (Diptera) fauna list for headwater streams of high altitude areas in Serra da Estrela (Portugal) is presented, doubling the previously established species richness for the region. The findings include 17 new records for Portugal, which represent an increase to 219 species for the Continental Portugal Chironomidae fauna. Two new records were detected for the Iberian Peninsula: one species (Tvetenia duodenaria), and one subgenus -Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius)-; and the pres...

  18. Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera) as water quality indicators along an environmental gradient in a neotropical urban stream

    Nadja Gomes Machado; Danielle Christine Stenner Nassarden; Francyele dos Santos; Isabelle Christina Gonçalves Boaventura; Gregory Perrier; Fernanda Silveira Carvalho de Souza; Eucarlos de Lima Martins; Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic interference in urban lotic systems is a factor affecting the biota of waterbodies. Aquatic macro invertebrates are an important food source for fish and are valuable indicators of water quality. The objective of this work was to study Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera) distribution along an environmental gradient in Barbado Stream, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. No individual Chironomus was found in the springs of Barbado Stream, which may indicate preservation of the area. During ...

  19. The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil)

    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela; Lyria Mori

    2014-01-01

    The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil). Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931), the cherry fly or spotted-wing Drosophila, a pest species from the Oriental and southeastern Palaearctic regions belonging to the melanogaster group, invaded the Nearctic and western countries of the Palaearctic regions late last decade (2008) and, more recently (2013), the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Early...

  20. Natural Enemies of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Collected in States Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    C.H. Marchiori

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is of great medical importance because it produces myiasis. It has a significant role as a predator of other dipterous larvae. Moreover, this dipterous insect is of great importance with regard to public health because it mechanically carries pathogens to humans. This study had the objective of ascertaining the species of parasitoids of C. albiceps in human feces, cattle liver, cattle kidney, chicken viscera, fish and pig carcasses in Go...

  1. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil

    Marchiori C.H.; Pereira L.A.; Filho O.M.S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which wascollected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individual...

  2. Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) populations on cranberry and blueberry in British Columbia: same species, host races or sibling species?

    Cook, Melissa Ashley

    2011-01-01

    The gall-inducing midge, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, and highbush blueberry, V. corymbosum, in British Columbia. Dasineura oxycoccana was initially found on highbush blueberry and more recently on cranberry. Given the close proximity of many cranberry and blueberry farms in British Columbia, it was hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. I investigated whether D. oxycoccana popu...

  3. Morphology, molecules and mating behavior : an integrative study of population divergence and speciation in widespread sepsid flies (Sepsidae: Diptera)

    Puniamoorthy, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation explores processes of selection and speciation acting on diverging populations in two widespread sepsid species (Sepsidae: Diptera). The main focus was on investigating sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and incipient speciation in the nearctic and palaearctic species Sepsis punctum (Fabricius 1794) (Chapters 1-4). In addition, divergence in reproductive behavior and morphology was also addressed in the neotropical species Archisepsis divers...

  4. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was dete...

  5. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    2011-01-01

    Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae). Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the fol...

  6. Posterior spiracles of fourth instar larvae of four species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. lenti, and L. whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. The importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.

  7. Aedes aegypti (Diptera : Culicidae) in Mauritania : first report on the presence of the arbovirus mosquito vector in Nouakchott

    Lekweiry, K.M.; Ould Ahmedou Salem, M. S.; Ould Brahim, K.; Lemrabott, M. A. O.; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, O.; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital c...

  8. Entomopathogenic fungi as a new strategy to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Daniel, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest of sweet cherries in Europe. Up to 100% of the fruit can be infested. Methods for controlling this pest are limited in organic agriculture as well as in integrated production, as the insecticide currently used (Dimethoate) is being challenged due to problems of ecotoxicity and residues. Alternative methods for cherry fruit fly management are therefore needed. The aim of this thesis was t...

  9. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae)

    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger; Lisiane Dilli Wendt; Paulo Bretanha Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae). Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict ...

  10. How to inventory tropical flies (Diptera)--One of the megadiverse orders of insects.

    Borkent, Art; Brown, Brian V

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to inventory Diptera species in tropical habitats is described. A 150 x 266 m patch of cloud forest at Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica (10.047N, 84.008W) at 1585 meters asl was sampled with two Malaise traps for slightly more than one year (Sept. 12, 2012-Oct. 18, 2013). Further concomitant sampling with a variety of trapping methods for three days every month and collecting during a one-week intensive "Diptera Blitz", with 19 collaborators collecting on-site, provided diverse additional samples used in the inventory. Two other Costa Rican sites at Tapantí National Park (9.720N, 83.774W, 1600 m) and Las Alturas (8.951N, 82.834W, 1540 m), 40 and 180 km southeast from Zurquí de Moravia, respectively, were each sampled with a single Malaise trap to allow for beta-diversity assessments. Tapantí National Park was sampled from Oct. 28, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013 and Las Alturas from Oct. 13, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013. A worldwide group of 54 expert systematists are identifying to species level all 72 dipteran families present in the trap samples. Five local technicians sampled and prepared material to the highest curatorial standards, ensuring that collaborator efforts were focused on species identification. This project, currently in its final, third year of operation (to end Sept. 1, 2015), has already recorded 2,348 species and with many more yet expected. Unlike previous All Taxon Biodiversity Inventories, this project has attainable goals and will provide the first complete estimate of species richness for one of the four megadiverse insect orders in a tropical region. Considering that this is the first complete survey of one of the largest orders of insects within any tropical region of the planet, there is clearly great need for a consistent and feasible protocol for sampling the smaller but markedly more diverse smaller insects in such ecosystems. By weight of their species diversity and remarkable divergence of habit, the Diptera are an excellent model to

  11. "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares

    Luis M. Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium

  12. Parasitoids (Insecta: Hymenoptera of diptera (Insecta collected at different altitudes and substrates in Parque da Serra de Caldas Novas, Goias, Brazil

    Juliana F. Laurindo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the occurrence of parasitoids of diptera collected from five different substrates – human feces, bovine liver, fruits, chicken and fish – at 740 and 1000 meters above sea level in the Serra de Caldas Novas Park, in Caldas Novas, State of Goiás, Brazil. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method and individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the adult of diptera or their parasitoids. From August 2003 to July 2004, 1407 parasitoids emerged from 2946 puparia of diptera: 211 parasitoids at 740 meters and 1196 specimens at 1000 meters above sea level. Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae was the most frequent species at 1000 meters, with a frequency of 79.6% of all collected specimens. The total percentages of parasitism at 740 and 1000 meters were 13.4% and 9.1%, respectively.

  13. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    Magdi El-Hawagry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794, Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909, Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804, while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone.

  14. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks.

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al

    2015-01-01

    Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyiadiscoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylumcandidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopalinearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopaminos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopalinearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylumcandidum and Bombomyiadiscoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  15. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

  16. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration.

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  17. Molecular diagnostics of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Using PCR-RFLP.

    Kim, Sh S; Tripodi, A D; Johnson, D T; Szalanski, A L

    2014-06-01

    The invasive spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), has become a serious pest in the United States. Identification of immature and poorly preserved specimens can be difficult. A molecular diagnostic method for distinguishing D. suzukii from other Drosophila spp. associated with fruit in the United States was developed. A 709-bp region of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene was amplified from D. suzukii collections in the United States and compared with sequences of other Drosophila taxa from GenBank. Based on DNA sequence polymorphisms, a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using the restriction enzyme Msp-I was found to differentiate D. suzukii from other Drosophila spp. in the United States. This technique can identify field-collected specimens from various sources and specimens regardless of life stage. This molecular diagnostic method will be useful for monitoring the spread of this economically important invasive insect. PMID:25026695

  18. Haemagogus equinus Theobald 1903 (Diptera: Culicidae en el Campus de la Universidad de Carabobo. Valencia. Venezuela.

    Cesar Parra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Haemagogus equinus Theobald 1903 (Diptera: Culicidae in the campus of the Universidad de Carabobo. Valencia. Venezuela.Species of Haemagogus are the main vector of sylvatic Yellow Fever (YF. The immature phases breed in water-filled tree holes and bambu internodes; however, some species are found in artificialcontainers. We assessed the presence of medically important mosquitoes in an urban area. Traps were used in a riberine forest near the Sports Area of the University of Carabobo. A month later they were removed, and mosquito composition was determined. We reported the presence of Haemagogus (Haemagogus equinus Theobald and other three species. This finding represents a potenciality forenzootic YF transmission, and the adaptation of such species to artificial breeding sites, which, in addition to the increment of aedine indexes, constitute a risk for the emergence of such arbovirus.

  19. Phylogeny of genus Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae) according to ITS2 sequences

    陈小爱; 李嵩; 李昌本; 赵寿元; Aksoy; Serap

    1999-01-01

    The flies of genus Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae) are an important vector of African trypanosomiases which cause diseases in humans and animals. The ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (ITS-2) region sequences from different Glossina species were PCR-amplified and analyzed in order to construct a molecular phylogeny for genus Glossina. Trees generated by parsimony confirmed the monophyletic taxonomic placement of genus Glossina where fusca group species formed the deepest branch followed by morsitans and palpalis groups, respectively. The placement of Glossina austeni by both the traditional morphological and biochemical criteria has been controversial. Results presented here, based on ITS-2 locus sequence analysis, suggest that Glossina austeni can be placed into a separate subgenerus which forms a sister-group relationship with the morsitans group species.

  20. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru

    Analía Gladys Autino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae. Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the department of Loreto. Also, we found 17 new host-ectoparasite relationships. Of note, we found remarkable new association between Neotrichobius delicatus and bat species from the families Molossidae and Noctilionidae and a novel association between Paradyschiria parvula and a species of Vespertilionidae. Host-ectoparasite specificity was recorded with 14 species as monoxenous, three oligoxenous, seven pleioxenous and two polyxenous.

  1. A preliminary survey of the non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae of the Dominican Republic

    Fabio Laurindo da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chironomidae (Diptera are among the most diverse and widespread aquatic insects, with roughly 5,500 described species. However, prior to the present work, no species of Chironomidae had been documented from the island of Hispaniola. Collections of non-biting midges, with emphasis on the lotic fauna, were made in the Dominican Republic during July of 2015. In total, 578 specimens belonging to 27 genera and at least 44 species within the subfamilies Chironominae (20 taxa, Orthocladiinae (16 taxa and Tanypodinae (8 taxa were found. The subfamilies Chironominae and Orthocladiinae predominated. Polypedilum was the most widespread and diverse genus of Chironominae. Metriocnemus were collected in bromeliad tanks. The chironomid fauna in Dominican Republic includes multiple genera with worldwide distributions, including Holarctic and Neotropical components.

  2. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae of north western Himalaya

    C. S. Prabhakar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett, Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi, Bactrocera tau (Walker, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel and Dacus ciliatus Loew are the pests of agricultural and horticultural ecosystems. Bactrocera latifrons, Bactrocera nigrofemoralis White and Tsuruta, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann and Dacus sphaeroidalis (Bezzi are the new records from the region of which host range has yet to be investigated. The pictorial keysdeveloped for these species will help the researchers for their easy and accurate identification.

  3. The relationship between morphological and behavioral mimicry in hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    Penney, Heather D; Hassall, Christopher; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Lamborn, Brent; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2014-02-01

    Palatable (Batesian) mimics of unprofitable models could use behavioral mimicry to compensate for the ease with which they can be visually discriminated or to augment an already close morphological resemblance. We evaluated these contrasting predictions by assaying the behavior of 57 field-caught species of mimetic hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and quantifying their morphological similarity to a range of potential hymenopteran models. A purpose-built phylogeny for the hover flies was used to control for potential lack of independence due to shared evolutionary history. Those hover fly species that engage in behavioral mimicry (mock stinging, leg waving, wing wagging) were all large wasp mimics within the genera Spilomyia and Temnostoma. While the behavioral mimics assayed were good morphological mimics, not all good mimics were behavioral mimics. Therefore, while the behaviors may have evolved to augment good morphological mimicry, they do not advantage all good mimics. PMID:24464201

  4. The complete mitochondrial DNA genomes for two lineages of Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J; Webb, C E

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes for two deeply divergent lineages of the urban adapted mosquito Aedes notoscriptus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia were sequenced using a combination of next generation Illumina and traditional Sanger sequencing. The 15,846 and 15,851 bp circular genomes share 95.0% nucleotide identity. They both have the full complement of 37 metazoan genes and identical gene arrangements to previously published Culicidae species with the one non-coding A + T rich control region present between rns and tRNA-Ile. All protein initiation codons are ATN apart from COX1 (TCG). Eight protein coding genes encode full TAA stop codons, one uses an incomplete TA and four use T. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:25350735

  5. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  6. Primer registro de Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae en el Estado Carabobo, Venezuela.

    Maira Hernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available First record of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 ( Diptera: Culicidae in Carabobo State, Venezuela. Aedes albopictus or “Asian tiger mosquito” is an invasive species consider the second most important dengue vector. Due to public health relevance and the recent findings in several areas from Venezuela, we sampled in seven localities in the Carabobo State from june to august, 2013. This is the first report of Aedes albopictus in four localities of Carabobo State associated to larvitraps and flower vases. This increases to 15 the number of occurrences in the country. This finding in urban areas of Carabobo represents a potentiality risk for arboviruses emergence and transmission, because that we recommended vector monitoring, entomological and epidemiological surveillance and the vectorial control in the country. This finding shows the importance of further studies of mosquito’s geographical distribution, arboviruses detection, vector ecological aspects, and their possible medical and epidemiological link with emerging and reemerging diseases.

  7. Optimizing Trap Design and Trapping Protocols for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Renkema, Justin M; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a recent invasive pest of fruit crops in North America and Europe. Carpophagous larvae render fruit unmarketable and may promote secondary rot-causing organisms. To monitor spread and develop programs to time application of controls, further work is needed to optimize trap design and trapping protocols for adult D. suzukii. We compared commercial traps and developed a new, easy-to-use plastic jar trap that performed well compared with other designs. For some trap types, increasing the entry area led to increased D. suzukii captures and improved selectivity for D. suzukii when populations were low. However, progressive entry area enlargement had diminishing returns, particularly for commercial traps. Unlike previous studies, we found putting holes in trap lids under a close-fitting cover improved captures compared with holes on sides of traps. Also, red and black traps outperformed yellow and clear traps when traps of all colors were positioned 10-15 cm apart above crop foliage. In smaller traps, attractant surface area and entry area, but not other trap features (e.g., headspace volume), appeared to affect D. suzukii captures. In the new, plastic jar trap, tripling attractant volume (360 vs 120 ml) and weekly attractant replacement resulted in the highest D. suzukii captures, but in the larger commercial trap these measures only increased by-catch of large-bodied Diptera. Overall, the plastic jar trap with large entry area is affordable, durable, and can hold high attractant volumes to maximize D. suzukii capture and selectivity. PMID:26470076

  8. First record of spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Montenegro

    Snježana Hrnčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae is an invasive pest originating from Southeast Asia. It was detected for the first time in Europe in 2008 (Spain and Italy and subsequently in other European countries. It is a highly polyphagous pest that infests healthy, ripening fruit and presents a serious threat to fruit production, particularly of soft skinned fruit. In the first half of October 2013, a new fruit fly species was unexpectedly detected in Tephri traps baited with the three-component female-biased attractant BioLure that is regularly used for monitoring the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae in Montenegro. Brief visual inspection identified the new species as the spotted wing drosophila D. suzukii. The pest was first recorded in several localities on the Montenegrin seacoast around Boka Kotor Bay. After the finding, all Drosophila specimens were collected from traps for further laboratory observation. A quick follow-up monitoring of other Tephri traps was carried out within the next few days on the rest of the seacoast (localities from Tivat to Ulcinj. Additionally, Tephri traps were set up around Lake Skadar and in the city of Podgorica, as well as on fresh fruit markets in Podgorica. The results of this preliminary study showed that D. suzukii was present in all surveyed locations and adults were captured until late December. Both sexes were found in traps with BioLure. Our data show that D. suzukii is present in southern parts of Montenegro and there is a serious threat of its further spreading, particularly towards northern parts of the country where the main raspberry and blueberry production is placed. The results also show that Tephri traps baited with BioLure can be used for detection and monitoring of spotted wing drosophila.

  9. New species and new records of Mydidae from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions (Insecta, Diptera, Asiloidea

    Torsten Dikow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available New Mydidae species are described from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions including the first records of this family from several countries in eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda and Mauritania in western Africa as well as Nepal and Thailand in Asia. The new species are, Leptomydinae: Leptomydas notos sp. n. (south-western India, Leptomydas rapti sp. n. (south-central Nepal, Leptomydas tigris sp. n. (north-central Thailand; Syllegomydinae: Mydaselpidini: Mydaselpis ngurumani sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania, Vespiodes phaios sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya; Syllegomydinae: Syllegomydini: Syllegomydas (Notobates astrictus sp. n. (Kenya, Syllegomydas (Notobates heothinos sp. n. (Kenya and Uganda, Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas elachys sp. n. (northern Zimbabwe. Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas proximus Séguy, 1928 is recorded from western Mauritania and re-described. Syllegomydas (Notobates dispar (Loew, 1852, which was previously listed as incertae sedis in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue, is re-described and illustrated based on examination of the type specimens and several additional specimens from Mozambique. Cephalocera annulata Brunetti, 1912 and Syllegomydas bucciferus Séguy, 1928, described from north-eastern India and previously unplaced in the Oriental Diptera catalogue, are newly combined with Leptomydas Gerstaecker, 1868 and together with Leptomydas indianus Brunetti, 1912, also from north-eastern India, placed in Leptomydinae. Comments on the possible synonymy of the genera of Mydaselpidini are made. Illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and future identification. A provisional dichotomous key to Mydidae genera occurring in eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and the Oriental Region is provided. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots and high-biodiversity wilderness areas, and seasonal incidence are discussed for all species.

  10. TWO NEW RECORDS OF Isomyia paurogonita FANG AND FAN, 1986 AND Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE FROM NORTHERN THAILAND, WITH REVISED KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Isomyia

    Nophawan Bunchu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the annual fly survey at Doi Nang Kaew in Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai Province of Thailand in 2011, Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (Diptera: Calliphoridae were collected for the first time in Thailand. They are the rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini. Prior to this finding, fifteen species of Isomyia and two species of Sumatria were recorded from Thailand. Therefore, 96 blow fly species have been found in this country. These new locality records of both flies are very important for further research on their biology and ecology in Thailand.

  11. Parasitoids (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of diptera (Insecta) collected at different altitudes and substrates in Parque da Serra de Caldas Novas, Goias, Brazil

    Juliana F. Laurindo; Relia R. Brunes; Patrícia L. G. P. Gonçalves; Francilene C. O. A. Fortes; Otacílio M. Silva Filho; Carlos H. Marchiori; Rauer B. Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of parasitoids of diptera collected from five different substrates – human feces, bovine liver, fruits, chicken and fish – at 740 and 1000 meters above sea level in the Serra de Caldas Novas Park, in Caldas Novas, State of Goiás, Brazil. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method and individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the adult of diptera or their parasitoids. From August 2003 to July 2004, 1407 parasitoids emerged from 2946 p...

  12. Actividad nictemeral y anual de los Diptera (Insecta) en un bosque mediterráneo mixto de Cataluña

    Mederos-López, Jorge L.; Pujade, Juli,

    2011-01-01

    El presente estudio se centra en las familias de Diptera muestreadas en un bosque mixto mediterráneo Pinus-Quercus, la formación boscosa más extendida dentro del Parc Natural de la Serra de Collserola. Desde abril de 2009 hasta junio de 2010 se muestreó en el dosel y sotobosque del sitio de estudio, resultando ser los Diptera el grupo más abundante y la familia Cecidomyiidae la dominante. La artropofauna mostró una actividad diurna bimodal durante los meses más cálidos, que evolucionó progres...

  13. Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies

    Teal, P. E. A.; Gomez-Simuta, Y.; Proveaux, A. T.

    2000-01-01

    Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a...

  14. Parasitismo natural em moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae no semiárido do sudoeste da Bahia, Brasil Natural parasitism in fruit-flies in the fruticulture area of anagé, semi-arid of southwestern Bahia, Brazil

    Ricardo Falcão de Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoides são importantes agentes de controle natural de tefritídeos, e os conhecimentos sobre as relações tritróficas podem subsidiar o manejo destas pragas. Este trabalho objetivou estimar índices de parasitismo em moscas-das-frutas, em 21 espécies vegetais, e identificar as espécies de parasitoides associados, nas condições do semiárido do sudoeste da Bahia. Oito hospedeiros apresentaram infestação por Anastrepha spp. e, destes, em quatro, ocorreu parasitismo superior a 20,0%, sendo: 20,8% (Ziziphus joazeiro L.; 21,3% (Spondias tuberosa L.; 32,4% (Spondias purpurea L. e 57,1% (Malpighia emarginata L.. Os parasitoides coletados pertencem à família Braconidae, sendo 89% de Doryctobracon areolatus e 11% de Asobara anastrephae.Parasitoids are important natural control agents of tephritids and knowledge about the tritrophic relationships can support the management of these pests. This study aimed to estimate of parasitism indexes in fruit flies in 21 plant species and identify the species of parasitoids associated, in semiarid conditions of Southwestern Bahia. Eight hosts showed infestation by Anastrepha spp. and, of these, four occurred parasitism above 20.0%, of which: 20.8% (Ziziphus joazeiro L.; 21.3% (Spondias tuberosa L.; 32.4% (Spondias purpurea L. and 57.1% (Malpighia emarginata L.. The collected parasitoids belong to the Braconidae family, 89% of Doryctobracon areolatus and 11% of Asobara anastrephae.

  15. Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritoidea em matas nativas e pomares domésticos de dois municípios do Estado do Tocantins, Brasil Biodiversity of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea in native forests and orchards in two counties of the State of Tocantins, Brazil

    Darcy A. do Bomfim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta análise faunística comparativa das espécies de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em armadilhas McPhail (junho a dezembro de 2002 com proteína hidrolisada de milho a 5%. Foram comparadas a riqueza de espécies e a estrutura populacional entre ambientes de mata e pomar dos municípios de Palmas e Porto Nacional, TO. Foram capturados 1.748 indivíduos de espécies de três gêneros de Tephritidae: Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 e Ceratitis MacLeay, 1829. De Lonchaeidae foram capturadas espécies de três gêneros: Lonchaea Fallén, 1820, Neosilba McAlpine, 1962 e Dasiops Rondani, 1856. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. Dezenove espécies de Anastrepha foram coletadas, sendo a maioria dos indivíduos (69,1% de A. obliqua (Macquart, 1835. Não houve diferença significativa (P This paper presents comparative and faunistic analysis of the species of fruit flies captured in McPhail traps (from June to December 2002 baited with 5% corn protein hydrolyzed. Species richness and the patterns of population are compared between forest and orchard environments and between the counties of Palmas and Porto Nacional. A total of 1,748 individuals of Tephritidae belonging to species of three genera were collected: Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 and Ceratitis MacLeay, 1829. Species of three genera of Lonchaeidae were also captured: Lonchaea Fallén, 1820, Neosilba McAlpine, 1962 and Dasiops Rondani, 1856. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 and nineteen species of the genus Anastrepha were collected. Most of the collected individuals (69.1% belonged to A. obliqua (Macquart, 1935. The average numbers of tephritid individuals in Palmas and native forests were significantly lower than Porto Nacional and orchards, respectively. According to the Shannon diversity index (H' and test t used for comparing the fruit flies fauna among the environments, it was verified that only one comparison showed

  16. Morphology of immature stages of Atherigona reversura (Diptera: Muscidae), with notes on the recent invasion of North America

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas; Hudson, William G.;

    2013-01-01

    The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology of the...

  17. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  18. Classical biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera olea (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the exotic parasitoie, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in France.

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of olives which is worldwide distributed and responsible for economic losses of approximately US$800 million per year. Since the 2000s both economical and environmental concerns have raised interested in clas...

  19. Biology of Thrypticus truncatus and T. sagittatus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae), petiole miners of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Argentina. With morphological descriptions of larvae and pupae

    The mining flies Thyrpticus truncatus Bickel & Hernandez and T. sagittatus Bickel & Hernandez (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are being evaluated as biological control agents for the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Soms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The bahavior of adults and larvae of these sp...

  20. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  1. Targeted Cue-lure Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Introduction: An area wide IPM approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression was undertaken as part of a Hawaii state-wide program funded by USDA-ARS Area Wide Initiative. Methods: A grid of 1 cuelure trap/ km2 over 40 km2 was established in Kamuela, HI to pinpoint ...

  2. Targeted Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    An area wide integrated pest management approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression in Kamuela, Hawaii, was undertaken as part of a larger state-wide program by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Area Wide Initiative. After a...

  3. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  4. Composición y abundancia de Chironomidae (Diptera) en un río serrano de zona semiárida (San Luis, Argentina) Composition and abundance of Chironomidae (Diptera) in a semiarid stream (San Luis, Argentina)

    ANA I MEDINA; Analía C. Paggi

    2004-01-01

    En numerosas investigaciones acerca de las comunidades bentónicas de ambientes lóticos ha quedado excluído el estudio de la diversidad y abundancia de la familia Chironomidae (Diptera), debido a las dificultades que presenta la taxonomía de los estados inmaduros. En este trabajo se estudió la composición y abundancia larval de la familia Chironomidae en el tramo no-regulado del río Grande. Se identificaron 24 géneros correspondientes a tres subfamilias; Chironominae, Tanypodinae y Orthocladii...

  5. Parasitóides de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) coletados em Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil Parasitoids of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) collected in Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori; Otacílio Moreira Silva Filho; Francilene Cardoso Alves Fortes; Rélia Rodrigues Brunes; Rauer Ferreira Borges; Patricia Luzia Pereira Gonçalves; Juliana Fischer Laurindo

    2005-01-01

    Com este estudo, objetivou-se verificar as espécies de insetos parasitando Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae)em Caldas Novas, Goiás, de agosto de 2003 a maio de 2004, empregando como atrativo de alimentação iscas formadas por fezes humanas, fígado bovino e peixe, com pupas sendo isoladas pelo método da flutuação, em água e individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos seus parasitóides. As porcentagens de parasitismo apresentada por Pachycrepoi...

  6. Does predator benefits prey? Commensalism between Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae) and Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) in Southeastern Brazil O predador beneficia sua presa? Comensalismo entre Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae) e Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) no Sudeste do Brasil

    Marcos Callisto; Michael D.C. Goulart; Pablo Moreno; Martins, Rogério P.

    2006-01-01

    Commensalism between Corydalus Latreille, 1802 (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) and Corynoneura Winnertz, 1846 (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) larvae was recorded in Indaiá stream, at 1,380 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, 19º-20ºS, 43º-44ºW) and in the headwaters of São Francisco river, at 1,300-1,700 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, 20º00'-20º30'S, 46º15'-47º00'W), in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Seventy eight Corydalus larvae (range 22-88 mm) were sampled: 61 in ...

  7. Influência de diversos derivados de vegetais na sobrevida das larvas de Aedes fluviatilis(Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidade) em laboratorio Larvicidal properties of plant extracts against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli; Nelymar M. Mendes; José P. Pereira; Bernadete S. Santos; Marlúcia A. Lamounier

    1988-01-01

    As propriedades larvicidas de 34 extratos, provenientes de 29 vegetais, foram testados em larvas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. 26,5% dos exames utilizados, reduziram significamente a sobrevida larvária (alfa = 0,05), quando empregados na concentração de 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata e Vernonia salzmanni). O ácido anacár...

  8. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author)

  9. Bombyliidae (Insecta: Diptera) de Quilamula en el área de reserva Sierra de Huautla, Morelos, México

    Omar Ávalos Hernández

    2007-01-01

    México es un centro de diversidad para Bombyliidae, la séptima familia más diversa dentro del orden Diptera. Los bombílidos son importantes porque algunas especies son polinizadoras y otras controlan las poblaciones de otros insectos al ser parasitoides, por lo que tienen potencial para utilizarse en el control de plagas. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo describir la diversidad de esta familia en Quilamula, Morelos, localidad ubicada en la reserva Sierra de Huautla. Se recolectó durante 12 me...

  10. Efeito do Envelhecimento de Isca na Captura de Moscas (Diptera: Brachycera em Área de Caatinga

    Eduardo Nascimento

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Diptera species, especially flies, has shown potential as bioindicators for environmental changes. There are different methods to capture these animals, including traps with food baits. In this study, we assess the efficiency of traps for catching flies using bait of cane sugar molasses, analyzing the ecological parameters: abundance, species richness and species composition of flies during different periods of exposure of the traps in the field: 24, 48, 72 and 96h. Species richness and abundance showed significant change with respect to exposure time in the field, with stabilization after 48h, and species composition differed between the first and the other days.

  11. Efeito do Envelhecimento de Isca na Captura de Moscas (Diptera: Brachycera) em Área de Caatinga

    Eduardo Nascimento; Bianca Ambrogi; Leandro Souto; Marcelo Vilas-Bôas; Manoel Uchôa

    2014-01-01

    Espécies de Diptera, principalmente as moscas, tem se mostrado como potenciais bioindicadores para mudanças ambientais. Para captura destes animais, há diferentes métodos, incluindo as armadilhas com atrativos alimentares. Neste estudo, para avaliar a eficiência de armadilhas na captura de moscas usando isca de melaço de cana-de-açúcar, foram avaliados os parâmetros ecológicos: abundância, riqueza e composição de espécies de moscas, comparando diferentes períodos de exposição das armadilhas e...

  12. Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. et spec. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Porricondylinae) from a backyard site in Öland, Sweden.

    Jaschhof, Mathias; Jaschhof, Catrin

    2015-01-01

    A new genus containing a single new species of Porricondylinae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described and named Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. nov., spec. nov. The sole known specimen of L. hortensis, a male, was Malaise trapped in a backyard site on the Baltic island of Öland, southeast Sweden, in summer 2014. Morphological evidence supports our hypothesis that Linnaeomyia is most closely related to Neurepidosis Spungis, 1987. Several male genital characters, notably the spine-bearing gonostyli and the vestigial ejaculatory apodeme, substantiate the generic distinctiveness of L. hortensis. Although a backyard discovery, L. hortensis is unlikely to be a synanthropic species. PMID:26624042

  13. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development.

    Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  14. Improving the biological control of leaf-miners (Diptera: Agromyzidae) using the sterile insect technique

    The leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is a worldwide pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. The most promising nonchemical approach for controlling Liriomiza leafminers in greenhouses is regular releases of the parasitoid Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). In the current study, we examine the hypothesis that the use of D. isaea for biological control of leafminers in greenhouse crops may be more practical and efficient when supplemented with additional control strategies, such as the sterile insect technique (SIT). In small cages, our SIT experiments suggest that releases of sterile L. trifolii males in three sterile-to-fertile male ratios (3:1, 5:1, and 10:1) can significantly reduce the number of the pest offspring. In large cage experiments, when both parasitoids and sterile males were released weekly, the combined methods significantly reduced mine production and the adult leafminer population size. Moreover, a synergistic interaction between these two methods was found, and a model based on our observed data predicts that because of this effect, only the use of both methods can eradicate the pest population. Our study indicates that an integrated pest management approach that combines the augmentative release of the parasitoid D. isaea together with sterile leafminer males is more efficient than the use of either method alone. In addition, our results validate previous theoretical models and demonstrate synergistic control with releases of parasitoids and sterile insects. (author)

  15. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Franz Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae. Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae

    Mingshan Ji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively.

  17. Impact of soil type, moisture, and depth on swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) pupation and emergence.

    Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony M

    2007-12-01

    Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a common insect pest in Europe and a new invasive pest in North America, causes severe damage to cruciferous crops. Currently, many counties in Canada and the United States in which C. nasturtii has not been previously reported are at risk of being infested by C. nasturtii. Effectiveness of chemical control is limited, especially under high population pressure in fields, because the cryptic habits of C. nasturtii protect them from insecticidal sprays. Alternative management strategies against C. nasturtii that are needed to protect crucifers and soil management for the pupal stage were studied as one option. Six different types of soils (loam fine sand, fine sand, clay loam, muck, Chenango shale loam, and silt loam soil) were collected from commercial cabbage fields in New York and studied in the laboratory for their impact on C. nasturtii pupation and emergence. The results indicated that extremely wet or dry soils significantly hindered C. nasturtii emergence, regardless of soil type, suggesting that soil type alone may not be a major factor regulating C. nasturtii abundance. Optimal moisture content for C. nasturtii emergence varied for different soils. Most C. nasturtii pupated within the top 1 cm of soil. Furthermore, we found that >5 cm of soil cover effectively reduced the emergence number and delayed the time of emergence. Based on these results, we suggest that soil manipulation (moisture content and cultivation practices) should be considered as an important component in an overall integrated pest management program for C. nasturtii. PMID:18284762

  18. Swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), ten years of invasion of crucifer crops in North America.

    Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony M; Hallett, Rebecca H; Hoepting, Christine A; Kikkert, Julie R; Wang, Ping

    2011-06-01

    The Swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a common insect pest in Europe, is a newly invasive pest in North America that constitutes a major threat to cruciferous vegetable and field crops. Since its first identification in Ontario, Canada, in 2000, it has rapidly spread to 65 counties in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec and has recently been found in canola (one of two cultivars of rapeseed, Brassica napus L. and Brassica campestris L.) in the central Prairie region where the majority of Canada's 6.5 million ha (16 million acres) of canola is grown. The first detection of Swede midge in the United States was in 2004 in New York cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), but it has now been found in four additional states. Here, we review the biology of Swede midge, its host plant range, distribution, economic impact, pest status, and management strategies. We provide insight into this insect's future potential to become an endemic pest of brassica crops in North America. We also proposed research needed to develop tactics for handling this invasive pest in brassica crops. PMID:21735885

  19. Morfologia comparada das terminálias masculina e feminina dos rhagionidae (Diptera, Tabanomorpha neotropicais

    Daniel D.D. Carmo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma investigação comparativa da morfologia das terminálias masculina e feminina de gêneros da família Rhagionidae (Diptera, Brachycera, Tabanomorpha com distribuição neotropical. Partindo do plano básico de Brachycera, hipóteses de homologias entre as peças reprodutivas foram analisadas em um contexto comparativo. Os resultados sugerem que as condições presentes em Rhagionidae são no geral muito modificadas quando comparadas com o ancestral comum mais recente de Brachycera. Este trabalho apresenta uma hipótese filogenética heurística cujos resultados podem servir como base para o entendimento da grande diversificação morfológica das terminálias masculina e feminina dos ragionídeos, apontando para a solução de algumas controvérsias a respeito da morfologia das estruturas reprodutivas do grupo.

  20. The monitoring of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the area affected by the Gabcikovo hydroelectric power structures

    Monitoring of the impact of the Gabcikovo hydroelectric power structures on mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in 8 areas and 16 stationary stands during 1990-1994 is presented. The following 9 species of mosquitoes were ascertained: Anopheles maculipennis, s.1, Culiseta annulata, Aedes vexans, Aedes sticticus, Aedes dorsalis, Aedes cinereus, Culex pipiens, Culex territans a Culex modestus. Important changes in the quantity as well as the quality of mosquitoes, were observed in connection with the changes in the ground water level. In 1994 we recorded only 4 species of mosquitoes: Anopheles maculipennis s.1, Aedes vexans, Aedes sticticus, Culex territans. The quantity of mosquitoes decreased significantly at all monitored stands near the river Danube upstream of the confluence with the tail race canal. Cunovo reservoir acted positively on the adjacent monitoring localities Kopac Island and Cunovo-Ostrovne lucky. The recorded communities of mosquitoes Anopheles maculipennis s.1 a Culex territans, are, according to our observations, typical for stabilised water levels. (author). 1 tab., 2 refs

  1. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue. PMID:26313195

  2. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided. PMID:23575028

  3. Spatial distributions of the leafminer Ophiomyia maura (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in host plant Aster ageratoides

    Yoshiko Ayabe; Ei'ichi Shibata

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal occurrence and among-plant and within-plant spatial distribution of the multivoltine leafminer Ophiomyia maura Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on the herbaceous plant Aster ageratoides Turcz. subsp, ovatus (Asteraceae) were investigated in the field. O. maura has at least four generations a year and mines per leaf fluctuate with a mean of 0.007 throughout the occurrence period. Seasonal occurrence is associated with abundance of new host leaves, suggesting O. maura females prefer to oviposit in newly emerged leaves. The among-plant distribution of O. maura is described by a Poisson distribution early in the season but tends to be weakly clumped later. The within-plant vertical distribution of larval mines increased from middle to upper leaves during plantdevelopment, because mined leaves in the middle position early in the season move downward with the emergence of new leaves, shifting mined leaves from the position where O. maura oviposits eggs. Later in the season, mined leaves remain where they are deposited because few new leaves emerge. The spatial distribution of O. rnaura, resource utilization patterns, and host plant characteristics are discussed.

  4. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  5. Cytogenetic characteristics of Chironomus balatonicus Devai, Wulker, Scholl (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Chernobyl region

    A cytogenetic analysis was carried out on a population of Chironomus balatonicus (Chironomidae, Diptera) from Chernobyl, a highly radioactive area of the Kiev region. Several chromosomal aberrations were established unique to a population of Chironomus balatonicus living in an area contaminated by radioactive waste. Five new heterozygous inversions, deficiencies in arms C, D, E, F and chromatid breaks were found in the irradiated population but not in nonirradiated populations. A pericentric inversion in chromosome AB occurred at a relatively high frequency. Genome aberrations expressed by a heterochromatized 'B' chromosome were evident. In the irradiated and nonirradiated populations common inversions occurred showing variation in their frequency depending on specific environmental conditions. The somatic and also the germ cells were characterized by a number of heteropycnotic nuclei and vacuolized chromosomes. Both the somatic and germ cells showed changes in the structural and functional organization of heterochromatin and this was particularly marked in the telomeric sectors of the chromosomes. The heterochromatin which is extremely sensitive to radioactivity appears to protect euchromatin from adverse environmental conditions

  6. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  7. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation. PMID:14765657

  8. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  9. Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support

    Amanda Ciprandi Pires

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support. The distributional pattern of the genus Thecomyia Perty, 1833 was defined using panbiogeographic tools, and analyzed based on the phylogeny of the group. This study sought to establish biogeographical homologies in the Neotropical region between different species of the genus, based on their distribution pattern and later corroboration through its phylogeny. Eight individual tracks and 16 generalized tracks were identified, established along nearly the entire swath of the Neotropics. Individual tracks are the basic units of a panbiogeographic study, and correspond to the hypothesis of minimum distribution of the organisms involved. The generalized tracks, obtained from the spatial congruence between two or more individual tracks, are important in the identification of smaller areas of endemism. Thus, we found evidence from the generalized tracks in support of previous classification for the Neotropical region. The Amazon domain is indicated as an area of outstanding importance in the diversification of the group, by the confluence of generalized tracks and biogeographic nodes in the region. Most of the generalized tracks and biogeographical nodes were congruent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of the genus, indicating support of the primary biogeographical homologies originally defined by the track analysis.

  10. Complex interactions envolving a gall midge Myrciamyia maricaensis Maia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, phytophagous modifiers and parasitoids

    Ferraz Fernando Fortunato Faria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Myrciamyia maricaensis Maia, 1995 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae induces a gall in lateral and apical shoots in the plant Myrcia lundiana Kiaersk (Myrtaceae which is used and modified by two eulophid wasps species. In both cases the gall former species suffer high rate of attack exceeding the importance of parasitoid species as mortality factors. In this study these interactions are described and their effects as mortality of gall former. The intensity of occurrence of the two eulophid species as modifiers and of microhymenopteran parasitoids, and the relative importance of these species as mortality agents of the M. maricaensis larvae is compared. This comparison reveals that two modifiers species found in the gall tissue modification causing the death of the M. maricaensis larva and it is a more important factor of mortality than the cecidomyiid larva parasitism. The fluctuation of the number of each type of gall along the year was monitored in the research field and confirmed in numerical and in synchronic terms of occurrence of the galls; the importance of the species of the gall modifier eulophids, particularly one of these species, as factors of mortality of the M. maricaensis larvae and justified our comparing the relationship between these species and M. maricaensis as similar to the parasitoid-host relationship. The gall shape modification by one of the eulophids allows the occurrence of other inquiline insect species, what means that this gall modification becomes it more heterogeneous and allows the increase of the species richness to the system.

  11. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to traps in the field.

    Bray, D P; Bandi, K K; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G; Hamilton, J G C

    2009-05-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world's burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly because vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results show the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world's most important neglected diseases, AVL. We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (+/-)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. By formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, showing the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control. PMID:19496409

  12. Ventral polarization vision in tabanids: horseflies and deerflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are attracted to horizontally polarized light

    Horváth, Gábor; Majer, József; Horváth, Loránd; Szivák, Ildikó; Kriska, György

    2008-11-01

    Adult tabanid flies (horseflies and deerflies) are terrestrial and lay their eggs onto marsh plants near bodies of fresh water because the larvae develop in water or mud. To know how tabanids locate their host animals, terrestrial rendezvous sites and egg-laying places would be very useful for control measures against them, because the hematophagous females are primary/secondary vectors of some severe animal/human diseases/parasites. Thus, in choice experiments performed in the field we studied the behavior of tabanids governed by linearly polarized light. We present here evidence for positive polarotaxis, i.e., attraction to horizontally polarized light stimulating the ventral eye region, in both males and females of 27 tabanid species. The novelty of our findings is that positive polarotaxis has been described earlier only in connection with the water detection of some aquatic insects ovipositing directly into water. A further particularity of our discovery is that in the order Diptera and among blood-sucking insects the studied tabanids are the first known species possessing ventral polarization vision and definite polarization-sensitive behavior with known functions. The polarotaxis in tabanid flies makes it possible to develop new optically luring traps being more efficient than the existing ones based on the attraction of tabanids by the intensity and/or color of reflected light.

  13. Host status and fruit odor response of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to figs and mulberries.

    Yu, Doris; Zalom, F G; Hamby, K A

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an agricultural pest with a wide host range. It is known to infest fruit that are still ripening on the plant, as well as rotting and damaged fruit. Our study sought to determine whether D. suzukii use mulberries (Morus spp.) and figs (Ficus carica (L.)) as hosts, as their host status was ambiguous. Accordingly, we collected 25 field-infested fruit and counted the numbers of D. suzukii emerging from them. We also sought to determine whether female D. suzukii would respond to olfactory cues from ripe figs and mulberries. As the host population has been known to impact host odor response, flies from mulberry, fig, and cherry origins were tested in "one-choice" olfactometry studies. Our results show that mulberries and figs can serve as hosts for D. suzukii and that female flies will respond to their odors. The host population did affect response to fruit odors, although further studies are necessary to determine habitat fidelity. This has implications for management of this pest, especially in backyard and mixed fruit orchard situations, which commonly occur in the current range of D. suzukii, and fig and mulberry may serve as a pest reservoir for other hosts and cultivated crops. PMID:24020313

  14. Comparison of a synthetic chemical lure and standard fermented baits for trapping Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Cowles, Richard S; Vogt, Heidrun; Loeb, Gregory M; Landolt, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were compared in two types of traps: the dome trap and a cup trap. Regardless of trap type, numbers of male and female D. suzukii trapped were greater with the SWD lure compared with apple cider vinegar (ACV) baits at the Washington and New York sites, and were comparable with numbers of D. suzukii captured with a wine plus vinegar bait (W + V) at Germany site and a combination bait meant to mimic W + V at the Connecticut site. Averaged over both types of attractants, the numbers of D. suzukii captured were greater in dome traps than in cup traps in New York and Connecticut for both male and female D. suzukii and in Washington for male D. suzukii. No such differences were found between trap types at the Washington site for female and Germany for male and female D. suzukii. Assessments were also made of the number of large (>0.5 cm) and small (suzukii and could be used in place of fermented food-type baits. PMID:24331615

  15. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color.

    Kirkpatrick, D M; McGhee, P S; Hermann, S L; Gut, L J; Miller, J R

    2016-02-01

    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white background. Male and female spotted wing drosophila responded identically in these tests. Significantly more D. suzukii were captured on the red and yellow disks than those presenting the corresponding grayscale for that color, proving that D. suzukii perceives colors and not just the level of target brightness. Fluorescent red is the best candidate for trap color, while clear and white are the least desirable. However, when the background was switched to black, all nonfluorescent colors were equally acceptable to spotted wing drosophila, suggesting that background must be specified when reporting spotted wing drosophila color preference. Additional spotted wing drosophila research is justified on the effects of target color against natural backgrounds. PMID:26475826

  16. Microsatellite Variation of two Pacific Coast Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Populations.

    Bahder, Brian W; Bahder, Luz D; Hamby, Kelly A; Walsh, Douglas B; Zalom, Frank G

    2015-10-01

    The vinegar fly, Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is a recent invader in North America that has become a serious threat to small fruit production. It was first detected in California in 2008 and in Washington state in 2009. In this study, D. suzukii populations from the area of the original detection on California's central coast and from eastern Washington, the United States, were sampled over a 3-year period to determine genetic variation in both using microsatellite markers. Six different loci were successfully amplified and included in the analysis. These loci included nanos, elf1, antennapedia, mastermind, z600, and tenA. The population from eastern Washington was highly monomorphic with one locus, mastermind, having multiple alleles. There was greater genetic variation in the coastal California population with all loci having multiple alleles, with the exception of tenA. Owing to the relatively low levels of genetic variation in the eastern Washington population compared with the coastal California population, it appears that the D. suzukii population in the eastern Washington region has undergone a significant bottleneck. PMID:26314019

  17. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in fresh commodities.

    Follett, Peter A; Swedman, Allison; Prices, Donald K

    2014-06-01

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option for exported commodities such as stone fruits and small fruits to prevent movement of the new invasive pest spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Walker) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The effects of irradiation on larval and pupal development and adult reproduction in D. suzukii were examined. Larvae (first, second, and third instars) and pupae (1-2-d-old, 3-5-d-old, and 7-8-d-old) on diet were irradiated at target doses of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. Males and females were equally susceptible. A radiation dose of 40 Gy applied to first- and second-instar larvae prevented adult emergence. The late-stage pupa was the most radiation-tolerant stage that occurs in fruit, and individuals irradiated at this stage readily emerged as adults; therefore, prevention of F1 adults was the desired treatment response for large-scale validation tests with naturally infested fruit. In large-scale tests, a radiation dose of 80 Gy applied to late-stage pupae in sweet cherries or grapes resulted in no production of F1 adults in > 33,000 treated individuals, which meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. A minimum absorbed dose of 80 Gy is recommended for quarantine control of D. suzukii. PMID:25026654

  18. Description of Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia robusta n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Peruvian Equadorean interandean areas

    Eunice A. Bianchi Galati

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Description of Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from interandean areas of Peru and Equador. Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp., probable vector of human bartonellosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, is described and illustrated. This species presents strong affinity with L. serrana (Damasceno & Arouck, 1949 but they can be distinguished by variance analysis of four male characteristics and only one female characteristic. In the variance analysis, populations of L. serrana, of Amazonian areas of Brazil, Peru and Bolivia, the coast of Equador and other areas of Brazil were studied. The synonymy of Lutzomyia guayasi (Rodriguez and L. serrana was corroborated.Descreve-se Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia robusta, sp.n., provável vetora de bartonelose e leishmaniose tegumentar, de ocorrência em vales interandinos no Peru e Equador e que apresenta estreita afinidade com L. serrana (Damasceno e Arouck. A separação de ambas foi possível, por meio de análise de variância de alguns caracteres do macho e apenas um da fêmea. Na análise de variância, foram estudadas populações de L. serrana da região amazônica do Brasil, Peru e Bolívia; costa do Equador; região atlântica e outras áreas do Brasil. Corrobora-se a sinonímia de Phlebotomus guayasi Rodríguez com L. serrana.

  19. Essential oils and their compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvicides: review.

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2014-02-01

    This review aims to describe essential oils and their constituent compounds that exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, the immature stage of the primary vector of dengue. This review is based on original articles obtained by searching on major databases. Our literature review revealed that 361 essential oils from 269 plant species have been tested for their larvicidal activity. More than 60 % of these essential oils were considered active (LC50temephos in container breeding. Approximately 27 % of the plants studied for their larvicidal activity against A. aegypti were collected in Brazil. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. When the isolates were tested, phenylpropanoids and monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most active compound classes. We describe the plant parts used and the major constituents of the essential oils. In addition, we discuss factors affecting the activity (such as plant parts, age of the plant, chemotypes, larval source, and methods used), structure-activity relationships, and mechanisms of action of the essential oils and their compounds. Essential oils have been widely investigated and show high larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. This review reveals that the essential oils are effective alternatives for the production of larvicides, which can be used in vector-borne disease control programmes. PMID:24265058

  20. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  1. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  2. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  3. The mitochondrial genome of Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich (Diptera: Tachinidae and the evolutionary timescale of Tachinid flies.

    Zhe Zhao

    Full Text Available Tachinid flies are natural enemies of many lepidopteran and coleopteran pests of forests, crops, and fruit trees. In order to address the lack of genetic data in this economically important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Palaearctic tachinid fly Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich, 1933. Usually found in Northern China and Japan, this species is one of the primary natural enemies of the leaf-roller moths (Tortricidae, which are major pests of various fruit trees. The 14,932-bp mitochondrial genome was typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. However, its control region is only 105 bp in length, which is the shortest found so far in flies. In order to estimate dipteran evolutionary relationships, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 58 mitochondrial genomes from 23 families. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods supported the monophyly of both Tachinidae and superfamily Oestroidea. Within the subsection Calyptratae, Muscidae was inferred as the sister group to Oestroidea. Within Oestroidea, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae formed a sister clade to Oestridae and Tachinidae. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock calibrated with fossil data, we estimated that Tachinidae originated in the middle Eocene.

  4. Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae como responsable de miasis nosocomiales en Costa Rica

    Ólger Calderón-Arguedas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan dos casos de miasis nosocomiales, ocurridos en hospitales costarricenses, cuyo agente etiológico identificado fue Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. El primero tuvo lugar como infestación de una herida quirúrgica secundaria a una cirugía de abdomen, en la cual se observaron larvas de mosca asociadas con una secreción purulenta. Dicho cuadro conllevó la ejecución de una laparotomía exploratoria para descartar la presencia de más larvas, y el lavado de la cavidad peritoneal. El segundo caso se asoció con una paciente que estuvo en una unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, sospechosa de una intoxicación con salicilatos, quien fue sometida a intubación para brindarle respiración mecánica asistida. La paciente expulsó varias larvas de mosca por su cavidad oral, lo que ameritó una aspiración orotraqueal, de la cual se obtuvo más larvas. En ambos casos se trató de larvas maduras de tercer estadio, que se evidenciaron en un periodo mayor o igual a cinco días a partir del internamiento en el nosocomio, lo que tipifica ambos casos como miasis nosocomiales.

  5. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  6. Occurrence of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Agudo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Mauricio Batistella Pasini

    2012-03-01

    Resumo. Este trabalho faz menção ao primeiro registro de Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae encontrado na zona rural do município de Agudo, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os adultos da mosca foram encontrados primeiramente em frutos de ameixa (Prunus salicina Lindl posteriormente em figos maduros (Ficus carica L. em dois pomares. No primeiro pomar cerca de 80% dos figos coletados apresentaram ataque de Z. indianus e, no segundo pomar 50% dos figos da cv. “Pingo de mel” e 80% da variedade “Roxo de Valinhos” foram infestados. No período correspondente a emergência dos adultos, coletou-se um total de 1364 indivíduos. Os figos da cv “Roxo de Valinhos” apresentaram maior emergência de adultos. Além de estar presente em restos culturais de figo, Z. indianus foi visualizada sobrevoando restos culturais de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham., Cucumis melo L., Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. e Vitis vinifera L., associada a outros drosofilídeos. Ressalta-se que medidas de monitoramento e controle da praga deverão ser adotadas no município para garantir figos de alta qualidade e sadios.

  7. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens. PMID:23356059

  8. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. PMID:24995839

  9. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development

    Moran, Zelda R.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  10. Effects of the Antibiotics Gentamicin on the Postembryonic Development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; Silva, Débora C.; Figueiredo, Adriana L.; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G.; Aguiar, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:25527588

  11. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria. PMID:26775199

  12. Detection of West Nile virus in stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) parasitizing juvenile American white pelicans.

    Johnson, Gregory; Panella, Nicholas; Hale, Kristina; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), an economically important pest of livestock and humans, were observed parasitizing prefledged American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae), in a pelican breeding colony in northeastern Montana where die-offs attributed to West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) have occurred since 2002. Engorged and unengorged flies were collected off nine moribund chicks. Of 29 blood-engorged flies testing positive for vertebrate DNA, all 29 contained pelican DNA. Virus isolation was performed on 60 pools (1,176 flies) of unengorged flies using Vero cell plaque assay. Eighteen pools were positive for WNV for an estimated infection rate of 18.0 per 1,000 flies. Fifty-four percent (36/67) of abdomens from blood-engorged flies tested positive for WNV. Pelican viremia levels from the blood-engorged fly abdomens revealed that at least one of the ill pelicans circulated a viremia capable of infecting Culex mosquito vectors. Stable flies may be involved in WNV transmission within the pelican breeding colony by serving as either a mechanical vector or as a source for oral infection if ingested by predators. PMID:21175073

  13. Unveiling of a cryptic Dicranomyia (Idiopyga from northern Finland using integrative approach (Diptera, Limoniidae

    Jukka Salmela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae. In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I. boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I. intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I. intricata and D. (I. esbeni (Nielsen. The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I. intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia.

  14. Review of the Genus Geloemyia (Diptera, Pyrgotidae, with Discussion of its Taxonomic Position

    Korneyev V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of the Genus Geloemyia (Diptera, Pyrgotidae, with Discussion of its Taxonomic Position. Korneyev, V. A. - Species assigned to Geloemyia Hendel, 1908, Trichempodia Malloch, 1930 syn. n., Parageloemyia Hendel, 1933 syn. n., and Dicranostira Enderlein, 1942 syn. n. are shown to be congeneric. Geloemyia is refined to include eight species: Geloemyia cheni Kim, Han & Korneyev, sp. n., Geloemyia cockerelli (Malloch, 1930 comb. n. (= Trichempodia cockerelli Malloch, 1930, Geloemyia dorsocentralis (Hering, 1940 comb. n. (= Adapsilia dorsocentralis Hering, 1940, Geloemyia quadriseta Hendel, 1933, Geloemyia stylata Hendel, 1908, Geloemyia wonjuensis (Kim & Han, 2001 comb. n. (= Parageloemyia wonjuensis Kim & Han, 2001 from Eastern Asia, Geloemyia namibica sp. n., from mainland Africa (Namibia and Geloemyia trifasciata (Enderlein, 1942 comb. n. (= Trichempodia trifasciata Enderlein, 1942 from Madagascar. Geloemyia nigrofasiata Hendel, 1933 based on a single male is supposed to be a junior synonym of G. quadriseta Hendel, 1933, based on females, but the synonymy is tentative. A key to species is provided. The genus Geloemyia belongs in the tribe Pyrgotini forming (or belonging to a basal lineage in the subtribe Adapsiliina together with Pyrgotomyia Hendel, 1914 and Porpomastix Enderlein, 1942.

  15. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae Plant Extracts for Larvicidal Activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Maria E Macêdo

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae. The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l.

  16. [Current status and eco-epidemiology of mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain].

    Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    In this manuscript we analize the possible emergence and/or re-emergence in Spain of some of the mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) with highest incidence in recent years. The faunistic, bioecological and distributional data of the culicids in our country allow to differentiate between species with ability to maintain the enzootic cycles of arboviruses from others that can act as bridge vectors to the human population. The results show the existence of several common and anthropophilic species as Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens or Ochlerotatus caspius, with a high capacity to transmit flaviviruses such as West Nile virus or Usutu virus. Moreover the recent introduction, establishment and spread of the Asian Mosquito Tiger, Aedes albopictus, propitiate a new situation for the emergence of possible epidemic outbreaks of arboviruses usually imported to our country by immigrants and tourists such as Dengue or Chikungunya. Finally we discuss the epidemiological interest of other native species as Aedes vittatus or Ochlerotatus geniculatus, due to its capacity to transmit some of these typically tropical arboviruses. PMID:20661525

  17. Revision of the New World genus Glyphidops Enderlein (Diptera: Neriidae) .

    Sepúlveda, Tatiana A; Wolff, Marta I; De Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2014-01-01

    The genus Glyphidops Enderlein, 1922, the most widespread and speciose of the New World genera of Neriidae (Diptera), is revised herein. Glyphidops (Glyphidops) ruselatus, new species, G. (G.) steyskali, new species and G. (G.) coracinus, new species are described. Of the 16 previously described species, which were last treated by Aczél (1961), the following synonyms are proposed: Chaetomeristes peruanus Enderlein is treated as a junior synonym of G. (G.) bullatus (Enderlein); Nerius dispar Cresson, Oncopsia neutra Hennig and Oncopsia dubia Hennig are treated as junior synonyms of G.(O.) durus (Cresson) and Oncopsia seductrix Hennig, is treated as a junior synonym of G. (O.) flavifrons (Bigot). The species Telostylus vittatus Cresson, is removed from synonymy with G. (G.) filosus (Fabricius) and revalidated as senior synonym of G. ochreus Hennig. A new diagnosis for the genus and all species are provided, as is an identification key to species. New locality records are provided for Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Ecuador and Brazil. PMID:24872176

  18. Wing shape is influenced by environmental variability in Polietina orbitalis (Stein (Diptera: Muscidae

    Victor Michelon Alves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We measured variation and covariation in wing morphology in six populations of the fly Polietina orbitalis (Stein (Diptera: Muscidae to test for geographic morphological structure. Additionally, we examined the role of environmental variables in determining geographic variation in wing shape. We sampled five populations in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil (Colombo, Fênix, Guarapuava, Jundiaí do Sul and Ponta Grossa, and one in Paraguay (Mbaracayú. We choose 15 landmarks to describe the wing shape and size and 19 environmental variables to describe the local environmental conditions. Our results showed that P. orbitalis wing shape, but not size, varies geographically. A canonical variate analysis showed the existence of two clusters of populations based on wing shape. These groups compare populations in which the wing is slender with groups in which the wings are broad. These shape differences were correlated with variation in elevation, precipitation and temperature but were not allometric. Taken together, these results suggest that wing shape differences in P. orbitalis populations are due to a plastic response to local environmental conditions.

  19. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.

  20. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Pascacio-Villafán, C; Williams, T; Sivinski, J; Birke, A; Aluja, M

    2015-02-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  1. Development of attractant systems for trapping female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico

    With the aim of developing a system of attractants and trapping to optimize the capture of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) as well as other fruit flies, six experiments were carried out during the period 1994-1997, in a sterile-insect release zone in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Relating to the system of attractants, the evaluation focused on the comparison of food attractants (i.e. ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine) with standard attractants, such as Trimedlure and liquid hydrolyzed protein. For the trapping system, dry traps (Jackson trap, Open bottom dry trap, etc.) as well as wet traps (McPhail trap, Tephri trap, etc.) were tested alternately with the different kinds of attractants. The experiments were performed in agrosystems of coffee and groves of citrus and mango. Results consistently showed that a combination of ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine was the best for the capture of female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) when used in traps such as the OBDT and the plastic McPhail trap (IPMT), while for Anastrepha spp., the McPhail trap baited with liquid hydrolyzed protein still appears to be the best option, although the combination of ammonium acetate with putrescine was quite consistent in the trapping of A. obliqua and A. ludens in traps such as the IPMT. (author)

  2. Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B

    2014-04-01

    Early research investigating attractants for the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, during the 1930s indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were carried out on populations of Mexican fruit flies from 2004 to 2011. Trapping experiments carried out at sites in the states Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi compared grape juice, reconstituted grape concentrate and powdered grape mixes, and torula yeast extract in orchards at each site. The Nuevo Leon orchard was mixed with alternate rows of pears and surrounded by alternate hosts. The San Luis Potosi site was surrounded by other orange orchards or nonhosts. Each test was run for at least 10 mo and included highest and lowest trapping periods. Results showed that grape juice captured the most total flies and had the fewest samples with zero flies. However, in the series of experiments, each product had the most captures in at least one experiment. Hydrolyzed torula was superior in one of the six experiments. In five of the tests, polyethylene glycol was tested as an additive to the grape products but never improved capture rate compared with the product without the additive. These results indicate that grape juice is superior to grape concentrate or powder and grape juice is at least equal to torula yeast hydrolysate for trapping pest populations of Mexican fruit flies in commercial citrus orchards. PMID:24772538

  3. Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Little is known about the morphology of the chitinized structures of the spermathecae of the Calliphoridae. In this work, the spermathecae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 and C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 are described and illustrated. The occurrence in one species of four spermathecae, an atypical form for blow flies, was recorded for the first time. The analysis of these structures will allow a better understanding of this group as well as provide taxonomic characters for future phylogenetic studies.Morfologia comparada das espermatecas de espécies de Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy e Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Pouco se conhece sobre a morfologia das estruturas quitinizadas das espermatecas de Calliphoridae. Nesse trabalho as espermatecas de Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 e C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 são descritas e ilustradas. Foi registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência em uma espécie com quatro espermatecas, uma forma atípica em califorídeos. A análise dessas estruturas possibilitará uma melhor compreensão do grupo e fornecerá caracteres taxonômicos para futuros estudos filogenéticos.

  4. Vetufebrus ovatus n. gen., n. sp. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae vectored by a streblid bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae in Dominican amber

    Poinar George O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both sexes of bat flies in the families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea reside in the hair or on the wing membranes of bats and feed on blood. Members of the Nycteribiidae transmit bat malaria globally however extant streblids have never been implemented as vectors of bat malaria. The present study shows that during the Tertiary, streblids also were vectors of bat malaria. Results A new haemospororidan, Vetufebrus ovatus, n. gen., n. sp., (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae is described from two oocysts attached to the midgut wall and sporozoites in salivary glands and ducts of a fossil bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae in Dominican amber. The new genus is characterized by ovoid oocysts, short, stubby sporozoites with rounded ends and its occurrence in a fossil streblid. This is the first haemosporidian reported from a streblid bat fly and shows that representatives of the Hippoboscoidea were vectoring bat malaria in the New World by the mid-Tertiary. Conclusions This report is the first evidence of an extant or extinct streblid bat fly transmitting malaria. Discovering a mid-tertiary malarial parasite in a fossil streblid that closely resembles members of a malarial genus found in nycteribiid bat flies today shows how little we know about the vector associations of streblids. While no malaria parasites have been found in extant streblids, they probably occur and it is possible that streblids were the earliest lineage of flies that transmitted bat malaria to Chiroptera.

  5. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  6. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications.

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements. PMID:27392643

  7. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae and their parasitoids in the State of Piaui, Brazil

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify the species of fruit flies and their parasitoids associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (caja S. mombin L., umbu-caja Spondias sp., umbu S. tuberosa Arr. Câm. and wild plum Ximenia americana L., in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Samples (63 of fruits were collected from November 2009 to July 2010, totalizing 4,495 fruits and 46,906 kg. It was possible to obtain 10,617 puparia, from which 4,497 tephritids and 1,118 braconid parasitoids emerged. Regarding Spondias spp., the highest occurrence was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, with 100% for umbu and umbu-caja. Caja presented an average of 99.52% of A. obliqua, 0.46% of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and 0.97% of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. Wild plum percentages were 97.83% for A. alveata Stone and 2.17% for A. fraterculus. Infestation rates were 429.2, 178.4, 158.9 and 43.3 puparia/kg in umbu-caja, caja, wild plum and umbu, respectively. Pupal viability was 77.8%, 69.3%, 52.5% and 41.1% to umbu, wild plum, umbu-caja and caja, respectively. By analyzing the sample parasitoids, the percentage was 21.39% for the Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti species and 78.61% for Opius bellus Gahan. For the first time, it was recorded in Brazil X. americana as a host to A. alveata, as well as D. aleolatus and O. bellus as parasitoids of A. obliqua and A. alveata in Piaui.

  8. Morphological Markers for Cryopreservation in the Embryonic Development of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Landi, Silvia; Gargani, Elisabetta; Paoli, Francesco; Simoni, Sauro; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2015-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest recently reported in Europe whose spread into new areas has caused severe economic damage to many agricultural crops. There are serious concerns about the currently available chemical insecticides because of their low efficacy in controlling the species and their environmental impact; so, several studies have focused on environmentally safe strategies. The sterile insect technique (SIT), which requires colony maintenance in laboratory and production of large numbers of live animals, can be utilized in pest management programs and could be integrated with other control strategies if the potential risks associated with the rearing and maintenance of the insect line under laboratory conditions are given sufficient attention. In this regard, the ability to cryobiologically preserve such stocks would be of substantial value. Important prerequisites for long-term cryopreservation are determination of the embryonic stages, identification of specific embryonic stages, and knowledge of development time. This paper describes the main visible markers for the different stages of embryonic development and determines the timing of development at 25°C. D. suzukii embryogenesis lasts 23-25 h at 25°C and can be divided into 17 stages defined by specific morphological markers. The point at which 50% of embryos are at Stage 14 and 50% are at Stage 15, the most tolerant stages for cryopreservation treatment, as ascertained for Drosophila melanogaster Meigen in prior studies, is reached in 14-15 h. The efficiency of this procedure might be impaired by the retention of eggs in the oviducts, making it impossible to determine the stage of embryonic development for ∼25% of laid eggs. PMID:26470330

  9. Insecticide management strategies for control of swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on cole crops.

    Hallett, Rebecca H; Chen, Mao; Sears, Mark K; Shelton, Anthony M

    2009-12-01

    Insecticide field trials were conducted in Ontario, Canada, and New York state to identify insecticides effective against the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a new invasive pest in North America. Field trials indicated that foliar applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, acetamiprid, chlorpyrifos, and dimethoate could provide control of C. nasturtii. Foliar insecticide applications were effective in keeping damage within marketable limits in all cabbage and some broccoli trials during the early phase of regional colonization by C. nasturtii (2001-2002). However by 2005-2006, treatments were rarely able to maintain damage levels within marketable limits. Low efficacy suggested the possibility of insecticide resistance in Canadian C. nasturtii populations, but laboratory assays revealed no evidence for resistance. Thus, eventual control failures on a season-long basis were apparently due to very high populations during later phases of colonization in Ontario. Early season applications (e.g., seed treatments, greenhouse plug tray drenches and/or band sprays) of neonicotinoid insecticides proved effective for 3-5 wk after transplanting in New York. These early season treatments would require supplemental control with foliar insecticides, but would reduce the number of foliar applications required and thus reduce insecticide usage. Our results suggest that acceptable control with foliar insecticides will be difficult where C. nasturtii populations are high, because of multiple and overlapping generations, and difficulty in achieving adequate spray coverage. An integrated pest management program that uses cultural control methods and host plant resistance, with judicious use of insecticides, is needed for sustainable management of this newly invasive pest. PMID:20069854

  10. Insecticidal effect of plant extracts on Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bihar, India

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Pandit, Vibhishan; Kumar, Jainendra; Kumari, Nisha; Kumar, Prahlad; Hassan, Faizan; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract. Methods: Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted for detection of active molecules. Results: Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase) separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results. Interpretation & conclusions: The column separated 9th fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the active molecule is

  11. An annotated catalogue of the New World Therevidae (Insecta: Diptera: Asiloidea).

    Webb, Donald W; Gaimari, Stephen D; Hauser, Martin; Holston, Kevin C; Metz, Mark A; Irwin, Michael E; Kampmeier, Gail E; Algmin, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The genera and species of New World stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae) are listed, with annotated references to nomenclature, synonymies and generic combinations, type localities, the primary type depositories, distribution, and citations for the most recent revisions. The genus Cyclotelus Walker, 1850 (along with its synonyms Furcifera Kröber, 1911, and Epomyia Cole, 1923a) is synonymized under Cerocatus Rondani, 1848. Ectinorhynchus fascipennis Kröber, 1911 is given the new name Cerocatus rondanii Gaimari, and Phycus rufiventris Kröber, 1911 is given the new name Cerocatus raspii Hauser. Phycus analis Kröber, 1911 and Phycus bicolor Kröber, 1911, are placed as new combinations in Cerocatus Rondani, as are the following species that were previously in combination with Cyclotelus: Furcifera achaeta Malloch, 1932, Cyclotelus badicrusus Irwin and Webb, 1992, Phycus beckeri Kröber, 1911, Epomyia bella Cole, 1923a, Furcifera braziliana Cole, 1960a, Cyclotelus colei Irwin and Lyneborg, 1981a, Thereva diversipes Kröber, 1911, Thereva fascipennis Macquart, 1846a, Psilocephala femorata Kröber, 1911, Furcifera flavipes Kröber, 1928b, Furcifera hardyi Cole, 1960a, Furcifera kroeberi Cole, 1960a, Cyclotelus laetus Walker, 1850, Furcifera longicornis Kröber, 1911, Cyclotelus nigroflammus Walker, 1850, Psilocephala nigrifrons Kröber, 1914a, Thereva pictipennis Wiedemann, 1821, Furcifera polita Kröber, 1911, Cyclotelus pruinosus Walker, 1850, Thereva ruficornis Macquart, 1841a, Psilocephala rufiventris Loew, 1869, Thereva scutellaris Walker, 1857, Cyclotelus silacrusus Irwin and Webb, 1992, Cyclotelus socius Walker, 1850 and Psilocephala sumichrasti Bellardi, 1861. Dialineura pallidiventris Malloch, 1932, Melanothereva blackmani Oldroyd, 1968, Thereva maculicornis Jaennicke, 1867 and Thereva notabilis Macquart, 1841a are placed as new combinations in Entesia Oldroyd. Henicomyia amazonica Irwin and Webb, 1992 is a new synonym of Henicomyia flava Lyneborg, 1972

  12. Kinetic properties of the two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol: NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.1) catalyses the reversible interconversion of a variety of alcohols and their corresponding aldehydes and ketones. Among insects, the ADH gene-enzyme system has been extensively studied in several species of Drosophila (Chambers 1988, Heinstra 1993, Ashburner 1998). The best characterised ADH from a non-drosophilid insect is that of the Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), based on data from molecular genetics (Malacrida et al. 1992, Gasperi et al. 1992, Brogna et al. 1999), biochemistry (Gasperi et al. 1994) and population genetics (Gasperi et al. 1992, Gomulski et al. 1998). The primary interest in studying this enzymatic function in the Medfly was that the ADH system has been proposed, on the model of Drosophila, as a useful tool for genetic sexing strategies addressed to the biological control of this pest (Robinson et al. 1988). Moreover, molecular characterisation of Adh in a species like C. capitata, that diverged from the Drosophilidae more than 100 million years ago (Beverley and Wilson 1984), is of interest for studying the evolution of this protein in higher diptera. The principal function of ADH in insect metabolism is to catabolise alcohols generated by microbial fermentation in larval and adult feeding sites; in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, the presence of an active ADH is responsible for two different phenotypic traits, namely alcohol tolerance and alcohol utilisation (Van Delden 1982, David 1988). The ecological niche of C. capitata is different from that of Drosophila species, the first breeding on ripening fruits, the latter breeding on rotten plant material. Consequently, the physiological role of ADH may have diversified in these dipteran species

  13. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest.

    Lapointe, D A

    2008-07-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies. PMID:18714858

  14. Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae to Synthetic and Natural Attractants and Repellents.

    Gonzalez, Paula V; González Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases: dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. Immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes. In this study, we evaluated a few compounds in a sensitive behavioral assay with Ae. aegypti larvae. The orientation of larvae to different compounds was surveyed using a performance index (PI). The PI represents the response to each odorant, where a value of +1 is indicative of full attraction and -1 represents complete repulsion. The widely used insect repellent N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide elicited a significantly negative PI, as did acetophenone and indole. A yeast extract, a known food source, elicited a significantly positive PI, as did 2-methylphenol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylphenol, and fish food. On the other hand, no response was observed for the essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis at the concentration evaluated. Pretreatment of larvae with N-ethylmaleimide and ablation of the antennae resulted in a suppression of behavioral responses. The overall mobility of ablated larvae was indistinguishable from unablated controls, and absence of any visible locomotor dysfunction was observed. This work is a contribution to the study of the chemical ecology of disease vectors with the aim of developing more efficient tools for surveillance and control.Natural and synthetic compounds attractive to Ae. aegypti larvae should be incorporated into integrated pest management programs through the use of baited traps or by improving the efficacy of larvicides commonly used in control campaigns. PMID:26352935

  15. Description of a Neotropical New Species of OxysarcodexiaTownsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae

    Carina Souza

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. Uma nova espécie de Oxysarcodexia Townsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae é descrita com base em espécimes machos. As espécies deste gênero de sarcofagídeos apresentam distribuição majoritariamente Neotropical, com algumas espécies ocorrendo também nas regiões Neártica, Australásia e Oceânica. As espécies deste gênero podem ser encontradas associadas à matéria orgânica em decomposição (fezes de mamíferos ou aves – espécies coprófilas e podem apresentar importância forense quando associadas a carcaças (fauna atraída e, em alguns casos, espécies que se criam. Fotografias digitais do hábito em vista lateral e da terminália em vistas lateral, posterior e ventral são apresentadas. Oxysarcodexia mineirensis sp. n. pertence ao “grupo Xarcophaga” (i.e. possui o falo alargado postero-distalmente e contém similaridades com Oxysarcodexia favorabilis (Lopes, 1935 devido à conformação da terminália, especialmente o formato do falo, semelhante a uma flor.

  16. Response of melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to weathered SPLAT-Spinosad-Cue-Lure.

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Jang, Eric B; Mau, Ronald F L; Stark, John D; Gomez, Luis; Stoltman, Lyndsie; Mafra-Neto, Agenor

    2010-10-01

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to measure attraction of male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-Cue-Lure (C-L) and SPLAT-Melo-Lure (M-L) (raspberry ketone formate). Direct field comparisons of SPLAT-C-L and SPLAT-M-L at low (5%) and high (20%) concentrations indicated few differences in attraction over a 15-wk period. Subsequently, only SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L (5%) was compared with Min-U-Gel C-L with naled (standard used in California) in weathering studies. Treatments were weathered for 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk in Riverside, CA, and shipped to Hawaii for attraction/toxicity tests under field and semifield conditions by using released males of controlled ages, and for feeding tests in the laboratory. In terms of attraction, SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L compared favorably to, or outperformed the current standard of Min-U-Gel-C-L with naled. In terms of toxicity, the cumulative 24-h mortality did not differ between the two insecticide-containing C-L treatments in field cage studies after 8 wk. However, in feeding studies in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different C-L treatments after 4 wk of weathering, SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L demonstrated reduced mortality compared with the Min-U-Gel-C-L with naled, suggesting reduced persistence of the spinosad material. Spinosad has low contact toxicity and when mixed with SPLAT and C-L offers a reduced risk alternative for control of B. cucurbitae and related C-L-responding species, without many of the negative effects to humans and nontargets of broad-spectrum contact poisons such as naled. PMID:21061958

  17. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF DROSOPHILA SUZUKII (DIPTERA: DROSOPHILIDAE) IN BELGIUM IN 2013.

    Belien, T; Thys, T; Fassotte, C; Walrant, C; Tomme, M; Bolen, M; Bylemans, D

    2014-01-01

    The vinegar fly Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is a new invasive fruit pest that recently became established in Europe. Unlike other fruit flies that typically only infest overripe and rotten fruit, D. suzukii females oviposit in ripe fruit leading to considerable economic losses of fruit during production. In 2011 and 2012 D. suzukii was detected at several places in Belgium. In 2013, a large-scale monitoring in frame of the project "FLY ALERT" (FOD) was executed using traps with liquid attractant (apple cider vinegar) at more than 100 locations across Belgium during the whole fruit growing season. At 16 locations we also compared the efficacy of a 'bottle type' trap with a 'cup type' trap. The results show that D. suzukii has expanded its distribution in Belgium. Remarkably, in 2013 as well as in 2012 the first detections were made only in the second part of the growing season (August) and the populations reached their peak only at the very end of the season (November). In the bottle type trap the first flies were caught 2-3 weeks earlier than in the cup type trap. In addition, also the population peaks were on average 1 week earlier when monitored with the bottle trap compared to when monitored with the cup trap. In 2014, after an exceptional mild winter adult D. suzukii flies were continuously detected throughout the winter and early spring. The implications of these findings for the phenology of D. suzukii in the Northwest climate region of Europe are discussed. PMID:26084094

  18. Behavioral and Antennal Responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to Volatiles From Fruit Extracts.

    Abraham, John; Zhang, Aijun; Angeli, Sergio; Abubeker, Sitra; Michel, Caryn; Feng, Yan; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), has become a serious pest of soft-skinned fruit crops since its introduction into North America and Europe in 2008. Current monitoring strategies use baits based on fermentation products; however, to date, no fruit-based volatile blends attractive to this fly have been identified. This is particularly important because females are able to cut into the epicarp of ripening fruit for oviposition. Thus, we conducted studies to: 1) investigate the behavioral responses of adult D. suzukii to volatiles from blueberry, cherry, raspberry, and strawberry fruit extracts; 2) identify the antennally active compounds from the most attractive among the tested extracts (raspberry) using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and coupled gas chromatography -electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD); and 3) test a synthetic blend containing the EAD-active compounds identified from raspberry extract on adult attraction. In olfactometer studies, both female and male D. suzukii were attracted to all four fruit extracts. The attractiveness of the fruit extracts ranks as: raspberry ≥ strawberry > blueberry ≥ cherry. GC analyses showed that the fruit extracts emit distinct volatile compounds. In GC-EAD experiments, 11 raspberry extract volatiles consistently elicited antennal responses in D. suzukii. In choice test bioassays, a synthetic EAD-active blend attracted more D. suzukii than a blank control, but was not as attractive as the raspberry extract. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a behaviorally and antennally active blend of host fruit volatiles attractive to D. suzukii, offering promising opportunities for the development of improved monitoring and behaviourally based management tools. PMID:26313190

  19. Attractiveness of fermentation and related products to spotted wing Drosophila (Diptera: drosophilidae).

    Kleiber, Joseph R; Unelius, C Rikard; Lee, Jana C; Suckling, David Maxwell; Qian, Michael C; Bruck, Denny J

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory screening bioassays and field trapping experiments of spotted wing drosophila flies, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), were conducted to determine the attractiveness of 17 compounds as well as to compare attractant efficiency during peak fruit ripeness and postharvest captures late in the season. Compounds structurally related to each of the fermentation products acetic acid, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and 2-phenethyl alcohol were screened for attractiveness compared with a soap water control in greenhouse cage bioassays. The compounds determined to be attractive in the greenhouse bioassay (methanol, ethanol, propanol, formic acid, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, phenethyl acetate, phenethyl propionate, and phenethyl butyrate) were individually tested in the field added to apple cider vinegar (ACV). The acids were also tested individually in neutralized ACV (NACV; pH ≍7). Combinations of the compounds were tested in NACV. The capture numbers in ACV traps were not significantly increased by the addition of any of the compounds tested, although significant deterrent effects of some of the compounds allowed differences between treatments to be observed. Compounds that are most prevalent in wine and vinegar (methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate) as well as phenethyl propionate and phenethyl butyrate were less deterrent than the other compounds tested in the field. Captures during peak fruit ripeness were compared with the postharvest period when fruit hosts were not available or were overripe. Although the total number of flies captured late in the season was lower, the trends in treatment performance were similar, indicating a consistent performance of these baits from peak fruit ripeness through postharvest. PMID:24763098

  20. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed. PMID:24605456

  1. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action. PMID:22928313

  2. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control. PMID:23540124

  3. Egg Developmental Time and Survival of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Under Different Temperatures.

    Alonso, M A; Souza, C M; Linhares, A X; Thyssen, P J

    2015-07-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are considered of forensic, medical, and veterinary importance in Brazil because of their necrophagous and synanthropic behaviour. The development of flies can be influenced by temperature, and species from the same genus usually have different responses to external variables. The egg development of blow fly can be a useful complementary technique to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. Thus, this study aimed to compare the egg developmental time and survival of C. megacephala and C. putoria at different temperatures to determine the optimal temperature for egg development and the linear regression for developmental time and temperature, thereby determining the minimum threshold (t) and thermal summation constant (K) for each species. Adults of both species were collected in the region of Campinas city, São Paulo state, Brazil. Eggs were incubated at eight constant temperatures between 05 ± 1°C and 35 ± 1°C and the egg developmental time and survival were evaluated. There was no egg survival at 5 and 10°C. The K for C. megacephala and C. putoria were 179.41 HD and 189.94 HD, respectively. The regression slopes and t (10°C) were similar for both species. The optimal temperature for egg survival was between 25 and 35°C, for C. megacephala and 20 and 30°C, for C. putoria. The present data were similar to most data available in the literature, but differences in the same species are a possibility. PMID:26335461

  4. Evaluation of monitoring traps for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in North America.

    Lee, Jana C; Burrack, Hannah J; Barrantes, Luz D; Beers, Elizabeth H; Dreves, Amy J; Hamby, Kelly A; Haviland, David R; Isaacs, Rufus; Richardson, Tamara A; Shearer, Peter W; Stanley, Cory A; Walsh, Doug B; Walton, Vaughn M; Zalom, Frank G; Bruck, Denny J

    2012-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), a recent invasive pest of small and stone fruits, has been detected in more than half of the U.S. states, and in Canada, Mexico, and Europe. Upon discovery, several different trap designs were recommended for monitoring. This study compared the trap designs across seven states/provinces in North America and nine crop types. Between May and November 2011, we compared a clear cup with 10 side holes (clear); a commercial trap with two side holes (commercial); a Rubbermaid container with mesh lid and rain tent (Haviland), and with 10 side holes and no tent (modified Haviland); a red cup with 10 side holes (red); and a white container with mesh lid and rain tent (Van Steenwyk). Although fly catches among traps varied per site, overall, the Haviland trap caught the most D. suzukii, followed by the red, Van Steenwyk, and clear trap. The modified Haviland and commercial trap had low captures. Among five crop types in Oregon, a clear cup with mesh sides (Dreves) also was tested and caught the most flies. Traps with greater entry areas, found in mesh traps, caught more flies than traps with smaller entry areas. In terms of sensitivity and selectivity, traps that caught more flies likewise caught flies earlier, and all traps caught 26-31% D. suzukii out of the total Drosophila captured. Future trap improvements should incorporate more entry points and focus on selective baits to improve efficiency and selectivity with regard to the seasonal behavior of D. suzukii. PMID:22928316

  5. Half of the European fruit fly species barcoded (Diptera, Tephritidae; a feasibility test for molecular identification

    John Smit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility test of molecular identification of European fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae based on COI barcode sequences has been executed. A dataset containing 555 sequences of 135 ingroup species from three subfamilies and 42 genera and one single outgroup species has been analysed. 73.3% of all included species could be identified based on their COI barcode gene, based on similarity and distances. The low success rate is caused by singletons as well as some problematic groups: several species groups within the genus Terellia and especially the genus Urophora. With slightly more than 100 sequences - almost 20% of the total - this genus alone constitutes the larger part of the failure for molecular identification for this dataset. Deleting the singletons and Urophora results in a success-rate of 87.1% of all queries and 93.23% of the not discarded queries as correctly identified. Urophora is of special interest due to its economic importance as beneficial species for weed control, therefore it is desirable to have alternative markers for molecular identification.We demonstrate that the success of DNA barcoding for identification purposes strongly depends on the contents of the database used to blast against. Especially the necessity of including multiple specimens per species of geographically distinct populations and different ecologies for the understanding of the intra- versus interspecific variation is demonstrated. Furthermore thresholds and the distinction between true and false positives and negatives should not only be used to increase the reliability of the success of molecular identification but also to point out problematic groups, which should then be flagged in the reference database suggesting alternative methods for identification.

  6. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  7. Temperature-related development and population parameters for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on cherry and blueberry.

    Tochen, Samantha; Dalton, Daniel T; Wiman, Nik; Hamm, Christopher; Shearer, Peter W; Walton, Vaughn M

    2014-04-01

    Temperature-related studies were conducted on Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Drosophilini). From 10-28°C, temperature had a significant impact on blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L. 1755 (Rosales: Rosaceae), important commercial hosts of D. suzukii. Temperature had a significant influence on D. suzukii developmental period, survival, and fecundity, with decreasing developmental periods as temperatures increased to 28°C. At 30°C, the highest temperature tested, development periods increased, indicating that above this temperature the developmental extremes for the species were approached. D. suzukii reared on blueberries had lower fecundity than reared on cherries at all temperatures where reproduction occurred. The highest net reproductive rate (R(o)) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) were recorded on cherries at 22°C and was 195.1 and 0.22, respectively. Estimations using linear and nonlinear fit for the minimum, optimal, and maximum temperatures where development can take place were respectively, 7.2, 28.1, and 42.1°C. The r(m) values were minimal, optimal, and maximal at 13.4, 21.0, and 29.3°C, respectively. Our laboratory cultures of D. suzukii displayed high rates of infection for Wolbachia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and this infection may have impacted fecundity found in this study. A temperature-dependent matrix population estimation model using fecundity and survival data were run to determine whether these data could predict D. suzukii pressure based on environmental conditions. The model was applied to compare the 2011 and 2012 crop seasons in an important cherry production region. Population estimates using the model explained different risk levels during the key cherry harvest period between these seasons. PMID:24612968

  8. Monitoring hymenoptera and diptera pollinators in a sub-tropical forest of southern punjab, pakistan

    Bees (Hymenoptera) and flies (Diptera) play an essential role in natural and agricultural ecosystems as pollinators of flowering plants while pollinators are declining around the world. Colored pan traps and Malaise traps have widely been used for monitoring pollinators. However, their efficiencies may vary with landscapes and type of fauna in a particular habitat. A yearlong study was carried out during 2009 to investigate the relative efficacy of colored pan traps and Malaise traps towards sampling flies and bees for the first time in a sub-tropical wildlife sanctuary Pirowal of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Fifteen pan traps (5 each of 3 colors i.e. white, red and blue) were deployed against one Malaise trap for 7 hours (9:00-16:00 hrs) on fortnightly basis. For the comparison and confirmation of an insect as a floral visitor, collection with the hand net was also performed. It was concluded that hand net collection is essential to have a comprehensive list of floral visitors of an area as the maximum number (63) of species and their abundance (5428 individuals) were recorded with it. Malaise trap collected only 671 individuals of 48 species. Although blue, yellow and white pan traps caught 46, 51 and 35 species but the numbers of individuals (1383) were fairly higher than that of Malaise traps. Keeping in view the cost effectiveness and better performance of colored pan traps, we recommend species specific pan trap colors when targeting certain groups or species, nevertheless variety of pan colors should be used when sampling overall biodiversity. We generalize these findings for both bees and flies due to similar collection pattern i.e. the maximum abundance and diversity in hand net method followed by pan traps and Malaise traps. (author)

  9. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  10. Larval development of Physocephala (Diptera, Conopidae in the bumble bee Bombus morio (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Fábio C Abdalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval development of Physocephala (Diptera, Conopidae in the bumble bee Bombus morio (Hymenoptera, Apidae. In the summer of 2012, a high incidence of conopid larvae was observed in a sample of female B. morio collected in remaining fragments of semidecidual forest and Cerrado, in the municipality of Sorocaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The larval development of conopid flies was studied, beginning at the larval instars (LO to L3 and PUP, until the emergence of the imago under laboratory conditions and inside the host. At the first instar, or LO, the microtype larvae measured less than 1 mm in length. During the transition from L1 to L3, the larvae grew in length. At L3, the larvae doubled their length (4 mm and then started to develop both in length and width, reaching the PUP stage with 10 mm in length and 7 mm in width. The main characteristic that differentiates L3 from the early instars is the larger body size and the beginning of posterior spiracle development. The development from PUP to puparium took less than 24h. The bees died ten days after the fly oviposition, or just before full PUP development. The early development stages (egg-LO to L1 were critical for larva survival. The pupa was visible between the intersegmental sternites and, 32 days after pupation, a female imago of Physocephala sp. emerged from one bee. The puparium and the fly measured approximately 10 mm in length. In a single day of collection, up to 45% of the bumble bees collected were parasitized by conopid flies.

  11. Inheritance of Resistance to Deltamethrin in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) From Cuba.

    Rodríguez, María Magdalena; Hurtado, Daymi; Severson, David W; Bisset, Juan A

    2014-11-01

    The development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a serious concern because major A. aegypti control programs are predominantly based on pyrethroid use during epidemic disease outbreaks. Research about the genetic basis for pyrethroid resistance and how it is transmitted among mosquito populations is needed. The objective of this study was to determine how deltamethrin resistance is inherited in the Cuban A. aegypti-resistant reference strain. Here, a field population of A. aegypti from Santiago de Cuba (SAN-F14), subjected to 14 generations of selection for high deltamethrin resistance level (91.25×), was used to prepare reciprocal F1 and backcross progeny with the insecticide-susceptible Rockefeller strain. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines. The activities of metabolic enzymes were assayed through synergist and biochemical tests. The null hypothesis of the parallelism test between the two probit regression lines of the reciprocal F1 (susceptible females × resistant males and vice versa) was not rejected at the 5% significance level (P = 0.42), indicating autosomal inheritance. The LC50 response of both F1 progenies to deltamethrin was elevated but less than the highly resistant SAN-F14 strain. DLC values for the F1 progenies were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively, suggesting that deltamethrin resistance in the SAN-F14 strain is inherited as an autosomal incompletely dominant trait, involving at least two factors, which implies a faster development of deltamethrin resistance in larvae and lost product effectiveness. Metabolic enzymes including esterases and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases but not glutathione-S-transferases were involved in deltamethrin resistance in larvae. PMID:26309309

  12. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries. PMID:22928296

  13. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  14. Effect of livestock manures on the fitness of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2012-09-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the major pests of confined and pastured livestock worldwide. Livestock manures play an important role in the development and spread of M. domestica. In the present study, we investigated the impact of different livestock manures on the fitness and relative growth rate of M. domestica and intrinsic rate of natural increase. We tested the hypotheses by studying life history parameters including developmental time from egg to adult's eclosion, fecundity, longevity, and survival on manures of buffalo, cow, nursing calf, dog, horse, poultry, sheep, and goat, which revealed significant differences that might be associated with fitness costs. The maggots reared on poultry manure developed faster compared to any other host manure. The total developmental time was the shortest on poultry manure and the longest on horse manure. The fecundity by females reared on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures was greater than on any other host manures. Similarly, percent survival of immature stages, pupal weight, eggs viability, adults' eclosion, survival and longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential were significantly higher on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures compared to any other livestock manures tested. However, the sex ratio of adult flies remained the same on all types of manures. The low survival on horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, and goat manures suggest unsuitability of these manures, while the higher pupal weight on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures suggest that these may provide better food quality to M. domestica compared with any other host manures. Our results point to the role of livestock manures in increasing local M. domestica populations. Such results could help to design cultural management strategies which may include sanitation, moisture management, and manure removal. PMID:22576856

  15. [A case of urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Nematocera)].

    Yenice, Mustafa Gürkan; Demir, Tülin; Babür, Cahit; Nalbantoğlu, Serpil; Kılıç, Selçuk

    2011-07-01

    Myiasis which is a parasitic disease of humans and vertebrates, is caused by dipterous fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. Although infestation by fly larvae is much more prevalent in animals, it occurs relatively frequently in humans in rural, tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and America. Myiasis is usually associated with poor general health and hygiene, restricted mobility and ulcerating lesions. The pathophysiology of the human infection differs depending on the fly species and where the larvae are located. It could be external or internal, and the invasion by the maggot could be obligatory, facultative and sometimes acci-dental. Myiasis is a self-limiting infestation with minimal morbidity in the vast majority of cases. Urogenital myiasis, associated with urinary obstruction, poor hygiene of the local site and ulcerating lesions has been infrequently reported. In this report, a case of 29 year-old male patient who presented with genitourinary myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Nematocera), was presented. The patient was admitted to the hospital with the complaints of urinary incontinence of one week duration and presence of small, thin, motile, grayishwhite objects in his urine. Physical examination, blood and urine examination and stool microscopy revealed no pathology. No growth was detected in his urine culture. The examination of discharged larva in urine sample at Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Parasitology Laboratory led to the diagnosis of urogenital myiasis. No risk factor was identified in the patient who had proper hygienic conditions, was living in urban area and was of high socioeconomic status. This case was presented to withdraw attention to myiasis which is frequent in Turkey, however, is usually overlooked. PMID:21935791

  16. The Use of the Developmental Rate of the Aquatic Midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the Assessment of the Postsubmersion Interval.

    González Medina, Alejandro; Soriano Hernando, Óscar; Jiménez Ríos, Gilberto

    2015-05-01

    Nonbiting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) are the most abundant members of the fauna associated with submerged carcasses, but their use in the medicolegal context is very restricted because of their complex ontogeny. In this case, the corpse of a woman was recovered in late spring from a river in Granada (Iberian Peninsula). It showed obvious signs of long permanence in the aquatic environment and, along with pulmonary and microscopical analyses, led to the conclusion that the cause of death was drowning. Several larvae-like specimens were sampled from the scalp and later identified by morphological external features as IV instar larvae of Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae). Sequencing of cytochrome oxidase subunit I was performed to confirm the identification. The knowledge of the biology of C. riparius at low temperatures was critical to assess a postsubmersion interval of 16-17 days. PMID:25613586

  17. Brumptomyia angelae, a new species of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) of the Atlantic forest of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Eunice A Bianchi Galati; Demilson Rodrigues dos Santos; Allan Martins da Silva

    2007-01-01

    The male of Brumptomyia angelae, sp. nov., a new species of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) of the Atlantic forest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This new taxon is closely related to Brumptomyia ortizi Martins, Silva & Falcão 1971, Brumptomyia nitzulescui (Costa Lima, 1932), and Brumptomyia troglodytes (Lutz, 1922). The male genitalia of these three latter species have also been drawn.

  18. Seven new species of Spathidexia Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    AJ Fleming; D. Monty Wood; Daniel Janzen; Winnie Hallwachs; M. Alex Smith

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe seven new species of Spathidexia ( Diptera : Tachinidae ) reared from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. All were reared from ­various species of ACG caterpillars during an ongoing inventory of caterpillars, their food plants and their parasitoids. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a clear and concise description of each species. All are known to be previously undescribed as a resul...

  19. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae) using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera

    Shaun Winterton

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Ac...

  20. Spatiotemporal variation of mosquito diversity (Diptera: Culicidae) at places with different land-use types within a neotropical montane cloud forest matrix

    Abella-Medrano, Carlos Antonio; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background Land-use change has led to a dramatic decrease in total forest cover, contributing to biodiversity loss and changes of ecosystems’ functions. Insect communities of medical importance can be favored by anthropogenic alterations, increasing the risk of novel zoonotic diseases. The response of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance and richness to five land-use types (shade coffee plantation, cattle field, urban forest, peri-urban forest, well-preserved montane cloud forest) and thre...