Crandall Keith A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Past studies in the legume family (Fabaceae have uncovered several evolutionary trends including differential mutation and diversification rates across varying taxonomic levels. The legume tribe Psoraleeae is shown herein to exemplify these trends at the generic and species levels. This group includes a sizable diversification within North America dated at approximately 6.3 million years ago with skewed species distribution to the most recently derived genus, Pediomelum, suggesting a diversification rate shift. We estimate divergence dates of North American (NAm Psoraleeae using Bayesian MCMC sampling in BEAST based on eight DNA regions (ITS, waxy, matK, trnD-trnT, trnL-trnF, trnK, trnS-trnG, and rpoB-trnC. We also test the hypothesis of a diversification rate shift within NAm Psoraleeae using topological and temporal methods. We investigate the impact of climate change on diversification in this group by (1 testing the hypothesis that a shift from mesic to xeric habitats acted as a key innovation and (2 investigating diversification rate shifts along geologic time, discussing the impact of Quaternary climate oscillations on diversification. Results NAm Psoraleeae represents a recent, rapid radiation with several genera originating during the Pleistocene, 1 to 2 million years ago. A shift in diversification rate is supported by both methods with a 2.67-fold increase suggested around 2 million years ago followed by a 8.73-fold decrease 440,000 years ago. The hypothesis that a climate regime shift from mesic to xeric habitats drove increased diversification in affected taxa was not supported. Timing of the diversification rate increase supports the hypothesis that glaciation-induced climate changes during the Quaternary influenced diversification of the group. Nonrandom spatial diversification also exists, with greater species richness in the American Southwest. Conclusion This study outlines NAm Psoraleeae as a model example
Bello, Abubakar; Stirton,Charles; Chimphango,Samson; Muasya,Muthama
Two new species of Psoralea L. are described: Psoralea diturnerae A. Bello, C.H. Stirt. & Muasya, sp. nov. and P. vanberkelae C.H. Stirt., A. Bello & Muasya, sp. nov. Psoralea diturnerae is endemic to the Outeniqua mountains (Camferskloof) and is characterised by a mass of numerous basal shoots out of which emerge 2–3 woody stems up to 2 m tall, 3-foliolate needle-like leaflets at the base of the seasonally growing shoot reducing to one towards the apex and bearing numerous 1–3-flowered axill...
Full Text Available Two new species of Psoralea L. are described: Psoralea diturnerae A. Bello, C.H. Stirt. & Muasya, sp. nov. and P. vanberkelae C.H. Stirt., A. Bello & Muasya, sp. nov. Psoralea diturnerae is endemic to the Outeniqua mountains (Camferskloof and is characterised by a mass of numerous basal shoots out of which emerge 2–3 woody stems up to 2 m tall, 3-foliolate needle-like leaflets at the base of the seasonally growing shoot reducing to one towards the apex and bearing numerous 1–3-flowered axillary inflorescences along its length; each mauve to purple and white flower subtended by a trifid cupulum. Psoralea vanberkelae is characterised by its spreading mounding habit, short tightly packed fleshy leaves, with large impressed papillae, densely glandular short broadly triangular stipules, pale to intense mauve to deep blue flowers, standard with a dark purple central blotch above a M-shaped white patch situated above claw, and khaki seeds with purple flecks.
Full Text Available According to Sushruta, no plant in this world is useless. A large number of crude drugs used in Ayurvedic system employ plants of family Fabaceae. The family Fabaceae popularly known as legumes, is the third largest order of seed-plants containing about 600 genera with 12,000 speices. All the three subfamilies of Fabaceae have been given the status of family and hence they will be treated here as distinct families. Details of medicinal plants of these families and their uses are presented here.
Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; CRUZ, Pablo
Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland ...
Duarte, Márcia do Rocio; Dranka, Elize R. K.; Yano, Mami
The genus Ormosia (Fabaceae-Faboideae) is common in the neotropics and includes different species used in folk medicine for various purposes. Ormosia arborea is a tree popularly known as “olho-decabra” and used for its contraceptive effects in Brazilian rural communities. As it lacks data about this medicinal plant, this work has carried out anatomical studies on the leaf of this potential vegetal drug. Fully-expanded leaves were fixed and prepared according to light and scanning ele...
Esra Martin; Akan, H.; Ekici, M; Aytac, Z.
Abstract Karyotypes of ten sections of genus Trigonella Linnaeus, 1753 (Fabaceae) from Turkey were investigated. Somatic chromosome numbers of examined species were determined as 2n=14 and 16. The karyotype analyses of the species were carried out and somatic chromosome numbers of Trigonella plicata Boiss., 1872, Trigonella brachycarpa (Fisch.) Moris, 1833, Trigonella rostrata Boiss., 1872, Trigonella lunata Boiss., 1843, Trigonella isthmocarpa Boiss. et Balansa 1856, Trigonella rhytidocarpa ...
...-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean... impaired as a result of primary infection. (B) Albino. (e) Alfalfa, alyceclover, Florida beggarweed,...
André Luiz Gomes da Silva
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic selfpollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia reprodutiva de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae e avaliar o papel dos visitantes florais em seu sucesso reprodutivo. Bowdichia virgilioides apresenta padrão de floração anual e do tipo cornucópica. A floração ocorre no início da estação seca, entre os meses de junho e agosto e a frutificação no meio desta estação, entre os meses de julho e outubro. Suas flores são de antese diurna e apresentam néctar como recurso floral. Durante a abertura floral, as anteras se encontram deiscentes e por esta razão há a adesão dos grãos de pólen no estigma da própria flor, promovendo o processo de autopolinização passiva. A esp
Family Mimosoidae-Fabaceae is of economic importance to local communities for its medicinal usage. It has commercial value, but the parts sold in the market are difficult to identify on the basis of morphological characters and therefore needs molecular systematics approaches. Hence, the utility of potential DNA barcodes for selected Acacia and Albizia species by using three cpDNA regions rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA was tested in this study. Our study suggests that the rbcL region can be used to identify these species and discriminate among them more effectively than matK and trnH-psbA. The latter regions proved to be less successful in sequencing particularly trnH-psbA. Therefore, rbcL is an improved and efficient tool for species identification of these medicinal plants and may be recommended for a broad series of subfamily Mimosoideae (Family: Fabaceae) plants, making it a potential DNA barcode for these taxa. Sequence data obtained from rbcL and matK also indicated that Acacia and Albizia are polyphyletic. The phylogenetic analysis on the basis of rbcL proved that Acacia nilotica and Acacia nilotica ssp. hemispherica are closely related as they form the sister groups. (author)
Full Text Available The present paper provides an enumeration of leguminous taxa of Balaghat Ranges of Maharashtra along with their habits, phenological deta and voucher specimen numbers. During the present work, a total of 123 species, 4 subspecies and 17 varieties of Fabaceae have been recorded for Balaghat Ranges of Maharashtra, of which 119 taxa are occurring in wild while 25 are under cultivation. The members of Fabaceae are dominant in herbaceous vegetation of the Balaghat Ranges. There are more species in genera like Crotalaria (23 taxa, Indigofera (16 taxa, Alysicarpus (14 taxa, Vigna (11 taxa and Desmodium (8 taxa. Twelve taxa are endemic to India of which Indigofera deccanensis falls into Critically Endangered IUCN Red data category. The legumes of Balaghat Ranges have many actual and potential uses such as food, fodder and sources of edible oil, natural dyes, industrial lubricants, timber and medicines. About 19 leguminous taxa are wild relatives of food and fodder crops have resistance to pests and diseases, and abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity, can be used for crop improvement.
Gore, Ramchandra; Gaikwad, Sayajirao
The present paper provides an enumeration of leguminous taxa of Balaghat Ranges of Maharashtra along with their habits, phenological deta and voucher specimen numbers. During the present work, a total of 123 species, 4 subspecies and 17 varieties of Fabaceae have been recorded for Balaghat Ranges of Maharashtra, of which 119 taxa are occurring in wild while 25 are under cultivation. The members of Fabaceae are dominant in herbaceous vegetation of the Balaghat Ranges. There are more species in genera like Crotalaria (23 taxa), Indigofera (16 taxa), Alysicarpus (14 taxa), Vigna (11 taxa) and Desmodium (8 taxa). Twelve taxa are endemic to India of which Indigoferadeccanensis falls into Critically Endangered IUCN Red data category. The legumes of Balaghat Ranges have many actual and potential uses such as food, fodder and sources of edible oil, natural dyes, industrial lubricants, timber and medicines. About 19 leguminous taxa are wild relatives of food and fodder crops have resistance to pests and diseases, and abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity, can be used for crop improvement. PMID:25829859
Gao, Ting; Sun, Zhiying; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Ma, Xinye; Chen, Shilin
In this study, we tested the applicability of the core DNA barcode MATK for identifying species within the Fabaceae family. Based on an evaluation of genetic variation, DNA barcoding gaps, and species discrimination power, MATK is a useful barcode for Fabaceae species. Of 1355 plant samples collected from 1079 species belonging to 409 diverse genera, MATK precisely identified approximately 80 % and 96 % of them at the species and genus levels, respectively. Therefore, our research indicates that the MATK region is a valuable marker for plant species within Fabaceae. PMID:20549596
Tan, Kit; Zeitlinger, Jörg
A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed.......A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed....
Adriana Karla de Lima
Full Text Available O estudo farmacognóstico de Indigofera microcarpa Desv. (Fabaceae foi realizado enfocando aspectos farmacobotânicos e fitoquímicos para fins diagnósticos. A anatomia das folhas, caule e raízes foi descrita e a presença de características típicas da família e do gênero Indigofera foram confirmadas. A triagem fitoquímica revelou a presença de fenóis, taninos, flavanonas, esteróides, triterpenóides, saponinas e bases quaternárias.Pharmacognostical study of Indigofera microcarpa with diagnostic aims was performed. The anatomy of the leaves, stem and roots and the presence of typical features of this family and the genus Indigofera was described and confirmed. The phytochemistry screening showed the presence of phenols, tannins, flavanones, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and quaternary compounds.
Full Text Available With at least 60% of the Millettia species (Fabaceae being in medicinal use, we found it relevant to assess the potential antiprotozoal and antifungal activities of Millettia richardiana. Water and methanol crude extracts of the stem barks from M. richardiana and the six fractions resulting from the fractionation of the methanol extract were tested. The dichloromethane extracted fraction showed the best in vitro antiprotozoal activities (IC50 = 5.8 μg/mL against Plasmodium falciparum, 11.8 μg/mL against Leishmania donovani and 12.8 μg/mL against Trypanosoma brucei brucei as well as low cytotoxicity on several cell lines. The phytochemical analysis showed this selected fraction to be rich in terpenoids and alkaloids, which could explain its antiparasitic activity. A phytochemical study revealed the presence of lonchocarpenin, betulinic acid, β-amyrin, lupeol, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid, among which betulinic acid and lupeol could be the compounds responsible of these antiprotozoal activities. By contrast, neither the crude extracts nor the fractions showed antifungal activity against Candida. These results confirm the importance of the genus Millettia in Malagasy ethnomedicine, its potential use in antiparasitic therapy, and the interest of developing a sustainable exploitation of this plant. Moreover, both molecules betulinic acid and lupeol appeared as very relevant molecules for their antiprotozoal properties.
Mubo A Sonibare; Tolulope A Oke; Mike O Soladoye
Objective: To carry out a pharmacobotanical study of Lonchocarpus cyanescens (Schum & Thonn) Benth (L. cyanescens) and Leptoderris micrantha Dunn (L. micrantha) which are two key medicinal plants from the family Fabaceae.Methods:The epidermal peel was obtained by soaking the leaf in concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) in a petri dish. Both surfaces were carefully mounted on clean glass slides and dehydrated by ethyl alcohol, and stained with safaranin O for 2 min. Transverse sections of plant leaf were obtained by free hand sectioning. Phytochemical screening for various constituents was carried out on the powdered leaves. Other parameters such as, moisture content, ash value, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, water and alcohol extractive values were obtained by standard techniques.Results:The distinctive features of the species include: the presence of stomata on both surfaces of L. cyanescens and the absence in L. micrantha. Presence of larger epidermal cells in both upper and lower surfaces of L. cyanescens [(35.25±1.64)í(31.25±2.36), (43.0±2.63)í(39.5±5.11)] respectively compared to L. micrantha. Glandular multicellular trichomes are present in L. micrantha but absent in L. cyanescens. Numerous trichomes surround the transverse section of the leaf of L.micrantha but absent in L. cyanescens. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that both species contain secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, steroids and flavonoids.Conclusions:The microscopic and phytochemical data provided in this study are useful for the standardization of the medicinal plants.
Amr M. El-Hawiet
Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Astragalus annularis Forssk. and A. trimestris L., Fabaceae, growing in Egypt, resulted in the isolation of eight compounds, for the first time from these two species. These compounds were identified by chemical methods, NMR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy as well as MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Esherichia coli and Candida albicans.A investigação química das partes aéreas de Astragalus annularis Forssk. e A. trimestris L., Fabaceae, do Egito, resultou no isolamento de oito compostos, pela primeira vez nestas duas espécies. Estes compostos foram identificados por métodos químicos, espectroscopia de RMN, espectroscopia UV, bem como análise de EM. A atividade antimicrobiana dos compostos isolados foi testada contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e Candida albicans.
Full Text Available Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae is a deciduous tree widespread in southern Africa. The plant has many ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary uses. Root and bark decoctions are used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, sore throat, wounds, back and joint pains, HIV-AIDS, venereal diseases and infertility. Pastoralists and rural farmers use the root and bark extracts to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, infertility, and to promote well-being and resistance to diseases in cattle. To evaluate these ethnobotanical leads, dried leaves, stem bark and root bark were extracted with ethanol, acetone, dichloromethane and hexane. Polyphenols in the extract were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method with gallic acid as standard. Qualitative antioxidant activity was screened by spraying thin layer chromatograms (TLC of the extracts with 0.2 % 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, and quantified with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and total antibacterial activity (TAA were determined by serial microplate dilution for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis, with gentamicin as standard and tetrazolium violet as growth indicator. Acetone and ethanol extracted the largest quantity of material. Polyphenols concentration was 49.2% in acetone extract of the root and 3.8 % in dichloromethane extract of the leaf. Antioxidant activity of at least 5 antioxidant compounds as measured by TEAC ranged from 1.34 (ethanol extract of the root to 0.01 (hexane extract of the leaf. The total antibacterial activity (volume to which active compounds present in 1 g plant material can be diluted and still inhibit bacterial growth was 1263 mℓ/g for ethanol extract of the root against S. aureus, and 800 mℓ/g for acetone extract of the root against P. aeruginosa. There was substantial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with MIC values of 0.08 mg/mℓ for S
Aleksandar M. Mikić
Full Text Available Ancient DNA (aDNA is any DNA extracted from ancient specimens, important for diverse evolutionary researches. The major obstacles in aDNA studies are mutations, contamination and fragmentation. Its studies may be crucial for crop history if integrated with human aDNA research and historical linguistics, both general and relating to agriculture. Legumes (Fabaceae are one of the richest end economically most important plant families, not only from Neolithic onwards, since they were used as food by Neanderthals and Paleolithic modern man. The idea of extracting and analysing legume aDNA was considered beneficial for both basic science and applied research, with an emphasis on genetic resources and plant breeding. The first reported successful and attested extraction of the legume aDNA was done from the sample of charred seeds of pea (Pisum sativum and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia from Hissar, southeast Serbia, dated to 1,350 - 1,000 Before Christ. A modified version of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB method and the commercial kit for DNA extraction QIAGEN DNAesy yielded several ng μl-1 of aDNA of both species and, after the whole genome amplification and with a fragment of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene 26S rDNA, resulted in the detection of the aDNA among the PCR products. A comparative analysis of four informative chloroplast DNA regions (trnSG, trnK, matK and rbcL among the modern wild and cultivated pea taxa demonstrated not only that the extracted aDNA was genuine, on the basis of mutation rate, but also that the ancient Hissar pea was most likely an early domesticated crop, related to the modern wild pea of a neighbouring region. It is anticipated that this premier extraction of legume aDNA may provide taxonomists with the answers to diverse questions, such as leaf development in legumes, as well as with novel data on the single steps in domesticating legume crops worldwide.
Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) is an enormous and diverse plant genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, but relatively few breeding biologies are known for its member species. Threadstalk (or basalt) milkvetch, Astragalus filipes Torrey ex. A. Gray, is common and widespread throughout the US Intermountai...
Pterocarpus santalinoides, family- Fabaceae was claimed to have analgesic properties. The people of Ogidi in Idemili North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria used it in the management of aches and pains. This study is therefore aimed at determining this claim of the activities of Pterocarpus santalinoides using the leaves which will serve as a criterion to recommend the ethno pharmacological use of the plant. The leaves of Pterocarpus santalinoides family Fabaceae were dried, pow...
Full Text Available The external morphology of pollen is described of 26 species of the Fabaceae family which have been collected in the low part of Pativilca and Fortaleza Valleys, Peru. Palinologics samples were processed following the method of Erdtman (1966. Some species made the difference between the characteristics which have being in optical microscope and descriptions found in literature were observed. The pollen of this family appeared in monades with the exception of Inga and Acacia (poliades. The greatest monade was Leucaena glauca and the least minor was Melilotus indicus. The greater poliade size was Inga feuillei and the least minor was Acacia. The predominant form was sub prolate; the opening was represented by tricolporade; the exina commonest was reticulated; and the species with the greatest thickness of exine is Vigna luteola and the smallest thickness was Crotalaria incana. The external morphology of pollen made the difference at level of species Fabaceae.
Amen, Yhiya M; Marzouk, Amani M; Zaghloul, Mona G; Afifi, Mohamed S
Machaerium, in the family Fabaceae, predominantly is a genus of a Neotropical distribution of trees, shrubs, and lianas occurring from southern Mexico to Brazil and northern Argentina and as far as South America. Several Machaerium species are widely used in traditional medicine and are considered to have multiple medicinal properties. This review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities of plants in the genus Machaerium. PMID:25601210
Giovanna Aronne; Manuela Giovanetti; Veronica De Micco
It is accepted that the papilionaceous corolla of the Fabaceae evolved under the selective pressure of bee pollinators. Morphology and function of different parts of Coronilla emerus L. flowers were related to their role in the pollination mechanism. The corolla has a vexillum with red nectar lines, a keel hiding stamens and pistil, and two wing petals fasten to the keel with two notched folds. Pollinators land on the complex of keel and wings, trigger the protrusion of pollen and finally of ...
Dexter, Kyle G; Pennington, Terence D.
Inga pitmanii K. G. Dexter & T. D. Penn., a new species of Inga Mill. from Madre de Dios, Peru, is described for the Fabaceae (Mimosoideae). Morphologically it is closest to I. chartacea Poepp. & Endl., with which it shares a broadly winged rhachis, spicate inflorescence, glabrous leaves, nine to 10 pairs of secondary veins, and similar calyx indumentum. Inga pitmanii differs from I. chartacea in the leaflet number (four pairs vs. usually two or three pairs), the foliar nectaries (cya...
Tanu Sharma; Sidhu, M. C.
Plants are playing a great role in the fulfillment of day to day needs and are an integral component of the health care systems. Present review is concerned with the compilation of information related to antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants belonging to families Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae from the available literature. A detailed account of 88 plant species has been collected. This information is useful in different areas of research especially for the ph...
Panthati Murali Krishna
Full Text Available Sophora is a genus of the Fabaceae family, contains about 52 species, nineteen varieties, and seven forms that are widely distributed in Asia, Oceanica, and the Pacific islands, in the family Fabaceae of herbaceous (Sophora flavescens Aiton to trees (Sophora japonica L.. More than fifteen species in this genus have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicines. In the last decades the use of this genus in traditional Chinese drugs has led to rapid increase in the information available on active components and reported to posses various pharmacological/therapeutic properties. The paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, the biological activities and the correlated chemical compounds of genus Sophora, Fabaceae. More than 300 compounds has been isolated, among them major are quinolizidine alkaloids particularly matrine and oxymatrine and flavonoids particularly prenylated and isoprenylated flavonoids. Modern pharmacological studies and clinical studies demonstrated that these chemical constituens possess wide reaching pharmacological actions like anti oxidant, anticancer, anti-asthamatic, anti-neoplastic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antidote, anti pyretic, cardiotonic, antinflammatory, diuretic and in the treatment of skin diseases like eczema, colitis and psoriasis.
Full Text Available Historical usage of the roots of the legume Tephrosia virginiana as a piscicide by Native Americans has been documented. Due to questions about geographic variation in toxicity, an examination of the toxicity of six Oklahoma populations of the species was conducted. Rootstock extracts of plants in all populations exhibited acute toxicity in a standard laboratory bioassay using larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas. Isolation and identification of the compound or compounds responsible were not undertaken, however, toxicity is generally thought to be due to the presence of rotenone and related compounds. Although considerable variation in LC50 values exists among the six populations, this study produced few statistically significant differences. Correlations between plant toxicity and edaphic factors were not seen.
Héctor A. Vargas
Full Text Available Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes. The shrub Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae is reported for the first time as a host plant for three Neotropical Polyommatini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae: Hemiargus ramon (Dognin, 1887, Leptotes trigemmatus (Butler, 1881 and Nabokovia faga (Dognin, 1895, based on two collections performed in the western slopes of the northern Chilean Andes in two consecutive summers. The relative abundance was always above 90% for N. faga while it was always less than 5% for H. ramon and L. trigemmatus. Furthermore, N. faga was not found on inflorescences of other native Fabaceae examined in the study site. This pattern suggests a close relationship between N. faga and D. pennellii var. chilensis, at least at a local scale.
Sunil H. Ganatra*, Archana M. Ramteke, Shweta P. Durge and S.U. Patil
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. is belongs to the family Fabaceae. It is used as herbal and as vegetable from ancient times. It is abundant in tropical region of Africa and Asia. Preliminary phytochemicals investigations have been carried out on the seed extract using n-Hexane, Ethyl Acetate, Acetone, Ethanol and Methanol solvents. Qualitative phytochemicals analysis reflects the presence of Phenol, Quinone, Steroid, Flavanoids and Terpenoid in the plant extract. TLC profiling of seed extracts give an idea about the presence of various phytochemicals. Different Rf (Retention factor value of various phytochemicals provide valuable clue regarding their polarity and selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals.
Morales-Mateos, J. B.
Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.
Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Pitakbut, Thanet
Nineteen plants from Fabaceae family, which were used in Thai traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes, were determined of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity via enzymatic reaction. In this reaction, α-glucosidase was used as enzyme, which, reacted with the substrate, p-nitrophenol-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG). After that the product, p-nitro phenol (pNP) will be occurred and observed the yellow colour at 405 nm. In this study, acarbose was used as positive standard which, inhibited this enzyme with IC₅₀ as 331 ± 4.73 μg/ml. Caesalpinia pulcherrima leaves showed the highest activity with IC₅₀ as 436.97 ± 9.44 μg/ml. Furthermore, Bauhinia malabarica leaves presented moderately activity with IC₅₀ as 745.08 ± 11.15 μg/ml. However, the other plants showed mild to none activity of α-glucosidase inhibition. Accordingly, this study can support anti-diabetes of these plants in traditional medicine and it will be the database of the biological activity of Fabaceae plant. PMID:26408887
Gbenga Olorunshola Alege
Full Text Available This study was undertaken at the Botanical Garden of Biological Sciences Department, Kogi State University, Anyigba with the aim of assessing the systematic and phylogenetic relevance of leaf epidermal attributes in the 10 selected species of Fabaceae. Stomata, trichomes and epidermal cell attributes were taken from adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Results obtained in this study revealed that all the 10 plant species considered possess hypo-amphistomatic leaf condition, paracytic stomata type, polygon and irregular shape epidermal cells(on the abaxial surface which points to their common ancestry. All the analyzed leaf epidermal traits considered on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces showed significant variations among the 10 studied plant species which indicates that genetic diversity exists among members of Fabaceae for their delimitation. It was also observed that all the plants with tree habit considered in this study (i.e Delonix regia, Parkia biglobosa, Senna siamea, Daniella oliveri and Caesalpinia pulcherrima lack stomata on the adaxial surfaces which strongly suggest that absence of stomata on the adaxial surface may be peculiar to Legumes with such habit. Cluster analysis revealed 2 major clusters and 2 sub-clusters with the first cluster comprising only Senna siamea and Caesalpinia pulcherrima which confirms their close phylogenetic relationship. Variations in trichomes, stomata and epidermal attributes were obvious and could be used to resolve systematic and phylogenetic problems in this family.
Lam, Hong Kiat; Ross, John J; McAdam, Erin L; McAdam, Scott A M
Chlorinated auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, 4-Cl-IAA), a highly potent plant hormone, was once thought to be restricted to species of the tribe Fabeae within the Fabaceae, until we recently detected this hormone in the seeds of Medicago, Melilotus and Trifolium species. The absence of 4-Cl-IAA in the seeds of the cultivated species Cicer aeritinum from the Cicerae tribe, immediately basal to the Fabeae and Trifolieae tribes, suggested a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA. Here, we provide a more robust phylogenetic placement of the ability to produce chlorinated auxin by screening key species spanning this evolutionary transition. We report no detectable level of 4-Cl-IAA in Cicer echinospermum (a wild relative of C. aeritinum) and 4 species (Galega officinalis, Parochetus communis, Astragalus propinquus and A. sinicus) from tribes or clades more basal or sister to the Cicerae tribe. We did detect 4-Cl-IAA in the dry seeds of 4 species from the genus Ononis that are either basal to the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella or basal to, but still within, the Fabeae and Trifolieae (ex. Parochetus) clades. We conclude that the single evolutionary origin of this hormone in seeds can be used as a phylogenetically informative trait within the Fabaceae. PMID:27302610
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards, Fabaceae (legumes and Poaceae (grasses using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. and rice (Oryza sativa L. respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination
Cordero, Rodrigo León; Torchelsen, Fábio P; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Anand, Madhur
The occurrence of Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), is reported for the first time in Brazil. The species has been registered in the species-rich Campos Sulinos grasslands, in the Campos de Cima da Serra, and in the Serra do Sudeste. Naturalizing populations were frequently formed in natural habitats near to human settlements, where prevailing land uses and disturbances facilitate dispersal and establishment. The plant is an invasive species that has globally caused significant damage to biodiversity and economic losses. In Brazil, the species has a strong potential for spreading into a wide range of ecosystems. The Atlantic Forest biome and part of the Pampa biome, together known as the Campos Sulinos, represent optimal areas for the species. Features of the observed populations and recommendations for management are presented. PMID:26871495
Michelle C. Chirinos-Arias
Full Text Available In order to analyze transferibility of 15 microsatellite primers from Fabaceae family to Lupinus mutabilis Sweet "andean lupine" chosen to present transferability between species and genera, by its high rate of polymorphic content (PIC and high degree of observed and expected heterozygosity. DNA was extracted of 300 andean lupines plants, PCR conditions were standardized by gradients of master mix components. Primers for screening were run on 3% agarose gel with some samples. Finally population was amplified and run on 6% polyacrylamide gel for its highest resolution. Only 6.67% of primers were amplified, but they were monomorphic, so they cannot be used for molecular characterization. We proposed eight microsatellite primers for andean lupin wich should be probed in laboratory conditions.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe studied the effects of seed storage on germination and dormancy alleviation in three species of Fabaceae endemic to campo rupestrein southeastern Brazil. Fresh seeds of Collaea cipoensis, Mimosa maguirei and Mimosa foliolosawere set to germinate and germination of seeds after four, five and 13 years of storage was tested. Seed viability was maintained for all species after the full storage period. Seed storage significantly increased germination percentage and decreased germination time for C. cipoensisand M. foliolosa, suggesting the alleviation of physical dormancy with storage. However, we did not find evidence of dormancy alleviation in M. maguirei since stored seeds showed a decrease in germination in comparison to that of fresh seeds. Our data indicate species-specific storage-mediated dormancy alleviation, which will have important implications for restoration of campo rupestre.
Lam, Hong Kiat; McAdam, Scott A M; McAdam, Erin L; Ross, John J
Auxin is a pivotal plant hormone, usually occurring in the form of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). However, in maturing pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, the level of the chlorinated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA), greatly exceeds that of IAA. A key issue is how plants produce halogenated compounds such as 4-Cl-IAA. To better understand this topic, we investigated the distribution of the chlorinated auxin. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that 4-Cl-IAA is found in the seeds of Medicago truncatula, Melilotus indicus, and three species of Trifolium. Furthermore, we found no evidence that Pinus spp. synthesize 4-Cl-IAA in seeds, contrary to a previous report. The evidence indicates a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA synthesis in the Fabaceae, which may provide an ideal model system to further investigate the action and activity of halogenating enzymes in plants. PMID:25971549
Full Text Available Adenanthera pavonina L, Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae, Bengali name 'rakta kombol', is an Indian medicinal plant. It is endemic to Southern China and India, and widely naturalized in Malaysia, Western and Eastern Africa as well as in most islands of both the Pacific and Caribbean regions. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma, boil, diarrhoea, gout, inflammations, rheumatism, tumour and ulcers, and as a tonic. The dried and ground bark of A. pavonina L. was extracted, successively, with petroleum ether (PE, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and methanol (MeOH, and the resulting extracts were assessed in vivo for anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema as a model of inflammation. The extracts were administered orally at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, and statistically significant (pAdenanthera pavonina L, Fabaceae, conhecida na região de Bengala por "rakta kombol", é uma planta medicinal endêmica do sul da China e da Índia e amplamente difundida na Malásia, África Ocidental e Oriental, bem como na maioria das ilhas de ambas as regiões do Pacífico e Caribe. Esta planta tem sido utilizada na medicina tradicional para o tratamento da asma, febre, diarréia, gota, inflamações, reumatismo tumor, úlceras, e como tônico. Cascas secas e moídas de A. pavonina foi submetida a extração sucessiva com éter de petróleo (PE, diclorometano (DCM, acetato de etila (AcOEt e metanol (MeOH, e os extratos foram avaliados in vivo para atividade anti-inflamatória induzida por carragenina tendo como ensaio modelo de inflamação edema de pata em ratos.. Os extratos foram administrados por via oral em doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg de peso corporal, e foram observadas efeitos anti-inflamatórios de maneira dose-dependente, estatisticamente significativos (p<0,001. O extrato metanólico (400 mg/kg apresentou 37,10% (p<0,01 de inibição da inflamação na primeira hora do
Luiz Lúcio Soares da Silva; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; Silene Carneiro do Nascimento; Diógenes Luiz da Mota; Nicassio Henrique da Silva; Edvaldo Rodrigues de Almeida; Marta Gerusa Soares da Silva
A espécie Dioclea grandiflora Mart. ex. Benth., Fabaceae é uma planta que pertence à família Fabaceae, popularmente conhecida como mucunã-de-caroço e olho-de-boi, e, encontra-se distribuída nas regiões da caatinga e serrado do Brasil. Os extratos aquoso, etanólico e hidroalcoólico da casca do caule, da casca da raiz e da folha de D. grandiflora, nas concentrações de 313 µg/mL a 10.000 µg/mL, foram analisados por meio de técnica de difusão em ágar, frente a vinte microrganismos representantes ...
Prospección de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae en el norte de Chile Survey of anthophagous lepidopteran larvae associated with Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in northern Chile
Héctor A. Vargas
Full Text Available Se efectuó una prospección de larvas de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae en dos valles costeros del norte de Chile: Azapa y Chaca. Fueron registradas ocho especies, distribuidas en ocho géneros y cinco familias. La composición de especies del ensamble fue la misma en las dos localidades. Sin embargo, la abundancia del ensamble y la abundancia por especie fueron diferentes entre los valles.A survey of anthophagous lepidopteran larvae associated with Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae was made in two coastal valleys from northern Chile: Azapa and Chaca. Eight species, distributed in eight genera and five families, were recorded in the areas. Species composition was the same for both localities. However, assemblage abundance and species abundance were different between the valleys.
Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) on organically grown Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae) Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) e Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) sobre Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae) cultivada organicamente
Costa, M A; W de S Tavares; A.I.A. Pereira; I. Cruz; J.E Serrão; J.C Zanuncio
Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) larvae can avoid foraging on plants of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae) after the issuance of floral buds, when the prey of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) incorporate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from this plant. This reduces the predation and favors increasing the number of adults and eggs of this defoliator on crops of this plant. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate some biological and ecological aspects of C. externa and U. o...
Nataliia I. Karpenko; Vladislava A. Badanina
The comparative investigations of the morphological peculiarities in 15 species of Coronilleae (Adans.) Boiss. tribe (Fabaceae) at early stages of their ontogenesis were carried out. The morphological descriptions of the young plants of all species studied were presented. The appropriateness of some taxonomic changes was shown, in particular the placement of Coronilla emeroides Boiss. et Sprun. into the genus Hippocrepis L. and Coronilla varia L., С. cretica L., C. elegans Panč. i...
Full Text Available Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60% in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species, mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts.
Sachetti, Camile G; de Carvalho, Rosângela R; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Lameira, Osmar A; Caldas, Eloisa D
The oleoresin of the copaiba tree (Copaifera sp., Fabaceae) is traditionally used in Brazilian herbal medicine to treat a variety of illnesses and symptoms. This study, conducted according to the OECD Guideline 414, provides data on the developmental toxicity of oleoresin from C. reticulata (COPA-R) in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats (25 per dose group) were treated by gavage with COPA-R (0, 500, 1000 and 1250 mg/kg bw/day) on gestation days (GD) 6-19 and Caesarean sections performed on GD20. Implantations, living and dead fetuses and resorptions were recorded. Half of the fetuses from each litter were examined for visceral abnormalities and the remaining were cleared and stained for skeleton evaluation. COPA-R was maternally toxic (reduced food intake and weight gain) and embryotoxic (lower fetal body weight and increased occurrence of fetal skeleton variations) at the two highest doses, but did not cause embryo deaths or fetal malformations at any dose level. The study derived an oral no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity induced by COPA-R of 500 mg/kg bw/day. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin does not pose a health risk to pregnant women when used according to the recommended doses (up to five drops, three times a day). PMID:21266184
Otao, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Tatsuaki; Uehara, Koichi
Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers can be used to evaluate population structure and genetic diversity in native populations of Indigofera pseudotinctoria (Fabaceae) and assess genetic disturbance caused by nonnative plants of the same species. Methods and Results: We developed 14 markers for I. pseudotinctoria using next-generation sequencing and applied them to test two native populations, totaling 77 individuals, and a transplanted population, imported from a foreign country, of 17 individuals. The mean number of alleles was 3.310, observed heterozygosity was 0.242, and expected heterozygosity was 0.346. The fixation index in the transplanted population was 0.469, which was higher than in the native populations (0.154 and 0.158). In addition, the transplanted population contains one allele that is not shared by the native population. Conclusions: Microsatellite markers can be useful for evaluating genetic diversity within and between populations and for studying population genetics in I. pseudotinctoria and related species. PMID:27144104
Full Text Available The Acacia genus has presented various secondary metabolites, such as tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and gums. Preparations from different species have been applied for diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory diseases in the traditional medicine and have demonstrated cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae is a small wood, indigenous to Australia and cultivated worldwide for its ornamental feature. This work aimed to characterize the anatomy of the phyllode and stem, in order to contribute to the species identification. The botanical material was fixed, sectioned and prepared according to usual light and scanning microtechniques. The epidermal cells, in surface view, are polygonal and coated with striate and thick cuticle, and filaments of epicuticular wax. Paracytic stomata and unicellular non-glandular trichomes are seen. Palisade and ground parenchymas, and minor collateral bundles with xylem directed alternately to upper and lower sides occur in the blade. The midrib shows two collateral bundles facing each other. The stem, in incipient secondary growth, exhibits epidermis, annular collenchyma, sclerenchymatic sheath and collateral vascular organization. Cells containing phenolic compounds and prisms of calcium oxalate are observed.
Borges, D B; Amorim, M B; Waldschmidt, A M; Mariano-Neto, E; Vivas, C V; Pereira, D G
Melanoxylon brauna (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae) is an endemic and valuable hardwood tree species in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest; it is comparable to African ebony wood. We tested three protocols of DNA extraction based on the citrimonium bromide (CTAB) method and evaluated the quantity, purity and integrity of the DNA. We also determined whether these procedures interfere with PCR amplification in order to develop a protocol for M. brauna. We found that the quality and integrity of DNA were improved with the use of proteinase K in the extraction buffer and by modifications in the centrifugation speed. The lowest concentration of DNA was obtained with Doyle and Doyle's protocol (5.42 ng/μL). Ferreira and Grattapaglia's protocol modified for M. brauna provided the most DNA (36.89 ng/μL) and the highest quality DNA (purity ratio of 1.80 nm). The original Ferreira and Grattapaglia protocol provided 13.42 ng/μL DNA; however, the purity ratio (1.44 nm) indicates protein contamination. PCR results showed that Ferreira and Grattapaglia's protocol modified for M. brauna gave satisfactory quantity and purity of DNA for molecular studies. PMID:22653632
Full Text Available It is accepted that the papilionaceous corolla of the Fabaceae evolved under the selective pressure of bee pollinators. Morphology and function of different parts of Coronilla emerus L. flowers were related to their role in the pollination mechanism. The corolla has a vexillum with red nectar lines, a keel hiding stamens and pistil, and two wing petals fasten to the keel with two notched folds. Pollinators land on the complex of keel and wings, trigger the protrusion of pollen and finally of the stigma from the keel tip. Data on pollen viability and stigma receptivity prove that flowers are proterandrous. The results of hand-pollination experiments confirmed that insects are fundamental to set seed. Interaction with pollinators allows not only the transport of pollen but also the rupture of the stigmatic cuticle, necessary to achieve both allogamy and autogamy. Field observations showed that Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera visited the flowers. Only some of the Hymenoptera landed on the flowers from the front and elicited pollination mechanisms. Most of the insects sucked the nectar from the back without any pollen transfer. Finally, morphological and functional characteristics of C. emerus flowers are discussed in terms of floral larceny and reduction in pollination efficiency.
Full Text Available It is known that the efficient dispersal is one among other features that amplify the invasion potential of a plant. Knowledge of the ontogeny, morphology and fruit dispersal of species is indispensable for weed control in crops. To identify the pericarp structures involved in the fragmentation and dehiscence processes and other features related to dispersal, we studied the pericarp development of Aeschynomene evenia Wright, Desmodium incanum (Sw. DC. and Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth. (Fabaceae-Faboideae, all of which are considered weeds in certain situations. For light and scanning electron microscopy studies, we fixed and processed buds, flowers and fruits, according to usual methods, at different stages of development. We observed that the sclerenchymatous endocarp is essential for dehiscence in legumes, as well as for fragmentation in loments. We also found that the presence of hook-shaped trichomes, sclereid nests in the mesocarp, septum, hypodermis and the formation of false septa are essential to the diaspore dispersal of the species studied.
Full Text Available Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae is a valuable timber species occurring in moist semi-deciduous African forests. While it is at present substantially reduced, the tree's natural distribution previously covered several distinct areas from Côte d'Ivoire to the Democratic Republic of Congo. This species has been logged since the second half of the 20th century. Because it suffers from a lack of regeneration, P. elata is now included in CITES Appendix II and is recorded as "Endangered A1cd" on the IUCN Red List. As with other long-lived light-demanding species, the survival of P. elata may have been favored by important disturbances that occurred in the Congo Basin during the last millennia. While both international trade and industrial uses of the wood of P. elata are well documented, information about its ecology are very sparse or contradictory, and even absent in some cases (e.g., regarding its effective flowering diameter. Furthermore, data describing the management of P. elata are scarce, including potential solutions to compensate for the deficit of natural regeneration. Along the same lines, genetic studies still remain at an early stage and only vague hypotheses have been offered to explain the origins of the tree's populations. We emphasize the need for new research on those topics. Further studies would be useful in deciding whether P. elata populations can continue to be logged without the species being threatened with extinction. Finally, such research needs to target effective and inexpensive management procedures that could secure the future of the species in a logging context.
André Márcio do Nascimento
Full Text Available Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville (barbatimão is a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family, and it is commonly found in the southeastern Brazilian cerrado. The stem bark of this tree is traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic agent to treat leucorrhea and diarrhea, as well as to promote wound healing (owing to the presence of proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidins were obtained from the ethanolic extract of S. adstringens stem bark and assessed by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet/diode array detector. The identified compounds included gallic acid, catechin, gallocatechin (GC, epigallocatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG. The selected markers, GC and EGCG, were simultaneously used for chromatographic validation (linearity range: 30-330 ng, equivalent to 3-33 µg/mL; r>0.998. The method showed precision (intra-day relative standard deviation [RSD]: 1.72% for GC; 1.16% for EGCG; inter-day RSD: 1.74%-2.60% for both markers, accuracy, robustness, and selectivity. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.29 µg/ml and 0.89 µg/ml for GC, and 0.88 µg/mL and 2.67 µg/mL for EGCG, respectively. In addition, S. obovatum was evaluated and showed an average of 12.2 µg/mL for GC (equivalent to 1.22% w/w and 14.2 µg/mL for EGCG (equivalent to 1.42% w/w in the ethanolic extract. The quantitative results were compared to those obtained for S. adstringens, which showed that the markers are present in both species.
Pita-Barbosa, Alice; Gonçalves, Elton Carvalho; Azevedo, Aristéa Alves
Arsenic (As) is a toxic element to most organisms. Studies investigating anatomic alterations due to As exposure in plants are scarce but of utmost importance to the establishment of environmental biomonitoring techniques. So, this study aimed to investigate the effects of As on the development and initial root growth in Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae), characterize and quantify the possible damages, evaluate genotoxic effects, and identify structural markers to be used in environmental bioindication. Plants were exposed hydroponically to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg As L(-1), as sodium arsenate. Growth parameters were measured, and in the end of the exposure, root samples were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative anatomical alterations. Arsenic genotoxicity was evaluated through analysis of the mitotic index in the root apex. Compared to the control, As-treated seedlings showed an altered architecture, with significantly decreased root length (due to the lower mitotic index in the apical meristem and reduced elongation of parenchyma cells) with darkened color, and abnormal development of the root cap. A significant increase in vascular cylinder/root diameter ratio was also detected, due to the reduction of the cellular spaces in the cortex. The secondary xylem vessel elements were reduced in diameter and had sinuous walls. The severest damage was visible in the ramification zone, where uncommon division planes of phellogen and cambium cells and disintegration of the parenchyma cells adjacent to lateral roots were observed. The high sensibility of C. cajan to As was confirmed, since it caused severe damages in root growth and anatomy. The main structural markers for As toxicity were the altered root architecture, with the reduction of the elongation zone and increase of ramification zone length, and the root primordia retained within the cortex. Our results show a new approach about As toxicity and indicate that C. cajan is a promising species to be used for
Al-Tubuly Rida A.
Full Text Available Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel. (Fabaceae, commonly known as ‘raetam’ or ‘broom bush’, is a desert shrub that grows abundantly in North-African countries, Palestine and Syria. Traditionally, this plant has been used as an abortifacient, a purgative and a vermifuge. In the present study, the effect of the methanol (MeOH extract of the aerial parts of R. raetam on the central nervous system (CNS has been evaluated using a mice model. In the photoelectrical cell test, the extract of R. raetam (ERR at a dose of 125 mg/kg body weight did not exhibit any effect on the spontaneous motor activity in mice. At a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, ERR increased ambulatory movement, but had no effect on the non-ambulatory movement, while a dose of 375 mg/kg body weight decreased both ambulatory and non-ambulatory movements. The effect of ERR on the anxiety levels and behaviors of mice was investigated using the elevated plus-maze test. At doses of 125, 250 and 375 mg/kg body weight, ERR decreased anxiety levels without showing an effect on the total activity; it did not affect anxiety levels but increased the total activity; it increased anxiety levels and decreased the total activity, respectively. In the diazepam-induced sleep test, ERR increased the onset of sleep without affecting the duration of sleep at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight. The dose of 375 mg/kg body weight decreased the onset of sleep while increasing the duration of sleep. ERR did not exhibit any effect on the diazepam-induced sleep in the presence of flumazenil or picrotoxin.
Paula, Cristiane da Silva
Resumo: Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar o estudo fitoquímico e biológico do extrato etanólico, frações e compostos isolados provenientes das folhas de Bauhinia ungulata L. (Fabaceae). As folhas secas foram submetidas aos ensaios farmacopeicos de determinação de água e cinzas totais. Extrato aquoso e etanólico foram submetidos a análise fitoquímica preliminar. O extrato etanólico foi particionado obtendo-se as frações hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila e residual. A fração acetato...
Silva, Raúl Alejandro; López de Ruiz, Rosa Evelia; Ruiz, Sohar Osvaldo
Geoffroea decorticans (Gill ex Hook et Arn) Burk. Leguminoseae (Fabaceae), de nombre común "chañar" o "chañarcillo", es un árbol o arbusto de amplia distribución en la República Argentina y se usa en la medicina popular por sus virtudes emolientes, balsámicas, antitusivas y expectorantes. Aplicando la técnica de extracción con solventes de polaridad creciente fue posible aislar e identificar en la fracción soluble en éter de petróleo seis componentes. A su vez en la fracción solub...
Avaliação preliminar do potencial estrogênico de Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J.F. Macbr., Fabaceae, Platypodium elegans Vogel, Fabaceae, and Brosimum guianense (Aubl. Huber, Moraceae, no sistema reprodutor de ratos Wistar Preliminary assessement of the estrogenic potential of Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J.F. Macbr., Fabaceae, Platypodium elegans Vogel, Fabaceae, and Brosimum guianense (Aubl. Huber, Moraceae, on the wistar rat reproductive system
Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá
Full Text Available Um grupo de primatas da espécie Alouatta guariba foi estudado em seu habitat natural na Mata Atlântica, onde foi observada uma drástica redução populacional dessa espécie. Suspeita-se que essa redução se deve à inibição da fertilidade das fêmeas devido ao consumo de Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J.F. Macbr., Fabaceae, Platypodium elegans Vogel, Fabaceae e Brosimum guianense (Aubl. Huber, Moraceae. Estudos fitoquímicos indicaram a presença de cumarinas, especialmente em B. guianense e P. elegans, cujo efeito adverso no desenvolvimento de folículos ovarianos foi previamente relatado em ratas. Este trabalho investiga a atividade estrogênica dessas plantas no útero e vagina utilizando ratas castradas como modelo experimental. Ratas Wistar pubescentes castradas foram tratadas por cinco dias com os extratos hidroalcoólicos de A. leiocarpa, P. elegans and B. guianense (50 mg/rata. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: peso de útero e hipófise, cornificação e abertura vaginal. Os resultados preliminares obtidos mostraram que a administração dos extratos não alterou significativamente as variáveis analisadas, indicando, indiretamente, a ausência de efeito estrogênico no sistema reprodutor das ratas tratadas com as plantas citadas. Esses dados sugerem que o consumo dessas plantas não está relacionado com a redução populacional observada no grupo de primatas da espécie A. guariba.A group of primates (Alouatta guariba was studied in its natural habitat, where a drastic populational reduction was detected. It is suspected that this reduction is due to the inhibition of fertility caused by the consumption of Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J.F. Macbr., Fabaceae, Platypodium elegans Vogel, Fabaceae, and Brosimum guianense (Aubl. Huber, Moraceae. These plants are reported to have cumarins, which have been shown to affect ovarian follicular development in rats. This work investigates the estrogenic activity of these plants on the uterus
Ignoato, Marlene C; Fabrão, Rodrigo M; Schuquel, Ivânia T A; Botelho, Marcos F P; Bannwart, Geanderson; Pomini, Armando M; Arruda, Laura L M; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Santin, Silvana M O
Leaves and branches of Machaerium hirtum Vell. (Fabaceae), native to South America, were subjected to phytopharmacological investigation in order to identify its major chemical constituents and evaluate its extracts, fractions and isolated compounds in assays for anti-inflammatory activities. These were performed using mouse ear edema model, pleurisy and myeloperoxidase activity assays. Six compounds were isolated and identified as the flavanones swertisin and isovitexin, the alkaloid 4-hydroxy-N-methylproline, the triterpenes friedelin and lupeol, and the steroids sitosterol and stigmasterol. These compounds were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of (1)H and (13)C data, in comparison with literature. PMID:23126578
Full Text Available Pterocarpus santalinoides, family- Fabaceae was claimed to have analgesic properties. The people of Ogidi in Idemili North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria used it in the management of aches and pains. This study is therefore aimed at determining this claim of the activities of Pterocarpus santalinoides using the leaves which will serve as a criterion to recommend the ethno pharmacological use of the plant. The leaves of Pterocarpus santalinoides family Fabaceae were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with methanol for 48hrs, it was concentrated using rotary evaporator. The analgesic activity was investigated in rats using hot plate method at a temperature of 40oC. Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins and resins. Pterocarpus santalinoides extract (300 mg/kg induced analgesia in rats (p< 0.05 and this effect was comparable to that of Aspirin (100 mg/kg. Acute toxicity test also revealed that the drug is safe. The claimed benefits of Pterocarpus santalinoides in traditional medical management of aches and pains could be supported by the results of this investigation.
Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Beto
Dinitrogen (N2)-fixing trees in the Fabaceae fulfill a central role in tropical rainforests by supplying nitrogen from the atmosphere, yet whether they will support a forest CO2 sink in the future by alleviating nitrogen limitation may depend on whether and how they are controlled by local environmental conditions. Theory predicts that soil nutrients govern the function of N2 fixers, yet there have been no large-scale field-based tests of this idea. Moreover, recent findings indicate that N2-fixing species behave differently in biogeochemical cycles, suggesting that any environmental control may differ by species, and that the diversity of N2-fixing trees may be critical for ensuring tropical forest function. In this talk, we will use the RAINFOR dataset of 108 (~1.0 ha) lowland tropical rainforest plots from across the Amazon Basin to test whether the abundance and diversity of N2-fixing trees are controlled by soil nutrient availability (i.e., increasing with phosphorus and decreasing with nitrogen), or if fixer abundance and diversity simply follow the dynamics of all tree species. We also test an alternative - but not mutually exclusive - hypothesis that the governing factor for fixers is forest disturbance. Results show a surprising lack of control by local nutrients or disturbance on the abundance or diversity of N2 fixers. The dominant driver of fixer diversity was the total number of tree species, with fixers comprising 10% of all species in a forest plot (R2 = 0.75, linear regression). When considering the dominant taxa of N2 fixers (Inga, Swartzia, Tachigali) alone, environmental factors (nitrogen, phosphorus and disturbance) became important and clearly governed their abundance. These taxa, which contain >60% of N2-fixing trees in the data set, appear to have evolved to specialize in different local environmental conditions. The strong biogeochemistry-by-biodiversity interaction observed here points to a need to consider individual species or taxa of N2
Luiz Lúcio Soares da Silva
Full Text Available A espécie Dioclea grandiflora Mart. ex. Benth., Fabaceae é uma planta que pertence à família Fabaceae, popularmente conhecida como mucunã-de-caroço e olho-de-boi, e, encontra-se distribuída nas regiões da caatinga e serrado do Brasil. Os extratos aquoso, etanólico e hidroalcoólico da casca do caule, da casca da raiz e da folha de D. grandiflora, nas concentrações de 313 µg/mL a 10.000 µg/mL, foram analisados por meio de técnica de difusão em ágar, frente a vinte microrganismos representantes de bactérias Gram positivas, Gram negativas, fungos filamentosos e leveduras. O extrato aquoso da casca do caule, na concentração de 10.000 µg/mL, inibiu o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureuscom halo de 20 mm. Já o extrato hidroalcoólico da casca do caule inibiu apenas S. aureuscom halo de 18 mm, enquanto o extrato da folha inibiu o crescimento de dois dermatófitos, Trichophyton mentagrophytese Microsporum canis. Por outro lado, o extrato hidroalcoólico da casca da raiz inibiu apenas M. caniscom halo de 15 mm de diâmetro. Das frações do extrato aquoso da folha, apenas acetato de etila inibiu o crescimento de Streptococcus epidermides, Candida albicans, T. metagrophytese M. canis.Para o extrato etanólico do caule, a fração aquosa inibiu S. epidermidese S. aureus.The species Dioclea grandifloraMart. ex. Benth., Fabaceae is a plant that belongs to the Fabaceae family, popularly known as "mucunã-de-caroço" and "olho-de-boi". It can be found distributed in mountainous regions and in the scrub savanna of Brazil. The aqueous, ethanol and hydroalcoholic extracts of stem bark, root bark and leaves of D. grandifloraon concentration from 313 µg/mL to 10.000 µg/mL, were analyzed by the agar diffusion technique, front to twenty microorganisms, representatives of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. The aqueous extract of stem bark, on concentration of 10.000 µg/mL, inhibited the growth of
It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.
Marcelo Nahuel Morandini
Full Text Available La elevada diversidad de especies y endemismos, conjuntamente con la acelerada pérdida de biodiversidad por deforestaciones, destaca la importancia de emprender acciones combinadas de conservación in situ y ex situ. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la tolerancia a la desecación de las semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens, para su conservación ex situ a largo plazo en el BGEN. El contenido de humedad (CH se determinó colocando las semillas de cada población en estufa a 103°C y pesando las muestras a intervalos regulares hasta peso constante. Se realizaron ensayos de germinación en distintos CH: semillas frescas, 10-12%, 3-5%, y en semillas mantenidas seis meses a -20ºC y a 3-5% de CH. El CH de las semillas frescas de P. ferox fue de 14.2% y el de P. nitens de 10% para las dos poblaciones estudiadas. Las semillas de P. ferox llegaron a peso constante a las 17hr y las de P. nitens a las 3hr de secado. La germinación de las semillas de P. ferox fue mayor en los tratamientos con escarificación y la diferencia aumento con la reducción del CH y el almacenamiento. Las semillas de P. nitens con el CH reducido, requieren escarificación. Se concluye que las semillas de ambas especies son probablemente ortodoxas ya que la germinación superó el 80% en las semillas desecadas al 3-5% CH y almacenadas durante seis meses a -20°C.Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopis ferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae. The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P. ferox and P. nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN of the National University of Salta (Argentina. The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P
Pritha Bhattacharya (Sasmal
Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to study different pollen parameters such as shape, size, colpa and exine ornamentation for the taxonomic assessment of the groups of plants. The pollen morphology of some plant taxa of the family Fabaceae growing in the area of Arambagh of Hooghly district, West Bengal, India were studied using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM during the period of September 2012 to July 2013. The pollen grains of Cassia sophera, Cassia alata, Cassia occidentalis, Cassia fistula, Cassia tora, Cassia siamea, Butea monosperma, Bauhinia purpurea, Crotalaria retusa, Delonix regia, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Sesbania grandiflora and Tamarindus indica are 3-colporate type. The polyad types of pollen grains consisting of 12 cells were observed in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia arabica. The polyad type of pollen grain consisting of 16 cells is observed in Albizzia lebbek. The flowering period of the investigated taxa are recorded.
Resumo: As espécies Centrolobium tomentosum Guillemin ex Benth., Fabaceae, popularmente conhecida como araribá, Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae, também denominada de jenipapo, e Randia armata (Sw.) DC., Rubiaceae, referida vulgarmente como limoeiro-do-mato, são plantas nativas do Brasil e empregadas na medicina popular brasileira. Com o objetivo de caracterizar morfoanatomicamente a folha adulta e o caule jovem, visando aprofundar o conhecimento da flora brasileira e contribuir para monografia...
Cássia A. O. Feres
Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological parameters evaluated, no alterations in the groups of rats that received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses of D. mollis were observed, but an increase in eosinophiles occurred. Hyperactivity of the white splenic pulp was detected in the group that received the 2000 mg/kg dose of D. mollis. In the evaluation of the lymphproliferative response with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no alterations were observed, and a decrease in IgG was only observed in the studies with a 2000 mg/kg dose. The results obtained with rodents suggest that no toxicity exists with the administration of dried D. mollis extract in a 1000 mg/kg dose.A Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, conhecida como faveira ou fava-d'anta, é uma planta comum do cerrado central do Brasil, muito utilizada por suas propriedades antioxidante, antiplaquetária e, principalmente, como vasoprotetora. Seu principal marcador é a rutina. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a segurança da utilização do extrato seco de D. mollis em roedores. O extrato foi extraído, padronizado e quantificado apresentando teor de 76,0±3% de rutina. Nos parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos avaliados, não se observou alterações nos grupos de machos e fêmeas que receberam a dose de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg de D. mollis, mas observou-se um aumento de eosinófilos. Nos estudos histopatológicos detectou-se hiperreatividade da polpa branca esplênica, no grupo que recebeu a dose de 2000 mg/kg de D. mollis. Na avaliação da resposta
Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid, tocopherol, tocotrienol and plastochromanol-8 contents of some selected Fabaceae (Leguminosae species belonging to different genera (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella from Turkey were determined by using GLC and HPLC techniques. Some of the studied species are endemic to Turkey. The seed oils of different Leguminous taxa contained linoleic, oleic and linolenic acids as their major components. The ratios of these fatty acids in the Leguminous genera were found to be highly variable. Palmitic and stearic acids are the major saturated fatty acids in the seed oils. Vicia and Onobrychis patterns showed high similarity in means of qualitative fatty acid concentration. The tocopherol and tocochromanol patterns of the seed oils were also found to be highly variable among the genera investigated here. The total tocopherols was higher than the total tocotrienols. Alpha and gamma tocopherols were also the highest tocopherols present in the whole species. Beta, gamma and delta-tocotrienols were not found in most of the studied leguminous patterns. The results are discussed in view of renewable sources and chemotaxonomy.En este estudio, los contenidos en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, tocotrienoles y plastocromanol-8 de algunas especies seleccionadas de Fabaceae (Leguminosae, pertenecientes a diferentes géneros (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella de Turquía, fueron determinadas usando técnicas de GLC y HPLC. Algunas de las especies estudiadas son endémicas de Turquía. Los aceites de semillas de los diferentes taxones de leguminosas contenían los ácidos linoleico, oleico y linolénico como principales componentes. Las proporciones de estos ácidos grasos fueron muy variables entre los géneros de leguminosas. Los ácidos palmítico y esteárico son los principales ácidos grasos saturados en los aceites de semillas. Los patrones
Dandara Braga Santana
Full Text Available AbstractLeishmaniasis and fungal infection treatment efficacy is limited by toxicity and ever increasing resistance to available drugs, requiring development of alternative compounds. The richness of Cerrado plant antimicrobial secondary metabolites justifies screening of Fabaceae species extracts: Enterolobium ellipticum Benth., Sclerolobium aureum (Tul. Baill. and Vatairea macrocarpa(Benth. Ducke, against Leishmania(Leishmania amazonensis, yeasts and dermatophytes. Among the 26 extracts tested, more than 50% of the total demonstrated significant antifungal activity in comparison to the drug controls (minimal inhibitory concentration 0.12 to ≤31.25 µg/ml. Six extracts capable of complete parasitic growth inhibition had the inhibitory concentration index for 50% values from 9.23 to 78.65 µg/ml. The results led to the selection of the V. macrocarpa ethyl acetate root bark extract for chemical fractionation. This plant, traditionally referred to as angelim-do-cerrado or maleiteira, is used to treat superficial mycoses in Amazonia. A previously unreported pterocarpan vatacarpan together with the known compound musizin was isolated. Vatacarpan demonstrated a minimal inhibitory concentration value of 0.98 µg/ml against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and thus comparable or superior to fluconazole and amphotericin B. The results add to literature's information the ability of pterocarpans to act as antimicrobial agents.
Masoko, P; Gololo, S S; Mokgotho, M P; Eloff, J N; Howard, R I; Mampuru, L J
Senna italica, a member of the Fabaceae family (subfamily Caesalpinaceae), is widely used traditionally to treat a number of disease conditions, such as sexually transmitted diseases and some forms of intestinal complications. The roots of Senna italica were collected from Zebediela subregion, Limpopo province (S.A), powdered and extracted with acetone by cold/shaking extraction method. The phytochemical composition of the extract was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The chromatograms were visualised with vanillin-sulphuric acid and p-anisaldehyde reagents. The total phenolic content of the extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as TAE/g dry weight. The extract was assayed for the in vitro anticancer activity using Jurkat T cells, antioxidant activity using DPPH assay and antibacterial activity by bioautographic method and the microtitre plate method. The acetone extract of the roots of Senna italica inhibited the growth of Jurkat T cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The extract also had free radical scavenging activity as well as reasonable antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 0,08 to 0.16 mg/ml in the same order as ampicillin the positive control. The biological activities observed in the acetone extract validated the ethnomedicinal use of Senna italica. PMID:21304625
Puhan, Puspashree; Rath, Shiba Prasad
Medicinal plants possess unlimited and untapped wealth of chemical compounds with high drug potential which make these plants useful as sources of biomedicines. The rising demand for herbal medicines in the organized manufacturing sector has ruthlessly exploited the wild growing plant population those have bulk use. So for high rate multiplication of different medicinal plants, it is necessary to standardize the protocol for high regeneration. The efficiency of any regeneration is primarily depends on factors like type of explants used, composition of the medium and type of genotype. Here, we have developed a regeneration protocol of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC (Salparni, Fam- Fabaceae) a medicinal plant through axillary bud multiplication. Nodal explants from Desmodium gangeticum plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog's basal medium with Kn or BA at different concentrations. 0.5 mg L(-1) BA in the medium, showed shoot multiplication. Regenerated shoots measuring 3 cm or more were excised and planted on semi solid basal medium supplemented with varying concentrations of either IAA or IBA for induction of rooting. IBA treatment at 1.0 mg L(-1) was the best eliciting 100% rooting response. The in vitro propagation protocol standardized can be highly useful in raising quality planting materials of Desmodium gangeticum for commercial plantation programmes and germplasm conservation. PMID:24187902
Full Text Available Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp. é uma espécie arbórea da Amazônia brasileira, pertencente à família Fabaceae, de importância regional, porém pouco conhecida, considerando-se as informações técnicas, mas muito explorada comercialmente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação das sementes em diferentes temperaturas. As sementes foram submetidas às temperaturas constantes de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 ºC com quatro repetições de 25 sementes, colocadas para germinar em papel-toalha, na forma de rolo, mantidos em sacos plásticos transparentes em câmara de germinação sob fotoperíodo de 8 h. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. A germinação foi avaliada durante sete dias, sendo consideradas germinadas as sementes que emitiram raízes maiores que 5 mm e as que formaram plântulas normais. Analisaram-se as seguintes características: germinação (%, tempo médio de germinação e formação de plântulas normais, comprimento e massa seca de plântulas. Verificou-se que as sementes de Parkia pendula germinaram em todas as temperaturas estudadas. Entretanto, a formação de plântulas foi inibida nas temperaturas de 15, 20 e 40 ºC. A temperatura de 30 ºC foi considerada a mais favorável para a germinação e formação de plântulas dessa espécie.The Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp. is a forest species of the Brazilian Amazon, belonging to the Fabaceae family, of regional importance. However, little is known about its species, despite its common commercial use. The objective of this work was to evaluate the germination of seeds in different temperatures. Temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ºC were utilized. The six treatments were completely randomized, with four repetitions of 25 seeds kept in paper towel to germinate and kept in transparent plastic bags in a germination chamber with photoperiod of eight hours. The method used was
Mariana Patrícia Amorim Hilarino
Full Text Available Endophytic fungi represent large, yet unexplored components of biodiversity. This work evaluated the richness and the distribution of endophytes in the leaves of Bauhinia brevipes (Fabaceae. A total of 1110 colonies were recovered from the samples and grouped by their morphological traits into 126 taxa. The total number of taxa according to leaf development was: 102 in mature leaves, 93 in recently expanded leaves and 79 for unfolded leaves. The major endophyte genera were Phomopsis, followed by Dothiorella, Pestalotiopsis and Acremonium. The richness and the isolate numbers of endophytes were not statistically affected by leaf region. However, some taxa were leaf-age specific; six were isolated only from unfolded leaves, nine from recently expanded leaves and 17 were exclusively found in mature leaves. The composition of endophytes varied with leaf region; the similarities (Jaccard's Index among the leaf regions of different leaf ages ranged from 0.36 to 0.46, indicating a high spatial variation in the community of endophytic fungi inside the leaves. The high richness of endophytes in this host plant highlights a significant contribution of fungi to tropical biodiversity and the need for further research in this area.Fungos endofíticos representam um grande e ainda pouco explorado componente da biodiversidade. O trabalho avaliou a riqueza e a distribuição endofítica nas folhas de Bauhinia brevipes (Fabaceae. Foram obtidas 1110 colônias que foram agrupadas, por suas características morfológicas em 126 táxons. O número total de táxons por estágio foliar foi: 102 em folhas maduras, 93 em folhas recém-expandidas e 79 em não expandidas. O principal gênero de endofítico encontrado foi Phomopsis, seguido por Dothiorella, Pestalotiopsis e Acremonium. A riqueza e o número de isolados não foram estatisticamente influenciadas pela região foliar. Contudo, alguns táxons foram específicas de um estágio foliar; seis foram isoladas apenas
Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae on organically grown Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae sobre Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae cultivada organicamente
Full Text Available Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae can avoid foraging on plants of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae after the issuance of floral buds, when the prey of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae incorporate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from this plant. This reduces the predation and favors increasing the number of adults and eggs of this defoliator on crops of this plant. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate some biological and ecological aspects of C. externa and U. ornatrix on the organic crop of C. juncea in the EMBRAPA Maize and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chrysoperla externa and U. ornatrix were more abundant in the vegetative and flowering stages of C. juncea, respectively, with caterpillars of this defoliator feeding on leaves and seeds of this plant. The duration of the stages/instars, survival, lifetime fecundity, and oviposition showed that the branches of C. juncea are a suitable food for U. ornatrix. The abundance of adults and larvae of C. externa was lower in the flowering and pods stages of C. juncea, respectively, when the postures of U. ornatrix are present, probably due to the toxicity of the eggs of this prey to this predator. During these stages, C. externa may be reared with alternative hosts, and when the crops of C. juncea are scarce, an artificial diet should be used for rearing this defoliator in the laboratory for biological research and the development of biological control tactics.Larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae podem evitar o forrageamento sobre plantas de Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae após a emissão de botões florais, quando presas de Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae incorporam alcalóides pirrolizidínicos tóxicos dessa planta. Isso reduz a predação e favorece o aumento do número de adultos e ovos desse desfolhador sobre cultivos dessa planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos e ecológicos de C
Full Text Available The impact of habitat fragmentation and isolation on the genetic diversity of populations has attracted much attention in studies of plant conservation. The central-peripheral population hypothesis predicts that peripheral populations have reduced genetic variability, so it is often assumed that they deserve higher conservation priority over central populations. In this work, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, we studied the genetic diversity of central and peripheral populations of the Cantabrian endemism Genista legionensis (Fabaceae. At the species level, percentage of polymorphic bands, Nei heterozygosity and Shannon information index were PPB = 89.21%, Hε = 0.246 and I = 0.377, respectively. The study revealed that peripheral populations were smaller in number, with lower levels of genetic diversity compared to the central populations. Furthermore, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated that most of the variability was partitioned among populations, also supported by principal coordinates analysis. This study indicates that the decrease in diversity from central to peripheral populations could be explained as a result of edge effect and fragmentation through the enhanced inbreeding and genetic drift, and thus supported the view that habitat fragmentation and related edge effect reduce the population genetic diversity. However, the presence of discriminating fragments in the peripheral populations suggests their conservation in order to preserve the genetic diversity in the Cantabrian endemism G. legionensis.El impacto de la fragmentación del hábitat y el aislamiento sobre la diversidad genética de las poblaciones, han despertado mucha atención en estudios de conservación de plantas. La hipótesis de la población centro-periferia predice que las poblaciones periféricas reducen la variabilidad genética, por lo que a menudo se asume que merecen una mayor prioridad de conservación respecto a las poblaciones
Full Text Available "n Background and purpose of the study: Fabaceae is the third largest family of flowering plants. Lack of essential oils in the plants of this family can be an advantage in search for safe and effective medicines. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Albizzia julibrissin, Acacia juliflora, Acacia nubica and aerial parts of Astragalus obtusifolius was evaluated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ and maximal electroshock (MES seizure tests. "n Methods: The hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were obtained by percolation. Different doses of the extracts were injected to the mice intraperitoneally (i.p. and occurrence of clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p. or tonic seizures induced by MES (50 mA, 50Hz, 1sec were monitored up to 30 min after administration. Acute toxicity of the extracts was also assessed. The safe and effective extract was then fractionated by dichloromethane and anticonvulsant activity of the fractions was determined. Finally, the constituents of the extract and the fractions were screened by thin layer chromatography. "n Results: Among the extracts, only A. obtusifolius extract showed low toxicity and protective effect against clonic seizures with ED50 value of 3.97 g/kg. Fractionation of the extract led to increase in anticonvulsant activity and ED50 value of 2.86 g/kg was obtained for the aqueous fraction. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthrones and saponins in the aqueous fraction. "n Major conclusion: The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in A. obtusifolius suggests further activity-guided fractionation and analytical studies to find out the potential of this plant as a source of anticonvulsant agent.
Hanley, Mick E.; Fenner, Michael; Ne'eman, Gidi
The role of heat-shock in stimulating the germination of soil-stored seeds from fire-following plant species is well known. However, the effects of high pre-germination temperatures on subsequent seedling growth are less well understood. In this study, we examined the effect of pre-germination heat shock at five temperatures (60°, 75°, 90°, 105° and 120°C, each applied for 5 min) on the seedling growth of four, fire-following Fabaceae species from four Mediterranean-type ecosystems; Hippocrepis multisiliquosa (Israel), Gastrolobium villosum (Western Australia), Cyclopia pubescens (South Africa) and Lupinus succulentus (California). Following heat treatment and subsequent germination, seedlings were grown in controlled conditions before being harvested at either 10, 20- or 40 d old. A significant increase in mean dry weight biomass was found at 10 days for Hippocrepis seedlings germinated from seeds pre-heated to 90°C. However, subsequent comparison of mean dry weight biomass for seedlings of this species at 20 and 40 d old showed no significant response to heat shock pre-treatment. Similarly, an initial increase in growth of Gastrolobium seedlings germinated from seeds heated to 90° and 105°C disappeared as the plants matured. Seedling growth of Lupinus and Cyclopia was unaffected by the pre-germination heat treatment of their seeds. Since seedling competition is influenced by the size and growth rates of neighbouring plants, any changes in seedling growth rates as a consequence of the temperature environment experienced by their seeds, may therefore influence patterns of post-fire plant community recovery.
Suma A Dev; Megha Shenoy; Renee M Borges
Humboldtia brunonis (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) is a dominant self-incompatible ant-plant or myrmecophyte, growing as an understorey tree in high-density patches. It is endemic to the biodiversity hotspot of the southern Western Ghats of India and, besides ants, harbours many endemic invertebrate taxa, such as bees that pollinate it as well as arboreal earthworms, within swollen hollow stem internodes called domatia. Using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, three geographically separated populations were found to be multiclonal, characterized by high levels of clonal diversity. Values for the Simpson diversity index ranged between 0.764 and 0.964, and for Fager’s evenness index between 0.00 and 0.036 for neighbourhoods within populations. This myrmecophyte was found to combine sexual recruitment (66.7%) and clonal production (33.3%) as methods of reproduction. Moderate amounts of genetic diversity at the species level were observed, with 52.63% polymorphism, and moderate values of Shannon’s diversity index (0.1895) as well as of Nei’s gene diversity (0.1186). In each population, observed genotypic diversity was significantly lower than expected, indicating significant genetic structure. Neighbour-joining trees demonstrated that Agumbe, which is the most northern population examined and geographically twice as far away from the other two populations, grouped separately and with larger bootstrap support from a larger cluster consisting of the Sampaji and Solaikolli populations, which are closer to each other geographically. Some neighbourhoods within each population showed spatial genetic structure even at small spatial scales of < 5 m. A combination of clonality and short-distance pollen movement by small pollinating bees (Braunsapis puangensis) coupled with primary ballistic seed dispersal, and possible secondary seed dispersal by rodents, may contribute to spatial genetic structure at such small scales. The clonality of H. brunonis may be a factor
Full Text Available The present research work evaluates the photoabsorptive property of different extracts of the leaves of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre, Fabaceae, in the ultraviolet region (200-400 nm and its comparison with a well-established standard sunscreen drug, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA. The shade-dried leaves of the plant were extracted in Soxhlet apparatus using three different solvents, i.e., water, methanol and acetone. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation of the solvent and finally dried to get dry extracts. Then, 20 mg of the dry extracts was dissolved in the respective solvents and their absorption spectra were measured using UV-visible spectrophotometer. Absorbance of different concentrations of the extracts, i.e., 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/100 ml was read at their respective wavelengths (λmax of maximum absorption. The aqueous and methanol extracts were found to be highly effective in the UVB and moderately effective in the UVA region. Acetone extract was found to greatly absorb exclusively in the UVA region. The known standard drug PABA showed its protective action in the UVB and UVC regions with least effectiveness in the UVA region. The extracts of the leaves of the plant under study showed extremely good absorbance throughout the UV region including UVA region. The P. pinnata extract can be used to formulate highly effective sunscreen preparations as it will enhance and effectively contribute to the UV absorbing properties of a conventional sunscreen. It will also help in broadening the UV protection ability of the sunscreens along with the greatest advantage of avoiding the adverse and undesired effects of synthetic sunscreen compounds.
Viviane M. Davanso-Fabro; Moacyr E. Medri; Edmilson Bianchini; José A. Pimenta
Plantas de Sebania virgata (Cav.) Pers. (Fabaceae) cultivadas em casa de vegetação foram alagadas por 40 dias. Plantas alagadas apresentaram aumento do peso da matéria seca e comprimento, acentuadas rachaduras corticais e intumescimento cortical esponjoso em caules e raízes, raízes superficiais e raízes adventícias. É possível que a plasticidade morfo-anatômica apresentada por esta espécie esteja contribuindo para o seu estabelecimento em solos hipóxicos.Twenty days seedlings of Sesbania virg...
Camile Giaretta Sachetti; Maria Luiza Fascineli; Juliana Alves Sampaio; Osmar Alves Lameira; Eloisa Dutra Caldas
O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas n...
Figueiral, Isabel; Bettencourt, Ana M. S.
Plant communities and their possible exploitation during Late Prehistory are studied based on charcoal data from four archaeological sites. Settlement location in the area appears to have been chosen on the basis of easy access to rivers and good arable land. Querens (deciduous) and Fabaceae appear to have been the main source of wood; this is in agreement with previous data from north-western Portugal. The abundance of Fabaceae, which thrive in open well-lit areas, is seen as a direct conseq...
... Some research suggests that taking a specific American ginseng extract called CVT-E002 (Cold-FX, Afexa Life Sciences, ... AD-fX, Afexa Life Sciences, Canada) containing American ginseng extract in combination with ginkgo leaf extract might help ...
Viviane M. Davanso-Fabro
Full Text Available Plantas de Sebania virgata (Cav. Pers. (Fabaceae cultivadas em casa de vegetação foram alagadas por 40 dias. Plantas alagadas apresentaram aumento do peso da matéria seca e comprimento, acentuadas rachaduras corticais e intumescimento cortical esponjoso em caules e raízes, raízes superficiais e raízes adventícias. É possível que a plasticidade morfo-anatômica apresentada por esta espécie esteja contribuindo para o seu estabelecimento em solos hipóxicos.Twenty days seedlings of Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. (Fabaceae cultivated in green house were flooded by forty days. Flooded plants presented increasing of dry weight and lenght, evident cortical fissures and spongy cortical swelling on the stem basis and root, superficial roots on the soil and adventitious roots. It is possible that the morpho-anatomic plasticity presented by this specie is contribuiting for its hipoxic soils stablishment.
Oviposition behavior of wild Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae females deprived of the host Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae Comportamento de ovoposição de fêmeas selvagens de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae privadas do hospedeiro Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae
Luiza A. A Sperandio
Full Text Available The insects oviposition behavior is fundamental to study population dynamics, life history evolution, insect-plant and parasitoid-host interactions. Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833 females oviposition behavior in the presence and absence of a host is unknown. The main objective of this study was to describe in detail the oviposition behavior of host deprived or non-deprived females, and observe how the several situations of deprivation (days without host influence oviposition. Six groups were assembled, three deprived of the host (for 2, 5 and 8 days and three control groups (with host, each containing one newly-emerged couple (0-24h of wild Z. subfasciatus, The non-deprived (control groups received the hosts every day (5 bean seeds Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae and the others were deprived for 2, 5 and 8 days, respectively. For each group 12 repetitions were made. Consequently, 12 couples were host deprived during two days, 12 couples were host deprived during five days and 12 couples were host deprived during eight days. When the seeds of the deprived groups were added the experiments started. There was a control group for each deprived group. The experiments and the insects were maintained at constant temperature 29 ± 2ºC and 70-80% relative humidity. At 15 minutes interval, the number of times the females manifested the different categories of behavior was observed (frequency. The behavior categories were: rest inside the box, locomotion, resource exploration (seeds, copulation and oviposition. The deprived females stayed most of the time in contact with the host to carry out oviposition, while the non-deprived (control females spent most of the time at rest. This was observed in all the deprivation times. The results show that host deprivation influences the oviposition behavior of the studied species and also shows the flexibility in the oviposition strategies that these females present when the environment changes (absence and
American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.
Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico bruto da casca da sucupira branca (Pterodon emarginatus Vogel) - Fabaceae Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of crude ethanol extract from the bark of "sucupira branca" (Pterodon emarginatus Vogel) - Fabaceae
K.G.L. Bustamante; A.D.F. Lima; M.L. Soares; T.S. Fiuza; L.M.F. TRESVENZOL; M.T.F. Bara; F. C. PIMENTA; J.R. Paula
Pterodon emarginatus Vogel (Fabaceae) é uma árvore do Cerrado conhecida popularmente como "sucupira branca, faveiro, fava de sucupira e sucupira lisa" e utilizada na medicina popular em preparações anti-reumáticas, antiinflamatórias, analgésicas e antiinfecciosas. Esse trabalho teve por objetivo fazer a triagem fitoquímica do pó e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico bruto das cascas da P. emarginatus contra bactérias Gram-positivas, Gram-negativas e o fungo Candida albican...
Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Caesalpinioideae-Fabaceae): espécie de uso medicinal em Caetité-BA Anatomy of vegetative organs of Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae): a species of medicinal use in Caetité-Bahia State, Brazil
Silva, M.S.; K.R.B. Leite; M.D. Saba
Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae) apresenta grande valor na medicina popular em Caetité. A casca, entrecasca do caule e a resina, são utilizadas no tratamento de diversos males. Neste estudo são apresentadas a caracterização anatômica e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos. Amostras foram coletadas e processadas segundo técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal e histoquímica. Todos os órgãos apresentam, em visão transversal, epiderme unisseriada e cavidades secretoras. Cutícula es...
Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
Flowers from several common Mediterranean shrubs, such as those from the Cytisus genus and Genista genus (tribe Genisteae/Fabaceae) have long been used for medicinal purposes and seasoning in the northeastern Portuguese region. Despite, the shade-drying traditionally used to process these plants, freeze-drying is claimed to better preserve the quality of medicinal plants. Herein, the effects of drying process in the antioxidants composition and properties of Cytisus multiflorus, Cytisus scoparius, Cytisus striatus and Pterospartum tridentatum were evaluated. Freeze-dried P. tridentatum revealed the highest antioxidant properties (EC(50) values ≤ 0.15 mg/ml). Freeze-drying benefits were confirmed showing, the samples submitted to this process, higher antioxidant activity and higher concentrations of hydrophilic (phenolics, ascorbic acid and sugars) and lipophilic (tocopherols, chlorophylls and lycopene) compounds. This process could be applied in scale-up treatments of the studied plants for cosmetic or pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21816201
Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.
American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.
... Us American Migraine Foundation Login THE AMERICAN Headache Society is a professional society of health care providers dedicated to the study ... MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American Migraine Foundation, the AHS’s charitable division, ...
... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...
... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...
Duminil, Jerome; Brown, Richard P.; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer BK; Mardulyn, Patrick; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Hardy, Olivier J
Background The evolutionary events that have shaped biodiversity patterns in the African rainforests are still poorly documented. Past forest fragmentation and ecological gradients have been advocated as important drivers of genetic differentiation but their respective roles remain unclear. Using nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) and chloroplast non-coding sequences (pDNA), we characterised the spatial genetic structure of Erythrophleum (Fabaceae) forest trees in West and Central Africa (Guinea...
Duminil, Jérôme; Brown, Richard P.; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer BK; Mardulyn, Patrick; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Hardy, Olivier J
Background: The evolutionary events that have shaped biodiversity patterns in the African rainforests are still poorly documented. Past forest fragmentation and ecological gradients have been advocated as important drivers of genetic differentiation but their respective roles remain unclear. Using nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) and chloroplast non-coding sequences (pDNA), we characterised the spatial genetic structure of Erythrophleum (Fabaceae) forest trees in West and Central Africa (Guine...
G.E. Swan; Githiori, J.B.; E.S. Bizimenyera; J.N. Eloff
The In vitro efficacy of the extracts of Peltophorum africanum Sond. (Fabaceae), was determined against Haemonchus contortus. Acetone extracts of the leaf, bark and root, at concentrations of 0.008 to 25 mg mL 1 were incubated at 23oC with the eggs and larval stage (L1) of the parasite for two and five days, respectively. Thiabendazole and water were positive and negative controls, respectively. Increasing the concentration of extracts caused a significant (p
Análise da pluviosidade e do efeito de borda sobre os teores de flavonóides em Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong. Steud., Fabaceae Analysis of rainfall and edge-effects on flavonoid levels in Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong. Steud., Fabaceae
Tadeu J. da S. Peixoto Sobrinho
Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a influência do efeito de borda e da pluviosidade sobre a produção de flavonóides em indivíduos de Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong. Steud., Fabaceae, em uma área de caatinga no estado de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Foi utilizada metodologia analítica por complexação com cloreto de alumínio para quantificar a concentração de flavonóides contidos nos extratos foliares de B. cheilantha, por meio de espectrofotometria no visível. De forma geral, o efeito de borda afeta a produção de flavonóides, entretanto, não foi possível correlacionar a produção de flavonóides e a pluviosidade, demonstrando que a espécie avaliada utiliza outra estratégia como resposta às pressões ambientais.The present study evaluated the influence of the edge-effect and rainfall on flavonoid content in individuals of Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong. Steud., Fabaceae, in an area of caatinga vegetation in Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. The analytical methodology used aluminum chloride binding to quantify flavonoid concentrations by visible light spectrophotometry in leaf extracts of B. cheilantha. In general, forest edges influenced flavonoid production, but it was not possible to relate production with rainfall levels. These results demonstrate that this species uses various strategies to respond to environmental variables.
Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened. PMID:25590708
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
Jenkins, Linda Walsh
American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…
Zoro Bi IA.
Full Text Available Preliminary observations of variability between some morphotypes of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc., Fabaceae from Côte d’Ivoire. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc., is a food legume mainly cultivated by women for whom it represents a source of income for the household. In Côte d’Ivoire, the cultivation of bambara groundnut is located in the western and northern parts of the country. These zones are characterised by contrasted agroecology including tropical rain forest and dry savanna. In these zones, bambara groundnut plays a key role in both food and culture of peoples. Four morphotypes of Côte d’Ivoire (ICU, BPR, RBU, NFU were used in a preliminary study to assess the phenotypic variability between morphotypes. For each morphotype, 100 individuals were sampled to analyse 26 agromorphological traits selected from the list of bambara groundnut descriptors. Results of statistical analyses showed an important variability among morphotypes suggesting that 22 of these characters could be powerful to distinguish diversity among bambara groundnut morphotypes of Côte d’Ivoire. Three morphotypes (ICU, BPR and RBU show a shorter reproductive cycle than the other (NFU. In our experimental conditions, morphotypes with a shorter reproductive cycle give a higher percentage of matured pods (87 to 95%, compared to morphotype NFU (60%. The morphotype ICU was particularly earlier, maturing 90 days after sowing (DAS, whereas the long reproductive cycle morphotype (NFU required about 137 days. Based on the analysed agronomic traits, possibilities to improve bambara groundnut yield and to promote its cultivation in Côte d’Ivoire are discussed.
Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Michalopoulou, Vasiliki A
The effects of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on the cortical microtubules (MTs) of five species of the Fabaceae family (Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis, Vigna angularis, and Medicago sativa) were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy after immunolocalization of total tubulin with conventional immunofluorescence techniques and of acetylated α-tubulin with the specific 6-11B-1 monoclonal antibody. Moreover, total α-tubulin and acetylated α-tubulin were quantified by Western immunoblotting and scanning densitometry. Results showed the universality of Cr(VI) detrimental effects to cortical MTs, which proved to be a sensitive and reliable subcellular marker for monitoring Cr(VI) toxicity in plant cells. However, a species-specific response was recorded, and a correlation of MT disturbance with the acetylation status of α-tubulin was demonstrated. In V. faba, MTs were depolymerized at the gain of cytoplasmic tubulin background and displayed low α-tubulin acetylation, while in P. sativum, V. sinensis, V. angularis, and M. sativa, MTs became bundled and changed orientation from perpendicular to oblique or longitudinal. Bundled MTs were highly acetylated as determined by both immunofluorescence and Western immunoblotting. Tubulin acetylation in P. sativum and M. sativa preceded MT bundling; in V. sinensis it followed MT derangement, while in V. angularis the two phenomena coincided. Total α-tubulin remained constant in all treatments. Should acetylation be an indicator of MT stabilization, it is deduced that bundled MTs became stabilized, lost their dynamic properties, and were rendered inactive. Results of this report allow the conclusion that Cr(VI) toxicity disrupts MTs and deranges the MT-mediated functions either by depolymerizing or stabilizing them. PMID:26015161
Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. G. Don. (Fabaceae by Flow Injection Analysis — Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Full Text Available The present study investigates the chemical composition of the African plant Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae roots and barks by Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization and Direct Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis. Mass spectral data indicated that B-type oligomers are present, namely procyanidins and prodelphinidins, with their gallate and glucuronide derivatives, some of them in different isomeric forms. The analysis evidenced the presence of up to 40 proanthocyanidins, some of which are reported for the first time. In this study, the antiradical activity of extracts of roots and barks from Parkia biglobosa was evaluated using DPPH method and they showed satisfactory activities.
Camile Giaretta Sachetti
Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses.Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity and the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage. No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as
This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…
Evolución de la serie Microphyllae (Adesmia, Fabaceae en la Cordillera de los Andes: una perspectiva biogeográfica Evolution of the series Microphyllae (Adesmia, Fabaceae in the Andean Cordillera: a biogeographic approach
MARITZA A. K. MIHOC
largest number of described species, and its distribution includes most of the genus range. The biogeographic evolutionary history of this series, as well as the genus, is unclear. Some hypotheses suggest that the development of the Andes affected the evolution of the genus Adesmia, but there is no evidence about the processes (e.g., dispersal or vicariance involved. In this study we used a panbiogeographic approach, and based on the distribution of 22 species of this series we carried out a track analysis and a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE. Distribution area of the series was divided in quadrats of 1° x 1° (Latitude x Longitude, and latitudinal and longitudinal belts of 1º. All the species presented a distribution associated with the Andes, and most of them presented both latitudinally and longitudinally restricted distributions. Five generalized tracks and two nodes were found. All tracks were longitudinally associated with the Andean range. Nodes could be associated with the South American Transition Zone. PAE based on latitudinal belts split the total area in two sub-areas (north and south, where the limit between them is central Chile (ca. 33° S. This division is characterized by the presence of A. miraflorensis in the northern zone, and A. volckmannii in the southern zone. Our results suggest a recent differentiation within the series Microphyllae, which may have resulted from isolation of populations along the Andes, i.e., vicariance events fragmented the distribution of species and subsequently caused differentiation. It seems likely that this separation has occurred latitudinally, as suggested by the latitudinal sequence of generalized tracks
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... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
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Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.
Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...
African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...
African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...
Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.
Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...
... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...
Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico bruto da casca da sucupira branca (Pterodon emarginatus Vogel - Fabaceae Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of crude ethanol extract from the bark of "sucupira branca" (Pterodon emarginatus Vogel - Fabaceae
Full Text Available Pterodon emarginatus Vogel (Fabaceae é uma árvore do Cerrado conhecida popularmente como "sucupira branca, faveiro, fava de sucupira e sucupira lisa" e utilizada na medicina popular em preparações anti-reumáticas, antiinflamatórias, analgésicas e antiinfecciosas. Esse trabalho teve por objetivo fazer a triagem fitoquímica do pó e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico bruto das cascas da P. emarginatus contra bactérias Gram-positivas, Gram-negativas e o fungo Candida albicans. O extrato etanólico bruto foi obtido a partir das cascas dessecadas e pulverizadas. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM do extrato bruto foi determinada utilizando-se o inoculador de Steers. Os testes fitoquímicos detectaram a presença de flavonóides, heterosídeos saponínicos, resinas e traços de esteróides e triterpenóides. As CIM do extrato etanólico foram de 0,18 mg mL-1 para as bactérias Gram-positivas Rhodococcus equi ATCC 25923, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Micrococcus roseus IPTSP/UFG e para as bactérias Gram-negativas Serratia marcescens ATCC 14756 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027; de 0,37 mg mL-1 para a Enterobacter cloacae FT 505 LEMC/EPM/UFG e de 0,74 mg mL-1 para as demais bactérias testadas e para o fungo C. albicans. O presente estudo abre perspectivas para o uso da cascas da P. emarginatus como antimicrobiano.Pterodon emarginatus Vogel (Fabaceae is a Cerrado tree popularly known as "sucupira branca", "faveiro", "fava de sucupira" and "sucupira lisa" and has been used in folk medicine as antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-infective. The aim of this work was to perform the phytochemical screening of the powder and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of crude ethanol extract from P. emarginatus barks against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans. The crude ethanol extract was obtained from desiccated and pulverized barks. Its minimum inhibitory
Assessment of effect of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, activity on lithium-pilocarpine induced Status epilepticus and oxidative stress in Wistar rats Avaliação do efeito do extrato etanólico da Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, sobre o status epilepticus induzido por lítio-pilocarpina e estresse oxidativo, em ratos Wistar
Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, is claimed to be of use in the control and treatment of a variety of epileptic disorders in Indian system of medicine. The present study plans to systematically evaluate T. purpurea and to verify this claim. Status epilepticus was induced in male albino rats of Wistar strain by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p. 24 h after lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, i.p.. Different doses of the extract of T. purpurea were administered orally one hour before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of status epilepticus was observed and recorded every 15 min till 90 min and thereafter every 30 min till 180 min, using the scoring system. The in vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain tissue was measured. The in vitro NO free radical scavenging activity of plant extract was assessed. The interaction between plant extract and 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH was also observed for in vitro free radical scavenging activity. The severity of status epilepticus was reduced with the administration of ethanolic extract of T. purpurea. Ethanolic extract of the plant exhibited both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity. The ethanolic extract of T. purpurea was found to be useful to control lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in albino rats of Wistar strain.Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, é conhecida pelo seu uso no controle e tratamento de uma variedade de distúrbios epilépticos no sistema indiano de medicina. O presente estudo pretende avaliar de forma sistemática T. purpurea e verificar essa alegação. Status epilepticus foi induzido em ratos albinos machos da linhagem Wistar pela administração de pilocarpina (30 mg/kg, i.p. 24 h após o cloreto de lítio (3 mEq/kg, i.p.. Diferentes doses do extrato de T. purpurea foram administrados por via oral uma hora antes da injeção de pilocarpina. A gravidade do status epilepticus foi observada e registrada a cada 15 min até 90 min e
Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Caesalpinioideae-Fabaceae: espécie de uso medicinal em Caetité-BA Anatomy of vegetative organs of Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae: a species of medicinal use in Caetité-Bahia State, Brazil
Full Text Available Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae apresenta grande valor na medicina popular em Caetité. A casca, entrecasca do caule e a resina, são utilizadas no tratamento de diversos males. Neste estudo são apresentadas a caracterização anatômica e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos. Amostras foram coletadas e processadas segundo técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal e histoquímica. Todos os órgãos apresentam, em visão transversal, epiderme unisseriada e cavidades secretoras. Cutícula espessa ocorre em todos os órgãos aéreos. A raiz é tetrarca. Colênquima lacunar foi encontrado no caule. Bainha de fibras esclerenquimáticas envolve os feixes vasculares dos órgãos aéreos. Células pétreas ocorrem no pecíolo. Tricomas tectores ocorrem em ambas as faces da folha. A folha é hipoestomática com estômatos paracíticos e o mesofilo é dorsiventral. Cristais de oxalato de cálcio ocorrem no caule, pecíolo e lâmina foliar. Compostos fenólicos ocorrem na raiz, pecíolo e nervura central da folha. Grãos de amido ocorrem na raiz, caule e pecíolo. Lipídios ocorrem em todos os órgãos. Acredita-se que compostos fenólicos e cavidades secretoras de resina podem justificar a utilidade medicinal da espécie pela população de Caetité.Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae shows a great value in folk medicine in Caetité. Its bark, stem-bark and resin are used to treat various ailments. In this study, the anatomical and histochemical characterization of vegetative organs is reported. Samples were collected and processed according to usual techniques of plant anatomy and histochemistry. All organs have, by cross-sectional view, uniseriate epidermis and secretory cavities. Thick cuticle occurs in all aerial organs. The root is tetrarch. Lacunar collenchyma was found in the stem. Sclerenchymatic sheath of fibers surrounds the vascular bundles of the aerial organs. Stone cells occur in the petiole. Trichomes occur
Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E
The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans. PMID:11294169
In the discipline of American Studies in Turkey, the major contribution emanates, on the one hand, from the American Culture and Literature Departments instituted in various Universities in Turkey and, on the other, from the American Studies Association of Turkey. Up till now, unfortunately, no Research and Performance Institute or Center for the Study of America has yet been established to secure the necessary contacts with other similar institutions in Europe and in the United States, to fa...
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Bowman, Clair Michael; Pulliam, William E.
In honor of the Bicentennial, current instructional materials concerned with American lifestyles--past and present--American music, art, education, customs and traditions, and language are reviewed. The reviews are presented in a narrative format and value judgments are made where appropriate. Address and price information are found in a list at…
Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)
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Caracterização de solos de duas formações de restinga e sua influência na constituição química foliar de Passiflora mucronata Lam. (Passifloraceaee Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae Soil characterization of two restinga formations and its influence on leaf chemistry in Passiflora mucronata Lam. (Passifloraceae and Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae
Jehová Lourenço Junior
Full Text Available As hipóteses sobre o posicionamento das formações de restinga são diversas sendo o gradiente salino e a fertilidade do solo as mais difundidas. Buscando elucidar essas questões, foram analisadas as propriedades dos solos das formações psamófila-reptante (FPR e Palmae (FP bem como a constituição química foliar de C. rosea (Sw. DC. restrita à FPR e P. mucronata Lam., na FP. O solo da FP destacou-se pela maior fertilidade. Maiores teores dos metais Fe, Zn e ISNa foram encontrados em solos da FPR. Não foi detectada a presença de Al nas duas formações. O pH dos solos é alcalino sem diferenças entre as duas formações. Os elementos químicos P, S, Cu e Zn acumulam-se em maiores concentrações em folhas de P. mucronata. C. rosea destacou-se pelos maiores teores foliares de N, Fe e B. Essa Fabaceae mostrou valores superiores do fator de concentração para o Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu e B enquanto que P. mucronata, para o P e Zn. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que as características pedológicas têm papel chave no estabelecimento de C. rosea na FPRe de P. mucronata na FP.Hypotheses as to the position of restinga formations are many, the most widespread being the salinity gradient and soil fertility. In order to elucidate these questions, soil properties of the creeping psammophyte (CPF and Palmae formations (PF as well as leaf chemistry of C. rosea (Sw. DC. restricted to the former and P. mucronata Lam. in the latter were analyzed. The PF soil was more fertile. Higher content of Fe, Zn and ISNa was found in CPF soil. The presence of Al in these two formations was not detected. Soil pH is alkaline, with no difference found between the two formations. The chemical elements P, S, Cu and Zn accumulate in greater concentrations in P. mucronata leaves. C. rosea was distinguished by a higher leaf content of N, Fe and B. This legume showed greater factor of concentration values for Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and B whereas P. mucronata, for P and Zn. The results
Vogel, Virgil J.
The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…
Full Text Available In the early 1990s, introducing the Journal of American History’s internationalization project, Maurizio Vaudagna urged his Italian colleagues and all “non-English-speaking American historians in Europe […] to abandon the melancholic but somewhat comfortable situation of being marginal in both worlds.” More than a decade later, now that studying American history has been enormously complicated by the seismic changes connected with the end of the Cold War, the tragedy of 9/11, and the attendan...
The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.
GRISELDA (ABAZAJ) DANGLLI
This article deals with the analysis of Lolita seen through the lenses of the American society and norms of today. We will see that many observations of the American way of behaving and social norms still hold true even nowadays years after this novel was written. Nabokov, on the other hand, never accepted the fact that this novel probed into the very depths of American life and that his intentions were purely aesthetic. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of pedophilia, obvious in the book, is a po...
Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data system contains the logbook data of vessels unloading in American Samoa. In 1992, the logbooks of three longline trips conducting an experiment to test...
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Miller, Eric L.
Lists Web sites maintained by 38 different Native American nations that deal with topics ranging from tribal history, news, arts and crafts, tourism, entertainment, and commerce. Represented nations include Apache, Blackfeet, Creek, Iroquois, Mohegan, and Sioux. (CMK)
Full Text Available ... Her children's father is an African-American. This means her children have inherited genes from the three ... name and that's what makes me think a little bit more about people and their feet, especially ...
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Friedman, Alan J.
Discusses the works by six contemporary American novelists that illustrate the current state of "physics fiction." The discussed examples of physics fiction ranged from the fluent and frequent inclusion of the casual, to the elaborate systems of physics metaphors. (GA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1995 through 2010, the two canneries in American Samoa provided Cannery Offloading Reports to the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) office. In...
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Full Text Available The beginning of American Studies as an academic discipline at Hungarian colleges and universities is basically coterminous with the watershed years of 1989-1990 when the country made a radical shift from state socialism toward parliamentary democracy and a free economy. This political and economic about-face, which came hand in hand with the undermining of foundationalist certainties and the generation of new anxieties coincided, more or less, with the radical transformation that American St...
In America you can find dogs,cats, horses,monkeys, snakes and even pigs in almost every family.They are their pets.Americans love pets and look on them as a part of the family.Sometimes pet owners dress their pets in fashionable clothes.They even buy toys for their pets.Americans love their pets as their children, sometimes even better.
Since its establishment in 1996, the Finnish American Studies Association has sought to promote the field of American Studies in Finland by organizing conferences, events and by increasing networking amongst its scattered membership (ca. 35) working at various universities and other higher education institutions. The current President of the Association is Dr Jopi Nyman (University of Joensuu) and its Secretary is Dr Ari Helo (University of Helsinki). While currently only the University of He...
The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."
Impactos da invasão de Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. (Fabaceae sobre o estrato arbustivo-arbóreo em áreas de Caatinga no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535 Impact of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in areas of Caatinga in the state of Paraiba, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535
Juliano Ricardo Fabricante
Full Text Available Estima-se que as áreas invadidas por algaroba – Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae no semi-árido nordestino já ultrapassam um milhão de hectares. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os impactos da invasão de P. juliflora sobre a fitodiversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo, em remanescentes de caatinga no Estado da Paraíba. Usando-se o método de parcelas, foram amostrados quatro ambientes, nos quais os indivíduos de todas as espécies arbustivas e arbóreas foram inventariados e medidos, estimando-se os parâmetros estruturais das comunidades. Também foi calculada a diversidade, pelo índice de Shannon-Wiener (H’ e o índice de impacto ambiental de exóticas (IIAE. No total, foram amostradas 19 famílias, 35 gêneros e 39 espécies. A invasora foi responsável por mais de 70% de toda a estrutura dos ambientes inventariados. A baixa diversidade e o elevado valor de impacto ambiental obtidos para os ambientes invadidos revelaram, conjuntamente com os dados de estrutura das populações, os graves impactos que P. juliflora provoca nas comunidades invadidas. Evidencia-se com isso a formação de sistemas monodominados pela espécie invasora, o que revela a necessidade de controle efetivo de P. juliflora para se proteger o patrimônio genético autóctone.It is estimated that invader populations of algaroba Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in the northeastern semi-arid, Brazil, cover more than one million ha. This study aimed to study the impacts of P. juliflora invasion on phytodiversity and on the structure of the shrub-tree component in caatinga fragments in Paraiba state. Four environments were sampled by plots in which all shrub-tree individuals were surveyed and measured, estimating structural parameters of the communities. Diversity was estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the index of environmental impacts of exotic species (IIAE was also calculated. A total of 19 families, 35 genera and 39
Early in January, a unique meeting of Latin American physicists took place at Cocoyoc in Mexico. Apart from a strong summer school programme, the last time so many Latin American institutions got together was more than ten years ago. The meeting had about 50 attendees with strong representations from the US, Brazil and Mexico. The meeting was designed with two objectives — to review the substance, current status and future expectations of high energy particle physics, and to survey the state of physics research and education in Latin America and explore the possibilities of increased collaboration with the US, consistent with the idea of a host US Laboratory
Lokken, Jayne M.; Twohey, Denise
Thirteen American Indians participated in 17 counseling interviews with Euro-American counselors. The study analyzed interviews of American Indian participants using Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR). Counselor trustworthiness, which was increased by counselor empathy, genuineness, concern, self-disclosure, and slow pace of problem…
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Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.
This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…
Momaday, Natachee Scott
Twenty-six selections by 15 contemporary American Indian authors are given in this book. The selections--legends, ceremonial chants and prayers, poems, and stories--are accompanied by topics for discussion. Some of the selections deal with the supernatural, and some tell an actual story about the author. Pictures and short biographies of each…
Simpson, Robert J., Ed.; Duke, Charles R., Ed.
A compilation of articles examines the similarities and differences of educational administration in schools for American students overseas. The "Introductions and Orientations" section includes: "The Association for the Advancement of International Education" (Lewis A. Grell); "The Office of Overseas Schools of the United States Department of…
Organized labor in the United States has been divided in the types of economic solutions it has sought for the working class and in the type of support it has given education. In terms of education, rightwing unionism has tended to accept the basic structure of American education and the general ideology of equality of opportunity. Leftwing…
Kitano, Margie K.
Presents an analysis of personal, socialization, and structural factors affecting the lifespan achievement of 15 Asian American women identified as gifted. Their families' intense focus on educational achievement and hard work are described, and the need for better preparation to overcome obstacles in the workplace is discussed. (Author/CR)
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@@ Chinese automaker BYD Co.Ltd.repeated its goal of selling electric vehicles in the United States during its third appearance at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit this year.But unlike previous years,BYD gained ground in its efforts to promote electric cars.
This resource book features the cultural heritage of Hispanics living within the United States and includes ideas, materials, and activities to be used with students in the intermediate grades and middle school. This book explores the definition of the term "Hispanic Americans" and suggests a multilayered population with a variety of cultural…
One of the interesting things to learn about a country is to know different kinds of holidays and festivals its people celebrate(庆祝) and to tell why they celebrate them. Although there are some similarities(相似) between American and Chinese holidays and festivals, there are quite a few differences.
Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.
Although Asian Americans enjoy the image of a "successful minority," they also have endured hardships and prejudices. This report traces the history of the Japanese and Chinese experience in the United States. Some similarities are discernible in the immigration patterns of the two ethnic populations. The first wave of immigrants provided cheap…
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Foote, Theodore P.
The "Festival of American Folklife in 1976 was the largest cultural event of its kind ever held". Describes the Festival programs representing the diverse cultural groups who displayed their traditions and skills at the Mall between the Lincoln and Washington monuments during the summer of 1976. (Author/RK)
Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega
Martin Eden by Jack London and The Great Gatsby by F.Scott Fitzergald are both stories describing the delusion of American dream. They share much in common for they are discussing the same themes actually. By analyzing the two protagonists’life experience and deaths respectively,we try to explore the profound meaning hidden under the surface.
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Meyer, Mary Hockenberry
Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)
Yung, Judy, Comp.; And Others
Listed in this bibliography are materials available on Asian American women at the Asian Community Library (Oakland Public Library) and the Asian American Studies Library (University of California, Berkeley). (Author/EB)
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Aroian, Karen J.
Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…
Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic epistemologies…
Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard
This review presents recent studies on Mexican American fathers in the United Sates to provide researchers with an understanding of contemporary fatherhood of Mexican American individuals. It describes the myths that create methodological and conceptual problems in conducting research studies to characterize Mexican American fathers. It also…
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How Children's Books Distort the Asian American Image. Criteria for Analyzing Books on Asian Americans. Survey of Childrens' Books: Chinese American, Japanese American, Korean American, Vietnamese American, General
Eleven Asian American book reviewers were asked by the Council on Interracial Books for Children to find, read, and analyze all childrens books on Asian American themes currently in print or in use in schools and libraries. The major conclusion was that, with one or perhaps two exceptions, the 66 books reviewed are racist, sexist, and elitist.…
Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.
The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…
A quilt can warm a bed, decorate a wall, comfort a child in her crib or a soldier at war. A quilt also can tell a story, commemorate an event, honor the dead, unite a community, and reflect a culture. This article is an introduction to the American craft of quilting. The article describes what quilting is and the different types of quilts. It also…
Bloom, David E.; Neil G. Bennett
This paper investigates the application of the three-parameter, Coale-McNeil marriage model and some related hyper-parameterized specifications to data on the first marriage patterns of American women. Because the model is parametric, it can be used to estimate the parameters of the marriage process, free of censoring bias, for cohorts that have yet to complete their first marriage experience. Empirical evidence from three surveys is reported on the ability of the model to replicate and proje...
Ohm, Julie Juhye
The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and Ameri...
@@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.
Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...
Fritsch-El Alaoui, Lalla Khadija
Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations, explores the US mainstream discourse on the Arabs in the 1990s in different cultural texts: academic, popular and media, including Hollywood. The project investigates how these representational practices participate in the reconfiguration of American public opinion vis-à-vis the Arabs. It also focuses on the ways in which the various discourses that produce or even invent the "Other" are undeniably li...
Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø
This chapter will present the American University of Beirut as a central case for the study and discussion of the university as a transnational actor with possible transnational power in international politics. It will place the AUB among the cases of classical American missionary universities in...... the Middle East and China and the new cases of transnational, private higher education flourishing in the Middle East and the wider Global South. AUB and these universities are central cases in International Relations for studying transnational actors and their transnational power. Universities have...... with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university...
Remarks by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Energy Cooperation concerning North American energy policy were presented. Guiding principles behind the National Energy Policy report released in 2001 were presented, stressing energy and economic security for the United States as well as strengthening global energy security, particularly in the western hemisphere. The energy trade relationship between Canada and the United States was discussed along with economic integration, with particular reference to the northeastern provinces of Canada. An overview of growth in offshore oil production, crude oil and petroleum exports from Canada was examined. American gas consumption levels and a forecast for future economic developments between the two countries was outlined. Four major orders were presented to contextualize future trade relationships: the authorizing of Presidential permits for petroleum and liquids pipelines that cross international boundaries of the United States; the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Canadian National Energy Board (NEB) and the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) addressing the sharing of information between the two organizations; the signing of the Canada-United States Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Framework for Cooperation; and, the United States-Canada Power System Outage Task Force report. The goals, challenges and obstacles of the North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) were also outlined, with specific reference to their principal objective of promoting a more fully integrated energy market in North America. An outline of future initiatives planned by the Bush Administration was presented, including details of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy and the international Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum and outlines of the Western Hemisphere Energy Technology Cooperation Initiative. It was concluded that the partnership between Canada and the United States
Hayırlı, Onur; İşler, Dilek
This article historically will review some cases for lynch culture which is again blacks in America. And will examine the term ‘Afro-American’. Cases like ‘Michael Brown’, ‘Eric Garner’ and ‘Antonio Martin’ are proof of violence is still going on again black society.Lynching is a part of America’s dark sides. Behind lynching, it lays a brutal history of domestic violence. For years, maybe for centuries, American people have lynched Black people because of various accusations. These lynching w...
South America still has enormous potential for the further development of hydroelectric power. The reasons why much of the potential remains untapped are discussed and here environmental considerations are prominent: to a lesser extent, war, military coups, corruption, bad management and hyperinflation have all contributed. Some examples of disastrous South American hydro projects are given. Argentina sees a possible solution in using international contractors. However, privatisation has produced some success stories, notably the Canon del Plato hydro plant in Peru and the Duqueco project in Chile. (UK)
The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.
Jones, D H
American Home Products (AHP) is developing Tetracel as a vaccine for children (aged 12 to 18 months) against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) . The components are contained in AHP's two currently marketed vaccines. ACEL-Immune contains diphtheria and tetanus toxoids with acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed, and HibTITER contains the Haemophilus influenzae B conjugate vaccine (diphtheria CRM197 protein conjugate) . As of January 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted Tetracel to be approved in the US during 2000 . PMID:11527012
Helmut K. Anheier; Hammack, David
Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservat...
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Kurien, Prema A.
How non-Christian religious groups should be politically recognized within Western multicultural societies has proved to be a pressing contemporary issue. This article examines some ways in which American policies regarding religion and multiculturalism have shaped Hindu Indian American organizations, forms of public expression and activism.…
Joehl, Regan R.
Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this stereotype…
Ogletree, Earl J.; Fakhri, Muhammad A. W.
Asserts that historically, the American schools have been shaped by a myriad of social, political and economic forces. The transformation of the schools from the first, but sectarian schools of New England in 1635 to the secular alternative schools of today has reflected the desire of Americans to provide equal educational opportunities."…
Martin, Joyce, Comp.
This document is an eleven-page supplemental subject guide listing reference material that focuses on Native American languages that is not available in the Labriola National American Indian Data Center in the Arizona State University, Tempe (ASU) libraries. The guide is not comprehensive but offers a selective list of resources useful for…
Vogel, Virgil J.
The treatment of American Indians is discussed historically with reference to the 4 principal methods used to create or perpetuate false impressions: obliteration, defamation, disembodiment, and disparagement. Indian contributions to American civilization are cited in contrast with historical references to Indians in textbooks. The author suggests…
Mosholder, Richard; Goslin, Christopher
Native American students are the most likely racial/ethnic group tracked in post-secondary American education to be affected by poverty and limited access to educational opportunities. In addition, they are the most likely to be required to take remedial course work and are the least likely to graduate from college. A review of the literature was…
This article reviews the prevalence of suicide and suicidal ideation among American Indian adolescents. Unique risk and protective factors, and historical trauma and associated symptoms, are explored in the context of American Indian adolescent suicide. The need for culturally-sensitive interventions are necessary, and an example of a…
Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…
McCarthy, Margaret Cain
"History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…
American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.
American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.
Describes Latin American novelists as portraying the continent as torn by revolution and inflation, by anger and mounting expectations. Instead of denying the fictional qualities of this vision, the novelists transform this linguistic reality into the narrative itself. Only through fiction can the hidden realities of Latin American emerge. (DS)
Gibson, Rose C.
Examined subsample of nonworking older Black Americans (N=295) from the National Survey of Black Americans sample. Found four factors contributed significantly to respondents' unretired-retired status: indistinct line between lifetime and old age work patterns, view that occasional work is necessary, income from other than private pensions, and…
Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...
Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.
Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…
... D ISORDERS A MONG N ATIVE A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and ... share is alcohol problems and other health disparities. Native American populations experience significant health issues compared with the ...
... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...
... Newsletter Certification/Training Donate Featured Members Home Care Medicine in America The American Academy of Home Care ... Resources with the American Academy of Home Care Medicine. The American Academy of Home Care Medicine understands ...
Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.
Stewart, M.B. [National Economic Research Associates, White Plains, NY (United States)
An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC`s pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)
An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)
North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Yeomans, Donald K.
While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.
The article discusses present and future demand for petroleum in Canada, Mexico and the United States. Tables and figures give data for each country on (a) population, GDP, oil consumption and life expectancy; (b) oil demand 1979-1999; (c) projected growth in oil demand 1980-2020; (d) oil demand by main product 1990-2020; (e) crude refining capacity 1980-2000; (f) oil production 1980-1990; (g) Mexican crude output by type 1988-1999; (h) Mexico's proven and probable reserves by region; (eye) W. Canada's production outlook; (j) Canada's reserves of bitumen vs. conventional crudes; (k) US crude imports from Canada and Mexico 1981-1999 and (l) how Mexico's crude exports tend to stay in the Americas. It was concluded that the Americas represent an enormous market confronted with stagnation in oil production, increasing demand and increasingly stringent environmental requirements. The US is already a major net importer, further increases in imports are predicted. The three N. American economies are becoming increasingly interdependent. It is likely that the US will need to take increasing amounts of heavy, sour crudes and synthetic crudes from its neighbours
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...
Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber
... Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. According to the ... are: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV/AIDS, obesity, suicide, and liver disease. Other Health Concerns: Hispanics ...
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The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.
An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.
The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)
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