El-Sayed Najib M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, has devastated natural and farmed oyster populations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. It is classified as a member of the Perkinsozoa, a recently established phylum considered close to the ancestor of ciliates, dinoflagellates, and apicomplexans, and a key taxon for understanding unique adaptations (e.g. parasitism within the Alveolata. Despite intense parasite pressure, no disease-resistant oysters have been identified and no effective therapies have been developed to date. Results To gain insight into the biological basis of the parasite's virulence and pathogenesis mechanisms, and to identify genes encoding potential targets for intervention, we generated >31,000 5' expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived from four trophozoite libraries generated from two P. marinus strains. Trimming and clustering of the sequence tags yielded 7,863 unique sequences, some of which carry a spliced leader. Similarity searches revealed that 55% of these had hits in protein sequence databases, of which 1,729 had their best hit with proteins from the chromalveolates (E-value ≤ 1e-5. Some sequences are similar to those proven to be targets for effective intervention in other protozoan parasites, and include not only proteases, antioxidant enzymes, and heat shock proteins, but also those associated with relict plastids, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase and methyl erythrithol phosphate pathway components, and those involved in glycan assembly, protein folding/secretion, and parasite-host interactions. Conclusions Our transcriptome analysis of P. marinus, the first for any member of the Perkinsozoa, contributes new insight into its biology and taxonomic position. It provides a very informative, albeit preliminary, glimpse into the expression of genes encoding functionally relevant proteins as potential targets for chemotherapy, and evidence
Species of Perkinsus are responsible for high mortalities of bivalve molluscs world-wide. Techniques to accurately estimate parasites in tissues are required to improve understanding of perkinsosis. This study quantifies the number and tissue distribution of Perkinsus marinus in ...
The oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, is one of the two important parasites causing severe mortality in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on the US east coast. Our recent study suggests that P. marinus cells and its extracellular products (ECP) could scaveng...
Population genetic analysis of genotypes comprised of seven microsatellite loci revealed clonal genetic patterns in each of four populations of the protistan estuarine parasite Perkinsus marinus. Each locus was amplified directly from DNA extracted from infected oysters collected from four geographi...
Thomas C. Cheng
Full Text Available Quantitative determinations of agglutination of hemocytes from oysters, Crassostrea virginica, by the Lathyrus odoratus lectin at five concentrations revealed that clumping of hemocytes from oysters infected with Perkinsus marinus is partially inhibited. Although the nature of the hemocyte surface saccharide, which is not D(+-glucose, D(+mannose, or alpha-methyl-D-mannoside, remains to be determined, it may be concluded that this molecule also occurs on the surface of P. marinus. It has been demonstrated that the panning technique (Ford et al. 1990 is qualitatively as effective for determining the presence of P. marinus in C. virginica as the hemolymph assay method (Gauthier & Fisher 1990.
Volety, A K; Chu, F L
Experiments were conducted to determine the ability of the protistan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, to inhibit chemiluminescence of hemocytes from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) was used to measure the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) generated by oyster hemocytes using zymosan as a stimulant. To determine whether P. marinus suppresses ROI evoked from zymosan-stimulated hemocytes, live or heat killed P. marinus in filtered estuarine water (YRW) (salinity = 20 ppt) were added to (1) zymosan-stimulated hemocytes after CL reached its peak, or (2) hemocytes at the same time as zymosan, and reduction of CL responses were recorded. In both tests, controls received only estuarine water. Live P. marinus meronts significantly suppressed ROI production by zymosan-stimulated hemocytes. The suppression of ROI production was dose dependent. Suppression of ROI production from zymosan-stimulated hemocytes by heat killed P. marinus was significantly less than by live P. marinus. Similarly, CL of hemocytes was reduced, though not significantly when hemocytes were exposed to YRW preincubated with P. marinus. When P. marinus meronts were used as a stimulant, no CL response was elicited. Results of this study suggest that P. marinus cells are able to suppress ROI release from oyster hemocytes, thus evading this component of the host's defense. PMID:7556800
Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa), a protozoan parasite of oysters, is considered one of the earliest diverging groups of the lineage leading to dinoflagellates. Perkinsus trophozoites are phagocytosed by oyster hemocytes, where they are likely exposed to reactive oxygen species. As part of its reactive oxygen detoxifying pathway, P. marinus possesses two iron-cofactored SOD (PmSOD1 and PmSOD2). Immunoflourescence analysis of P. marinus trophozoites and gene complementation in yeast revealed that PmSOD1 is targeted to the mitochondria. Surprisingly, although PmSOD2 is characterized by a bipartite N-terminus extension typical of plastid targeting, in preliminary immunofluorescence studies it was visualized as punctuate regions in the cytoplasm that could not be assigned to any organelle. Here, we used immunogold electron microscopy to examine the subcellular localization PmSOD2 in P. marinus trophozoites. Gold grains were mostly associated with single-membrane vesicle-like structures, and eventually, localized to electron-dense, apparently amorphous material present in the lumen of a larger, unique compartment. The images suggested that PmSOD2 is targeted to small vesicles that fuse and/or discharge their content into a larger compartment, possibly the large vacuole typical of the mature trophozoites. In light of the in silico targeting prediction, the association of PmSOD2 with single-membrane compartments raises interesting questions regarding its organellar targeting, and the nature of a putative relic plastid in Perkinsus species
Gauthier, J.D.; Jenkins, J.A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.
Parasite surface glycoconjugates are frequently involved in cellular recognition and colonization of the host. This study reports on the identification of Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates by flow cytometric analyses of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated lectin binding. Lectin-binding specificity was confirmed by sugar inhibition and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. Clear, measurable fluorescence peaks were discriminated, and no parasite autofluorescence was observed. Parasites (GTLA-5 and Perkinsus-1 strains) harvested during log and stationary phases of growth in a protein-free medium reacted strongly with concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin, which bind to glucose-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, respectively. Both P. marinus strains bound with lower intensity to Maclura pomifera agglutinin, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin, soybean agglutinin (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectins), peanut agglutinin (PNA) (terminal galactose specific), and Griffonia simplicifolia II (GlcNAc specific). Only background fluorescence levels were detected with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (L-fucose specific) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (sialic acid specific). The lectin-binding profiles were similar for the 2 strains except for a greater relative binding intensity of PNA for Perkinsus-1 and an overall greater lectin-binding capacity of Perkinsus-1 compared with GTLA-5. Growth stage comparisons revealed increased lectin-binding intensities during stationary phase compared with log phase of growth. This is the first report of the identification of surface glycoconjugates on a Perkinsus spp. by flow cytometry and the first to demonstrate that differential surface sugar expression is growth phase and strain dependent. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2004.
Wang, Yu-Lin; Chu, B. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Lele, T. P.; Papadi, G.; Coleman, J. K.; Sheppard, B. J.; Dungen, C. F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.; Ren, F.
Antibody-functionalized, Au-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect Perkinsus marinus. The antibody was anchored to the gate area through immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5 s when the infected solution was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. The sensor can be recycled with a phosphate buffered saline wash. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of field-deployable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for Perkinsus marinus detection.
Thompson, Peter C; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Hare, Matthew P
Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, causes Dermo disease which limits fecundity and causes high mortality in host populations. The long-term efficacy of management strategies for suppressing this disease in both aquaculture and restoration settings depends on the potential rate of evolutionary response by P. marinus. Sexual reproduction has never been demonstrated in vitro or in previous population genetic studies. We developed high resolution microsatellite markers and amplified alleles directly from infected oyster genomic DNA. Of 336 infected oysters from four populations between Massachusetts and Florida, 129 (48%) appeared to be infected with a single parasite genotype and were subjected to population genetic analyses assuming diploidy. The great diversity of multilocus genotypes observed is incompatible with strictly clonal reproduction. Substantial heterozygote deficits in three populations suggest that sexual reproduction often involves inbreeding. At the same time, significant multilocus linkage disequilibrium occurred in most sampled populations, and several genotypes were sampled repeatedly in each of two populations, indicating that asexual reproduction also occurs in P. marinus populations. Interestingly, where this parasite has recently expanded its range, lower strain diversity, significant heterozygote excess, and highly heterozygous multilocus genotypes suggests clonal propagation of recent recombinants. Taken together, these data suggest that P. marinus employs multiple reproductive modes, and that over the short term, selection acts upon independent parasite lineages rather than upon individual loci in a cohesive, interbreeding population. Nevertheless, high genotypic diversity is the evolutionary legacy of sex in P. marinus. Anthropogenic movement of infected oysters may increase outcrossing opportunities, potentially facilitating rapid evolution of this parasite. PMID:21256249
Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando; DE Medeiros, Isac Almeida; DA Silva, Patrícia Mirella
Field and in vitro studies have shown that high salinities and temperatures promote the proliferation and dissemination of Perkinsus marinus in several environments. In Brazil, the parasite infects native oysters Crassostrea gasar and Crassostrea rhizophorae in the Northeast (NE), where the temperature is high throughout the year. Despite the high prevalence of Perkinsus spp. infection in oysters from the NE of Brazil, no mortality events were reported by oyster farmers to date. The present study evaluated the effects of salinity (5, 20 and 35 psu) and temperature (15, 25 and 35 °C) on in vitro proliferation of P. marinus isolated from a host (C. rhizophorae) in Brazil, for a period of up to 15 days and after the return to the control conditions (22 days; recovery). Different cellular parameters (changes of cell phase's composition, cell density, viability and production of reactive oxygen species) were analysed using flow cytometry. The results indicate that the P. marinus isolate was sensitive to the extreme salinities and temperatures analysed. Only the highest temperature caused lasting cell damage under prolonged exposure, impairing P. marinus recovery, which is likely to be associated with oxidative stress. These findings will contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of perkinsiosis in tropical regions. PMID:26888407
Gray, Brian R.; Bushek, David; Drane, J. Wanzer; Porter, Dwayne
Infection levels of eastern oysters by the unicellular pathogen Perkinsus marinus have been associated with anthropogenic influences in laboratory studies. However, these relationships have been difficult to investigate in the field because anthropogenic inputs are often associated with natural influences such as freshwater inflow, which can also affect infection levels. We addressed P. marinus-land use associations using field-collected data from Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, USA, a developed, coastal estuary with relatively minor freshwater inputs. Ten oysters from each of 30 reefs were sampled quarterly in each of 2 years. Distances to nearest urbanized land class and to nearest stormwater outfall were measured via both tidal creeks and an elaboration of Euclidean distance. As the forms of any associations between oyster infection and distance to urbanization were unknown a priori, we used data from the first and second years of the study as exploratory and confirmatory datasets, respectively. With one exception, quarterly land use associations identified using the exploratory dataset were not confirmed using the confirmatory dataset. The exception was an association between the prevalence of moderate to high infection levels in winter and decreasing distance to nearest urban land use. Given that the study design appeared adequate to detect effects inferred from the exploratory dataset, these results suggest that effects of land use gradients were largely insubstantial or were ephemeral with duration less than 3 months.
The oyster pathogen Perkinsus marinusproduces many extracellular proteins (ECP) in vitro. Analysis of this ECP revealed a battery of hydrolytic enzymes. Some of these enzymes are known to modulate the activity of host defense cells. Although information on the effects of P. marin...
Malek, Jennafer C; Breitburg, Denise L
Spatial distributions of species can be shaped by factors such as parasites, mortality, and reproduction, all of which may be influenced by differences in physical factors along environmental gradients. In nearshore tidal waters, an elevational gradient in aerial exposure during low tide can shape the spatial distributions of benthic marine organisms. The eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica is an ecologically and economically important species that can dominate both subtidal and intertidal habitats along the east coast of the USA. Our goal was to determine whether prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus (the causative agent of Dermo disease) infections vary along intertidal to subtidal gradients during summer. We used (1) field experiments conducted at 4 sites in the Chesapeake Bay and a Virginia coastal bay, (2) a controlled air-exposure experiment, and (3) field surveys from 7 sites ranging from Maine to North Carolina to test for effects of tidal exposure on infection. Results from our field surveys suggested that high intertidal oysters tend to have higher infection prevalence than subtidal oysters, but there was no effect on infection intensity. Field experiments rarely yielded significant effects of tidal exposure on infection prevalence and intensity. Overall, our study shows that exposure to air may not be a strong driver of infection patterns in this host-parasite system. PMID:26912044
Full Text Available Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa is a marine protozoan parasite responsible for "Dermo" disease in oysters, which has caused extensive damage to the shellfish industry and estuarine environment. The infection prevalence has been estimated in some areas to be as high as 100%, often causing death of infected oysters within 1-2 years post-infection. Human consumption of the parasites via infected oysters is thus likely to occur, but to our knowledge the effect of oral consumption of P. marinus has not been investigated in humans or other mammals. To address the question we used humanized mice expressing HLA-DR4 molecules and lacking expression of mouse MHC-class II molecules (DR4.EA(0 in such a way that CD4 T cell responses are solely restricted by the human HLA-DR4 molecule. The DR4.EA(0 mice did not develop diarrhea or any detectable pathology in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs following single or repeated feedings with live P. marinus parasites. Furthermore, lymphocyte populations in the gut associated lymphoid tissue and spleen were unaltered in the parasite-fed mice ruling out local or systemic inflammation. Notably, naïve DR4.EA(0 mice had antibodies (IgM and IgG reacting against P. marinus parasites whereas parasite specific T cell responses were undetectable. Feeding with P. marinus boosted the antibody responses and stimulated specific cellular (IFNγ immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA(0 mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents.
Templeton, Thomas J.
The recent completion of high-coverage draft genome sequences for several alveolate protozoans – namely, the chromerids, Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis ; the perkinsid Perkinsus marinus ; the apicomplexan, Gregarina niphandrodes , as well as high coverage transcriptome sequence information for several colpodellids, allows for new genome-scale comparisons across a rich landscape of apicomplexans and other alveolates. Genome annotations can now be used to help interpret fine ultrastructure and cell biology, and guide new studies to describe a variety of alveolate life strategies, such as symbiosis or free living, predation, and obligate intracellular parasitism, as well to provide foundations to dissect the evolutionary transitions between these niches. This review focuses on the attempt to identify extracellular proteins which might mediate the physical interface of cell–cell interactions within the above life strategies, aided by annotation of the repertoires of predicted surface and secreted proteins encoded within alveolate genomes. In particular, we discuss what descriptions of the predicted extracellular proteomes reveal regarding a hypothetical last common ancestor of a pre-apicomplexan alveolate – guided by ultrastructure, life strategies and phylogenetic relationships – in an attempt to understand the evolution of obligate parasitism in apicomplexans.
Emma R Cold
Full Text Available The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1 Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2 Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3 Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications.
Cold, Emma R; Freyria, Nastasia J; Martínez Martínez, Joaquín; Fernández Robledo, José A
The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1) Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2) Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3) Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications. PMID:27149378
Bourke, S J; Quinn, A. G.; Farr, P M; Ashcroft, T.; Gibson, G. J.
In a case of Sweet's syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) neutrophilic alveolitis was found by lung biopsy. Pulmonary disease in this condition may be underrecognised yet, like the dermatological features, it responds rapidly to corticosteroids.
du Bois Ron
Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA involves injury, an immune/inflammatory response and fibrosis. The cause of the injury is unknown, but the identification of serum autoantibodies makes an autoimmune aetiology attractive. The core study on which this commentary is based used novel cloning and serum screening technologies in order to identify new public and private autoantibodies in sera from 12 patients with CFA. Largely negative conclusions were drawn from that study. However, we suggest that the prevalence of autoantibodies may have been underestimated, that the study was timely and that this approach is worth pursuing further.
Doherty, M.; Mister, R; Pearson, M.; Calverley, P.
BACKGROUND—Cough is a common and troublesome symptom in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) but the mechanisms responsible are not known. The cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin is increased in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) where lung volumes are increased, but the relationship between cough response and symptom intensity has not been studied in CFA where lung volumes are reduced. METHODS—Capsaicin challenge tests were performed on 15 subject...
Full Text Available Objective : To study the benefits of steroid therapy in interstitial alveolitis. Method and Materials : One hundred five adult clinic patients were studied with clinical evaluation, chest radiography, CT scan, bronchoscopic lavage, pulmonary function studies and a regular follow up. They were put on daily prednisolone (in 19 on intravenous methyl prednisolone, for several months. Results: Only a few had no cough or dypnoea; 91 cases had atleast gr. III exertional breathlessness; 61(58% had been given steroids earlier and 32(31% were on a prior antitubercular treatment. Only 16% had GERD symptoms. On radiography, interstitial deposits were seen in 102 cases. While 53 cases belonged to idiopathic variety, 41 were sarcoidosis. A majority had poor lung function with a restrictive disability; but 50% showed a significant response (10%+ to bronchodilators. On follow up in 92 cases, 14 died, 8 went in remission; 32 had a fluctuating course. At some stage 66 had showed improvement. Conclusion : A large majority of our interstitial alveolitis cases are very disabled. They show clinical, functional, and radiographic improvement to long term oral prednisolone. In nonresponsive cases, intravenous steroids show an objective response.
Current concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis suggest that a mononuclear cell alveolitis, comprised of activated T-lymphocytes and activated alveolar macrophages, precedes and modulates the formation of granuloma and fibrosis. To evaluate the natural history of this alveolitis and determine the relationship it has to subsequent changes in lung function, 19 untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary manifestations were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, 67Ga scanning, and pulmonary function tests to evaluate lung T-cells, lung alveolar macrophages, and lung function, respectively. In patients with sarcoidosis, low intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells less than or equal to 28% of all lung effector cells and/or 67Ga scan negative) was much more common (80% of all observations) than high intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells greater than 28% and 67Ga scan positive, 20% of all observations). Conventional clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic studies could not predict the alveolitis status. Interestingly, of the 51 alveolitis evaluations in the 19 patients, there were 24 occurrences (47%) where the alveolitis was ''split,'' i.e., 67Ga scans positive and T-cells low (39%) or 67Ga negative and T-cells high (8%). Most untreated patients with sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary symptoms may have some inflammatory processes ongoing in their alveolar structures. Overall, whenever a high intensity alveolitis episode occurred, it was followed by deterioration over the next 6 months in at least one lung function parameter. A low intensity alveolitis episode was followed by functional deterioration only 8% of the time. The alveolitis parameters (lavage and 67Ga scanning) clearly predicted prognosis. These observations should prove useful in understanding the natural history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in staging patients with this disease, and in making rational therapy decisions
Tung, K. T.; Wells, A. U.; Rubens, M B; Kirk, J M; du Bois, R M; Hansell, D. M.
BACKGROUND--Open lung biopsy is often performed to confirm the diagnosis in patients with suspected fibrosing alveolitis. The superior sensitivity and specificity of high resolution computed tomography (CT) over chest radiography in various diffuse lung diseases suggest that the characteristic appearance of fibrosing alveolitis on high resolution CT might render biopsy confirmation unnecessary. METHODS--The chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans of 86 patients (41 with fibrosing alveo...
Moore, R. B.; Oborník, Miroslav; Janouškovec, Jan; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Vancová, Marie; Green, D. H.; Wright, S. W.; Davies, N. W.; Bolch, Ch. J. S.; Heimann, K.; Šlapeta, J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Logsdon, J. M.; Carter, D. A.
Roč. 451, 21-02-2008 (2008), s. 959-963. ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1439 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : alveolate * photosynthesis * Chromera velia * evolution * Apicomplexa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 31.434, year: 2008
Turner-Warwick, M.; Burrows, B; Johnson, A
A retrospective analysis of 220 cases fulfilling criteria for cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) attending the Brompton Hospital between 1955 and 1973 has been carried out and patients have been followed for between four and 21 years. The frequency of various clinical features confirms previous reports. The 2: 1 male preponderance was similar in all age groups. The mean age at presentation was 54 years ± 12 SD; 202 (92%) of the patients presented with dyspnoea, the severity of which was r...
Agustí, C.; Xaubet, A; Ballester, E.; Alarcón, A.; Picado, C
BACKGROUND: A report has recently been published concerning a patient with a cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis who showed a striking improvement after being treated with the antiviral drug ribavirin (tribavirin, Virazid). The objective of this study was to further evaluate, in an open trial, the efficacy of rivabirin in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. METHODS: Ten patients (eight women) with advanced cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis received aerosolised ribavirin (6 g/day for 15 days). Chest...
Veerappan, Sundaram G
Here we describe a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed alveolitis after infliximab therapy. With earlier case reports of development of alveolitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients after infliximab infusion, the temporal relationship between the infliximab therapy and the development of alveolitis in this case, raises the possibility that the two might be causally related. With an increasing trend towards treating moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis patients with infliximab as a rescue therapy, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious complication.
ARZUL, Isabelle; Chollet, Bruno; Michel, J.; Robert Mill, Hugh; Garcia, Celine; Joly, Jean-pierre; Francois, Cyrille; Miossec, Laurence
Although clam populations in France are known to be infected with protozoans of the genus Perkinsus, no molecular characterization was previously performed on these parasites. Considering that several members of this genus have been associated with mortalities of molluscs worldwide, a study was undertaken in order to characterize these parasites in France. For that purpose, clams, Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus, collected from different production areas and found to be infected wit...
Bourke, S J; Hawkins, T; Keavey, P M; Gascoigne, A D; Corris, P A
There is increasing interest in ventilation perfusion (V/Q) imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis because of the data these scans provide on the dynamic V/Q relationships in such patients undergoing single lung transplantation. However, the full spectrum of V/Q abnormalities in this disease is poorly defined. We therefore analysed the V/Q scans of 45 consecutive patients with advanced cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis being considered for single lung transplantation. Scans were classified according to the presence, severity and degree of matching of defects in ventilation and perfusion images and the results were compared with the data obtained from lung function tests. Ventilation images showed defects in 13 (29%) and 'washout delay' in 15 (33%) patients; 10 (22%) patients had asymmetric distribution of ventilation with one lung receiving > 60% of total ventilation. Perfusion images showed normal perfusion in 8 (18%), mild defects in 18 (40%) and major defects in 19 (42%) patients. The distribution of perfusion between lungs was significantly asymmetric in 20 (45%) patients. V/Q images were matched in 15 (33%), mildly mismatched in 15 (33%) and severely mismatched in 15 (33%) patients, but the degree of V/Q mismatch did not show a relationship to KCO, PaO2 or A-aO2 gradient. The appearances were atypical of pulmonary embolism in eight patients. V/Q images in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis show a diverse range of appearances and may mimic pulmonary embolism. V/Q imaging complements the data obtained from lung function tests and is particularly useful in defining the differential function of each lung which is particularly important in the assessment of patients for single lung transplantation. PMID:8321484
There is increasing interest in ventilation perfusion (V/Q) imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis because of the data these scans provide on the dynamic V/Q relationships in such patients undergoing single lung transplantation. We analysed the V/Q scans of 45 consecutive patients with advanced cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis being considered for single lung transplantation. Scans were classified according to the presence, severity and degree of matching of defects in ventilation and perfusion images and the results were compared with the data obtained from lung function tests. Ventilation images showed defects in 13 (29%) and ''washout delay'' in 15 (33%) patients; 10 (22%) patients had asymmetric distribution of ventilation with one lung receiving >60% of total ventilation. Perfusion images showed normal perfusion in 8 (18%), mild defects in 18 (40%) and major defects in 19 (42%) patients. The distribution of perfusion between lungs was significantly asymmetric in 20 (45%) patients. V/Q images were matched in 15 (33%), mildly mismatched in 15 (33%) and severely mismatched in 15 (33%) patients, but the degree of V/Q mismatch did not show a relationship to KCO, PaO2 or A-aO2 gradient. The appearances were atypical of pulmonary embolism in eight patients. (Author)
Goggin, C L; Barker, S C
Parasites of the genus Perkinsus destroy marine molluscs worldwide. Their phylogenetic position within the kingdom Protista is controversial. Nucleotide sequence data (1792 bp) from the small subunit rRNA gene of Perkinsus sp. from Anadara trapezia (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Moreton Bay, Queensland, was used to examine the phylogenetic affinities of this enigmatic genus. These data were aligned with nucleotide sequences from 6 apicomplexans, 3 ciliates, 3 flagellates, a dinoflagellate, 3 fungi, maize and human. Phylogenetic trees were constructed after analysis with maximum parsimony and distance matrix methods. Our analyses indicate that Perkinsus is phylogenetically closer to dinoflagellates and to coccidean and piroplasm apicomplexans than to fungi or flagellates. PMID:8366895
The autoradiographic method is used for the study of the toad's thyroid of Bufo marinus ictericus by 131I. Histolological proceedings are done. Comparative evaluations with bibliographic informations are presented. (M.A.C.)
Deurs, Mikael van; Hartvig, Martin; Steffensen, John Fleng
independent long-term overwintering experiments. Maximum attainable energy reserves were estimated from published data on A. marinus in the North Sea. The critical threshold size in terms of length (Lth) for A. marinus in the North Sea was estimated to be 9.5 cm. We then investigated two general predictions......: (1) Fish smaller than Lth display winter feeding activity, and (2) size at maturation of iteroparous species is larger than Lth to ensure sufficient energy reserves to accommodate both the metabolic cost of passive overwintering and reproductive investments. Both predictions were found to be...
The Philippine giant toad (Bufu marinus L.) were studied to establish their radiosensitivities and their possible use as a good biological indicator organism of radiation effects. Live male and female toads were exposed to ionizing doses of gamma irradiation. Chromosome analysis was done under the Carl Zeiss III photo microscope. Somatic and meiotic chromosome aberrations were induced in giant toad upon in vivo whole gamma irradiations. By cytogenetic analysis the aberrant chromosomes were observed and evaluated. In these studies, it was concluded that Bufo marinus L. is significantly radiosensitive and a good biological indicator organisms of radiation effects. (ISD). 2 figs.; 8 tabs
Isidro de Jesús Nápoles González
Full Text Available Background: alveolitis is a complication that may appear after the extraction of a tooth. It is considered a dental emergency due to the intense pain. Its prevalence is worrisome for the dental services for the complications and disability that it can provoke in patients.Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of the aqueous extract of aloe with pharmaceutical use in the treatment of alveolitis.Method: an experimental study was carried out with 100 patients that visited the Provincial Teaching Dental Clinic, “La Vigía” Clinic, and “Julio Antonio Mella” Polycilinic of Camaguey in 2014, and that were diagnosed with alveolitis. The sample was made up of 50 patients in the control group treated with Alvogyl and 50 patients in the study group treated with aloe.Results: most of the patients belonged to the 26 to 45 age group. At 24 hours of treatment the results on pain relief were similar for both groups, with an 18 % for the study group and a 16 % for the control group. At 48 hours the best results were found in the control group, with 62 % of patients with no pain, and only a 30 % in the study group. At 72 hours this tendency was kept with 90 % in the control group and 72 % in the study group. In the study group an 84 % of the patients with wet alveolitis felt pain relief.Conclusions: the aqueous extract of aloe is a natural drug which is effective in the treatment of alveolitis, mainly in wet alveolitis and those affecting the maxillary bones. There were no adverse reactions with none of the used medications.
Seventeen patients with extrinsic allergic alveolitis or bird-fancier's lung were examined by standard radiological techniques and classified after Hapke's classification. In addition, the patients were examined by CT. The CT patterns have been analysed and compared with standard radiological findings. The methodological advantages of CT are discussed. Radiological investigation is of limited value in the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Conventional radiography remains the standard of initial X-ray examination. In early cases, however, CT may be a valuable addition within the diagnostic strategy of a diagnostic imaging department. (orig.)
Grønbæk, Anni Birgitte; Pedersen, Flemming; Haubek, Dorte; Poulsen, Sven
Erfaringer med dento-alveolær kirurgi på børn og unge Dento-alveolær kirurgi på børn og unge forudsætter, at det samlede team besidder børnekompetence, dvs. den nødvendige odontologiske indsigt, høj kompetence indenfor kommunikation med børn og forældre samt en positiv holdning til børn og foræld...
Lipton, J. R.; Carroll, K; Mould, J. J.; Winstanley, J.; Thatcher, N
Two patients with small cell bronchogenic carcinoma associated with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis are described. Both patients received radiotherapy and i.v. chemotherapy with moderate dose methotrexate (100 mg/m2) and escalating high dose cyclophosphamide (1·5 g, 2·5 g, 3·5 g/m2).
G.J. du Marchie Sarvaas; P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)
textabstractWe describe a family in which the mother died of unresolved lung disease and whose 5 children, some of whom had previous signs of asthma, were subsequently affected by extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by contact with wild city pigeon antigens. The children received
Gallium-67 citrate is known to localize within inflammatory sites. Gallium-67 scanning is used for the evaluation of lung inflammation (i.e. alveolitis) during interstitial lung diseases. We investigated 27 patients with cryptogenetic fibrosing alveolitis (n=17) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n=10) using gallium-67 lung scanning and lung function tests (forced vital capacity, diffusing capacity, resting and exercise blood gases). Investigations were performed before and after one year of methylprednisolone treatment. None of eight healthy volunteers had any abnormal gallium-67 uptake. In all patients with cryptogenetic fibrosing alveolitis and initial abnormal gallium-67 uptake was observed (mean fixation index: 163±18). In addition, analysis of lung function tests a year after initial evaluation showed that unchanged or improving patients presented initially with a lower gallium-67 index than patients with evidence of deterioration (163.9±23.7 vs 251.0±23.3.; p<0.01). Similarly, among patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis the index was lower in unchanged or improving patients than in those with deterioration (74.0±22 vs 226.7±4.9; p<0.05). Thus gallium-67 scanning is useful in the management of cryptogenetic fibrosing alveolitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. (author)
Nævdal, Gunnar; Lahn-Johannessen, John; Reinert, Jákup; Thorkildsen, Solveig
Samples of the lesser sandeel species Ammodytes marinus Raitt were collected from Iceland, Denmark, Scotland, the Faeroe Islands and central and northern North Sea, and analysed for frequency distributions of genotypes of polymorphic enzymes. Main emphasize was laid on the enzymes IDHP, PGI and PGM, which were analysed by standard starch gel electrophoresis with two buffer systems. The chose of enzymes is based upon earlier studies in Scotland, Denmark as well as preliminar ana...
Pande, J. N.
Fifty patients with fibrosing alveolitis studied on 104 occasions exhibited significant direct correlations between vital capacity (VC), maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMFR), and transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO). Forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1)/VC ratio bore a weak negative correlation with VC. Peak expiratory flow, MMFR, and maximum flow rates at 50% and 25% of VC were often reduced in patients with severe grades of pulmonary dysfunction. It appears that as the ...
Thompson, M. J.; Colebatch, H J
The relation between pulmonary distensibility, lung volume, and elastic recoil pressure was examined in 45 patients (38 men) with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (mean age 61 (SD 14) years). Exponential analysis of static pressure-volume data obtained during deflation of the lungs gave the exponent K, an index of the distensibility of the remaining inflatable lung tissue. Total lung capacity (TLC) was measured in a body plethysmograph or by nitrogen washout. The results were compared with va...
Turner-Warwick, M.; Burrows, B; Johnson, A
We have studied retrospectively 220 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) who were first seen between 1955-73 and had been followed up for at least four years until 1977. Seventy-seven patients had received no treatment and 143 had received corticosteroids. The only clinical difference between the groups was the age at presentation (untreated mean age 61 years±11 SD; treated mean age 56 years±11 SD p
Millar, A B; Denison, D M
Computed tomography was used to determine the vertical gradient of density in the peripheral lung tissue of 12 patients with histologically proved fibrosing alveolitis and 12 patients with chronic bronchitis and evidence of pulmonary emphysema on the computed tomograms. Measurements were made at total lung capacity and at residual volume and compared with similar measurements from 12 normal subjects reported in a previous study. At residual volume the mean peripheral tissue density in the emp...
HIV-related lymphocytic alveolitis is common in HIV-seropositive patients without lung infection or tumor. In some of them a fraction of alveolar lymphocytes are HIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) bearing the CD8 and D44 cell surface markers and capable of killing HIV-infected alveolar macrophages. In order to evaluate the in vivo effect of these CTL on lung function, we measured the pulmonary clearance of aerosolized 99mTc-diethylene triamine penta-acetate (DTPA-CI) on 24 occasions in 22 patients with lymphocytic alveolitis. DTPA-CI has been selected as a highly sensitive test to detect injury of the lung epithelium. In 13 of the patients, we found a high DTPA-CI of 4.56 +/- 2.54%.min-1 (mean +/- SD), suggesting an increase of the epithelial permeability. The lymphocytic alveolitis was then characterized by a high cellularity, a high proportion of lymphocytes (59 +/- 18%), mainly composed of CD8+D44+ T-lymphocytes (149 +/- 109 cells/mm3), which spontaneously exhibited a cytolytic activity against the autologous alveolar macrophages in a standard 51Cr release assay. In the remaining 11 patients, DTPA-CI was normal (less than 1.78%.min-1), lymphocytic alveolitis being characterized by a low number or an absence of CD8+D44+ alveolar lymphocytes (9 +/- 13 cells/mm3) with no significant cytolytic activity. In the whole group, a significant correlation (r = 0.74, p = 0.0004) was found between the DTPA-CI and the number of CD8+D44+ lymphocytes and their cytotoxic activity against alveolar macrophages. Altogether, these results suggest that an injury of the lung epithelium could result from a HIV-specific CTL-induced immunologic conflict
Cold, Emma R.; Freyria, Nastasia J.; Joaquín Martínez Martínez; Fernández Robledo, José A.
The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects o...
Full Text Available A gill-associated Perkinsus sp. isolated from the softshell clam (Mya arenaria is described as a new species, P. chesapeaki sp. nov. Examination of the parasite in seawater cultures revealed life cycle stages and zoosporulation processes similar to those described for other species of the genus Perkinsus. Prezoosporangia developed thickened cell walls upon contraction of the cytoplasm and development of a distinctive clear area between the cell wall and the protoplast. Successive bipartition of the protoplast led to the formation of hundred's of zoospores within mature sporangia. Zoospores were released into seawater through one or more discharge tubes. Ultrastructural studies revealed an oblong zoospore possessing two flagella that arose from a concave side located in the upper third of the zoospore body. The anterior flagellum possessed a unilateral array of hair-like structures. A large anterior vacuole and basolateral nucleus dominated the cytoplasm of the zoospore body. The presence of a rudimentary apical complex including on open-sided conoid, rhoptries, micronemes, and subpellicular microtubules were also discerned. Differences in zoospore morphology, and sequence analyses of two genes previously reported, support the designation of the gill-associated Perkinsus from the softshell clam as a new species
Description of Colponema vietnamica sp.n. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. sp., two new alveolate phyla (Colponemidia nom. nov. and Acavomonidia nom. nov. and their contributions to reconstructing the ancestral state of alveolates and eukaryotes.
Denis V Tikhonenkov
Full Text Available The evolutionary and ecological importance of predatory flagellates are too often overlooked. This is not only a gap in our understanding of microbial diversity, but also impacts how we interpret their better-studied relatives. A prime example of these problems is found in the alveolates. All well-studied species belong to three large clades (apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and ciliates, but the predatory colponemid flagellates are also alveolates that are rare in nature and seldom cultured, but potentially important to our understanding of alveolate evolution. Recently we reported the first cultivation and molecular analysis of several colponemid-like organisms representing two novel clades in molecular trees. Here we provide ultrastructural analysis and formal species descriptions for both new species, Colponema vietnamica n. sp. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. sp. Morphological and feeding characteristics concur with molecular data that both species are distinct members of alveolates, with Acavomonas lacking the longitudinal phagocytotic groove, a defining feature of Colponema. Based on ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies, which both provide concrete rationale for a taxonomic reclassification of Alveolata, we establish the new phyla Colponemidia nom. nov. for the genus Colponema and its close relatives, and Acavomonidia nom. nov. for the genus Acavomonas and its close relatives. The morphological data presented here suggests that colponemids are central to our understanding of early alveolate evolution, and suggest they also retain features of the common ancestor of all eukaryotes.
Ramilo, Andrea; Carrasco, Noelia; Reece, Kimberly S; Valencia, José M; Grau, Amalia; Aceituno, Patricia; Rojas, Mauricio; Gairin, Ignasi; Furones, M Dolores; Abollo, Elvira; Villalba, Antonio
This study addressed perkinsosis in commercially important mollusc species in the western Mediterranean area. Perkinsus olseni was found in Santa Gilla Lagoon (Sardinia) infecting Ruditapes decussatus, Cerastoderma glaucum and Venerupis aurea, in Balearic Islands infecting Venus verrucosa and in Delta de l'Ebre (NE Spain) parasitising Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus. Perkinsus mediterraneus was detected infecting Ostrea edulis from the Gulf of Manfredonia (SE Italy) and Alacant (E Spain), V. verrucosa and Arca noae from Balearic Islands and Chlamys varia from Balearic Islands, Alacant and Delta de l'Ebre. PMID:25553580
Tlili, Sofiène; Ovaert, Julien; Souissi, Anissa; Ouddane, Baghdad; Souissi, Sami
Pseudodiaptomus marinus is a marine calanoid copepod originating of the Indo-Pacific region, who has successfully colonized new areas and it was recently observed in the European side of the Mediterranean Sea as well as in the North Sea. Actually, many questions were posed about the invasive capacity of this copepod in several non-native ecosystems. In this context, the main aim of this study was to investigate the tolerance and the bioaccumulation of metallic stress in the invasive copepod P. marinus successfully maintained in mass culture at laboratory conditions since 2 years. In order to study the metallic tolerance levels of P. marinus, an emergent trace metal, the nickel, was chosen. First, lethal concentrations determination experiments were done for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to calculated LC50% but also to select a relevant ecological value for the suite of experiments. Then, three types of experiments, using a single concentration of nickel (correspond the 1/3 of 96 h-LC50%) was carried in order to study the toxico-kinetics of nickel in P. marinus. Concerning lethal concentrations, we observed that P. marinus was in the same range of sensitivity compared to other calanoid copepods exposed to nickel in the same standardized experimental conditions. Results showed that the uptake of nickel in P. marinus depends from the pathways of entrance (water of food), but also that Isochrysis galbana, used as a food source, has an important bioaccumulation capacity and a rapid uptake of nickel. PMID:26519805
Barnett, Matthew; Imre, Istvan; Wagner, Michael C.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E
Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L., 1758) are nocturnal, so experiments evaluating their behaviour to chemosensory cues have typically been conducted at night. However, given the brief timeframe each year that adult P. marinus are available for experimentation, we investigated whether P. marinus exposed to a 12 h shifted diurnal cycle (reversed photoperiod) could be tested in a darkened arena during the day and show the same response to chemosensory cues as natural photoperiod P. marinus that were tested during the night. Ten replicates of 10 P. marinus, from each photoperiod, were exposed to deionized water (negative control), 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl, putative predator cue), or P. marinus whole-body extract (conspecific alarm cue). All P. marinus demonstrated a significant avoidance response to both cues. No significant differences were found in avoidance to PEA HCl between photoperiods. Avoidance of P. marinus whole-body extract was significantly stronger in natural compared with reversed photoperiod P. marinus. The use of reversed photoperiod subjects is suitable for examining the presence or absence of avoidance in response to novel chemosensory alarm cues, or the change in the magnitude of antipredator response. Studies investigating the natural magnitude of antipredator response should use natural photoperiod experimental subjects.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologic disease of the lungs caused by inhaled chemicals or organics allergens. A lymphocytic inflammatory response in the peripheral airways and surrounding interstitial tissue occurs. In this study the high-resolution computed tomography findings of 13 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis were analyzed and discussed. The most frequent high-resolution computed tomography findings were: ground-glass opacities (92.3%), centrilobular nodules (38.4%) and air trapping (38.4%). Other findings included bronchiectasis (23.1%), consolidation (23.1%), crazy paving (7.7%), parenchymal bands (15.4%), linear opacities (7.7%), architectural distortion (7.7%), tracheal dilatation (7.7%), intralobular reticulate (7.7%), honeycombing (7.7%), emphysema (7.7%) and atelectasis (7.7%). In two of the 13 patients there was fibrosis (architectural distortion and honeycombing), which represents the chronic phase of the disease. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background A progressive lung disease and a worse survival have been observed in patients with systemic sclerosis and alveolitis. The objective of this study was to define the functional, radiological and biological markers of alveolitis in SSc patients. Methods 100 SSc patients (76 with limited and 24 with diffuse disease underwent a multistep assessment of cardiopulmonary system: pulmonary function tests (PFTs every 6–12 months, echocardiography, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, if clinically advisable. Alveolar and interstitial scores on HRCT and IL-6 plasma levels were also assessed as lung disease activity indices. Results 90 SSc patients with abnormal PFTs and 3 with signs and/or symptoms of lung involvement and normal PFTs underwent HRCT and echocardiography. HRCT revealed evidence of fibrosis in 87 (93.5% patients, with 55 (59.1% showing both ground glass attenuation and fibrosis. In 42 patients who had exhibited ground glass on HRCT and consented to undergo BAL, 16 (38.1% revealed alveolitis. 12 (75% of these patients had restrictive lung disease (p 14 (OR(95%CIs:7.03(1.40–34.33. The alveolar score showed a significant correlation with IL-6 plasma levels (r = 0.36, p = 0.001 and with the skin score (r = 0.33, p = 0.001. Cultures of BAL fluid resulted positive in 10 (23.8% of the 42 patients that underwent BAL and after one year a deterioration in PFTs occurred in 8 (80% of these patients (p = 0.01. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure ≥ 40 mmHg was found in 6 (37.5% patients with alveolitis. Conclusion We found alveolitis only in 38.1% of the patients who had exhibited ground glass on HRCT and then underwent BAL, probably because the concomitant fibrosis influenced results. A diffuse skin involvement and a restrictive pattern on PFTs together with ground glass on HRCT were judged possible markers of alveolitis, a BAL examination being indicated as the next step. Nevertheless BAL
Wright, P.J.; Jensen, Henrik; Tuck, I.
programmes around the Shetland Isles. These data were used in a general additive model framework (GAM) to examine the relative significance of physical factors in influencing distribution. This analysis found that A. marinus were absent from sediments with a silt/clay content of >10% and densities declined......The lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus (Raitt, 1934) is an important component of the North Sea ecosystem and the subject of the largest single species fishery in this region. However, little is known about the distribution of this species outside the areas where they are fished. This study examines...... the physical characteristics of the habitat of A. marinus in an attempt to predict the distribution of this species. The characteristics and topography of sandeel habitat were described from video observations. Data on abundance, sediment characteristics and depth were collected from benthic sampling...
Gallium-67 (67Ga) lung scanning has been applied for some years in pulmonary sarcoidosis to assess the activity of the alveolitis. Interpreting the scans, however, is difficult due to the low uptake of 67Ga in the disease process relative to background activity. In this study we have measured the mean parenchymal lung activity of 67Ga and have compared the lung activity to that at three remote sites, the liver, the abdomen and the high. The results obtained were compared with the percentage of lymphocytes in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. There was a very good correlation with the lung-to-thigh uptake measurements and a much poorer correlation with the lung-to-liver and the lung-to-abdomen measurements. It was observed that steroid therapy reduced dramatically the correlation between the broncho-alveolar lavage findings and the 67Ga scan measurements. The results suggest that in patients not on steroid therapy, the 67Ga lung-to-thigh measurements may be used, similarly to the broncho-alveolar lavage lymphocyte counts, to identify those with high-intensity alveolitis from those with low-intensity alveolitis. (orig.)
Ma, Baoshun; Ruwet, Vincent; Corieri, Patricia; Theunissen, Raf; Riethmuller, Michel; Darquenne, Chantal
Accurate modeling of air flow and aerosol transport in the alveolated airways is essential for quantitative predictions of pulmonary aerosol deposition. However, experimental validation of such modeling studies has been scarce. The objective of this study is to validate CFD predictions of flow field and particle trajectory with experiments within a scaled-up model of alveolated airways. Steady flow (Re = 0.13) of silicone oil was captured by particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the trajectories of 0.5 mm and 1.2 mm spherical iron beads (representing 0.7 to 14.6 mum aerosol in vivo) were obtained by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). At twelve selected cross sections, the velocity profiles obtained by CFD matched well with those by PIV (within 1.7% on average). The CFD predicted trajectories also matched well with PTV experiments. These results showed that air flow and aerosol transport in models of human alveolated airways can be simulated by CFD techniques with reasonable accuracy. PMID:20161301
Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R
Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions. PMID:25039294
Anderson, iain J.; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Rodriguez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, Iris; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B.; Whitman, William B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos
Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced - Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.
Barzó, P; Molnár, L; Csokonay, L
Between 1976-1986 fifty-seven patients with farmer's lung have been diagnosed in Hungary on the basis of data obtained from public institutes for tuberculosis. That are 0.08% of the 744,300 manual workers employed in agriculture and forestry. In the counties of Borsod and Szolnok the rate was 0.5% (referred to 62,900 and 36,000 individuals, respectively). Regional accumulation of the different provoking agent's and variation of disease prevalence seem to be in correlation with geographical, climatic, meteorological, economical and occupational factors, showing a declining tendency in recent years. Antibodies of the Thermoactinomyces vulgaris antigen could be detected most frequently. In the biopsy material of 17 patients obtained by Klassen biopsy were fibrosing and not fibrosing desquamative alveolitis, granulomas similar to sarcoidosis, bronchiolitis with peribronchial fibrosis observed. Mostly focal, rarely subpleural deficiencies were detected by lung-scintigraphy, their dimension in acute cases being greater than the extent of radiological lesions. On the basis of 5 Coombs positive cases authors consider conceivable that sometimes cytotoxic allergic reaction type II participates in the pathogenesis of farmer's lung. PMID:2686222
Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Taylor, Alison R
Alveolate (ciliates and dinoflagellates) grazers are integral components of the marine food web and must therefore be able to sense a range of mechanical and chemical signals produced by prey and predators, integrating them via signal transduction mechanisms to respond with effective prey capture and predator evasion behaviors. However, the sensory biology of alveolate grazers is poorly understood. Using novel techniques that combine electrophysiological measurements and high-speed videomicroscopy, we investigated the sensory biology of Favella sp., a model alveolate grazer, in the context of its trophic ecology. Favella sp. produced frequent rhythmic depolarizations (∼500 ms long) that caused backward swimming and are responsible for endogenous swimming patterns relevant to foraging. Contact of both prey cells and non-prey polystyrene microspheres at the cilia produced immediate mechanostimulated depolarizations (∼500 ms long) that caused backward swimming, and likely underlie aggregative swimming patterns of Favella sp. in response to patches of prey. Contact of particles at the peristomal cavity that were not suitable for ingestion resulted in depolarizations after a lag of ∼600 ms, allowing time for particles to be processed before rejection. Ingestion of preferred prey particles was accompanied by transient hyperpolarizations (∼1 s) that likely regulate this step of the feeding process. Predation attempts by the copepod Acartia tonsa elicited fast (∼20 ms) animal-like action potentials accompanied by rapid contraction of the cell to avoid predation. We have shown that the sensory mechanisms of Favella sp. are finely tuned to the type, location, and intensity of stimuli from prey and predators. PMID:26567352
Gerli, R; Galandrini, R; Agea, E; Bini, P; Tognellini, R
A double immunofluorescence analysis of CD4+ cell population from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples of patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis was carried out. The results showed that, unlike BAL and peripheral blood CD4+ cells of healthy subjects, almost all BAL CD4+ cells of the patients highly express, besides CDw29 antigen, LFA-1 and ICAM-1 adhesion molecules. The co-expression of these molecules on BAL CD4+ cells during high intensity sarcoid alveolitis could represent a marker of immunological memory. The relevant pathogenetic and clinical implications of this observation are discussed. PMID:2199744
Abul Farah Md. Hasanuzzaman
Full Text Available Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum with its high commercial value has become a major contributor to the world´s clam production from both bivalve fishery and aquaculture ventures. But, the production of manila clam is at greater risk from diseases, especially caused by Perkinsus olseni. Considering the limited genomic resources of R. philippinarum and P. olseni as well as the increasing interest in immune-genes response in the host, the present work was conducted to analyze the transcriptome profile of R. philippinarum and of P. olseni using RNA-Seq technology. Data obtained will be used to construct transcriptome databases and to design oligo-microarrays both in the host and the parasite for understanding their transcriptional expressions through host-pathogen interactions. cDNA libraries were synthesized using RNA aliquots of clam haemocytes and perkinsus trophozoites collected from different experimental conditions (in vitro, in vivo and natural environment for further sequencing carried out on Illumina HiSeq 2000 (Oxford Genomics Center, UK. A total of 131,037,742 pair-end reads for R. philippinarum and 67,840,472 for P. olseni were produced. De novo assembly was evaluated using different parameters of Trinity and Abyss assembler programs. De novo transcriptome of clam was further undergone through filtering steps by expression (> 5 FPKM, and length (500 bp for improving transcriptome quality. CAP3 software was executed to cluster final de novo transcriptomes. Trinity+CAP3 assembly was the best approach after manual evaluation of 30 annotated contigs randomly sampled from each strategy and was chosen finally to assemble transcriptomes. 33,182 unique transcripts (3,031 contigs and 30,151 singletons from de novo clam transcriptome, and 47,590 unique transcripts (7,251 contigs and 40,339 singletons from perkinsus transcriptome were obtained. Among them; 3,031 (9.13% unigenes of R. philippinarum, and 7,251 (15.24% of P. olseni were annotated
Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.
The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.
Lizeth Carolina Villanueva-Fonseca
Full Text Available Crassostrea gigas es un molusco bivalvo de gran importancia comercial. En el noroeste de México su producción es afectada por mortalidades cuyo origen infeccioso no ha sido determinado claramente. En este trabajo se determinó la prevalencia e intensidad de la infección por Perkinsus sp. en un cultivo de C. gigas en el ciclo 2011-2012. El cultivo se hizo en un sistema de línea suspendida con densidades de 28 y 42 ostiones/canasta y se determinó un tamaño de muestra de 30 ostiones por mes. La detección de Perkinsus sp. se hizo de acuerdo a los protocolos de la Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OIE para Medio Fluido de Tioglicolato y PCR. Con ambos métodos se determinó la prevalencia de Perkinsus sp., que varió entre 3,3 y 40%. La intensidad de la infección estuvo en niveles 1 y 2, de acuerdo a la escala de Mackin. La mortalidad acumulativa en las densidades de 28 y 42 ostiones por canasta fue del 4 y 6%, respectivamente. Las mayores mortalidades del ostión y las mayores prevalencias de Perkinsus sp. ocurrieron en septiembre (2,7 y 16,6% y octubre (1,5 y 23,3%, respectivamente, cuando la temperatura fue alta. En conclusión, Perkinsus sp. fue detectado en un cultivo de C. gigas en el estero La Pitahaya con prevalencia moderada, baja intensidad de infección y mayor presencia en los meses más calurosos del ciclo de cultivo.
Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando; Tregenza, Tom
Recent discussion of genetic benefits of polyandry and female mate choice has distinguished between two potential factors influencing offspring quality: (i) some males carry higher quality genes and (ii) males and females differ in their degree of genetic compatibility. We examined evidence for effects of good genes and genetic compatibility on embryonic survival of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a fish species with external fertilization that spawns in North Atlantic rivers. Using in vitr...
The coverage of this master thesis is 58 pages, with 25 Figures and 9 Tables. The Simrad SH90 high frequency omidirectional sonar was used in a field experiment in 2011 to acoustically investigate the distribution of Lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) during the North Sea sandeel survey by the Norwegian research vessel Johan Hjort". The sonar was applied together with conventional echo sounder survey, with trawl and dredge sample stations at various point. During the survey, sonar screenshots...
Full Text Available Aplochiton is a small genus of galaxiid fishes endemic to Patagonia and the Falkland Islands whose taxonomy is insufficiently resolved. Recent genetic analyses confirmed the existence of only two closely related species, Aplochiton taeniatus and Aplochiton zebra, while a third controversial species, Aplochiton marinus, remained lost to synonymy with A. taeniatus. Using an integrative taxonomy framework, we studied original samples and published sequences from a broad range in western Patagonia and the Falkland Islands, and generated robust species hypotheses based on single-locus (Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I; COI species-delineation methods and known diagnostic morphological characters analyzed in a multivariate context. Results revealed three distinct evolutionary lineages that morphologically resemble, in important respects, existing nominal species descriptions. Interestingly, the lineage associated with A. marinus was unambiguously identifiable (100% accuracy both from the genetic and morphological viewpoints. In contrast, the morphology of A. taeniatus and A. zebra overlapped substantially, mainly due to the high variability of A. taeniatus. Discriminant function analysis aided the identification of these species with 83.9% accuracy. Hence, for their unambiguous identification, genetic screening is needed. A. marinus has seldom been documented, and when recorded, it has always been found in sites with clear marine influence. It is possible that only A. marinus preserves a life cycle related to the sea akin to the hypothesized ancestral galaxiid. We did not find evidence of claimed diadromy in A. taeniatus or A. zebra, and, therefore, these should be regarded as freshwater species. Finally, a lack of phylogeographic patterns and overrepresentation of uncommon haplotypes suggested demographic expansions in recent evolutionary time, especially of A. zebra, in line with the hypothesis of large-scale range expansion and lineage spread in
Matěj, R.; Smětáková, M.; Vašáková, M.; Nováková, J.; Šterclová, M.; Kukal, J.; Olejár, Tomáš
Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), s. 533-538. ISSN 1792-0981 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sarcoidosis * extrinsic allergic alveolitis * interleukin 4 receptor * transforming growth factor beta * tumor necrosis factor alpha * proteinase activated receptor 2 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.269, year: 2014
Manzon, Lori A; Youson, John H; Holzer, Guillaume; Staiano, Leopoldo; Laudet, Vincent; Manzon, Richard G
Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are members of the ancient class Agnatha and undergo a metamorphosis that transforms blind, sedentary, filter-feeding larvae into free-swimming, parasitic juveniles. Thyroid hormones (THs) appear to be important for lamprey metamorphosis, however, serum TH concentrations are elevated in the larval phase, decline rapidly during early metamorphosis and remain low until metamorphosis is complete; these TH fluctuations are contrary to those of other metamorphosing vertebrates. Moreover, thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors (goitrogens) induce precocious metamorphosis and exogenous TH treatments disrupt natural metamorphosis in P. marinus. Given that THs exert their effects by binding to TH nuclear receptors (TRs) that often act as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), we cloned and characterized these receptors from P. marinus and examined their expression during metamorphosis. Two TRs (PmTR1 and PmTR2) and three RXRs (PmRXRs) were isolated from P. marinus cDNA. Phylogenetic analyses group the PmTRs together on a branch prior to the gnathostome TRα/β split. The three RXRs also group together, but our data indicated that these transcripts are most likely either allelic variants of the same gene locus, or the products of a lamprey-specific duplication event. Importantly, these P. marinus receptors more closely resemble vertebrate as opposed to invertebrate chordate receptors. Functional analysis revealed that PmTR1 and PmTR2 can activate transcription of TH-responsive genes when treated with nanomolar concentrations of TH and they have distinct pharmacological profiles reminiscent of vertebrate TRβ and TRα, respectively. Also similar to other metamorphosing vertebrates, expression patterns of the PmTRs during lamprey metamorphosis suggest that PmTR1 has a dynamic, tissue-specific expression pattern that correlates with tissue morphogenesis and biochemical changes and PmTR2 has a more uniform expression pattern. This TR
Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine
Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524
Full Text Available Limnothrix (strain AC0243 is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243 live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine are discussed.
Dobashi, N.; Fujita, J; Ohtsuki, Y; Yamadori, I; Yoshinouchi, T; Kamei, T.; Tokuda, M.; Hojo, S; Okada, H.; Takahara, J.
BACKGROUND—It has been suggested that the humoral immune system plays a role in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). Although circulating autoantibodies to lung protein(s) have been suggested, none of the lung proteins have been characterised. The purpose of this study was to determine the antigen to which the serum from patients with pulmonary fibrosis reacted. METHODS—The anti-A549 cell antibody was characterised in a patient with CFA using Western i...
Jaito, Nongluck; Saburi, Wataru; Odaka, Rei; Kido, Yusuke; Hamura, Ken; Nishimoto, Mamoru; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Matsui, Hirokazu; Mori, Haruhide
4-O-β-D-Mannosyl-D-glucose phosphorylase (MGP), found in anaerobes, converts 4-O-β-D-mannosyl-D-glucose (Man-Glc) to α-D-mannosyl phosphate and D-glucose. It participates in mannan metabolism with cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE), which converts β-1,4-mannobiose to Man-Glc. A putative MGP gene is present in the genome of the thermophilic aerobe Rhodothermus marinus (Rm) upstream of the gene encoding CE. Konjac glucomannan enhanced production by R. marinus of MGP, CE, and extracellular mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase. Recombinant RmMGP catalyzed the phosphorolysis of Man-Glc through a sequential bi-bi mechanism involving ternary complex formation. Its molecular masses were 45 and 222 kDa under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions, respectively. Its pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 75 °C, and it was stable between pH 5.5-8.3 and below 80 °C. In the reverse reaction, RmMGP had higher acceptor preferences for 6-deoxy-D-glucose and D-xylose than R. albus NE1 MGP. In contrast to R. albus NE1 MGP, RmMGP utilized methyl β-D-glucoside and 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol as acceptor substrates. PMID:25036679
To evaluate prospectively relationship between the extent of abnormalities of fibrosing alveolotro on high resolution CT and these of pulmonary function test, and bronchoalveolar lavage. This study included 27 patients with pathologically proved UIP. We prospectively analyzed correlation of the extent of ground glass opacity, consolidation, irregular lines with honeycombing on initial CT scan and quantitative change of ground glass opacity on follow up CT scans with pulmonary function test(PFT) and bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL). On initial CT scan, score of extent of disease significantly correlated with FEV1(r = -0.5148, ρ = 0.0310) and DLco(r -0.7102, ρ = 0.0001). Proportion of individual cell in BAL was not correlated with ground glass opacity or extent of disease; lymphocyte(ρ -0.0165, r = 0.9616), eosinophil (ρ = -0.0077, r = 0.9832), neutrophil (ρ = -0.1732, r = 0.5903). On follow up CT scan, quantitative change of ground glass opacity correlated with DLco/VA(r = -0.6825, ρ = 0.0025) and TLC (r = 0.5248, ρ = 0.0429). The quantitative analysis of extent of disease on HRCT in useful for evaluation of clinical status. Also change of ground glass opacity on follow-up HRCT significantly correlated with improvement of diffusing capacity in fibrosing alveolitis
Eissa, A E; Elsayed, E E; McDonald, R; Faisal, M
Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a widespread problem with major implications for salmonid fish species. The mechanisms by which the bacterium has reached high levels of infection previously unrecorded in the Laurentian Great Lakes are presently unknown. Research involving reservoirs and mechanisms of R. salmoninarum transmission in fish is lacking because of the ecologic complexity of heterogeneous habitats and the lack of adequate funding. Herein, we report on the isolation of R. salmoninarum from the kidneys of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The bacterium was cultured from kidneys of 16% and 4% of lampreys collected from two locations within the Lake Ontario watershed in 2003 and 2004, respectively. The identity of bacterial colonies was verified with the nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PMID:17092886
Toews Daniel P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the posterior region of Bufo marinus was measured under resting conditions and in response to a systemic hypervolemia. Doppler flow probes were positioned on the renal portal and ventral abdominal veins, and flow was recorded as injections of artificial plasma equaling 100% of the animal's plasma volume were administered through the sciatic artery. Resting flow was found to be 5.54 ± 2.03 ml min-1 kg-1 in the paired renal portal veins, and 7.31 ± 0.89 ml min-1 kg-1 in the ventral abdominal vein. While renal portal flow was found to increase by a factor of 2.4 times during the first 10 min of hypervolemia, ventral abdominal flow only increased by a factor of 1.3. Conclusions Our results quantify the contribution to circulation from posterior venous return in the toad Bufo marinus. A preferential movement of excess fluid through the renal portal pathway was also demonstrated, supporting the possibility of water elimination via the renal portal circulation, especially during periods of high water influx into the animals.
Sofyan A. Taya
Full Text Available In this work, three extracts of plant leaves were used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. These plants are Safflower, Medicago sativa and Ros marinus oficinalis. The natural dyes were extracted before and after grinding the plant leaves. The UV-VIS absorption spectra of the three extracts in ethyl alcohol solution were measured. The DSSCs were assembled using TiO2 films on Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO coated glass. The DSSCs sensitized with the extracts of grinded leaves showed a better performance compared to those sensitized with un-grinded leaves with the highest efficiency of 0.115 % was obtained for the DSSC sensitized with Medicago sativa. The performance of the DSSCs sensitized with Safflower and Ros marinus oficinalis was significantly improved by acid treatment of the FTO substrates. Impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.
Hanson, Lee H.; Manion, Patrick J.
The sterility method of pest control could be an effective tool in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program in the Great Lakes. Some of the requirements for its successful application have been met. A field study demonstrated that the release of male sea lampreys, sterilized by the injection of 100 mg/kg of P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir), will reduce the number of viable larvae produced. The actual reduction in reproductive success that occurred was directly related to the ratio of sterile to normal males in the population. The technique can be used in many ways in an integrated control program and has considerable potential for the more effective control of the sea lamprey. Eradication is a distinct possibility.Key words: sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus; pest control, fish control, sterile-male technique, sterilization, chemosterilants, bisazir, Great Lakes
Courtney, Joshua; Klinkmann, Taylor; Torano, Joseph; 2; Courtney, Michael
In spite of the abundance and commercial importance of these two species, there is little published weight-length data for the gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and hardhead catfish (Ariopsis felis). For this study 84 catfish were caught (hook and line) from the Calcasieu Estuary in Southwest Louisiana near the Gulf of Mexico and estuaries and near shore waters close to bayou Lafourche. Using least squares regression, best fit curves were determined for weight (W) vs. total length (L) relat...
Sergio Silva; Sandra Barca; María José Servia
After a juvenile haematophagous stage developed mainly at sea, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 stop feeding and return to the river to spawn. One of the main pressures in this stage is the presence of obstacles that reduce the accessible habitat, the mobility of individuals within this section and the energy resources available for gonad development and spawning. In addition, in the River Ulla, adults are targeted in a commercial fishery, using fyke-nets in the upper estuary...
La alveolitis es una complicación bastante frecuente tras la extracción, más aún cuando hablamos de la extracción de los terceros molares retenidos. En estos casos la osteítis alveolar es una patología de alto coste social, en forma de días de trabajo perdidos, baja de productividad, consultas de revisión por parte del cirujano y visitas al hospital. El 45% de los pacientes que desarrollan una alveolitis necesitan un mínimo de 4 visitas postoperatorias para diagnosticarla, tratarla y recupera...
Hasanuzzaman, Abul Farah Md; Robledo, Diego; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Alvarez-Dios, Jose A; Harrison, Peter W; Cao, Asunción; Fernández-Boo, Sergio; Villalba, Antonio; Pardo, Belén G; Martínez, Paulino
The protistan parasite Perkinsus olseni is a deadly causative agent of perkinsosis, a molluscan disease affecting Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), having a significant impact on world mollusc production. Deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms in R. philippinarum-P. olseni interaction is crucial for controlling this parasitosis. The present study investigated the transcriptional expression in the parasite trophozoite using RNA-seq. Control and treatment (in vitro challenged with Manila clam-plasma) P. olseni trophozoite RNA were extracted and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument using a 100-bp paired-end sequencing strategy. Paired reads (64.7 million) were de novo assembled using Trinity, and the resultant transcripts were further clustered using CAP3. The re-constructed P. olseni transcriptome contains 47,590 unique transcripts of which 23,505 were annotated to 9764 unique proteins. A large number of genes were associated with Gene Ontology terms such as stress and immune-response, cell homeostasis, antioxidation, cell communication, signal transduction, signalling and proteolysis. Among annotated transcripts, a preliminary gene expression analysis detected 679 up-regulated and 478 down-regulated genes, linked to virulence factors, anti-oxidants, adhesion and immune-response molecules. Genes of several metabolic pathways such as DOXP/MEP, FAS II or folate biosynthesis, which are potential therapeutic targets, were identified. This study is the first description of the P. olseni transcriptome, and provides a substantial genomic resource for studying the molecular mechanisms of the host-parasite interaction in perkinsosis. In this sense, it is also the first evaluation of the parasite gene expression after challenge with clam extracellular products. PMID:26820448
The Geodermatophilaceae are unique model systems to study the ability to thrive on or within stones and their proteogenomes (referring to the whole protein arsenal encoded by the genome) could provide important insight into their adaptation mechanisms. Here we report the detailed comparative genome analysis of Blastococcus saxobsidens (Bs), Modestobacter marinus (Mm) and Geodermatophilus obscurus (Go) isolated respectively from the interior and the surface of calcarenite stones and from desert sandy soils. The genome-scale analysis of Bs, Mm and Go illustrates how adaptation to these niches can be achieved through various strategies including ‘molecular tinkering/opportunism’ as shown by the high proportion of lost, duplicated or horizontally transferred genes and ORFans. Using high-throughput discovery proteomics, the three proteomes under unstressed conditions were analyzed, highlighting the most abundant biomarkers and the main protein factors. Proteomic data corroborated previously demonstrated stone-related ecological distribution. For instance, these data showed starvation-inducible, biofilm-related and DNA-protection proteins as signatures of the microbes associated with the interior, surface and outside of stones, respectively.
Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Davidson, Peter J.; Scott, Anne M.; Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Brant, Cory O.; Buchinger, Tyler; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming
Biliary atresia is a rare disease of infancy, with an estimated 1 in 15,000 frequency in the southeast United States, but more common in East Asian countries, with a reported frequency of 1 in 5,000 in Taiwan. Although much is known about the management of biliary atresia, its pathogenesis is still elusive. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) provides a unique opportunity to examine the mechanism and progression of biliary degeneration. Sea lamprey develop through three distinct life stages: larval, parasitic, and adult. During the transition from larvae to parasitic juvenile, sea lamprey undergo metamorphosis with dramatic reorganization and remodeling in external morphology and internal organs. In the liver, the entire biliary system is lost, including the gall bladder and the biliary tree. A newly-developed method called “CLARITY” was modified to clarify the entire liver and the junction with the intestine in metamorphic sea lamprey. The process of biliary degeneration was visualized and discerned during sea lamprey metamorphosis by using laser scanning confocal microscopy. This method provides a powerful tool to study biliary atresia in a unique animal model.
Sghaier, Haïtham; Hezbri, Karima; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Pujic, Petar; Sen, Arnab; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Tisa, Louis S; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Armengaud, Jean; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher
The Geodermatophilaceae are unique model systems to study the ability to thrive on or within stones and their proteogenomes (referring to the whole protein arsenal encoded by the genome) could provide important insight into their adaptation mechanisms. Here we report the detailed comparative genome analysis of Blastococcus saxobsidens (Bs), Modestobacter marinus (Mm) and Geodermatophilus obscurus (Go) isolated respectively from the interior and the surface of calcarenite stones and from desert sandy soils. The genome-scale analysis of Bs, Mm and Go illustrates how adaptation to these niches can be achieved through various strategies including 'molecular tinkering/opportunism' as shown by the high proportion of lost, duplicated or horizontally transferred genes and ORFans. Using high-throughput discovery proteomics, the three proteomes under unstressed conditions were analyzed, highlighting the most abundant biomarkers and the main protein factors. Proteomic data corroborated previously demonstrated stone-related ecological distribution. For instance, these data showed starvation-inducible, biofilm-related and DNA-protection proteins as signatures of the microbes associated with the interior, surface and outside of stones, respectively. PMID:26125681
Robinson, Jason M.; Wilberg, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.
The control of invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) presents large scale management challenges in the Laurentian Great Lakes. No modeling approach has been developed that describes spatial dynamics of lamprey populations. We developed and validated a spatial and age-structured model and applied it to a sea lamprey population in a large river in the Great Lakes basin. We considered 75 discrete spatial areas, included a stock-recruitment function, spatial recruitment patterns, natural mortality, chemical treatment mortality, and larval metamorphosis. Recruitment was variable, and an upstream shift in recruitment location was observed over time. From 1993–2011 recruitment, larval abundance, and the abundance of metamorphosing individuals decreased by 80, 84, and 86%, respectively. The model successfully identified areas of high larval abundance and showed that areas of low larval density contribute significantly to the population. Estimated treatment mortality was less than expected but had a large population-level impact. The results and general approach of this work have applications for sea lamprey control throughout the Great Lakes and for the restoration and conservation of native lamprey species globally.
Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming
Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.
Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.
We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.
Heath, Michael R.; Rasmussen, Jens; Bailey, Martin C.; Dunn, John; Fraser, John; Gallego, Alejandro; Hay, Stephen J.; Inglis, Michelle; Robinson, Susan
Intense fishing of a stock of sandeels ( Ammodytes marinus) on the sand banks off the Firth of Forth, northeast Scotland, during the 1990s led to a decline in catch per unit effort to uneconomic levels and collateral failures of piscivorous seabird breeding success at nearby colonies. A prohibition on fishing in 1999 was followed by a short-term recovery of stock biomass, but then a sustained decline to very low levels of abundance. Demographic survey data show that despite the decline in stock, recruit abundance was maintained implying an increasing larval survival rate, and that the stock decline was not due to recruitment failure. To verify this hypothesis we analysed a 10-year long data set of weekly catches of sandeel larvae at a nearby plankton monitoring site to determine the patterns of larval mortality and dispersal. We found that the loss rate of larvae up to 20 d age decreased over time, corresponding with the trend in survival rate implied by the stock demography data. The pattern of loss rate in relation to hatchling abundance implied that mortality may have been density dependent. Our study rules out increased larval mortality as the primary cause of decline in the sandeel stock.
Cathepsin originated from Sebates marinus muscle hydrolyzed denatured hemoglobin optimally at pH 5. At pH 3 this phenomenon was also detected eventhough with lower intensity. Partial purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation technique was not suitable for the separation of protein contaminants from the active enzyme. By column gel filtration through Sephadex G-75 superfine, fractions with high cathepsin specific activity were recovered i.e. fractions with molecular weights between 15,000-20,000 Daltons. These fractions showed isoelectric components in the pH range of 4.5 - 8 with the predominant protein zones at pH 4.5 - 5. In fish irradiated at a dose of 0.3 Mrad, the gel filtration pattern was not essentially changed. However on focusing the 15,000 - 20,000 Dalton fraction, the isoelectric pattern showed some minor changes, especially the accumulation of protein in the range of pH 4.5 - 5. (author)
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis): high-resolution computed tomography findings; Pneumonite por hipersensibilidade (alveolite alergica extrinseca): achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao
Almeida Junior, Jose Guiomar de; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Escuissato, Dante L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Irion, Klaus L. [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Pavilhao Pereira Filho. Servico de Radiologia
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologic disease of the lungs caused by inhaled chemicals or organics allergens. A lymphocytic inflammatory response in the peripheral airways and surrounding interstitial tissue occurs. In this study the high-resolution computed tomography findings of 13 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis were analyzed and discussed. The most frequent high-resolution computed tomography findings were: ground-glass opacities (92.3%), centrilobular nodules (38.4%) and air trapping (38.4%). Other findings included bronchiectasis (23.1%), consolidation (23.1%), crazy paving (7.7%), parenchymal bands (15.4%), linear opacities (7.7%), architectural distortion (7.7%), tracheal dilatation (7.7%), intralobular reticulate (7.7%), honeycombing (7.7%), emphysema (7.7%) and atelectasis (7.7%). In two of the 13 patients there was fibrosis (architectural distortion and honeycombing), which represents the chronic phase of the disease. (author)
Sofyan A. Taya; Taher M. El-Agez; Monzir S. Abdel-Latif; Hatem Ghamri; Amal Batniji; Wael A. Tabaza
In this work, three extracts of plant leaves were used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These plants are Safflower, Medicago sativa and Ros marinus oficinalis. The natural dyes were extracted before and after grinding the plant leaves. The UV-VIS absorption spectra of the three extracts in ethyl alcohol solution were measured. The DSSCs were assembled using TiO2 films on Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass. The DSSCs sensitized with the extracts of grinded leaves...
Reis-Santos, P.; McCormick, S.D.; Wilson, J.M.
Ammocoetes of the anadromous sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus L. spend many years in freshwater before metamorphosing and migrating to sea. Metamorphosis involves the radical transformation from a substrate-dwelling, filter feeder into a free-swimming, parasitic feeder. In the present work we examined osmoregulatory differences between ammocoetes and transformers (metamorphic juveniles), and the effects of salinity acclimation. We measured the expression of key ion-transporting proteins [Na+/K+-ATPase, vacuolar (V)-type H+-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA)] as well as a number of relevant blood parameters (hematocrit, [Na+] and [Cl -]). In addition, immunofluorescence microscopy was used to identify and characterize the distributions of Na+/K+-ATPase, V-type H+-ATPase and CA immunoreactive cells in the gill. Ammocoetes did not survive in the experiments with salinities greater than 10???, whereas survival in high salinity (???25-35???) increased with increased degree of metamorphosis in transformers. Plasma [Na+] and [Cl -] of ammocoetes in freshwater was lower than transformers and increased markedly at 10???. In transformers, plasma ions increased only at high salinity (>25???). Branchial Na+/K+-ATPase levels were ??? tenfold higher in transformers compared to ammocoetes and salinity did not affect expression in either group. However, branchial H +-ATPase expression showed a negative correlation with salinity in both groups. Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity was strongest in transformers and associated with clusters of cells in the interlamellar spaces. H+-ATPase (B subunit) immunoreactivity was localized to epithelial cells not expressing high Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity and having a similar tissue distribution as carbonic anhydrase. The results indicate that branchial Na+/K+-ATPase and salinity tolerance increase in metamorphosing lampreys, and that branchial H+-ATPase is downregulated by salinity.
Falkenberg, G.; Fleissner, Ge; Neumann, D.; Wellenreuther, G.; Alraun, P.; Fleissner, Gue
Melanin is a pigment widely occurring in animals, plants, fungi and algae. It does not only colour skin, hair and eyes but serves mainly as photoprotectant and prevents overload with minerals induced by inflammations, infections and degenerative diseases. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying melanisation gained increasing interest in the field of biomedical research and clinic. So far, the processes of melanogenesis are only partly analysed, nearly nothing is known on a putative switch between melanins of different types. Here we offer a model organism to study these mechanisms as part of a naturally cycling change of transparency of the retinal shielding pigment. A marine midge, Clunio marinus, living in coastal regions, underlies a complex timing of its development by solar and lunar climatic periodicities, which synchronise biological clocks. The question was how the animals can discriminate changing sunlight from moonlight intensities. For the first time, we could show a "moonlight window" in the larval ocelli of this midge, and propose a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms. Driven by a lunar clock the image forming ocelli become transparent and convert during moonlit nights to a sensitive photometer, which can record the dynamics of environmental light. High resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the distribution of trace minerals in single melanosomes combined with their fine structural details in various states of the lunar cycle provide a first insight into the enzymatic pathways for the generation of a dark melanin (like eumelanin) and a light coloured melanin (like phaeomelanin). Essential advantage of this approach is the spatial and temporal resolution of the metals associated with melanisation processes, which could never before be demonstrated in these details. The data may stimulate further research projects in biomedicine.
Swink, William D.
Parasitic-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are difficult to study in the wild. A series of laboratory studies (1984-1995) of single attacks on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and burbot (Lota lota) examined host size selection; determined the effects of host size, host species, host strain, and temperature on host mortality; and estimated the weight of hosts killed per lamprey. Rainbow trout were more able and burbot less able to survive attacks than lake trout. Small sea lampreys actively selected the larger of two small hosts; larger sea lampreys attacked larger hosts in proportion to the hosts' body sizes, but actively avoided shorter hosts (a?? 600 mm) when larger were available. Host mortality was significantly less for larger (43-44%) than for smaller hosts (64%). However, the yearly loss of hosts per sea lamprey was less for small hosts (range, 6.8-14.2 kg per sea lamprey) than larger hosts (range, 11.4-19.3 kg per sea lamprey). Attacks at the lower of two temperature ranges (6.1-11.8A?C and 11.1-15.0A?C) did not significantly reduce the percentage of hosts killed (54% vs. 69%, p > 0.21), but longer attachment times at lower temperatures reduced the number of hosts attacked (33 vs. 45), and produced the lowest loss of hosts (6.6 kg per sea lamprey). Low temperature appeared to offset other factors that increase host mortality. Reanalysis of 789 attacks pooled from these studies, using forward stepwise logistic regression, also identified mean daily temperature as the dominant factor affecting host mortality. Observations in Lakes Superior, Huron, and Ontario support most laboratory results.
Bryant, Stephanie A; Herdy, Joseph R; Amemiya, Chris T; Smith, Jeramiah J
The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a basal vertebrate that undergoes developmentally programmed genome rearrangements (PGRs) during early development. These events facilitate the elimination of ∼20% of the genome from the somatic cell lineage, resulting in distinct somatic and germline genomes. Thus far only a handful of germline-specific genes have been definitively identified within the estimated 500 Mb of DNA that is deleted during PGR, although a few thousand germline-specific genes are thought to exist. To improve our understanding of the evolutionary/developmental logic of PGR, we generated computational predictions to identify candidate germline-specific genes within a new transcriptomic dataset derived from adult germline and the early embryonic stages during which PGR occurs. Follow-up validation studies identified 44 germline-specific genes and further characterized patterns of transcription and DNA loss during early embryogenesis. Expression analyses reveal that many of these genes are differentially expressed during early embryogenesis and presumably function in the early development of the germline. Ontology analyses indicate that many of these germline-specific genes play known roles in germline development, pluripotency, and oncogenesis (when misexpressed). These studies provide support for the theory that PGR serves to segregate molecular functions related to germline development/pluripotency in order to prevent their potential misexpression in somatic cells. This larger set of eliminated genes also allows us to extend the evolutionary/developmental breadth of this theory, as some deleted genes (or their gnathostome homologs) appear to be associated with the early development of somatic lineages, perhaps through the evolution of novel functions within gnathostome lineages. PMID:27288344
Melanin is a pigment widely occurring in animals, plants, fungi and algae. It does not only colour skin, hair and eyes but serves mainly as photoprotectant and prevents overload with minerals induced by inflammations, infections and degenerative diseases. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying melanisation gained increasing interest in the field of biomedical research and clinic. So far, the processes of melanogenesis are only partly analysed, nearly nothing is known on a putative switch between melanins of different types. Here we offer a model organism to study these mechanisms as part of a naturally cycling change of transparency of the retinal shielding pigment. A marine midge, Clunio marinus, living in coastal regions, underlies a complex timing of its development by solar and lunar climatic periodicities, which synchronise biological clocks. The question was how the animals can discriminate changing sunlight from moonlight intensities. For the first time, we could show a 'moonlight window' in the larval ocelli of this midge, and propose a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms. Driven by a lunar clock the image forming ocelli become transparent and convert during moonlit nights to a sensitive photometer, which can record the dynamics of environmental light. High resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the distribution of trace minerals in single melanosomes combined with their fine structural details in various states of the lunar cycle provide a first insight into the enzymatic pathways for the generation of a dark melanin (like eumelanin) and a light coloured melanin (like phaeomelanin). Essential advantage of this approach is the spatial and temporal resolution of the metals associated with melanisation processes, which could never before be demonstrated in these details. The data may stimulate further research projects in biomedicine
Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J
The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD. PMID:25230391
Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming
Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor
Hogg, Robert S.; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Simon, Kevin S.
Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) disturb the substratum during nest construction and alter the physical habitat, potentially affecting other stream organisms. We quantified differences in depth, velocity, fine-sediment coverage, embeddedness, intragravel permeability and benthic invertebrate assemblages (density and diversity) among nest mounds, nest pits and undisturbed reference locations over a 4-month period after June spawning. In 2010 and 2011, immediate and persistent effects of nest construction were assessed in summer (July) and in autumn (late September to early October), respectively. Randomly selected nests were sampled annually (25 each in summer and autumn). Nest construction increased stream-bed complexity by creating and juxtaposing shallow, swift, rocky habitat patches with deep, slow, sandy habitat patches. Mounds had a 50–143% less cover of fine sediment, and a 30–62% reduction in embeddedness, compared to pits and reference locations. These physical changes persisted into the autumn (almost 4 months). Five insect families contributed 74% of the benthic invertebrate abundance: Chironomidae (27%), Hydropsychidae (26%), Heptageniidae (8%), Philopotamidae (7%) and Ephemerellidae (6%). Densities of Hydropsychidae, Philopotamidae and Heptageniidae were up to 10 times greater in mounds than in pits and adjacent reference habitat. In summer, mounds had twice the density of Chironomidae than did pits, and 1.5 times more than reference habitats, but densities were similar among the habitats in autumn. These results suggest that spawning sea lampreys are ecosystem engineers. The physical disturbance caused by nest-building activity was significant and persistent, increasing habitat heterogeneity and favouring pollution-sensitive benthic invertebrates and, possibly, drift-feeding fish.
Li, Xiaolei; Li, Dan; Park, Kwan-Hwa
A gene encoding an amylopullulanase of the glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 57 from Staphylothermus marinus (SMApu) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. SMApu consisted of 639 amino acids with a molecular mass of 75.3 kDa. It only showed maximal amino acid identity of 17.1 % with that of Pyrococcus furiosus amylopullulanase in all identified amylases. Not like previously reported amylopullulanases, SMApu has no signal peptide but contains a continuous GH57N_Apu domain. It had the highest catalytic efficiency toward pullulan (k cat/K m , 342.34 s(-1) mL mg(-1)) and was extremely thermostable with maximal pullulan-degrading activity (42.1 U/mg) at 105 °C and pH 5.0 and a half-life of 50 min at 100 °C. Its activity increased to 116 % in the presence of 5 mM CaCl2. SMApu could also degrade cyclodextrins, which are resistant to the other amylopullulanases. The initial hydrolytic products from pullulan, γ-CD, and 6-O-maltooligosyl-β-CD were [6)-α-D-Glcp-(1 → 4)-α-D-Glcp-(1 → 4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→]n, maltooctaose, and single maltooligosaccharide plus β-CD, respectively. The final hydrolytic products from above-mentioned substrates were maltose and glucose. These results confirm that SMApu is a novel amylopullulanase of the family GH57 possessing the cyclodextrin-degrading activity of cyclomaltodextrinase. PMID:23001056
Ferreira-Martins, D.; Coimbra, J.; Antunes, C.; Wilson, J. M.
The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is an anadromous, semelparous species that is vulnerable to endangered in parts of its native range due in part to loss of spawning habitat because of man-made barriers. The ability of lampreys to return to the ocean or estuary and search out alternative spawning river systems would be limited by their osmoregulatory ability in seawater. A reduction in tolerance to salinity has been documented in migrants, although the underlying mechanisms have not been characterized. We examined the capacity for marine osmoregulation in upstream spawning migrants by characterizing the physiological effects of salinity challenge from a molecular perspective. Estuarine-captured migrants held in freshwater (FW) for ∼1 week (short-term acclimation) or 2 months (long-term acclimation) underwent an incremental salinity challenge until loss of equilibrium occurred and upper thresholds of 25 and 17.5, respectively, occurred. Regardless of salinity tolerance, all lamprey downregulated FW ion-uptake mechanisms [gill transcripts of Na+:Cl− cotransporter (NCC/slc12a3) and epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC/scnn1) and kidney Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) protein and activity but not transcript]. At their respective salinity limits, lamprey displayed a clear osmoregulatory failure and were unable to regulate [Na+] and [Cl−] in plasma and intestinal fluid within physiological limits, becoming osmocompromised. A >90% drop in haematocrit indicated haemolysis, and higher plasma concentrations of the cytosolic enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase indicated damage to other tissues, including liver. However, >80% of short-term FW-acclimated fish were able to osmoregulate efficiently, with less haemolysis and tissue damage. This osmoregulatory ability was correlated with significant upregulation of the secretory form of Na+:K+:2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC1/slc12a2) transcript levels and the re-emergence of seawater
Full Text Available After a juvenile haematophagous stage developed mainly at sea, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 stop feeding and return to the river to spawn. One of the main pressures in this stage is the presence of obstacles that reduce the accessible habitat, the mobility of individuals within this section and the energy resources available for gonad development and spawning. In addition, in the River Ulla, adults are targeted in a commercial fishery, using fyke-nets in the upper estuary and fishing in pesqueiras, which are stone constructions placed on the river bed, in the low section of the river. This study advances in the knowledge of the upstream migration (and related impact of barriers, reproduction and fishery of P. marinus in the River Ulla. The study combined fieldwork (radiotelemetry tracking of 19 adults in years 2012 and 2013 and inventory and characterization of obstacles, with information on the capture of lampreys (years 2000 to 2010 by commercial fishing and by a fixed trap located in the middle section of the river. The migration period in this river runs from January, or even December, until June, followed by reproduction in May and June. A total of 48 anthropogenic obstacles (all small-medium sized barriers except the last three, which are impassable, including 20 pesqueiras, were identified as a relevant obstacle for sea lamprey migration (which joins the impact of fishing performed in these sites. Hence, still more attention must be paid to "small" barriers, as pesqueiras, and to fisheries to properly conserve and manage populations of this and other anadromous lamprey species.
Valverde-Tercedor, C [Universidad de Granada; Abada-Molina, F [Universidad de Granada; Martinez-Bueno, M [Universidad de Granada; Pineda-Molina, Estela [Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalograficos; Chen, Lijun [Ohio State University; Oestreicher, Zachery [Ohio State University; Lower, Brian H [Ohio State University; Lower, Steven K [Ohio State University; Bazylinski, Dennis A [Ames Laboratory; Jimenez-Lopez, C [Universidad de Granada
Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular magnetosomes, composed of magnetic (Fe3O4) crystals each enveloped by a lipid bilayer membrane that contains proteins not found in other parts of the cell. Although partial roles of some of these magnetosome proteins have been determined, the roles of most have not been completely elucidated, particularly in how they regulate the biomineralization process. While studies on the localization of these proteins have been focused solely on Magnetospirillum species, the goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the localization of the most abundant putative magnetosome membrane protein, MamC, in Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1. MamC was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against MamC and immunogold labeling TEM was used to localize MamC in thin sections of cells of M. marinus. Results show that MamC is located only in the magnetosome membrane of Mc. marinus. Based on our findings and the abundance of this protein, it seems likely that it is important in magnetosome biomineralization and might be used in controlling the characteristics of synthetic nanomagnetite.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is very abundant in warm, nutrient-poor oceanic areas. The upper mixed layer of oceans is populated by high light-adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes, which despite their tiny genome (~1.7 Mb seem to have developed efficient strategies to cope with stressful levels of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet (UV radiation. At a molecular level, little is known yet about how such minimalist microorganisms manage to sustain high growth rates and avoid potentially detrimental, UV-induced mutations to their DNA. To address this question, we studied the cell cycle dynamics of P. marinus PCC9511 cells grown under high fluxes of visible light in the presence or absence of UV radiation. Near natural light-dark cycles of both light sources were obtained using a custom-designed illumination system (cyclostat. Expression patterns of key DNA synthesis and repair, cell division, and clock genes were analyzed in order to decipher molecular mechanisms of adaptation to UV radiation. Results The cell cycle of P. marinus PCC9511 was strongly synchronized by the day-night cycle. The most conspicuous response of cells to UV radiation was a delay in chromosome replication, with a peak of DNA synthesis shifted about 2 h into the dark period. This delay was seemingly linked to a strong downregulation of genes governing DNA replication (dnaA and cell division (ftsZ, sepF, whereas most genes involved in DNA repair (such as recA, phrA, uvrA, ruvC, umuC were already activated under high visible light and their expression levels were only slightly affected by additional UV exposure. Conclusions Prochlorococcus cells modified the timing of the S phase in response to UV exposure, therefore reducing the risk that mutations would occur during this particularly sensitive stage of the cell cycle. We identified several possible explanations for the observed timeshift. Among these, the sharp decrease in transcript levels
Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying
A Gram-negative bacterium, strain CZ-AM5(T), was isolated from an aerated biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CZ-AM5(T) were non-spore-forming rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.2-2.0 µm long, and motile by means of one or two polar or lateral flagella. Strain CZ-AM5(T) was strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 4.0 %). The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c (80.3 %). Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol%. Strain CZ-AM5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.5 %) to Phaeobacter caeruleus LMG 24369(T); it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.0-96.5, 95.2-96.3, 96.2, 94.6-95.7 and 94.8-95.8 % to members of the genera Phaeobacter, Ruegeria, Citreimonas, Leisingera and Donghicola, respectively. However, phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CZ-AM5(T) did not join any of the above genera, but formed a distinct lineage in the trees. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain CZ-AM5(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cribrihabitans marinus is CZ-AM5(T) ( = CGMCC 1.13219(T) = JCM 19401(T)). PMID:24425741
Hosaka, Toshiaki; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Nakajima, Yu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; DeLong, Edward F; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Iwasaki, Wataru; Shirouzu, Mikako
The light-driven inward chloride ion-pumping rhodopsin Nonlabens marinus rhodopsin-3 (NM-R3), from a marine flavobacterium, belongs to a phylogenetic lineage distinct from the halorhodopsins known as archaeal inward chloride ion-pumping rhodopsins. NM-R3 and halorhodopsin have distinct motif sequences that are important for chloride ion binding and transport. In this study, we present the crystal structure of a new type of light-driven chloride ion pump, NM-R3, at 1.58 Å resolution. The structure revealed the chloride ion translocation pathway and showed that a single chloride ion resides near the Schiff base. The overall structure, chloride ion-binding site, and translocation pathway of NM-R3 are different from those of halorhodopsin. Unexpectedly, this NM-R3 structure is similar to the crystal structure of the light-driven outward sodium ion pump, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2. Structural and mutational analyses of NM-R3 revealed that most of the important amino acid residues for chloride ion pumping exist in the ion influx region, located on the extracellular side of NM-R3. In contrast, on the opposite side, the cytoplasmic regions of K. eikastus rhodopsin 2 were reportedly important for sodium ion pumping. These results provide new insight into ion selection mechanisms in ion pumping rhodopsins, in which the ion influx regions of both the inward and outward pumps are important for their ion selectivities. PMID:27365396
Yun, Sang-Seon; Li, Weiming
It is well established that innate mechanisms play an important role in the immunity of fish. Antimicrobial peptides have been isolated and characterized from several species of teleosts. Here, we report the isolation of an antimicrobial compound from the blood of bacterially challenged sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. An acetic acid extract from the blood cells of challenged fish was subjected to solid-phase extraction, cation-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with the purified fractions assayed for antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, antimicrobial activity in these fractions originated from squalamine, an aminosterol previously identified in the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. Further chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses confirmed the identity of squalamine, an antimicrobial and antiangiogenic agent, in the active fraction from the sea lamprey blood cells. Immunocytochemical analysis localized squalamine to the plasma membrane of white blood cells. Therefore, we postulate that squalamine has an important role in the innate immunity that defends the lamprey against microbial invasion. The full biochemical and immunological roles of squalamine in the white blood cell membrane remain to be investigated. PMID:17726196
Johnson, Nicholas S.; Swink, William D.; Brenden, Travis O.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.
Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus control in the Great Lakes primarily involves application of lampricides to streams where larval production occurs to kill larvae prior to their metamorphosing and entering the lakes as parasites (juveniles). Because lampricides are not 100% effective, larvae that survive treatment maymetamorphose before streams are again treated. Larvae that survive treatment have not beenwidely studied, so their dynamics are notwell understood.Wetagged and released larvae in six Great Lake tributaries following lampricide treatment and estimated vital demographic rates using multistate tag-recovery models. Model-averaged larval survivals ranged from 56.8 to 57.6%. Model-averaged adult recovery rates, which were the product of juvenile survivals and adult capture probabilities, ranged from 6.8 to 9.3%. Using stochastic simulations, we estimated production of juvenile sea lampreys from a hypothetical population of treatment survivors under different growth conditions based on parameter estimates from this research. For fast-growing populations, juvenile production peaked 2 years after treatment. For slow-growing populations, juvenile production was approximately one-third that of fast-growing populations,with production not peaking until 4 years after treatment. Our results suggest that dynamics (i.e., survival, metamorphosis) of residual larval populations are very similar to those of untreated larval populations. Consequently, residual populations do not necessarily warrant special consideration for the purpose of sea lamprey control and can be ranked for treatment along with other populations. Consecutive lampricide treatments, which are under evaluation by the sea lamprey control program, would bemost effective for reducing juvenile production in large, fast-growing populations.
Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming
Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.
Valverde-Tercedor, C; Montalbán-López, M; Perez-Gonzalez, T; Sanchez-Quesada, M S; Prozorov, T; Pineda-Molina, E; Fernandez-Vivas, M A; Rodriguez-Navarro, A B; Trubitsyn, D; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Jimenez-Lopez, C
Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes that share the unique ability of biomineralizing magnetosomes, which are intracellular, membrane-bounded crystals of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). Magnetosome biomineralization is mediated by a number of specific proteins, many of which are localized in the magnetosome membrane, and thus is under strict genetic control. Several studies have partially elucidated the effects of a number of these magnetosome-associated proteins in the control of the size of magnetosome magnetite crystals. However, the effect of MamC, one of the most abundant proteins in the magnetosome membrane, remains unclear. In this present study, magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized inorganically in free-drift experiments at 25 °C in the presence of different concentrations of the iron-binding recombinant proteins MamC and MamCnts (MamC without its first transmembrane segment) from the marine, magnetotactic bacterium Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1 and three commercial proteins [α-lactalbumin (α-Lac), myoglobin (Myo), and lysozyme (Lyz)]. While no effect was observed on the size of magnetite crystals formed in the presence of the commercial proteins, biomimetic synthesis in the presence of MamC and MamCnts at concentrations of 10-60 μg/mL resulted in the production of larger and more well-developed magnetite crystals (~30-40 nm) compared to those of the control (~20-30 nm; magnetite crystals grown protein-free). Our results demonstrate that MamC plays an important role in the control of the size of magnetite crystals and could be utilized in biomimetic synthesis of magnetite nanocrystals. PMID:25874532
Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Almeida, Pedro R.; Quintella, Bernardo R.
The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great Lakes streams and passing sea lampreys in the native range. Second, attractants and repellants are suitable for luring sea lampreys into traps for control in the Great Lakes and guiding sea lamprey passage for conservation in the native range. Third, assessment methods used for targeting sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes are useful for targeting habitat protection in the native range. Last, assessment methods used to quantify numbers of all life stages of sea lampreys would be appropriate for measuring success of control in the Great Lakes and success of conservation in the native range.
The known range of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) parasite, Perkinsus marinus, expanded into the northeastern United States in the early 1990s. We used both in vitro and in vivo data to test the hypothesis that the northward expansion was associated with a low-tempera...
Mayasich, Sally A; Clarke, Benjamin L
The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a jawless vertebrate at an evolutionary nexus between invertebrates and jawed vertebrates. Lampreys are known to possess the arginine vasotocin (AVT) hormone utilized by all non-mammalian vertebrates. We postulated that the lamprey would possess AVT receptor orthologs of predecessors to the arginine vasopressin (AVP)/oxytocin (OXT) family of G protein-coupled receptors found in mammals, providing insights into the origins of the mammalian V1A, V1B, V2 and OXT receptors. Among the earliest animals to diverge from the vertebrate lineage in which these receptors are characterized is the jawed, cartilaginous elephant shark, which has genes orthologous to all four mammalian receptor types. Therefore, our work was aimed at helping resolve the critical gap concerning the outcomes of hypothesized large-scale (whole-genome) duplication events. We sequenced one partial and four full-length putative lamprey AVT receptor genes and determined their mRNA expression patterns in 15 distinct tissues. Phylogenetically, three of the full-coding genes possess structural characteristics of the V1 clade containing the V1A, V1B and OXT receptors. Another full-length coding gene and the partial sequence are part of the V2 clade and appear to be most closely related to the newly established V2B and V2C receptor subtypes. Our synteny analysis also utilizing the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum) genome supports the recent proposal that jawless and jawed vertebrates shared one-round (1R) of WGD as the most likely scenario. PMID:26764211
Chadwell, Brad A; Hartwell, Hadley J; Peters, Susan E
The leopard frog (Rana pipiens) is an excellent jumper that can reach high take-off velocities and accelerations. It is diurnal, using long, explosive jumps to capture prey and escape predators. The marine toad (Bufo marinus) is a cryptic, nocturnal toad, typically using short, slow hops, or sometimes walking, to patrol its feeding area. Typical of frogs with these different locomotor styles, Rana has relatively long hindlimbs and large (by mass) hindlimb extensor muscles compared to Bufo. We studied the isometric contractile properties of their extensor muscles and found differences that correlate with their different hopping performances. At the hip (semimembranosus, SM), knee (peroneus, Per) and ankle (plantaris longus, PL), we found that Rana's muscles tended to produce greater maximum isometric force relative to body mass, although the difference was significant only for PL. This suggests that differences in force capability at the ankle may be more important than at other joints to produce divergent hopping performances. Maximum isometric force scaled with body mass so that the smaller Rana has relatively larger muscles and force differences between species may reflect size differences only. In addition, Rana's muscles exhibited greater passive resistance to elongation, implying more elastic tissue is present, which may amplify force at take-off due to elastic recoil. Rana's muscles also achieved a higher percentage of maximum force at lower stimulus inputs (frequencies and durations) than in Bufo, perhaps amplifying the differences in force available for limb extension during natural stimulation. Twitch contraction and relaxation times tended to be faster in Rana, although variation was great, so that differences were significant only for Per. Fatigability also tended to be greater in Rana muscles, although, again, values reached significance in only one muscle (PL). Thus, in addition to biomechanical effects, differences in hopping performance may also be
Full Text Available Ten genes encoding novel cellulases with putative signal peptides at the N-terminus, termed pre-LC-CelA–J, were isolated from a fosmid library of a leaf–branch compost metagenome by functional screening using agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose and trypan blue. All the cellulases except pre-LC-CelG have a 14–29 residue long flexible linker (FL between the signal peptide and the catalytic domain. LC-CelA without a signal peptide (residues 20–261, which shows 76% amino acid sequence identity to Cel12A from Rhodothermus marinus (RmCel12A, was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. LC-CelA exhibited its highest activity across a broad pH range (pH 5–9 and at 90 °C, indicating that LC-CelA is a highly thermostable cellulase, like RmCel12A. The crystal structure of LC-CelA was determined at 1.85 Å resolution and is nearly identical to that of RmCel12A determined in a form without the FL. Both proteins contain two disulfide bonds. LC-CelA has a 16-residue FL (residues 20–35, most of which is not visible in the electron density map, probably due to structural disorder. However, Glu34 and Pro35 form hydrogen bonds with the central region of the protein. ΔFL-LC-CelA (residues 36–261 and E34A-LC-CelA with a single Glu34 → Ala mutation were therefore constructed and characterized. ΔFL-LC-CelA and E34A-LC-CelA had lower melting temperatures (Tm than LC-CelA by 14.7 and 12.0 °C respectively. The Tm of LC-CelA was also decreased by 28.0 °C in the presence of dithiothreitol. These results suggest that Glu34-mediated hydrogen bonds and the two disulfide bonds contribute to the stabilization of LC-CelA.
Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Hill-Spanik, Kristina M; Torchin, Mark E; Aguirre-Macedo, Leopoldina; Fleischer, Robert C; Ruiz, Gregory M
Parasites can exert strong effects on population to ecosystem level processes, but data on parasites are limited for many global regions, especially tropical marine systems. Characterizing parasite diversity and distributions are the first steps towards understanding the potential impacts of parasites. The Panama Canal serves as an interesting location to examine tropical parasite diversity and distribution, as it is a conduit between two oceans and a hub for international trade. We examined metazoan and protistan parasites associated with ten oyster species collected from both Panamanian coasts, including the Panama Canal and Bocas del Toro. We found multiple metazoan taxa (pea crabs, Stylochus spp., Urastoma cyrinae). Our molecular screening for protistan parasites detected four species of Perkinsus (Perkinsus marinus, Perkinsus chesapeaki, Perkinsus olseni, Perkinsus beihaiensis) and several haplosporidians, including two genera (Minchinia, Haplosporidium). Species richness was higher for the protistan parasites than for the metazoans, with haplosporidian richness being higher than Perkinsus richness. Perkinsus species were the most frequently detected and most geographically widespread among parasite groups. Parasite richness and overlap differed between regions, locations and oyster hosts. These results have important implications for tropical parasite richness and the dispersal of parasites due to shipping associated with the Panama Canal. PMID:27263626
Kojic, M; Butler, J P; Vlastelica, I; Stojanovic, B; Rankovic, V; Tsuda, A
Low Reynolds number airflow in the pulmonary acinus and aerosol particle kinetics therein are significantly conditioned by the nature of the tidal motion of alveolar duct geometry. At least two components of the ductal structure are known to exhibit stress-strain hysteresis: smooth muscle within the alveolar entrance rings, and surfactant at the air-tissue interface. We hypothesize that the geometric hysteresis of the alveolar duct is largely determined by the interaction of the amount of smooth muscle and connective tissue in ductal rings, septal tissue properties, and surface tension-surface area characteristics of surfactant. To test this hypothesis, we have extended the well-known structural model of the alveolar duct by Wilson and Bachofen (1982, "A Model for Mechanical Structure of the Alveolar Duct," J. Appl. Physiol. 52(4), pp. 1064-1070) by adding realistic elastic and hysteretic properties of (1) the alveolar entrance ring, (2) septal tissue, and (3) surfactant. With realistic values for tissue and surface properties, we conclude that: (1) there is a significant, and underappreciated, amount of geometric hysteresis in alveolar ductal architecture; and (2) the contribution of smooth muscle and surfactant to geometric hysteresis are of opposite senses, tending toward cancellation. Quantitatively, the geometric hysteresis found experimentally by Miki et al. (1993, "Geometric Hysteresis in Pulmonary Surface-to-Volume Ratio during Tidal Breathing," J. Appl. Physiol. 75(4), pp. 1630-1636) is consistent with little or no smooth muscle tone in anesthetized rabbits in control conditions, and with substantial smooth muscle activation following methacholine challenge. The observed local hysteretic boundary motion of the acinar duct would result in irreversible acinar flow fields, which might be important mechanistic contributors to aerosol mixing and deposition deep in the lung. PMID:22168737
Kojic, M.; Butler, J. P.; Vlastelica, I.; B. Stojanovic; Rankovic, V.; Tsuda, A.
Low Reynolds number airflow in the pulmonary acinus and aerosol particle kinetics therein are significantly conditioned by the nature of the tidal motion of alveolar duct geometry. At least two components of the ductal structure are known to exhibit stress-strain hysteresis: smooth muscle within the alveolar entrance rings, and surfactant at the air-tissue interface. We hypothesize that the geometric hysteresis of the alveolar duct is largely determined by the interaction of th...
Flegontov, Pavel; Lukeš, Julius
Vol. 63. 24-28 OVAL ROAD, LONDON NW1 7DX: ACADEMIC PRESS LTD-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2012 - (MarechalDrouard, L), s. 127-153 ISBN 978-0-12-394279-1 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2179 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dinoflagellate Alexandrium-Catenella * cytochrome-oxidase SUBUNIT-1 * transfer-RNA import * open reading frames * ribosomal-RNA * Plasmodium falciparum * messenger-RNAs * complete sequence * OXYRRHIS-MARINA * TETRAHYMENA-THERMOPHILA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
Salas-Massó, Nuria; Andree, Karl B; Furones, M Dolors; Figueras, M José
The genus Arcobacter is a relatively poorly known group of bacteria, and the number of new species and sequences from non-culturable strains has increased considerably in recent years. This study investigates whether using media that contain NaCl might help to improve the recovery of Arcobacter spp. from marine environments. To this aim, 62 water and shellfish samples were analysed in parallel, with both a commonly used culture method (enrichment in Arcobacter-CAT broth followed by culture on Blood Agar) and a new one that supplements the Arcobacter-CAT enrichment broth with 2.5% NaCl (w/v) followed by culturing on Marine Agar. The new method yielded ca. 40% more positive samples and provided a higher diversity of known (11 vs. 7) and unknown (7 vs. 2) Arcobacter species. Among the 11 known species recovered, Arcobacter marinus and Arcobacter halophilus were isolated only by this new method. No more strains of these species have been isolated since their original descriptions, both of which were based only on a single strain. In view of that, the phenotypic characteristics of these species are re-evaluated in the present study, using the new strains. Strains of A. halophilus had the same phenotypic profile as the type strain. However, some strains of A. marinus differed from the type strain in that they did not hydrolyse indoxyl-acetate, becoming, therefore, the first Arcobacter species to show a varying ability to hydrolyse indoxyl-acetate. This study shows to what extent a simple variation to the culture media can have a big influence on positive samples and on the community of species recovered. PMID:27282494
Bourke, S. J.; Banham, S W; Carter, R; P. Lynch; Boyd, G.
The purpose of this study was to assess the longitudinal course of pigeon breeders' disease by evaluating 24 patients with the acute form of the disease 10 years after their original diagnosis. Twenty one patients attended for clinical assessment, pulmonary function studies, chest radiography, and antibody measurement. Eighteen had continued to keep pigeons, emphasising their commitment to the hobby. Despite continued antigen exposure pigeon related symptoms had improved in most patients and ...
YALIN, T.; Arslan, A; SELÇUK, M.; TANIK, A.
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis : Six Case Reports Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare hereditary disease of unknown etiology, characterized by intraalveolar calcified microgranules. The roentgenographic differen-tial diagnosis should include miliary tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, pulmonary hemoside-rosis, histoplasmosis, pneumoconiosis, ornithosis and pulmonary adenomatosis. In this study, we report six cases of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, four of which are from the sam...
Piavis, George W.; Howell, John H.
Most embryological studies of lampreys in the Great Lakes have been conducted with filtered water from Lake Huron. Although this water was entirely satisfactory for the earlier work, the present need for knowledge of the effects of various compounds on embryological development requires that the initial medium be sterile. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether sea lamprey embryos could be successfully reared in distilled water. Mature sea lampreys were collected from the Ocqueoc River, Presque Isle County, Michigan, and transferred to the Hammond Bay Biological Station where eggs were stripped and fertilized according to the method of Piavis. After activation was ascertained to be 90-100% complete, the embryos were washed 3-5 timesexperimentals with commercially obtained U.S.P. distilled water and controls with filtered Lake Huron water.
Manion, Patrick J.; Stauffer, Thomas M.
The external metamorphosis of the sea lamprey was divided into four stages, based primarily on the condition of the mouth: mouth reduced, mouth fused, mouth enclosed, and mouth elongated. During metamorphosis, the eye enlarged greatly, the snout and mouth region changed from a fleshy hood enclosing a sieve apparatus to a large sucking disc, the nasopore membrane and the branchial area shrank, the branchiopores changed in shape, the general color changed from dark brown and yellow to an intense blue-black dorsally and white ventrally, and the total length increased. Metamorphosis began in early to mid-July and did not take place after August. The duration of external metamorphosis was about 3 months for lampreys transforming under natural conditions. The mean lengths of metamorphosing lampreys from tributaries of lakes Superior and Michigan were 145 and 136 mm, respectively.
Wilson, E. A.; Powell, E. N.; Wade, T. L.; Taylor, R. J.; Presley, B. J.; Brooks, J. M.
As part of NOAA's Status and Trends Program, oysters were sampled from 43 sites throughout the Gulf of Mexico from Brownsville, Texas, to the Florida Everglades from 1986 to 1989. Oysters were analysed for body burden of a suite of metals and petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the prevalence and intensity of the oyster pathogen, Perkinsus marinus, and condition index. The contaminants fell into two groups based on the spatial distribution of body burden throughout the Gulf. Arsenic, selenium, mercury and cadmium were characterized by clinal reduction in similarity with distance reminiscent of that followed by mean monthly temperature and precipitation. Zinc, copper, PAHs and silver showed no consistent geographic trend. Within local regions, industrial and agricultural and use and P. marinus prevalence and infection intensity frequently correlated with body burden. Contaminants and biological attributes followed one of three temporal trends. Zinc, copper and PAHs showed concordant shifts over 4 years throughout the eastern and southern Gulf. Mercury and cadmium showed concordant shifts in the northwestern Gulf. Selenium, arsenic, length, condition index and P. marinus prevalence and infection intensity showed concordant shifts throughout most of the entire Gulf. Concordant shifts suggest that climatic factors, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation being one example, exert a strong influence on biological attributes and contaminant body burdens in the Gulf. Correlative factors are those that probably affect or indicate the rate of tissue turnover and the frequency of reproduction; namely, temperature, disease intensity, condition index and length.
von Plessen, C; Grinde, O; Gulsvik, A
of pulmonary fibrosis (ICD 8: 517 and ICD 9: 515 and 516). Cases with a history of exposure to fibrogenic agents or with collagen vascular disease were excluded and the remaining 158 cases were defined as CFA. The average annual incidence of hospitalised CFA was 4.3 per 100,000. No change was...
Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a condition that has a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 4-5 years irrespective of treatment. Ziesche et al (N Engl J Med 1999, 341: 1264-1269 describe an open randomised trial of 18 patients with IPF, unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment at high dose. Nine patients were treated with continued corticosteroid and nine with prednisolone plus interferon-γ 1b (IFN-γ. Significant benefits in physiological parameters are reported in the IFN-γ-treated group. An analysis of lung tissue by reverse-transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction showed corresponding decreases in the transcription of transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor. This is the first report of treatment showing efficacy in this disease, albeit in a very preliminary study, but the data should be viewed with caution. This study is discussed in the context of other published studies of treatment for IPF and the scientific rationale on which it was based.
von Plessen, C; Grinde, O; Gulsvik, A
observed in the annual incidence during the 15-year study period. The prevalence was 19.7 and 23.9 per 100,000 by 31.12. 1991 and by 31.12. 1998, respectively. The incidence increased considerably and significantly with age. No significant gender differences were observed. The lack of gender differences...
Full Text Available 35 5 ( EH079886 ) PMECF85TO Perkinsus marinus large insert cDNA lib... 42 0.048 2 ( ET095291 ) QM0AAA22BH01FM1 CCL1...gylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-3085L11, W... 40 0.14 2 ( AC180454 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R...022-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U11022-1Q.Seq.d CAAATACACTCAGACAGGGTTGCAAATGCGTTGAATTGGACGTTTGGGAT GGTAATGATGGTGATCC...DNA sequence from clone CH211-51L17 in ... 52 0.060 1 ( BX324154 ) Zebrafish DNA ... SP_1031_A2_E05_SP6E Strongylocentrotus purpuratus... 42 0.075 2 ( EL354039 ) CCEM10702.b4_L12.ab1 CC
Miossec, Laurence; Garcia, Celine; ARZUL, Isabelle; Francois, Cyrille; Joly, Jean-pierre; Chollet, Bruno; Robert, Maeva; De Blas, Isabelle
The French network for the surveillance and monitoring of mollusc health (REPAMO) was officially set up in 1992 to control the shellfish status along the French coasts according to the European directives 91/67/EEC and 95/70/EC. The objectives are 1) the surveillance of notifiable diseases present in France (Bonamiosis and Marteiliosis of flat oysters Ostrea edulis), 2) the surveillance of health status of cultured and wild populations of molluscs, 3) the study of abnormal mortality and 4) th...
Ševčíková, T.; Horák, Aleš; Klimeš, V.; Zbránková, V.; Demir-Hilton, E.; Sudek, S.; Jenkis, J.; Schmutz, J.; Přibyl, Pavel; Fousek, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B.F.; Oborník, Miroslav; Worden, A.Z.; Eliáš, M.
Roč. 5, MAY 28 2015 (2015), s. 10134. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33039S; GA ČR GPP506/12/P931 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1208; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : phylogenetic position * Chromera velia * Dinoflagellate Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EF - Botanics (UMG-J); EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014
Full Text Available EGLTSLGGGDIGLGPDGLKQIEGTFFLVLFSSLFGGTLGTVNGWLLANCRFKGRKYLRLAQLLPLATPAYLLSAILIDIGSIHGIRIHGMFWGILIMSLTTYPYVFLL... iron ABC transporter Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. marinus str. CCMP1375 MSKTFPQQRRIFLEIFSILLCVIFLLPIINLIR...FLSICSRWNKSKWMKSISFLSGLGYAIPGAVIALALLSFSGSVWNLPALILLLWGYSDRFLAVAKGGIDSAFERINPNIDEAAMSLGANWTGVLKTIHLPLLKGPLVVGSLLVFVDTIKELPLTFILRPFDFDTLSVRIFQYAGDERMGESIIPGLIVLLLGLLASIALMPSLDYKNKSI ... ...SAESFAKCGQRQLEACRSLGIGPWNSFRRIALPMATPAIGAGIALMGMEVINELGAVQLLNIPSLSAGIVENWIIKGNPSGAIALAFIA...LLVVLVLVAYEKWLRKRSRRWTEGITGAESPAWVLKGFRATIAQALSVMPPLFTLGVPFYWAIINSDQLLQGFDIELVQLTFRSLMLGLIASGLTVLGAI
Full Text Available IEKKNSNAYFLLGNAKLIQKNHTEALDAFTKATKVKPNFWQAINNKGLIYFELGNKKQAIQIWRKVLKIKSDPEPKLALAIALYSIEPANKESIKLAKEALQENPNYFSQAHQKEQLWGEKLQEAGKTLFKNPKLKAVINKASANSRFTN ... ...YSPNPKVLIDTSIGIGLTASEYIKYGQTKEAIGLAKLAISLNPKEIELWIILARAQLSNNKLEEALISIERAKNINPNIPILWFTKASIEMQMGEIQLAINSINKCLK...tical protein Pro0006 Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. marinus str. CCMP1375 MKNYKKIYWLICIILNTNLFVINKPSHAYIPNI
Full Text Available LFAIPIASFWGRYSQIWAISHYPYLNKEGSSKFLHKKNWRGFLIESIPSYAFLSFLIFILINIDISIISTPNLIIGIIVGFLPALIIPHLLARRLGGHSGDSYGASVVLVETCMLIIFSIILPAS ... ...GVLQVSVLILLLQLQWPNESMPFIAIALGLWITGGIHVDGLMDTADGIAAGPSRCIEAMKDSRIGASGIIALTINLLLQIAALFKLRLLI...1 cobalamin-5-phosphate synthase Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. marinus str. CCMP1375 MSSPNWLKDLTGAWLFYTVFPKLTRINPRFERIARFSPLIGVLI
Applegate, Vernon C.; Brynildson, Clifford L.
In order to obtain more precise information concerning the downstream movement of recently transformed sea lampreys, a trapping device was operated in the Carp Lake River, Emmet County, Michigan, from October, 1948, to July, 1951.
Killorn, Erin E; Toews, Daniel P
Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the poste...
Brenkman, Albertus Marinus Jan
In the research for this paper, which concerns a conceptual model for a management information system (MIS) for a regional office, it was found that the regional office could be seen as a typical mini organisation. The regional office as organisation needs educational leaders in order to function. This educational management can be embodied in a pyramid structure comprising top management, middle management and first-line management. Management information is therefore ...
Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Deurs, Mikael van; Behrens, Jane;
marine food webs. In 2012 and 2013 the stomachs of 748 sandeels from 36 different commercial sandeel hauls in the central North Sea were opened. 9% of these stomachs contained late stage sandeel larvae. In order to better understand the cannibalistic nature of sandeels, we made a detailed analysis of...... North Sea sandeel stocks, but it may also add a new element to the complexity of energy flow in marine food chains...
Wiethaus, Jessica; Busch, Andrea W U; Dammeyer, Thorben; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole
Prochlorococcus sp. is a very unique and highly abundant class of organisms within the cyanobacteria. Found in the world's oceans Prochlorococcus is very small in size and possesses the smallest genome of a photosynthetic autotroph. Prochlorococcus is characterized by a special chlorophyll antenna for light harvesting and the absence of classical cyanobacterial phycobilisomes. Despite the lack of phycobilisomes Prochlorococcus possesses remnants thereof which is the phycobiliprotein phycoerythrin (PE) encoded in a PE operon as well as genes encoding enzymes of phycobilin biosynthesis. The size of this PE operon varies depending on the light-adapted ecotype. While high-light strains only possess a β-subunit of PE, low-light adapted strains possess both, an α- and a β-subunit. α-/β-subunits are also present in functional phycobilisomes. Consistent with the number of subunits is also the varying number of putative lyase genes, involved in the transfer and attachment of phycobilins (open-chain tetrapyrroles) to the PE subunits. This minireview summarizes the only sparely available data on the biosynthesis and assembly of Prochlorococcus PE. On one hand the quite well understood biosynthesis of pigments will be reviewed but also new data on the phycobiliprotein lyase-mediated transfer of the phycobilins to the PE subunits will be discussed. PMID:20724022
Full Text Available FR189385 AE017162,AF387607,AF397673,AF397674,AF397675,AF397676,AF397677,AF397678,AF397679,AF3976 ... s marinus str. NATL2A,Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9107,Prochlorococcus marinus str. PAC1,Prochloroco ... occus marinus str. SB,Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9302,Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9312,Prochlo ...
Two methods for colorimetric in situ DNA probe hybridization (CISH) assays on paraffin-embedded tissue sections were compared. The heated method used heat (90-100°C) to denature DNA in the sample prior to probe hybridization, while the unheated method used a standard hybridization temperature of 42°C. Both procedures were tested on tissue samples that harbored the mollusk protozoan pathogens Perkinsus marinus, P. chesapeaki, or Haplosporidium nelsoni, the protozoan and bacterial fish pathogens Myxobolus cerebralis (myxosporidean) or Renibacterium salmoninarum (bacterial), or the crab viral pathogen Callinectes sapidus reovirus. Samples were fixed in either formalin or Davidson's fixative and embedded in paraffin for histological examination. The heated method is labor intensive and highly prone to human error, while the unheated method is less labor intensive and can be completed in a shorter period of time. Both methods yielded similar hybridization results. The use of complex and expensive prehybridization buffers did not improve the performances of the tested CISH assays. Prehybridization heat denaturation of DNA in assayed samples increased both assay duration and loss of samples but did not improve hybridization signals. PMID:23697605
Full Text Available FR288323 AF317071,AF317072,AF317073,AF317074,AF317075,AF317076,AF317077,AF317078,AF317079,AF3302 ... s marinus str. NATL2A,Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9107,Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9303,Prochlo ... chococcus sp. WH 5701,Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9302,Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9312,Prochlo ...
Y. Miyazaki; Araki, K; Vesin, C; Garcia, I.; Kapanci, Y.; Whitsett, J A; Piguet, P F; Vassalli, P.
The murine TNF-alpha gene was expressed under the control of the human surfactant protein SP-C promoter in transgenic mice. A number of the SP-C TNF-alpha mice died at birth or after a few weeks with very severe lung lesions. Surviving mice transmitted a pulmonary disease to their offspring, the severity and evolution of which was related to the level of TNF-alpha mRNA in the lung; TNF-alpha RNA was detected in alveolar epithelium, presumably in type II epithelial cells. In a longitudinal stu...
Maklad, Adel; Reed, Caitlyn; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Fritzsch, Bernd
In jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, the inner ears have three semicircular canals arranged orthogonally in the three Cartesian planes: one horizontal (lateral) and two vertical canals. They function as detectors for angular acceleration in their respective planes. Living jawless craniates, cyclostomes (hagfish and lamprey) and their fossil records seemingly lack a lateral horizontal canal. The jawless vertebrate hagfish inner ear is described as a torus or doughnut, having one vertical canal, and the jawless vertebrate lamprey having two. These observations on the anatomy of the cyclostome (jawless vertebrate) inner ear have been unchallenged for over a century, and the question of how these jawless vertebrates perceive angular acceleration in the yaw (horizontal) planes has remained open. To provide an answer to this open question we reevaluated the anatomy of the inner ear in the lamprey, using stereoscopic dissection and scanning electron microscopy. The present study reveals a novel observation: the lamprey has two horizontal semicircular ducts in each labyrinth. Furthermore, the horizontal ducts in the lamprey, in contrast to those of jawed vertebrates, are located on the medial surface in the labyrinth rather than on the lateral surface. Our data on the lamprey horizontal duct suggest that the appearance of the horizontal canal characteristic of gnathostomes (lateral) and lampreys (medial) are mutually exclusive and indicate a parallel evolution of both systems, one in cyclostomes and one in gnathostome ancestors.
Toews Daniel P; Killorn Erin E
Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from ...
Nupur; Bhumika, V.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.
, chemotaxonomy. Introduction The family Rhodobacteraceae was established by Garrity et al. (2005) within the α-3 Proteobacteria. Rhodobacteraceae is an ecologically, metabolically and phenotypically diverse group, including both chemotrophic...- arranged as chain, Te, arranged as tetrads; sh, short; Nm, non-motile, Mo, motile, Ma, marine; FW, fresh water; Ter, terrestrial; en, environments; hy-s, hypersaline; So, soil; sw, sewage; Ac-s, Activated sludge; Bl-Blood (Specimen); -, negative...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In gnathostomes, chemosensory receptors (CR expressed in olfactory epithelia are encoded by evolutionarily dynamic gene families encoding odorant receptors (OR, trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR, V1Rs and V2Rs. A limited number of OR-like sequences have been found in invertebrate chordate genomes. Whether these gene families arose in basal or advanced vertebrates has not been resolved because these families have not been examined systematically in agnathan genomes. Results Petromyzon is the only extant jawless vertebrate whose genome has been sequenced. Known to be exquisitely sensitive to several classes of odorants, lampreys detect fewer amino acids and steroids than teleosts. This reduced number of detectable odorants is indicative of reduced numbers of CR gene families or a reduced number of genes within CR families, or both, in the sea lamprey. In the lamprey genome we identified a repertoire of 59 intact single-exon CR genes, including 27 OR, 28 TAAR, and four V1R-like genes. These three CR families were expressed in the olfactory organ of both parasitic and adult life stages. Conclusion An extensive search in the lamprey genome failed to identify potential orthologs or pseudogenes of the multi-exon V2R family that is greatly expanded in teleost genomes, but did find intact calcium-sensing receptors (CASR and intact metabotropic glutamate receptors (MGR. We conclude that OR and V1R arose in chordates after the cephalochordate-urochordate split, but before the diversification of jawed and jawless vertebrates. The advent and diversification of V2R genes from glutamate receptor-family G protein-coupled receptors, most likely the CASR, occurred after the agnathan-gnathostome divergence.
Campo-Paysaa, Florent; Jandzik, David; Takio-Ogawa, Yoko; Cattell, Maria V; Neef, Haley C; Langeland, James A.; Kuratani, Shigeru; Medeiros, Daniel M.; Mazan, Sylvie; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael
Background Retinoic acid (RA) signaling controls many developmental processes in chordates, from early axis specification to late organogenesis. The functions of RA are chiefly mediated by a subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs), that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. While RARs have been extensively studied in jawed vertebrates (that is, gnathostomes) and invertebrate chordates, very little is known about the repertoire and developmental role...
Valverde-Tercedor, C; Montalbán-López, M; Perez-Gonzalez, T; Sanchez-Quesada, M S; Prozorov, T; Pineda-Molina, E; Fernandez-Vivas, M A; Rodriguez-Navarro, A B; Trubitsyn, D; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Jimenez-Lopez, C
Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes that share the unique ability of biomineralizing magnetosomes, which are intracellular, membrane-bounded crystals of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). Magnetosome biomineralization is mediated by a number of specific proteins, man
Ciereszko, Andrzej [School of Natural Resources, Ohio State University, 210 Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Rd., Columbus, OH 434210 (United States); Semen Biology Group, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Wolfe, Tobie D. [School of Natural Resources, Ohio State University, 210 Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Rd., Columbus, OH 434210 (United States); Dabrowski, Konrad [School of Natural Resources, Ohio State University, 210 Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Rd., Columbus, OH 434210 (United States)]. E-mail: email@example.com
In this study we sought to demonstrate that Comet assay can be applied to sea lamprey sperm DNA fragmentation and used to describe the relationship between sperm DNA damage and sperm fertilizing ability. We show that the assay can be used reliably and accurately, and unlike in the case of mammals, there is no need for additional steps related to improvement of efficacy of lysis and DNA decondensation. This agrees with the presence of histone proteins in lamprey sperm. An increase in DNA fragmentation was noted during short-term storage of milt on ice (0-4 days). We demonstrated genotoxic effects of UV radiation and oxidative stress (exposure to hydrogen peroxide) and found that oxidative damage to sperm DNA was likely repaired after fertilization in the embryo. Repairing capacity of the oocyte toward sperm DNA lesions caused by UV was restricted. Toxic effect of p,p-bis-(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic acid (p,p-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide), a sea lamprey chemosterilant, could not be linked to DNA fragmentation in the in vitro tests. Its genotoxicity in vivo may possibly be associated with other mechanisms of DNA degradation (oxidation or DNA-protein and DNA-DNA cross-linking). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Comet assay can be successfully applied to monitor effects of environmental disturbances and imposed injuries in sea lamprey spermatozoa and possibly other species of ancient fish with acrosomal sperm.
Vasta, G R; Feng, C; Bianchet, M A; Bachvaroff, T R; Tasumi, S
Galectins constitute a conserved and widely distributed lectin family characterized by their binding affinity for β-galactosides and a unique binding site sequence motif in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). In spite of their structural conservation, galectins display a remarkable functional diversity, by participating in developmental processes, cell adhesion and motility, regulation of immune homeostasis, and recognition of glycans on the surface of viruses, bacteria and protozoan parasites. In contrast with mammals, and other vertebrate and invertebrate taxa, the identification and characterization of bona fide galectins in aquatic mollusks has been relatively recent. Most of the studies have focused on the identification and domain organization of galectin-like transcripts or proteins in diverse tissues and cell types, including hemocytes, and their expression upon environmental or infectious challenge. Lectins from the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, however, have been characterized in their molecular, structural and functional aspects and some notable features have become apparent in the galectin repertoire of aquatic mollusks. These including less diversified galectin repertoires and different domain organizations relative to those observed in vertebrates, carbohydrate specificity for blood group oligosaccharides, and up regulation of galectin expression by infectious challenge, a feature that supports their proposed role(s) in innate immune responses. Although galectins from some aquatic mollusks have been shown to recognize microbial pathogens and parasites and promote their phagocytosis, they can also selectively bind to phytoplankton components, suggesting that they also participate in uptake and intracellular digestion of microalgae. In addition, the experimental evidence suggests that the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus has co-evolved with the oyster host to be selectively recognized by the oyster hemocyte galectins over algal food
Christen M Klinger
Full Text Available Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites that cause tremendous disease burden world-wide. They utilize a set of specialized secretory organelles in their invasive process that require delivery of components for their biogenesis and function, yet the precise mechanisms underpinning such processes remain unclear. One set of potentially important components is the multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs, factors increasingly implicated in all aspects of vesicle-target interactions. Prompted by the results of previous studies indicating a loss of membrane trafficking factors in Apicomplexa, we undertook a bioinformatic analysis of MTC conservation. Building on knowledge of the ancient presence of most MTC proteins, we demonstrate the near complete retention of MTCs in the newly available genomes for Guillardiatheta and Bigelowiellanatans. The latter is a key taxonomic sampling point as a basal sister taxa to the group including Apicomplexa. We also demonstrate an ancient origin of the CORVET complex subunits Vps8 and Vps3, as well as the TRAPPII subunit Tca17. Having established that the lineage leading to Apicomplexa did at one point possess the complete eukaryotic complement of MTC components, we undertook a deeper taxonomic investigation in twelve apicomplexan genomes. We observed excellent conservation of the VpsC core of the HOPS and CORVET complexes, as well as the core TRAPP subunits, but sparse conservation of TRAPPII, COG, Dsl1, and HOPS/CORVET-specific subunits. However, those subunits that we did identify appear to be expressed with similar patterns to the fully conserved MTC proteins, suggesting that they may function as minimal complexes or with analogous partners. Strikingly, we failed to identify any subunits of the exocyst complex in all twelve apicomplexan genomes, as well as the dinoflagellate Perkinsus marinus. Overall, we demonstrate reduction of MTCs in Apicomplexa and their ancestors, consistent with modification during
Full Text Available protein PMT1441 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9313 MIQQEGPGWRLARDPARKAFPVLIGGEGWAIELTQDEWQCLQSLVVELTDQHQQLVDQLLAEESVCLEMERQPWWACLDGDRHSWSLQVILQGDGEKARGAEGCWSVPAAQAMATAMRTTWDFDQ ...
Full Text Available otein P9215_03981 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9215 MWSKIRLTIYGTTAIAGILWPFYFIIQFINLVRNGNIQGTFIDIGNAFFDDAWITPTSGFISADTAILLIAIFVFYAAEGKRLKLRFWGIYFPLTFIISLAFSFGAFMFIRELEINKELNETD ...
Full Text Available FR276682 AF397676,AF397677,AF397679,AF397680,AF397681,AF397682,AF397683,AF397684,AF397685,AF3976 ... RNA (rRNA) rRNA_5_8S Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9107,Prochlorococcus marinus str. SB,Prochlorococc ... us marinus str. MIT ... 9302,Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9312,Prochlo ...
Full Text Available idine synthase A Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9312 MKRIALLVQYDGSNYSGWQRQKNATTVQETLERALFKITHQVVKTFAAGRTDAGVHASGQVVHFNIDCVIPANSYS...DILNGLLPSAIRILESVEVKDSWHSCYSAMYRHYRYVINNSKFPNLFINNWSWHRYQKILDEVLMSNASKLMEGEHDFFAFQKSGSQRKNS
Full Text Available GTSLLGGLLGTANGWLLANCRFPGRRALRVAQLLPLATPAYLLSAILIDLGSRNAIRIHGMGWGILIMALTTYPYVFLLSTESFSICGRRQLEACRSLGVGPWNSFRRIA... transporter Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9303 MTQDAVPSSYGSNRLRKRHWQPDRLLLNSMAILLAVLALWPLIGLIREALQGFINGSASLGVDGPQQIQGTLTLLI...IVMSLVGYERRLRRRSRRWTEGVAGGDSPAWQLHGVRALCAQCLALIPPTITLGVPLLWAILNLDQLEQGIDPDLIPLTERSLGLGLAAASLAVVAGLILAIAKRWSS...TRWMGNLSFMAGIGYAIPGAVMAIALMPFNGAPWNLAWILLLLWGYSDRFLAVAKGGLDAAFERLSPSLDEAATGLGCQWQEVLRRVHLPLLKGPLAVGALLVFVDTVKELPLTFVLRPFDFDTLSVRLYQYAADERMAESILPALIIIALGLIASLALVPGLDQGERKKPPLSKEPLT ... ...LPMALPAIGAGIALMGMEVVNELGAVALLAIPSLSAGIVETWQMEGNPAGAIGLAMIALI
Full Text Available SGSLSCVYAIIYSLGRVWIEGLRTDPLCLGGVPPFCIGGIRIAQLISTILFGLGLLGLFWIYQRKKKLPSLGIIGRKHQ ... ...NDLLPILVISSIIGARAYYVIFEWRNYSGSNFWSSIQAFGLTISIPTFIKVWQGGIAIHGALLAGTIAILIFCRLKQEDFWDVLDVLI...PSVALGQAIGRWGNFFNNEAFGLPTDLPWKLFIPYPYRPEFFLDNNYFHPTFLYESIWNILLFLCLISLIRLSIKGKLKLP...protein diacylglyceryl transferase Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9211 MEAYFATFRSPGPELLKVGFFTLRWYGLLIAFAVLIGLNLSNKLASIKGLSKNLI
Full Text Available DSNIDVIVEVMGGTDMAKDIILKSLKARKSVVTANKAVIARYGSEIYATAAKYGVYVLTEAAVCGGIPIIEPLKRSLKSNQINKIVGIINGTTNFILSKMTNEKA...drogenase Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9515 MGKCKIGIIGFGTVGTGIYRILKSRNDVHPILKDIEIVGIAVKNINKNRNIELENNLLIDDPNKLIN...LRIICLDSPGVIGKIGDLFGKNDVSIESIVQLDASENKAEIVVITHEVSNGNFEKSKEGIRALPEVELIASQLSCI ... ...DYEETLKLAQKLGFAEFDPTADVEGHDAADKISILSELAFGGRINRDSISTEGINQINIKDIEYANKLGFEIKLLAFSERNTINNK
Full Text Available KDKYCTYRNLRRLRCIALFICELNATQDEAALLMHSGISTIEALTNLNPQEIITKTGRFERMLDTDREPVLNLRKAKKLINKAKEKLE ... ...tical protein P9211_10641 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9211 MKLLINKKKIAQNFRKEEQVLSSIGIDNWEAIMNLTDEYISCLV
Full Text Available GLSRLGLALLTSEKLPSEAPVSPKLINKAINAHKRPYPALKALKALKACKPQSTSWRAAGTDSSDGLIESIRGICQASNCQ...ophosphate kinase Prochlorococcus marinus str. NATL1A MTTTIQDLGEIELLNRLKKFMRCGQIDDDVAEINKINKSLLINTDLLVEKIHFS...AILSKTSILKHPDWPEDDIWDEWILNGGEDYELILSLPKDWAKSLSNKLKSAKIIGFIKEGKPNIFWDNLEQTRIDQSSLFRHFKL ...
Full Text Available binamide kinase Prochlorococcus marinus str. NATL2A MITPLEKNYKGLISITGPTRSGKSQLAEFLIKKQQSVTYIATSKPRPNDPDWQQRIDLHKKRRPDRWKLIE...HPKDICKAIESISKNGSILIDSIGGLVEHHLGDDDTQWEIFQDKLLNCFTDDNLLIVFVSEEVGWGIVPATPIGHLFRERHSTLTSLLSCRSKKRLLAINGIAIDLDQIGDLIP ...
Full Text Available KRPSMGISFDIPLDILEGIFDFWLDIYKNQEAWETCIGLLKVRKRISLTNLIESEGLKGNSKKWAIKVETLHTYVPTVPRIEKLNEPMWK ... ...ike Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9312 MENSSQYLFLASGAKNGEGFWIVGVKSCDETILEDKNLLDCHRKELIGNESAKDILFAINLNINNLFNELKNKNFLI
Full Text Available mide kinase Prochlorococcus marinus str. NATL1A MITPLEKNYKGLISITGPTRSGKSQLAEFLIKKQQSVTYIATSKPRPNDPDWQQRIDLHRKRRPDRWKLIEHPKDICKAIES...ISENGSILIDSIGGLVEHHLEDDDTQWEIFQDKLLNCFTDDNLLIVFVSEEVGWGIVPATPIGHLFRERHSTLTSLLSCRSKKRLLAINGIAIDLDQIGELIP ...
Full Text Available YGHEIYFGERGYKNSGGHLQPCPEWLIKNYAERLKLKFHYTFIPLIESIRIITFLKSIFPFLIAKKNHRKGLNAAINIWLIYK ... ...ical protein P9202_263 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9202 MALEIIEHLDYGYNLFKIFNNTLSNDGFALLSSPNNNSALDRYNFIR
Full Text Available EEGSWHGMFAGFCIGMLVDATHLEGASQIPALIILGFWWGRLGRQSQLIESSFNLGLLAWIGAFLIGLTIWVQKIYLLENKTISFFHAFSLHSLLAETIITALLAPIICSLLLLYFFRYKT ... ...al protein P9211_17461 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9211 MKKLSKRSLYLLIGFAVPFLNLLNPAWISIKGVGPSWAVLWLLPWAL
Full Text Available IVMEIGTTRAIAAQILRHRSFSFQEFSQRYADVSTMAFAKPPSLRRQDIKNRQSSIDDLDQETVSKLSSKANLLFEQSRDLYQEMLAAGVAKECAREVLPLATPTKIYMAGSVRSWLHYIDLRSAHGTQKEHQDVAIKCREILTQEMPCVCNAMWP ... ...t thymidylate synthase Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9303 MNTVSLISVTPKAEEIIAYCARVSNPQNQDNPDSERLIRYLIKHRHWSPFEMAH
Full Text Available Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9313 MSDGSVNSDSPLPSPSSYLSKDINAVMAQSDALVGIDDVQKSLNRSRASVYRYTNTDPRNLNPSFNPRKLNPEYRSDQ...KDPLLFHPNEVARFAKDVLRIKEVTVEVLNSPSTATQQVLGSILEELRAIRSQLDGLNDAPSDLAAHRERQDRPAA ...
Full Text Available se Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9303 MSDGSVNSDSPLPSPSSDLSKDINAVMAQSDALVGIDDVQKSLNRSRASVYRYTNTDPRNLNPSFNPRKLNPEYRSDQ...KDPLLFHPNEVARFAKDVLRIKEVTVEVLNSPSTATQQVLGSILEELRAIRSQLDGLNDAPSDLAAHRERQDRPAA ...
Full Text Available l protein PMT0264 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9313 MPAFSLGLPVVGMIWALNALMLIKADLVRGYGWLADPPISNLWPCSLAGRQP...VLAIATAQDDREARRRAIIYSVGSAPSPIWCSQVLMRCGPAFDINGEPNLAGGFQNRVLIYGLPASLSHGEPGFVARPDPLLPVLRLELEENFKAPNGKMQRIRSAASA ...
Systemic sclerosis (SS) is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized clinically by thickening and fibrosis of the skin and by distinctive forms of involvement of internal organs, notably the heart, lungs, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. We analyzed nineteen patients with SS 9 with SSI, 10 with SSd and two healthy controls. All patients were evaluated by comprise of skin, heart, lungs, and kidneys. Pulmonary assessments were performed with chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography, vital capacity, forced expiratory volume and bronchoalveolar lavage (cellular counts and measured interleukin). The interleukin's levels of IL 6, IL 1 β IL 8, and TNFα were found increased in all patients with SS, but not in healthy controls. The interleukin's level in SSd patients tended to be higher than in SSI patients, but this difference only reach statistical significance with interleukins 6. Lung involvement in SS is associated with an increase in interleukin's levels in BAL fluids, but this difference only reach statistical significance with the interleukins 6 lL 1β and TNFα
Maria João Lança
Modulation of BLM lipids associated with NKA activity seems to be the strategy adopted by gill cells of juveniles to compensate for osmotic and ionic stressors and for contact/resistance to ATZ exposure.
Hoye, Thomas R; Dvornikovs, Vadims; Fine, Jared M; Anderson, Kari R; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Muddiman, David C; Shao, Feng; Sorensen, Peter W; Wang, Jizhou
The discovery of two new components of the migratory pheromone used by sea lamprey to guide adults to spawning grounds was recently reported. These hold promise for use in a pheromone-based control program for this species, an invasive pest in the Great Lakes. Details of the structure determination of these steroidal bis-sulfates [petromyzosterol disulfate (PSDS, 2) and petromyzonamine disulfate (PADS, 3)] are described here. Pattern matching of 1H NMR data was particularly valuable. This involved comparison of spectra of the natural samples of 2 and 3 with those of appropriate steroidal analogues [e.g., petromyzonol sulfate (PS, 1, a previously known sea lamprey bile acid derivative that is a third component of the migratory pheromone), cholesterol sulfate (6), and squalamine (8)] and model compounds containing the unprecedented aminolactam substructure present in 3. The logic underlying the iterative analyses used is presented. PMID:17718505
Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1290 ref|YP_001011324.1| permease [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9515] gb|ABM722 ... | Predicted permease [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9515] YP_001011324.1 1.2 26% ...
Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0712 ref|YP_396762.1| ammonium transporter [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9312] ... ammonium transporter [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9312] YP_396762.1 0.39 29% ...
Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1063 ref|YP_001011324.1| permease [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9515] gb|ABM722 ... | Predicted permease [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9515] YP_001011324.1 1.8 25% ...
Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0189 ref|YP_396602.1| Thioredoxin domain 2 [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9312] ... Thioredoxin domain 2 [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9312] YP_396602.1 9.6 31% ...
Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1582 ref|YP_001011324.1| permease [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9515] gb|ABM722 ... | Predicted permease [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9515] YP_001011324.1 0.088 26% ...
Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0594 ref|NP_895536.1| hypothetical protein PMT1709 [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... hypothetical protein [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9313] NP_895536.1 3.2 32% ...
Full Text Available etical protein P9211_14491 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9211 MAAAAFLSAAAFLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACL...SAAAFLSAAAFLAAAAFLSAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLAAAACL...SAAAFLAAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAAFLSAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLAAAACL...SAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLAAAACLSTPCLLAATCKSILYVLIYSSTLIVSKRPSLLKVNQLH ...
Full Text Available TIDYVVTKIPRFAFEKFKGSPAVLSTAMKSVGEAMAIGRCFEESFQKAMRSLEIGRAGWGCDRQEPEFTPTEIERLLRTPSPERIMAVRTAMLAGRSDHDIYALSKIDIWFLAKLRHMINIE...PLYRLDSDDQLYKLEPESEVVTDNRAKVMILGGGPNRIGQGIEFDYCCCHASFASQDKGFVTVMVNSNPETVSTDYDTSDRLYFEPLTLEDVLNVIEAER...hate synthase large subunit Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9313 MPRRSDLRRILLLGSGPIVIGQACEFDYSGTQACKALRDEGFEVVLVNSNPASIMTDPE...MRSTGEVMGSASSFGMAFAKSEIAAGDSLPIRGTVFLSTHDRDKPALILVAERLIELGFDLTATSGTAQALNRAGLNVQPVLKVHEGRPNIEDLIRSGQIQLVINTPIGRQAAHDDKYLRRAALDYSVPTLTTIAGARAAVEGITALQQQSLSVAALQDIHV ... ...MADRTYIEPLTPEVVTRVIELERPDALLPTMGGQTALNLAVELAENHTLERFGVELIGADLAAIRKAEDRQLFKQAMERIGVNVCPSGIAS
Full Text Available EAQVKITINREKNTLTISDNGIGMNDEEIKKYINQVAFSSAEEFLTKYKKDNDEFIGHFGLGFYSSFMVADKVDILTKSAIGESKAFKWSCDGSPNFTLEESERETIGTDVILHLLEEEKEFIEPER...DEKFAELVNNSIIFETIINSEKNVTKNIENKSLIKSNDKYFTTLANYKERNKLTDSKKIIYCSDLIAQSSALKICLSDNKEVIKSDPLIDAQFLPWLESKNEDFQFQRVDSEINEIE...NTDYPYDIQGILYFPKLSGRADWEKGEIKLFCNQVFVSDSIKEIVPKYLLPLRGVIDSTDIPLNVSRSALQTDRKVRSISSFISKKIANKLKDLIKNSPEFYAEIWDSISAFIKIGAIE...ck protein 90 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9301 MEKGEIRINTENIFPIIKKAVYSDHEIFLRELVSNGVDAISKRRMASMAGDCENTE...IKSLIKKYCDFMPIDVLLEGETINKKNPPWRKQPSELKDEDYIELYKYLYPFQGDPLLWIHL
Full Text Available photosystem I PsaK protein (subunit X) Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris str. CCMP1986 MLTTLFAAAAAPATFEWSPKCAIVMIACNVFAYAIARATIRKPNEGFEIPNSQFFGGLSHASVVGANCLGHIFGIGAILGLASRGVL ...
Full Text Available etical protein P9301_14351 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9301 MSSFGVMFHHFHGDYHKPSQGSINKNDFERIIDYLQSKYLIINANSY...DKWFRYLRDVVLKEYNYDQIMLKIMNKCNFDKSSASKKLWIKTSQLKEMHQEGHIIGLHSYSHPTKIDNLPYQQ...LKKIINKSLKPNEICLTFDDALRSQYDIAIPILRQRNISAFFFIYSSVFSNNPSKLEIYRYFRSNYFQSIDQFYSQFFDIVKTNFRDKYNSELEQYKSLNYLSHFPFYTNS...QNEEYQKNLYHLKKVLNVEKIESMSHPCGRYNGDTLDILKDIGIKVGFRSNMSIKETKNSLEIPREDHSNILSRIK ...
Full Text Available HLLDGDAASNTLSWRWVAGMHTNKKPYLASKENINKYTVNRFRDTSISLSSKINIIKHSQHKSNKLPVQRSFPNSNILIMFDNDMDIMSRSTLFNSYS...olyase-like protein Prochlorococcus marinus str. NATL1A MNIFDEANDLLDNFIFNHLNSYHQLRNYDYGIEDRTNVSQISKYTSHRILYE...FDIIEKLKKYDKKQKYTDEILWRIYWKGYLENYKSIWFEYINFKENSNNSYLISSAINGKTGIDCFDTWIEELRENNYLHNHARMWFASIWIFTLGLPWQLGARLFMK...KVYILRNIAINNEFDLSENVSQFKRGLIDKVNKLIPNSEVLKSTDLGINLSGHNFIDVIYPGVGHNLDLINKFANQNQIIFNYIYREDDLKYWNYANSGFYKFKTSFNRINMI ...
Full Text Available n Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris str. CCMP1986 MKLFQKLIAVPAVISMSTGFAVNAAEINSIDLNSYSDSSKVASMSDFQSNEF...WDMAVGHSMDASKTWPNACSMNNMVDNLGDCGAANSVDLSGDTSFSASTGFGDGFELGIGVSGGDGTGLFTEQSSDAYGLAVGYETDSYGFTAAYSDKDTASYYGLTAYYS...PEGLPTTLSGGFEFGTPEGTGEDTTQWAFGISGDVGEGTLSANVGTNGQMKDSTTDVYAYDLSYEYPLNDSMSVTPFVYVSEVAGSDNTTGFGSFLSFSF ... ...FPGDWTYESLKELSTKTNNVDSSIFNGKSISRIQAAAVLNSVIQSDDLLAGGEGMMNGSMINRLSDELGSELAIMKGRVDGLEARVNEFEAGQFSETTTMSAGAGFLI...GATDSASGQTGLNNNDTVQFEYILEVDFNTSFTGEDKLNIEIETGNGLTNVGADKVGLDWGSGNADVLKLDDINYSFPVGS
Full Text Available GTSLLGGLLGTANGWLLANCRFPGRRALRVAQLLPLATPAYLLSAILIDLGSRNAIRIHGMGWGILIMALTTYPYVFLLSTESFSICGRRQLEACRSLGVGPWNSFRRIA...ransporter Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9313 MTQDAVPSNYGSNRLRKRHWQPDRLFLNSMAILLAVLALWPLIGLIREALQGFINGSASLGVDGPQQIQGTLTLLI...MSLVGYERRLRRRSRRWTEGVAGGDSPAWQLHGVRALCAQCLALIPPTITLGVPLLWAILNLDQLEQGIDPDLIPLTERSLGLGLAAASLAVVAGLILAIAKRWSSTRWMGNLSFVAGIGYAIPGAVMAIA...LMPFNGAPWNLAWILLLLWGYSDRFLAVAKGGLDAAFERLSPSLDEAATGLGCQWQEVLRRVHLPLLKGPLAVGALLVFVDTVKELPLTFVLRPFDFDTLSVRLYQYAADERMAESILPALIIIALGLIASLALVPGLDQGEQKKPHSSKEPLT ... ...LPMALPAIGAGIALMGMEVVNELGAVALLAIPSLSAGIVETWQMEGNPAGAIGLAMIALIIV
Full Text Available ELSLQSIPVNLKKIFIINDPVDQINKSLSDVSFEELTERNKLIRIITSELNDPKIYKNISKDFENKNFKFLIDEIEKKSNNNSYKPSPDTFDLFKGDRFLYHLLSRKFDFDDSALITKSFSSKMFLKIL...AIRLIPLFTILIGSILALKILWTTIALKKFGWKEIKYLDLELIDMVLLIAGGFVVLGE...IVLNNNNYLSFFLLFLTTTLLAPLFEEIIFRGILLPTLSRNFGVISGIIISAFIFALAHLSLGEMPPLFVLGIGLGITRIASGSLFSSVIMHSLWNGLTFLNLFLLRT ... ...e-associated protease Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9301 MIFKNISKSKLTLAFISIVITFFVWQQGLRDSLNRPSVTFDISQKEQEIA...VVSPLFSISLVELFSRNISNELSQSLKIFFGYLFMAIPPLGIVYYQIKSLNGEFNFKKDYLQFNFLPIKYAIIQGIKGWLTIVPFVLLISLIMNSLIDNQNGSNPLLE
Full Text Available TNDPIDEINHSLSQVPFDELTERNKLIRIISSESNKPTINKNIFKDFEDKNFNLLMDEIEKKSNDNSYKLNSDNFDFFKGDRFLYHLLSKKFHFDDSSLI...TKSFSSKMFLKILAIRFIPLLTILLGSILALKRLWETISLKKFGWQEIKSLDLGLIDMVLLIAG...GSNPLLEIVLNNNNYLSFFLLFVTTTILAPLFEEIIFRGILLPTLSRDFGIISGIIVSAFIFALAHLSLGEMPPLFVLGIGLGITRIASGSLFSSVIMHSLWNGLTFLNLFLLRT ... ...membrane associated protease Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9202 MIFKNISKAKLSLALISLVITFFVWQQGLRDSLNRPSVSFDITQKEQEILELSVQSIPTNLKNILI...GFVVLGEVISPLFSISLVELFSKNISNELSQSLKIFFGYLFMAIPPLGIVYYQIKSLHGQFTFKKDYLQFNFLPIKYSIIQGIKGWLTIVPFVLLISLIMNSLIDNQN
Full Text Available GSASWWVASKEMGDGTYFVKRQVIWLISSWSIAWFTISISLRKWLKLSRSCLLICLLLVIGTLLFGSTINGSSRWLIVGPIRIQPSELVKPFVILQ...QSLLAIGSGGWFGEGYGLSTQKLLYLPFLSTDFIFAVFAEEFGFVGSLMLVLFLTLIAFVGLRIALRCRNNYSKLIAIGCSTLLVGQAIMHLAVASGSMPTTGLPLPMISYGGNSLLSSLLIGGLLIRCALESTGLIGGLEIKKRLN ... ...AANVFAQWKRLQIDHKIFWLGLFGGLIALILKQPNLSTAALIGILLWLMALSAGIKFSSLLSTAFLGGLIGASSILINEYQKLRVISFINPWQDPQGSGYQLI...on protein FtsW Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9211 MSVQDLQKSNSQKVLTKRSKPYLPRKLHNQTFWQRLLPLPWDIWPAEARLLLALIAFWSFAGLFIL
Full Text Available carboxypeptidase 3 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9313 MRILPACSKIAKRNHSQLLIRILGAGGILIGSNVSAAPTVLSPPPPVAIQG...WPSLQSGRLCPSLQRSFKSLLGQGSSAWSVSVLDRHGQLLADINGTIAKVPASNQKLITTAFALDKLGPDFKLRTQLLRRPDGVLEISGEGDPDLGITEIQRFAMAALGQGGSRTFRSHDDLQLLIR...LSLVNHDQVKTSSAQSVLLHEEDSAPMHALVSLANAESHNFTAEVLLRHAAKSWDVRLASREAMRWMQRQNLPLTGLRIADGSGLSRNNRMSSQTLATLLMRMGHHPLAPYYQASMAIA...GQRGTLRKLFRGTSLEGKFWGKTGTLNGVRSISGILETEDGPRYVSAIANGASSPNRTIGLLLKAIQRFSPCSSSLSTSK ... ...EEPQQRWWPSDWHPADRIYAYGAPITRLALTSNALDVAVTNPIGRLQRLLEREIHRQGGSAH
Full Text Available ELSVQSIPVNFKKFFIINDPVVQINKSLSDVSFEELTERNKLIRIITSESNDPLIYKNISKDFQDKNYQFLIDEIEKKSNNNSYKVNSEKFDLFKGDRFLYHLLSRKFDFDDSALITKSFSSKMFFKILAIR...LIPLLTILIGSILALKIIWTTISLKKFGWKEIKSLDLELIDMVLLIAGGFVVLGEVV...LNNNNYLSFFLLFVTTTLLAPLFEEIIFRGILLPTLSRDFGVISGIIVSAFIFALAHLSLGEMPPLFVLGIGLAITRIASGSLFSSVIMHSLWNGLTFLNLFLLRT ... ...e-associated protease Prochlorococcus marinus str. AS9601 MIFQNTSKSKLTLAFISIVITFFVWQQGLRDSLNRPSVSFDISQKEQEIA...SPLFSISLVELFSKNISNELSQSLKIFFGYLFMAIPPLWIVFYQIKSLNGEFTFKKDYLQFNFLPIKYAIIQGIKGWLTIVPFVLLISLIMNSLIDNQNGSNPLLEIV
Full Text Available KDKNSKIGMLNYSSRETYSEIDEIAHPLIRESLRYLKINNLIEMNSYGFASGGGGLGGSSSFCISFLAALNKAFNLNIANKELAHICSEIEINILGKPIGRQDQYISSLGGIN...ALLYKPKGHVEILNLSKNHIEAIKLVSDELILIPSLRTRSADKVLHNFKNSNKAKESLKDIRSICENFLKTNKSIN...al protein PMT9312_1336 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9312 MIFIGKCPYRISLLGGGSDLDWFVEDECFGNSIGFSLAKYSYTVINK...ELYDLLNHSIKESWEIKRKMSNVMDLELENQFNIINQIPNNWIRLIGAGSGGYFLLSSKVDINEALSFLSNKDIKALKVELSKEGISACVV ...
Full Text Available IFQLGNIYLMEKNYEKAIEEFDKAIKIKKDFWQAINNQGLAYFELNKINLSIISFKKALELEESAEPLLALASCLKNKDINKAIVLAKKALNKDPNYVDFNYRKEQLWGKKLQISTEKLFENPQIKKEILVAKTKIK ... ...YLPETKSLQKQGLSIGKEAYQLLYFGQIKDSLNLAKLAVKINNKSEILWTILAETQIANKLYDDALISLDNAQKINPKMSEIYFAKSTIYLKQSKIKKAEISLLSGIKILPKNFKA...etical protein PMM0006 Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris str. CCMP1986 MKKSLLKILFFSIISSHVFIAESLKALIPYY
Full Text Available al protein P9211_15661 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9211 MPSLLLIPSGIGCSIGGYAGDAIPTARLLAAACGSLITHPNVINGAA...ELDRYRKGQGVDLMAGAEAVVSHLLTRHLLLPCAHAPALSALSLSSDLNPLVAAEEMAHTFLPCVLVGLSRAPDLIP...LYWNDERIQYVEGFGIDRFACGEFLLRPVRRQKVGLLLDAGLESELRQRHLQAVDGCRATLGLSIGPVVTTDVPLGISLQRGASGASWGTLDNPDSLLRAGDILKERGATAIAVVTRFPDDVNTA...LNALDKISHRLLLDCISSDQLGAVIATEGALGGEAVLGCLERGTPLIIVSNPGVLNVDSESLGLKDRLSSNQNLVLKASNYFEAAAFLLALREGIEITSLKRPIERTG ...
Full Text Available ISTKNKYKNLNIISFERRRGILFIAFLIKLFSKNKAHNVIIYFNNITSLWVVLGAKIAGVNNLAICVQNLIESFSIKNLKLIFLMRIFNMLNVKLVPCSYAIKNSFLN...IASELGLDIKKIFVGSKLDIPAMLAEADIFAFSTTLSEGFGIALIEAMAARLPIIATDVPACREVLDDGKAGILIPKGRVDLWINSLNEIISSSTKRDYYIEKSAQNLKKYDSKIVKTKWLKLFKE ... ...l protein P9515_13801 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9515 MTINFHILDGIKIGGIENLALTMSREGMPMEKNYLINLNKNINNFSND...FNKNIIFSNVIPNCINVKSFQNEVQKNIKFRKINSPITIMMVARLDEIKDQETLLRAYAKINKKCNLILVGDGNKRAYLEG
Full Text Available LNSEGKKLSKRDCVTSIDEFREMGYLPEALSNYMAFLGWSPKSADREILSLEEISKIFDLSEINKAGAKFSWEKLNWINSQYIKNIESIKLIEIMRKYWDDNGWKPPSEEWANKLAILI...RDSMTLLKDSIDQSKPFFLIPTIQKEGQDFLEIRESKLSLKLILNYLIEKNTIKLNKEKAKEIINEISKKHNIKKGILMKSLRVAFFGSLSGPDLIQSWELFAESKTDRTRIERCL ... ...l-tRNA synthetase Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9301 MEKRLRLAPSPTGLFHIGTARTALFNWLYAQKIGGKFLIRIEDTDFLRSKSE...YTKNILEGLKWLGLKWDEEPIKQSDRISIHKSYIKKLLECGAAYRCFTSEDEISELREEQKKKGLPPKHDNRHRSLSKEEIETFISQGRTSVIRFKIDEKIEIKWIDQ...IRGEIKWQGKDLGGDLVLSRRAKGYEIGDPLYNLAVVVDDNFMNITHVVRGEDHISNTAKQILIYKALNFNLPTFSHTPLI
Full Text Available al protein P9303_04231 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9303 MATRSLISLYALLATSAVITQSAEAAVYSQPNACNPIEANIQGIRNGS...WSLFLRPNNIIFGENDQARSWKNGSGKSWKNGSSSGKWKNGSGKNWKNSSGWRNGGWRNGSSGKWKNGSGGFLNW ...
Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...
Ballaekere Jayaram Subhashchandra; Mohammed Ismailkhan; Kuppegala Chikkaveeraiah Shashidhar; Moda Gopalakrishna Narahari
Miliary mottling on chest radiography is seen in miliary tuberculosis, certain fungal infections, sarcoidosis, coal miner’s pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hemosiderosis, fibrosing alveolitis, acute extrinsic allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinophilic syndrome, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and rarely in hematogenous metastases from the primary cancers of the thyroid, kidney, trophoblasts, and some sarcomas. Although very infrequent, miliary mottling can be seen in primary lung cancers. Herein,...
Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Hachem, Maher Abou; Ramchuran, Santosh;
the light of this, a revision of experimental data present on both Xyn10A and Man26A was performed, and the results all indicate a cell-anchoring role of the domain, suggesting that this domain represents a novel type of module that mediates cell attachment in proteins originating from members of the...
Full Text Available TPVPVLDMIAAAAVNAQMVIEIAKIHGVKLTNERAKNLALSVGKILATMGIVKGGVSLISSTLSLSLPTLVISKVIQGISVSWLTRIAGASFITYFQQDQDWGDGGIQEVVEYHYNLNKREEYFKSFIRRAYERVIDPLVEKNLKKLPPRSRPPKEGDSSVL ... ...ICGLSYTKKIDWLQNSLRSIFKIKDEKKSLDLSLISKKEAADKSLKSIDHLITLINDKVKAKALKDEKDRVSLELDRGDIILVVFGIGSSGKTSLIRALLKKIVGK...NSRCNDFIGPNDIICTSASPQTIAVTGRKPYQPAPEINSLIRRLANILHEEGEELIADNILLQCSNIGKEGKNLLIKQRTQSAKKCIDKYGWLSSGALIL... and related small G proteins Prochlorococcus marinus str. NATL1A MKIHNSRKIIFYVLIIFISLIIIGLVGAIIRLINIPAILITVLI...VSPEMGSTRGKETFRLKLKGLTRGIRIIDTPGILESGRGGREREKSALMEARKSDLMLVVIEGDLRSEETRTIRSLSKLGKRLLLVLNKIDLRGESEEKRLIEIL
Full Text Available Ala carboxypeptidase 3 (S13) family protein Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9303 MKIIPASFQITKRTHSQLLIRILGAGGILI...VLEISGEGDPDLGITEIQRFAMAALGQGGSRTFRSHDDLQLLIREEPQQRWWPSDWHPADRIYAYGAPITRLALTSNALDV...AVTNPIGRLQRLLEREIHRQGGKAHLSLVNHDQVKTSSAQSVLLHEEDSAPMHALVSLANAESHNFTAEVLLRHAAESWDVRLASREAMRWMQRQNLPLTGLRIADGS...GLSRNNRMSSQTLATLLMRMGHHPLAPYYQASMAIAGQRGTLRKLFRGTSLEGKFWGKTGTLNGVRSISGILETVDGPRYVSAIANGASSPNRTIGLLLKATQRFSPCSSSLSTSN ... ...GSNVNAAPTVLSPPPPVAVQGWPSLQSGRLCPSLQRSFKSLLGQGSSAWSVSVVDRHGQLLADINGTVAKVPASNQKLITTAFALDKLGPDFKLRTQLLRRPDG
Full Text Available LKKIVGKVSPEMGSTRGKETFRLKLKGLTRGIRIIDTPGILEAGRGGREREKSALIEARKSDLMLVVIEGDLRSEETRTIR...SLSKLGKRLLLVLNKIDLRGESEEKRLIEILNSRCNDFIGPNDIICTSASPQTIAVNGRKPYQPAPEINSLIRRLANILHEEGEELIADNILLQCSNIGKEGKNLLIKQRTQSAKKCIDKYGWLSSGALIL...TPVPVLDMIAAAAVNAQMVIEIAKIHGVKLTNERAKNLALSVGKILATMGIVKGGVSLISSTLSLSLPTLVISKVIQGISVSWLTRIA...ng protein domain-containing protein Prochlorococcus marinus str. NATL2A MKIHNSRKIIFYVLIIFISLIIIGLVGAIIRLINIPAILITVLI...IGGLTYTKKIDWLQNSLRSIFKIKDEKKSLDLSLISKKEAADKSLKSIDHLITLINDKVKAKALKDEKDRVSLELDRGDIILVVFGIGSSGKTSLIRAL
Full Text Available EINNSIKSSLENLNNFSHDEPSVTSFINQSLKILNKTADFDLKIQKFREKLFNIHADVEDLIFDLKSYLQEIESYESNLPEIQKRLFFLKNLERTFALDLTQLIEKRDQLKMYFQQNDQGNEICRIKAQIE...RPGKDFCVIEAIFSSSIQINNWLIRNGFEITSSELQIKRKSYKKNNKILTKYSLNDLPINRQSLEKLGGFLIDFAGQSDTFIFDSLDKRRLI...NFQSNLNSLFVIQSIERKKIAKQLQNSVMLILSNLGLENANFLIQFSECKPSGDGIDDINFLFSANPDQKLAPLSNVISGGEMSRFLLAIKSSISKQPNTFFL...DEIDSGLSGKSLFSLVELIKEISKNQQVLCITHQPFLAARGSVHFKVNKNVINGITYTSIAKLTTKNQRKNELIELIGGGSCEVIEYASRLLDRSAA ... ... protein RecN, ABC transporter Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9301 MLVQLKIENIALIEIIEINFEKGLNIITGDSGSGKSLILDSLNALFGGTNIPLKHLI
Incidence of fibrinolytic alveolitis, acute infection, edema, and pain longer than two days after dental extraction = Incidência de alveolite fibrinolítica, infecção aguda, edema e dor por mais de dois dias após extração dentária
Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos
Full Text Available Objetivo: Este é um estudo prospectivo, observacional e descritivo sobre a incidência de alveolite fibrinolítica (FA, infecção aguda (AI, edema e dor por mais de dois dias (P2D após cirurgia de extração dentária. Metodologia: A amostra foi constituída por 80 casos cirúrgicos de extração dentária realizados por alunos de odontologia da Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina. As seguintes complicações foram registradas: 2 casos de FA (2,5%, 2 casos de AI (2,5%, 8 casos de edema significativo (10% e 8 casos de dor com duração por mais de dois dias após a cirurgia (10%. Resultados: O teste do qui-quadrado mostrou associação significativa entre osteotomia e desenvolvimento de FA (P=0,001, e entre P2D (P=0,02 e edema (P=0,01. O relato de extração dentária difícil ou traumática foi relacionado com desenvolvimento de FA (P=0,01, P2D (P < 0,001 e maior edema (P < 0,001. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que FA, edema e P2D estavam relacionados com extração dentária mais traumática e realização de osteotomia nesta amostra
de Melo Júnior, E J M; Raposo, M J; Lisboa Neto, J A; Diniz, M F A; Marcelino Júnior, C A C; Sant'Ana, A E G
The effectiveness of medicinal herbs as antimicrobial agents was tested on isolated microorganisms from an induced alveolitis and on alveolitis in rats. Sixteen ethanolic extracts from plants were prepared and tested. The plant materials were selected from ethnobotanic data and the best result was obtained with Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. The activity on Enterococcus, Bacillus corineforme, Streptococcus viridans and S. beta-hemolytic was better than the one presented by the antibiotic currently used for the treatment of alveolitis. The extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi has shown good wound-healing activity by histological analysis. PMID:11995943
Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0349 ref|ZP_05139216.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Prochlorococcus marinus str ... . MIT ... 9202] gb|EEE41041.1| conserved hypothetical protei ... n [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9202] ZP_05139216.1 0.038 27% ...
Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-13-0001 ref|NP_895535.1| hypothetical protein PMT1708 [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... emb|CAE21883.1| rodA [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... 9313] NP_895535.1 0.035 30% ...
Ruano, Francisco; Batista, Frederico M; Arcangeli, Giuseppe
Perkinsosis is a disease of gastropod and bivalve molluscs caused by protozoan parasites of the Perkinsus genus. These parasites have been responsible for mass mortalities worldwide, with a significant impact in both fisheries and aquaculture, and resulting in severe economic losses. This review focuses mainly on current knowledge of diagnostic methods and on the distribution of Perkinsus spp. in the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, which infect the grooved carpet shell clam Ruditapes decussatus and the Japanese carpet shell clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The association between perkinsosis and high mortality rates of R. decussatus and R. philippinarum in southern European countries such as Portugal and Italy is discussed as is the role of environmental factors in those mortality outbreaks. The putative introduction of Perkinsus olseni into the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea is also discussed, as are management strategies that could be used to mitigate the impact of perkinsosis in production of R. decussatus and R. philippinarum. PMID:26239015
Kayacan, O.; Beder, S; KARNAK, D.
Pneumoconiosis is still a health problem in Turkey and has a relatively high incidence. Retired underground miners were investigated to document alveolitis, and to observe the difference in the cellular profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with or without pneumoconiosis.
Full Text Available H00346 Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA); Hypersensitivity pneumonitis Extrinsic allergic alveoli...ainly organic antigens by sensitized subjects. This induces a hypersensitivity response in the distal bronchioles and alveoli...tion The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2007) PMID:16635083 (description, env_factor) Ismail T, McSharry C, Boyd G Extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Respirology 11:262-8 (2006) ...
Die hypoxische pulmonale Vasokonstriktion (HPV) gewährleistet unter physiologischen Bedingungen eine optimale Anpassung der lokalen Perfusion an die Ventilationsverhältnisse der Lunge. Auslöser der HPV ist eine lokale alveoläre Hypoventilation, die in minderbelüfteten Lungenbezirken zur reflektorischen pulmonalarteriellen Vasokonstriktion und somit einer Umleitung des Blutflusses zu besser belüfteten Lungenarealen führt. Chronische alveoläre Hypoxie führt dagegen zu pulmonaler Hypertonie, Cor...
Full Text Available Petromyzon marinus cDNA 3', mRNA sequence /clone_end=3' /gb=EE273115 /gi=111169992 /ug=Pma.7410 /len=694 1e-18 49% MCVVCVSYVCRM...CVVCVSYVCRMCVVCVSCVCCVCVVCVSYVSCVCRVCVVCVSYVCRVYVVCMLYVCCVYVVCISYVCRMCVVCVSCVCRM...CVVCVSYVCRVYVVFMSYVCRMCVVCVSCLCSVYVVCMSYVCRMYVVCMLRLCCVYLVCLLYVCRMYVVCVSYVCCVYVVCMLYVCRMCVVCMLYVCRMYFVCMYACRM
Editorial Staff, Frontiers of Biogeography
cover: Mouth of a Petromyzon marinus lamprey, taken at Aquarium Finisterrae (Coruña, Galicia, Spain). The original has been rotated. Picture by Drow male (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Drow_male), Creative Commons license.
Full Text Available Petromyzon marinus cDNA 3', mRNA sequence /clone_end=3' /gb=EE276047 /gi=111173437 /ug=Pma.1199 /len=495 0.004 30% MRPVI...TRPIIATPIITAHILTARVITRPVITRPVIATPIITAHILTARVITRPVITSAVIATPIITAHILTAPVITRPIITSPVI...ATPIITAHILTAPVITRPVITSPVIATPIITAHILTAPVITRPVITSAVIATPIITAHILTAPVITRPVITSAVIATPIITAHILTARVITGSVTTRAVMTCPWRTCLPSGLAVQHVCN ...
Flynn, James D; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F; Klotz, Martin G; Knief, Claudia; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Murrell, J Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D; Svenning, Mette M; Stein, Lisa Y; Kyrpides, Nikos; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Bringel, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; DiSpirito, Alan A; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G
The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems. PMID:26798114
Flynn, James D.; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F.; Klotz, Martin G.; Knief, Claudia; Op Den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Trotsenko, Yuri A.; Murrell, J. Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Svenning, Mette M.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Kyrpides, Nikos
The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems.
Flynn, James D.; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F.; Knief, Claudia; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Khmelenina, Valentina N.; Trotsenko, Yuri A.; Murrell, J. Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Svenning, Mette M.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Bringel, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; DiSpirito, Alan A.
The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems. PMID:26798114
Full Text Available antitermination protein NusG Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9312 MSNELTTNLASSKANTSIARWYAVQVASSCEKKVKATLEQR...YP_396705.1 1117:25313 1212:957 1217:957 1218:957 1219:957 74546:217 transcription
Full Text Available s with different specificities Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9202 MINSTKNDKTIGITGASGALGKELTKLFRQKGYKVIGFS...ZP_05138363.1 1117:3468 1212:440 1217:440 1218:440 1219:440 93058:866 dehydrogenase
Full Text Available YP_397847.1 1117:3219 1212:425 1217:425 1218:425 1219:425 74546:294 dehydrogenase with different specificiti...es Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9312 MNLDLKDKFIIIAGGLGGIGLETVKDLISEGAEISILTQNES
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 22-26, 1990, 20 gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and 3 other fish species (n=4) were collected from marine waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From June 26 to 30,1990 spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus), and largemouth bass...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From August 24 to 28, 1990, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), hardhead catfish (Arius felis) and gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) were collected from...
Full Text Available o Petromyzon marinus cDNA 3', mRNA sequence /clone_end=3' /gb=EE272683 /gi=111169662 /ug=Pma.1613 /len=663 1e-08 26% MEVGIS...IMEVAISIMEVDISIMEVDISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVDISIMEVGISIMEVAISIMEVAISIMEVGISITEVRISIMEVGIS...IMEVGISITEVGISITEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISITEVGISITEVGISITEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGIS...ITEVGISIMEVGISITEVRISIMEVGFTITASSTSSLSSLTQARLLHLFPSTLQRTTSSCLMLSSSLSAMNNPLLDENLSTPPPLIILQIRHPSIHPHGGRPLSDAFRPWAAALFLVSAIGHRPSLAVTTRPDKAQISSGAV ...
Afd.: CHORDATA. Groep III: CEPHALOCHORDATA. Fam.: BRANCHIOSTOMATIDAE. Branchiostoma lanceolata (Pallas) — slakprik, niet aanwezig. Groep IV: CRANIATA. Klasse: Marsipobranchii. Fam.: PETROMYZONIDAE. Petromyzon marinus L. — zeeprik. 1 ex. beschadigd, Noordzee, uit het oude kabinet, in spir. no. 4277.
Pulmonary tissue may be damaged by certain toxins or drugs in a dose-dependent way or by a hypersensitivity reaction. Pathological changes consist of a permeability pulmonary edema, an alveolar hemorrhage, an alveolitis and finally the formation of pulmonary fibrosis. Ingestion of the weed killer paraquat may induce a rapidly progressive and lethal form of fibrosing alveolitis, the inhalation of nitrous oxides may elicit lung edema. The most common drugs causing lung damage are cytotoxic agents, often used in combination, and the noncytotoxic drugs amiodarone and nitrofurantoin. PMID:1589677
George S Rashed Philteos; Kelly Coverett; Rajni Chibbar; Ward, Heather A; Cockcroft, Donald W
Several inorganic dust lung diseases (pneumoconioses) are associated with autoimmune diseases. Although autoimmune serological abnormalities are common in asbestosis, clinical autoimmune/collagen vascular diseases are not commonly reported. A case of pulmonary asbestosis complicated by perinuclear-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (myeloperoxidase) positive probable microscopic polyangiitis (glomerulonephritis, pericarditis, alveolitis, multineuritis multiplex) is described and the possible...
Nørregaard, Marie-Louise Milvang; Kongstad, Johanne; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Haubek, Dorte
Pædodontisk parodontologi En tidlig alder for sygdomsdebut, høj sygdomsprogression, fravær af systemisk sygdom og involvering af flere tænder med et karakteristisk mønster for tab af den alveolære knogle er vigtige diagnostiske elementer ved den aggressive marginale parodontitis. Hos børn og unge...
Farre, J M; Perez, T; Hautefeuille, P; Tonnel, F; Colombel, J F; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B
The authors describe the association of gold salt-induced cholestasis and lymphocytic alveolitis proved by liver biopsy and broncho-alveolar lavage. To our knowledge this is the third case report on the combination of liver disease and pulmonary infiltration induced by gold compounds. PMID:2612124
Dias, Hermínia Brites; Clérigo, Anália; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Carla
Introduction - Poultry workers can be at an increased risk of occupational respiratory diseases, like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Spirometry screening is fundamental to early diagnosis trough the identification of related ventilatory defects. Purpose - We aimed to assess the prevalence of lung function abnormalities in poultry workers.
Fumagalli Giorgio; Sanguinetti Claudio M
Abstract We report a case of fever, dyspnea, respiratory failure and migratory, recurrent and bilateral lung opacities 4 months after radiotherapy and hormone therapy following surgery for breast cancer. Computerized tomography (CT) scans showed infiltrates outside the radiation fields. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed lymphocytic alveolitis, whereas laboratory analysis demonstrated a mild systemic inflammation. Systemic steroids resulted in clinical and radiological improvement, but a disease...
The aspects of the thorax high-resolution computed tomography of 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 11 patients with collagen vascular diseases are described and characterized mainly by the presence of reticular lesions with little cysts predominantly in the periphery and lower lobes. They may be associated with ground-glass lesions that, as usual, means areas of alveolitis. (author)
Marques, Lucas M; Guimarães, Ana M S; Martins, Hellen B; Rezende, Izadora S; Barbosa, Maysa S; Campos, Guilherme B; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Dos Santos, Andrea P; Amorim, Aline T; Santos, Verena M; Messick, Joanne B; Timenetsky, Jorge
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Ureaplasma diversum strain ATCC 49782. This species is of bovine origin, having an association with reproductive disorders in cattle, including placentitis, fetal alveolitis, abortion, and birth of weak calves. It has a small circular chromosome of 975,425 bp. PMID:25883297
Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Moustafa, Ahmed; Bhattacharya, Debashish
Plantae (sensu Cavalier-Smith 1981)  plastids evolved via primary endosymbiosis whereby a heterotrophic protist enslaved a photosynthetic cyanobacterium. This 'primary' plastid spread into other eukaryotes via secondary endosymbiosis. An important but contentious theory in algal evolution is the chromalveolate hypothesis that posits chromists (cryptophytes, haptophytes, and stramenopiles) and alveolates (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates) share a common ancestor that contained a...
Chambouvet, A.; Gower, D.J.; Jirků, Miloslav; Yabsley, M. J.; Davis, A. K.; Leonard, A.; Maguire, F.; Doherty-Bone, T.M.; Bittencourt-Silva, G.B.; Wilkinson, M.; Richards, T.A.
Roč. 112, č. 34 (2015), E4743-E4751. ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2330 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : frog decline * emerging disease * parasite * alveolates * molecular diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 9.674, year: 2014
Full Text Available 095_1881( CP000095 |pid:none) Prochlorococcus marinus str. NA... 66 7e-10 CP000838_96( CP000838 |pid:none) Acaryochloris marin...eq.d (612 letters) Database: ddbj_A 92,845,959 sequences; 95,242,211,685 total letters Searching...............-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U13889-1Q.Seq.d (612 letters) Database: nrp_B 3,236,559 sequences; 1,051,180,864 total letters Searchin...lorococcus marinus MIT9313... 65 2e-09 BX294151_174( BX294151 |pid:none) Rhodopirellula baltica...... 65 2e-09 CP000554_962( CP000554 |pid:none) Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT... 65 2e-09 CP001101_100( CP
Jackie A Pallister
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.
Full Text Available 3' end seq. - Length of 3' end seq. - Connected seq. ID - Connected seq. - Length of connected seq. - Full length Seq ID - Full length Seq. - Length of full length seq. - ... ...mfsiitipmfmlvwlmlvglqvivisfm vhwqmxqqllslrvllfiqlqhvigkwynvikslnsiqhqlqfvh**nsqyhllnnpinh...occus marinus subsp. marinus str. CCMP1375 section 4 of 6 of the complete genome....SS (Link to library) SSF655 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16501-1 SSF655F (Link...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16501-1 Original site URL http://dict
Deurs, Mikael van; Christensen, Asbjørn; Rindorf, Anna
prey. Here we studied zooplankton consumption and energy conversion efficiency of lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the central North Sea, using stomach data, length and weight-at-age data, bioenergetics, and hydrodynamic modeling. The results suggested: (i) Lesser sandeel in the Dogger area depend...
Full Text Available ococcus marinus str. MI... 38 0.12 AY623918_1( AY623918 |pid:none) Nyctotherus ovalis pyruvate dehydr...... 38 0.12 AY623920_1( AY623920 |pid:none) Nyctotherus ovalis pyruvate dehydr... 37 0.2
Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric
We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…
Paludan-Müller, Christine; Dalgaard, Paw; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone
-packed salmon was dominated by a Vibrio sp., resembling V. marinus, Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter agglomerans, Serratia liquefaciens and Rahnella aquatilis) and occasionally Aeromonas hydrophila. Irrespective of the addition of nisin and/or CO2- atmosphere, the LAB microflora was dominated by Carnobacterium...
Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator. On the left, Marinus van Gulik. (See Photo Archive 7402005 and Annual Report 1974, p. 44.)
Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0310 gnl|UG|Pma#S35157087 PMAO-aad66g05.g1 Lamprey_EST_Embryo Petromyzon marinus cD ... cture Of The Complex Between The Gef Domain Of The Salmonella ... Typhimurium Sope Toxin And Human Cdc42 pdb|1GZS|C ...
Luengo, José A.
Mouthbreeding in the male, and modifications of the pelvic fins of the female are recorded for the first time in Selenaspis herzbergii. The pelvic girdle of Selenaspis herzbergii is compared with those of Sciadeichthys proops, Arius spixii, and Bagre marinus. Data are given on eggs and fry in the bu