Sample records for alprostadil

  1. Alprostadil Urogenital (United States)

    ... relaxing the muscles and blood vessels in the penis to keep enough blood in the penis so that an erection can occur.Alprostadil does ... provided in the package and injected into the penis and as a urethral suppository (pellet to be ...

  2. How effective are alprostadil and hydrocortisone on reperfusion injury in kidney after distant organ ischemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available Background: After reestablishment of blood flow to ischemic limb recirculation of free radicals may cause ischemia-reperfusion injury in many organs. This study designed to investigate effects of hydrocortisone and alprostadil distant injury to kidneys by both measuring biochemical markers of oxidative stress and histopathologic examination in an experimental rat model of hind limb ischemia-reperfusion. Materials and Methods: This study conducted in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2011-2012. Ischemia was established by infra renal aortic clamping for 60 min in 32 male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into those receiving alprostadil (group ischemia-reperfusion plus alprostadil (IR/A, n = 8, those receiving hydrocortisone (group ischemia-reperfusion plus hydrocortisone (IR/H, n = 8, control group (group ischemia-reperfusion (IR, n = 8, and sham group (n = 8. After 120 min of reperfusion both kidneys were removed. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and glutathione (GSH as indirect markers of oxidative injury was measured. Finally all data in different groups were compared using the analysis of variance (ANOVA test by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. Results: Administration of alprostadil or hydrocortisone does not improve the biochemical parameters of oxidative injury including MDA and SOD. However, statistically significant difference was seen in GSH level among sham and IR groups. Mean (΁ standard deviation (SD concentration of GSH in IR, IR/A, IR/H, and sham groups were 1028.77 (72.65, 924.82 (70.66, 1000.28 (108.77, and 846.69 (163.52, respectively (P = 0.015. Histopathological study of specimens did not show any significant changes between groups. Conclusion: Alprostadil and hydrocortisone do not improve the kidney GSH, SOD, and MDA level and kidney releases its GSH reserve during ischemia-reperfusion event, and another point is that, 3 h of ischemia-reperfusion does not develop

  3. Renoprotective effect of alprostadil in combination with statins in patients with mild to moderate renal failure undergoing coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-jing; ZHANG Bu-chun; GUO Rong; WEI Yi-dong; LI Wei-ming; XU Ya-wei


    Background The role of alprostadil and statins in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is controversial.The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of combined therapy with alprostadil and statins in protecting renal function and preventing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing coronary angiography.Methods A total of 156 consecutive patients with mild to moderate renal failure who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled in our study,and randomly categorized into two groups.In the statins group,80 patients were treated with statins before and after coronary the alprostadil plus statins group,76 patients were treated with statins and alprostadil before and after coronary angiography.Serum creatinine (SCr),serum cystatin (CysC) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were detected after administration of contrast media,and adverse events were evaluated within six months.Results In both groups,the SCr,CysC and NGAL significantly increased after coronary angiography and peaked at 48,24 and 6 hours,respectively.SCr,CysC and NGAL were significantly lower in the alprostadil plus statins group than in the statins group (P<0.05).The incidence of CIN in the alprostadil plus statins group was slightly lower than in the statins group.The incidence of adverse events within six months in the alprostadil plus statins group was significantly lower than in the statins group (P=0.034).Conclusions Intravenous alprostadil in combination with oral statins is superior to statins alone for protecting renal function in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction who undergo coronary angiography,and can reduce the incidence of adverse events seen within six months.

  4. Specific enhancement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in ischemic region by alprostadil--potential therapeutic application in pharmaceutical regenerative medicine. (United States)

    Inoue, Hajime; Aihara, Masaki; Tomioka, Miyuki; Watabe, Yu-ichi


    Alprostadil (lipo-PGE1) is a drug delivery system preparation. This preparation is applied to treat refractory skin ulcers and arteriosclerosis obliterans. We investigated the effects of alprostadil by using the earflap ischemic model. The following results were obtained: 1) Treatment with alprostadil significantly increased the VEGF contents in an ischemic ear; 2) Treatment with alprostadil resulted in strongly expressed VEGF levels only in the ischemic region; 3) Image analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of vessel bypasses and paths after flap creation with alprostadil administration compared to the vehicle-treated ears. The results suggest that it may be possible to apply alprostadil as one device for regenerative medical technology. PMID:23728380

  5. Effects of alprostadil and iloprost on renal, lung, and skeletal muscle injury following hindlimb ischemia–reperfusion injury in rats (United States)

    Erer, Dilek; Özer, Abdullah; Demirtaş, Hüseyin; Gönül, İpek Işık; Kara, Halil; Arpacı, Hande; Çomu, Faruk Metin; Oktar, Gürsel Levent; Arslan, Mustafa; Küçük, Ayşegül


    Objectives To evaluate the effects of alprostadil (prostaglandin [PGE1] analog) and iloprost (prostacyclin [PGI2] analog) on renal, lung, and skeletal muscle tissues after ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury in an experimental rat model. Materials and methods Wistar albino rats underwent 2 hours of ischemia via infrarenal aorta clamping with subsequent 2 hours of reperfusion. Alprostadil and iloprost were given starting simultaneously with the reperfusion period. Effects of agents on renal, lung, and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) tissue specimens were examined. Results Renal medullary congestion, cytoplasmic swelling, and mean tubular dilatation scores were significantly lower in the alprostadil-treated group than those found in the I/R-only group (P<0.0001, P=0.015, and P<0.01, respectively). Polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, pulmonary partial destruction, consolidation, alveolar edema, and hemorrhage scores were significantly lower in alprostadil- and iloprost-treated groups (P=0.017 and P=0.001; P<0.01 and P<0.0001). Polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration scores in skeletal muscle tissue were significantly lower in the iloprost-treated group than the scores found in the nontreated I/R group (P<0.0001). Conclusion Alprostadil and iloprost significantly reduce lung tissue I/R injury. Alprostadil has more prominent protective effects against renal I/R injury, while iloprost is superior in terms of protecting the skeletal muscle tissue against I/R injury. PMID:27601882

  6. Alprostadil Urogenital (United States)

    ... penis nodules or hard areas on the penis fast heartbeat fainting swollen veins in the legs If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  7. Evaluation of transurethral application of alprostadil for erectile dysfunction in Indonesians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transurethral application of alprostadil (MUSE.) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in Indonesians. Methods: Twenty erectile dysfunction patients aged between 32 - 74 years old were recruited in this study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 1 ) adult males 18 years or older with a subjective complaint or erectile dysfunction, 2) to provide written informed consent, 3) to agree not to use other forms of treatment for erectile dysfunction, 4) fulfill the screening laboratory values. Part 1, eligible patients were titrated in the clinic starting with a dose of 250 μg and proceed in a stepwise manner to 500μg and 1000μg on separate clinic visits until they identified a dose that produced a satisfactory response. The interval between each in-clinic titration was 2-3 days. Each in-clinic titration dose was evaluated at 15 min intervals over a one hour period for erection assessment, blood pressure and pulse. Part 2, patients used MUSE at home for three months at the dose identified during the inclinic titration. Monthly interim visits were required for patient follow-up and drug distribution. At the end of the study, patients had another laboratory (except testosterone, only assayed in screening procedure) and physical examination. Results: The etiology of erectile dysfunction was psychological in 5 patients and organic in 15 patients. The 65% of the patients achieved the erection scale of 4 or 5 either in the clinic or at home, 10% achieved the scale of 4 at home, but not in the clinic, and 25 % only achieved the scale of 2 or 3 with the highest dose of 1000μg either in the clinic or at home. No significant differences were found in biochemical examination before and after the study. The 60 % of the patients who achieved erection scale 4 or 5 continued to use MUSE until the end of the study, while 40 % of them complained of pain at the time of MUSE application, during erection and/or during intercourse. They

  8. Alprostadil liposome microsphere preparation stabilizes vascular plaques and inhibits intra-plaque inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; CHENG Wen-li; WANG Yong; KE Yuan-nan; FAN Shu-ying; PAN Lin; GUO Yan-ru; LI Hong; GUO Jian


    Background Vulnerable plaques play an important role in the onset of sudden cardiac events and strokes.How to stabilize vulnerable plaques is still a challenge to medical science.Alprostadil is a biologically active substance with strong activity on vessel.Our study assessed the stabilizing effects of an alprostadil liposome microsphere preparation (ALMP) on vulnerable plaques in the brachiocephalic artery of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) knockout mice.Methods Seventy-two male Apo E-knockout mice were fed a high-fat diet beginning at eight weeks of age.At week 17,they were divided randomly into groups for treatment with a high dose (3.6 μg · kg-1 · d-1) or low dose (1.8 μg · kg-1 · d-1) of an ALMP,or 0.2 ml/d normal saline (control group).The drug was administered using a micro-capsule pump.Twenty weeks after drug administration,pathological changes in the vulnerable plaques within the brachiocephalic artery were assessed,and levels of anti-mouse monocyte/macrophage monoclonal antibody (MOMA-2) and superoxide anions in the plaques were detected using immunofluorescence.The soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was measured by ELISA,and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and CD40 mRNA was measured using RT-PCR.Thrombospindin-1 (TSP-1) expression was detected using Western blotting.Results Compared with the control group,ALMP treatment significantly reduced the plaque area in the brachiocephalic artery (P <0.01),significantly lowered the contents of the lipid core (P <0.01),significantly reduced the number of ruptured fibrous caps (P <0.05),and increased the thickness of the fibrous cap and significantly reduced the incidence of intra-plaque hemorrhage (P <0.05).ALMP treatment significantly reduced the expression of MOMA-2,superoxide anion,MMP-9,ICAM-1 and CD40 in the plaques (P <0.01),decreased plasma ICAM-1 expression (P <0.01),and increased the expression of TSP-1.Conclusions Treatment with ALMP can stabilize

  9. Research about the influence of alprostadil for the renal blood flow parameters and fibrosis indexes of patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ling; Guo-Juan Lao; Li-Bo Chen; Diao-Zhu Lin


    Objective:To observe the curative effects of alprostadil on diabetes nephropathy and its influences on the renal blood flow parameters and fibrosis indexes of patients.Methods:Eighty cases of patients with diabetic nephropathy who were treated in our hospital from May 2013 to September 2014 were randomly selected as the research objects and were divided into the control group and the observation group. Each group had 40 cases. Patients of the control group were treated by routine therapy, while patients of the observation group were treated with alprostadil on the basis of routine therapy. The fasting blood glucose, renal function-related indexes, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urinary albumin excretion rate and fibrosis markers, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN),Ⅲ procollagen (PCⅢ) and typeⅣ collagen (ⅣC) of the two groups before and after treatments were respectively tested, and the peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of renal artery segment were tested by color doppler ultrasound.Results:After 14 and 28 d of treatments, the blood urea nitrogen, urinary albumin excretion rate of the observation group were all significantly lower than those of the control group; the PSV and EDV were all significantly faster than those of the control group; RI and PI were all observably lower than those of the control group and the serum levels of MMP-9, HA, LN, PCⅢ, andⅣC were also prominently lower than those of the control group. Conclusions:Alprostadil can effectively slow the development of fibrosis and protect the renal function of patients with diabetic nephropathy by improving renal blood supply for them.

  10. [The evaluation of efficiency of PGE 1 (alprostadil) during intracavernous injection in the treatment of erectile dysfunctions]. (United States)

    Sobociński, Z; Szymański, W; Kotzbach, R; Ludwikowski, G


    We have investigated the influence of PGE1 (alprostandil--"Prostavasin"--Schwarz Pharma company) on the erection in the group of 34 men with erectile disfunction (28 with and 6 without diabetes mellitus) treated in period from 1996 to 1998. Other diseases were excluded in all patients. The concentrations of FSH, LH, T, PRL, T3 and T4 were in normal range. The applied dose of PGE 1 varied from 5 mg to 20 mg maximum three times a week. The effect of the treatment was estimated according to subjective symptoms. The effectiveness of the treatment varied from 50% to 67%. The most effective dose was the maximal one (20 mg). The minimal effective dose of alprostadil was 10 mg. PMID:9695377

  11. 前列地尔治疗糖尿病肾病的临床研究%Clinical research of Alprostadil in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶海燕; 杨昆; 周径; 张彦中


    目的 探讨联合应用前列地尔对糖尿病肾病患者的临床疗效.方法 将2010年1~12月我院收治的66例患者随机分为研究组和对照组各33例.两组患者均常规行降糖、饮食控制、蛋白摄入限量等基础性治疗,并给予卡托普利口服治疗,研究组患者在此基础上加用前列地尔.结果 研究组患者治疗后总有效率为93.94%,明显高于对照组(63.64%),差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05);两组患者治疗前各指标比较差异无统计学意义(P > 0.05);治疗后两组患者各指标均有明显下降(P < 0.05),但研究组血尿素氮(BUN)、空腹血糖(FPG)、白蛋白排泄率(UAER)明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).结论前列地尔对于治疗糖尿病肾病具有较好的临床效果,能够有效提高对肾功能的修复和保护作用.%Objective To investigate the clinical curative effects of combined Alprostadil in the treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods 66 cases admitted to our hospital from January 2010 to December 2010 were randomly divided into study group and control group, with 33 cases in each group. Both groups of patients received routine blood glucose reduction, diet control, protein intake limit and other basic treatment as well as oral administration of Captopril. Patients of the study group received additional Alprostadil on the basis. Results The total effective rate of the study group was 93.94%, which was significantly higher than 63.64% of the control group, with statistically significant difference (P 0.05); after the treatment, all the indicators of the two groups decreased significantly (P < 0.05), but blood urea nitrogen (BUN), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) of the study group were significantly lower than those of the control group, with statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). Conclusion Alprostadil shows good clinical curative effects in the treatment of diabetic

  12. 前列地尔联合缬沙坦治疗早期糖尿病肾病的临床观察%Alprostadil Valsartan Treatment of Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective Valsartan used in early diabetic nephropathy effect of alprostadil combined analysis. Methods Choose my hospital early diabetic nephropathy 78, divided into A, group B, group A, 33 patients of the control group, B group 45 patients for the treatment group were given valsartan drug treatment, and alprostadil Valerian sand randomlyTanzania method to heal. Results Lower in group A after healing, the glomerular filtration rate of the B group of objects, total urinary protein, urinary protein excretion efficient than in group A, the incidence of adverse reactions is lower than the A group. Conclusion Alprostadil combination of valsartan used in early diabetic nephropathy, patients recover better and have higher efficiency.%  目的 对前列地尔结合缬沙坦应用于早期糖尿病肾病效果加以分析。方法随机选择我院早期糖尿病肾病患者78名,分成A、B组, A组33名患者为对照组,B组45名患者为治疗组,分别给予缬沙坦药物医治,和前列地尔结合缬沙坦方法医治。结果经医治,B组对象肾小球滤过率、尿蛋白总量、尿蛋白排除量低于A组,有效率高于A组,不良反应发生率低于A组。结论前列地尔结合缬沙坦应用于早期糖尿病肾病,患者恢复较好,有效率较高。

  13. 前列地尔治疗糖尿病下肢动脉粥样硬化闭塞症疗效观察%The clinical observation of DB artery of lower extremity scleratheroma block system by alprostadil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝云玲; 龚志强


    Objective To observe clinical effect of alprostadil on DB artery of lower extremity scleratheroma block system patients.Methods To retrospectively analyze clinical data of lower extremity scleratheroma block system patients in our hospital,which were divided into detection group and control group.Results The bore 、blood flow and Vdias of femoral artery、popliteal artery、arteria tibialis posterior and dorsal artery of foot of detection group were better than control group,the clinical total effective rate of detection group was higher than control group (P < 0.05 ),the difference was statistically significant.Conclusion The clinical curative effect of DB artery of lower extremity scleratheroma block system by alprostadil was obviously,which was worthy to be used.%目的 观察前列地尔治疗糖尿病下肢动脉粥样硬化闭塞症的临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析110例糖尿病下肢动脉粥样硬化闭塞症患者临床资料,依据治疗方式不同分为观察组80例(常规治疗联合前列地尔)和对照组30例(常规治疗),比较两组治疗效果.结果 观察组股动脉、腘动脉、胫后动脉及足背动脉的血管内径、血流量、血流峰时速度均明显优于对照组(均P <0.05),观察组临床总有效率为100.0%,明显高于对照组的86.7%(x2=11.069,P<0.05).结论 前列地尔治疗糖尿病下肢动脉粥样硬化闭塞症疗效明显,值得临床推广应用.

  14. Clinical effect observation of alprostadil with early hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of sudden deafness and tinnitus%前列地尔配合早期高压氧治疗突发性耳聋耳鸣的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄员福; 薛梅; 欧锦添; 李建美


    目的 探讨前列地尔配合早期高压氧治疗突发性耳聋耳鸣的临床效果.方法 收集2012年10月~2014年3月来本院就诊的突发性耳聋耳鸣患者72例,按照随机数字表法分为两组,研究组及对照组各36例,研究组采用前列地尔配合早期高压氧治疗;对照组采用葛根素治疗,比较两组纯音测听气导情况及临床效果.结果 研究组及对照组治疗后纯音测听气导平均值与治疗前比较均有不同程度的降低,研究组治疗后降低的幅度高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),研究组治疗突发性耳聋的总有效率(88.89%)、耳鸣总有效率(87.5%)高于对照组(77.78%、73.91%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 前列地尔配合早期高压氧治疗突发性耳聋耳鸣的效果较好,可以显著改善纯音测听气导平均值,提高治疗总有效率.

  15. Effect of sildenafil in cavernous arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction

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    Joaquim A Claro


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sildenafil citrate is a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which has demonstrated excellent results in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The effect of sildenafil citrate in the cavernous arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction has not been established yet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sildenafil citrate in the cavernous arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction, following an intracavernous injection of alprostadil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 male patients, with mean age of 53.8 years (32 to 75 years, were prospectively evaluated. The mean time with complaint of erectile dysfunction was 50.5 months (6 to 168 months. Each patient was his own control. Patients underwent a measurement of peak systolic velocity before and after use of sildenafil citrate associated with 5 micrograms of alprostadil, through ultrasonic velocitometry Knoll/MIDUS® system. In the interval between measurements, approximately 15 days, patients used 3 tablets of sildenafil at home with their partners. RESULTS: Using only 5 mcg of alprostadil, average peak systolic velocity was 23.9 cm/s, and when associated to 50 mg of sildenafil it was 24.8 cm/s. Despite the increase in the flow rate caused by sildenafil, the difference was not statistically significant, Zcalculated = - 0.695 NS (Wilcoxon test. Twenty one of the 29 patients (72.4% showed global improvement in sexual performance with the use of sildenafil citrate at home. There was not a statistically significant correlation between the global response to sildenafil citrate and the increase in the peak systolic velocity. CONCLUSION: We concluded that, even though the use of 50 mg of sildenafil citrate associated with 5 mcg of alprostadil provides an increase in the peak systolic velocity of the cavernous arteries, there was no statistic difference in relation to alprostadil alone. There was no correlation between the global response to sildenafil and the increase in

  16. MRI of the penis


    Kirkham, A


    MRI of the penis is an expensive test that is not always superior to clinical examination or ultrasound. However, it shows many of the important structures, and in particular the combination of tumescence from intracavernosal alprostadil, and high-resolution T2 sequences show the glans, corpora and the tunica albuginea well. In this paper we summarise the radiological anatomy and discuss the indications for MRI. For penile cancer, it may be useful in cases where the local stage is not apparen...

  17. PDE-5 inhibitors in monotherapy versus combination therapy in a sample of 1200 patients with erectile dysfunction


    Luis Labairu-Huerta; Bárbara Padilla-Fernández; José Luis Arrondo-Arrondo; Lauro Sebastián Valverde-Martínez; Agustín Martín-Rodríguez; Juan Miguel Silva-Abuín; María Begoña García-Cenador; José Antonio Mirón-Canelo; María Fernanda Lorenzo-Gómez


    Objectives: To compare the effectiveness in the treatment of erectile dysfunction when using PDE-5 inhibitors (PDE5i), alprostadil (PG-E1) and testosterone (TES) in monotherapy or combination therapy. Material and Methods: Observational multicentre retrospective study of men diagnosed and treated for ED between January 2008 and January 2014. Age, social and employment situation, pathological medical history, risk factors, usual treatments, IIEF-5 at the first consultation and at first and eac...

  18. Effect of sildenafil in cavernous arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction


    Joaquim A. Claro; Sérgio F Ximenes; Archimedes Nardozza Jr.; Enrico Andrade; Leonardo Messina; Miguel Srougi


    INTRODUCTION: Sildenafil citrate is a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which has demonstrated excellent results in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The effect of sildenafil citrate in the cavernous arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction has not been established yet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sildenafil citrate in the cavernous arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction, following an intracavernous injection of alprostadil. MATERIALS AND METHO...

  19. Nanocapsular forms of preparations in preclinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Grinevich


    Full Text Available The paper examines preclinical study of nanocapsule deliverysystem, particularly the influence of nanocapsule with a vasodilatorin the process of programmed myocardial cells death. Isosorbidedinitrate was loaded in nanocapsules. To investigate the effectnanocapsule isosorbide dinitrate on the process of apoptosis incardiomyocytes, a series of experimental works wereperformed. For this purpose, a model of coronary insufficiency in 4groups of animals were elaborated. The experimental works onlaboratory animals were conducted in accordance withrequirements of the European Convention for the protection ofvertebrate animals. The first preclinical trials showed the presenceof specific activity of obtained drugs. The basis of nanocapsularsystem was phosphatidylinositol, and the active loading substanceswere alprostadil, interferon alpha.

  20. Current diagnosis and therapy of non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is a life threatening disease. Therapy and prognosis depend upon the length of time elapsed between primary clinical manifestation and the time of definitive diagnosis and treatment. Materials and Methods: NOMI was diagnosed by intraarterial selective angiography in four patients. After a bolus administration of 20 g Alprostadil (Prostavasin trademark) into the superior mesenteric artery, intraarterial perfusion was continued with 60 μg Alprostadil/day via the catheter for three days. Results: The mesenteric ischemia resolved in all patients. One patient recovered completely. Three patients recovered from mesenteric ischemia, but died subsequently due to complications of their primary diseases. Conclusion: When NOMI without perforation or necrosis of the bowel wall is suspected clinically, immediate intraarterial angiography is the diagnostic method of choice. If NOMI is confirmed, the appropriate treatment is the intraarterial application of potent vasodilators for several days. The diagnostic work-up in suspected NOMI and the impact of different radiological examinations are explained. The literature is reviewed. (orig.)

  1. Identification of Drugs that Regulate Dermal Stem Cells and Enhance Skin Repair

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    Sibel Naska


    Full Text Available Here, we asked whether we could identify pharmacological agents that enhance endogenous stem cell function to promote skin repair, focusing on skin-derived precursors (SKPs, a dermal precursor cell population. Libraries of compounds already used in humans were screened for their ability to enhance the self-renewal of human and rodent SKPs. We identified and validated five such compounds, and showed that two of them, alprostadil and trimebutine maleate, enhanced the repair of full thickness skin wounds in middle-aged mice. Moreover, SKPs isolated from drug-treated skin displayed long-term increases in self-renewal when cultured in basal growth medium without drugs. Both alprostadil and trimebutine maleate likely mediated increases in SKP self-renewal by moderate hyperactivation of the MEK-ERK pathway. These findings identify candidates for potential clinical use in human skin repair, and provide support for the idea that pharmacological activation of endogenous tissue precursors represents a viable therapeutic strategy.

  2. Advances in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: what’s new and upcoming? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Chintan K. Patel


    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction adversely affects up to 20% of all men and is the most commonly treated sexual disorder. The public health implications of this condition are significant and represent a challenge for our healthcare system. The physiological pathways responsible for erections have been extensively studied, and much advancement has been made since the introduction of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. Newer agents, such as dopaminergic and melanocortin receptor agonists, which target central erectogenic pathways, are under investigation. Newer formulations and delivery methods of existing medications such as alprostadil will also be introduced in the near future. Furthermore, low-intensity shockwave lithotripsy and stem cell regenerative techniques are innovative approaches to the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  3. Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa presented with digital gangrene: a case report. (United States)

    Choi, Seung Won; Lew, Sogu; Cho, Sung Do; Cha, Hee Jeong; Eum, Eun A; Jung, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Hoo


    Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPAN) is an uncommon form of vasculitis involving small and medium sized arteries of unknown etiology. The disease can be differentiated from polyarteritis nodosa by its limitation to the skin and lack of progression to visceral involvement. The characteristic manifestations are subcutaneous nodule, livedo reticularis, and ulceration, mostly localized on the lower extremity. Arthralgia, myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, and constitutional symptoms such as fever and malaise may also be present. We describe a 34-yr-old woman presented with severe ischemic change of the fingertip and subcutaneous nodules without systemic manifestations as an unusual initial manifestation of CPAN. Therapy with corticosteroid and alprostadil induce a moderate improvement of skin lesions. However, necrosis of the finger got worse and the finger was amputated. PMID:16614534

  4. [Post-marketing clinical safety assessment of Shenmai injection based on active monitoring and passive monitoring in large data background]. (United States)

    Wang, Lian-xin; Xie, Yan-ming; Ai, Qing-hua; Song, Nian-bin


    This paper adopted a series of related analysis methods to comprehensively analyze post-marketing clinical safety data of Shenmai injection from 4,220 cases of SRS and 32,358 cases of multicenter, prospective, registered hospital centralized monitoring in large data background, calculated ADR incidence rate was 0.93 per 1,000, main symptoms of ADR includes chest pain, chills, skin itching, palpitations, fever, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, flushing, numbness, allergic reaction, cyanosis, rash, low back pain, and "breath", "anaphylactoid reaction" and "flush" were the safety warning signals of Shenmai injection. Primary disease for chronic pulmonary heart disease, thyroid disease, and combined with cerebral vascular disease, prior to the injection and continuous use of alprostadil, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, combined with quinolones, penicillins were suspicious influence factors of ADR of Shenmai injection, these promot the clinical safety. PMID:27245017

  5. [Current treatment of systemic sclerosis. Part II. Vascular and antifibrotic treatment]. (United States)

    Sicińska, Justyna; Rudnicka, Lidia


    Microvascular abnormalities and fibrosis are important targets of therapy in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, sartans, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and serotonin re-uptake blockers are used for Raynaud's phenomenon. Intravenous prostanoids (alprostadil, iloprost, epoprostenol, treprostinil) and endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, sitaxsentan, ambrisentan) show efficacy in treatment of pulmonary hypertension and distal ischemia. Successful treatment of digital ulcers secondary to systemic sclerosis was possible with sildenafil and bosentan. A platelet gel is currently in clinical trials for scleroderma-related digital ulcers. Several drugs, which directly reduce excessive production of collagens and other connective tissue proteins have been applied in systemic sclerosis. These include interferon gamma, d-penicillamine, kolchichicine, calcitriol, and imanitib. However, so far, strategies to control fibrosis by directly reducing excessive connective tissue production have been disappointing in controlled studies. PMID:18942347

  6. Effects of infrared/red light therapy combined with nursing intervention on treatment of diabetic lower extremity arterial disease%红外/红光治疗仪联合护理干预对治疗糖尿病下肢血管病变疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 赵小兰; 成雪兰; 陈燕梅


    目的::探讨红外/红光治疗仪联合前列地尔及护理干预治疗糖尿病下肢血管病变的临床疗效。方法:将60例糖尿病下肢血管病变患者随机分为对照组和治疗组两组,每组各30例。对照组给予前列地尔治疗,治疗组在对照组的基础上联合红外/红光治疗仪及护理干预治疗,均以14d 为1个疗程,比较两组治疗前后临床症状、足背动脉血流量、踝肱指数(ABI)的变化。结果:治疗组的总有效率显著高于对照组(P<0.01);治疗组足背动脉血流量、踝肱指数(ABI)均明显优于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:红外/红光治疗仪联合前列地尔及护理干预治疗糖尿病下肢血管病变疗效确切,值得推广。%Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of red light therapy combined with Qianlie infrared / and nursing intervention in the treatment of diabetic lower extremity vascular disease. Methods:60 patients of diabetic lower extremity vascular disease were randomly divided into treatment group and control group two groups, 30 patients in each group. The control groupreceived alprostadil treatment, the treatment group in the control group based on the combined infrared / red light therapy instrument and nursingintervention were in 14d for 1 courses, compared two groups before and aftertreatment of clinical symptoms, the volume of dorsal artery of foot and ankle brachial index (ABI) changes. Results the total effective rate in treatment groupwas significantly higher than that in control group (P< 0. 01); the treatment group the volume of dorsal artery of foot and ankle brachial index (ABI) was significant﹣ly better than the control group (P< 0. 01). Conclusion infrared / red light therapy combined with alprostadil in the treatment of diabetic lower extremity vascular disease can play their respective advantages, play asynergistic effect, and the nursing intervention can effectively improve the therapeutic effect and compliance.

  7. [Real world study of Dengzhan xixin injection in treatment of cerebral infarction with medication]. (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Cheng, Hao; Xie, Yan-Ming


    To analysis of Dengzhan Xixin injection (DZI) in treatment of cerebral infarction (EBHM) in the real world population characteristics and concomitant medication. By selecting the 20 hospital information system (HIS) used in the database of DZI and primary diagnosis of 2 484 cases of cerebral infarction patients information, use the Apriori algorithm to construct the model, using Clementine 12.0 analysis, cerebral infarction complicating diseases, commonly used drug combination analysis of DZI. The results showed that patients with more males than females (1.63: 1); age > 46 in older persons, treatment 7-14 days accounted for the majority of patients with hypertension, cerebral infarction, diabetes, coronary heart disease and other diseases; common drug combination can be divided into seven categories: medicine of antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel hydrogen), hypolipidemic drugs (atorvastatin, probucol), calcium channel blockers (cinepazide), cerebral protection drugs (laci staw), to improve cerebral circulation drugs (alprostadil), other traditional Chinese medicine injection (Shuxuetong injection, Xueshuantong), treatment with underlying disease: nifedipine, metoprolol, isosorbide dinitrate etc. The clinical cure rate and improvement rate of 97.60%. The next step needs to be combined with clinical practice, carry out analysis of effectiveness and safety of the combination scheme, and provide reference for clinical rational drug use. PMID:25532393

  8. Idiopathic Low-Flow Priapism in Prepuberty: A Case Report and a Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. H. Meuleman


    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of priapism in adults is higher than in children. Although approximately 50% of all episodes of priapism are thought to be idiopathic, there are a number of known specific causes of this disorder. In adults intracavernous therapy with papaverine, phentolamine, alprostadil or combinations of these agents is the most common cause of ischemic priapism. In children the most common etiology is sickle cell anemia for low-flow priapism or post-traumatic high-flow priapism. We present a 13-year-old boy, not sexually active presented to our outpatient clinic suffering from long standing (3.5 hours sustained painful erection. To the best of our knowledge the idiopathic low-flow priapism in pre-pubertal boy was not reported before in literature. Our case is the first case to be reported in pre-pubertal age. Conclusion. In pre-pubertal boys idiopathic recurrent priapism is a rare condition. In the literature, several empirical therapies are described. Recently, it is postulated that a low dose of a PDE5 inhibitor. The early conservative management is the best treatment option to safe the corporeal smooth muscles from irreversible damage.

  9. Pharmacologic strategies in neonatal pulmonary hypertension other than nitric oxide. (United States)

    Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Mathew, Bobby; Leach, Corinne L


    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is approved for use in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) but does not lead to sustained improvement in oxygenation in one-third of patients with PPHN. Inhaled NO is less effective in the management of PPHN secondary to congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), extreme prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Intravenous pulmonary vasodilators such as prostacyclin, alprostadil, sildenafil, and milrinone have been successfully used in PPHN resistant to iNO. Oral pulmonary vasodilators such as endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors such as sildenafil and tadalafil are used both during acute and chronic phases of PPHN. In the absence of infection, glucocorticoids may also be effective in PPHN. Many of these pharmacologic agents are not approved for use in PPHN and our knowledge is based on case reports and small trials. Large multicenter randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up are required to evaluate alternate pharmacologic strategies in PPHN. PMID:26778236

  10. Management of erectile dysfunction. (United States)

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J


    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common sexual problem in men. The incidence increases with age and affects up to one third of men throughout their lives. It causes a substantial negative impact on intimate relationships, quality of life, and self-esteem. History and physical examination are sufficient to make a diagnosis of ED in most cases, because there is no preferred, first-line diagnostic test. Initial diagnostic workup should usually be limited to a fasting serum glucose level and lipid panel, thyroid-stimulating hormone test, and morning total testosterone level. First-line therapy for ED consists of lifestyle changes, modifying drug therapy that may cause ED, and pharmacotherapy with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and smoking greatly increase the risk of ED. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are the most effective oral drugs for treatment of ED, including ED associated with diabetes mellitus, spinal cord injury, and antidepressants. Intraurethral and intracavernosal alprostadil, vacuum pump devices, and surgically implanted penile prostheses are alternative therapeutic options when phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors fail. Testosterone supplementation in men with hypogonadism improves ED and libido, but requires interval monitoring of hemoglobin, serum transaminase, and prostate-specific antigen levels because of an increased risk of prostate adenocarcinoma. Cognitive behavior therapy and therapy aimed at improving relationships may help to improve ED. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors should be considered in men with ED, because symptoms of ED present on average three years earlier than symptoms of coronary artery disease. Men with ED are at increased risk of coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases. PMID:20112889

  11. An Observational Study to Evaluate the Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction (ED) and Prescribing Pattern of Drugs in Patients with ED Visiting an Andrology Specialty Clinic, Mumbai: 2012-14 (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vijay R.; Bhagat, Sagar B.; Beldar, Amit S.; Patel, Sadiq B.


    Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common occurrence and its incidence is expected to increase significantly along with the increase in various lifestyle diseases. The drug utilization for ED is very low. Also, studies describing the prescription pattern in ED are lacking. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional observational study, including a drug utilization analysis, of 606 prescriptions as per the standard guidelines (WHO and STROBE). Results: Out of 606, 249 (41%) were from the age group of 30-39 years. Addictions were present in 388 (64%). Out of 606, 186 had urological, 154 had cardiovascular and 102 had psychological co-morbid disorders. Out of 348, 201 were prescribed Tadalafil (low dose) on a once daily basis. Out of 172, 121 were prescribed Sildenafil (high dose) on an ‘as and when required’ basis. Nutritional/ herbal supplements were prescribed in 126/606. The ratio of ‘Prescribed Daily Dose’ to ‘Defined Daily Dose’ of Tadalafil, Sildenafil, and Dapoxetine were 1.1, 1.3 and 1.5 respectively. Conclusion: Measures for de-addiction play an important role in the overall management of ED. The most common co-morbid disorders were urological, like BPH, LUTS, etc, followed by cardiovascular, psychological and diabetes. Overall, rational pharmacotherapy was observed. Tadalafil was the most commonly prescribed drug for ED. The main factor in the selection of a particular PDE5 inhibitor was its pharmacokinetics and cost. Udenafil, being the costliest, was the least prescribed. Dapoxetine was used in a significant number of individuals primarily for PE with ED. The combination of Papaverine, Chlorpromazine ± Alprostadil was used as intracavernosal injection in patients not responding to oral drugs. PMID:26393163

  12. PDE-5 inhibitors in monotherapy versus combination therapy in a sample of 1200 patients with erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Labairu-Huerta


    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effectiveness in the treatment of erectile dysfunction when using PDE-5 inhibitors (PDE5i, alprostadil (PG-E1 and testosterone (TES in monotherapy or combination therapy. Material and Methods: Observational multicentre retrospective study of men diagnosed and treated for ED between January 2008 and January 2014. Age, social and employment situation, pathological medical history, risk factors, usual treatments, IIEF-5 at the first consultation and at first and each 6 months follow-ups, physical examination, calculated total and free testosterone and received treatment were analysed. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA analysis, Chi2 for qualitative data, t-test, Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used; p < 0.05 is considered significant. Results: Average age was 58.61 years, SD5.02, average follow- up time 48.21 months, SD 6.21, range 6-174 months. Out of the patients 76.12% were married, 9.81% divorced/separated, 10.04% single, 4.03% widowed; 85.14% of the total in stable partnership but 66.16% were not accompanied by their partners. In total 844 patients received monotherapy (597 PDE5i; 62 PG-E1; 36 TES; 27 penile prosthesis; 121 psychotherapy/alternative therapies and 357 combination therapy (167 PDE5i+TES; 124 PDE5i+PGE1; 66 PG-E1+TES. There was a homogeneous distribution between risk factors and medical history groups. Satisfactory response according to IIEF-5 was achieved for 72.33% of patients on PDE5i monotherapy, 46.65% of patients on PDE5i+PG-E1 combination therapy and 83.41% of patients on PDE5i+TES. Conclusions: The best therapeutic success for ED in this series was achieved through a combination of testosterone+PDE-5 inhibitors without increasing morbidity and maintaining the response over time. Larger studies with longer follow-up will corroborate these findings.

  13. AB028. Current status of pharmacotherapy for erectile dysfunction (United States)

    Adaikan, P Ganesan


    The advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibition as oral therapy has significantly revolutionized both clinical and basic research in the area of erectile dysfunction (ED). Much of this progress is due to a better understanding in the last three decades of the various pathophysiological and cellular mechanisms contributing to ED. Apart from the three available PDE5 inhibitors viz., sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil globally at the turn of this century, four other PDE inhibitors have joined the armament in recent time; these include avanafil, lodenafil, mirodenafil and udenafil. All seven PDE inhibitors are effective therapies for the treatment of ED in men. There is no significant difference among them with respect to efficacy, safety profile and tolerability. As such, good safety profiles have widened the horizon in patient choice, selectivity and efficacy. With the ease of oral administration and better patient compliance, other measures of the past, including intracavernosal injections and non-pharmacological treatments have been relegated to second-line therapy for most patients with ED. But, PDE inhibitors as first-line oral therapies are effective in about 75% of male patients diagnosed with ED. Intracavernous injection (IC) therapy with PGE1 (alprostadil) for about 10% patient-usage in general is a well-known effective and well tolerated treatment for men with ED. It is also recommended as a second line therapy for ED along with urethral and topical PGE1. Transurethral PGE1 is less effective compared to IC PGE1. Also the transurethral dosage options are 125 to 1,000 µg, while the IC dosage options are 5 to 40 µg. The topical PGE1 (300 µg in 100 mg of the cream) is also less effective compared to IC PGE1. Topical cream is not approved in many countries as yet. Other existing vasoactive agents such as papaverine, and alpha adrenergic blockers and their combinations and the ever increasing number of other agents in the pipeline including nitric

  14. A Randomized Clinical study of Domestic Clopidogrel Lipoic acid and Cilostazol in Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease%硫酸氢氯吡格雷治疗糖尿病下肢动脉闭塞症的随机对照临床试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 何永城; 李旭盛; 李群


    目的:观察硫酸氢氯吡格雷治疗2型糖尿病( T2DM)下肢动脉闭塞( PAD)的有效及安全性。方法:入选94例糖尿病性PAD患者,按照随机数列表分为对照组48例,住院期间给予前列地尔、甲钴胺、羟基红花素注射液、西洛他唑联合治疗7~14天,出院后单独给予西洛他唑口服12周。治疗组在对照组基础上住院或出院均给予首次600mg,后150mg/d连续7天,后改为75mg/d连续8周。评价氯吡格雷治疗DM所致的PAD的临床效果、血流动力学及下肢溃疡坏死率。结果:治疗组显效率(75.0%vs 54.3%, P=0.036)、总有效率(95.8%vs 80.4%, P=0.020)均显著高于对照组,治疗组6个月内再次发生溃疡坏疽发生率为2.0%,对照组为13.0%,2组发生率具有统计学差异(P<0.05)。另外治疗组ABI改善程度(0.94±0.23 vs 0.72±0.31)、足背动脉血流速度(38.2±3.9 vs 33.5±2.8),腘动脉血流速度(68.2±8.9 vs 56.8±5.8)改善均优于对照组,2组血小板聚集率分别为(27.3±14.8%vs 38.4±12.6%),2组比较具有统计学差异(P<0.05)。治疗过程中,2组发生的不良反应无明显的统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论:氯吡格雷治疗DM所致的PAD具有一定的疗效,可用于预防下肢溃疡发生率。%Objective:To evaluate clopidogrel bisulfate cilostazol treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive disease ( PAD) is ef-fective and safe sex .Methods:84 cases were randomly selected transluminal angioplasty or vascular reconstructive surgery is not the line of lower extremity arterial occlusive disease patients, all patients were treated conservatively , given lipoic acid mecobalamin + + +Danhong alprostadil injection , are intravenous administration, while the control group given cilostazol , clopidogrel therapy in the treat-ment group were given on the basis of the

  15. Analysis on the therapeutic effective rate of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of full-frequency loss in the patients with sudden deafness%高压氧综合治疗全频听力损失突发性耳聋患者的临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶; 武连华; 刘雪华; 梁芳; 孙波; 高春锦; 王国忠


    Objective To observe the dynamic characteristics of hearing recovery in full-frequency hearing loss in the patients with sudden deafness following HBO therapy.Methods Eighty-two cases of fullfrequency hearing loss confirmed by ENT specialists were randomly divided into the control group (40 cases)and the HBO therapy group (42 cases).The patients in the control group were given routine treatment,i.e.10mg of dexamethasone intravenous infusion for first 3 days,then,5 mg of dexamethasone for another 3 days.Besides,the patients were administered 10 μg alprostadil intravenous infusion,once a day for 14 consecutive days; 100 mg of Vitamin B1,500 μg of B12 muscular injection,once day for 30 consecutive days.The patients in the HBO therapy group were given HBO therapy + routine treatment,once a day,10 sessions a treatment course.Following 2 or 4 consecutive treatment courses,pure tone audiometry was performed.Results After 2 courses of HBO therapy,low-frequency average hearing level [(38.16 ± 5.88) dB] increased for the patients in the HBO therapy group,when compared with that of the patients in the control group[(24.68 ± 3.87) dB],with statistical significance (P < 0.01).On the other hand,high-frequency average hearing level [(12.33 ± 2.98) dB] increased to some extent for the patients in the HBO therapy group,when compared with that of the patients in the control group [(10.49 ± 2.34) dB],without statistical significance(P > 0.05).For most patients,low-frequency hearing level improved more markedly and recovered more quickly.Total effective rate (80.9%) for the HBO group increased,when compared with that of the control group (62.5%),but without statistical significance (P > 0.05).When compared with low-frequency hearing level,high-frequency hearing level recovered more slowly.At the end of the 4 courses,pure tone monitoring indicated that improvement was seen mainly in high-frequency hearing level.For the patients in the HBO therapy group

  16. ABO血型不合肝移植治疗急危重症肝病患者的临床疗效分析%Analysis of the curative effect of ABO-incompatible liver transplantation in the treatment in patients with acute severe liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈中阳; 邓永林; 郑虹; 潘澄; 张雅敏; 蒋文涛; 张建军; 高伟; 淮明生


    Objective To analyze and evaluate the clinical effect of ABO-incompatible liver transplantation in the treatment of acute severe liver disease.Methods A retrospective clinical study was conducted.The clinical data of 4 136 patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation in Organ Transplantation Center of Tianjin First Center Hospital from September 1999 to December 2013 were analyzed.The criteria of patients enrolled were as following:model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score ≥ 20,the donor's and recipient's blood types were different,age 18-70 years,and undergone primary non-bypass orthotopic liver transplantation.According to the rate of compliance with the principles of blood transfusion,the cases were divided into two groups:ABO-compatible group (ABO-C group,n =41),ABO-incompatible group (ABO-I group,n =22).The patients in ABO-I group received basiliximab + methylprednisolone for immune induction therapy during operation,basiliximab + tacrolimus + mycophenolate + cortisol as quadruple immunosuppressive regimen after operation.They also received subcutaneous injection of low molecular heparin for anticoagulant therapy after operation,and oral warfarin or aspirin and clopidogrel bisulfate instead after 7 days.They also received routine alprostadil after operation.The remaining treatment was the same as that of ABO-C group.The clinical data,postoperative complications,rejection and survival rates of two groups were statistically analyzed.Results There were no significant differences in gender,age,MELD score,complicated with tumor,quality of donor liver,length of cold preservation of donor liver,duration of operation,and blood loss during operation between ABO-C and ABO-I groups.Number of splenectomy during operation was significantly higher in ABO-I group than that in ABO-C group (5 cases vs.1 case,x2=4.687,P=0.030).The 3-month,6-month,1-year,3-year and 5-year survival rates of ABO-C group were 89.5%,78.3%,72.5%,69.1% and 61.8