Sample records for algebra

  1. Algebra

    Tabak, John


    Looking closely at algebra, its historical development, and its many useful applications, Algebra examines in detail the question of why this type of math is so important that it arose in different cultures at different times. The book also discusses the relationship between algebra and geometry, shows the progress of thought throughout the centuries, and offers biographical data on the key figures. Concise and comprehensive text accompanied by many illustrations presents the ideas and historical development of algebra, showcasing the relevance and evolution of this branch of mathematics.

  2. Algebra


    Through most of Greek history, mathematicians concentrated on geometry, although Euclid considered the theory of numbers. The Greek mathematician Diophantus (3rd century),however, presented problems that had to be solved by what we would today call algebra. His book is thus the first algebra text.

  3. Algebra

    Flanders, Harley


    Algebra presents the essentials of algebra with some applications. The emphasis is on practical skills, problem solving, and computational techniques. Topics covered range from equations and inequalities to functions and graphs, polynomial and rational functions, and exponentials and logarithms. Trigonometric functions and complex numbers are also considered, together with exponentials and logarithms.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of algebra, each topic explained, illustrated, and accompanied by an ample set of exercises. The proper use of a

  4. Left Artinian Algebraic Algebras

    S. Akbari; M. Arian-Nejad


    Let R be a left artinian central F-algebra, T(R) = J(R) + [R, R],and U(R) the group of units of R. As one of our results, we show that, if R is algebraic and char F = 0, then the number of simple components of -R = R/J(R)is greater than or equal to dimF R/T(R). We show that, when char F = 0 or F is uncountable, R is algebraic over F if and only if [R, R] is algebraic over F. As another approach, we prove that R is algebraic over F if and only if the derived subgroup of U(R) is algebraic over F. Also, we present an elementary proof for a special case of an old question due to Jacobson.

  5. Algebraic geometry

    Lefschetz, Solomon


    An introduction to algebraic geometry and a bridge between its analytical-topological and algebraical aspects, this text for advanced undergraduate students is particularly relevant to those more familiar with analysis than algebra. 1953 edition.

  6. Monomial algebras

    Villarreal, Rafael


    The book stresses the interplay between several areas of pure and applied mathematics, emphasizing the central role of monomial algebras. It unifies the classical results of commutative algebra with central results and notions from graph theory, combinatorics, linear algebra, integer programming, and combinatorial optimization. The book introduces various methods to study monomial algebras and their presentation ideals, including Stanley-Reisner rings, subrings and blowup algebra-emphasizing square free quadratics, hypergraph clutters, and effective computational methods.

  7. Supertropical algebra

    Izhakian, Zur; Rowen, Louis


    We develop the algebraic polynomial theory for "supertropical algebra," as initiated earlier over the real numbers by the first author. The main innovation there was the introduction of "ghost elements," which also play the key role in our structure theory. Here, we work somewhat more generally over an ordered monoid, and develop a theory which contains the analogs of several basic theorems of classical commutative algebra. This structure enables one to develop a Zariski-type algebraic geomet...

  8. Algebraic Groups


    The workshop continued a series of Oberwolfach meetings on algebraic groups, started in 1971 by Tonny Springer and Jacques Tits who both attended the present conference. This time, the organizers were Michel Brion, Jens Carsten Jantzen, and Raphaël Rouquier. During the last years, the subject of...... algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group-theorists, and to...

  9. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    Vasantha, Kandasamy


    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...

  10. Segal algebras in commutative Banach algebras

    INOUE, Jyunji; TAKAHASI, Sin-Ei


    The notion of Reiter's Segal algebra in commutative group algebras is generalized to a notion of Segal algebra in more general classes of commutative Banach algebras. Then we introduce a family of Segal algebras in commutative Banach algebras under considerations and study some properties of them.

  11. Algebra-Geometry of Piecewise Algebraic Varieties

    Chun Gang ZHU; Ren Hong WANG


    Algebraic variety is the most important subject in classical algebraic geometry.As the zero set of multivariate splines,the piecewise algebraic variety is a kind generalization of the classical algebraic variety.This paper studies the correspondence between spline ideals and piecewise algebraic varieties based on the knowledge of algebraic geometry and multivariate splines.

  12. The algebraic structure of the Onsager algebra

    DATE, ETSURO; Roan, Shi-shyr


    We study the Lie algebra structure of the Onsager algebra from the ideal theoretic point of view. A structure theorem of ideals in the Onsager algebra is obtained with the connection to the finite-dimensional representations. We also discuss the solvable algebra aspect of the Onsager algebra through the formal Lie algebra theory.

  13. College algebra

    Kolman, Bernard


    College Algebra, Second Edition is a comprehensive presentation of the fundamental concepts and techniques of algebra. The book incorporates some improvements from the previous edition to provide a better learning experience. It provides sufficient materials for use in the study of college algebra. It contains chapters that are devoted to various mathematical concepts, such as the real number system, the theory of polynomial equations, exponential and logarithmic functions, and the geometric definition of each conic section. Progress checks, warnings, and features are inserted. Every chapter c

  14. Zonotopal algebra

    Holtz, Olga; Ron, Amos


    A wealth of geometric and combinatorial properties of a given linear endomorphism $X$ of $\\R^N$ is captured in the study of its associated zonotope $Z(X)$, and, by duality, its associated hyperplane arrangement ${\\cal H}(X)$. This well-known line of study is particularly interesting in case $n\\eqbd\\rank X \\ll N$. We enhance this study to an algebraic level, and associate $X$ with three algebraic structures, referred herein as {\\it external, central, and internal.} Each algebraic structure is ...

  15. Hom-Akivis algebras

    Issa, A. Nourou


    Hom-Akivis algebras are introduced. The commutator-Hom-associator algebra of a non-Hom-associative algebra (i.e. a Hom-nonassociative algebra) is a Hom-Akivis algebra. It is shown that non-Hom-associative algebras can be obtained from nonassociative algebras by twisting along algebra automorphisms while Hom-Akivis algebras can be obtained from Akivis algebras by twisting along algebra endomorphisms. It is pointed out that a Hom-Akivis algebra associated to a Hom-alternative algebra is a Hom-M...

  16. Enveloping algebras

    Since the works of Gelfand, Harish-Chandra, Kostant and Duflo, a new theory has earned its place in the field of mathematics, due to the abundance of its results and the coherence of its methods: the theory of enveloping algebras. This study is the first to present the whole subject in textbook form. The most recent results are included, as well as complete proofs, starting from the elementary theory of Lie algebras. (Auth.)

  17. Which multiplier algebras are $W^*$-algebras?

    Akemann, Charles A.; Amini, Massoud; Asadi, Mohammad B.


    We consider the question of when the multiplier algebra $M(\\mathcal{A})$ of a $C^*$-algebra $\\mathcal{A}$ is a $ W^*$-algebra, and show that it holds for a stable $C^*$-algebra exactly when it is a $C^*$-algebra of compact operators. This implies that if for every Hilbert $C^*$-module $E$ over a $C^*$-algebra $\\mathcal{A}$, the algebra $B(E)$ of adjointable operators on $E$ is a $ W^*$-algebra, then $\\mathcal{A}$ is a $C^*$-algebra of compact operators. Also we show that a unital $C^*$-algebr...

  18. Algebraic entropy for algebraic maps

    We propose an extension of the concept of algebraic entropy, as introduced by Bellon and Viallet for rational maps, to algebraic maps (or correspondences) of a certain kind. The corresponding entropy is an index of the complexity of the map. The definition inherits the basic properties from the definition of entropy for rational maps. We give an example with positive entropy, as well as two examples taken from the theory of Bäcklund transformations. (letter)

  19. Homotopy DG algebras induce homotopy BV algebras

    Terilla, John; Tradler, Thomas; Wilson, Scott O.


    Let TA denote the space underlying the tensor algebra of a vector space A. In this short note, we show that if A is a differential graded algebra, then TA is a differential Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra. Moreover, if A is an A-infinity algebra, then TA is a commutative BV-infinity algebra.

  20. Piecewise algebraic varieties

    WANG Renhong; ZHU Chungang


    The piecewise algebraic variety is a generalization of the classical algebraic variety. This paper discusses some properties of piecewise algebraic varieties and their coordinate rings based on the knowledge of algebraic geometry.

  1. Linear algebra

    Edwards, Harold M


    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  2. Linear algebra

    Liesen, Jörg


    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  3. Clifford algebra, geometric algebra, and applications

    Lundholm, Douglas; Svensson, Lars


    These are lecture notes for a course on the theory of Clifford algebras, with special emphasis on their wide range of applications in mathematics and physics. Clifford algebra is introduced both through a conventional tensor algebra construction (then called geometric algebra) with geometric applications in mind, as well as in an algebraically more general form which is well suited for combinatorics, and for defining and understanding the numerous products and operations of the algebra. The v...

  4. Cofree Hopf algebras on Hopf bimodule algebras

    Fang, Xin; Jian, Run-Qiang


    We investigate a Hopf algebra structure on the cotensor coalgebra associated to a Hopf bimodule algebra which contains universal version of Clifford algebras and quantum groups as examples. It is shown to be the bosonization of the quantum quasi-shuffle algebra built on the space of its right coinvariants. The universal property and a Rota-Baxter algebra structure are established on this new algebra.

  5. On uniform topological algebras

    Azhari, M. El


    The uniform norm on a uniform normed Q-algebra is the only uniform Q-algebra norm on it. The uniform norm on a regular uniform normed Q-algebra with unit is the only uniform norm on it. Let A be a uniform topological algebra whose spectrum M (A) is equicontinuous, then A is a uniform normed algebra. Let A be a regular semisimple commutative Banach algebra, then every algebra norm on A is a Q-algebra norm on A.

  6. Generalized exterior algebras

    Marchuk, Nikolay


    Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann alg...

  7. Word Hopf algebras

    Hazewinkel, Michiel


    Two important generalizations of the Hopf algebra of symmetric functions are the Hopf algebra of noncommutative symmetric functions and its graded dual the Hopf algebra of quasisymmetric functions. A common generalization of the latter is the selfdual Hopf algebra of permutations (MPR Hopf algebra). This latter Hopf algebra can be seen as a Hopf algebra of endomorphisms of a Hopf algebra. That turns out to be a fruitful way of looking at things and gives rise to wide ranging further generaliz...

  8. Linear algebra

    Allenby, Reg


    As the basis of equations (and therefore problem-solving), linear algebra is the most widely taught sub-division of pure mathematics. Dr Allenby has used his experience of teaching linear algebra to write a lively book on the subject that includes historical information about the founders of the subject as well as giving a basic introduction to the mathematics undergraduate. The whole text has been written in a connected way with ideas introduced as they occur naturally. As with the other books in the series, there are many worked examples.Solutions to the exercises are available onlin

  9. Lie algebras

    Jacobson, Nathan


    Lie group theory, developed by M. Sophus Lie in the 19th century, ranks among the more important developments in modern mathematics. Lie algebras comprise a significant part of Lie group theory and are being actively studied today. This book, by Professor Nathan Jacobson of Yale, is the definitive treatment of the subject and can be used as a textbook for graduate courses.Chapter I introduces basic concepts that are necessary for an understanding of structure theory, while the following three chapters present the theory itself: solvable and nilpotent Lie algebras, Carlan's criterion and its

  10. Linear algebra

    Stoll, R R


    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  11. Abstract algebra

    Deskins, W E


    This excellent textbook provides undergraduates with an accessible introduction to the basic concepts of abstract algebra and to the analysis of abstract algebraic systems. These systems, which consist of sets of elements, operations, and relations among the elements, and prescriptive axioms, are abstractions and generalizations of various models which evolved from efforts to explain or discuss physical phenomena.In Chapter 1, the author discusses the essential ingredients of a mathematical system, and in the next four chapters covers the basic number systems, decompositions of integers, diop


    Labourie, François


    We define a Poisson Algebra called the {\\em swapping algebra} using the intersection of curves in the disk. We interpret a subalgebra of the fraction algebra of the swapping algebra -- called the {\\em algebra of multifractions} -- as an algebra of functions on the space of cross ratios and thus as an algebra of functions on the Hitchin component as well as on the space of $\\mathsf{SL}_n(\\mathbb R)$-opers with trivial holonomy. We relate this Poisson algebra to the Atiyah--Bott--Goldman symple...

  13. Smarandache Jordan Algebras - abstract

    Vasantha Kandasamy, W. B.; Christopher, S.; A. Victor Devadoss


    We prove a S-commutative Jordan Algebra is a S-weakly commutative Jordan algebra. We define a S-Jordan algebra to be S-simple Jordan algebras if the S-Jordan algebra has no S-Jordan ideals. We obtain several other interesting notions and results on S-Jordan algebras.

  14. Algebraic Stacks

    Tomás L Gómez


    This is an expository article on the theory of algebraic stacks. After introducing the general theory, we concentrate in the example of the moduli stack of vector bundles, giving a detailed comparison with the moduli scheme obtained via geometric invariant theory.

  15. Algebraic Topology

    Oliver, Bob; Pawałowski, Krzystof


    As part of the scientific activity in connection with the 70th birthday of the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, an international conference on algebraic topology was held. In the resulting proceedings volume, the emphasis is on substantial survey papers, some presented at the conference, some written subsequently.

  16. Wavelets and quantum algebras

    A non-linear associative algebra is realized in terms of translation and dilation operators, and a wavelet structure generating algebra is obtained. We show that this algebra is a q-deformation of the Fourier series generating algebra, and reduces to this for certain value of the deformation parameter. This algebra is also homeomorphic with the q-deformed suq(2) algebra and some of its extensions. Through this algebraic approach new methods for obtaining the wavelets are introduced. (author). 20 refs

  17. Central simple Poisson algebras

    SU; Yucai; XU; Xiaoping


    Poisson algebras are fundamental algebraic structures in physics and symplectic geometry. However, the structure theory of Poisson algebras has not been well developed. In this paper, we determine the structure of the central simple Poisson algebras related to locally finite derivations, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.The Lie algebra structures of these Poisson algebras are in general not finitely-graded.

  18. The Onsager Algebra

    El-Chaar, Caroline


    In this thesis, four realizations of the Onsager algebra are explored. We begin with its original definition as introduced by Lars Onsager. We then examine how the Onsager algebra can be presented as a Lie algebra with two generators and two relations. The third realization of the Onsager algebra consists of viewing it as an equivariant map algebra which then gives us the tools to classify its closed ideals. Finally, we examine the Onsager algebra as a subalgebra of the tetrahedron algebra. U...

  19. Exotic Elliptic Algebras

    Chirvasitu, Alex; Smith, S. Paul


    This paper examines a general method for producing twists of a comodule algebra by tensoring it with a torsor then taking co-invariants. We examine the properties that pass from the original algebra to the twisted algebra and vice versa. We then examine the special case where the algebra is a 4-dimensional Sklyanin algebra viewed as a comodule algebra over the Hopf algebra of functions on the non-cyclic group of order 4 with the torsor being the 2x2 matrix algebra. The twisted algebra is an "...

  20. Nonmonotonic logics and algebras

    CHAKRABORTY Mihir Kr; GHOSH Sujata


    Several nonmonotonie logic systems together with their algebraic semantics are discussed. NM-algebra is defined.An elegant construction of an NM-algebra starting from a Boolean algebra is described which gives rise to a few interesting algebraic issues.

  1. Fibered F-Algebra

    Kleyn, Aleks


    The concept of F-algebra and its representation can be extended to an arbitrary bundle. We define operations of fibered F-algebra in fiber. The paper presents the representation theory of of fibered F-algebra as well as a comparison of representation of F-algebra and of representation of fibered F-algebra.

  2. Real Algebraic Geometry

    Mahé, Louis; Roy, Marie-Françoise


    Ten years after the first Rennes international meeting on real algebraic geometry, the second one looked at the developments in the subject during the intervening decade - see the 6 survey papers listed below. Further contributions from the participants on recent research covered real algebra and geometry, topology of real algebraic varieties and 16thHilbert problem, classical algebraic geometry, techniques in real algebraic geometry, algorithms in real algebraic geometry, semialgebraic geometry, real analytic geometry. CONTENTS: Survey papers: M. Knebusch: Semialgebraic topology in the last ten years.- R. Parimala: Algebraic and topological invariants of real algebraic varieties.- Polotovskii, G.M.: On the classification of decomposing plane algebraic curves.- Scheiderer, C.: Real algebra and its applications to geometry in the last ten years: some major developments and results.- Shustin, E.L.: Topology of real plane algebraic curves.- Silhol, R.: Moduli problems in real algebraic geometry. Further contribu...

  3. Rigid current Lie algebras

    Goze, Michel; Remm, Elisabeth


    A current Lie algebra is contructed from a tensor product of a Lie algebra and a commutative associative algebra of dimension greater than 2. In this work we are interested in deformations of such algebras and in the problem of rigidity. In particular we prove that a current Lie algebra is rigid if it is isomorphic to a direct product gxg...xg where g is a rigid Lie algebra.

  4. Solvable quadratic Lie algebras


    A Lie algebra endowed with a nondegenerate, symmetric, invariant bilinear form is called a quadratic Lie algebra. In this paper, the author investigates the structure of solvable quadratic Lie algebras, in particular, the solvable quadratic Lie algebras whose Cartan subalgebras consist of semi-simple elements, the author presents a procedure to construct a class of quadratic Lie algebras from the point of view of cohomology and shows that all solvable quadratic Lie algebras can be obtained in this way.

  5. Graded cluster algebras

    Grabowski, Jan


    In the cluster algebra literature, the notion of a graded cluster algebra has been implicit since the origin of the subject. In this work, we wish to bring this aspect of cluster algebra theory to the foreground and promote its study. We transfer a definition of Gekhtman, Shapiro and Vainshtein to the algebraic setting, yielding the notion of a multi-graded cluster algebra. We then study gradings for finite type cluster algebras without coefficients, giving a full classification. Translating ...

  6. Piecewise-Koszul algebras


    It is a small step toward the Koszul-type algebras. The piecewise-Koszul algebras are,in general, a new class of quadratic algebras but not the classical Koszul ones, simultaneously they agree with both the classical Koszul and higher Koszul algebras in special cases. We give a criteria theorem for a graded algebra A to be piecewise-Koszul in terms of its Yoneda-Ext algebra E(A), and show an A∞-structure on E(A). Relations between Koszul algebras and piecewise-Koszul algebras are discussed. In particular, our results are related to the third question of Green-Marcos.

  7. On vertex Leibniz algebras

    Li, Haisheng; Tan, Shaobin; Wang, Qing


    In this paper, we study a notion of what we call vertex Leibniz algebra. This notion naturally extends that of vertex algebra without vacuum, which was previously introduced by Huang and Lepowsky. We show that every vertex algebra without vacuum can be naturally extended to a vertex algebra. On the other hand, we show that a vertex Leibniz algebra can be embedded into a vertex algebra if and only if it admits a faithful module. To each vertex Leibniz algebra we associate a vertex algebra with...

  8. Universal algebra

    Grätzer, George


    Universal Algebra, heralded as ". . . the standard reference in a field notorious for the lack of standardization . . .," has become the most authoritative, consistently relied on text in a field with applications in other branches of algebra and other fields such as combinatorics, geometry, and computer science. Each chapter is followed by an extensive list of exercises and problems. The "state of the art" account also includes new appendices (with contributions from B. Jónsson, R. Quackenbush, W. Taylor, and G. Wenzel) and a well-selected additional bibliography of over 1250 papers and books which makes this a fine work for students, instructors, and researchers in the field. "This book will certainly be, in the years to come, the basic reference to the subject." --- The American Mathematical Monthly (First Edition) "In this reviewer's opinion [the author] has more than succeeded in his aim. The problems at the end of each chapter are well-chosen; there are more than 650 of them. The book is especially sui...

  9. Yoneda algebras of almost Koszul algebras

    Zheng Lijing


    Let be an algebraically closed field, a finite dimensional connected (, )-Koszul self-injective algebra with , ≥ 2. In this paper, we prove that the Yoneda algebra of is isomorphic to a twisted polynomial algebra $A^!$ [ ; ] in one indeterminate of degree +1 in which $A^!$ is the quadratic dual of , is an automorphism of $A^!$, and = () for each $t \\in A^!$. As a corollary, we recover Theorem 5.3 of [2].

  10. Algebra cohomology over a commutative algebra revisited

    Pirashvili, Teimuraz


    The aim of this paper is to give a relatively easy bicomplex which computes the Shukla, or Quillen cohomology in the category of associative algebras over a commutative algebra $A$, in the case when $A$ is an algebra over a field.


    TaoChangli; LuShijie; ChenPeixin


    Algebraic reflexivity introduced by Hadwin is related to linear interpolation. In this paper, the concepts of weakly algebraic reflexivity and strongly algebraic reflexivity which are also related to linear interpolation are introduced. Some properties of them are obtained and some relations between them revealed.

  12. Enveloping algebras of some quantum Lie algebras

    Pourkia, Arash


    We define a family of Hopf algebra objects, $H$, in the braided category of $\\mathbb{Z}_n$-modules (known as anyonic vector spaces), for which the property $\\psi^2_{H\\otimes H}=id_{H\\otimes H}$ holds. We will show that these anyonic Hopf algebras are, in fact, the enveloping (Hopf) algebras of particular quantum Lie algebras, also with the property $\\psi^2=id$. Then we compute the braided periodic Hopf cyclic cohomology of these Hopf algebras. For that, we will show the following fact: analog...

  13. The Yoneda algebra of a K2 algebra need not be another K2 algebra

    Cassidy, T.; Phan, C.; Shelton, B.


    The Yoneda algebra of a Koszul algebra or a D-Koszul algebra is Koszul. K2 algebras are a natural generalization of Koszul algebras, and one would hope that the Yoneda algebra of a K2 algebra would be another K2 algebra. We show that this is not necessarily the case by constructing a monomial K2 algebra for which the corresponding Yoneda algebra is not K2.

  14. Workshop on Commutative Algebra

    Simis, Aron


    The central theme of this volume is commutative algebra, with emphasis on special graded algebras, which are increasingly of interest in problems of algebraic geometry, combinatorics and computer algebra. Most of the papers have partly survey character, but are research-oriented, aiming at classification and structural results.

  15. Idempotents of Clifford Algebras

    Ablamowicz, R.; Fauser, B.; Podlaski, K.; Rembielinski, J.


    A classification of idempotents in Clifford algebras C(p,q) is presented. It is shown that using isomorphisms between Clifford algebras C(p,q) and appropriate matrix rings, it is possible to classify idempotents in any Clifford algebra into continuous families. These families include primitive idempotents used to generate minimal one sided ideals in Clifford algebras. Some low dimensional examples are discussed.

  16. Historical Topics in Algebra.

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This is a reprint of the historical capsules dealing with algebra from the 31st Yearbook of NCTM,"Historical Topics for the Mathematics Classroom." Included are such themes as the change from a geometric to an algebraic solution of problems, the development of algebraic symbolism, the algebraic contributions of different countries, the origin and…

  17. Generalized Quantum Current Algebras

    ZHAO Liu


    Two general families of new quantum-deformed current algebras are proposed and identified both as infinite Hopf family of algebras, a structure which enables one to define "tensor products" of these algebras. The standard quantum affine algebras turn out to be a very special case of the two algebra families, in which case the infinite Hopf family structure degenerates into a standard Hopf algebra. The relationship between the two algebraic families as well as thefr various special examples are discussed, and the free boson representation is also considered.

  18. On fermionic Novikov algebras

    Novikov algebras were introduced in connection with the Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type and Hamiltonian operators in formal variational calculus. They are a class of left-symmetric algebras with commutative right multiplication operators, which can be viewed as bosonic. Fermionic Novikov algebras are a class of left-symmetric algebras with anti-commutative right multiplication operators. They correspond to a certain Hamiltonian superoperator in a supervariable. In this paper, we commence a study on fermionic Novikov algebras from the algebraic point of view. We will show that any fermionic Novikov algebra in dimension ≤3 must be bosonic. Moreover, we give the classification of real fermionic Novikov algebras on four-dimensional nilpotent Lie algebras and some examples in higher dimensions. As a corollary, we obtain kinds of four-dimensional real fermionic Novikov algebras which are not bosonic. All of these examples will serve as a guide for further development including the application in physics

  19. Algebraically periodic translation surfaces

    Calta, Kariane; Smillie, John


    Algebraically periodic directions on translation surfaces were introduced by Calta in her study of genus two translation surfaces. We say that a translation surface with three or more algebraically periodic directions is an algebraically periodic surface. We show that for an algebraically periodic surface the slopes of the algebraically periodic directions are given by a number field which we call the periodic direction field. We show that translation surfaces with pseudo-Anosov automorphisms...

  20. Clifford Algebra with Mathematica

    Aragon-Camarasa, G.; Aragon-Gonzalez, G; Aragon, J. L.; Rodriguez-Andrade, M. A.


    The Clifford algebra of a n-dimensional Euclidean vector space provides a general language comprising vectors, complex numbers, quaternions, Grassman algebra, Pauli and Dirac matrices. In this work, a package for Clifford algebra calculations for the computer algebra program Mathematica is introduced through a presentation of the main ideas of Clifford algebras and illustrative examples. This package can be a useful computational tool since allows the manipulation of all these mathematical ob...

  1. Piecewise-Koszul algebras

    Jia-feng; Lü


    [1]Priddy S.Koszul resolutions.Trans Amer Math Soc,152:39-60 (1970)[2]Beilinson A,Ginszburg V,Soergel W.Koszul duality patterns in representation theory.J Amer Math Soc,9:473-525 (1996)[3]Aquino R M,Green E L.On modules with linear presentations over Koszul algebras.Comm Algebra,33:19-36 (2005)[4]Green E L,Martinez-Villa R.Koszul and Yoneda algebras.Representation theory of algebras (Cocoyoc,1994).In:CMS Conference Proceedings,Vol 18.Providence,RI:American Mathematical Society,1996,247-297[5]Berger R.Koszulity for nonquadratic algebras.J Algebra,239:705-734 (2001)[6]Green E L,Marcos E N,Martinez-Villa R,et al.D-Koszul algebras.J Pure Appl Algebra,193:141-162(2004)[7]He J W,Lu D M.Higher Koszul Algebras and A-infinity Algebras.J Algebra,293:335-362 (2005)[8]Green E L,Marcos E N.δ-Koszul algebras.Comm Algebra,33(6):1753-1764 (2005)[9]Keller B.Introduction to A-infinity algebras and modules.Homology Homotopy Appl,3:1-35 (2001)[10]Green E L,Martinez-Villa R,Reiten I,et al.On modules with linear presentations.J Algebra,205(2):578-604 (1998)[11]Keller B.A-infinity algebras in representation theory.Contribution to the Proceedings of ICRA Ⅸ.Beijing:Peking University Press,2000[12]Lu D M,Palmieri J H,Wu Q S,et al.A∞-algebras for ring theorists.Algebra Colloq,11:91-128 (2004)[13]Weibel C A.An Introduction to homological algebra.Cambridge Studies in Avanced Mathematics,Vol 38.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1995

  2. Maps from the enveloping algebra of the positive Witt algebra to regular algebras

    Sierra, Susan J.; Walton, Chelsea


    We construct homomorphisms from the universal enveloping algebra of the positive (part of the) Witt algebra to several different Artin-Schelter regular algebras, and determine their kernels and images. As a result, we produce elementary proofs that the universal enveloping algebras of the Virasoro algebra, the Witt algebra, and the positive Witt algebra are neither left nor right noetherian.

  3. Brackets in representation algebras of Hopf algebras

    Massuyeau, Gwenael; Turaev, Vladimir


    For any graded bialgebras $A$ and $B$, we define a commutative graded algebra $A_B$ representing the functor of so-called $B$-representations of $A$. When $A$ is a cocommutative graded Hopf algebra and $B$ is a commutative ungraded Hopf algebra, we introduce a method deriving a Gerstenhaber bracket in $A_B$ from a Fox pairing in $A$ and a balanced biderivation in $B$. Our construction is inspired by Van den Bergh's non-commutative Poisson geometry, and may be viewed as an algebraic generaliza...

  4. Algebraic theory of numbers

    Samuel, Pierre


    Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal

  5. Lukasiewicz-Moisil algebras

    Boicescu, V; Georgescu, G; Rudeanu, S


    The Lukasiewicz-Moisil algebras were created by Moisil as an algebraic counterpart for the many-valued logics of Lukasiewicz. The theory of LM-algebras has developed to a considerable extent both as an algebraic theory of intrinsic interest and in view of its applications to logic and switching theory.This book gives an overview of the theory, comprising both classical results and recent contributions, including those of the authors. N-valued and &THgr;-valued algebras are presented, as well as &THgr;-algebras with negation.Mathematicians interested in lattice theory or symbolic logic, and computer scientists, will find in this monograph stimulating material for further research.

  6. Workshop on Lie Algebras

    Osborn, J


    During the academic year 1987-1988 the University of Wisconsin in Madison hosted a Special Year of Lie Algebras. A Workshop on Lie Algebras, of which these are the proceedings, inaugurated the special year. The principal focus of the year and of the workshop was the long-standing problem of classifying the simple finite-dimensional Lie algebras over algebraically closed field of prime characteristic. However, other lectures at the workshop dealt with the related areas of algebraic groups, representation theory, and Kac-Moody Lie algebras. Fourteen papers were presented and nine of these (eight research articles and one expository article) make up this volume.

  7. Relation between dual S-algebras and BE-algebras

    Arsham Borumand Saeid


    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the relationship between dual (Weak Subtraction algebras, Heyting algebras and BE-algebras. In fact, the purpose of this paper is to show that BE-algebra is a generalization of Heyting algebra and dual (Weak Subtraction algebras. Also, we show that a bounded commutative self distributive BE-algebra is equivalent to the Heyting algebra.  

  8. Representations of twisted current algebras

    Lau, Michael


    We use evaluation representations to give a complete classification of the finite-dimensional simple modules of twisted current algebras. This generalizes and unifies recent work on multiloop algebras, current algebras, equivariant map algebras, and twisted forms.

  9. Hom-alternative algebras and Hom-Jordan algebras

    Makhlouf, Abdenacer


    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Hom-alternative algebras and Hom-Jordan algebras. We discuss some of their properties and provide construction procedures using ordinary alternative algebras or Jordan algebras. Also, we show that a polarization of Hom-associative algebra leads to Hom-Jordan algebra.

  10. Cellularity of diagram algebras as twisted semigroup algebras

    Wilcox, Stewart


    The Temperley-Lieb and Brauer algebras and their cyclotomic analogues, as well as the partition algebra, are all examples of twisted semigroup algebras. We prove a general theorem about the cellularity of twisted semigroup algebras of regular semigroups. This theorem, which generalises a recent result of East about semigroup algebras of inverse semigroups, allows us to easily reproduce the cellularity of these algebras.

  11. Cylindric-like algebras and algebraic logic

    Ferenczi, Miklós; Németi, István


    Algebraic logic is a subject in the interface between logic, algebra and geometry, it has strong connections with category theory and combinatorics. Tarski’s quest for finding structure in logic leads to cylindric-like algebras as studied in this book, they are among the main players in Tarskian algebraic logic. Cylindric algebra theory can be viewed in many ways:  as an algebraic form of definability theory, as a study of higher-dimensional relations, as an enrichment of Boolean Algebra theory, or, as logic in geometric form (“cylindric” in the name refers to geometric aspects). Cylindric-like algebras have a wide range of applications, in, e.g., natural language theory, data-base theory, stochastics, and even in relativity theory. The present volume, consisting of 18 survey papers, intends to give an overview of the main achievements and new research directions in the past 30 years, since the publication of the Henkin-Monk-Tarski monographs. It is dedicated to the memory of Leon Henkin.

  12. Lie Algebra of Noncommutative Inhomogeneous Hopf Algebra

    Lagraa, M.; Touhami, N.


    We construct the vector space dual to the space of right-invariant differential forms construct from a first order differential calculus on inhomogeneous quantum group. We show that this vector space is equipped with a structure of a Hopf algebra which closes on a noncommutative Lie algebra satisfying a Jacobi identity.

  13. Realizations of Galilei algebras

    All inequivalent realizations of the Galilei algebras of dimensions not greater than five are constructed using the algebraic approach proposed by Shirokov. The varieties of the deformed Galilei algebras are discussed and families of one-parametric deformations are presented in explicit form. It is also shown that a number of well-known and physically interesting equations and systems are invariant with respect to the considered Galilei algebras or their deformations. (paper)

  14. Homotopy Algebras for Operads

    Leinster, Tom


    We present a definition of homotopy algebra for an operad, and explore its consequences. The paper should be accessible to topologists, category theorists, and anyone acquainted with operads. After a review of operads and monoidal categories, the definition of homotopy algebra is given. Specifically, suppose that M is a monoidal category in which it makes sense to talk about algebras for some operad P. Then our definition says what a homotopy P-algebra in M is, provided only that some of the ...

  15. Algebraic statistics computational commutative algebra in statistics

    Pistone, Giovanni; Wynn, Henry P


    Written by pioneers in this exciting new field, Algebraic Statistics introduces the application of polynomial algebra to experimental design, discrete probability, and statistics. It begins with an introduction to Gröbner bases and a thorough description of their applications to experimental design. A special chapter covers the binary case with new application to coherent systems in reliability and two level factorial designs. The work paves the way, in the last two chapters, for the application of computer algebra to discrete probability and statistical modelling through the important concept of an algebraic statistical model.As the first book on the subject, Algebraic Statistics presents many opportunities for spin-off research and applications and should become a landmark work welcomed by both the statistical community and its relatives in mathematics and computer science.

  16. Quantum Lie algebra solitons

    We construct a special type of quantum soliton solutions for quantized affine Toda models. The elements of the principal Heisenberg subalgebra in the affinised quantum Lie algebra are found. Their eigenoperators inside the quantized universal enveloping algebra for an affine Lie algebra are constructed to generate quantum soliton solutions

  17. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Pavinder Singh


    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  18. Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra

    Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.


    Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…

  19. Clifford Algebras and Graphs

    Khovanova, Tanya


    I show how to associate a Clifford algebra to a graph. I describe the structure of these Clifford graph algebras and provide many examples and pictures. I describe which graphs correspond to isomorphic Clifford algebras and also discuss other related sets of graphs. This construction can be used to build models of representations of simply-laced compact Lie groups.

  20. Algebraic formulation of duality

    Two dimensional lattice spin (chiral) models over (possibly non-abelian) compact groups are formulated in terms of a generalized Pauli algebra. Such models over cyclic groups are written in terms of the generalized Clifford algebra. An automorphism of this algebra is shown to exist and to lead to the duality transformation

  1. Bases of Schur algebras associated to cellularly stratified diagram algebras

    Bowman, C


    We examine homomorphisms between induced modules for a certain class of cellularly stratified diagram algebras, including the BMW algebra, Temperley-Lieb algebra, Brauer algebra, and (quantum) walled Brauer algebra. We define the `permutation' modules for these algebras, these are one-sided ideals which allow us to study the diagrammatic Schur algebras of Hartmann, Henke, Koenig and Paget. We construct bases of these Schur algebras in terms of modified tableaux. On the way we prove that the (quantum) walled Brauer algebra and the Temperley-Lieb algebra are both cellularly stratified and therefore have well-defined Specht filtrations.

  2. Group identities on the units of algebraic algebras with applications to restricted enveloping algebras

    Jespers, Eric; Riley, David; Siciliano, Salvatore


    An algebra is called a GI-algebra if its group of units satisfies a group identity. We provide positive support for the following two open problems. 1. Does every algebraic GI-algebra satisfy a polynomial identity? 2. Is every algebraically generated GI-algebra locally finite?

  3. Computer algebra and operators

    Fateman, Richard; Grossman, Robert


    The symbolic computation of operator expansions is discussed. Some of the capabilities that prove useful when performing computer algebra computations involving operators are considered. These capabilities may be broadly divided into three areas: the algebraic manipulation of expressions from the algebra generated by operators; the algebraic manipulation of the actions of the operators upon other mathematical objects; and the development of appropriate normal forms and simplification algorithms for operators and their actions. Brief descriptions are given of the computer algebra computations that arise when working with various operators and their actions.

  4. Split Malcev Algebras

    Antonio J Calderón Martín; Manuel Forero Piulestán; José M Sánchez Delgado


    We study the structure of split Malcev algebras of arbitrary dimension over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. We show that any such algebras is of the form $M=\\mathcal{U}+\\sum_jI_j$ with $\\mathcal{U}$ a subspace of the abelian Malcev subalgebra and any $I_j$ a well described ideal of satisfying $[I_j, I_k]=0$ if ≠ . Under certain conditions, the simplicity of is characterized and it is shown that is the direct sum of a semisimple split Lie algebra and a direct sum of simple non-Lie Malcev algebras.

  5. The Colombeau Quaternion Algebra

    Cortes, W.; Ferrero, M. A.; Juriaans, S. O.


    We introduce the Colombeau Quaternio Algebra and study its algebraic structure. We also study the dense ideal, dense in the algebraic sense, of the algebra of Colombeau generalized numbers and use this show the existence of a maximal ting of quotions which is Von Neumann regular. Recall that it is already known that then algebra of COlombeau generalized numbers is not Von Neumann regular. We also use the study of the dense ideals to give a criteria for a generalized holomorphic function to sa...

  6. A Note on Z* algebras

    Taghavi, Ali


    We study some properies of $Z^{*}$ algebras, thos C^* algebra which all positive elements are zero divisors. We show by means of an example that an extension of a Z* algebra by a Z* algebra is not necessarily Z* algebra. However we prove that an extension of a non Z* algebra by a non Z* algebra is again a Z^* algebra. As an application of our methods, we prove that evey compact subset of the positive cones of a C* algebra has an upper bound in the algebra.

  7. 2-Local derivations on matrix algebras over commutative regular algebras

    Ayupov, Sh. A.; Kudaybergenov, K. K.; Alauadinov, A. K.


    The paper is devoted to 2-local derivations on matrix algebras over commutative regular algebras. We give necessary and sufficient conditions on a commutative regular algebra to admit 2-local derivations which are not derivations. We prove that every 2-local derivation on a matrix algebra over a commutative regular algebra is a derivation. We apply these results to 2-local derivations on algebras of measurable and locally measurable operators affiliated with type I von Neumann algebras.

  8. Operator Algebras of Functions

    Mittal, Meghna


    We present some general theorems about operator algebras that are algebras of functions on sets, including theories of local algebras, residually finite dimensional operator algebras and algebras that can be represented as the scalar multipliers of a vector-valued reproducing kernel Hilbert space. We use these to further develop a quantized function theory for various domains that extends and unifies Agler's theory of commuting contractions and the Arveson-Drury-Popescu theory of commuting row contractions. We obtain analogous factorization theorems, prove that the algebras that we obtain are dual operator algebras and show that for many domains, supremums over all commuting tuples of operators satisfying certain inequalities are obtained over all commuting tuples of matrices.

  9. Lectures on algebraic statistics

    Drton, Mathias; Sullivant, Seth


    How does an algebraic geometer studying secant varieties further the understanding of hypothesis tests in statistics? Why would a statistician working on factor analysis raise open problems about determinantal varieties? Connections of this type are at the heart of the new field of "algebraic statistics". In this field, mathematicians and statisticians come together to solve statistical inference problems using concepts from algebraic geometry as well as related computational and combinatorial techniques. The goal of these lectures is to introduce newcomers from the different camps to algebraic statistics. The introduction will be centered around the following three observations: many important statistical models correspond to algebraic or semi-algebraic sets of parameters; the geometry of these parameter spaces determines the behaviour of widely used statistical inference procedures; computational algebraic geometry can be used to study parameter spaces and other features of statistical models.

  10. On Derivations Of Genetic Algebras

    A genetic algebra is a (possibly non-associative) algebra used to model inheritance in genetics. In application of genetics this algebra often has a basis corresponding to genetically different gametes, and the structure constant of the algebra encode the probabilities of producing offspring of various types. In this paper, we find the connection between the genetic algebras and evolution algebras. Moreover, we prove the existence of nontrivial derivations of genetic algebras in dimension two

  11. On Generalized I-Algebras and 4-valued Modal Algebras

    Figallo, Aldo V


    In this paper we establish a new characterization of 4-valued modal algebras considered by A. Monteiro. In order to obtain this characterization we introduce a new class of algebras named generalized I-algebras. This class contains strictly the class of C-algebras defined by Y. Komori as an algebraic counterpart of the infinite-valued implicative Lukasiewicz propositional calculus. On the other hand, the relationship between I-algebras and conmutative BCK-algebras, defined by S. Tanaka in 1975, allows us to say that in a certain sense G-algebras are also a generalization of these latter algebras

  12. Omni-Lie Color Algebras and Lie Color 2-Algebras

    Zhang, Tao


    Omni-Lie color algebras over an abelian group with a bicharacter are studied. The notions of 2-term color $L_{\\infty}$-algebras and Lie color 2-algebras are introduced. It is proved that there is a one-to-one correspondence between Lie color 2-algebras and 2-term color $L_{\\infty}$-algebras.

  13. Linear algebra meets Lie algebra: the Kostant-Wallach theory

    Shomron, Noam; Parlett, Beresford N.


    In two languages, Linear Algebra and Lie Algebra, we describe the results of Kostant and Wallach on the fibre of matrices with prescribed eigenvalues of all leading principal submatrices. In addition, we present a brief introduction to basic notions in Algebraic Geometry, Integrable Systems, and Lie Algebra aimed at specialists in Linear Algebra.

  14. Stable endomorphism algebras of modules over special biserial algebras

    Schröer, Jan; Zimmermann, Alexander


    We prove that the stable endomorphism algebra of a module without self-extensions over a special biserial algebra is a gentle algebra. In particular, it is again special biserial. As a consequence, any algebra which is derived equivalent to a gentle algebra is gentle.

  15. $L_{\\infty}$ algebra structures of Lie algebra deformations

    Gao, Jining


    In this paper,we will show how to kill the obstructions to Lie algebra deformations via a method which essentially embeds a Lie algebra into Strong homotopy Lie algebra or $L_{\\infty}$ algebra. All such obstructions have been transfered to the revelvant $L_{\\infty}$ algebras which contain only three terms

  16. Evolution algebras and their applications

    Tian, Jianjun Paul


    Behind genetics and Markov chains, there is an intrinsic algebraic structure. It is defined as a type of new algebra: as evolution algebra. This concept lies between algebras and dynamical systems. Algebraically, evolution algebras are non-associative Banach algebras; dynamically, they represent discrete dynamical systems. Evolution algebras have many connections with other mathematical fields including graph theory, group theory, stochastic processes, dynamical systems, knot theory, 3-manifolds, and the study of the Ihara-Selberg zeta function. In this volume the foundation of evolution algebra theory and applications in non-Mendelian genetics and Markov chains is developed, with pointers to some further research topics.

  17. Lie algebras and applications

    Iachello, Francesco


    This course-based primer provides an introduction to Lie algebras and some of their applications to the spectroscopy of molecules, atoms, nuclei and hadrons. In the first part, it concisely presents the basic concepts of Lie algebras, their representations and their invariants. The second part includes a description of how Lie algebras are used in practice in the treatment of bosonic and fermionic systems. Physical applications considered include rotations and vibrations of molecules (vibron model), collective modes in nuclei (interacting boson model), the atomic shell model, the nuclear shell model, and the quark model of hadrons. One of the key concepts in the application of Lie algebraic methods in physics, that of spectrum generating algebras and their associated dynamic symmetries, is also discussed. The book highlights a number of examples that help to illustrate the abstract algebraic definitions and includes a summary of many formulas of practical interest, such as the eigenvalues of Casimir operators...

  18. Relative Homological Algebra Volume 1


    This is the second revised edition of an introduction to contemporary relative homological algebra. It supplies important material essential to understand topics in algebra, algebraic geometry and algebraic topology. Each section comes with exercises providing practice problems for students as well as additional important results for specialists. The book is also suitable for an introductory course in commutative and ordinary homological algebra.

  19. Finite-dimensional (*)-serial algebras


    Let A be a finite-dimensional associative algebra with identity over a field k. In this paper we introduce the concept of (*)-serial algebras which is a generalization of serial algebras. We investigate the properties of (*)-serial algebras, and we obtain suficient and necessary conditions for an associative algebra to be (*)-serial.

  20. Commutative combinatorial Hopf algebras

    Hivert, F.; Novelli, J. -C.; Thibon, J. -Y.


    We propose several constructions of commutative or cocommutative Hopf algebras based on various combinatorial structures, and investigate the relations between them. A commutative Hopf algebra of permutations is obtained by a general construction based on graphs, and its non-commutative dual is realized in three different ways, in particular as the Grossman-Larson algebra of heap ordered trees. Extensions to endofunctions, parking functions, set compositions, set partitions, planar binary tre...

  1. Algebraic nonlinear collective motion

    Troupe, J.; Rosensteel, G.


    Finite-dimensional Lie algebras of vector fields determine geometrical collective models in quantum and classical physics. Every set of vector fields on Euclidean space that generates the Lie algebra sl(3, R) and contains the angular momentum algebra so(3) is determined. The subset of divergence-free sl(3, R) vector fields is proven to be indexed by a real number $\\Lambda$. The $\\Lambda=0$ solution is the linear representation that corresponds to the Riemann ellipsoidal model. The nonlinear g...

  2. A quantum field algebra

    Brouder, Christian


    The Laplace Hopf algebra created by Rota and coll. is generalized to provide an algebraic tool for combinatorial problems of quantum field theory. This framework encompasses commutation relations, normal products, time-ordered products and renormalisation. It considers the operator product and the time-ordered product as deformations of the normal product. In particular, it gives an algebraic meaning to Wick's theorem and it extends the concept of Laplace pairing to prove that the renormalise...

  3. Geometric Algebras and Extensors

    Fernandez, V. V.; Moya, A. M.; Rodrigues Jr., W. A.


    This is the first paper in a series (of four) designed to show how to use geometric algebras of multivectors and extensors to a novel presentation of some topics of differential geometry which are important for a deeper understanding of geometrical theories of the gravitational field. In this first paper we introduce the key algebraic tools for the development of our program, namely the euclidean geometrical algebra of multivectors Cl(V,G_{E}) and the theory of its deformations leading to met...

  4. Symmetric Extended Ockham Algebras

    T.S. Blyth; Jie Fang


    The variety eO of extended Ockham algebras consists of those algealgebra with an additional endomorphism k such that the unary operations f and k commute. Here, we consider the cO-algebras which have a property of symmetry. We show that there are thirty two non-isomorphic subdirectly irreducible symmetric extended MS-algebras and give a complete description of them.2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 06D15, 06D30

  5. Cayley-Dickson and Clifford Algebras as Twisted Group Algebras

    Bales, John W.


    The effect of some properties of twisted groups on the associated algebras, particularly Cayley-Dickson and Clifford algebras. It is conjectured that the Hilbert space of square-summable sequences is a Cayley-Dickson algebra.

  6. Quiver W-algebras

    Kimura, Taro


    For a quiver with weighted arrows we define gauge-theory K-theoretic W-algebra generalizing the definition of Shiraishi et al., and Frenkel and Reshetikhin. In particular, we show that the qq-character construction of gauge theory presented by Nekrasov is isomorphic to the definition of the W-algebra in the operator formalism as a commutant of screening charges in the free field representation. Besides, we allow arbitrary quiver and expect interesting applications to representation theory of generalized Borcherds-Kac-Moody Lie algebras, their quantum affinizations and associated W-algebras.

  7. Lectures in general algebra

    Kurosh, A G; Stark, M; Ulam, S


    Lectures in General Algebra is a translation from the Russian and is based on lectures on specialized courses in general algebra at Moscow University. The book starts with the basics of algebra. The text briefly describes the theory of sets, binary relations, equivalence relations, partial ordering, minimum condition, and theorems equivalent to the axiom of choice. The text gives the definition of binary algebraic operation and the concepts of groups, groupoids, and semigroups. The book examines the parallelism between the theory of groups and the theory of rings; such examinations show the

  8. Algebraic extensions of fields

    McCarthy, Paul J


    ""...clear, unsophisticated and direct..."" - MathThis textbook is intended to prepare graduate students for the further study of fields, especially algebraic number theory and class field theory. It presumes some familiarity with topology and a solid background in abstract algebra. Chapter 1 contains the basic results concerning algebraic extensions. In addition to separable and inseparable extensions and normal extensions, there are sections on finite fields, algebraically closed fields, primitive elements, and norms and traces. Chapter 2 is devoted to Galois theory. Besides the fundamenta

  9. Basic notions of algebra

    Shafarevich, Igor Rostislavovich


    This book is wholeheartedly recommended to every student or user of mathematics. Although the author modestly describes his book as 'merely an attempt to talk about' algebra, he succeeds in writing an extremely original and highly informative essay on algebra and its place in modern mathematics and science. From the fields, commutative rings and groups studied in every university math course, through Lie groups and algebras to cohomology and category theory, the author shows how the origins of each algebraic concept can be related to attempts to model phenomena in physics or in other branches

  10. Boolean algebra essentials

    Solomon, Alan D


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Boolean Algebra includes set theory, sentential calculus, fundamental ideas of Boolean algebras, lattices, rings and Boolean algebras, the structure of a Boolean algebra, and Boolean

  11. Fundamentals of Hopf algebras

    Underwood, Robert G


    This text aims to provide graduate students with a self-contained introduction to topics that are at the forefront of modern algebra, namely, coalgebras, bialgebras, and Hopf algebras.  The last chapter (Chapter 4) discusses several applications of Hopf algebras, some of which are further developed in the author’s 2011 publication, An Introduction to Hopf Algebras.  The book may be used as the main text or as a supplementary text for a graduate algebra course.  Prerequisites for this text include standard material on groups, rings, modules, algebraic extension fields, finite fields, and linearly recursive sequences. The book consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 introduces algebras and coalgebras over a field K; Chapter 2 treats bialgebras; Chapter 3 discusses Hopf algebras and Chapter 4 consists of three applications of Hopf algebras. Each chapter begins with a short overview and ends with a collection of exercises which are designed to review and reinforce the material. Exercises range from straightforw...

  12. Relations Between BZMVdM-Algebra and Other Algebras

    高淑萍; 邓方安; 刘三阳


    Some properties of BZMVdM-algebra are proved, and a new operator is introduced. It is shown that the substructure of BZMVdM-algebra can produce a quasi-lattice implication algebra. The relations between BZMVdM-algebra and other algebras are discussed in detail. A pseudo-distance function is defined in linear BZMVdM-algebra, and its properties are derived.

  13. Differential Hopf algebra structures on the universal enveloping algebra ofa Lie algebra

    Hijligenberg, N.W. van den; Martini, R.


    We discuss a method to construct a De Rham complex (differential algebra) of Poincar'e-Birkhoff-Witt-type on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra $g$. We determine the cases in which this gives rise to a differential Hopf algebra that naturally extends the Hopf algebra structure of $U(g

  14. Tubular algebras and affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Zheng-xin CHEN; Ya-nan LIN


    The purpose of this paper is to construct quotient algebras L(A)C1/I(A) of complex degenerate composition Lie algebras L(A)C1 by some ideals, where L(A)C1 is defined via Hall algebras of tubular algebras A, and to prove that the quotient algebras L(A)C1/I(A) are isomorphic to the corresponding affine Kac-Moody algebras. Moreover, it is shown that the Lie algebra Lre(A)C1 generated by A-modules with a real root coincides with the degenerate composition Lie algebra L(A)C1 generated by simple A-modules.

  15. Tubular algebras and affine Kac-Moody algebras


    The purpose of this paper is to construct quotient algebras L(A)1C/I(A) of complex degenerate composition Lie algebras L(A)1C by some ideals, where L(A)1C is defined via Hall algebras of tubular algebras A, and to prove that the quotient algebras L(A)1C/I(A) are isomorphic to the corresponding affine Kac-Moody algebras. Moreover, it is shown that the Lie algebra Lre(A)1C generated by A-modules with a real root coincides with the degenerate composition Lie algebra L(A)1C generated by simple A-modules.

  16. Universal Algebras of Hurwitz Numbers

    A. Mironov; Morozov, A; Natanzon, S.


    Infinite-dimensional universal Cardy-Frobenius algebra is constructed, which unifies all particular algebras of closed and open Hurwitz numbers and is closely related to the algebra of differential operators, familiar from the theory of Generalized Kontsevich Model.

  17. Tilting theory and cluster algebras

    Reiten, Idun


    We give an introduction to the theory of cluster categories and cluster tilted algebras. We include some background on the theory of cluster algebras, and discuss the interplay with cluster categories and cluster tilted algebras.

  18. Fields and Forms on -Algebras

    Cătălin Ciupală


    In this paper we introduce non-commutative fields and forms on a new kind of non-commutative algebras: -algebras. We also define the Frölicher–Nijenhuis bracket in the non-commutative geometry on -algebras.

  19. Symplectic $C_\\infty$-algebras

    Hamilton, Alastair; Lazarev, Andrey


    In this paper we show that a strongly homotopy commutative (or $C_\\infty$-) algebra with an invariant inner product on its cohomology can be uniquely extended to a symplectic $C_\\infty$-algebra (an $\\infty$-generalisation of a commutative Frobenius algebra introduced by Kontsevich). This result relies on the algebraic Hodge decomposition of the cyclic Hochschild cohomology of a $\\ci$-algebra and does not generalize to algebras over other operads.

  20. On algebraic volume density property

    Kaliman, Shulim; Kutzschebauch, Frank


    A smooth affine algebraic variety $X$ equipped with an algebraic volume form $\\omega$ has the algebraic volume density property (AVDP) if the Lie algebra generated by completely integrable algebraic vector fields of $\\omega$-divergence zero coincides with the space of all algebraic vector fields of $\\omega$-divergence zero. We develop an effective criterion of verifying whether a given $X$ has AVDP. As an application of this method we establish AVDP for any homogeneous space $X=G/R$ that admi...

  1. (Quasi-)Poisson enveloping algebras

    Yang, Yan-Hong; Yuan YAO; Ye, Yu


    We introduce the quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra and Poisson enveloping algebra for a non-commutative Poisson algebra. We prove that for a non-commutative Poisson algebra, the category of quasi-Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra, and the category of Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its Poisson enveloping algebra.

  2. Automorphism groups of some algebras

    PARK Hong Goo; LEE Jeongsig; CHOI Seul Hee; CHEN XueQing; NAM Ki-Bong


    The automorphism groups of algebras are found in many papers. Using auto-invariance, we find the automorphism groups of the Laurent extension of the polynomial ring and the quantum n-plane (respectively, twisting polynomial ring) in this work. As an application of the results of this work, we can find the automorphism group of a twisting algebra. We define a generalized Weyl algebra and show that the generalized Weyl algebra is simple. We also find the automorphism group of a generalized Weyl algebra. We show that the generalized Weyl algebra Am,m+n is the universal enveloping algebra of the generalized Witt algebra W(m, m+n).

  3. Automorphism groups of some algebras

    PARK; Hong; Goo; LEE; Jeongsig; CHOI; Seul; Hee; NAM; Ki-Bong


    The automorphism groups of algebras are found in many papers. Using auto-invariance, we find the automorphism groups of the Laurent extension of the polynomial ring and the quantum n-plane (respectively, twisting polynomial ring) in this work. As an application of the results of this work, we can find the automorphism group of a twisting algebra. We define a generalized Weyl algebra and show that the generalized Weyl algebra is simple. We also find the automorphism group of a generalized Weyl algebra. We show that the generalized Weyl algebra Am,m+n is the universal enveloping algebra of the generalized Witt algebra W(m,m + n).

  4. Computer algebra in gravity

    Heinicke, C; Heinicke, Christian; Hehl, Friedrich W.


    We survey the application of computer algebra in the context of gravitational theories. After some general remarks, we show of how to check the second Bianchi-identity by means of the Reduce package Excalc. Subsequently we list some computer algebra systems and packages relevant to applications in gravitational physics. We conclude by presenting a couple of typical examples.

  5. Generalized Schur Algebras

    May, Robert D.


    Left and right "generalized Schur algebras", previously introduced by the author, are defined and analyzed. Filtrations of these algebras lead, in most cases, to parameterizations of the their irreducible representations over fields of characteristic 0 and fields of positive characteristic p.

  6. Computing upper cluster algebras

    Matherne, Jacob; Muller, Greg


    This paper develops techniques for producing presentations of upper cluster algebras. These techniques are suited to computer implementation, and will always succeed when the upper cluster algebra is totally coprime and finitely generated. We include several examples of presentations produced by these methods.

  7. Lineare Algebra I & II

    Greuel, Gert-Martin


    Inhalte der Grundvorlesungen Lineare Algebra I und II im Winter- und Sommersemester 1999/2000: Gruppen, Ringe, Körper, Vektorräume, lineare Abbildungen, Determinanten, lineare Gleichungssysteme, Polynomring, Eigenwerte, Jordansche Normalform, endlich-dimensionale Hilberträume, Hauptachsentransformation, multilineare Algebra, Dualraum, Tensorprodukt, äußeres Produkt, Einführung in Singular.

  8. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.


    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  9. Algebraic Differential Characters

    Esnault, H


    We give a construction of algebraic differential characters, receiving classes of algebraic bundles with connection, lifitng the Chern-Simons invariants defined with S. Bloch, the classes in the Chow group and the analytic secondary invariants if the variety is defined over the field of complex numbers.

  10. On Hadamard algebras

    Carlos C. Peña


    Full Text Available Topological algebras of sequences of complex numbers are introduced, endowed with a Hadamard product type. The complex homomorphisms on these algebras are characterized, and units, prime cyclic ideals, prime closed ideals, and prime minimal ideals, discussed. Existence of closed and maximal ideals are investigated, and it is shown that the Jacobson and nilradicals are both trivial.

  11. Ready, Set, Algebra?

    Levy, Alissa Beth


    The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this…

  12. Elements of mathematics algebra

    Bourbaki, Nicolas


    This is a softcover reprint of the English translation of 1990 of the revised and expanded version of Bourbaki's, Algèbre, Chapters 4 to 7 (1981). This completes Algebra, 1 to 3, by establishing the theories of commutative fields and modules over a principal ideal domain. Chapter 4 deals with polynomials, rational fractions and power series. A section on symmetric tensors and polynomial mappings between modules, and a final one on symmetric functions, have been added. Chapter 5 was entirely rewritten. After the basic theory of extensions (prime fields, algebraic, algebraically closed, radical extension), separable algebraic extensions are investigated, giving way to a section on Galois theory. Galois theory is in turn applied to finite fields and abelian extensions. The chapter then proceeds to the study of general non-algebraic extensions which cannot usually be found in textbooks: p-bases, transcendental extensions, separability criterions, regular extensions. Chapter 6 treats ordered groups and fields and...

  13. Introduction to noncommutative algebra

    Brešar, Matej


    Providing an elementary introduction to noncommutative rings and algebras, this textbook begins with the classical theory of finite dimensional algebras. Only after this, modules, vector spaces over division rings, and tensor products are introduced and studied. This is followed by Jacobson's structure theory of rings. The final chapters treat free algebras, polynomial identities, and rings of quotients. Many of the results are not presented in their full generality. Rather, the emphasis is on clarity of exposition and simplicity of the proofs, with several being different from those in other texts on the subject. Prerequisites are kept to a minimum, and new concepts are introduced gradually and are carefully motivated. Introduction to Noncommutative Algebra is therefore accessible to a wide mathematical audience. It is, however, primarily intended for beginning graduate and advanced undergraduate students encountering noncommutative algebra for the first time.

  14. Deformation of central charges, vertex operator algebras whose Griess algebras are Jordan algebras

    Ashihara, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Masahiko


    If a vertex operator algebra $V=\\oplus_{n=0}^{\\infty}V_n$ satisfies $\\dim V_0=1, V_1=0$, then $V_2$ has a commutative (nonassociative) algebra structure called Griess algebra. One of the typical examples of commutative (nonassociative) algebras is a Jordan algebra. For example, the set $Sym_d(\\C)$ of symmetric matrices of degree $d$ becomes a Jordan algebra. On the other hand, in the theory of vertex operator algebras, central charges influence the properties of vertex operator algebras. In t...

  15. Homotopy commutative algebra and 2-nilpotent Lie algebra

    Dubois-Violette, Michel; Popov, Todor


    The homotopy transfer theorem due to Tornike Kadeishvili induces the structure of a homotopy commutative algebra, or $C_{\\infty}$-algebra, on the cohomology of the free 2-nilpotent Lie algebra. The latter $C_{\\infty}$-algebra is shown to be generated in degree one by the binary and the ternary operations.

  16. The Planar Algebra of a Semisimple and Cosemisimple Hopf Algebra

    Vijay Kodiyalam; V S Sunder


    To a semisimple and cosemisimple Hopf algebra over an algebraically closed field, we associate a planar algebra defined by generators and relations and show that it is a connected, irreducible, spherical, non-degenerate planar algebra with non-zero modulus and of depth two. This association is shown to yield a bijection between (the isomorphism classes, on both sides, of) such objects.

  17. Semigroups and computer algebra in algebraic structures

    Bijev, G.


    Some concepts in semigroup theory can be interpreted in several algebraic structures. A generalization fA,B,fA,B(X) = A(X')B of the complement operator (') on Boolean matrices is made, where A and B denote any rectangular Boolean matrices. While (') is an isomorphism between Boolean semilattices, the generalized complement operator is homomorphism in the general case. The map fA,B and its general inverse (fA,B)+ have quite similar properties to those in the linear algebra and are useful for solving linear equations in Boolean matrix algebras. For binary relations on a finite set, necessary and sufficient conditions for the equation αξβ = γ to have a solution ξ are proved. A generalization of Green's equivalence relations in semigroups for rectangular matrices is proposed. Relationships between them and the Moore-Penrose inverses are investigated. It is shown how any generalized Green's H-class could be constructed by given its corresponding linear subspaces and converted into a group isomorphic to a linear group. Some information about using computer algebra methods concerning this paper is given.

  18. Algebraic K-theory and algebraic topology

    This contribution treats the various topological constructions of Algebraic K-theory together with the underlying homotopy theory. Topics covered include the plus construction together with its various ramifications and applications, Topological Hochschild and Cyclic Homology as well as K-theory of the ring of integers

  19. A new algebra which transmutes to the braided algebra

    Yildiz, A


    We find a new braided Hopf structure for the algebra satisfied by the entries of the braided matrix $BSL_q(2)$. A new nonbraided algebra whose coalgebra structure is the same as the braided one is found to be a two parameter deformed algebra. It is found that this algebra is not a comodule algebra under adjoint coaction. However, it is shown that for a certain value of one of the deformation parameters the braided algebra becomes a comodule algebra under the coaction of this nonbraided algebr...

  20. Certain Clifford-like algebra and quantum vertex algebras

    Li, Haisheng; Tan, Shaobin; Wang, Qing


    In this paper, we study in the context of quantum vertex algebras a certain Clifford-like algebra introduced by Jing and Nie. We establish bases of PBW type and classify its $\\mathbb N$-graded irreducible modules by using a notion of Verma module. On the other hand, we introduce a new algebra, a twin of the original algebra. Using this new algebra we construct a quantum vertex algebra and we associate $\\mathbb N$-graded modules for Jing-Nie's Clifford-like algebra with $\\phi$-coordinated modu...

  1. Linear algebraic groups

    Springer, T A


    "[The first] ten chapters...are an efficient, accessible, and self-contained introduction to affine algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. The author includes exercises and the book is certainly usable by graduate students as a text or for self-study...the author [has a] student-friendly style… [The following] seven chapters... would also be a good introduction to rationality issues for algebraic groups. A number of results from the literature…appear for the first time in a text." –Mathematical Reviews (Review of the Second Edition) "This book is a completely new version of the first edition. The aim of the old book was to present the theory of linear algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. Reading that book, many people entered the research field of linear algebraic groups. The present book has a wider scope. Its aim is to treat the theory of linear algebraic groups over arbitrary fields. Again, the author keeps the treatment of prerequisites self-contained. The material of t...

  2. The Stabilized Poincare-Heisenberg algebra: a Clifford algebra viewpoint

    Gresnigt, N. G.; Renaud, P. F.; Butler, P. H.


    The stabilized Poincare-Heisenberg algebra (SPHA) is the Lie algebra of quantum relativistic kinematics generated by fifteen generators. It is obtained from imposing stability conditions after attempting to combine the Lie algebras of quantum mechanics and relativity which by themselves are stable, however not when combined. In this paper we show how the sixteen dimensional Clifford algebra CL(1,3) can be used to generate the SPHA. The Clifford algebra path to the SPHA avoids the traditional ...

  3. Algebraic Signal Processing Theory

    Pueschel, Markus; Moura, Jose M. F.


    This paper presents an algebraic theory of linear signal processing. At the core of algebraic signal processing is the concept of a linear signal model defined as a triple (A, M, phi), where familiar concepts like the filter space and the signal space are cast as an algebra A and a module M, respectively, and phi generalizes the concept of the z-transform to bijective linear mappings from a vector space of, e.g., signal samples, into the module M. A signal model provides the structure for a p...

  4. Transgression and Clifford algebras

    Rohr, Rudolf Philippe


    Let $W$ be a differential (not necessarily commutative) algebra which carries a free action of a polynomial algebra $SP$ with homogeneous generators $p_1, >..., p_r$. We show that for $W$ acyclic, the cohomology of the quotient $H(W/)$ is isomorphic to a Clifford algebra $\\text{Cl}(P,B)$, where the (possibly degenerate) bilinear form $B$ depends on $W$. This observation is an analogue of an old result of Borel in a non-commutative context. As an application, we study the case of $W$ given by ...

  5. Symplectic algebraic dynamics algorithm


    Based on the algebraic dynamics solution of ordinary differential equations andintegration of  ,the symplectic algebraic dynamics algorithm sn is designed,which preserves the local symplectic geometric structure of a Hamiltonian systemand possesses the same precision of the na ve algebraic dynamics algorithm n.Computer experiments for the 4th order algorithms are made for five test modelsand the numerical results are compared with the conventional symplectic geometric algorithm,indicating that sn has higher precision,the algorithm-inducedphase shift of the conventional symplectic geometric algorithm can be reduced,and the dynamical fidelity can be improved by one order of magnitude.

  6. On Griess Algebras

    Michael Roitman


    In this paper we prove that for any commutative (but in general non-associative) algebra $A$ with an invariant symmetric non-degenerate bilinear form there is a graded vertex algebra $V = V_0 \\oplus V_2 \\oplus V_3\\oplus ...$, such that $\\dim V_0 = 1$ and $V_2$ contains $A$. We can choose $V$ so that if $A$ has a unit $e$, then $2e$ is the Virasoro element of $V$, and if $G$ is a finite group of automorphisms of $A$, then $G$ acts on $V$ as well. In addition, the algebra $V$ can be chosen with...

  7. Matrices and linear algebra

    Schneider, Hans


    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  8. Diassociative algebras and their derivations

    The paper concerns the derivations of diassociative algebras. We introduce one important class of diassociative algebras, give simple properties of the right and left multiplication operators in diassociative algebras. Then we describe the derivations of complex diassociative algebras in dimension two and three

  9. Irreducible Lie-Yamaguti algebras

    Benito, Pilar; Elduque, Alberto; Martín-Herce, Fabián


    Lie-Yamaguti algebras (or generalized Lie triple systems) are binary-ternary algebras intimately related to reductive homogeneous spaces. The Lie-Yamaguti algebras which are irreducible as modules over their Lie inner derivation algebra are the algebraic counterpart of the isotropy irreducible homogeneous spaces. These systems will be shown to split into three disjoint types: adjoint type, non-simple type and generic type. The systems of the first two types will be classified and most of them...

  10. Hom-power associative algebras

    Yau, Donald


    A generalization of power associative algebra, called Hom-power associative algebra, is studied. The main result says that a multiplicative Hom-algebra is Hom-power associative if and only if it satisfies two identities of degrees three and four. It generalizes Albert's result that power associativity is equivalent to third and fourth power associativity. In particular, multiplicative right Hom-alternative algebras and non-commutative Hom-Jordan algebras are Hom-power associative.

  11. Unitary spaces on Clifford algebras

    Marchuk, N. G.; Shirokov, D. S.


    For the complex Clifford algebra Cl(p,q) of dimension n=p+q we define a Hermitian scalar product. This scalar product depends on the signature (p,q) of Clifford algebra. So, we arrive at unitary spaces on Clifford algebras. With the aid of Hermitian idempotents we suggest a new construction of, so called, normal matrix representations of Clifford algebra elements. These representations take into account the structure of unitary space on Clifford algebra.

  12. Natural Editing of Algebraic Expressions

    Nicaud, Jean-François


    We call “natural editing of algebraic expressions” the editing of algebraic expressions in their natural representation, the one that is used on paper and blackboard. This is an issue we have investigated in the Aplusix project, a project which develops a system aiming at helping students to learn algebra. The paper summarises first the Aplusix project. Second it presents a notion of algebraic expressions, of representations of algebraic expressions. The last section develops ideas about natu...

  13. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    J.A. Bergstra; Middelburg, C.A.


    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization of the notion of an ACP process algebra to processes in which data are involved. In meadow enriched ACP process algebras, the mathematical structure for data is a meadow.

  14. The Algebra of -relations

    Vijay Kodiyalam; R Srinivasan; V S Sunder


    In this paper, we study a tower $\\{A^G_n(d):n≥ 1\\}$ of finite-dimensional algebras; here, represents an arbitrary finite group, denotes a complex parameter, and the algebra $A^G_n(d)$ has a basis indexed by `-stable equivalence relations' on a set where acts freely and has 2 orbits. We show that the algebra $A^G_n(d)$ is semi-simple for all but a finite set of values of , and determine the representation theory (or, equivalently, the decomposition into simple summands) of this algebra in the `generic case'. Finally we determine the Bratteli diagram of the tower $\\{A^G_n(d): n≥ 1\\}$ (in the generic case).

  15. Linear algebra done right

    Axler, Sheldon


    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  16. Geometric Algebra for Physicists

    Doran, Chris; Lasenby, Anthony


    Preface; Notation; 1. Introduction; 2. Geometric algebra in two and three dimensions; 3. Classical mechanics; 4. Foundations of geometric algebra; 5. Relativity and spacetime; 6. Geometric calculus; 7. Classical electrodynamics; 8. Quantum theory and spinors; 9. Multiparticle states and quantum entanglement; 10. Geometry; 11. Further topics in calculus and group theory; 12. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian techniques; 13. Symmetry and gauge theory; 14. Gravitation; Bibliography; Index.

  17. Hopf Algebra of Sashes

    Law, Shirley


    International audience A general lattice theoretic construction of Reading constructs Hopf subalgebras of the Malvenuto-Reutenauer Hopf algebra (MR) of permutations. The products and coproducts of these Hopf subalgebras are defined extrinsically in terms of the embedding in MR. The goal of this paper is to find an intrinsic combinatorial description of a particular one of these Hopf subalgebras. This Hopf algebra has a natural basis given by permutations that we call Pell permutations. The...

  18. Holomorphically Equivalent Algebraic Embeddings

    Feller, Peter; Stampfli, Immanuel


    We prove that two algebraic embeddings of a smooth variety $X$ in $\\mathbb{C}^m$ are the same up to a holomorphic coordinate change, provided that $2 \\dim X + 1$ is smaller than or equal to $m$. This improves an algebraic result of Nori and Srinivas. For the proof we extend a technique of Kaliman using generic linear projections of $\\mathbb{C}^m$.

  19. Intermediate algebra a textworkbook

    McKeague, Charles P


    Intermediate Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in intermediate algebra. The publication first takes a look at basic properties and definitions, first-degree equations and inequalities, and exponents and polynomials. Discussions focus on properties of exponents, polynomials, sums, and differences, multiplication of polynomials, inequalities involving absolute value, word problems, first-degree inequalities, real numbers, opposites, reciprocals, and absolute value, and addition and subtraction of real numbers. The text then ex

  20. Star Algebra Projectors

    Gaiotto, Davide; Rastelli, Leonardo; Sen, Ashoke; Zwiebach, Barton


    Surface states are open string field configurations which arise from Riemann surfaces with a boundary and form a subalgebra of the star algebra. We find that a general class of star algebra projectors arise from surface states where the open string midpoint reaches the boundary of the surface. The projector property of the state and the split nature of its wave-functional arise because of a nontrivial feature of conformal maps of nearly degenerate surfaces. Moreover, all such projectors are i...

  1. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    Gondin, William R


    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  2. Elementary linear algebra

    Andrilli, Stephen


    Elementary Linear Algebra develops and explains in careful detail the computational techniques and fundamental theoretical results central to a first course in linear algebra. This highly acclaimed text focuses on developing the abstract thinking essential for further mathematical study. The authors give early, intensive attention to the skills necessary to make students comfortable with mathematical proofs. The text builds a gradual and smooth transition from computational results to general theory of abstract vector spaces. It also provides flexbile coverage of practical applications, expl

  3. Introduction to abstract algebra

    Nicholson, W Keith


    Praise for the Third Edition ". . . an expository masterpiece of the highest didactic value that has gained additional attractivity through the various improvements . . ."-Zentralblatt MATH The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Abstract Algebra continues to provide an accessible approach to the basic structures of abstract algebra: groups, rings, and fields. The book's unique presentation helps readers advance to abstract theory by presenting concrete examples of induction, number theory, integers modulo n, and permutations before the abstract structures are defined. Readers can immediately be

  4. On isomorphisms of integral table algebras

    FAN; Yun(樊恽); SUN; Daying(孙大英)


    For integral table algebras with integral table basis T, we can consider integral R-algebra RT over a subring R of the ring of the algebraic integers. It is proved that an R-algebra isomorphism between two integral table algebras must be an integral table algebra isomorphism if it is compatible with the so-called normalizings of the integral table algebras.

  5. The Algebraic Way

    Hiley, B. J.

    In this chapter, we examine in detail the non-commutative symplectic algebra underlying quantum dynamics. By using this algebra, we show that it contains both the Weyl-von Neumann and the Moyal quantum algebras. The latter contains the Wigner distribution as the kernel of the density matrix. The underlying non-commutative geometry can be projected into either of two Abelian spaces, so-called `shadow phase spaces'. One of these is the phase space of Bohmian mechanics, showing that it is a fragment of the basic underlying algebra. The algebraic approach is much richer, giving rise to two fundamental dynamical time development equations which reduce to the Liouville equation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the classical limit. They also include the Schrödinger equation and its wave-function, showing that these features are a partial aspect of the more general non-commutative structure. We discuss briefly the properties of this more general mathematical background from which the non-commutative symplectic algebra emerges.

  6. DG Poisson algebra and its universal enveloping algebra

    Lü, JiaFeng; Wang, XingTing; Zhuang, GuangBin


    In this paper, we introduce the notions of differential graded (DG) Poisson algebra and DG Poisson module. Let $A$ be any DG Poisson algebra. We construct the universal enveloping algebra of $A$ explicitly, which is denoted by $A^{ue}$. We show that $A^{ue}$ has a natural DG algebra structure and it satisfies certain universal property. As a consequence of the universal property, it is proved that the category of DG Poisson modules over $A$ is isomorphic to the category of DG modules over $A^{ue}$. Furthermore, we prove that the notion of universal enveloping algebra $A^{ue}$ is well-behaved under opposite algebra and tensor product of DG Poisson algebras. Practical examples of DG Poisson algebras are given throughout the paper including those arising from differential geometry and homological algebra.

  7. Topological ∗-algebras with *-enveloping Algebras II

    S J Bhatt


    Universal *-algebras *() exist for certain topological ∗-algebras called algebras with a *-enveloping algebra. A Frechet ∗-algebra has a *-enveloping algebra if and only if every operator representation of maps into bounded operators. This is proved by showing that every unbounded operator representation , continuous in the uniform topology, of a topological ∗-algebra , which is an inverse limit of Banach ∗-algebras, is a direct sum of bounded operator representations, thereby factoring through the enveloping pro-* algebra () of . Given a *-dynamical system (, , ), any topological ∗-algebra containing (, ) as a dense ∗-subalgebra and contained in the crossed product *-algebra *(, , ) satisfies ()=*(, , ). If $G = \\mathbb{R}$, if is an -invariant dense Frechet ∗-subalgebra of such that () = , and if the action on is -tempered, smooth and by continuous ∗-automorphisms: then the smooth Schwartz crossed product $S(\\mathbb{R}, B, )$ satisfies $E(S(\\mathbb{R}, B, )) = C^*(\\mathbb{R}, A, )$. When is a Lie group, the ∞-elements ∞(), the analytic elements () as well as the entire analytic elements () carry natural topologies making them algebras with a *-enveloping algebra. Given a non-unital *-algebra , an inductive system of ideals is constructed satisfying $A = C^*-\\mathrm{ind} \\lim I_$; and the locally convex inductive limit $\\mathrm{ind}\\lim I_$ is an -convex algebra with the *-enveloping algebra and containing the Pedersen ideal of . Given generators with weakly Banach admissible relations , we construct universal topological ∗-algebra (, ) and show that it has a *-enveloping algebra if and only if (, ) is *-admissible.

  8. Differential Hopf algebra structures on the universal enveloping algebra ofa Lie algebra

    Hijligenberg, van den, N.W.; Martini, R.


    We discuss a method to construct a De Rham complex (differential algebra) of Poincar'e-Birkhoff-Witt-type on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra $g$. We determine the cases in which this gives rise to a differential Hopf algebra that naturally extends the Hopf algebra structure of $U(g)$. The construction of such differential structures is interpreted in terms of colour Lie superalgebras.

  9. L-o cto-algebras

    An Hui-hui; Wang Zhi-chun


    L-octo-algebra with 8 operations as the Lie algebraic analogue of octo-algebra such that the sum of 8 operations is a Lie algebra is discussed. Any octo-algebra is an L-octo-algebra. The relationships among L-octo-algebras, L-quadri-algebras, L-dendriform algebras, pre-Lie algebras and Lie algebras are given. The close relationships between L-octo-algebras and some interesting structures like Rota-Baxter operators, classical Yang-Baxter equations and some bilinear forms satisfying certain conditions are given also.

  10. Axis Problem of Rough 3-Valued Algebras

    Jianhua Dai; Weidong Chen; Yunhe Pan


    The collection of all the rough sets of an approximation space has been given several algebraic interpretations, including Stone algebras, regular double Stone algebras, semi-simple Nelson algebras, pre-rough algebras and 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras. A 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a Stone algebra, a regular double Stone algebra, a semi-simple Nelson algebra, a pre-rough algebra. Thus, we call the algebra constructed by the collection of rough sets of an approximation space a rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra. In this paper,the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, which are a special kind of 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, are studied. Whether the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a axled 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is examined.

  11. A2-Planar Algebras I

    Evans, David E


    We give a diagrammatic representation of the A_2-Temperley-Lieb algebra, and show that it is isomorphic to Wenzl's representation of a Hecke algebra. Generalizing Jones's notion of a planar algebra, we construct an A_2-planar algebra which will capture the structure contained in the SU(3) ADE subfactors. We show that the subfactor for an SU(3) ADE graph with a flat connection has a description as a flat A_2-planar algebra, and give the A_2-planar algebra description of the dual subfactor.

  12. Algebra II workbook for dummies

    Sterling, Mary Jane


    To succeed in Algebra II, start practicing now Algebra II builds on your Algebra I skills to prepare you for trigonometry, calculus, and a of myriad STEM topics. Working through practice problems helps students better ingest and retain lesson content, creating a solid foundation to build on for future success. Algebra II Workbook For Dummies, 2nd Edition helps you learn Algebra II by doing Algebra II. Author and math professor Mary Jane Sterling walks you through the entire course, showing you how to approach and solve the problems you encounter in class. You'll begin by refreshing your Algebr

  13. Simple Algebras of Invariant Operators

    Xiaorong Shen; J.D.H. Smith


    Comtrans algebras were introduced in as algebras with two trilinear operators, a commutator [x, y, z] and a translator , which satisfy certain identities. Previously known simple comtrans algebras arise from rectangular matrices, simple Lie algebras, spaces equipped with a bilinear form having trivial radical, spaces of hermitian operators over a field with a minimum polynomial x2+1. This paper is about generalizing the hermitian case to the so-called invariant case. The main result of this paper shows that the vector space of n-dimensional invariant operators furnishes some comtrans algebra structures, which are simple provided that certain Jordan and Lie algebras are simple.

  14. Simple algebras of Weyl type


    Over a field F of arbitrary characteristic, we define the associative and the Lie algebras of Weyl type on the same vector space A[D]=A[D] from any pair of a commutative associative algebra A with an identity element and the polynomial algebra [D] of a commutative derivation subalgebra D of A. We prove that A[D], as a Lie algebra (modulo its center) or as an associative algebra, is simple if and only if A is D-simple and A[D] acts faithfully on A. Thus we obtain a lot of simple algebras.

  15. Algebraic mesh quality metrics



    Quality metrics for structured and unstructured mesh generation are placed within an algebraic framework to form a mathematical theory of mesh quality metrics. The theory, based on the Jacobian and related matrices, provides a means of constructing, classifying, and evaluating mesh quality metrics. The Jacobian matrix is factored into geometrically meaningful parts. A nodally-invariant Jacobian matrix can be defined for simplicial elements using a weight matrix derived from the Jacobian matrix of an ideal reference element. Scale and orientation-invariant algebraic mesh quality metrics are defined. the singular value decomposition is used to study relationships between metrics. Equivalence of the element condition number and mean ratio metrics is proved. Condition number is shown to measure the distance of an element to the set of degenerate elements. Algebraic measures for skew, length ratio, shape, volume, and orientation are defined abstractly, with specific examples given. Combined metrics for shape and volume, shape-volume-orientation are algebraically defined and examples of such metrics are given. Algebraic mesh quality metrics are extended to non-simplical elements. A series of numerical tests verify the theoretical properties of the metrics defined.

  16. Rings of quotients of incidence algebras and path algebras

    Esparza, Eduardo Ortega


    We compute the maximal right/left/symmetric rings of quotients of finite dimensional incidence and graph algebras. We show that these rings of quotients are Morita equivalent to incidence algebras and path algebras respectively, with respect to simpler, well determined partially ordered sets and...... finite quivers, respectively. The geometric background of these algebras gives us an intuitive idea of the construction of their maximal ring of quotients....

  17. Differential operators on non-commutative algebras

    Hazewinkel, Michiel


    There is a relatively well-known description of the algebra of (higher order) left differential operators on commutative algebras. This note gives a construction of similar flavor for algebras of differential operators on not necessarily commutative algebras.

  18. Bundles of Banach algebras

    D. A. Robbins


    Full Text Available We study bundles of Banach algebras π:A→X, where each fiber Ax=π−1({x} is a Banach algebra and X is a compact Hausdorff space. In the case where all fibers are commutative, we investigate how the Gelfand representation of the section space algebra Γ(π relates to the Gelfand representation of the fibers. In the general case, we investigate how adjoining an identity to the bundle π:A→X relates to the standard adjunction of identities to the fibers.

  19. Basic linear algebra

    Blyth, T S


    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  20. Resonant algebras and gravity

    Durka, R


    We explore the $S$-expansion framework to analyze freedom in closing the multiplication tables for the abelian semigroups. Including possibility of the zero element in the resonant decomposition and relating the Lorentz generator with the semigroup identity element leads to the wide class of the expanded Lie algebras introducing interesting modifications to the gauge gravity theories. Among the results we find not only all the Maxwell algebras of type $\\mathfrak{B}_m$, $\\mathfrak{C}_m$, and recently introduced $\\mathfrak{D}_m$, but we also produce new examples. We discuss some prospects concerning further enlarging the algebras and provide all necessary constituents for constructing the gravity actions based on the obtained results.

  1. Algebraic quantum field theory

    The basic assumption that the complete information relevant for a relativistic, local quantum theory is contained in the net structure of the local observables of this theory results first of all in a concise formulation of the algebraic structure of the superselection theory and an intrinsic formulation of charge composition, charge conjugation and the statistics of an algebraic quantum field theory. In a next step, the locality of massive particles together with their spectral properties are wed for the formulation of a selection criterion which opens the access to the massive, non-abelian quantum gauge theories. The role of the electric charge as a superselection rule results in the introduction of charge classes which in term lead to a set of quantum states with optimum localization properties. Finally, the asymptotic observables of quantum electrodynamics are investigated within the framework of algebraic quantum field theory. (author)

  2. Complex Algebraic Varieties

    Peternell, Thomas; Schneider, Michael; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf


    The Bayreuth meeting on "Complex Algebraic Varieties" focussed on the classification of algebraic varieties and topics such as vector bundles, Hodge theory and hermitian differential geometry. Most of the articles in this volume are closely related to talks given at the conference: all are original, fully refereed research articles. CONTENTS: A. Beauville: Annulation du H(1) pour les fibres en droites plats.- M. Beltrametti, A.J. Sommese, J.A. Wisniewski: Results on varieties with many lines and their applications to adjunction theory.- G. Bohnhorst, H. Spindler: The stability of certain vector bundles on P(n) .- F. Catanese, F. Tovena: Vector bundles, linear systems and extensions of (1).- O. Debarre: Vers uns stratification de l'espace des modules des varietes abeliennes principalement polarisees.- J.P. Demailly: Singular hermitian metrics on positive line bundles.- T. Fujita: On adjoint bundles of ample vector bundles.- Y. Kawamata: Moderate degenerations of algebraic surfaces.- U. Persson: Genus two fibra...

  3. Algebraic number theory

    Jarvis, Frazer


    The technical difficulties of algebraic number theory often make this subject appear difficult to beginners. This undergraduate textbook provides a welcome solution to these problems as it provides an approachable and thorough introduction to the topic. Algebraic Number Theory takes the reader from unique factorisation in the integers through to the modern-day number field sieve. The first few chapters consider the importance of arithmetic in fields larger than the rational numbers. Whilst some results generalise well, the unique factorisation of the integers in these more general number fields often fail. Algebraic number theory aims to overcome this problem. Most examples are taken from quadratic fields, for which calculations are easy to perform. The middle section considers more general theory and results for number fields, and the book concludes with some topics which are more likely to be suitable for advanced students, namely, the analytic class number formula and the number field sieve. This is the fi...

  4. On Griess Algebras

    Michael Roitman


    Full Text Available In this paper we prove that for any commutative (but in general non-associative algebra A with an invariant symmetric non-degenerate bilinear form there is a graded vertex algebra V = V_0 oplus V2 oplus V3 oplus ..., such that dim V_0 = 1 and V_2 contains A. We can choose V so that if A has a unit e, then 2e is the Virasoro element of V, and if G is a finite group of automorphisms of A, then G acts on V as well. In addition, the algebra V can be chosen with a non-degenerate invariant bilinear form, in which case it is simple.

  5. On Griess Algebras

    Roitman, Michael


    In this paper we prove that for any commutative (but in general non-associative) algebra A with an invariant symmetric non-degenerate bilinear form there is a graded vertex algebra V = V0 Å V2 Å V3 Å ¼, such that dim V0 = 1 and V2 contains A. We can choose V so that if A has a unit e, then 2e is the Virasoro element of V, and if G is a finite group of automorphisms of A, then G acts on V as well. In addition, the algebra V can be chosen with a non-degenerate invariant bilinear form, in which case it is simple.

  6. Commutative post-Lie algebra structures on Lie algebras

    Burde, Dietrich; Moens, Wolfgang Alexander


    We show that any CPA-structure (commutative post-Lie algebra structure) on a perfect Lie algebra is trivial. Furthermore we give a general decomposition of inner CPA-structures, and classify all CPA-structures on parabolic subalgebras of simple Lie algebras.

  7. The Planar Algebra Associated to a Kac Algebra

    Vijay Kodiyalam; Zeph Landau; V S Sunder


    We obtain (two equivalent) presentations – in terms of generators and relations-of the planar algebra associated with the subfactor corresponding to (an outer action on a factor by) a finite-dimensional Kac algebra. One of the relations shows that the antipode of the Kac algebra agrees with the `rotation on 2-boxes'.

  8. Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.


    This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…

  9. Structure of Solvable Quadratic Lie Algebras

    ZHU Lin-sheng


    @@ Killing form plays a key role in the theory of semisimple Lie algebras. It is natural to extend the study to Lie algebras with a nondegenerate symmetric invariant bilinear form. Such a Lie algebra is generally called a quadratic Lie algebra which occur naturally in physics[10,12,13]. Besides semisimple Lie algebras, interesting quadratic Lie algebras include the Kac-Moody algebras and the Extended Affine Lie algebras.

  10. Frobenius Splitting in Commutative Algebra

    Smith, Karen E.; ZHANG, WENLIANG


    This is a survey of Frobenius splitting techniques in commutative algebra, based on the first author's lectures at the introductory workshop for the special year in commutative algebra at MSRI in fall 2012.

  11. Linear Mappings of Quaternion Algebra

    Kleyn, Aleks


    In the paper I considered linear and antilinear automorphisms of quaternion algebra. I proved the theorem that there is unique expansion of R-linear mapping of quaternion algebra relative to the given set of linear and antilinear automorphisms.

  12. Reflexive functors in Algebraic Geometry

    Sancho, Pedro


    Reflexive functors of modules naturally appear in Algebraic Geometry. In this paper we define a wide and elementary family of reflexive functors of modules, closed by tensor products and homomorphisms, in which Algebraic Geometry can be developed.

  13. Cluster algebras and derived categories

    Keller, Bernhard


    This is an introductory survey on cluster algebras and their (additive) categorification using derived categories of Ginzburg algebras. After a gentle introduction to cluster combinatorics, we review important examples of coordinate rings admitting a cluster algebra structure. We then present the general definition of a cluster algebra and describe the interplay between cluster variables, coefficients, c-vectors and g-vectors. We show how c-vectors appear in the study of quantum cluster algebras and their links to the quantum dilogarithm. We then present the framework of additive categorification of cluster algebras based on the notion of quiver with potential and on the derived category of the associated Ginzburg algebra. We show how the combinatorics introduced previously lift to the categorical level and how this leads to proofs, for cluster algebras associated with quivers, of some of Fomin-Zelevinsky's fundamental conjectures.

  14. Phantom energy from graded algebras

    Chaves, Max; Singleton, Douglas


    We construct a model of phantom energy using the graded Lie algebra SU(2/1). The negative kinetic energy of the phantom field emerges naturally from the graded Lie algebra, resulting in an equation of state with w

  15. Computer Program For Linear Algebra

    Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.


    Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.

  16. $\\sigma $ -Approximately Contractible Banach Algebras

    Momeni, M; Yazdanpanah, T.; Mardanbeigi, M. R.


    We investigate $\\sigma $ -approximate contractibility and $\\sigma $ -approximate amenability of Banach algebras, which are extensions of usual notions of contractibility and amenability, respectively, where $\\sigma $ is a dense range or an idempotent bounded endomorphism of the corresponding Banach algebra.

  17. Projector bases and algebraic spinors

    In the case of complex Clifford algebras a basis is constructed whose elements satisfy projector relations. The relations are sufficient conditions for the elements to span minimal ideals and hence to define algebraic spinors

  18. Order Units in a *-Algebra

    Anil K Karn


    Order unit property of a positive element in a *-algebra is defined. It is proved that precisely projections satisfy this order theoretic property. This way, unital hereditary *-subalgebras of a *-algebra are characterized.

  19. Algebra & trigonometry I essentials

    REA, Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry I includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, eq

  20. Algebra task & drill sheets

    Reed, Nat


    For grades 3-5, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  1. Algebra task & drill sheets

    Reed, Nat


    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  2. Lie 2-algebra models

    Ritter, Patricia [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Avenida Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Sämann, Christian [Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University,Colin Maclaurin Building, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)


    In this paper, we begin the study of zero-dimensional field theories with fields taking values in a semistrict Lie 2-algebra. These theories contain the IKKT matrix model and various M-brane related models as special cases. They feature solutions that can be interpreted as quantized 2-plectic manifolds. In particular, we find solutions corresponding to quantizations of ℝ{sup 3}, S{sup 3} and a five-dimensional Hpp-wave. Moreover, by expanding a certain class of Lie 2-algebra models around the solution corresponding to quantized ℝ{sup 3}, we obtain higher BF-theory on this quantized space.

  3. Handbook of linear algebra

    Hogben, Leslie


    With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of

  4. Endomorphisms of graph algebras

    Conti, Roberto; Hong, Jeong Hee; Szymanski, Wojciech


    We initiate a systematic investigation of endomorphisms of graph C*-algebras C*(E), extending several known results on endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebras O_n. Most but not all of this study is focused on endomorphisms which permute the vertex projections and globally preserve the diagonal MASA D...... that the restriction to the diagonal MASA of an automorphism which globally preserves both D_E and the core AF-subalgebra eventually commutes with the corresponding one-sided shift. Secondly, we exhibit several properties of proper endomorphisms, investigate invertibility of localized endomorphisms both on C...

  5. Lie 2-algebra models

    In this paper, we begin the study of zero-dimensional field theories with fields taking values in a semistrict Lie 2-algebra. These theories contain the IKKT matrix model and various M-brane related models as special cases. They feature solutions that can be interpreted as quantized 2-plectic manifolds. In particular, we find solutions corresponding to quantizations of ℝ3, S3 and a five-dimensional Hpp-wave. Moreover, by expanding a certain class of Lie 2-algebra models around the solution corresponding to quantized ℝ3, we obtain higher BF-theory on this quantized space

  6. Principles of algebraic geometry

    Griffiths, Phillip A


    A comprehensive, self-contained treatment presenting general results of the theory. Establishes a geometric intuition and a working facility with specific geometric practices. Emphasizes applications through the study of interesting examples and the development of computational tools. Coverage ranges from analytic to geometric. Treats basic techniques and results of complex manifold theory, focusing on results applicable to projective varieties, and includes discussion of the theory of Riemann surfaces and algebraic curves, algebraic surfaces and the quadric line complex as well as special top

  7. Recollements of extension algebras

    CHEN; Qinghua(陈清华); LIN; Yanan(林亚南)


    Let A be a finite-dimensional algebra over arbitrary base field k. We prove: if the unbounded derived module category D-(Mod-A) admits symmetric recollement relative to unbounded derived module categories of two finite-dimensional k-algebras B and C:D-(Mod- B) ( ) D-(Mod- A) ( ) D-(Mod- C),then the unbounded derived module category D-(Mod - T(A)) admits symmetric recollement relative to the unbounded derived module categories of T(B) and T(C):D-(Mod - T(B)) ( ) D-(Mod - T(A)) ( ) D-(Mod - T(C)).

  8. Algebra & trigonometry super review


    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  9. Elementary algebraic geometry

    Kendig, Keith


    Designed to make learning introductory algebraic geometry as easy as possible, this text is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students who have taken a one-year course in algebra and are familiar with complex analysis. This newly updated second edition enhances the original treatment's extensive use of concrete examples and exercises with numerous figures that have been specially redrawn in Adobe Illustrator. An introductory chapter that focuses on examples of curves is followed by a more rigorous and careful look at plane curves. Subsequent chapters explore commutative ring th

  10. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    Fuchs, Laszlo


    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  11. Selectivity in Quaternion Algebras

    Linowitz, Benjamin


    We prove an integral version of the classical Albert-Brauer-Hasse-Noether theorem regarding quaternion algebras over number fields. Let $\\mathfrak A$ be a quaternion algebra over a number field $K$ and assume that $\\mathfrak A$ satisfies the Eichler condition; that is, there exists an archimedean prime of $K$ which does not ramify in $\\mathfrak A$. Let $\\Omega$ be a commutative, quadratic $\\mathcal{O}_K$-order and let $\\mathcal{R}\\subset \\mathfrak A$ be an order of full rank. Assume that ther...

  12. Helmholtz algebraic solitons

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first exact analytical algebraic solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation. This class of governing equation plays a key role in photonics modelling, allowing a full description of the propagation and interaction of broad scalar beams. New conservation laws are presented, and the recovery of paraxial results is discussed in detail. The stability properties of the new solitons are investigated by combining semi-analytical methods and computer simulations. In particular, new general stability regimes are reported for algebraic bright solitons.

  13. Lie algebra cohomology

    We calculate the cohomology of the BRS operator s modulo an auxiliary differential operator t where both operators act on invariant polynomials in anticommuting variables Ci and commuting variables Xi. Ci and Xi transform according to the adjoint representation of the Lie algebra of a compact Lie group. The cohomology classes of s modulo t are related to the solutions of the consistency equations which have to be satisfied by anomalies of Yang-Mills theories. The present investigation completes the proof of the completeness and nontriviality of these solutions and, as a by-product, determines the cohomology of the underlying Lie algebra. (orig.)

  14. Algebraic number theory

    Weiss, Edwin


    Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te

  15. Elementary matrix algebra

    Hohn, Franz E


    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  16. Helmholtz algebraic solitons

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Materials and Physics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P, E-mail: [Departamento de Teoria de la Senal y Comunicaciones e Ingenieria Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first exact analytical algebraic solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation. This class of governing equation plays a key role in photonics modelling, allowing a full description of the propagation and interaction of broad scalar beams. New conservation laws are presented, and the recovery of paraxial results is discussed in detail. The stability properties of the new solitons are investigated by combining semi-analytical methods and computer simulations. In particular, new general stability regimes are reported for algebraic bright solitons.

  17. The theory of algebraic numbers

    Pollard, Harry


    An excellent introduction to the basics of algebraic number theory, this concise, well-written volume examines Gaussian primes; polynomials over a field; algebraic number fields; and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture. 1975 edition. References. List of Symbols. Index.

  18. Derivations of generalized Weyl algebras

    SU; Yucai(苏育才)


    A class of the associative and Lie algebras A[D] = A × F[D] of Weyl type are studied, where Ais a commutative associative algebra with an identity element over a field F of characteristic zero, and F[D] isthe polynomial algebra of a finite dimensional commutative subalgebra of locally finite derivations of A suchthat A is D-simple. The derivations of these associative and Lie algebras are precisely determined.

  19. Optimal Algorithm for Algebraic Factoring



    This paper presents on optimized method for factoring multivariate polynomials over algebraic extension fields defined by an irreducible ascending set. The basic idea is to convert multivariate polynomials to univariate polynomials and algebraic extension fields to algebraic number fields by suitable integer substituteions.Then factorize the univariate polynomials over the algebraic number fields.Finally,construct mulativariate factors of the original polynomial by Hensel lemma and TRUEFACTOR test.Some examples with timing are included.

  20. Automorphism groups of pointed Hopf algebras

    YANG Shilin


    The group of Hopf algebra automorphisms for a finite-dimensional semisimple cosemisimple Hopf algebra over a field k was considered by Radford and Waterhouse. In this paper, the groups of Hopf algebra automorphisms for two classes of pointed Hopf algebras are determined. Note that the Hopf algebras we consider are not semisimple Hopf algebras.

  1. Hyperholomorphic functions on commutative algebras

    Pogorui, Anatoliy A.


    In this paper we study properties of hyperholomorphic functions on commutative finite algebras. It is investigated the Cauchy-Riemann type conditions for hyperholomorphic functions. We prove that a hyperholomorphic function on a commutative finite algebra can be expanded in a Taylor series. We also present a technique for computing zeros of polynomials in some commutative algebras.

  2. Challenges in Computational Commutative Algebra

    Abbott, John


    In this paper we consider a number of challenges from the point of view of the CoCoA project one of whose tasks is to develop software specialized for computations in commutative algebra. Some of the challenges extend considerably beyond the boundary of commutative algebra, and are addressed to the computer algebra community as a whole.

  3. An Algebra of Reversible Computation

    Wang, Yong


    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules, basic reversible processes algebra (BRPA), algebra of reversible communicating processes (ARCP), recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  4. Spinors in the hyperbolic algebra

    Ulrych, S.


    The three-dimensional universal complex Clifford algebra is used to represent relativistic vectors in terms of paravectors. In analogy to the Hestenes spacetime approach spinors are introduced in an algebraic form. This removes the dependance on an explicit matrix representation of the algebra.

  5. 'Twisted duality' for Clifford Algebras

    Robinson, P. L.


    Viewing the complex Clifford algebra $C(V)$ of a real inner product space $V$ as a superalgebra, we offer several proofs of the fact that if $W$ is a subspace of the complexification of $V$ then the supercommutant of the Clifford algebra $C(W)$ is precisely the Clifford algebra $C(W^{\\perp})$.

  6. Computer Algebra in Particle Physics

    Weinzierl, Stefan


    These lectures given to graduate students in theoretical particle physics, provide an introduction to the ``inner workings'' of computer algebra systems. Computer algebra has become an indispensable tool for precision calculations in particle physics. A good knowledge of the basics of computer algebra systems allows one to exploit these systems more efficiently.

  7. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    J.A. Bergstra; C.A. Middelburg


    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization o

  8. Skein algebras and cluster algebras of marked surfaces

    Muller, Greg


    This paper defines several algebras associated to an oriented surface S with a finite set of marked points on the boundary. The first is the skein algebra Sk_q(S), which is spanned by links in the surface which are allowed to have endpoints at the marked points, modulo several locally defined relations. The product is given by superposition of links. A basis of this algebra is given, as well as several algebraic results. When S is triangulable, the quantum cluster algebra A_q(S) and quantum u...

  9. The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra

    Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA


    We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.

  10. The Power of Algebra.

    Boiteau, Denise; Stansfield, David

    This document describes mathematical programs on the basic concepts of algebra produced by Louisiana Public Broadcasting. Programs included are: (1) "Inverse Operations"; (2) "The Order of Operations"; (3) "Basic Properties" (addition and multiplication of numbers and variables); (4) "The Positive and Negative Numbers"; and (5) "Using Positive…

  11. Finitary Algebraic Superspace

    Zapatrin, R R


    An algebraic scheme is suggested in which discretized spacetime turns out to be a quantum observable. As an example, a toy model producing spacetimes of four points with different topologies is presented. The possibility of incorporating this scheme into the framework of non-commutative differential geometry is discussed.

  12. Questions on Algebraic Varieties

    Marchionna, E


    P. Dolbeault: Residus et courants.- D. Mumford: Varieties defined by quadratic equations.- A. Neron: Hauteurs et theorie des intersections.- A. Seidenberg: Report on analytic product.- C.S. Seshadri: Moduli of p-vector bundles over an algebraic curve.- O. Zariski: Contributions to the problem of equi-singularity.

  13. Algebraic topology and concurrency

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Raussen, Martin; Goubault, Eric


    We show in this article that some concepts from homotopy theory, in algebraic topology,are relevant for studying concurrent programs. We exhibit a natural semantics of semaphore programs, based on partially ordered topological spaces, which are studied up to “elastic deformation” or homotopy...

  14. Thinking Visually about Algebra

    Baroudi, Ziad


    Many introductions to algebra in high school begin with teaching students to generalise linear numerical patterns. This article argues that this approach needs to be changed so that students encounter variables in the context of modelling visual patterns so that the variables have a meaning. The article presents sample classroom activities,…

  15. Commutative algebra with a view toward algebraic geometry

    Eisenbud, David


    Commutative Algebra is best understood with knowledge of the geometric ideas that have played a great role in its formation, in short, with a view towards algebraic geometry. The author presents a comprehensive view of commutative algebra, from basics, such as localization and primary decomposition, through dimension theory, differentials, homological methods, free resolutions and duality, emphasizing the origins of the ideas and their connections with other parts of mathematics. Many exercises illustrate and sharpen the theory and extended exercises give the reader an active part in complementing the material presented in the text. One novel feature is a chapter devoted to a quick but thorough treatment of Grobner basis theory and the constructive methods in commutative algebra and algebraic geometry that flow from it. Applications of the theory and even suggestions for computer algebra projects are included. This book will appeal to readers from beginners to advanced students of commutative algebra or algeb...

  16. Observable Algebra in Field Algebra of G-spin Models



    Field algebra of G-spin models can provide the simplest examples of lattice field theory exhibiting quantum symmetry. Let D(G) be the double algebra of a finite group G and D(H), a sub-algebra of D(G) determined by subgroup H of G. This paper gives concrete generators and the structure of the observable algebra AH, which is a D(H)-invariant sub-algebra in the field algebra of G-spin models F, and shows that AH is a C*-algebra. The correspondence between H and AH is strictly monotonic. Finally, a duality between D(H) and AH is given via an irreducible vacuum C*-representation of F.

  17. Certain associative algebras similar to $U(sl_{2})$ and Zhu's algebra $A(V_{L})$

    Dong, Chongying; Li, Haisheng; Mason, Geoffrey


    It is proved that Zhu's algebra for vertex operator algebra associated to a positive-definite even lattice of rank one is a finite-dimensional semiprimitive quotient algebra of certain associative algebra introduced by Smith. Zhu's algebra for vertex operator algebra associated to any positive-definite even lattice is also calculated and is related to a generalization of Smith's algebra.

  18. Operator algebras and topology

    These notes, based on three lectures on operator algebras and topology at the 'School on High Dimensional Manifold Theory' at the ICTP in Trieste, introduce a new set of tools to high dimensional manifold theory, namely techniques coming from the theory of operator algebras, in particular C*-algebras. These are extensively studied in their own right. We will focus on the basic definitions and properties, and on their relevance to the geometry and topology of manifolds. A central pillar of work in the theory of C*-algebras is the Baum-Connes conjecture. This is an isomorphism conjecture, as discussed in the talks of Luck, but with a certain special flavor. Nevertheless, it has important direct applications to the topology of manifolds, it implies e.g. the Novikov conjecture. In the first chapter, the Baum-Connes conjecture will be explained and put into our context. Another application of the Baum-Connes conjecture is to the positive scalar curvature question. This will be discussed by Stephan Stolz. It implies the so-called 'stable Gromov-Lawson-Rosenberg conjecture'. The unstable version of this conjecture said that, given a closed spin manifold M, a certain obstruction, living in a certain (topological) K-theory group, vanishes if and only M admits a Riemannian metric with positive scalar curvature. It turns out that this is wrong, and counterexamples will be presented in the second chapter. The third chapter introduces another set of invariants, also using operator algebra techniques, namely L2-cohomology, L2-Betti numbers and other L2-invariants. These invariants, their basic properties, and the central questions about them, are introduced in the third chapter. (author)

  19. Quantum algebra of $N$ superspace

    Hatcher, N; Stephany, J


    We identify the quantum algebra of position and momentum operators for a quantum system in superspace bearing an irreducible representation of the super Poinca\\'e algebra. This algebra is noncommutative for the position operators. We use the properties of superprojectors in D=4 $N$ superspace to construct explicit position and momentum operators satisfying the algebra. They act on wave functions corresponding to different supermultiplets classified by its superspin. We show that the quantum algebra associated to the massive superparticle is a particular case described by a supermultiplet of superspin 0. This result generalizes the construction for D=4, N=1 reported recently.

  20. The q-Brauer algebras

    Nguyen, Tien Dung


    This thesis studies structural properties of the q-Brauer algebra over a commutative ring with identity or a field of any characteristic p ≥ 0. Over a commutative ring with identity we first construct a cell basis for the q-Brauer algebra and then show that the q-Brauer algebra is a cellular algebra in the sense of Graham and Lehrer. Subsequently, we classify all simple modules, up to isomorphism, of the q-Brauer algebra over a field of any characteristic. This classification is reprove...

  1. Combinatorial Hopf algebras from renormalization

    Brouder, Christian; Menous, Frederic


    In this paper we describe the right-sided combinatorial Hopf structure of three Hopf algebras appearing in the context of renormalization in quantum field theory: the non-commutative version of the Fa\\`a di Bruno Hopf algebra, the non-commutative version of the charge renormalization Hopf algebra on planar binary trees for quantum electrodynamics, and the non-commutative version of the Pinter renormalization Hopf algebra on any bosonic field. We also describe two general ways to define the associative product in such Hopf algebras, the first one by recursion, and the second one by grafting and shuffling some decorated rooted trees.

  2. On FRT-Clifford Algebras

    Heckenberger, I.; Schueler, A.


    We study the q-Clifford algebras Cl_q(N,c), called FRT-Clifford algebras, introduced by Faddeev, Reshetikhin and Takhtajan. It is shown that Cl_q(N,c) acts on the q-exterior algebra \\Lambda(O_q^N). Moreover, explicit formulas for the embedding of U_q(so_N) into Cl_q(N,c) and its relation to the vector and spin representations of U_q(so_N) are given and proved. Key Words: q-Clifford algebra, Drinfeld-Jimbo algebra, spin representation

  3. On ultraproducts of operator algebras

    LI; Weihua


    Some basic questions on ultraproducts of C*-algebras and yon Neumann algebras, including the relation to K-theory of C*-algebras are considered. More specifically,we prove that under certain conditions, the K-groups of ultraproduct of C*-algebras are isomorphic to the ultraproduct of respective K-groups of C*-algebras. We also show that the ultraproducts of factors of type Ⅱ1 are prime, i.e. not isomorphic to any non-trivial tensor product.

  4. Ockham Algebras Arising from Monoids

    T.S. Blyth; H.J. Silva; J.C. Varlet


    An Ockham algebra (L; f) is of boolean shape if its lattice reduct L is boolean and f is not the complementation. We investigate a natural construction of Ockham algebras of boolean shape from any given monoid. Of particular interest is the question of when such algebras are subdirectly irreducible. In settling this, we obtain what is probably the first example of a subdirectly irreducible Ockham algebra that does not belong to the generalized variety Kω. We also prove that every semigroup can be embedded in the monoid of endomorphisms of an Ockham algebra of boolean shape.

  5. The Green formula and heredity of algebras


    [1]Green, J. A., Hall algebras, hereditary algebras and quantum groups, Invent. Math. 1995, 120: 361-377.[2]Ringel, C. M., Green's theorem on Hall algebras, in Representations of Algebras and Related Topics, CMS Conference Proceedings 19, Providence, 1996, 185-245.[3]Xiao J., Drinfeld double and Ringel-Green theory of Hall Algebras, J. Algebra, 1997, 190: 100-144.[4]Sevenhant, B., Van den Bergh, M., A relation between a conjecture of Kac and the structure of the Hall algebra,J. Pure Appl. Algebra, 2001, 160: 319-332.[5]Deng B., Xiao, J., On double Ringel-Hall algebras, J. Algebra, 2002, 251: 110-149.

  6. Notes on Piecewise-Koszul Algebras

    Jia Feng L(U); Xiao Lan YU


    The relationships between piecewise-Koszul algebras and other "Koszul-type" algebras are discussed.. The Yoneda-Ext algebra and the dual algebra of a piecewise-Koszul algebra are studied, and a sufficient condition for the dual algebra A to be piecewise-Koszul is given. Finally, by studying the trivial extension algebras of the path algebras of Dynkin quivers in bipartite orientation, we give explicit constructions for piecewise-Koszul algebras with arbitrary "period" and piecewise-Koszul algebras with arbitrary "jump-degree".

  7. Twin TQFTs and Frobenius Algebras

    Carmen Caprau


    Full Text Available We introduce the category of singular 2-dimensional cobordisms and show that it admits a completely algebraic description as the free symmetric monoidal category on a twin Frobenius algebra, by providing a description of this category in terms of generators and relations. A twin Frobenius algebra (C,W,z,z∗ consists of a commutative Frobenius algebra C, a symmetric Frobenius algebra W, and an algebra homomorphism z:C→W with dual z∗:W→C, satisfying some extra conditions. We also introduce a generalized 2-dimensional Topological Quantum Field Theory defined on singular 2-dimensional cobordisms and show that it is equivalent to a twin Frobenius algebra in a symmetric monoidal category.

  8. Abstract algebra structure and application

    Finston, David R


    This text seeks to generate interest in abstract algebra by introducing each new structure and topic via a real-world application. The down-to-earth presentation is accessible to a readership with no prior knowledge of abstract algebra. Students are led to algebraic concepts and questions in a natural way through their everyday experiences. Applications include: Identification numbers and modular arithmetic (linear) error-correcting codes, including cyclic codes ruler and compass constructions cryptography symmetry of patterns in the real plane Abstract Algebra: Structure and Application is suitable as a text for a first course on abstract algebra whose main purpose is to generate interest in the subject, or as a supplementary text for more advanced courses. The material paves the way to subsequent courses that further develop the theory of abstract algebra and will appeal to students of mathematics, mathematics education, computer science, and engineering interested in applications of algebraic concepts.

  9. Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T. (University of New Mexico)


    Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.

  10. Proposition Algebra with Projective Limits

    Bergstra, J A


    Sequential logic deviates from propositional logic by taking into account that atomic propositions yield different Boolean values at different times during the sequential evaluation of a single proposition. Reactive valuations capture this dynamics of a proposition's environment. This logic is phrased as an equationally specified algebra rather than in the form of proof rules. It is strictly more general than Boolean algebra to the extent that the classical connectives fail to be expressively complete in the sequential case. The proposition algebra PRA is developed in a fashion similar to the process algebra ACP and the program algebra PGA via an algebraic specification which has a meaningful initial algebra for which a range of courser congruences are considered important as well. In addition infinite objects (that is propositions, processes and programs respectively) are preferably dealt with by means of an inverse limit construction which allows the transfer of knowledge concerning finite objects to facts ...