Pedro Rey Biel
This paper provides an economic explanation for the non-existence of a vaccine against AIDS. It comments on previously claimed economic reasons why private laboratories do not have incentives to invest in an AIDS vaccine and provides a new one: private companies already operate in the market for treatment of already infected patients, which market is threatened by the eventual emergence of a vaccine that cuts the cycle of infection. Finally, the paper discusses some mechanisms to provide ince...
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Full Text Available Development of a preventive vaccine for HIV is the best hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. HIV has, however, proved a difficult pathogen to vaccinate against because of its very high mutation rate and capability to escape immune responses. Neutralizing antibodies that can neutralize diverse field strains have so far proved difficult to induce. Adjuvanting these vaccines with cytokine plasmids and a "prime-boost," approach is being evaluated in an effort to induce both CTL and antibody responses and thereby have immune responses active against both infected cells and free viral particles, thereby necessitating fewer doses of recombinant protein to reach maximum antibodies titers. Although obstacles exist in evaluation of candidate HIV vaccines, evidence from natural history studies, new molecular tools in virology and immunology, new adjuvants, new gene expression systems, new antigen delivery systems, recent discoveries in HIV entry and pathogenesis, and promising studies of candidate vaccines in animal models have provided reasons to hope that developing a safe and effective AIDS vaccine is possible and within reach.
Ishii, Hiroshi; Matano, Tetsuro
Development of an effective AIDS vaccine is crucial for the control of global human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) prevalence. We have developed a novel AIDS vaccine using a Sendai virus (SeV) vector and investigated its efficacy in a macaque AIDS model of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Its immunogenicity and protective efficacy have been shown, indicating that the SeV vector is a promising delivery tool for AIDS vaccines. Here, we describe the potential of SeV vector as a vaccine antigen delivery tool to induce effective immune responses against HIV-1 infection. PMID:26232346
Liu, Ying; Chen, Chunying
HIV/AIDS is one of the worst crises affecting global health and influencing economic development and social stability. Preventing and treating HIV infection is a crucial task. However, there is still no effective HIV vaccine for clinical application. Nanotechnology has the potential to solve the problems associated with traditional HIV vaccines. At present, various nano-architectures and nanomaterials can function as potential HIV vaccine carriers or adjuvants, including inorganic nanomaterials, liposomes, micelles and polymer nanomaterials. In this review, we summarize the current progress in the use of nanotechnology for the development of an HIV/AIDS vaccine and discuss its potential to greatly improve the solubility, permeability, stability and pharmacokinetics of HIV vaccines. Although nanotechnology holds great promise for applications in HIV/AIDS vaccines, there are still many inadequacies that result in a variety of risks and challenges. The potential hazards to the human body and environment associated with some nano-carriers, and their underlying mechanisms require in-depth study. Non-toxic or low-toxic nanomaterials with adjuvant activity have been identified. However, studying the confluence of factors that affect the adjuvant activity of nanomaterials may be more important for the optimization of the dosage and immunization strategy and investigations into the exact mechanism of action. Moreover, there are no uniform standards for investigations of nanomaterials as potential vaccine adjuvants. These limitations make it harder to analyze and deduce rules from the existing data. Developing vaccine nano-carriers or adjuvants with high benefit-cost ratios is important to ensure their broad usage. Despite some shortcomings, nanomaterials have great potential and application prospects in the fields of AIDS treatment and prevention. PMID:26952542
Vian, Taryn; Koseki, Sayaka; Feeley, Frank G; Beard, Jennifer
Background Industry partnerships can help leverage resources to advance HIV/AIDS vaccine research, service delivery, and policy advocacy goals. This often involves capacity building for international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). International volunteering is increasingly being used as a capacity building strategy, yet little is known about how corporate volunteers help to improve performance of NGOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Methods This case study helps to extend our...
R Ghasemi Khorasgani
Full Text Available Background: Although the conventional vaccines have been instrumented in the incidence of many infectious diseases, the advances in genetic engineering and bioinformatics have provided the opportunity for developing improved and new vaccines.Methods: Reverse vaccinology was pioneered by a group of researchers investigating development of a vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. Reverse vaccinology analyzes the entire genome of a pathogen with the aid of computational programs to identify potentially antigenic extracellular proteins.Results: Using this method for Neisseria meningitidis genome analysis, 600 secretory or surface-exposed proteins were identified and, subsequently, 350 proteins were expressed and purified. Finally, seven proteins capable of activating the immune system against a range of strains were identified.Conclusion: Improved computational techniques are now able to provide researchers with high-confidence predictions for complex biological characteristics. This will herald a move to computer-aided biotechnology in which time-consuming and expensive large-scale experimental approaches are progressively replaced by functional bioinformatic investigations.
Kumar, Anil; Liu, Zhenqian; Sheffer, Darlene; Smith, Marilyn; Singh, Dinesh K.; Buch, Shilpa; Narayan, Opendra
Using background data that live vaccines against several viral pathogens are effective in inducing life-long protection against disease, we undertook studies in macaques to determine the duration of protection that two live SHIV vaccines could induce against AIDS. Earlier studies had established that macaques immunized once with a live vaccine and challenged 6 months later were protected, and that other macaques given two sequential inoculations of live vaccines were protected for at least on...
Michael L Landrum
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether seroresponse to a vaccine such as hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccine can provide a measure of the functional immune status of HIV-infected persons is unknown.This study evaluated the relationship between HBV vaccine seroresponses and progression to clinical AIDS or death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From a large HIV cohort, we evaluated those who received HBV vaccine only after HIV diagnosis and had anti-HBs determination 1-12 months after the last vaccine dose. Non-response and positive response were defined as anti-HBs <10 and ≥ 10 IU/L, respectively. Participants were followed from date of last vaccination to clinical AIDS, death, or last visit. Univariate and multivariable risk of progression to clinical AIDS or death were evaluated with Cox regression models. A total of 795 participants vaccinated from 1986-2010 were included, of which 41% were responders. During 3,872 person-years of observation, 122 AIDS or death events occurred (53% after 1995. Twenty-two percent of non-responders experienced clinical AIDS or death compared with 5% of responders (p<0.001. Non-response to HBV vaccine was associated with a greater than 2-fold increased risk of clinical AIDS or death (HR 2.47; 95% CI, 1.38-4.43 compared with a positive response, after adjusting for CD4 count, HIV viral load, HAART use, and delayed type hypersensitivity skin test responses (an in vivo marker of cell-mediated immunity. This association remained evident among those with CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/mm³ (HR 3.40; 95% CI, 1.39-8.32. CONCLUSIONS: HBV vaccine responses may have utility in assessing functional immune status and risk stratificating HIV-infected individuals, including those with CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/mm³.
By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Scientists at the Oregon Health & Science University and the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research have used a novel vaccine approach to achieve a “functional cure” and apparent eradication of infection with a monkey version of the AIDS virus.
Smita S. Iyer
Full Text Available Since the initial proof-of-concept studies examining the ability of antigen-encoded plasmid DNA to serve as an immunogen, DNA vaccines have evolved as a clinically safe and effective platform for priming HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses in heterologous “prime-boost” vaccination regimens. Direct injection of plasmid DNA into the muscle induces T- and B-cell responses against foreign antigens. However, the insufficient magnitude of this response has led to the development of approaches for enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. The last two decades have seen significant progress in the DNA-based vaccine platform with optimized plasmid constructs, improved delivery methods, such as electroporation, the use of molecular adjuvants and novel strategies combining DNA with viral vectors and subunit proteins. These innovations are paving the way for the clinical application of DNA-based HIV vaccines. Here, we review preclinical studies on the DNA-prime/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA-boost vaccine modality for HIV. There is a great deal of interest in enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA by engineering DNA vaccines to co-express immune modulatory adjuvants. Some of these adjuvants have demonstrated encouraging results in preclinical and clinical studies, and these data will be examined, as well.
Ferrantelli, Flavia; Buttò, Stefano; Cafaro, Aurelio; Wahren, Britta; Ensoli, Barbara
The need for an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine is imperative to halt a pandemic that involves more than 40 million individuals worldwide as of 2005 and is causing enormous socio-economic losses, especially in developing countries (DC). The overall failure of more than two decades of HIV vaccine research justifies the demands for a concerted effort for the rapid development of new and efficacious vaccines against HIV/AIDS. In this context, building international collaborative networks is a must for speeding up scientific research and optimizing the use of funding in a synergistic fashion, as resources for HIV/AIDS are limited and do not involve most of the biggest Pharmas that are more interested in drug discovery. The AIDS Vaccine Integrated Project (AVIP) consortium is an example of synergistic partnership of international European Union and DC experts with a common research goal. AVIP is a European Commission-funded (FP-6), consortium-based, 5-year program directed to the fast development of new HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates to be tested in phase I clinical trials in Europe for future advancement to phase II/III testing in DC. To ensure their rapid development, AVIP novel combined vaccines include both regulatory and structural HIV antigens, which have already been tested, as single components, in phase I clinical trials. In particular, such combination vaccines may be superior to earlier vaccine candidates, the vast majority of which are based only on either structural or regulatory HIV products. In fact, the generation of immune responses to both types of viral antigens expressed either early (regulatory products) or late (structural products) during the viral life cycle can maximize immune targeting of both primary or chronic viral infection. Further, the rational design of combined vaccines allows exploitation of immunomodulatory functions of HIV regulatory proteins, which can improve immunity against structural vaccine components. The building of the AVIP
By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS in monkeys. The advance should help create more authentic animal models of the disease and provide a potentially invaluable approach for faster and better preclinical evaluation of new drugs and vaccines.
WAN Yan-min; WANG You-chun; XU Jian-qing
@@ The need for AIDS vaccine has been emphasized by the increase of HIV-1 prevalence in sexual transmission which bridges the spreading of HIV-1 from high-risk population to other populations. After more than two-decade intensive effort on the AIDS vaccine development, it remains elusive whether and how an effective vaccine will be achieved. Recent data released from a phase Ⅲ trial in Thailand showed a partial protection might be accomplishable by(R)the "prime-boost"combination of two vaccines: ALVAC(R) HIV vaccine (the prime), and AIDSVAX(R) B/E vaccine (the boost).1 This unprecedented large clinical trial observed that the prime-boost combination lowered the rate of HIV infection by 31.2% compared to placebo based on the modified intent-to-treat population (n=51 vs. n=74,respectively; P=0.04). However, debating on the efficacy interpretation of this trial arose among field scientists.Furthermore, how to improve the efficacy will become the most important question to be tackled. Here we reviewed the recent publications and summarized the major progress achieved.
Pisterer, Christoph; Mihailescu, Dan; Smith, Jeremy C; Reed, Jennifer
The most promising target antigen for an HIV vaccine designed using the classic antibody strategy has been the viral coat protein gp120. Unfortunately, its high variability has prevented this approach. We examine here a 15-residue peptide derived from the CD4-binding domain of gp120. By use of molecular dynamics computer simulation, it is shown that despite considerable sequence variation, the three-dimensional structure of the peptide is preserved over the full range of clade-specific sequences. Furthermore, sequences threaded onto the structure exhibit common three-dimensional electrostatic and hydrophobic properties. These common physicochemical characteristics constitute a pharmacophoric footprint that promises to be useful in the design of a synthetic antigen for vaccine development. PMID:15239651
QIU Chao; XU Jian-qing
@@ The pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been devastating for the last two decades in a number of developing countries and constituting a grand challenge to the public health.WHO/UNAIDS estimates that approximately 33.2million people were living with HIV-1 infection by the end of 2007 and almost 2.5 million new infections occurred in 2007. An unprecedented scientifc challenge for the AIDS vaccine community is how to develop an effective HIV vaccine that can block HIV transmission and consequently stop the continuing spread of HIV-1.The recent failure of Merck Phase Ⅱ B trial alerted the HIV vaccine community that new vaccine strategies need to be more exclusively explored. In this review, we outline the basics of HIV vaccine and retrospect the history of the road to HIV vaccine in last two decades,and highlight the challenges we are currently facing and new strategies to develop HIV vaccines in this field.The Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai
Roman A Siddiqui
Full Text Available In HIV infection, TLR7-triggered IFN-α production exerts a direct antiviral effect through the inhibition of viral replication, but may also be involved in immune pathogenesis leading to AIDS. TLR7 could also be an important mediator of vaccine efficacy. In this study, we analyzed polymorphisms in the X-linked TLR7 gene in the rhesus macaque model of AIDS. Upon resequencing of the TLR7 gene in 36 rhesus macaques of Indian origin, 12 polymorphic sites were detected. Next, we identified three tightly linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP as being associated with survival time. Genotyping of 119 untreated, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-infected male rhesus macaques, including an 'MHC adjusted' subset, revealed that the three TLR7 SNPs are also significantly associated with set-point viral load. Surprisingly, this effect was not observed in 72 immunized SIV-infected male monkeys. We hypothesize (i that SNP c.13G>A in the leader peptide is causative for the observed genotype-phenotype association and that (ii the underlying mechanism is related to RNA secondary structure formation. Therefore, we investigated a fourth SNP (c.-17C>T, located 17 bp upstream of the ATG translation initiation codon, that is also potentially capable of influencing RNA structure. In c.13A carriers, neither set-point viral load nor survival time were related to the c.-17C>T genotype. In c.13G carriers, by contrast, the c.-17C allele was significantly associated with prolonged survival. Again, no such association was detected among immunized SIV-infected macaques. Our results highlight the dual role of TLR7 in immunodeficiency virus infection and vaccination and imply that it may be important to control human AIDS vaccine trials, not only for MHC genotype, but also for TLR7 genotype.
Korobova, S.V.; Sidorovich, I.G.; Kornilaeva, G.V.
The spread of HIV/AIDS increases worldwide, a safe and efficacious vaccine remains the cornerstone for a prevention strategy to stop HIV-1 epidemic. Both humoral (neutralizing antibodies) and cellular (CTL) responses are able to control HIV infection. Non-neutralizing HIV-specific antibodies could play an important role in preventing or controlling HIV infection. These antibodies can bind to infected cells and recruit innate immune effector cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, to lyse in...
Cette étude présente un essai d’immunisation à l’aide d’un vaccin recombinant poxviral. Le processus de fabrication du vaccin est basé sur la fusion protéique entre l’antigène considéré et une protéine d’enveloppe du poxvirus. L’objectif est double : valider ce mode de construction et créer un vaccin protégeant contre les virus Influenza de type A. Nous avons utilisé comme antigène l’ectodomaine de la protéine M2, nommé M2e. Le Poxvirus de départ est la souche vaccinale utilisée pour protéger...
... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Because of the increased risk of chronicity of hepatitis B in HIV infected patients, immunization against HBV is recommended in patients infected with human immune deficiency virus. This study aims at determining the factors which affect the response to HBV vaccination in Iranian HIV positive adults, compared with a healthy control group. Methods: From April 2007 to May 2008, 50 HIV+ and 50 healthy control subjects who were seronegative for HBV received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1 and 3-month points. About 1-2 months after the last dose of vaccine, HBS antibodies were tested in the two groups. Persons were considered vaccine responders if their HBS antibody levels were greater than 10 mIU/ml. Results: In the HIV+ group 40 cases (80% were vaccine responder and in control group, 46(92% people responded to vaccine .The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P=0.8. There were no significant relationships between age, gender, BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking and the method infection and HARRT treatment. In the HIV group vaccine response was associated with CD4 count level (P=0.03. Conclusion: HIV infected patients are recommended to be HBV vaccinated at the regular doses and intervals. If CD4 count is less than 200/µl, HBS antibody should be tested in certain period for HIV+ individuals.
Gray, Glenda E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Elizaga, Marnie L; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Allen, Mary; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David; De Rosa, Stephen C; Sato, Alicia; Gu, Niya; Tomaras, Georgia D; Tucker, Timothy; Barnett, Susan W; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Shen, Xiaoying; Downing, Katrina; Williamson, Carolyn; Pensiero, Michael; Corey, Lawrence; Williamson, Anna-Lise
A phase I safety and immunogenicity study investigated South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative (SAAVI) HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) DNA vaccine encoding Gag-RT-Tat-Nef and gp150, boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing matched antigens. Following the finding of partial protective efficacy in the RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial, a protein boost with HIV-1 subtype C V2-deleted gp140 with MF59 was added to the regimen. A total of 48 participants (12 U.S. participants and 36 Republic of South Africa [RSA] participants) were randomized to receive 3 intramuscular (i.m.) doses of SAAVI DNA-C2 of 4 mg (months 0, 1, and 2) and 2 i.m. doses of SAAVI MVA-C of 1.45 × 10(9) PFU (months 4 and 5) (n = 40) or of a placebo (n = 8). Approximately 2 years after vaccination, 27 participants were rerandomized to receive gp140/MF59 at 100 μg or placebo, as 2 i.m. injections, 3 months apart. The vaccine regimen was safe and well tolerated. After the DNA-MVA regimen, CD4(+) T-cell and CD8(+) T-cell responses occurred in 74% and 32% of the participants, respectively. The protein boost increased CD4(+) T-cell responses to 87% of the subjects. All participants developed tier 1 HIV-1C neutralizing antibody responses as well as durable Env binding antibodies that recognized linear V3 and C5 peptides. The HIV-1 subtype C DNA-MVA vaccine regimen showed promising cellular immunogenicity. Boosting with gp140/MF59 enhanced levels of binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as CD4(+) T-cell responses to HIV-1 envelope. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00574600 and NCT01423825.). PMID:27098021
Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey; Weinhardt, Lance S
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a precursor of cervical cancer. In 2006, the Federal Drug Administration licensed a vaccine to protect against four types of HPV. Three years postlicensure of the vaccine, HPV vaccination is still fraught with controversy. To date, research suggests that contrary to popular notions, parents are less concerned with controversies on moral issues and more with uncertainty regarding because long-term safety of a drug is resolved after licensure. This study was designed to understand whether mothers from diverse ethnicities perceive a need for a decision support tool. Results suggest that the design of a culturally tailored decision support tool may help guide parents through the decision-making process. PMID:21444922
Hagen, Kimberly Sessions
For African Americans, medical research often connotes exploitation and cruelty, making recruiting African Americans to participate in HIV vaccine trials particularly daunting. But infusing adult education principles into such efforts is both increasing African American participation and helping heal the legacy of the Tuskegee experiment.
Negin Esmaeilpour; Nahid Mirzaei; Reza Chaman; Mehrnaz Rasoulinejad; Mahboobeh Haji-Abdolbaghi; Maryam Roham; SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi; Seyyed Mostafa Hosseini; Mazeyar Parsa; Ladan Payvar- Mehr; Hamid Emadi-Koochak
Introduction: Because of the increased risk of chronicity of hepatitis B in HIV infected patients, immunization against HBV is recommended in patients infected with human immune deficiency virus. This study aims at determining the factors which affect the response to HBV vaccination in Iranian HIV positive adults, compared with a healthy control group. Methods: From April 2007 to May 2008, 50 HIV+ and 50 healthy control subjects who were seronegative for HBV received 3 doses of hepatitis B va...
Perez-Losada, M.; Jobes, D. V.; Sinangil, F.; Crandall, K. A.; Posada, D; Berman, P.W.
In 2003, a phase III placebo-controlled trial (VAX004) of a candidate HIV-1 vaccine (AIDSVAX B/B) was completed in 5,403 volunteers at high risk for HIV-1 infection from North America and the Netherlands. A total of 368 individuals became infected with HIV-1 during the trial. The envelope glycoprotein gene (gp120) from the HIV-1 subtype B viruses infecting 349 patients was sequenced from clinical samples taken as close as possible to the time of diagnosis, rendering a final data set of 1,047 ...
Chandwani, Sulachni; Beeler, Judy; Li, Hong; Audet, Susette; Smith, Betsy; Moye, John; Nalin, David; Krasinski, Keith
Background. PACTG (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group) 225, a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial in the United States evaluated reactogenicity and immunogenicity of 2 vaccination regimens: monovalent measles vaccine (Attenuvax) at 6 months of age and measles, mumps, and rubella, live attenuated (MMRII) vaccine at 12 months of age (2D), or only MMRII at 12 months of age (1D) in human immunodeficiency virus–infected (HIV-infected) (POS) and uninfected (NEG) children in the pre–highly a...
Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia, an economically important disease of sheep, goats and calves, is caused by systemic effects of the epsilon toxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens type D. The only practical means of controlling the occurrence of enterotoxaemia is to immunise animals by vaccination. The vaccine is prepared by deriving a toxoid from the bacterial culture filtrate and the potency of the vaccine is tested with the in vivo mouse neutralisation test (MNT. Due to ethical, economic and technical reasons, alternative in vitro assays are needed. In this study an indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA was developed for use in vaccine potency testing and the results were compared with those obtained using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA and the MNT. Sera were collected from guinea pigs immunised with three different production batches of enterotoxaemia vaccine and the levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies were determined. Although the intra- and inter-assay variability was satisfactory, epsilon antitoxin levels determined by both the I-ELISA and indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA tests were higher than those of the MNT assay. In contrast to the MNT, all of the serum samples were identified as having antitoxin levels above the required minimum (not less than 5 U/mL. These results indicate that the respective in vitro tests in their current formats are not yet suitable alternatives to the in vivo MNT. The growing demand for a more humane, cost-effective and efficient method for testing the potency of enterotoxaemia vaccines, however, provides a strong impetus for further optimisation and standardisation of the I-CBA assay but further analytical research is required.
Buys, Angela; Macdonald, Raynard; Crafford, Jannie; Theron, Jacques
Enterotoxaemia, an economically important disease of sheep, goats and calves, is caused by systemic effects of the epsilon toxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens type D. The only practical means of controlling the occurrence of enterotoxaemia is to immunise animals by vaccination. The vaccine is prepared by deriving a toxoid from the bacterial culture filtrate and the potency of the vaccine is tested with the in vivo mouse neutralisation test (MNT). Due to ethical, economic and technical reasons, alternative in vitro assays are needed. In this study an indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA) was developed for use in vaccine potency testing and the results were compared with those obtained using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and the MNT. Sera were collected from guinea pigs immunised with three different production batches of enterotoxaemia vaccine and the levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies were determined. Although the intra- and inter-assay variability was satisfactory, epsilon antitoxin levels determined by both the I-ELISA and indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA) tests were higher than those of the MNT assay. In contrast to the MNT, all of the serum samples were identified as having antitoxin levels above the required minimum (not less than 5 U/mL). These results indicate that the respective in vitro tests in their current formats are not yet suitable alternatives to the in vivo MNT. The growing demand for a more humane, cost-effective and efficient method for testing the potency of enterotoxaemia vaccines, however, provides a strong impetus for further optimisation and standardisation of the I-CBA assay but further analytical research is required. PMID:24832497
The need for an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine remains the highest priority of the world HIV/AIDS agenda. The generation of an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine proves an enormous scientific challenge. This article reviews the neutralizing antibody problem, elusive immune protection, immunogen design, pre-existing anti-vector immunity and design of phase 3 vaccine trials and the challenges and opportunities in development of HIV/AIDS vaccine are discussed.
Full Text Available Here we describe a prime-boost regimen of vaccination in Macaca fascicularis that combines priming with novel anionic microspheres designed to deliver the biologically active HIV-1 Tat protein and boosting with Tat in Alum. This regimen of immunization modulated the IgG subclass profile and elicited a balanced Th1-Th2 type of humoral and cellular responses. Remarkably, following intravenous challenge with SHIV89.6Pcy243, vaccinees significantly blunted acute viremia, as compared to control monkeys, and this control was associated with significantly lower CD4+ T cell depletion rate during the acute phase of infection and higher ability to resume the CD4+ T cell counts in the post-acute and chronic phases of infection. The long lasting control of viremia was associated with the persistence of high titers anti-Tat antibodies whose profile clearly distinguished vaccinees in controllers and viremics. Controllers, as opposed to vaccinated and viremic cynos, exhibited significantly higher pre-challenge antibody responses to peptides spanning the glutamine-rich and the RGD-integrin-binding regions of Tat. Finally, among vaccinees, titers of anti-Tat IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 subclasses had a significant association with control of viremia in the acute and post-acute phases of infection. Altogether these findings indicate that the Tat/H1D/Alum regimen of immunization holds promise for next generation vaccines with Tat protein or other proteins for which maintenance of the native conformation and activity are critical for optimal immunogenicity. Our results also provide novel information on the role of anti-Tat responses in the prevention of HIV pathogenesis and for the design of new vaccine candidates.
Sayad, Babak; Alavian, Seyyed Moayed; Najafi, Farid; Soltani, Bita; Shirvani, Maria; Janbakhsh, Alireza; Mansouri, Feyzollah; Afsharian, Mandana; Vaziri, Siavash; Alikhani, Arash; Bashiri, Homayoon
Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients are also frequently exposed to the hepatitis B virus (HBV), due to the common routes of transmission, therefore, prevention of hepatitis B results in decreased complications of the disease. Objectives Since the immune response of HIV patients to hepatitis B vaccination is less robust than that found in healthy individuals, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a levamisole adjuvant on increasing the immune response. Patients...
Deere, Jesse D.; Chang, W. L. William; Castillo, Luis D.; Schmidt, Kim A.; Kieu, Hung T.; Renzette, Nicholas; Kowalik, Timothy; Barthold, Stephen W.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Barry, Peter A.; Sparger, Ellen E.
Despite tremendous progress in our understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) natural history and advances in HIV treatment, there is neither an approved vaccine nor a cure for infection. Here, we describe the development and characterization of a novel replicating vaccine vector utilizing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and a TLR5 adjuvant. After partial truncation of the central, immunodominant hypervariable domain, flagellin (fliC) from Salmonella was cloned downstream of a codon optimized gag gene from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and transiently expressed in telomerized rhesus fibroblast (TeloRF) cells in culture. Lysates generated from these transfected cells induced the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in a mouse macrophage cell line, in a TLR5-dependent manner. The Gag/FliC expression construct was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome encoding the rhesus CMV (RhCMV) genome, and infectious RhCMV was generated following transfection of TeloRF cells. This virus stably expressed an SIV Gag/FliC fusion protein through four serial passages. Lysates generated from infected cells induced TNF-α in a TLR5-dependent manner. Western blot analysis of infected cell lysates verified expression of a Gag/FliC fusion protein using a SIV p27 capsid monoclonal antibody. Lastly, rhesus macaques inoculated with this novel RhCMV virus demonstrated increased inflammatory responses at the site of inoculation seven days post-infection when compared to the parental RhCMV. These results demonstrate that an artificially constructed replicating RhCMV expressing an SIV Gag/FliC fusion protein is capable of activating TLR5 in a macrophage cell line in vitro and induction of an altered inflammatory response in vivo. Ongoing animals studies are aimed at determining vaccine efficacy, including subsequent challenge with pathogenic SIV. PMID:27182601
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... to people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...
Nagadenahalli B Siddappa
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 clade C (HIV-C predominates worldwide, and anti-HIV-C vaccines are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibody (nAb responses are considered important but have proved difficult to elicit. Although some current immunogens elicit antibodies that neutralize highly neutralization-sensitive (tier 1 HIV strains, most circulating HIVs exhibiting a less sensitive (tier 2 phenotype are not neutralized. Thus, both tier 1 and 2 viruses are needed for vaccine discovery in nonhuman primate models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We constructed a tier 1 simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipEL, by inserting an "early," recently transmitted HIV-C env into the SHIV-1157ipd3N4 backbone  encoding a "late" form of the same env, which had evolved in a SHIV-infected rhesus monkey (RM with AIDS. SHIV-1157ipEL was rapidly passaged to yield SHIV-1157ipEL-p, which remained exclusively R5-tropic and had a tier 1 phenotype, in contrast to "late" SHIV-1157ipd3N4 (tier 2. After 5 weekly low-dose intrarectal exposures, SHIV-1157ipEL-p systemically infected 16 out of 17 RM with high peak viral RNA loads and depleted gut CD4+ T cells. SHIV-1157ipEL-p and SHIV-1157ipd3N4 env genes diverge mostly in V1/V2. Molecular modeling revealed a possible mechanism for the increased neutralization resistance of SHIV-1157ipd3N4 Env: V2 loops hindering access to the CD4 binding site, shown experimentally with nAb b12. Similar mutations have been linked to decreased neutralization sensitivity in HIV-C strains isolated from humans over time, indicating parallel HIV-C Env evolution in humans and RM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SHIV-1157ipEL-p, the first tier 1 R5 clade C SHIV, and SHIV-1157ipd3N4, its tier 2 counterpart, represent biologically relevant tools for anti-HIV-C vaccine development in primates.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The immune parameters of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates that might be relevant in protection against HIV-1 infection are still undefined. The highly attenuated poxvirus strain MVA is one of the most promising vectors to be use as HIV-1 vaccine. We have previously described a recombinant MVA expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (referred as MVA-B, that induced HIV-1-specific immune responses in different animal models and gene signatures in human dendritic cells (DCs with immunoregulatory function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to characterize in more detail the immunogenic profile of MVA-B and to improve its immunogenicity we have generated a new vector lacking two genes (A41L and B16R, known to counteract host immune responses by blocking the action of CC-chemokines and of interleukin 1beta, respectively (referred as MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R. A DNA prime/MVA boost immunization protocol was used to compare the adaptive and memory HIV-1 specific immune responses induced in mice by the parental MVA-B and by the double deletion mutant MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that both vectors triggered HIV-1-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells, with the CD8(+ T-cell compartment responsible for >91.9% of the total HIV-1 responses in both immunization groups. However, MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctionality of the HIV-1-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cell immune responses. HIV-1-specific CD4(+ T-cell responses were polyfunctional and preferentially Env-specific in both immunization groups. Significantly, while MVA-B induced preferentially Env-specific CD8(+ T-cell responses, MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R induced more GPN-specific CD8(+ T-cell responses, with an enhanced polyfunctional pattern. Both vectors were capable of producing similar levels of antibodies against Env. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings revealed that MVA-B and MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R
The two types of poliovirus vaccines are inactivated vaccine, given parenterally, and live virus vaccine, given orally. Oral poliovirus is the vaccine of choice for global eradication. Either inactivated vaccine or oral vaccine may be given concurrently with other routinely recommended childhood vaccines. No serious adverse events have been associated with the vaccine. Oral poliovirus vaccine can cause vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis.
... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...
... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157799.html New Dengue Virus Vaccine Shows Promise Research may also aid ... 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental vaccine against dengue -- the mosquito-borne virus behind a very painful ...
SÜNTER, A.T.; PEKŞEN, Y.
AIDS was first defined in the United States in 1981. It spreads to nearly all the countries of the world with a great speed and can infect everbody without any differantiation. The infection results in death and there is no cure or vaccine for it, yet. To data given to World Health Organization until July-1994, it is estimated that there are about 1 million patients and about 22 millions HIV positive persons In the world. Sixty percent of HIV positive persons are men and 40% are women. The di...
Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor. PMID:12287671
HIV/AIDS has been circulating in China for over 25 year. While making progress and achievements on HIV/AIDS prevention, there still are great challenge and difficulties such as HIV epidemic controlling and vaccine research.
谭婉君; 张世玉; 王伟
Important papers representing the advances in AIDS vaccine research were retrieved from Web of Sci-ence using HistCite.The citation chronological chart was plotted by analyzing the relation between their citation fre-quency and cited frequency , and analyzing their citation sequences , which shows the development rules and histori-cal development path in AIDS vaccine research , and provides a certain reference value for the researchers in related fields at home and abroad.%以Web of Science的艾滋病疫苗研究文献作为数据来源，利用引文分析可视化软件HistCite，找出代表艾滋病疫苗研究领域发展的重要文献，并分析文献之间引用与被引用关系和引用序列，获得引文编年图谱，梳理出艾滋病疫苗研究领域的发展规律和历史发展轨迹，为国内外相关领域的研究人员提供一定的参考。
Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... Girls ages 11 and 12 should receive the HPV vaccine series: The vaccine is given in three shots ...
Faul, Elizabeth J.; Aye, Pyone P.; Papaneri, Amy B.; Pahar, Bapi; McGettigan, James P.; Schiro, Faith; Chervoneva, Inna; Montefiori, David C.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Schnell, Matthias J.
Highly attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine vectors were evaluated for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic SIVmac251 challenge. Mamu-A*01 negative rhesus macaques were immunized in groups of four with either: RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, a combination of RV expressing SIVmac239-Env and RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, or with empty RV vectors. Eight weeks later animals received a booster immunization with a heterologous RV expressing the same antigens. At twelve weeks post-boost, all animals were challenged intravenously with 100 TCID50 of pathogenic SIVmac251-CX. Immunized macaques in both vaccine groups had 1.3–1.6-log fold decrease in viral set point compared to control animals. The GagPol/Env immunized animals also had a significantly lower peak viral load. When compared to control animals following challenge, vaccinated macaques had a more rapid induction of SIVmac251 neutralizing antibodies and of CD8+ T cell responses to various SIV epitopes. Moreover, vaccinated macaques better-maintained peripheral memory CD4+ T cells and were able to mount a poly-functional CD8+ T cell response in the mucosa. These findings indicate promise for RV-based vectors and have important implications for the development of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:19879223
Xiang Zuoshuang; Hur Junguk; Feldman Eva L; He Yongqun
Abstract Background Vaccine literature indexing is poorly performed in PubMed due to limited hierarchy of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) annotation in the vaccine field. Vaccine Ontology (VO) is a community-based biomedical ontology that represents various vaccines and their relations. SciMiner is an in-house literature mining system that supports literature indexing and gene name tagging. We hypothesize that application of VO in SciMiner will aid vaccine literature indexing and mining of va...
Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent cause of pneumonia and meningitis. This article looks at the pneumococcal vaccine, its uses, efficacy, and adverse effects and how vaccination may be improved. We also look at the role of the new conjugate vaccines.
... to its advantages over IPV in providing intestinal immunity and providing secondary spread of the vaccine to unprotected contacts. Who needs this vaccine and when? Side Effects Excerpt from Vaccine Information Statement A Polio-Free ...
... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...
Elizabeth J. Faul; Aye, Pyone P.; Papaneri, Amy B.; Pahar, Bapi; McGettigan, James P.; Schiro, Faith; Chervoneva, Inna; Montefiori, David C.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Schnell, Matthias J.
Highly attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine vectors were evaluated for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic SIVmac251 challenge. Mamu-A*01 negative rhesus macaques were immunized in groups of four with either: RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, a combination of RV expressing SIVmac239-Env and RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, or with empty RV vectors. Eight weeks later animals received a booster immunization with a heterologous RV expressing the same antigens. At twelve weeks post-bo...
Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J
Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249
Adolescent period usually are omitted regarding the vaccination and the other health evaluations, in our country. Adolescent period is usually considered as between the ages of 8-18 years. During this period, it is important to evaluate routine adolescent examination as well as vaccination status.Childhood (0-18 years) vaccination can be considered in three stages; infantil period vaccinations (
V T Beena
Full Text Available Since the discovery of acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS in late1980s, the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has reached pandemic proportions, representing a global developmental and public health threat. Finding of a safe, globally effective and affordable HIV vaccine offers the best hope for the future control of the disease pandemic. Significant progress has been made over the past years in the areas of basic virology, immunology, and pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS and the development of anti-retroviral drugs. However, the search for an HIV vaccine faces formidable scientific challenges related to the high genetic variability of the virus, the lack of immune correlates of protection, limitations with the existing animal models and logistical problems associated with the conduct of multiple clinical trials. Most of the vaccine approaches developed so far aim at inducing cell-mediated immune responses. Multiple vaccine concepts and vaccination strategies have been tested, including DNA vaccines, subunit vaccines, live vectored recombinant vaccines, various prime-boost vaccine combinations and vaccine based on broadly neutralizing human anti-HIV Antibody 2G12. This article reviews the state of the art in HIV vaccine research, summarizes the results obtained so far and discusses the challenges to be met in the development of a successful HIV vaccine.
Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B
Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...
Fry, Tricia; Van Dalen, Kaci; Hurley, Jerome; Nash, Paul
RABORAL V-RG(®)a is a recombinant vaccine used in oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs for wildlife in the United States. Vaccination rates for raccoons are substantially lower than vaccination rates for gray foxes and coyotes. Research suggests that the low viscosity of the oral vaccine may preclude animals from receiving an effective dose when biting into the vaccine bait delivery system. We evaluated the possibility of using two benign compounds, chitosan and N,N,N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC), to increase the viscosity of the vaccine and potentially act as adjuvants to improve the immune response in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Forty mildly sedated raccoons were orally vaccinated via needleless syringe with either RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), chitosan+RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), TMC+ RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), or no vaccine (n = 4), on day 0 and again on day 90. We collected sera every 2-4 wk for 4 mo and evaluated rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (rVNA). Raccoons were considered responders if rVNA titers were ≥ 0.1 IU/mL. Eleven of 12 raccoons vaccinated with TMC+RABORAL V-RG responded after one dose of vaccine, as did eight of 12 vaccinated with RABORAL V-RG, and three of 12 vaccinated with chitosan+ RABORAL V-RG. Our results suggest that the inclusion of an adjuvant, such as TMC, could increase vaccine efficacy to aid in controlling rabies virus spread in wildlife reservoirs. PMID:23060506
Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua
The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (pnegative experiences with health care providers (pGender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears and misconceptions about adverse effects of HIV vaccination on health and the importance of vaccination as one component of integrated HIV prevention may increase vaccine acceptability. PMID:18484322
Bernardini, Giulia; Braconi, Daniela; Martelli, Paola; Santucci, Annalisa
Meningococcal disease is a global problem. Multivalent (A, C, Y, W135) conjugate vaccines have been developed and licensed; however, an effective vaccine against serogroup B has not yet become available. Outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines have been used to disrupt serogroup B epidemics and outbreaks. Postgenomic technologies have been useful in aiding the discovery of new protein vaccine candidates. Moreover, proteomic technologies enable large-scale identification of membrane and surface-associated proteins, and provide suitable methods to characterize and standardize the antigen composition of OMV-based vaccines. PMID:17941821
The call for a new decade of vaccines was made in December 2010. The aims are to secure the further discovery, development and delivery of vaccination. The first challenge is the acquisition of funds for the research and development of 20 new vaccines1. The Gates Foundation has pledged $10 billion for this venture. The other major players are WHO, UNICEF and the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The top priorities are TB, AIDS and Malaria. It is hoped that a Malaria vaccine will available in 3 years. The ambitious target of saving the lives of over 7 million children has been set. The programme must also address the need for vaccines in insulin dependent diabetes, cancers and degenerative diseases2.
Chapman, Rosamund; Chege, Gerald; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Williamson, Anna-Lise
HIV-1 has resulted in a devastating AIDS pandemic. An effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can be used to either, prevent HIV infection, control infection or prevent progression of the disease to AIDS is needed. In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. Numerous features make BCG an attractive vehicle to deliver HIV antigens. It has a good safety profile, elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addi...
Vaccines play a major role in the prevention of human birth defects by protecting the pregnant woman from teratogenic or otherwise harmful infections. Until now, it has not been common practice to perform preclinical developmental toxicity tests for new vaccines. Despite the excellent safety record of vaccines, increased attention is now being given to the feasibility of screening new vaccines for developmental hazards in animals before their use in humans. Contrary to previous assumptions, many vaccines are now given to potentially pregnant women. Any new components of the vaccine formulation (adjuvants, excipients, stabilisers, preservatives, etc...) could also be tested for influences on development, although based on past experience the risks are limited by the very low dosages used. The conferred immunity following vaccination lasts for several years. Therefore, the developing conceptus may theoretically be exposed to the induced antibodies and/or sensitised T-cells, even if the pregnant woman was last vaccinated during childhood (particularly if she encounters the antigen during pregnancy through exposure to infection). However, it should be kept in mind that viral or bacterial infections represent a higher risk for a pregnant woman than the potential adverse effects related to vaccination or the associated immune response. Non-clinical safety studies may be employed as an aid for hazard identification. In these studies interactions of the vaccine with the maternal immune system or with the developmental systems of the offspring are considered. Post-natal examinations are necessary to detect all possible manifestations of developmental toxicity, such as effects on the immune system. Species selection for the preclinical studies is based on immunogenicity to the vaccine and the relative timing and rate of transfer of maternal antibodies to the offspring. A single study design is proposed for the pre- and post-natal developmental assessments of vaccines in
Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. There are several types of HPV. ...
... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of ...
Sanchez, Ana M.; Thomas N Denny; O’Gorman, Maurice
This Special Issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods includes 16 manuscripts describing quality assurance activities related to virologic and immunologic monitoring of six global laboratory resource programs that support international HIV/AIDS clinical trial studies: Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD); Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI); External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL); HIV Vaccine Trial Network (HVTN); International AIDS Vaccine...
Chen-Fang Ho; Tzou-Yien Lin
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial pathogen of infectious diseases inchildren and adolescents. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine could preventinvasive pneumococcal infection with broader serotype coverage but still has some limitations.On the other hand, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been shown todecrease cases of nasopharyngeal acquired S. pneumoniae vaccine serotypes and provedherd immunity. The safety and efficacy against vaccine serotype pneumo...
Coban, Cevayir; Kobiyama, Kouji; Jounai, Nao; Tozuka, Miyuki; Ishii, Ken J.
Since the introduction of DNA vaccines two decades ago, this attractive strategy has been hampered by its low immunogenicity in humans. Studies conducted to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines have shown that understanding the mechanism of action of DNA vaccines might be the key to successfully improving their immunogenicity. Our current understanding is that DNA vaccines induce innate and adaptive immune responses in two ways: (1) encoded protein (or polypeptide) antigen(s) by the DNA...
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service
Koff, Wayne C.; Dennis R Burton; R.Johnson, Philip; Walker, Bruce D; King, Charles R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Ahmed, Rafi; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan; Plotkin, Stanley A.
Vaccines are among the greatest successes in the history of public health. However, past strategies for vaccine development are unlikely to succeed in the future against major global diseases such as AIDS, TB, and malaria. For such diseases, the correlates of protection are poorly defined and the pathogens evade immune detection and/or exhibit extensive genetic variability. Recent advances have heralded in a new era of vaccine discovery. However, translation of these advances into vaccines re...
Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B
Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406
Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn
Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of the...... main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces...
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service
CERN Medical Service
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...
... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...
... electrical nerve impulses and send them to the auditory nerve, which connects the inner ear to the ... prefer. Cleaning makes a difference in hearing aid comfort. A perfectly comfortable hearing aid can become pretty ...
Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and...... institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...
Jin Li; Wang Zhijun; Węgrzyn Alicja
Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the...
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is believed to have begun in Rwanda with the transmission of green monkey virus to humans; the virus spread among prostitutes and truck drivers along the highways and then to the cities. In the most threatened areas, for example, Kinshasa in Zaire, 20% of the inhabitants are infected. 8% of pregnant women are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Social conditions are important. In Kenya prostitutes who work along the highways are carriers of socially transmitted diseases and genital sores. They are 60-80% HIV-positive. The better-off prostitutes at bars and hotels enjoy better health and fewer contacts and are 30% HIV-positive. It should be possible to develop a vaccine against the AIDS virus, but only a few virologists believe that this can be done within 10 years. Because HIV virus mutates rapidly, many different vaccines would have to be prepared. About 80 countries are cooperating with the World Health Organization to combat HIV and AIDS in Africa. Traveling and working abroad is beginning to be a problem. 15 countries have introduced restrictions on foreign visitors. Swedish midwives have an important role to play in fighting HIV. Their youth counseling activities can spread information about HIV and AIDS. Children who are in early stages of sexuality are probably the most important group to be influenced. It is already too late to begin informing 15-17 year olds about the disease. Midwives should probably be starting much sooner, perhaps even with 10-year olds. PMID:3692943
Aggarwal, A; Dutta, A K
Typhoid fever continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries with about 33 million cases per year. Protective efficacy of traditional acetone/phenol killed vaccines is similar to newer typhoid vaccines (Ty21A and Vi antigen vaccine) but side effects of these newer vaccines are considerably less. Though the mortality is low, typhoid fever causes considerable morbidity and loss of working days. Problems during treatment are increasing due to emergence and spread of multidrug resistant S. typhi. Hence to decrease the incidence of typhoid fever in addition to ensuring safe water supply and excreta disposal a typhoid vaccine needs to be introduced in the National Immunization Schedule. PMID:11563251
The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms. PMID:12282686
Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)
By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Researchers are working to develop a more authentic animal model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS that is expected to speed up studies of experimental treatments and vaccines.
Chapman, Rosamund; Chege, Gerald; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Williamson, Anna-Lise
HIV-1 has resulted in a devastating AIDS pandemic. An effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can be used to either, prevent HIV infection, control infection or prevent progression of the disease to AIDS is needed. In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. Numerous features make BCG an attractive vehicle to deliver HIV antigens. It has a good safety profile, elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addition manufacturing costs are affordable, a necessary consideration for developing countries. In this review we discuss the numerous factors that influence generation of a genetically stable recombinant BCG vaccine for HIV. PMID:20353397
Lee, R; Opdebeeck, J P
Antigens located in the midgut of the tick are hidden from the host's immune system. Egg production of ticks can be reduced when ticks are fed on animals vaccinated with midgut antigens of the tick, and a subunit vaccine formulated with the recombinant antigen Bm86 is now available that can reduce the number of ticks infesting cattle grazing on pasture. Midgut antigens used in vaccines against insects that transmit pathogenic organisms to humans have not been as effective in reducing insect fecundity and an alternative approach may be necessary. Transmission-blocking vaccines directed at interfering with the vector-pathogen interaction could result in loss of vector competence and block the spread of disease-causing organisms. PMID:10198800
... prefer the open-fit hearing aid because their perception of their voice does not sound “plugged up.” ... My voice sounds too loud. The “plugged-up” sensation that causes a hearing aid user’s voice to ...
Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano
A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...
To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccine protection from infected cells from another individual of the same species, vaccinated rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were challenged with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from another animal diagnosed with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Half of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)- vaccinated animals challenged were protected, whereas unprotected vaccinates progressed as rapidly to AIDS. Protection was unrelated to either total ant...
Østerhus, Sven Frederick
The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....
Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research
Ouattara, Amed; Laurens, Matthew B.
No licensed malaria vaccine currently exists; however, final phase 3 testing results of a leading candidate vaccine are forthcoming. Continued challenges to malaria vaccine developers include genetically diverse strains found in nature and establishment of a vaccine correlate of protection.
... recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP). What is the HPV vaccine? The HPV vaccine provides protection against some types of HPV. ... I am pregnant. Should I get the HPV vaccine? The HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women because ...
... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...
... Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...
... A - Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live ... it cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine ...
Li, Yi; Hill, Andrew; Beitelshees, Marie; Shao, Shuai; Lovell, Jonathan F; Davidson, Bruce A; Knight, Paul R; Hakansson, Anders P; Pfeifer, Blaine A; Jones, Charles H
Immunization strategies against commensal bacterial pathogens have long focused on eradicating asymptomatic carriage as well as disease, resulting in changes in the colonizing microflora with unknown future consequences. Additionally, current vaccines are not easily adaptable to sequence diversity and immune evasion. Here, we present a "smart" vaccine that leverages our current understanding of disease transition from bacterial carriage to infection with the pneumococcus serving as a model organism. Using conserved surface proteins highly expressed during virulent transition, the vaccine mounts an immune response specifically against disease-causing bacterial populations without affecting carriage. Aided by a delivery technology capable of multivalent surface display, which can be adapted easily to a changing clinical picture, results include complete protection against the development of pneumonia and sepsis during animal challenge experiments with multiple, highly variable, and clinically relevant pneumococcal isolates. The approach thus offers a unique and dynamic treatment option readily adaptable to other commensal pathogens. PMID:27274071
Faul, Elizabeth J; Aye, Pyone P; Papaneri, Amy B; Pahar, Bapi; McGettigan, James P; Schiro, Faith; Chervoneva, Inna; Montefiori, David C; Lackner, Andrew A; Schnell, Matthias J
Highly attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine vectors were evaluated for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic SIV(mac251) challenge. Mamu-A*01 negative rhesus macaques were immunized in groups of four with either: RV expressing SIV(mac239)-GagPol, a combination of RV expressing SIV(mac239)-Env and RV expressing SIV(mac239)-GagPol, or with empty RV vectors. Eight weeks later animals received a booster immunization with a heterologous RV expressing the same antigens. At 12 weeks post-boost, all animals were challenged intravenously with 100 TCID(50) of pathogenic SIV(mac251-CX). Immunized macaques in both vaccine groups had 1.3-1.6-log-fold decrease in viral set point compared to control animals. The GagPol/Env immunized animals also had a significantly lower peak viral load. When compared to control animals following challenge, vaccinated macaques had a more rapid induction of SIV(mac251) neutralizing antibodies and of CD8(+) T cell responses to various SIV epitopes. Moreover, vaccinated macaques better maintained peripheral memory CD4(+) T cells and were able to mount a poly-functional CD8(+) T cell response in the mucosa. These findings indicate promise for RV-based vectors and have important implications for the development of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:19879223
Riedmann, Eva M.
Long-term effectiveness shown for Merck’s chickenpox vaccine Again—no link between vaccines and autism Experimental ovarian cancer vaccine successful in phase 1 Sinovac’s HFMD vaccine meets phase 3 study goal A vaccine for long-suffering cat allergy patients Vaccines are key to breaking infectious disease-malnutrition cycle Cancer vaccine failures due to the adjuvant IFA? Novartis’ typhoid vaccine make good progress
Development of an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine remains a big challenge, largely due to the enormous HIV diversity which propels immune escape. Thus novel vaccine strategies are targeting multiple variants of conserved antibody and T cell epitopic regions which would incur a huge fitness cost to the virus in the event of mutational escape. Besides immunogen design, the delivery modality is critical for vaccine potency and efficacy, and should be carefully selected in order to not only maximise t...
Ondondo, Beatrice O.
Development of an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine remains a big challenge, largely due to the enormous HIV diversity which propels immune escape. Thus novel vaccine strategies are targeting multiple variants of conserved antibody and T cell epitopic regions which would incur a huge fitness cost to the virus in the event of mutational escape. Besides immunogen design, the delivery modality is critical for vaccine potency and efficacy, and should be carefully selected in order to not only maximize t...
Hai-Bo Wang; Qiu-Hua Mo; Ze Yang
Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a worldwide epidemic, with over 35 million people infected currently. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective HIV-1 vaccine is on top of the global health priority. In the past few years, there have been many promising advances in the prevention of HIV/AIDS, among which the RV144 Thai trial has been encouraging and suggests optimization of the current vaccine strategies or search for novel strategies. He...
T.L.G.M. van den Kerkhof
Het humane immuundeficiëntie virus type 1 (hiv-1) is het virus dat aids veroorzaakt. Er is nog steeds geen bescherming tegen een hiv-1 infectie en de beëindiging van de wereldwijde epidemie kan waarschijnlijk alleen worden bereikt met behulp van een vaccin. Een hiv-1 vaccin zal bescherming moeten bi
Kramer, Victor G; Byrareddy, Siddappa N.
The success of vaccine regimens against viral pathogens hinges on the elicitation of protective responses. Hypervariable pathogens such as HIV avoid neutralization by masking protective epitopes with more immunogenic decoys. The identification of protective, conserved epitopes is crucial for future vaccine candidate design. The strategies employed for identification of HIV protective epitopes will also aid towards rational vaccine design for other viral pathogens.
Newman, Peter A.; Seiden, Danielle S.; Roberts, Kathleen J.; Kakinami, Lisa; Duan, Naihua
Existing knowledge and beliefs related to HIV vaccines provide an important basis for the development of risk communication messages to support future HIV vaccine dissemination. This study explored HIV vaccine mental models among adults from segments of the population disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Nine focus groups were conducted with…
... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...
Talwar, G P; Diwan, M; Razvi, F; Malhotra, R
Vast changes are taking place in vaccinology consequent to the introduction of new technologies. Amongst the vaccines included in the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI), the pertussis vaccine has been replaced by acellular purified fractions devoid of side-effects. Non-pathogenic but immunogenic mutants of tetanus and diptheria toxins are likely to replace the toxoids. An effective vaccine against hepatitis B prepared by recombinant technology is in large-scale use. Conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae b, S. pneumococcus and meningococcus are now available, as also vaccines against mumps, rubella and measles. Combination vaccines have been devised to limit the number of injections. Vaccine delivery systems have been developed to deliver multiple doses of the vaccine at a single contact point. A genetically-engineered oral vaccine for typhoid imparts better and longer duration of immunity. Oral vaccines for cholera and other enteric infections are under clinical trials. The nose as a route for immunization is showing promise for mucosal immunity and for anti-inflammatory experimental vaccines against multiple sclerosis and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The range of vaccines has expanded to include pathogens resident in the body such as Helicobacter pylori (duodenal ulcer), S. mutans (dental caries), and human papilloma virus (carcinoma of the cervix). An important progress is the recognition that DNA alone can constitute the vaccines, inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. A large number of DNA vaccines have been made and shown interesting results in experimental animals. Live recombinant vaccines against rabies and rinderpest have proven to be highly effective for controlling these infections in the field, and those for AIDS are under clinical trial. Potent adjuvants have added to the efficacy of the vaccines. New technologies have emerged to 'humanize' mouse monoclonals by genetic engineering and express these
... hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-31420 Filed 12-5-11; 8:45 am] Billing code... HIV, continuing research to develop a vaccine, and incorporating new scientific tools into our... history, which calls for strong, coordinated policy initiatives, enhanced HIV/ AIDS...
IT’S always nice when expectations are exceeded by half a billion dollars.This was the case for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization(GAVI) at its fundraising conference in June.A public-private initiative,GAVI,which works to ensure children in developing countries receive crucial vaccinations,had gone into the meeting hoping to net $3.7 billion.They came away with $4.3 billion,"despite the fact that donors everywhere are coping with budget crises," as Bill Gates
Riedmann, Eva M
Vaccinating boys against HPV to reduce cancer rates across the sexes New melanoma vaccine contains natural product from marine sponges Impact of Hib conjugate vaccines in developing countries Electronic Health Records to keep track of immunization status Pregnant women urged to get whooping cough vaccination New nano-coating developed to preserve vaccines Alternative approach to creating a universal flu vaccine New modular vaccine design: MAPS technology
Isaacs, Stuart N.
Vaccines remain one of the most cost-effective public health measures. Despite ongoing efforts, protective vaccines against cancer and many infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS, are still not in hand. Most investigators believe that to succeed against these difficult targets, vaccines that generate potent T cell responses are needed. In this issue of the JCI, Salek-Ardakani et al. show how the relative virulence of a virus/vaccine vector affects the memory CD8+ T...
Bowman, Darcia Harris
Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…
Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...
... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...
Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...
Riedmann, Eva M.
DNA vaccine for T1D promising in the clinic HPV vaccines halved infections in US teenage girls Modified DC immunotherapy against melanoma New study looks at clinical severity of human H7N9 infections Prevnar vaccines are valuable for healthcare systems GAPVAC: New consortium in the fight of brain cancer Cytomegalovirus vaccine to enter phase 3 Malaria vaccination using chemically attenuated parasites
ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...
Wilson, Paul; Post, Sarah; Srinivas, Smita
A preventive HIV vaccine offers the best hope for ending the AIDS pandemic. Scientific evidence suggests that an HIV vaccine is possible, and funding for HIV vaccine research and development (R&D) has increased substantially in recent years. The speed of progress toward an HIV vaccine will depend on the management of the effort as well as on its scale, however, and organizational issues have been the subject of vigorous debate. With this paper, we seek to shed light on these debates by examin...
Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano
activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...
Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair
This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences of...
Chettri, Jiwan Kumar
vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....
... you do need any vaccinations, wait 1 month after you get them before you try to get pregnant. ... vaccine during pregnancy, you can get it right after you give birth. Getting the Tdap vaccine soon after ...
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...
... Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine For Public Children under age 13 years should ... who have never had chickenpox or received chickenpox vaccine should get two doses, at least 28 days ...
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. But ... the disease, through vaccination, even more important. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) protects against 23 types of pneumococcal ...
... 23, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 207 Vaccinations and HIV WHAT ARE VACCINATIONS? WHAT’S DIFFERENT FOR ... your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied more than any ...
... GO" or visit Healthmap Vaccine Finder . Vaccines for Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... and your growing family healthy. If you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, the specific vaccinations you ...
Home | About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs ...
Ellebedy, A. H.; Webby, R J
Influenza A viruses pose a substantial threat to the human population whether by purposeful manipulation and release or by the natural process of interspecies transmissions from animal reservoirs. The challenge with preparing for these events with vaccination strategies is that the best forms of protective immunity target the most variably of the viral proteins, hemagglutinin. Add to this even just the natural extent of variation in this protein and the challenges to vaccinologists become gre...
To avoid the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and polio outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was introduced for routine immunization in a number of countries with a low risk of polio outbreaks. Currently, production and marketing of a standalone conventional IPV and two diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-IPV (Sabin-derived IPV; sIPV) products have been submitted, and it is expected that the IPV products will be introduced in Japan in the autumn of 2012. At the same time, a decline in the OPV immunization rate became apparent in Japan due to serious public concerns about a remaining risk of VAPP and introduction of IPV in the near future. Therefore, the recent development of polio immunity gaps should be carefully monitored, and surveillance of suspected polio cases and laboratory diagnosis of polioviruses have to be intensified for the transition period from OPV to IPV in Japan. The development of sIPV is one of the most realistic options to introduce affordable IPV to developing countries. In this regard, further clinical studies on its efficacy, safety, and interchangeability of sIPV will be needed after the introduction of the sIPV products, which will be licensed in Japan for the first time in the world. PMID:23189825
Hill, Adrian V. S.
There is no licenced vaccine against any human parasitic disease and Plasmodium falciparum malaria, a major cause of infectious mortality, presents a great challenge to vaccine developers. This has led to the assessment of a wide variety of approaches to malaria vaccine design and development, assisted by the availability of a safe challenge model for small-scale efficacy testing of vaccine candidates. Malaria vaccine development has been at the forefront of assessing many new vaccine technol...
Riedmann, Eva M.
Oncolytic immunotherapy reduces the size of melanoma tumors in phase 3 trial EV71 vaccine protects children against HFMD Influenza vaccination important for risk groups Bharat‘s rotavirus vaccine is safe and modestly efficacious Successfully avoiding the cold-chain for vaccines FDA approval for Stallergenes’ sublingual grass pollen allergy immunotherapy HPV vaccination campaign could change from three to two doses in the UK Valneva continues phase 2/3 trial of Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine PMID:25290656
Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Strych, Ulrich
The 2000 Millennium Development Goals helped stimulate the development of life-saving childhood vaccines for pneumococcal and rotavirus infections while greatly expanding coverage of existing vaccines. However, there remains an urgent need to develop new vaccines for HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, as well as for respiratory syncytial virus and those chronic and debilitating (mostly parasitic) infections known as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The NTDs represent the most common diseases of people living in extreme poverty and are the subject of this review. The development of NTD vaccines, including those for hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, is being led by nonprofit product development partnerships (PDPs) working in consortia of academic and industrial partners, including vaccine manufacturers in developing countries. NTD vaccines face unique challenges with respect to their product development and manufacture, as well as their preclinical and clinical testing. We emphasize global efforts to accelerate the development of NTD vaccines and some of the hurdles to ensuring their availability to the world's poorest people. PMID:26356803
... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ...
... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tetanus (lockjaw) is a serious disease that causes painful ...
Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.
Maria Goretti P Fonseca
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The AIDS epidemic in Brazil remains concentrated in populations with high vulnerability to HIV infection, and the development of an HIV vaccine could make an important contribution to prevention. This study modeled the HIV epidemic and estimated the potential impact of an HIV vaccine on the number of new infections, deaths due to AIDS and the number of people receiving ARV treatment, under various scenarios. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The historical HIV prevalence was modeled using Spectrum and projections were made from 2010 to 2050 to study the impact of an HIV vaccine with 40% to 70% efficacy, and 80% coverage of adult population, specific groups such as MSM, IDU, commercial sex workers and their partners, and 15 year olds. The possibility of disinhibition after vaccination, neglecting medium- and high-risk groups, and a disease-modifying vaccine were also considered. The number of new infections and deaths were reduced by 73% and 30%, respectively, by 2050, when 80% of adult population aged 15-49 was vaccinated with a 40% efficacy vaccine. Vaccinating medium- and high-risk groups reduced new infections by 52% and deaths by 21%. A vaccine with 70% efficacy produced a great decline in new infections and deaths. Neglecting medium- and high-risk population groups as well as disinhibition of vaccinated population reduced the impact or even increased the number of new infections. Disease-modifying vaccine also contributed to reducing AIDS deaths, the need for ART and new HIV infections. CONCLUSIONS: Even in a country with a concentrated epidemic and high levels of ARV coverage, such as Brazil, moderate efficacy vaccines as part of a comprehensive package of treatment and prevention could have a major impact on preventing new HIV infections and AIDS deaths, as well as reducing the number of people on ARV. Targeted vaccination strategies may be highly effective and cost-beneficial.
... Diversity Find People About NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...
Smed-Sörensen, Anna; Loré, Karin
As dendritic cells (DCs) have the unique capacity to activate antigen-naive T cells they likely play a critical role in eliciting immune responses to vaccines. DCs are therefore being explored as attractive targets for vaccines, but understanding the interaction of DCs and clinically relevant vaccine antigens and adjuvants is a prerequisite. The HIV-1/AIDS epidemic continues to be a significant health problem, and despite intense research efforts over the past 30 years a protective vaccine has not yet been developed. A common challenge in vaccine design is to find a vaccine formulation that best shapes the immune response to protect against and/or control the given pathogen. Here, we discuss the importance of understanding the diversity, anatomical location and function of different human DC subsets in order to identify the optimal target cells for an HIV-1 vaccine. We review human DC interactions with some of the HIV-1 vaccine antigen delivery vehicles and adjuvants currently utilized in preclinical and clinical studies. Specifically, the effects of distinctly different vaccine adjuvants in terms of activation of DCs and improving DC function and vaccine efficacy are discussed. The susceptibility and responses of DCs to recombinant adenovirus vectors are reviewed, as well as the strategy of directly targeting DCs by using DC marker-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to an antigen. PMID:22975879
EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW
Full Text Available The opinion provides advice relating to the design of field trials to test the performance of a vaccine for bovine tuberculosis (bTB, along with a test to Detect Infected among Vaccinated Animals (DIVA. The objective of cattle vaccination is to use the vaccine in combination with presently applied control measures within the EU as an aid towards bTB eradication. The ideal field trials for the DIVA test will follow the OIE guidelines for test validation. Any deviations from the ideal trial design in relation to DIVA test performance should be justified, and the bias that may subsequently be introduced should be accounted for. The ideal field trial design for vaccination performance should implement a double-blind randomised test scenario, and allow for known risk factors in the field situation. Any deviations from the ideal trial design in relation to vaccine performance should also be justified and bias that may subsequently be introduced should be accounted for. Relevant risk factors and possible confounders that should be taken into consideration in the design of field trials are described in this opinion. The safety of a candidate vaccine is guaranteed in the registration of a vaccine medication by a competent authority. The field trials will need to fulfil these requirements to prove that the use of this vaccine in the field is safe for both public health and the environment. Some additional remarks regarding the safety of this specific vaccine are included in this opinion.
Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Khan, Sajid Umar; Ali, Zeeshan; Yang, Haowen; Liu, Keke; Mao, Lanlan
Rabies is a fatal encephalomyelitis. Most cases occur in developing countries and are transmitted by dogs. The cell culture vaccines as associated with high cost; therefore, have not replaced the unsafe brain-derived vaccines. In the developing countries these brain-derived rabies vaccines still can be seen in action. Moreover, there will be a need for vaccines against rabies-related viruses against which classical vaccines are not always effective. The worldwide incidence of rabies and the inability of currently used vaccination strategies to provide highly potent and cost-effective therapy indicate the need for alternate control strategies. DNA vaccines have emerged as the safest vaccines and best remedy for complicated diseases like hepatitis, HIV, and rabies. A number of recombinant DNA vaccines are now being developed against several diseases such as AIDS and malaria. Therefore, it can be a valuable alternative for the production of cheaper rabies vaccines against its larger spectrum of viruses. In this review we report published data on DNA-based immunization with sequences encoding rabies with special reference to nanotechnology. PMID:24730305
Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.
Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E
Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control. PMID:19768403
@@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.
Maria Goretti P. Fonseca; Steven Forsythe; Alexandre Menezes; Shilpa Vuthoori; Cristina Possas; Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso; Francisca de Fátima Lucena; John Stover
BACKGROUND: The AIDS epidemic in Brazil remains concentrated in populations with high vulnerability to HIV infection, and the development of an HIV vaccine could make an important contribution to prevention. This study modeled the HIV epidemic and estimated the potential impact of an HIV vaccine on the number of new infections, deaths due to AIDS and the number of people receiving ARV treatment, under various scenarios. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The historical HIV prevalence was modeled using Spe...
Viraj Kulkarni; Antonio Valentin; Margherita Rosati; Candido Alicea; Singh, Ashish K; Rashmi Jalah; Broderick, Kate E.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Sylvie Le Gall; Beatriz Mothe; Christian Brander; Morgane Rolland; Mullins, James I.; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.
HIV sequence diversity and potential decoy epitopes are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. A DNA vaccine candidate comprising of highly conserved p24(gag) elements (CE) induced robust immunity in all 10 vaccinated macaques, whereas full-length gag DNA vaccination elicited responses to these conserved elements in only 5 of 11 animals, targeting fewer CE per animal. Importantly, boosting CE-primed macaques with DNA expressing full-length p55(gag) increased both magnitude o...
MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan
With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...
Osterhaus, Ab; Fouchier, Ron; Rimmelzwaan, Guus
Vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the development and production of pandemic influenza vaccines are response time and production capacity as well as vaccine efficacy and safety. Several improvements can be envisaged. Vaccine production technologi...
Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria
The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...
Fletcher, Helen A; Dockrell, Hazel M
The most effective intervention for the control of infectious disease is vaccination. The BCG vaccine, the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) disease, is only partially effective and a new vaccine is urgently needed. Biomarkers can aid the development of new TB vaccines through discovery of immune mechanisms, early assessment of vaccine immunogenicity or vaccine take and identification of those at greatest risk of disease progression for recruitment into smaller, targeted efficacy trials. The ultimate goal, however, remains a biomarker of TB vaccine efficacy that can be used as a surrogate for a TB disease end point and there remains an urgent need for further research in this area. PMID:27203133
Muriisa, Roberts Kabeba
AIDS has a devastating impact on individuals and society. It is defined as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and it is a condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This condition occurs when people who have lived with HIV for a long time lose their immunity and become susceptible to various opportunistic infections. AIDS often results in death. At present, there is neither a vaccine against HIV nor a cure for AIDS. Apart from the numerous deaths it causes, HIV/AIDS has othe...
Murray E. Hines
Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn’s disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were 1 to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne’s Disease Integrated Program (JDIP Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC, and 2 to validate the AMSC Johne’s disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis, or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 X 10^9 CFU divided in 2 consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate. All kids were necropsied at 13 months post challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318 do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329 reduced fecal shedding and tissue
Hatziioannou, Theodora; Evans, David T.
The AIDS pandemic continues to present us with unique scientific and public health challenges. Although the development of effective antiretroviral therapy has been a major triumph, the emergence of drug resistance requires active management of treatment regimens and the continued development of new antiretroviral drugs. Moreover, despite nearly 30 years of intensive investigation, we still lack the basic scientific knowledge necessary to produce a safe and effective vaccine against HIV-1. An...
Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley
Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. PMID:25902360
... be updated.) Top of Page HPV-Cervarix (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine or ... updated.) Top of Page HPV-Gardasil-9 (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine. Anyone ...
Kumar, Goel Manish; Arun, Kumar; Bilas, Jain Ram; Ruchi, Jain; Pardeep, Khanna; Pradeep, Siwach
Worldwide, large proportion i.e., 37% of deaths due to diarrhea in young children is attributed to rotavirus. A monovalent P1A G1 vaccine and a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine human rotavirus vaccine had shown good clinical efficacy without any increase in intussusception among vaccine recipients. WHO recommends that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered to infants up to age of 6-15 weeks irrespective of the prior history of rotavirus infection and the maximum age for administering the last dose of the vaccine should be 32 weeks. Booster doses are not recommended. The current update reviews the issues related to rotavirus vaccines and their usages like milestones in the development of rotavirus vaccines, concerns regarding their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, immunity after natural infection, potential for changes in virus strains, current recommendations, post marketing surveillance, and future challenges and scope for further research regarding rotavirus vaccines. PMID:25145068
Antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp160 in mucosal specimens of asymptomatic HIV-1-infected volunteers parenterally immunized with an experimental recombinant HIV-1 IIIB gp160 vaccine. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group.
Lambert, J S; Viscidi, R; Walker, M. C.; Clayman, B; Winget, M; Wolff, M.; Schwartz, D H
Twenty-two human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected, asymptomatic volunteers with CD4 cell counts of >600 cells/mm3 who were enrolled in a phase I immunotherapy trial comparing two schedules of immunization of an HIV-1 IIIB-based recombinant gp160 (rgp160) experimental vaccine were evaluated for rgp160-specific antibodies in parotid saliva, genital secretions, and serum. When the study was unblinded, it was determined that five volunteers had received rgp160 on a month 0, 1, 2, 3,...
Frew, Paula M; Macias, Wendy; Chan, Kayshin; Harding, Ashley C.
During the past two decades of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, several recruitment campaigns were designed to generate community involvement in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials. These efforts utilized a blend of advertising and marketing strategies mixed with public relations and community education approaches to attract potential study participants to clinical trials (integrated marketing communications). Although more than 30,000 persons worldwide have participated in preventive HIV vaccine st...
... changes or ringing in the ears.Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... visit CDC's website at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines. HPV Vaccine (Gardasil) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...
... changes or ringing in the ears. Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... gov/std/hpv and http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines HPV Vaccine (Cervarix) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...
... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...
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... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) See also: Healthcare Personnel Vaccination Recommendations [1 page] July 2008 Top of Page ...
Jagadesh, Anitha; Salam, Abdul Ajees Abdul; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar
Influenza, the most common infectious disease, poses a great threat to human health because of its highly contagious nature and fast transmissibility, often leading to high morbidity and mortality. Effective vaccination strategies may aid in the prevention and control of recurring epidemics and pandemics associated with this infectious disease. However, antigenic shifts and drifts are major concerns with influenza virus, requiring effective global monitoring and updating of vaccines. Current vaccines are standardized primarily based on the amount of hemagglutinin, a major surface antigen, which chiefly constitutes these preparations along with the varying amounts of neuraminidase (NA). Anti-influenza drugs targeting the active site of NA have been in use for more than a decade now. However, NA has not been approved as an effective antigenic component of the influenza vaccine because of standardization issues. Although some studies have suggested that NA antibodies are able to reduce the severity of the disease and induce a long-term and cross-protective immunity, a few major scientific issues need to be addressed prior to launching NA-based vaccines. Interestingly, an increasing number of studies have shown NA to be a promising target for future influenza vaccines. This review is an attempt to consolidate studies that reflect the strength of NA as a suitable vaccine target. The studies discussed in this article highlight NA as a potential influenza vaccine candidate and support taking the process of developing NA vaccines to the next stage. PMID:27255748
Tang, Jiansong; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Chen, Zhiwei
Following HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the second most deadly infectious disease in humans. The global TB prevalence has become worse in recent years due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) strains, as well as co-infection with HIV. Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has nearly been used for a century in many countries, it does not protect adult pulmonary tuberculosis and even causes disseminated BCG disease in HIV-positive population. It is impossible to use BCG to eliminate the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection or to prevent TB onset and reactivation. Consequently, novel vaccines are urgently needed for TB prevention and immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the TB prevalence, interaction between M. tb and host immune system, as well as recent progress of TB vaccine research and development. PMID:27156616
Schwameis, Michael; Buchtele, Nina; Wadowski, Patricia Pia; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Jilma, Bernd
Chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of Europe and the Americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. Since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. Only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase II trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vaccine. This review focuses on the current status of vaccine development against chikungunya virus in humans and discusses the diversity of immunization strategies, results of recent human trials and promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26554522
AIDS og den manglende HIV-vaccine, der en gang for alle kan forebygge den dødbringende sygdom, er den største sundhedsmæssige udordring på verdensplan udtaler Lars Østergaard Udgivelsesdato: 06.11.08......AIDS og den manglende HIV-vaccine, der en gang for alle kan forebygge den dødbringende sygdom, er den største sundhedsmæssige udordring på verdensplan udtaler Lars Østergaard Udgivelsesdato: 06.11.08...
Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global hea...
Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard
foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...
Hines, Murray E.; Turnquist, Sue E.; Marcia R. S. Ilha; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Jones, Arthur L.; Whittington, Lisa; Bannantine, John P.; Barletta, Raúl G.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.; Katani, Robab; Talaat, Adel M.; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek
Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn's disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne's Disease I...
Smith, Joseph D.; Deitsch, Kirk W.
Aided by the Plasmodium falciparum genome project, recent discoveries regarding the molecular basis of malaria pathogenesis have led to a better understanding of the interactions between host and parasite. Although vaccines that prevent infection by malaria parasites remain only hopes for the future, there are now more immediate prospects for vaccines that protect against specific disease syndromes. Here, we discuss the latest advances in the development of a vaccine that specifically targets...
Xia FENG; Shuang-qing YU; Tsugumine Shu; Tetsuro Matano; Mamoru Hasegawa; Xiao-li WANG; Hong-tao MA; Hong-xia LI; Yi ZENG
Combinations of DNA and recombinant-viral-vector based vaccines are promising AIDS vaccine methods because of their potential for inducing cellular immune responses. It was found that Gag-specific cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) responses were associated with lowering viremia in an untreated HIV-1 infected cohort. The main objectives of our studies were the construction of DNA and recombinant Sendal virus vector (rSeV) vaccines containing a gag gene from the prevalent Thailand subtype B strain in China and trying to use these vaccines for therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines. The candidate plasmid DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1(+)-gag and recombinant Sendai virus vaccine (rSeV-gag) were constructed separately. It was verified by Western blotting analysis that both DNA and rSeV-gag vaccines expressed the HIV-1 Gag protein correctly and efficiently. Balb/c mice were immunized with these two vaccines in different administration schemes. HIV-1 Gag-specific CTL responses and antibody levels were detected by intracellular cytokine staining assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) respectively. Combined vaccines in a DNA prime/rSeV-gag boost vaccination regimen induced the strongest and most long-lasting Gag-specific CTL and antibody responses. It maintained relatively high levels even 9 weeks post immunization. This data indicated that the prime-boost regimen with DNA and rSeV-gag vaccines may offer promising HIV vaccine regimens.
... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...
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The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.
Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.
... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...
Engerix-B® ... a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus.In ...
Sedova, E.; Shcherbinin, D.; Migunov, A.; Smirnov, Iu; Logunov, D.; Shmarov, M.; Tsybalova, L.; Naroditskiĭ, B.; O. Kiselev; Gintsburg, A.
This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery pla...
Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z
Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both...
Greenwood, Brian; Salisbury, David; Hill, Adrian V. S.
Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, ‘New vaccines for global health’, was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing ...
Bozzo, Pina; Narducci, Andrea; Einarson, Adrienne
Question One of my patients is studying to become a dental hygienist. Owing to the program requirements, she received several vaccinations last week, including measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and hepatitis B (HB) vaccines, as well as a tetanus booster. However, today a blood test confirmed that she is currently 6 weeks pregnant. What is known about the safety of these vaccines during pregnancy, and are there any general recommendations for vaccines for women who are planning to become pregn...
The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner’s cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, ...
Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical e...
Mitali M Shah
Full Text Available A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We′ve come a long way since. Today′s vaccines are among the 21 st century′s most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases.
Durbin, Anna P
Denvaxia is the first licensed vaccine for the prevention of dengue. It is a live vaccine developed using recombinant DNA technology. The vaccine is given as three doses over the course of a year and has the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year. PMID:27368091
S. M. Kharit
Massive vaccination had proved its effective morbidity reduction. Today it is necessary to extend vaccination schedule, creation of selective, regional schedules based on epidemiological, clinical, economical substantiation. Development of vaccination needs the profound scientific research, modernization of adverse reaction observing system, betterment training system and awareness of population.
... in the same shot with other vaccines.Routine hepatitis B vaccination was recommended for some U.S. adults and children ... 95%, and by 75% in other age groups.Vaccination gives long-term protection from hepatitis B infection, possibly lifelong.
Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente
Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.
V. A. Liashenko
Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were ...
Pitts, Margaret Jane; Adams Tufts, Kimberly
In 2009, Virginia became the first state in the United States to enact a school vaccine mandate for the human papillomavirus (HPV), putting it at the forefront of the national HPV vaccine mandate controversy. It is critical to explore the public response and sensemaking where the mandate has already been enacted. Thus, we conducted 8 focus group discussions among 33 Virginia parents to explore how they conceptualized the virus and vaccine and their responses to the mandate. Findings suggest that many parents are skeptical of and reluctant to follow a state-mandated vaccine requirement, choosing instead to opt out of the vaccine until they decide the time is right for their daughter and/or until they feel confident in their knowledge about the virus, vaccine, and the impetus for the mandate. Study results can inform future legislation among states considering HPV-related mandates and aid in the development of health-promotion materials within the context of a state mandate. PMID:23275459
Lin, Chyongchiou J; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Toback, Seth L; Rousculp, Matthew D; Raymund, Mahlon; Ambrose, Christopher S; Zimmerman, Richard K
This randomized cluster trial was designed to improve workplace influenza vaccination rates using enhanced advertising, choice of vaccine type (intranasal or injectable) and an incentive. Workers aged 18-49 years were surveyed immediately following vaccination to determine factors associated with vaccination behavior and choice. The questionnaire assessed attitudes, beliefs and social support for influenza vaccine, demographics, and historical, current, and intentional vaccination behavior. Of the 2389 vaccinees, 83.3% received injectable vaccine and 16.7% received intranasal vaccine. Factors associated with previous influenza vaccination were older age, female sex, higher education and greater support for injectable vaccine (all P<.02). Current influenza vaccination with intranasal vaccine vs. injectable vaccine was associated with higher education, the study interventions, greater support for the intranasal vaccine and nasal sprays, less support of injectable vaccine, more negative attitudes about influenza vaccine, and a greater likelihood of reporting that the individual would not have been vaccinated had only injectable vaccine been offered (all P<.01). Intentional vaccine choice was most highly associated with previous vaccination behavior (P<.001). A key to long term improvements in workplace vaccination is to encourage first time influenza vaccination through interventions that include incentives, publicity and vaccine choice. PMID:20638452
Full Text Available Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Yet, there are no vaccines or specific antivirals available to prevent or treat the disease. Several dengue vaccines are currently in clinical or preclinical stages. The most advanced vaccine is the chimeric tetravalent CYD-TDV vaccine of Sanofi Pasteur. This vaccine has recently cleared Phase III, and efficacy results have been published. Excellent tetravalent seroconversion was seen, yet the protective efficacy against infection was surprisingly low. Here, we will describe the complicating factors involved in the generation of a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine. Furthermore, we will discuss the human antibody responses during infection, including the epitopes targeted in humans. Also, we will discuss the current understanding of the assays used to evaluate antibody response. We hope this review will aid future dengue vaccine development as well as fundamental research related to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.
Benage, Matthew; Fraunfelder, Frederick W
All of the widely administered vaccines have been reported to cause uveitis. The ocular inflammation is usually temporary and resolves with topical ocular steroids. During a 26-year period, a total of 289 cases of vaccine-associated uveitis were reported to three adverse reaction reporting databases. Hepatitis B vaccine, either alone or administered with other vaccines, appears to be the leading offender. Clinicians are encouraged to report cases of vaccine- or drug-associated ocular adverse reactions to www.eyedrugregistry.com. PMID:27039491
Riedmann, Eva M.
GSK`s Synflorix: Highly effective at preventing invasive pneumococcal disease Positive phase 1 interim results for killed whole-virus HIV vaccine Therapeutic HBV vaccine drives immune responses in liver New tuberculosis vaccine candidate to enter the clinic Novartis receives positive CHMP opinion for MenB vaccine Bexsero New research points way to faster flu vaccines New Meth vaccine shows promise in animals RTS,S malaria vaccine reduces malaria by approximately one-third in African infants
Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K
Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterizat...
Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T
Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development. PMID:24519704
Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf
Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141
Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction; a...... residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....
Martín Montañés, Carlos; Gicquel, Brigitte
The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is a live vaccine used worldwide, as it protects against severe forms of the disease, saving thousands of lives every year, but its efficacy against pulmonary forms of TB, responsible for transmission of the diseases, is variable. For more than 80 years now no new TB vaccines have been successfully developed. Over the last decade the effort of the scientific community has resulted in the design and construction of promising vaccine candidates. The goal is to develop a new generation of vaccines effective against respiratory forms of the disease. We will focus this review on new prophylactic vaccine candidates that aim to prevent TB diseases. Two are the main strategies used to improve the immunity conferred by the current BCG vaccine, by boosting it with new subunit vaccines, and a second strategy is focused on the construction of new more effective live vaccines, capable to replace the current BCG and to be used as prime vaccines. After rigorous preclinical studies in different animal models new TB vaccine candidates enter in clinical trials in humans. First, a small Phase I for safety followed by immunological evaluation in Phase II trials and finally evaluated in large population Phase III efficacy trials in endemic countries. At present BCG prime and boost with different subunit vaccine candidates are the more advanced assessed in Phase II. Two prime vaccines (based on recombinant BCG) have been successfully evaluated for safety in Phase I trials. A short number of live attenuated vaccines are in advance preclinical studies and the candidates ready to enter Phase I safety trials are produced under current good manufacturing practices. PMID:21420568
Andrews, Matthew; Wilhelm, Vera
Researchers are giving more attention to aid predictability. In part, this is because of increases in the number of aid agencies and aid dollars and the growing complexity of the aid community. A growing body of research is examining key questions: Is aid unpredictable? What causes unpredictability? What can be done about it? This note draws from a selection of recent literature to bring s...
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Full Text Available About one third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb, and new infections occur at a rate of about one per second. Additionally, more people in the developed world contact tuberculosis (TB because their immune systems are more likely to be compromised due to higher exposure to immunosuppressive drugs, substance abuse, or AIDS. The distribution of tuberculosis is not uniform across the globe, still the treatment is difficult and requires long courses of multiple antibiotics. However, antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in multidrugresistant (MDR tuberculosis. But mostly the prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette- Guérin (BCG vaccine. BCG is the most commonly used vaccine worldwide, but not as a powerful vaccine. BCG also provides some protection against severe forms of pediatric TB, but has been shown to be unreliable against adult pulmonary TB which accounts for most of the disease burden worldwide. Currently, there is an urgent need for novel, more effective vaccine that can prevent all forms of TB including drug resistant strains for all age groups and among people with HIV. The first recombinant tuberculosis vaccine rBCG30, entered clinical trials in year 2004, but, still no effective vaccine is available in a market. Study showed that DNA TB vaccine given with conventional chemotherapy can accelerate the disappearance of bacteria as well as protect against re-infection in mice and it is quite effective against TB. A very promising TB vaccine, MVA85A, is currently in phase II trials and is based on a genetically modified vaccinia virus. Many other strategies are also being used to develop novel vaccines, including both subunit vaccines such as Hybrid-1, HyVac4 or M72, and recombinant adenoviruses such as Ad35. Some of these vaccines can be effectively administered without needles making them preferable for areas where HIV is very common and few of
Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry
The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory
Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn
This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...
The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year. Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...
Sedova, E S; Shcherbinin, D N; Migunov, A I; Smirnov, Iu A; Logunov, D Iu; Shmarov, M M; Tsybalova, L M; Naroditskiĭ, B S; Kiselev, O I; Gintsburg, A L
This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery platform for a variety of genetic vaccines. Adenoviruses can efficiently penetrate the human organism through mucosal epithelium, thus providing long-term antigen persistence and induction of the innate immune response. This review provides an overview of the practicability of the production of new recombinant influenza cross-protective vaccines on the basis of adenoviral vectors expressing hemagglutinin genes of different influenza strains. PMID:23346377
Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio
Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587
Vaccines against leptospirosis followed within a year of the first isolation of Leptospira, with the first use of a killed whole cell bacterin vaccine in guinea pigs published in 1916. Since then, bacterin vaccines have been used in humans, cattle, swine, and dogs and remain the only vaccines licensed at the present time. The immunity elicited is restricted to serovars with related lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen. Likewise, vaccines based on LPS antigens have clearly demonstrated protection in animal models, which is also at best serogroup specific. The advent of leptospiral genome sequences has allowed a reverse vaccinology approach for vaccine development. However, the use of inadequate challenge doses and inappropriate statistical analysis invalidates many of the claims of protection with recombinant proteins. PMID:25388138
... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...
Cybulski, Robert J.; Sanz, Patrick; O'Brien, Alison D.
The biological attack conducted through the U.S. postal system in 2001 broadened the threat posed by anthrax from one pertinent mainly to soldiers on the battlefield to one understood to exist throughout our society. The expansion of the threatened population placed greater emphasis on the reexamination of how we vaccinate against Bacillus anthracis. The currently-licensed Anthrax Vaccine, Adsorbed (AVA) and Anthrax Vaccine, Precipitated (AVP) are capable of generating a protective immune res...
Gomez Lorenzo, Margarita M.; Fenton, Matthew J.
Vaccination is the primary strategy for prevention and control of influenza. The surface hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the influenza virus contains two structural elements (head and stalk) that differ in their potential utility as vaccine targets. The head of the HA protein is the primary target of antibodies that confer protective immunity to influenza viruses. The underlying health status, age, and gene polymorphisms of vaccine recipients and, just as importantly, the extent of the antigeni...
Goldman, Ran D.; Koren, Gideon
QUESTION: A 27-year-old patient of mine recently learned she is pregnant. She took the influenza vaccine offered at work when she was 7 weeks pregnant. Is her fetus at risk of malformations? ANSWER: No evidence indicates that killed influenza vaccine is teratogenic, even if given during the first trimester. Since 1996, Health Canada's Centre for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that pregnant women in their second and third trimesters be vaccinated. This should not be interpreted...
Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf
Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based o...
Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem; Rots, Nynke Y.
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants worldwide. Also persons with heart/lung disease or an immunodeficiency disorder, and the elderly are at increased risk for severe LRI upon RSV infection. Although there is at present no licensed RSV vaccine available, it is a priority target for several vaccine developers. For the implementation of a future RSV vaccination within national immunization schemes, various strategies can be...
Lianxing Liu; Chao Qiu; Yang Huang; Jianqing Xu; Yiming Shao
Plasmid DNA,an effective vaccine vector,can induce both cellular and humoral immune responses.However,plasmid DNA raises issues concerning potential genomic integration after injection.This issue should be considered in preclinical studies.Tiantan vaccinia virus (TV) has been most widely utilized in eradicating smallpox in China.This virus has also been considered as a successful vaccine vector against a few infectious diseases.Potent T cell responses through T-cell receptor (TCR) could be induced by three injections of the DNA prime vaccine followed by a single injection of recombinant vaccinia vaccine.To develop a safer immunization strategy,a single DNA prime followed by a single recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTV) AIDS vaccine was used to immunize mice.Our data demonstrated that one DNA prime/rTV boost regimen induced mature TCR activation with high functional avidity,preferential T cell Vβ receptor usage and high sensitivity to anti-CD3 antibody stimulation.No differences in T cell responses were observed among one,two or three DNA prime/rTV boost regimens.This study shows that one DNA prime/rTV boost regimen is sufficient to induce potent T cell responses against HIV.
Safrit, Jeffrey T; Fast, Patricia E; Gieber, Lisa; Kuipers, Hester; Dean, Hansi J; Koff, Wayne C
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of one of the most lethal pandemics in human history, although in recent years access to highly effective anti-retroviral therapy has provided new hope worldwide. Transmission of HIV by sexual contact, childbirth and injection drug use has been reduced, but 2 million are newly infected each year, and much of the transmission is from people who do not know their status. In addition to known methods, a preventive vaccine is needed to end the pandemic. The extraordinary mutability and genetic diversity of HIV is an enormous challenge, but vaccines are being designed for broad coverage. Computer-aided design of mosaic immunogens, incorporating many epitopes from the entire genome or from conserved regions aim to induce CD8+ T cells to kill virus-infected cells or inhibit virus replication, while trimeric envelope proteins or synthetic mimics aim to induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies similar to those cloned from some infected patients. Induction of more potent and durable responses may require new adjuvants or replicating chimeric vectors chimeras that bear HIV genes. Passive or genetic delivery of broadly neutralizing antibodies may provide broad protection and/or lead to insights for vaccine designers. Proof-of-concept trials in non-human primates and in one human efficacy trial have provided scientific clues for a vaccine that could provide broad and durable protection against HIV. The use of vaccines to destroy HIV reservoirs as part of therapy or cure is now also being explored. PMID:26993335
Newman, Peter A; Duan, Naihua; Rudy, Ellen T; Anton, Peter A
HIV vaccine availability does not guarantee uptake. Given suboptimal uptake of highly efficacious and already accessible vaccines in the United States, low vaccine coverage in the developing world, and the expectation that initial HIV vaccines will be only partially efficacious, the public health community will face formidable challenges in disseminating U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HIV vaccines. HIV/AIDS stigma, fear of vaccine- induced HIV infection, social side effects of testing HIV-positive, and mistrust of government and research present additional obstacles to HIV vaccine dissemination. Increased risk behaviors because of HIV vaccine availability can undermine the effectiveness of partially efficacious vaccines in reducing HIV incidence. HIV vaccine efficacy trials also face significant challenges in recruitment of sufficient volunteers and possible increases in risk behaviors due to trial participation. Planning and designing interventions to facilitate successful recruitment for large-scale phase 3 efficacy trials is a vital step towards U.S. FDA-approved HIV vaccines. Rather than despair in the face of momentous HIV vaccine dissemination challenges, or presume unrealistically that vaccine uptake will ensue automatically and that risk behavior increases will not occur, let us deem the estimated 10-year window to an approved HIV vaccine as an opportunity to investigate and confront these challenges. A consumer research agenda founded on social marketing principles is needed to facilitate the design of empirically-based interventions tailored to the unique needs and preferences of specific segments of consumers. Social marketing interventions may increase future HIV vaccine uptake and clinical trial participation, and mitigate increases in HIV risk behaviors. PMID:15659880
Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar
The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25749248
Turner, G. S.
Samples of Fermi, Semple, modified Semple, Duck embryo and tissue culture rabies vaccine were inoculated by different routes and in different doses into rabbits, mice and hamsters. The vaccines induced neither detectable interferon nor immediate protection against lethal challenge with CVS rabies virus. Under similar conditions, high but transient levels of interferon were induced in control animals of the same species with the polynucleotide complex Poly I.C. Hamsters but not mice were protected by Poly I.C.-induced interferon. No autointerference by vaccine with challenge virus was established. Vaccine-induced protection in mice was directly related to immune response. PMID:4506993
Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup;
DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... with these modifications, it is likely that the primary use of DNA vaccines may be as primers for viral-vectored vaccines, rather than as single agents. This review discusses the approaches used to enhance DNA vaccine immunogenicity, with a primary focus on fusion strategies that enhance antigen presentation....
Subbramanian, Ramu A.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Charini, William A.; Barouch, Dan H.; Costantino, Cristina; Santra, Sampa; Schmitz, Jörn E.; Martin, Kristi L.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Gorgone, Darci A.; Shiver, John W.; Letvin, Norman L.
In an effort to develop an AIDS vaccine that elicits high-frequency cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses with specificity for a diversity of viral epitopes, we explored two prototype multiepitope plasmid DNA vaccines in the simian-human immunodeficiency virus/rhesus monkey model to determine their efficiency in priming for such immune responses. While a simple multiepitope vaccine construct demonstrated limited immunogenicity in monkeys, this same multiepitope genetic sequence inserted into...
Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Greenier, Jennifer L.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Earl, Patricia; Moss, Bernard; Steckbeck, Jonathan D.; Pahar, Bapi; Rourke, Tracy; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Canfield, Don R; Tarara, Ross P; Miller, Christopher; McChesney, Michael B.; Marthas, Marta L.
There is an urgent need for active immunization strategies that, if administered shortly after birth, could protect infants in developing countries from acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection through breast-feeding. Better knowledge of the immunogenic properties of vaccine candidates in infants and of the effect of maternal antibodies on vaccine efficacy will aid in the development of such a neonatal HIV vaccine. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of infant macaques...
Singh, V K; Srivastava, R; Srivastava, B S
Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated vaccine derived from M. bovis, is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Despite its protection against TB in children, the protective efficacy in pulmonary TB is variable in adolescents and adults. In spite of the current knowledge of molecular biology, immunology and cell biology, infectious diseases such as TB and HIV/AIDS are still challenges for the scientific community. Genetic manipulation facilitates the construction of recombinant BCG (rBCG) vaccine that can be used as a highly immunogenic vaccine against TB with an improved safety profile, but, still, the manipulation of BCG vaccine to improve efficacy should be carefully considered, as it can bring in both favourable and unfavourable effects. The purpose of this review is not to comprehensively review the interaction between microorganisms and host cells in order to use rBCG expressing M. tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens that are available in the public domain, but, rather, to also discuss the limitations of rBCG vaccine, expressing heterologous antigens, during manipulation that pave the way for a promising new vaccine approach. PMID:26810060
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Dudley, N. J.
This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.
... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY AIDS ... sweat, saliva or urine of an infected person. Myth: A pregnant woman with HIV infection always infects ...
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This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.
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