Sample records for agent ni yoru

  1. FY1995 community support by mobile agents; 1995 nendo mobile agent ni yoru community keisei shien



    The purpose is to develop fundamental technologies for navigation systems and mobile computing systems in museums, theme parks and cities. Concretely, we implement software agents into the mobile computing environment which consists of PHS, mobile computers and mobile robots, and realize various functions to access regional information. We have studied on Communityware which supports human activities and communities by using mobile agents implemented into mobile computers and town robots. The mobile agents, which intelligently process information obtained in physical and virtual worlds, access regional information which is omnipresent in the environment. With respect to the approach using mobile computers, we have provided one hundred mobile computers in the international conference on multiagent systems 1996 and carried out the first experimentation of mobile computing in the world. The mobile computer has two functions: Community Viewer which displays interactions between members of communities and Social Matchmaker which supports to hold meetings by searching for people who have common interests. With respect to the approach using town robots, we have developed a robot system which can robustly behave in a complex outdoor environment by using vision agents embedded in the environment. The system aims at support of people in streets. (NEDO)

  2. Hydrogenation of heteroaromatics by high pressure DTA techniques. 3; Koatsu DTA ho ni yoru hokozoku kagobutsu no suisoka (rutenium tanji shokubai ni yoru kakusuisoka datsu hetero hanno)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    Ring-opening of heteroaromatics and heteroatom-removal reaction were studied experimentally using the acidic catalyst containing phosphoric acid for improvement of an upgrading method of coal derived oils. In experiment, some Ru-carrying metal oxide catalysts such as RMZ, RML and RMN catalyst, and MNP catalyst containing phosphoric acid were used as specimens. Nuclear hydrogenation reaction and hydro-denitrogenation reaction of dibenzothiophene and carbazole were compared with each other. The experimental results are as follows. Both RMN and RMNP catalysts offer a superior selectivity in nuclear hydrogenation reaction and hydro-denitrogenation reaction of carbazole. Although both catalysts offer an extremely high nuclear hydrogenation activity at 360{degree}C, these offer the high selectivity of denitrogenation products at 430{degree}C. In comparison of the activities of MN and MNP catalysts with the same Mn2O3:NiO ratio, MNP catalyst offers the higher denitrogenation activity than MN catalyst at 430{degree}C. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  3. Development of olefin laminated steel sheet substitute for polyvinyl chloride; Orefuin ramineto gohan ni yoru datsuenkabiniruka

    Saito, K.; Kawai, S.


    A laminated steel sheet was developed to answer the demands for substitutions for polyvinyl chloride from materials and the electronics field using polyvinyl chloride laminated steel sheets. The laminated steel sheet that was developed is an olefin laminated steel sheet that includes absolutely no halogen or molding agents that are compounded into elastomer from PP co-polymer and it is already being used in item such as office automation equipment, CPU packages and closet doors and recently it is also being used in unit-baths. It is superior in withstanding heat, chemicals and pollutants in comparison to the polyvinyl chloride laminated steel sheets from the characteristics of PP resins and although there was the problem of the surface being easily scratched, or whitened during low temperature processing, we have improved that while verifying through testing on the actual-size level. (author)

  4. Formation of NiCrAlY laser cladding with preplaced method; Funtai tofu reza kuraddingu ho ni yoru NiCrAlY himaku no keisei

    Iwamoto, H. [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] Sumikawa, T. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] Nishida, K. [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Graduate School; Nishida, M.; Araki, T. [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Cladding technique on the surface of structure materials using high corrosion resistance and wear resistance materials has been used in many fields as compared to conventional one. The heat source for cladding was mainly arc welding, however, these recent years, laser cladding where laser having special characteristics like high control, high output density and so forth is used as a heat source, has been studied. In this report, in order to cope with the change in composition of base material, coating layer formation with preplaced method was studied systematically using NiCrAlY powder formed by mixing mechanically commercial metal powder with raw material powder and low power (1200W) CO2 laser. As a result, good NiCrAlY cladded layer with good composition and with no defect was achieved using basic powder formed by mixing mechanically the metallic powder and commercial organic binder. Cladding of broad area was possible by weaving method even at low power (1200W) CO2 laser. Cladded layer with lower dilution ratio and higher cross sectional area was achieved with smaller powder particle diameter. 9 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Distributed scheduling for autonomous vehicles by reinforcement learning; Kyoka gakushu ni yoru mujin hansosha no bunsangata scheduling

    Unoki, T.; Suetake, N. [Oki Electric Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In this paper, we propose an autonomous vehicle scheduling schema in large physical distribution terminals publicly used as the next generation wide area physical distribution bases. This schema uses Learning Automaton for vehicles scheduling based on Contract Net Protocol, in order to obtain useful emergent behaviors of agents in the system based on the local decision-making of each agent. The state of the automaton is updated at each instant on the basis of new information that includes the arrival estimation time of vehicles. Each agent estimates the arrival time of vehicles by using Bayesian learning process. Using traffic simulation, we evaluate the schema in various simulated environments. The result shows the advantage of the schema over when each agent provides the same criteria from the top down, and each agent voluntarily generates criteria via interactions with the environment, playing an individual role in tie system. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Study of highly efficient power generation system based on chemical-looping combustion; Chemical loop nenshoho ni yoru kokoritsu hatsuden system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Ishida, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yamamoto, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization


    This paper describes the research and development of power generation system by means of chemical-looping combustion. For this system, fuel flows in a reduction reactor and air flows in an oxidation reactor. These two flows are separated. As a result, recovery of CO2 without energy consumption, drastic improvement of power generation efficiency, and suppression of NOx emission are expected. To realize the above, two promising candidates, NiCoO2/YSZ and NiO2/NiAl2O4, have been found as recycle solid particles between the both reactors. These have excellent oxidation/reduction cycle characteristics. By these particles as well as the existing particle, NiO/YSZ, practical application of the chemical-looping combustion is realized. Besides LNG, coal and hydrogen were considered as fuels. When using coal or hydrogen, it was found that temperature of the reduction reactor should be increased the same as that of the oxidation reactor. This is a different point from a case using LNG as a fuel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Synthetic Ni3S2/Ni hybrid architectures as potential contrast agents in MRI

    Ma, J.; Chen, K.


    Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents mainly include superparamagnetic (SPM) iron oxide nanoparticle as T 2 contrast agent for liver and paramagnetic Gd (III)-chelate as T 1 contrast agent for all organs. In this work, weak ferromagnetic kale-like and SPM cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni hybrid architectures were synthesized and evaluated as potential T 1 MRI contrast agents. Their relatively small r 2/r 1 ratios of 2.59 and 2.38, and high r 1 values of 11.27 and 4.89 mmol‑1 L s‑1 (for the kale-like and cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni, respectively) will shed some light on the development of new-type MRI contrast agents.

  8. Disinfectants used in medal field and problems caused from their use. Igaku ryoiki ni okeru sakkinzai to sorera shiyo ni yoru mondaiten

    Okuda, K.; Watabe, S. (Yokohama City University, Yokohama (Japan). School of Medicine)


    This paper describes typical anti-microorganism chemicals used in hospitals, and touches on measures against intra-hospital infection. Killing microorganisms reliably by using a high-pressure steam sterilization method is the best means for medical devices and apparatuses. However, there are high-priced medical devices that cannot withstand such a method and require other processes according to the situations, such as gas sterilization and alcohol disinfection. In addition to such sterilization methods as using heat, alcohols, and gases, methods that have been developed recently may include the following: use of Bronopol (an antiseptic) and anti-mold agents that have electronphilic functional groups, disinfectants using metal ions from silver, zinc and copper, and other materials. The problem of intra-hospital infection is caused typically by MRSA, hepatitis virus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Preventive measures require good knowledge about their infection courses and disinfecting technologies, as well as an attention not to cause change in the ecology as a result of using excessively strong chemicals. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Optical division of fluorine containing alcohol and carboxylic acid by using lipase; Ripaze ni yoru ganfusso alchol oyobi karubonsan no kogaku bunkatsu

    Kato, T.; Tanaka, S.; Fujii, S.; Katayama, M.; Kimoto, H. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya,Nagoya (Japan)


    Steric selective reaction by using lipase was performed to establish a simple optical division method by using as enzyme substrate two kinds of compounds difficult of chemically asymmetric synthesis, 2, 2, 2-trifluoro-1-(naphthyl) ethanols, and 4, 4, 4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butanoic acid, developed by this research institute as a new fluorine containing plant growth adjusting agent. Furthermore, the result thereof revealed that small structural change in the substrate largely affects the steric selectivity and reactivity of lipase. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Evaluation of hot corrosion resistance of Ni-base alloys using immersion test, coating test and embedding test; Shinseki shiken , tofu shiken , maibotsu shiken ni yoru Ni ki gokin no koon taishoku sei hyoka

    Zang, G.; Nishikata, A.; Tsuru, T. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    Coating test, immersion test and embedding test are usually employed as the methods for testing high temperature corrosion caused by molten salts. In this study, corrosion-resistant properties of twelve kinds of Ni-based alloys are evaluated systematically by immersion, coating and embedding tests using a sulfate, a chloride and a mixture thereof as the molten salts, and the differences of the results obtained by each testing method are examined. The main results of this study are described herein. The reproducibility of said tests is getting higher in an order of embedding test, coating test and immersion test. Especially an extremely high reproducibility is shown by the immersion test. In all corrosive ashes of sulfate, chloride and the mixture thereof, a good correlation is shown between the results of the immersion test and those of the coating test. The results of embedding test are correlated well with those of other tests in sulfate and sulfate/chloride mixture circumstance, while no such a correlation is indicated in chloride. In chloride corrosive ash and sulfate/chloride mixture corrosive ash, the corrosion amounts in coating and embedding tests are rather bigger than that in immersion test. In particular, a large amount of corrosion more than one digital is shown in the alloys with excellent corrosion-resistance. 33 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Water cut-off construction for bulkhead of very deep waste treatment plant using premixed cohesive soil. Premix nenseido ni yoru daisuishin haikibutsu shorijo gogan no shisuiko

    Iida, I. (Toa Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    Recently waste treatment plants have been developed in the suburban coastal area or off shore, requiring controlled-type revetment or reclamation for the circumferential sea area. This report describes the outline of premix water cutoff construction having been applied to the center-partitioned revetment in the reclaiming construction work in Minami-Honmoku Pier Area, Yokohama. The premix water cut-off method is a construction method where packed sediment is mixed with a small amount of cement and a separation-preventive agent and then is thrown to develop ground. This time, to effectively re-use dredged soil and cohesive soil, these soils were mixed with a caking agent and placed onto the sea floor. The total length of construction was ca. 450m; the maximum water depth was 30m; and the placed amount was 79705m[sup 3]. Four 50m[sup 3]/h-class mud treating machines were mounted on two ships, to which a slurry plant ship and a mud treating plant were joined to make-up a fleet. The forced pump feed method was adopted for placing and construction was completed with a control system perfect in workmanship and quality. 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Development of generator-cooling hydrogen purity improvement system using hydrogen absorbing alloy; Suiso kyuzo gokin ni yoru hatsudenkinai suiso jundo kojo system no kaihatsu

    Nishimura, Y.; Sato, J.; Haruki, N.; Kogi, T.; Okuno, Y. [The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Takeda, H.; Wakisaka, Y. [The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A generator-cooling hydrogen purity improvement system was developed by utilizing hydrogen absorbing and discharging functions of hydrogen storage alloy. For demonstration test with an actual machine, four elements, Ca, Ni, Mm and Al, were used as hydrogen storage alloys. To treat hydrogen gas with a wide range of purity and reduce hydrogen gas feed, flow operation for hydrogen purity improvement, batch operation, and recycle operation for maintaining the hydrogen purity were performed. As a result of the generator-cooling hydrogen purity improvement demonstration test, it was found that the hydrogen purity can be enhanced from 97.69% before operation to 99.9% after operation for 104 hours and to 99.95% after operation for 140 hours. The hydrogen recovery rates during flow test and batch test were between 92 and 95%. For the hydrogen purity maintaining test, it was confirmed that the high hydrogen purity of 99.9% has been continuously maintained for 140 days, and that the hydrogen recovery rate was over 99%. 2 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Part 2. ; Effect of alloying elements and transformation temperature on stress releasement. Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa. 2. ; Oryoku kanwa ni oyobosu gokin genso oyobi hentai ondo no eikyo

    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan))


    Steel test pieces having various transformation temperatures (M {sub S}) were fabricated varying Ni and Cr contents, and tests were done on their torsional transformation resistance in cooling process, and stress relaxing characteristics due to transformation superplasticity, using a forced twisting equipment. The test pieces, while being twisted, were heated by high frequency induction from an external source to 1000 {degree} C in 50 seconds, retained for 50 seconds, and then their transformation resistance was detected during cooling. The motor was so controlled in five steps that the added shear distortion speed is constant per unit temperature reduction. The Ni and Cr contents and M {sub S} are in linear relation, and its experimental formula was sought. Even if Ni and Cr contents differ, similar stress relaxing characteristics were presented as long as the M {sub S} points are identical. Therefore, hardness and corrosion resistance can be controlled in welding metals by means of so varying Ni and Cr contents that the M {sub S} point is maintained in a certain range. The transformation resistance showed the minimum value lower by 70 to 80 {degree} C than the M {sub S} point. To apply the phenomena of transformation superplasticity, the temperature difference between preheating paths is important in addition to chemical constituents. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Effect of transformation on stress releasement of stress concentration area in welding. Part 6. ; Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Sohentai ga oryoku shuchubu no oryoku kanwa tokusei ni oyobosu eikyo. 6. ; Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa

    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N.; Iiyama, T. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan))


    As the various contrivances are being done for raising the strength and reliability of the joints in the usual welding execution, the welding defects out of them are thought that they impair the reliability of the joints, and therefore the efforts not so as to let them occur, and in addition, to secure the safety by screening them through the nondestructive inspection, are being performed. In this report, through the double end constraint thermal cycle tests by using the smooth and notched round bar specimen prepared by the friction pressure welding of 9%Ni steel, which could transform at a low temperature, with SUS 304, and moreover through welding by using the welding rod prepared experimentally of the Fe-Ni-Cr system, which could transform at a low temperature, and furthermore through measuring the thermal contraction stress when the extreme strains have been concentrated in the weld metal parts on the way of cooling off, the fracture character of the weld metal has been investigated. In case of actual welding, even when the extreme stress concentration has been created so excessively as D4316 has started to be fractured on its way of cooling off, no crack has occurred in the welding rod of the low temperature transformation. This is thought because of that the superplasticity phenomena due to the martensite transfomation act effectively on the stress releasement. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Effect of transformation on residual stress in welding. Part 5. ; Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Sohentai ga yosetsu zanryu oryoku ni oyobosu eikyo. 5. ; Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa

    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan))


    The residual stress and angular deformation occurred in welding are the important factors for the welding design. In the previous report, by measuring the welding angular deformation caused by the welding rod prepared experimentally with the various transformation temperatures, it was shown that the materials, which could transform at a low temperature, have been effective to restrain the welding deformation. In addition, also the elongation and stress variation in transformation after welding have been examined in detail, and consequently it has been shown quantitatively, that not only the transformation expansion, but also the transformation superplasticity have acted effectively for the stress relaxation during transformation depending on the condition. In this report, the same as in the previous report, the welding with the multilayers and multi-passes has been performed by using the welding rod prepared experimentally and of Fe-Ni-Cr system, which could transform at a low temperature and had a high stress releasement effect, and then the effect of phase transformation on the welding residual stress has been investigated. As a result, the phase transformation had a tight relation with the welding residual stress, and furthermore the compression stress has been observed on the welding metal depending on the transformation temperature. In addition, it was found that in the welding metal, the compression stress has occurred, the tensile stress has remained directly under it, and it has been connected with a peak part of the tension, and has been redistributed. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Wrong Forms of some Yorùbá Personal Names: Some Phonological and Sociolinguistic Implications

    Reuben Olúwáfẹ́mi Ìkọ̀tún


    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the wrong forms of some Yorùbá sentences that have become personal names through compounding. The data were extracted from the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB lists of candidates that were considered for admission into three Nigerian Universities between the 2005 and 2010 academic sessions. The names extracted from that source were compared with names written in the staff lists of the three Universities in Nigeria. The wrongly written names were recorded on tapes and some native speakers were asked to listen to them to determine their correctness. We argue that wrong forms of some Yorùbá sentential/personal names are common occurrences and establish that they are traceable to the freedom granted by Yorùbá orthography developers. We also argue that, the confusion that results from the different spelling forms of some Yorùbá personal names is seriously observable in social interactions, labour market, schools or Colleges of Education/Universities, Embassies and Nigerian civil service both Federal and State and that court affidavits become imperative to authenticate or reconcile both the wrong and the correct forms for the purposes of admissions, appointments and overseas travelling documents. Similarly, we show that the position of the Yorùbá orthography developers has resulted in a loss of the actual pronunciation of some Yorùbá personal names which has severe implications for the semantic contents of the names as well as implications for the rich religious, cultural and philosophical heritage of the Yorùbá people.

  17. Preparation of metal/ferrite composite powder by the pyrolysis of ferrous oxalate and nickel oxalate powders derived from coprecipitation; Shusantetsu/susan nickel kyochin funmatsu no netsu bunkai ni yoru kinzoku/ferrite fukugo funmatsu no chosei

    Kobayashi, H.; Minowa, H.; Kakizaki, K.; Hiratsuka, N. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan)


    A new technique for preparing metal/ferrite composite powder by the pyrolysis of ferrous oxalate and nickel oxalate powders derived from coprecipitation has been proposed. The technique was carried out as follows; pyrolysis of the coprecipitated powder under NH3 gas flow and subsequent pyrolysis of mixtures of ferrite and (Fe3Ni)N powders under N2 gas flow. (Ni-Fe)/Fe3O4 composite powder was prepared by heating the coprecipitated powder of NiC2O4/FeC2O4=0.5-2.0 (molar ratio) at 350{degree}C for 1h in NH3 gas, followed by heating at 500{degree}C for 1 h in N2 gas. It was found that the thermal stability of (Ni-Fe)/Fe3O4 composite powder was affected by the composition of (Ni-Fe) alloy in the composite powder. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of Ni Nanoparticles by Hydrazine Reduction using Hydroxyethyl cellulose as Capping Agent

    The controlled-size synthesis of well-dispersed metal nanoparticles has been the aim of many research works during the last two decades. In this context, simple and controlled methods are the most suitable to obtain metal nanoparticles. The reduction of transition metal salts in solution is the most widely used method for generating colloidal suspensions of metals. In this work, nickel nanoparticles were synthesized from NiCl2·6H2O in an ethanol solution with hydrazine hydrate and an appropriate amount of NaOH in the presence of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) used as a capping agent to avoid the coalescence of the nanostructures. Size effects on the nickel nanostructures were studied by varying the concentration of the reducing agent and temperature. The obtained nickel nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), showing a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Particle sizes from 7 to 13 nm were determined by the Scherrer equation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed spherical sponge-like nanostructures formed by thin laminar structures. Additionally, infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of HEC functional groups on the surface of the nickel nanostructures after the purification step. Finally, the obtained Ni nanostructures were also characterized by electrochemical techniques and magnetic measurements to determine their electrocatalytic properties and magnetic response, respectively

  19. BTX production by in-situ contact reforming of low-temperature tar from coal with zeolite-derived catalysts; Zeolite kei shokubai wo mochiita sekitan teion tar no sesshoku kaishitsu ni yoru BTX no seisei

    Matsunaga, T.; Fuda, K.; Murakami, K.; Kyo, M.; Hosoya, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College


    On BTX production process from low-temperature tar obtained by pyrolysis of coal, the effect of exchanged metallic species and reaction temperature were studied using metallic ion-exchanged Y-zeolite as catalyst. In experiment, three kinds of coals with different produced tar structures such as Taiheiyo and PSOC-830 sub-bituminous coals and Loy Yang brown coal were used. Y-zeolite ion-exchanged with metal chloride aqueous solution was used as catalyst. Zn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and In{sup 3+} were used as metal ions to be exchanged. The experiment was conducted by heating a pyrolysis section up to 600{degree}C for one hour after preheating a contact reforming section up to a certain proper temperature. As a result, the Ni system catalyst was effective for BTX production from aromatic-abundant tar, while the Zn system one from lower aromatic tar. In general, relatively high yields of toluene and xylene were obtained at lower temperature, while those of benzene at higher temperature. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Design of environment-friendly and next generation-type conversion system for unused carbon resources by developing highly functional materials; Kokino zairyo kaihatsu ni yoru kankyo chowagata jisedai miriyo tanso shigen tenkan system no kochiku

    Wakabayashi, K.; Morooka, S.; Arai, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study


    Studies are conducted for the development of now-unused kinds of fossil carbon resources, such as low rank coal and heavy gravity crude oil, into higher-value liquid fuel. In the preliminary treatment process, the fossil carbon resources are dried by use of supercritical carbon dioxide, when it is found that the resources are disintegrated and water is desorbed. In a low rank coal liquefaction process using the NiMo/KB (Kefjen Black) catalyst, more than 60% is converted into oil, which rate is improved by use of the dual-temperature liquefaction process. This catalyst may be recovered by separation utilizing specific gravity difference. As a low temperature gasification catalyst, the alkaline carbonate-carried carbon catalyst is very quick at the initial stage of reaction. The perovskite-carried alkaline carbonate catalyst is high in carbon oxidizing/activating efficiency at low temperatures. The silica film deposited on an alumina-coated support tube is excellent in selectivity and speed as a hydrogen separating film, and a carbonized polyimide film as a carbon dioxide separating film. For the supercritical phase adsorption/separation of chemicals not to be distilled easily, the NaY-type zeolite functions effectively. Pd/ZrO2 serving as a carbon monoxide conversion catalyst enables the recovery of more MeOH when Pd grains are smaller in diameter.

  1. Recent advances in studies on photosynthetic microorganisms and photobioreactors. ; Production of useful carotenoids using minute algae. Hikari gosei biseibutsu no kino kaihatsu to foto baioriakuta. ; Bisai sorui ni yoru yuyo karotenoido no seisan

    Kobayashi, M.; Tsuji, Y. (Higashimaru Shoyu Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)); Kakizono, T.; Nagai, S. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Astaxanthin (3,3[prime]-dihydroxy-[beta],[beta]-carotene-4,4[prime]-dione) is a red carotenoid dye present in aquatic organisms such as crustacea and fish, and has a close relationship with the manifestation of colors of the bodies and meat of these organisms. Astaxanthin is currently used as a color-enhancing agent for cultivated fish such as red sea bream, rainbow trout, and salmon. Recently, astaxanthin has been found to be a much stronger antioxidant than [beta]-carotene or [alpha]-tocophenol, and its application to foods and pharmaceuticals is expected. In this article, studies by the authors on Haematococcus pluvialis, one of the most promising microorganisms as a source of producing astaxanthin, are described as an example of production of useful carotenoids using minute algae, and are compared with Dunaliella, as a [beta]-carotene producing microorganism, which is already produced commercially. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. The effect of process control agent on the structure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline mechanically alloyed Fe–45% Ni powders

    Gheisari, Kh., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javadpour, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this study, nanocrystalline Fe-45 wt% Ni alloy powders were prepared by mechanical alloying via high-energy ball milling. The effect of adding stearic acid as a process control agent (PCA) on the particle size, structure and magnetic properties of Fe-45 wt% Ni alloy powders have been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. The results show that the addition of 1 wt% PCA causes fine uniform spherical powder particles of the fcc γ-(Fe, Ni) phase to be formed after 48 h milling time. It is also found that crystallite size, lattice strain and content of γ-(Fe, Ni) phase are three of the most important variables that are significantly affected by PCA content and can influence the magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Different amount of stearic acid as a PCA was used during milling. • Particle size and crystallite size decrease with increasing PCA content. • The addition of 1 wt% PCA leads to a good combination of structure and magnetic properties.

  3. The effect of chelating/combustion agent on catalytic activity and magnetic properties of Dy doped Ni-Zn ferrite

    Samoila, P.; Slatineanu, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 11 Carol I Boulevard 700506 (Romania); Postolache, P. [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 11 Carol I Boulevard 700506 (Romania); Iordan, A.R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 11 Carol I Boulevard 700506 (Romania); Palamaru, M.N., E-mail: [Faculty of Chemistry, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 11 Carol I Boulevard 700506 (Romania)


    The spinel ferrite Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 1.98}Dy{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} was prepared by sol-gel low temperature autocombustion method using four different chelating/combustion agents: citric acid, tartaric acid, urea and cellulose. Infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area measurement, the catalytic H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition and the magnetic behavior were employed to investigate the influence of the combustion agents on structural characteristics, catalytic activity and magnetic properties. Spinel-type phase in the nano-scale domain was accomplished during sol-gel synthesis and was confirmed by XRD and IR. The best catalytic activity is belonging to the sample obtained using urea, which shows the smallest grain size (SEM), the highest specific surface area (BET measurements) and DyFeO{sub 3} phase (XRD), while ferrimagnetic behavior prevails for all the samples independently of fuel agent. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Zn ferrite doped with Dy as catalyst and magnetic material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four chelating/combustion agents were used in sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citric acid and cellulose allowed spinel monophase formation confirmed by XRD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of ferrite samples is affected by synthesis conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic behavior is not changed significantly as a function of fuel agent.

  4. Chitosan-bound pyridinedicarboxylate Ni(II) and Fe(III) complex biopolymer films as waste water decyanidation agents.

    Adewuyi, Sheriff; Jacob, Julianah Modupe; Olaleye, Oluwatoyin Omolola; Abdulraheem, Taofiq Olanrewaju; Tayo, Jubril Ayopo; Oladoyinbo, Fatai Oladipupo


    Chitosan is a biopolymer with immense structural advantage for chemical and mechanical modifications to generate novel properties, functions and applications. This work depicts new pyridinedicarboxylicacid (PDC) crosslinked chitosan-metal ion films as veritable material for cyanide ion removal from aqueous solution. The PDC-crosslinked chitosan-metal films (PDC-Chit-Ni(II) and PDC-Chit-Fe(III)) were formed by complexing PDC-crosslinked chitosan film with anhydrous nickel(II) and iron(III) chloride salts respectively. The PDC-Chit and its metal films were characterized employing various analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The FT-IR, UV-vis and the XRD results confirm the presence of the metal ions in the metal coordinated PDC-crosslinked chitosan film. The surface morphological difference of PDC-Chit-Ni(II) film before and after decyanidation was explored with scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the quantitative amount of nickel(II) and iron(III) present in the complex were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer as 32.3 and 37.2μg/g respectively which portends the biopolymer film as a good complexing agent. Removal of cyanide from aqueous solution with PDC-Chit, PDC-Chit-Ni(II) and PDC-Chit-Fe(III) films was studied with batch equilibrium experiments. At equilibrium, decyanidation capacity (DC) followed the order PDC-Chit-Ni (II)≈PDC-Chit-Fe(III)>PDC-Chit. PDC-Chit-Ni(II) film gave 100% CN(-) removal within 40min decyanidation owing to favorable coordination geometry. PMID:27474675

  5. Influence of complexing agent on the growth of chemically deposited Ni3Pb2S2 thin films

    Ho Soonmin


    Full Text Available Ni3Pb2S2 thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition method. Here, the objective of this research was to investigate the influence of complexing agent on the properties of films.These films were characterized using atomic force microscopy, UV-Visible spectro photometer and X-ray diffraction. It was found that, as the concentration of tartaric acid increased, film thickness increased, but, the band gap reduced. For the films prepared using 0.1M of tartaric acid, the films were uniform and completely covered the substrates.

  6. Characterization of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained by a chemical route. Influence of the complexing agent content in the starting solution

    Carreras, Alejo C., E-mail: [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba—CONICET, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5016 Córdoba (Argentina); Cangiano, María de los A.; Ojeda, Manuel W.; Ruiz, María del C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Qumica (INTEQUI), Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis—CONICET, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)


    The influence of the amount of complexing agent added to the starting solution on the physicochemical properties of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained through a chemical route, was studied. For this purpose, three Cu–Ni nanoalloy samples were synthesized by a previously developed procedure, starting from solutions with citric acid to metal molar ratios (C/Me) of 0.73, 1.00 and 1.50. The synthesis technique consisted in preparing a precursor via the citrate-gel method, and carrying out subsequent thermal treatments in controlled atmospheres. Sample characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray nanoanalysis and electron diffraction. In the three cases, copper and nickel formed a solid solution with a Cu/Ni atomic ratio close to 50/50, and free of impurities inside the crystal structure. The citric acid content of the starting solution proved to have an important influence on the morphology, size distribution, porosity, and crystallinity of the Cu–Ni alloy microparticles obtained, but a lesser influence on their chemical composition. The molar ratio C/Me = 1.00 resulted in the alloy with the Cu/Ni atomic ratio closest to 50/50. - Highlights: • We synthesize Cu–Ni nanoalloys by a chemical route based on the citrate-gel method. • We study the influence of the complexing agent content of the starting solution. • We characterize the samples by electron microscopy and X-ray techniques. • Citric acid influences the shape, size, porosity and crystallinity of the alloys.

  7. Characterization of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained by a chemical route. Influence of the complexing agent content in the starting solution

    The influence of the amount of complexing agent added to the starting solution on the physicochemical properties of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained through a chemical route, was studied. For this purpose, three Cu–Ni nanoalloy samples were synthesized by a previously developed procedure, starting from solutions with citric acid to metal molar ratios (C/Me) of 0.73, 1.00 and 1.50. The synthesis technique consisted in preparing a precursor via the citrate-gel method, and carrying out subsequent thermal treatments in controlled atmospheres. Sample characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray nanoanalysis and electron diffraction. In the three cases, copper and nickel formed a solid solution with a Cu/Ni atomic ratio close to 50/50, and free of impurities inside the crystal structure. The citric acid content of the starting solution proved to have an important influence on the morphology, size distribution, porosity, and crystallinity of the Cu–Ni alloy microparticles obtained, but a lesser influence on their chemical composition. The molar ratio C/Me = 1.00 resulted in the alloy with the Cu/Ni atomic ratio closest to 50/50. - Highlights: • We synthesize Cu–Ni nanoalloys by a chemical route based on the citrate-gel method. • We study the influence of the complexing agent content of the starting solution. • We characterize the samples by electron microscopy and X-ray techniques. • Citric acid influences the shape, size, porosity and crystallinity of the alloys

  8. Synthesis of {alpha}-olefin oligomerization of ethylene (3). Development of three components catalyst consisting of zirconiumtetrachloride, ethylaluminumsesquichloride and triethylaluminum; Echiren no origomerizeshon ni yoru {alpha}-orefuin no gosei (3). Shienka jirukoniumu-echiruaruminiumu sesukikurorido-toriechiru aruminiumu sanseibunkei shokubai no kaihatsu

    Shiraki, Y.; Tamura, T. [Idemitsu Petrochemical Co., Ltd., Yamaguchi (Japan). Chemicals Research Lab.


    Transition metals such as Ni, Co, Ti, and Zr several alkylaluminum promoter were studied as catalyst for oligomerization of ethylene. In the case of Ni and Co catalysts, termination reactions with {beta}-hydrogen elimination are dominant, light product such as butenes are mainly produces and the purity of linear {alpha}-olefin are low. Ti(4) is so easily reduced to Ti(3) that high molecular weight polymer is mainly produced. In the case of Ti catalyst, to obtain {alpha}-olefin in high selectivity, alkylaluminum with weaker reducing power should be used for the oligomerization of ethylene at below room temperature. Under theses lower temperature, a small amount of polymer by-products are crystallized and continuous operation is prevented. In the case of Zr catalyst, the reaction can be carried out at relatively higher temperature in which polymer can be melted because Zr is stable for reduction compared with Ti, then continuous operation is possible. Zr complex catalyst with three components consisting of ZrCl{sub 4}, TEA and EASC is convenient for oligomerization of ethylene. The new catalyst has high activity, high selectivity of {alpha}-olefin, good product distribution, and good stability. The performance of the Zr catalyst with theses three components vary by the order of components and synthesis conditions (temperature, contact time and concentration). By using binary system of TEA and EASC as alkylaluminum, product distribution ({alpha} value) can be controlled freely with high activity of catalyst by changing the ratio of TEA and EASC. (author)

  9. Assessing protection against OP pesticides and nerve agents provided by wild-type HuPON1 purified from Trichoplusia ni larvae or induced via adenoviral infection.

    Hodgins, Sean M; Kasten, Shane A; Harrison, Joshua; Otto, Tamara C; Oliver, Zeke P; Rezk, Peter; Reeves, Tony E; Chilukuri, Nageswararao; Cerasoli, Douglas M


    Human paraoxonase-1 (HuPON1) has been proposed as a catalytic bioscavenger of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents. We assessed the potential of this enzyme to protect against OP poisoning using two different paradigms. First, recombinant HuPON1 purified from cabbage loopers (iPON1; Trichoplusia ni) was administered to guinea pigs, followed by exposure to at least 2 times the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of the OP nerve agents tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), and cyclosarin (GF), or chlorpyrifos oxon, the toxic metabolite of the OP pesticide chlorpyrifos. In the second model, mice were infected with an adenovirus that induced expression of HuPON1 and then exposed to sequential doses of GD, VX, or (as reported previously) diazoxon, the toxic metabolite of the OP pesticide diazinon. In both animal models, the exogenously added HuPON1 protected animals against otherwise lethal doses of the OP pesticides but not against the nerve agents. Together, the results support prior modeling and in vitro activity data which suggest that wild-type HuPON1 does not have sufficient catalytic activity to provide in vivo protection against nerve agents. PMID:23123254

  10. Liberation of methyl acrylate from metallalactone complexes via M-O ring opening (M = Ni, Pd) with methylation agents

    Lee, S. Y Tina


    Ring opening of various nickela- and palladalactones induced by the cleavage of the M-O bond by methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (MeOTf) and methyl iodide (MeI) is examined. Experimental evidence supports the mechanism of ring opening by the alkylating agent followed by β-H elimination leading to methyl acrylate and a metal-hydride species. MeOTf shows by far higher efficiency in the lactone ring opening than any other methylating agent including the previously reported methyl iodide. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

  11. Metal Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni (II) complexes of ursodeoxycholic acid as putative anticancer agents

    Dyakova, Lora; Culita, Daniela-Cristina; Marinescu, Gabriela; Alexandrov, Marin; Kalfin, Reni; Patron, Luminita; Alexandrova, Radostina


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of metal [Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II)] complexes with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on the viability and proliferation of tumour and non-tumour cells. Cell lines established from retrovirus-transformed chicken hepatoma (LSCC-SF-Mc29) and rat sarcoma (LSR-SF-SR) as well as from human cancers of the breast (MCF-7), uterine cervix (HeLa), lung (A549) and liver (HepG2) were used as model systems. Non-tumour human embryo (Lep-3) cells were also included ...

  12. The influence of Si as reactive bonding agent in the electrophoretic coatings of HA-Si-MWCNTs on NiTi alloys

    Khalili, Vida; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Maleki-Ghaleh, Hossein; Paulsen, Alexander; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther


    In this study, different composite coatings with 20 wt.% silicon and 1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotubes of hydroxyapatite were developed on NiTi substrate using a combination of electrophoretic deposition and reactive bonding during the sintering. Silicon was used as reactive bonding agent. During electrophoretic deposition, the constant voltage of 30 V was applied for 60 s. After deposition, samples were dried and then sintered at 850 °C for 1 h in a vacuum furnace. SEM, XRD and EDX were used to characterize the microstructure, phase and elemental identification of coatings, respectively. The SEM images of the coatings reveal a uniform and compact structure for HA-Si and HA-Si-MWCNTs. The presence of silicon as a reactive bonding agent as well as formation of new phases such as SiO2, CaSiO3 and Ca3SiO5 during the sintering process results in compact coatings and consumes produced phases from HA decomposition. Formation of the mentioned phases was confirmed using XRD analysis. The EDX elemental maps show a homogeneous distribution of silicon all over the composite coatings. Also, the bonding strength of HA-Si-MWCNTs coating is found to be 27.47 ± 1 MPa.

  13. Faults survey by 3D reflection seismics; Sanjigen hanshaho jishin tansa ni yoru danso chosa

    Tsuchiya, T.; Ejiri, T.; Yamada, N.; Narita, N.; Aso, H.; Takano, H.; Matsumura, M. [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes fault survey by 3D seismic reflection exploration. Survey has been conducted mainly at flat land area without pavement not in urban area in Japan. Subsurface structure is complicated with intersecting multiple faults. In this area, a lot of geological investigations have been done prior to the seismic reflection exploration. Fairly certain images of faults have been obtained. However, there were still unknown structures. Survey was conducted at an area of 170m{times}280m in the CDP range. Measurements were carried out by using 100 g of dynamite per seismic generation point combined with 40 Hz velocity geophones. Fixed distribution consisting of lattice points of 12{times}12 was adopted as an observation method. In and around the lattice, a great number of explosions were carried out. The CDP stacking method and the method of migration after stacking were used for the data processing. The 3D structures of six horizons and five faults could be interpreted. Interpreted horizons were well agreed with the logging results. 3 figs.

  14. Depolymerization of coal by oxidation and alkylation; Sanka bunkai to alkyl ka ni yoru sekitan kaijugo

    Tomita, H.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology


    Change in depolymerization degree and coal structure was studied for depolymerization treatment of coal in various alcohol containing aqueous hydrogen peroxide. In experiment, the mixture of Yallourn coal, alcohol and aqueous hydrogen peroxide was agitated in nitrogen atmosphere of normal pressure at 70{degree}C for 12 hours. As the experimental result, the methanol solubility of only 5% of raw coal increased up to 35.2% by hydrogen peroxide treatment, while the yield of insoluble matters also decreased from 94% to 62%. Most of the gas produced during treatment was composed of inorganic gases such as CO and CO2, and its carbon loss was extremely decreased by adding alcohol. From the analytical result of carbon loss in hydrogen peroxide treatment, it was clarified that alkylation advances with introduction of alkyl group derived from alcohol into coal by hydrogen peroxide treatment under a coexistence of alcohol, and depolymerization reaction of coal itself is thus promoted by alcohol. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Development of plastic pulley by injection molding; Shashutsu keisei ni yoru jushi pulley no kaihatsu

    Yoshizumi, F.; Funatsu, A.; Yazawa, H. [Sumitomo Bakelite Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    We developed plastic pulley for automobile manufactured by injection molding which will reduce manufacturing cost. We have developed product design, injection molding technology especially to improve mechanical strength and phenolic molding compound with good wear resistance and high mechanical strength. We have established `Injection Compression molding` technology to improve mechanical strength of weld portion. We also developed phenolic molding compound which is composed of one step resin and long organic fiber to obtain good wear resistance and high mechanical strength. Manufacturing cost will be reduced by using injection molding combined with lower material cost of the newly developed compound. 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. New junction method of plastic by ultrasonic wave; Choonpa ni yoru plastic no shinsetsugoho

    Kaneko, S. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes three types of new junction methods for plastic in which ultrasonic energy is used. The node junction method by longitudinal vibration is based on the feature that the heat generation by ultrasonic energy is high in the node of amplitude distribution by vibration of a joined object. An impedance matching section is set among the tool, joined object, and jig, and the junction place is set in the node position of amplitude by longitudinal vibration to improve the efficiency. For the junction of a vessel cover, the power and operation efficiencies were improved. The junction method by torsional vibration uses torsional vibration instead of longitudinal vibration. The manufactured device has the characteristics that the sound output is 40 W when the vibration rate of a torsional vibrator is 1.61 m/s. In this case, the electric sound exchange efficiency is 92% at maximum. The junction of a tetrafluoroethylene sheet that is difficult in a longitudinal vibration system was tried as a preliminary experiment. As a result, the information on junction was obtained. In the junction method by a focusing ultrasonic wave, ultrasonic energy of several megahertzs is focused for junction. A PZT electrostrictive spherical vibrator is used. Junction is carried out in the focal area. The junction strength increases. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  17. Keynote report by special guest. Tokubetsu guest ni yoru kicho hokoku


    A lecture at the Maui meeting of U.S.-Japan Energy Policy Consultations was delivered by Mr.Yoichi Funabashi, General Director in the U.S., Asahi Shimbun Publishing Company. The historical significance of Japan's diplomatic policy since the U.K.-Japan Alliance and the present situation in Japan, the U.S. and China were explained. As a present problem in Japan, it was pointed out that the votes of urban electors were not fully reflected in the number of parliamentary seats, and votes in agricultural and rural districts applied imbalanced pressure to Japanese politics, and negative pressure to politic parties insisting market liberation and with an international global view. In addition, since the Hosokawa administration, there has been power vacuum, political and financial power weakened, and the Ministry of Finance has filled the vacuum. According to his lecture, it was unclear who promoted regulation relaxation, and administration reforms in their true sense. The economic community should propose policy plans independently, and should have them reflected in decision making of the nation. Also it was important to maintain and strengthen the value of the U.S.-Japan alliance relation.

  18. Super absorbent materials from lignocellulosic materials by phosphorylation. Lignocellulose no rinsan esuteruka ni yoru kokyusuisei zairyo

    Saito, N.; Seki, K.; Aoyama, M. (Hokkaido Forest Products Research Institute, Hokkaido (Japan))


    Hydrogels were prepared from oxidized wood meals and chemical pulps through phosphorylation using phosphoric acid and urea. A transparent hydrogel, which was prepared from wood meals by oxidation with chlorite followed by phosphorylation, exhibited a capability of absorbing 115g of water for 1g of sample. As an oxidant, peracetic acid and ozone were also applied to the pretreatment. Brownish colored hydrogels were obtained from phosphorylated kraft and sulfite pulps. Phosphorylated kraft pulp showed the water absorbency of 66gH {sub 2} O/g, while phosphorylated sulfite pulp showed that of 29gH {sub 2} O/g. Wood meals phosphorylated without oxidation and the chemical pulps absorbed only several times individual weights of water. These results indicated that the pretreatment with chlorite would be the most effective for the hydrogelation. 24 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Heightening in efficiency of biological treatment by additives. Tenkazai ni yoru seibutsu shori no koritsuka

    Ishikawa, M. (Fukui Institute of Technology, Fukui (Japan))


    The activated sludge process and other biological treatments, though utilized for most sewerage and drainage water disposals, often necessitate the maintenance to be managed with a professional knowledge so that confrontation is oftem impossible with trouble in management. In the present report, different basic studies are to be introduced of microbial activation by an addition with saponin. Saponin'', etymologically identical with savon'' and soap'', has been being used as natural cleaner, emulsifier and foamer in South America and Europe since olden times, and is used also for the processed food and potable water in the USA. The present experiment concluded that, in case of using it as microbial activator, the activated sludge can be considerably increased in load quantity of disposal by the heightening in oxygen-supplying power, high concentration microbial maintenance, microbial activation, etc. In the future, there will remain many problems unsolved such as what is the optimized condition for the addition depending upon the condition of base material. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Automatic ultrasonic testing for welding structures; Choonpa ni yoru yosetsu kozobutsu no kensa no jidoka

    Yokono, Y. [Non-Destructive Inspection Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    Ultrasonic flow detection when compared with the radiation transmission detection, has advantages such as: it can be used even in thick plate, detection performance of surface defects like cracks or bad unification and so forth is good, possesses easier safety management and so forth. On the other hand, it is a manual testing and lacks memory, and has problem that the test results depend on the ability of technician and automation is preferred in many field. However, the manual scanning method of probe carried out by experienced technicians can not be replaced by automation because the signals obtained depend greatly on the surface condition of specimen, scanning speed of probe and welding pressure. At present, the memory capacity and computation ability of computer have been significantly developed and image processing and photo taking of the obtained results are carried out easily. In this report, practical image of ultrasonic flow detection of weld portion is discussed and some practical examples of automatic test devices for welding structures are introduced. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Fully automitized welding with laser sensing; Laser sensor ni yoru yosetsu no kanzen jidoka

    Uota, K.; Ashida, Y.; Bowaro, J.


    This paper introduces a laser vision system developed by Servo Robot Corporation, and examples of application of the system. This laser vision system consists of a laser sensor camera, a controller and software. The laser sensor camera measures contour, features, position and direction of an object by using an optical triangulation technology. The camera head has a special optical system in which the laser sensor is not subjected to influence of welding arc, where air cooling is performed on heat generated by the arc. The software package, USER-2000, performs two-dimensional visual indication on the contour and strength, indication of image processing results, setting of transmission velocity, and installation of VISUS, ADAP, TRAC-2000 and ROBO-2000. The laser vision system is combined with powerful application software, and applied to different welding methods, such as MIG welding, MAG welding, laser welding (using CO2 laser and YAG laser), submerged arc welding, and TIG welding. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Characterization of earthquake fault by borehole experiments; Koseinai sokutei ni yoru jishin danso no kenshutsu

    Ito, H.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishizawa, O.; Kuwahara, Y.; Kiguchi, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A borehole was excavated to penetrate the Nojima fault at the Hirabayashi area, to investigate the underground structures of the fault by observation of the cores and well logging. The borehole was excavated from 74.6m east of the fault surface. Soil is of granodiorite from the surface, and fault clay at a depth in a range from 624.1 to 625.1m. Observation of the cores, collected almost continuously, indicates that the fault fracture zone expands in a depth range from 557 to 713.05m. The well logging experiments are natural potential, resistivity, density, gamma ray, neutron, borehole diameter, microresistivity and temperature. They are also for DSI- and FMI-observation, after expansion of the borehole. The well logging results indicate that resistivity, density and elastic wave velocity decrease as distance from fault clay increases, which well corresponds to the soil conditions. The BHTV and FMI analyses clearly detect the fault clay demarcations, and show that elastic wave velocity and BHTV results differ at above and below the fault. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Ground water contamination by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru chikasui osen chosa

    Irie, S.; Fujii, Y.; Sakaguchi, S.; Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A report is made about the result of vertical electric sounding conducted in the MK district, Fukuoka City, where Kyushu University is about to move. As for the method of electrical prospecting, in consideration of the need for probing a depth of 50m at the shallowest, vertical electrical sounding with a Schlumberger array of electrodes was employed. Measurements were made for 57 locations on the planar ground, the interval between electrodes gradually increased from 1 to 200m. In the 2D structure model analysis, a 2D inversion program was utilized in the ABIC minimization method. Also investigated were the relationship of electric prospecting and the geology, geological conditions, water level in the well, water quality, salt water, and pore rate from the previously-conducted investigative boring. As the result, it was estimated that the boundary between the first and second layers detected by electric prospecting reflected the level of underground water and that the boundary between the second and third layers reflected the portion where the N-value sharply increases. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Archaeological prospecting by DEF method; Denkai zansaho ni yoru iseki tansa

    Kishikawa, H.; Aono, T.; Tanaka, T.; Mizunaga, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A study is made of a newly-developed differential electric field (DEF) method, wherein potentials between potential electrodes equidistant from a current electrode is measured for directly detecting the secondary potential attributable to an anomalous-resistivity body. In this method, a current is fed into the ground from a point source C1, and four potential electrodes, two each on the X-axis and Y-axis, are provided equidistant from the point source C1 for the measurement of the potentials in the directions of X and Y. Numerical experiments and field experiments in a playground were conducted for this DEF method, and it was found that this method is effective in detecting an anomalous-resistivity bodies (ruins, etc.) situated in a homogeneous medium or in a horizontal multi-layer structure, is capable of displaying anomalous vectors enabling the estimation of the direction from the observation point of the anomalous-resistivity body, improves on work efficiency over the conventional mapping method, enables the estimation of the boundary of the anomalous-resistivity body on the basis of the peak of the anomalous electric field residue on the display, and that the obtained data can be easily processed by use of a personal computer on the site. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Seismic traveltime tomography by use of gridpoints discritization; Koshitenho ni yoru danseiha tomography kaiseki

    Hirai, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Efforts were made to enhance analytical precision and stabilize the results in seismic traveltime tomography by use of a method wherein the velocity distribution is expressed as a continuous function interpolated by parameters respectively assigned to the gridpoints. In this method, the slowness data are regarded as the parameters respectively assigned to the gridpoints, and the slowness value at a given point is determined after interpolation by the gridpoints surrounding the said point. A method based on the variation principle was used for ray tracing. As the result, it was confirmed that this method determines the ray path and traveltime with high precision. A method of least squares using Lagrange`s multiplier was applied for inversion. Comparison was made between the use of cells and the use of gridpoints in the results of inversions performed for an inclined 4-layer structure model, when it was found that the values involving the boundaries between layers, inclinations of the layers, and velocities of seismic waves are ambiguous with the cells while those with the gridpoints are reconstructed roughly correctly. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Adsorption of rare earth metal ion by algae. Sorui ni yoru kidorui ion no kyuchaku

    Kuwabara, T.; Yazawa, A. (Miyagi National College of Technology, Miyagi (Japan))


    This paper reports the result of investigations on adsorption of rare earth metal ion by using algae, and adsorption of different metal ions by using egg white and soy bean protein. Rare earth metal ion is adsorbed at a considerably high rate with alga powder of different kinds. The adsorption has been judged to be cation exchange reactive adsorption, while with use of spirulina and chlorella a maximum value of adsorption rate has been observed at pH from 3 to 4.5. Therefore, selective adsorption and separation of metal ions other than rare earth metal ion has become possible. When the blue pigment extracted from spirulina, the spirulina blue, is used, the rare earth metal ion had its selective adsorption and separation performance improved higher than using spirulina itself at pH from 3 to 4.5. As a result of adsorption experiment using egg white and soy bean protein, it has been found that the metal ion adsorption behavior of the spirulina blue depends on coagulative action of protein structure to some extent. However, the sharp selective adsorption performance on rare earth metal ion due to particular pH strength has been found because of actions unique to the pigment structure of phycocyanin, a major component in the spirulina blue. 7 refs., 19 figs.

  7. Energy saving by regenerative burner; Rigene burner ni yoru sho energy

    Nagai, S. [Chugai Ro Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    Described are the characteristics of a regenerative burner (RB) and some important respects to consider before its employment. In this burner system, a set of two burners are operated, with one burning and the other sucking gas out of the furnace. The roles are switched over between the two burners every minute or every tens of seconds, and the repetition of heat accumulation and radiation by the heat accumulating bodies in the heat accumulators results in an air temperature which is near the gas temperature in the furnace. An optimum switchover time is determined by the make, or the specific heat and weight, of the heat accumulating bodies. The configuration may be effectively employed in the modification of existing furnaces (1) when treatment capacity improvement is required or (2) when sufficient waste heat recovery is impossible. In the case of (1), an increase in combustion will be mandatory for capacity enhancement. Refurbishment to increase combustion, however, will not be required when RB is installed, and this enables capacity improvement while maintaining or enhancing energy saving performance at a low cost. In the case of (2), at a steel-making plant where recovery of waste heat is difficult because a ladle preheater or tandish preheater has no flue, effective heat recovery will be realized if RB is installed. (NEDO)

  8. Countermeasures for increasing sequence continuous casting; Renchu kinosei taikabutsu zaishitsu, kozo kaizen ni yoru renrenchusu kojosaku

    Tsuda, Masato; Shinagawa, Hiroaki; Kamada, Ryuji; Hiraga, Yutaka; Hara, Takayasu [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In the second continuous casting line of Kure Iron Works, Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. improvement of the continuous casting counts per tundish was attempted for a target of max. 20. The results are as follows: (1) Non-SiO{sub 2} conversion of material for the long nozzle immersed part: About 20% improvement of durability compared with a conventional material to clear 0.059 mm/min of the targeted erosion speed when 20 CCC/TD is realized, (2) Durability improvement of SN plate: About 20% durability improvement was attained compared with a conventional material by the adoption of a non-SiO{sub 2} material, (3) Erosion resistance improvement of the immersed nozzle slug line part: Castable period was extended to 1 ch life improvement by increasing zirconia content, (4) Rise of stopper full open position: The rise of the full open position produced less variation of melt level than the conventional structure without increase of the SN opening, enabling plugging prevention between the stopper head and the upper nozzle which was an objective of this improvement, (5) Structure improvement of the upper nozzle: This improvement successfully prevented leaks from damage of the casting stop nozzle metal case and enabled casting under low gas flow even in TD nozzle plugging. These improvements gave a possibility to achieve max. 20 CCC/TD. (NEDO)

  9. 3D pre-stack time migration; Kiruhihoffuho ni yoru sanjigen jugo mae jikan migration shori

    Nakajima, Y.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports pre-stack migration in elastic wave exploration as to its algorithm and examples of processed data. The time migration processing hypothesizes that seismic waves propagate linearly. It calculates travel time by dividing the sum of the straight distance from a vibration transmitting point to an image point and the straight distance from the image point to a vibration receiving point with RMS velocity given as a parameter. To maintain the relative relation of amplitude sizes, the signal on an elliptic body is made smaller in inverse proportion to the size of that elliptic body. With regard to apparent interval of input trace as seen from the reflection surface, or with regard to density, the signal is made smaller by cos{theta} times. While this program deals with three-dimensional migration, its output turns out as an arbitrary two-dimensional plane. The program requires a huge amount of data processing, whereas a method is used, that the input trace is divided, each group is processed by using separate computers, and the results are summed up. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Three dimensional wavefield modeling using the pseudospectral method; Pseudospectral ho ni yoru sanjigen hadoba modeling

    Sato, T.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Saeki, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Discussed in this report is a wavefield simulation in the 3-dimensional seismic survey. With the level of the object of exploration growing deeper and the object more complicated in structure, the survey method is now turning 3-dimensional. There are several modelling methods for numerical calculation of 3-dimensional wavefields, such as the difference method, pseudospectral method, and the like, all of which demand an exorbitantly large memory and long calculation time, and are costly. Such methods have of late become feasible, however, thanks to the advent of the parallel computer. As compared with the difference method, the pseudospectral method requires a smaller computer memory and shorter computation time, and is more flexible in accepting models. It outputs the result in fullwave just like the difference method, and does not cause wavefield numerical variance. As the computation platform, the parallel computer nCUBE-2S is used. The object domain is divided into the number of the processors, and each of the processors takes care only of its share so that parallel computation as a whole may realize a very high-speed computation. By the use of the pseudospectral method, a 3-dimensional simulation is completed within a tolerable computation time length. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. High power YAG laser cutting; Koshutsuryoku YAG laser ni yoru setsudan gijutsu

    Owaki, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes features of high power YAG cutting. The optical fiber transmission YAG laser machining system has some advantages in which optical path length compensation unit is not required and measures for low power loss and dust are not required, when compared with the CO2 laser system. Its application to the cutting of stainless steel plates has attracted attention. Cutting tests of SUS304 were conducted using high power YAG laser. Cutting of SUS304 plate with a thickness of 40 mm could be successfully done at the power of 3.5 kW. Cutting tests of SUS304 pipes with a thickness of 8 mm in water under the depth of 20 m were also conducted using air as assist gas at the power of 2.5 kW. Excellent results were obtained without scale deposition. For the tests by the composite beam using 3 kW and 4 kW systems, SUS304 plate with a thickness of 50 mm could be cut at the cutting speed of 0.1 m/min. Laser cutting of pipes from the internal surface was conducted using a newly developed small machining head which can rotate in the peripheral direction. Excellent quality for welding was confirmed. Cutting speed and plate thickness were improved by combining water jet cutter and YAG laser unit. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Clarification of SSR mitigation mechanism of TCSC; TCSC ni yoru SSR kaihi kiko no kaimei

    Kakimoto, N.; Iida, A.; Seki, M.; Minoyama, K.; Takuma, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) is considered to be effective not only for flow control and stabilization of power systems, but also for mitigation of subsynchronous resonance (SSR). This paper clarifies SSR mitigation mechanism of TCSC. First, we show by time simulations that SSR appears and disappears depending on the firing angle of TCSC. Next, we show that its frequency characteristics varies much with the firing angle. Further, we show that SSR occurs in TCSC-compensated systems as well as in conventional series-capacitor compensated systems when 60 Hz minus an electrical resonance frequency of a transmission system coincides with a tortional oscillation frequency of a generator-turbine shaft. TCSC can avert SSR by changing its firing angle and by shifting the electrical resonance frequency. Next, we propose an equivalent circuit of TCSC which consists of a series capacitor in parallel with a resistor and a reactor. We adjust its parameters so that it shows frequency characteristics same as TCSC. We apply it to time simulations to see if it work equivalently as TCSC. Finally, we do eigenvalue analysis with the equivalent circuit. We can get results corresponding to the time simulations. 11 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Point-to-point microwave power transmission experiment; Maikuroha ni yoru denryoku yuso no kiso kenkyu

    Shimokura, N.; Kirihara, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    In order to demonstrate the power transmission using microwave and arrange advantages and problems in the wireless power transmission, field tests of point-to-point power transmission were conducted. Microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz was used, which is assigned as the industrial, scientific and medical frequency. The transmission system is composed of generator, director tube, primary radiator, and transmission antenna. The maximum 5 kW of microwave power can be transmitted by combining a 3 m-diameter parabolic antenna and a magnetron. The receiving system is composed of devices called as RECTENNA (rectifying antenna). A large capacity and high efficiency RECTENNA was developed, by which the maximum 2.5 W of input power per single device can be provided. As a result of the experiments, efficiency at the transmission side was over 70%, and RF-DC efficiency at the receiving side was about 51%. At the open-air test site, however, the total efficiency of only 14.8% could be obtained. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Energy transmission using microwaves and its possibility. Maikuroha ni yoru energy yuso to sono kanosei

    Matsumoto, H.; Shinohara, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan))


    Transmitting of electric energy in the form of electromagnetic waves is a century-old idea, which has reached its final step of realization at last. This paper describes a review and future prospects on electric power transmitting technologies using microwaves (a wavelength of 12 cm is thought as the most promising candidate). Electric power was transmitted successfully to a flying helicopter in the U.S.A. in 1964. Transmission of 30-kW power was performed in 1975 to a power receiving rectenna (an antenna with microwave receiving rectification circuit) placed 1.6 tm away using a parabola as a transmitting antenna. These studies were carried over to the investigative studies on space power stations (SPS). This is a conception to install a static satellite equipped with a huge solar cell array in the sky of about 36,000 km high to generate power, convert the power to microwaves, and transmit the power of ten million kilowatt class to the ground. A number of results of advanced experiments have been obtained in Japan using rockets or aircraft. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Foods hygiene management according to HACCP.; HACCP ni yoru shokuhin eisei kanri

    Seki, T. [Niigata Enginering Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    New foods hygiene management system HACCP(Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) was explained, which prevents food poisoning. Followings are described; (1) Outline of HACCP, (2) History of HAPPC, (3) Process to perform HACCP, (4) Infrastructure for HACCP, (5) How to promote HACCP, (6) Certification system in Japan. HACCP secures the safety in foods hygiene by making rules of Critical Control Points (CCP) on foods hygiene and by administrating strictly their performance. Details of works, frequency and person in charge of the work and methods to confirm and record the work are prescribed in PP (Prerequisite Program) and SSOP (Sanitation Standard Operation Procedure). (NEDO)

  16. Evaluation of water treatments by bioassays; Bioassay ni yoru mizushori no hyoka

    Suzuki, M.; Kim, B.; Sohn, J.; Sakai, Y.; Sakoda, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science


    Investigations were made by using agricultural chemical added waters as model waters on change in general cell toxicity and mutagenicity as a result of giving activated carbon treatment in addition to ozone treatment. Seven kinds of agricultrual chemicals were selected, and each was added into specified groundwaters so that the waters come to specified concentrations determined from a capacity action curve of TIG-1 cell (a somatic cell greater by two times than normal human embryo) by using acid phosphate assay to make the model waters. For the mutagenicity test and the general cell toxicity test, Salmonella bacilli and TIG-1 cells were used. This paper presents experimental results on three kinds of agricultural chemicals (Thiobencarb, Dichborvos, and Fenitrothion). It indicates that no correlation was recognized between the cell toxicity and the mutagenicity when ordinary ozone treatment and activated carbon treatment were used; and change in technical product concentrations of the agricultural chemicals due to lapse of the ozone treatment time did not correspond with change in the mutagenicity and cell toxicity. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Indoor air pollution by chemical substances; Kagaku busshitsu ni yoru shitsunai kuki osen

    Matsumura, T. [National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)


    The economy in our country entered the high growth period in the 1960,s, and specially the chemical industry based on fossil fuel brought about raped development. This was accompanied by widespread amicability of construction materials and household articles made from chemical substances in offices and households. As a results of the first oil crisis in 1973, energy conservation has since been intended, particularly the amount of ventilation in the office was reduced to about 1/3-1/4 of that in Europe and America. Accordingly, many working people in office have complained of various symptoms such as headache and dizziness. It subsequently became clear that the causes were hazardous pollutants in the room. From the above point of view, we focused on air pollution in terms of chemical substances in the room(office and living environment) in this paper. We introduce the present state of air pollution in the room with reference to the results of our studies and literature inside and outside the country. 35 refs., 10 tabs.

  18. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science


    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Laser material purification of neodymium. Hikari reiki seiseiho ni yoru neodymium no kojundoka

    Ogawa, Y.; Ozaki, T.; Yoshimatsu, S. (National Research Institute for Metals, Tokyo (Japan)); Chiba, K.; Umeda, H.; Saeki, M. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    Selective photoexcitation and photoionization of neodymium atoms were studied basically by using laser. Also, using their properties, feasibility of laser material purification (LPM) technology in gaseous phase was presented. In the selective 3-step ionization, laser beam with two kinds of proper wave length causes resonance exitation of the target element, which goes up to the excitation level of the first step, and the element is ionized by the second laser beam and the third laser beam. The 3-step ionization scheme by a single wave length laser beam of 577.612nm was used for the ionization of Nd. Nd ionized selectively by laser beam was recovered as thin layer at the negative potential side of plane electrodes placed at both sides of the laser irradiation area. In the layer formed by the TPD technology with this scheme, it is possible to decrease impuritis such as Pr by 1/16 and to form highly purified thin layer. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Groundwater exploration by self-potential method; Shizen den`iho ni yoru chikasui tansa

    Onaru, I.; Irie, S.; Mizunaga, H.; Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes results measured from the field experiments and data analysis of the groundwater exploration by self-potential method. The field survey was conducted in the vicinity of spring water source in the suburbs of Fukuoka City. For the field experiments, potential differences from the standard potential electrode set at the distance about 200 m were measured at multi-points, simultaneously. For the laboratory experiments, assuming that the groundwater flows in a permeable layer, streaming potential change was observed against the changes of flow rate and electrical conductivity. Thus, the generation of streaming potential was investigated. For the experiment using specimens obtained at the spring water source, the potential changed to negative and was stabilized in around -80 mV after 15 minutes. Numerical simulation was conducted by means of the three-dimensional finite difference method using parameters obtained from the laboratory experiments. From these results, the groundwater flow image could be obtained. It was also confirmed that the self-potential observed in the spring water source area was caused by the streaming potential. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Continuous gravity monitoring of geothermal activity; Renzoku juryoku sokutei ni yoru chinetsu katsudo no monitoring

    Sugihara, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    To clarify the geothermal activity in the geothermal fields in New Zealand, gravity monitoring was conducted using SCINTREX automatic gravimeter. The measurements were conducted between the end of January and the beginning of March, 1996. Firstly, continuous monitoring was conducted at the standard point for about ten days, and the tidal components were estimated from the records. After that, continuous monitoring was conducted at Waimangu area for several days. Continuous monitoring was repeated at the standard point, again. At the Waimangu area, three times of changes in the pulse-shape amplitude of 0.01 mgal having a width of several hours were observed. For the SCINTREX gravimeter, the inclination of gravimeter is also recorded in addition to the change of gravity. During the monitoring, the gravimeter was also inclined with the changes of gravity. This inclination was useful not only for the correction of gravity measured, but also for evaluating the ground fluctuation due to the underground pressure source. It is likely that the continuous gravity monitoring is the relatively conventional technique which is effective for prospecting the change of geothermal reservoir. 2 figs.

  2. Infrared sensing by semiconducting ceramic monofiber. Handotai ceramic tansen prime i ni yoru sekigaisen kanchi

    Muto, N.; Miyayama, M.; Yanagida, H. (Univ of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Tech.); Mori, N.; Kajiwara, T. (Sogo Keibi-Hosho Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Urano, A.; Ichikawa, H.; Imai, Y. (Nippon Carbon Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    A study was conducted on the IR beam sensor characteristics of a thermal IR-sensor using a semiconductor ceramic monofiber of SiC and PAN-based carbon. In the case of using a SiC monofiber, IR-beam was detected at a rapid response of 1.6ms of thermal time constant. Using a PAN-based carbon monofiber having at least 200 ohm-cm specific resistance, detection of static and moving human body could be made. In the case of using a monofiber, thermal time constant increases by the increase of the fiber diameter, this constant can be controlled by changing the fiber diameter. The output voltage increases by the increase of a radiation energy and the decrease of the surrounding temperature. Similar trend was observed as forecast by a theoretical formula. According to this study, the IR-beam sensor, which uses a semiconductor ceramic fiber, is a practical compact sensor, and as a position information is available by the type of the fiber arrangement, the semiconductor ceramic fiber is promising as a new thermal IR sensor material. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Spinal reflex evoked by magnetic stimulation of spinal roots. Sekizuikon no jiki shigeki ni yoru sekizui hansha ni tsuite

    Ueno, S.; Hiwaki, O. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan))


    An analytic method of a spinal reflex is known as a diagnosis of function of a spinal nerve. This report shows a method to evoke a H-reflex, a kind of the spinal reflexes, by a stimulation using a pair of opposing pulsed magnetic fields. Two pulse currents were passed through a figured-eight coil respectively in the opposite directions to stimulate a nerve directly under the center of the coil where the induced eddy currents were mutually reinforcing in a body. Electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded by signals from electrodes. The human nerve in the vicinity of the spine S1 was magnetically stimulated to induce two waves which differently reacted on various stimulating intensities. An experiment with the rabbit made sure that the two waves were the H-reflex and M-wave, respectively. It was conceivable that the H-reflex was most effectively induced, in the human spinal code s1, by the stimulation the spinal nerve extending out of intervertebral hole. The response patterns of the H-reflex and M-wave in the direction of the pulse stimulating current will be useful for diagnosis of nerve fiber diseases. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Quaternion and euler angles in kinematics; Quaternion to oira kaku ni yoru kinematics hyogen no hikaku ni tsuite

    Yamaguchi, I.; Kida, T.; Okamoto, O.; Okami, Y. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)


    A summary of quaternion in the kinematics of rigid body dynamics, particularly for an aeroplane or an artificial satellite, is presented. Quaternion is a four-parameter system for specifying the orientation of a rigid body, and applied to evade singular points of differential equations in kinematics. In this paper, after the coordinate systems and vectors are defined, quaternion is introduced. Then, characteristics in a typical representation of body orientation by quaternion, relationships between quaternion and direction cosine matrixes, and constitution of differential quaternion equations by angular velocity vectors are discussed, with consideration to computer simulation algorithm and in comparison with the conventional representation by Euler angles. Finally, derivation of equations of motion is shown by using quaternion to express the kinematics of a rigid body. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Flat plate approximation in the three-dimensional slamming; Heiban kinji ni yoru sanjigen suimen shogeki keisanho ni tsuite

    Toyama, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A slamming load generated by interactive motions between a ship body and water face is an important load in ensuring safety of the ship. A flat plate approximation developed by Wagner is used as a two-dimensional slamming theory, but it has a drawback in handling edges of a flat plate. Therefore, an attempt was made to expand the two-dimensional Wagner`s theory to three dimensions. This paper first shows a method to calculate water face slamming of an arbitrary axisymmetric body by using circular plate approximation. The paper then proposes a method to calculate slamming pressure distribution and slamming force for the case when shape of the water contacting surface may be approximated by an elliptic shape. Expansion to the three dimensions made clear to some extent the characteristics of the three-dimensional slamming. In the case of two dimensions or a circular column for example, the water contacting area increases rapidly in the initial stage generating large slamming force. However, in the case of three dimensions, since the water contacting area expands longitudinally and laterally, the slamming force tends to increase gradually. Maximum slamming pressure was found proportional to square of moving velocity in a water contacting boundary in the case of three dimensions, and similar to stagnation pressure on a gliding plate. 12 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Research on environmental bioecosensing technology using ecological information; Seitaikei joho ni yoru kankyo bio eco sensing gijutsu ni kansuru chosa



    The bioecosensing technology was studied which detects and identifies feeble signals generated by biosystem communication in wide biological environment. The following were reported as current notable environmental biosensing technologies: a quick measurement method of environmental contaminants using immunological measurement method, analysis method of ecological state of microorganism using DNA probes, observation of ecosystem by bioluminescent system, measurement method of environmental changes and contaminants using higher animals and plants, and detection method of chemical contaminants using chemotaxis of microorganism. As a result, the new bioecosensing/monitoring technology in molecular level was suggested for identifying comprehensive environmental changes which could not be measured by previous physical and chemical methods, as changes in ecosystem corresponding to environmental changes. As the wide area remote sensing technology of environmental ecological information, sensing technology on the earth, aircraft and satellite was also discussed. 247 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Effect of chelating agents and metal ions on nickel bioavailability and chlorophyll fluorescence response in wheat- An approach for attenuation of Ni stress

    Nilima Patnaik


    Full Text Available The objectives of the study are to analyze the physiological changes, biochemical alterations and attenuation of nickel toxicity effects in wheat seedlings under combined applications of Ni ions, metal chelators (EDTA/Citric Acid and metal ions (Zn2+ /Mg2+. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L cv UP262 seedlings were grown hydroponically using different concentrations of Ni up to 7 days along with chelators and metal ions for study. The seedling growth was maximum with NiCl2–Zn2+ (100μM and minimum with NiCl2–EDTA (100μM treatments. Total chlorophyll content was maximum in the seedlings treated with NiCl2-Zn2+ (100μM and minimum in NiCl2-EDTA (100μM treatments. NiCl2–EDTA (100μM showed less Fo and Fm values and therefore, a trend in the decrease in OJIP transient indicates the maximum alteration of photochemical activity of PS-II in presence of NiCl2–EDTA (100μM treatment. Similar observation was found by NiCl2 –EDTA (200μM treatment where Fo and Fm values were noted to decline. High nickel content in roots of the seedlings was noted as compared to shoots.

  8. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by one-step precipitation method with ammonium carbonate as precipitating agent

    Highlights: → Ammonium carbonate is used as the precipitating agent of synthesizing LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 for the first time. → All the metal ions precipitated in one time, no washing process is needed. → Effect of concentration and hydrothermal on the materials are concerned. → The obtained material shows regular quasi-spherical. → The synthesized materials behave excellent electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 materials are synthesized by one-step precipitation method. Ammonium carbonate is used as the precipitating agent to obtain a more precise feed ratio without recourse to traditional washing. After annealing at high temperature, the spherical particles become angular and show high levels of crystallinity. The synthesized samples are evaluated using powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical testing. The samples synthesized with different metal ion concentrations yield different morphologies and rate performances. The sample synthesized with 0.2 mol L-1 gives the most uniform particle distribution and the best electrochemical performance. The specific discharge capacity values of the sample at 10 and 15 C are as high as 109.5 and 88.7 mAh g-1, respectively. After the high-rate cycling, its discharge capacity at 0.2 C can be reverted to 97.67% of its initial capacity.

  9. Drag reduction of high altitude airships by active boundary layer control. Effect of a cusp on the reduction; Nodo kyokaiso seigyo ni yoru koso hikosen no teiko teigen. Cusp ni yoru teigen koka

    Yamamura, N. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuuchi, K.; Yamazaki, S.; Sasaki, A. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Onda, M. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan)


    The aerodynamic character of station-keeping airships at high Reynolds numbers is examined. The boundary layer developing on the surface is sucked by an axial flow fan through a slot located at the rear part of the airship and the sucked gas is blown out as a jet. To know the effect of the cusp two models with and without a cusp attached to the inlet of the suction slot were used. The flow field near the inlet, in particular the pressure on the surface, was measured as the suction discharge was varied. We obtained the form drag by integrating the pressure distribution in a wide range of Reynolds number and of suction discharge. Taking into account the jet thrust and the calculated friction drag, we finally determined the total drag and evaluated the role of the cusp. It was found that the cusp plays an efficient role in reducing the drag. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Wavefield analysis in inhomogeneous media by wavelet transform; Wavelet henkan ni yoru fukinshitsu baitai no hadoba kaiseki

    Matsushima, J.; Rokugawa, S.; Kato, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokota, T.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ichie, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    Data processing techniques have been investigated for clarifying structures and physical properties of geothermal reservoirs in the deep underground by seismic exploration using multiple wells. They include the initial motion time-distance tomography, amplitude tomography, diffracted wave tomography, and structure imaging using reflected wave or scattered wave. When applying these data processing methods to observed records, weak and minor signals essentially required are canceled due to averaging the analytical fields. In this study, influence of inhomogeneous media on the wavefield was evaluated. Data were analyzed considering frequency by using wavelet transform by which time-frequency can be easily analyzed. From the time-frequency analysis using wavelet transform, it was illustrated that high frequency scattered waves, generated by scatterer like cracks or by irregularity on the reflection surface, arrive behind direct P-wave and direct S-wave. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Analysis of beam pumping system utilizing FRP sucker rod. FRP sakka roddo ni yoru ponpingu no kyodo kaiseki

    Takahashi, Yasuo; Kurimura, Hideki (Teikoku Oil Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    The performance of the FRP sucker rod pumping system in an oil field was analyzed. The analyses were carried out using programs of which diagrams of load and displacement at the pump location are determined from surface data by use of a dynamometer. The production rate of the FRP system fluctuates on a larger scale than the steel sucker rod pumping system even in a same condition, sometimes the production rate becomes nearly zero. This is due to large elasticity of FRP rods and cavitation of the pump. An effective plunger stroke (relate to the production rate) fluctuates markedly with fluctuations of the dynamical level because of high elasticity. Production capacity of the well is grasped accurately then submergence is kept to be a constant level, and an improved gas anchor is installed for measures against gas lock. Thus, stable production is achieved even with fluctuations of the dynamical level, as well as the increase of the production rate, the plunger stroke is not changed (if anything, it is longer than that of the steel rod). 2 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Design and model experiments on thruster assisted mooring system; Futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no thruster ni yoru choshuki doyo seigyo

    Nakamura, M.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Kajiwara, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering; Hyakudome, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Described herein are dynamics and model experiments of the system in which positioning of a floating marine structure by mooring is combined with thruster-controlled positioning. Coefficients of dynamic forces acting on a floating structure model are determined experimentally and by the three-dimensional singularity distribution method, and the controller is designed by the PID, LQI and H{infinity} control theories. A model having a scale ratio of 1/100 was used for the experiments, where 2 thrusters were arranged in a diagonal line, one on the X-axis. It is found that the LQI and H{infinity} controllers of the thruster can control long-cycle rolling of the floating structure. They allow thruster control which is insensitive to wave cycle motion, and efficiently reduce positioning energy. The H{infinity} control regulates frequency characteristics of a closed loop more finely than the LQI control, and exhibits better controllability. 25 refs., 25 figs.

  13. Structural changes in deashed coals induced by heat treatment; Kanetsu shori ni yoru dakkaitan no kozo henka

    Sugano, M.; Sekita, M.; Muramatsu, Y.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology


    Change in structures of 3 kinds of coals with different coal ranks and their deashed coals was studied by heat treatment below 200{degree}C. In experiment, crushed Adaro, Taiheiyo and Huaibei coals below 200mesh and their deashed coals were used as specimens. The coal and deashed coal specimens dried in vacuum at 110{degree}C for 3 hours were filled into an autoclave, and the heat-treated coal specimens were prepared by holding them under initial nitrogen pressure of 2kg/cm{sup 2} at a fixed temperature for 30min. Extraction using pyridine as solvent, volumetric swelling using methanol or benzene as solvent, and measurement of the amount of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl functional groups were conducted for these coal specimens. The experimental results are as follows. Huaibei coal has developed aromatic ring structure, and its structure is hardly affected by heat treatment. The oxygen containing functional groups decrease by heat treatment over 100{degree}C in Adaro coal and 150{degree}C in Taiheiyo coal, and PS, MQ and BQ also decrease due to aggregation between molecules. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Resistivity structures imaging using time-domain electromagnetic data; TDEM ho ni yoru chika hiteiko kozo no imaging

    Noguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Endo, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)


    The kernel function for transient vertical magnetic dipole was defined for semi-infinite uniform medium, and the 1-D imaging algorithm by TDEM (time-domain electromagnetic) method was developed for underground resistivity structure. Electromagnetic migration method directly images sectional resistivity profiles from the data observed by frequency-domain MT method, and determines underground resistivity profiles by integral equation of MT field using the concept of return travel time in reflection seismic exploration. The method reported in this paper is also one of the EM migration methods. The imaging algorithm of 2-D resistivity structure was developed by correcting 1-D imaging in consideration of the effect of 2-D anomaly on 1-D imaging (the resistivity of anomaly can be obtained from the resistivity contrast between anomaly and medium). The conventional methods require enormous forward computation, while this method can obtain underground resistivity structure in extremely short computation time, resulting in superior practicability. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Monitoring of IOR/EOR operations by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru IOR/EOR monitoring

    Ushijima, K.; Mizunaga, H.; Ikeda, H.; Masuda, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Fluid flow tomography (FFT) was developed to monitor enhanced oil recovery IOR/EOR operations. This method uses a casing pipe as linear current source by connecting a current electrode with a well inlet, and the other electrode is grounded at a point far different from the well. Potentials are rapidly measured at the same time by multi-channel receiving electrodes installed on the ground to obtain time series data composed of charged potential and superimposed spontaneous potential. After separation of both potentials, the charged potential data are processed by the conventional mise-a-la-masse method to extract local anomaly, determine the residual distribution and relative change distribution of time-sliced apparent resistivity, and obtain the 3-D profile of fluid. The spontaneous potential is also processed to obtain the deflection distribution of time-sliced potential at a specific time. Quantitative 3-D interpretation is conducted focusing attention on the generation mechanism of spontaneous potential. Behavior of underground permeated flow is determined as time series animation images to image fluid direction. This method was effective in real fields. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Monitoring of EOR operations by electrical prospecting. 2; Denki tansaho ni yoru sekiyu kyosei kaishuho no monitoring. 2

    Ushijima, K.; Mizunaga, H.; Tanaka, T.; Masuda, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tamagawa, T. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    Fluid flow tomography (FFT) was applied to monitor the behavior of underground fluid in steam enhanced oil recovery (EOR) for oil sand reservoirs. FFT uses electrode arrangement of a mise-a-la-masse method, and continuously measures time variation in charged and spontaneous potential at various surface points to obtain realtime the images of underground seepage flow. It continuously measures ground surface potentials of 120 channels at intervals of 2s by applying alternative DC between a casing pipe and distant current electrode. It separates charged and spontaneous potential components, and converts them into time series data. It estimates the time and spacial distributions of seepage flow from time variation in spontaneous potential. It determines the change rate distribution of time-sliced apparent resistivity from charged potential to estimate the scale and area of seepage flow. As the experimental result, positive and negative electrodes in the change rate distribution were observed, and the direction connecting each electrode agreed with that of resistivity anomaly. FFT could observe realtime time variation in apparent resistivity due to steam injection. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Local sensing of biological substances by scanning electrochemical microscopy; Sosagata denki kagaku kenbikyo ni yoru seitai busshitsu no kyokusho sensing

    Saito, T. [Tokyo College of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes a method for local detection of biological substances by using a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM). The electrochemical detection method is a multipurpose analysis method that can quantify substances in aqueous solution on a real time basis. A micro electrode has made a debut recently and become applied to local zones in biological structures and cells. Capturing surface structures and compositions of substances have become possible with the SECM using the micro electrode as a probe, as does the probe of a scanning tunnel electron microscope (STM). While the STM can recognize microfine structures of smaller than 1 nm, the SECM does it only on {mu} level, but can measure a variety of living organisms as the recognition is possible in aqueous solutions. Antigens are reacted with antibodies on spots of several ten {mu} m oriented on a glass substrate, where oxidizing and reducing reactions by peroxidaze modified on the antibodies are read on the SECM, making quantification of the antibodies possible. Chemical treatment of enzymes and antibodies can also be performed onto the glass substrate by using this micro electrode. Expectation is placed on providing living organism information in multi items and multi dimensions. (NEDO)

  19. Development of a vibration control system using a roller pendulum. Korogari furiko ni yoru seishin system no kaihatsu

    Otsuka, S.; Oka, Y.; Kawai, N.; Hayakawa, K.; Yasui, K.; Sugimoto, H. (Okumura Corp., Osaka (Japan))


    In order to mitigate the shaking of the steel structure of multi-story building or tower-like building in case of earthquake or gale and improve the residentiality, a passive type vibration control system using a roller pendulum was developed. The real scale experiment was conducted using an experimental tower of 31 meter high installed in the laboratories. A series of experiments concerning the vibration initiation and the response observation proved a good vibration control performance of the passive type vibration control system. At present, we are developing an active type vibration control system based on the modern control theory, as it can be expected to operate more effectively. Making the program based on the feed-back control, we carried out various simulation analysis considering the experimental tower. We succeeded in obtaining the data which were valuable for the decision of development target and the specification settlement. Accumulating the experimental data of the passive type vibration control system using the experimental power, we will continue the study to establish the algorithm for completing the active type vibration control system. 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Injury of larger biological tissue by extracellular freezing; mm oda no seitai soshiki no saibogai toketsu ni yoru sonsho

    Ujihira, M.; Yamaguchi, R.; Tanishita, K. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Aizawa, N. [Takasago Thermal Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The purpose of this study is to reduce injury of larger cells and tissue ({ge} 1 mm) due to extracellular freezing to achieve successful cryopreservation. In the temperature range of 0 to -40{degree}C, the morphology of the fertilized killifish egg was observed under a microscope with a cooling rate from 0.1 to 10{degree}C/min. In glycerol-water, DMSO-water (cryoprotectant solution) and distilled water, the damage rate to the egg by maintaining extra cellular freezing of short duration at various temperatures was evaluated by hatching rate. As a result, when the egg shell defectively buckled due to dehydration of perivitelline, the hatching rate was more than 80% in glycerol-water solution. Hatching rate was maximum at the glycerol concentration of 7.5%. Nearly identical results were obtained in DMSO-water solution (maximum at 15%). In distilled water, hatching rate was very low. Transformation of egg shell and injury of the egg are not correlated. Optimum concentration of cryoprotectant minimizes injury of larger cells and tissue due to extra cellular freezing. 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Three dimensional reflection velocity analysis based on velocity model scan; Model scan ni yoru sanjigen hanshaha sokudo kaiseki

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Introduced herein is a reflection wave velocity analysis method using model scanning as a method for velocity estimation across a section, the estimation being useful in the construction of a velocity structure model in seismic exploration. In this method, a stripping type analysis is carried out, wherein optimum structure parameters are determined for reflection waves one after the other beginning with those from shallower parts. During this process, the velocity structures previously determined for the shallower parts are fixed and only the lowest of the layers undergoing analysis at the time is subjected to model scanning. To consider the bending of ray paths at each velocity boundaries involving shallower parts, the ray path tracing method is utilized for the calculation of the reflection travel time curve for the reflection surface being analyzed. Out of the reflection wave travel time curves calculated using various velocity structure models, one that suits best the actual reflection travel time is detected. The degree of matching between the calculated result and actual result is measured by use of data semblance in a time window provided centering about the calculated reflective wave travel time. The structure parameter is estimated on the basis of conditions for the maximum semblance. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  2. Velocity structure of Nojima-fault by VSP method; VSP ho ni yoru Nojima danso no sokudo kozo

    Kuwahara, Y.; Ito, H.; Kiguchi, T.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to investigate in detail structures of the fractured fault band, the VSP tests were conducted using a 750m deep borehole penetrating the Nojima fault in Awaji Island. The borehole penetrates the fault clay band at a depth of 624m in the Hirabayashi area. The offset VSP survey, conducted by the aid of hydrophone through the naked borehole, detects many characteristic phenomena resulting from the fault fracture. Largely fractured lithofacies are found by the core observation at a depth in a range from 557 to 673m. P-waves propagate at 4.6 and 5.1km/s above and below the fractured band, respectively. The fractured band is subdivided into 2 sections, both being of low speed of 4.5 and 3.1km/s. The X1 and X2 phases resulting from the fault fracture are also observed, above and below the fractured band. The causes for these wave phases are now under investigation. 4 figs.

  3. Suppression of 3D coherent noise by areal geophone array; Menteki jushinki array ni yoru sanjigen coherent noise no yokusei

    Murayama, R.; Nakagami, K.; Tanaka, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    For improving the quality of data collected by reflection seismic exploration, a lattice was deployed at one point of a traverse line, and the data therefrom were used to study the 3D coherent noise suppression effect of the areal array. The test was conducted at a Japan National Oil Corporation test field in Kashiwazaki City, Niigata Prefecture. The deployed lattice had 144 vibration receiving points arrayed at intervals of 8m composing an areal array, and 187 vibration generating points arrayed at intervals of 20m extending over 6.5km. Data was collected at the vibration receiving points in the lattice, each point acting independently from the others, and processed for the composition of a large areal array, with the said data from plural vibration receiving points added up therein. As the result of analysis of the records covering the data collected at the receiving points in the lattice, it is noted that an enlarged areal array leads to a higher S/N ratio and that different reflection waves are emphasized when the array direction is changed. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  4. Three-dimensional TDEM modeling using integral equation method. 2; Sekibun hoteishikiho ni yoru TDEM no sanjigen modeling. 2

    Noguchi, K.; Endo, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering


    A study was made about integral equation-assisted numerical calculation in a time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) 3D modeling. The total number of cells should be minimized now that the time required for calculation depends a great deal upon the total number of cells. On the assumption of a thin plate-like layer of anomaly in presence, with its center positioned just below the receiving point and with its entirety buried in a homogeneous 100 Ohm m medium, the correlation between the distance and the maximum cell length in the horizontal direction and the method of dividing were examined. As the result, it was found that a dividing method respecting the exponential function shortens the calculation time and that, for obtaining a true response and for minimizing the calculation time, the length of the horizontal side of the cell nearest to the transmission source needs be set to be not more than 1/2 of the distance. It was also found that the length of the side in the direction of depth of the topmost cell needs be set to be not more than approximately 1/3 of the depth of the upper surface of the plate-shaped anomaly. 2 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Evaluation of permeability of Nojima fault by hydrophone VSP; Hydrophone VSP ni yoru Nojima danso no tosuisei hyoka

    Kiguchi, T.; Ito, H.; Kuwahara, Y.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    The multi-offset hydrophone VSP experiments were carried out using a 750m deep borehole as the oscillation receiver, which penetrates the Nojima fault, to detect water-permeable cracks and evaluate their characteristics. Soil around the borehole is of granodiorite, and fault clay is found at a depth in a range from 623 to 624m. A total of 4 dynamite tunnels were provided around the borehole as the focus. The VSP results show that the tube waves are generated at 22 depths, including the depth at which fault clay is found. However, these waves are generated at only 6 depths in an approximately 150m long fracture zone, suggesting that the cracks in the zone are not necessarily permeable. It is also found that crack angle determined by the analysis of tube waves almost coincides with that of fault clay determined by the core, BHTV and FMI, and that permeability is of the order of 100md at a depth of fault clay or shallower. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Application of vector CSAMT for the imaging of an active fault; CSAMT ho ni yoru danso no imaging

    Kobayashi, T.; Fukuoka, K. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to identify three-dimensionally resistivity in deep fault in the Mizunawa fault in Fukuoka Prefecture, a measurement was carried out by using the CSAMT method. The measurement was conducted by arranging seven traverse lines, each line having observation points installed at intervals of about 500 m. Among the 68 observation points in total, 33 points performed the vector measurement, and the remaining points the scaler measurement. For observation points having performed the vector measurement, polarized wave eclipses were depicted in the electric field to discuss which direction the current will prevail in. For analyses, a one-dimensional analysis was performed by using an inversion with smoothing restriction, and a two-dimensional analysis was conducted by using the finite element method based on the result of the former analysis. The vector measurement revealed that the structure in the vicinity of a fault was estimated to have become complex, and the two-dimensional analysis discovered that the Mizunawa fault is located on a relatively clear resistivity boundary. In addition, it was made clear that the high resistivity band may even be divided into two regions of about 200 ohm-m and about 1000 ohm-m. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide extractions of agricultural chemicals from aqueous solutions; Chorinkai nisankatanso ni yoru suiyoeki karano noyaku no chushitsu

    Nakai, T.; Sato, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Kato, Y. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan). Advanced Water Treatment Division


    Examination was made on the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of agricultural chemicals from aqueous solutions. In the case of the semi batch extraction blowing supercritical carbon dioxide into the aqueous solutions at a concentration of 5 mg L{sup -1}, the dependencies of the removal ratios of four kinds of agricultural chemicals on temperature and pressure were shown in different patterns depending on the agricultural chemicals. For simazin (CAT), no unusual phenomena were observed. On the other hand, isoprothiolane (IPT) exhibited unusual phenomena. That is, the removal ratios decreased, as the pressure increased above 100 kg cm{sup -2} at temperatures of 45 degree C and 50 degree C. A similar phenomenon was observed for fenitrothion (MEP) or napropamide (NPP). Complicate pattern was shown for MEP. The removal ratios at pressures of 80 kg cm{sup -2} and 90 kg cm{sup -2} had maxima at 40 degree C and 45 degree C, respectively. These phenomena were discussed in terms of equilibrium and mass transfer. It was referred to that consideration should be given to such phenomena when the extraction technique is used for analysis. The order of the easiness of the separation of agricultural chemical from aqueous solution (that was estimated by the removal ratio at temperature of 35 degree C and pressure of 100 kg cm{sup -2}) was IPT>NPP>MEP>CAT. Correlation was seen between the removal ratio and the solubility of agricultural chemical in water, and in hexane or the melting point. (author)

  8. Regulation of IGFBP-1 gene expression by amino acids; Tanpakushitsu / aminosan ni yoru IGFBP-1 idenshi no hatsugen seigyo

    Takenaka, A. [Yamagata Univ. (Japan)


    IGFBP-1 is selected as a model, whose gene expression is regulated by dietary protein and amino acid, to outline the transcription regulating mechanism. Investigation is made to see if there is any IGFBP whose synthesis activity varies when the amount and nutritive value of dietary protein is varied. As a result, it is found that the IGFBP-1 concentration in the blood and mRNA in the liver increase largely corresponding to the decrease of the amount of dietary protein. At this time the transcription rates of IGFBP-1 gene in livers of rats increase in like manner, revealing that decrease of the amount of dietary protein has effect on the transcription process of IGFBP-1 genes. It is shown that liver cells increase IGFBP-1 synthesis in response to `deficiency of the amount of amino acid` in the transcription level. Reports are made on the results of studies on the transcription regulation of IGFBP-1 genes and the molecular structure of IGGBP-1 gene expression regulation by amino acid. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Detection of multiple AE signal by triaxial hodogram analysis; Sanjiku hodogram ho ni yoru taju acoustic emission no kenshutsu

    Nagano, K.; Yamashita, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)


    In order to evaluate dynamic behavior of underground cracks, analysis and detection were attempted on multiple acoustic emission (AE) events. The multiple AE is a phenomenon in which multiple AE signals generated by underground cracks developed in an extremely short time interval are superimposed, and observed as one AE event. The multiple AE signal consists of two AE signals, whereas the second P-wave is supposed to have been inputted before the first S-wave is inputted. The first P-wave is inputted first, where linear three-dimensional particle movements are observed, but the movements are made random due to scattering and sensor characteristics. When the second P-wave is inputted, the linear particle movements are observed again, but are superimposed with the existing input signals and become multiple AE, which creates poor S/N ratio. The multiple AE detection determines it a multiple AE event when three conditions are met, i. e. a condition of equivalent time interval of a maximum value in a scalogram analysis, a condition of P-wave vibrating direction, and a condition of the linear particle movement. Seventy AE signals observed in the Kakkonda geothermal field were analyzed and AE signals that satisfy the multiple AE were detected. However, further development is required on an analysis method with high resolution for the time. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Simulation on slamming of a vessel by CIP method; CIP ho ni yoru kogata sentai no slamming gensho no simulation

    Tajima, M.; Yabe, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, K. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)


    Impact of a vessel on water surface is simulated by the CIP (Cubic-Interpolated Pseudoparticle/Propagation) scheme. The simulation demonstrates that air layer between vessel and water surface plays an important role to determine the pressure profile. In particular at small impact angle, air flow along this layer between vessel and water gains speed sufficient to induce the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which leads to a water wave of small wavelength. Because of this air layer, the maximum pressure is largely reduced at the small impact angle compared with Wagner`s theory and becomes much closer to Chuang`s experiment. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Emission and combustion characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion; Nidan nensho ni yoru diesel kikan no nensho to haishutsubutsu tokusei

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tsujimura, K. [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, S.; Shimizu, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A new concept of multiple stage diesel combustion was studied by means of engine test, combustion observation and numerical simulation, in order to reduce NOx emissions at high load conditions. With this concept, the premixed combustion occurs under the fuel lean conditions and the diffusion combustion occurs under the high temperature conditions. As seen in the result of combustion observation, a first stage combustion occurs with no luminous flame. A second stage combustion occurs with a luminous flame after very short ignition delay period. However the luminous flame is disappeared immediately. Because cylinder temperature is high, and hence soot oxidizes immediately. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Adaptation of topology optimization on truck-structure; Kinshitsukaho ni yoru iso saitekika shuho no truck kozo eno tekiyo

    Tachibana, H.; Kojima, A.; Chiba, S. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    An optimization using the homogenization method has been applied to a truck-structure on the concept design stage. A truck-structure is grouped into 3 classes (thin plate structure , thick plate structure and solid structure), then example, effectiveness and method for the application for the purpose of weight reduction , high rigidity and high eigen-frequency are introduced. 3 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Modeling of power train by applying the virtual prototype concept; Kaso genkei ni yoru power train no model ka

    Hiramatsu, S.; Harada, Y.; Arakawa, H.; Komori, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sumida, S. [U-Shin Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the simulation of power train that includes the model developed by applying the virtual prototype concept. By this concept, subsystem models which consist of functional model and mechanism models are integrated into a total system model. This peculiarity in architecture of model, which is called the hierarchical structure, enables us to model a system of large scale with many units, systems and parts easily. Two kinds of computer simulations are performed. One is engine revolution fluctuation by accessory load input, and the other is changing gears by automatic transmission. They are verified to have sufficient accuracy. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Investigation of iron current measurement to detect combustion quality; Ion denryu ni yoru nensho jotai kenshutsu no kento

    Nakata, K.; Mogi, K. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    The possibility and problems were investigated in detecting the combustion quality by means of ion current measured at the spark plug. The ion current has two peaks during one combustion stroke; first peak is generated by flame around the spark plug just after ignition and second one appears with the rise in temperature of burned gases. As the result of investigations, it was confirmed that the first ion peak might be useful to forecast the combustion quality, but it would be hard to practice owing to the spark duration. And the second peak offered the information of combustion chamber pressure. 4 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Highly functional engine measurement technology using an electric motor drive; Motoring unten ni yoru engine no kokino kensa gijutsu

    Suzuki, N.; Maruta, N.; Hayashi, A.; Taguchi, M. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    Motoring tests are conducted by firing tests using fuel in conventional engine assembly works. However, it is difficult to determine the defects, and it takes a long time for fixing. In these tests, it is hard to grasp the anomalies, which is different from the actual driving tests. The feedback to the process is delayed. To solve these problems, an engine measurement technique with motoring test without using fuel has been introduced. The defects in the past have frequently occurred in the assembly process by manual operation, and they can be classified into noise and leakage by ill combustion and by ill assembly. To ensure the normal combustion, parts and assembly conditions affecting the valve timing, ignition force and air/fuel ratio can be quantitatively examined, to determine the defects. Reproducibility of motoring tests for noises was improved by setting the leakage test conditions. Ninety percent of all the defects could be found out in an early stage. Especially, cracking of ignition plug glass and break of piston ring could be detected, which were previously found out only in the vehicle works. Thus, such defects could be avoided without firing tests. 14 figs.

  16. Block engineering to improve control software development; Block engineering ni yoru seigyo software no kaihatsu koritsu kojo

    Fukuzumi, M.; Shimada, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The integrated program development support tool D300win of the MICREX-SX series has offered innovative development environments to improve efficiency in making control programs, such as adopting the international standard language IEC61131-3, modularizing programs, and introducing structural programming. Among these, the method of recycling control programs by means of function blocks (FBs) has a possibility of rapidly increasing the productivity of control programs. This paper introduces a method of block engineering to structure control programs by combining FBs hierarchically prepared. (author)

  17. GPS landy system (GPS land dynamic management system). Jinko eisei GPS ni yoru doko sogo kanri system

    Kanzaki, T.; Nishizawa, S. (Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    A GPS LANDY system was developed, which is characterized in overall systematization of large scale land constructions, intended to improve its efficiency, by means of linking the shape measurement utilizing satellites with various types of land management. The GPS is an observation system using 18 satellites, three each on six orbits, orbifing in an altitude of 20,000 km. Because of the conventional GPS requiring three hours, and in addition, having as poor accuracy as several ten meters, a GPS dynamic position measuring method was developed, which is applied with such an improvement as installing receiving antennas at the measuring points. As a result, recording the three-dimensional coordinates has become possible instantaneously and continuously; the system can be operated by a single operator; simultaneous multi-point measurements have become possible if the number of receivers is increased; quick and wide-area three-dimensional topographic measurement has become possible; and the accuracy was improved to 1 cm. Utilization of these measurement data to various construction management systems led to a completion of the overall land management system. 5 figs.

  18. Estimation of the charge quantity from solar cell to battery; Taiyo denchi ni yoru chikudenchi eno juden yosoku

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Daiichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)


    In performing an experiment of running a small electric vehicle by installing solar cells in it and by charging the storage battery at a specific voltage, an estimation was made on the charge quantity to the battery for each solar altitude and inclination of a module at different hours. The solar altitude was determined at Daiichi University, College of Technology, according to the month and the time of day from a formula using day-declination and time equation of a chronological table of science. The quantity of global solar radiation was determined by resolving the solar radiation into its direct and diffuse components on the basis of the extra-terrestrial solar radiation quantity with the change in radius vector taken into consideration; and then, the global solar radiation on the inclined face was obtained from the angle of inclination and incidence. On the roof of a Daiichi University building, solar cell modules were installed facing north and south at 0{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 90{degree} each, so that a short-circuit current was measured for each differently inclined angle. As a result of the experiment, shown in an regression formula is a relation between the temperature conversion value of the maximum output of the solar cell at the standard temperature of 25{degree}C and the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface. Consequently, it enabled the prediction of a charging quantity, in the case of running a small vehicle with solar cells installed, from the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface in the clear weather. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Method for analyzing electromagnetic-force-induced vibration and noise analysis; Denjiryoku reiki ni yoru dendoki no shindo hoshaon kaisekiho

    Shiohata, K.; Nemoto, K.; Nagawa, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Ito, M.; Koharagi, H. [Hitachi, Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)


    In this analysis method, electromagnetic force calculated by 2-dimensional analysis is transformed into external force for 3-dimensional structural-vibration analysis. And a modeling procedure for a vibrating structure is developed. Further, a space-modal-resonance criteria which relates electromagnetic force to structural-vibration or noise is introduced. In the structural-vibration analysis, the finite element method is used; and in the noise analysis, the boundary element method is used. Finally, vibration and noise of an induction motor are calculated using this criteria. Consequently, high-accuracy modeling is achieved and noise the calculated by the simulation almost coincides with that obtained by experiments. And it is clarified that the-space-modal resonance criteria is effective in numerical simulation. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Glass marking with diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser; Handotai reiki Nd:YLF laser ni yoru glass marking

    Sakai, F.; Hayashi, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The compact marking system based on a beam scanning system in which the fourth harmonic (FHG: 262 nm in wavelength) of a diode-pumped Nd:YLF (Nd:LiYf4) laser is used for the source of ultraviolet light is described. The result of application to the glass marking that caused a problem due to the generation of cracks is also explained. The machining characteristics significantly vary depending on the type of glass. During actual marking, sample processing must be beforehand carried out to optimize the processing conditions after confirming that there is no problem in practical use. For marking on the glass used for liquid-crystal board, it is valid to improve the density of a dot and increase the number of shots per dot for obtaining high visibility. However, cracks may occur in the clearance of each dot because of the thermal effect. Therefore, the processing conditions must be optimized according to the glass type and crack generation state. The generation of cracks can be suppressed by setting the processing conditions to the optimum level. As a result, satisfactory marking is obtained. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Structural monitoring for fatigue crack detection and prediction; Kozo monitoring ni yoru hiro sonsho no kanchi to yochi

    Fujimoto, Y.; Shintaku, E. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kim, S.; Takamoto, T. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)


    The applicability of structural monitoring is discussed for crack-type damages of metal structures. Two types of monitoring methods are examined; detection of existing fatigue crack and prediction of fatigue damage. As the detection of existing crack, the concept of health monitoring is employed. Five types of line sensors, i.e. conductive film-sensor, conductive-paint sensor, plastic optical-fiber sensor, glass optical-fiber sensor and carbon-fiber sensor are made on an experimental basis. The sensors are bonded on the surface of a welded joint model and two types of specimens by adhesives or painting, and fatigue tests are carried out. In these tests, the appearance that the fatigue cracks break the sensors is closely observed. Further, electric resistance of sensors or light strength output of laser beam are measured to perceive the instant of failure during the fatigue test. As the prediction of fatigue damage, method to attach sacrificial specimen on member is examined. A sacrificial specimen is designed such that magnified member stress is transmitted to the specimen and thus results in earlier crack initiation than the member. The sacrificial specimen is a center notched thin plate with 60 mm-length, 10 mm-width and 0.25 mm-thick. The middle part in length of the specimen is coated by Teflon film and the whole of the specimen is sandwiched in between two thin epoxy resin plates. The sacrificial specimen is bonded on a smooth specimen by epoxy resin, and fatigue tests are carried out. From the test result, it is made clear that the sacrificial specimen developed in this study can fulfill the function to predict the fatigue life of structural members. 13 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Hydrogen production from garbage by the bacterium enterobacter aerogenes; Daidokoro no namagomi wo riyoshita bakuteria ni yoru suiso seisan

    Tanisho, S.; Fujii, Y. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This writer, aiming at hydrogen production by fermentation using biomass, has studied production from various carbohydrates, organic acids and alcohols by using Enterobacter aerogenes strain E.82005 which bacterium was picked from leaves of four-o`clock and has high ability of hydrogen production. This bacterium being facultative anaerobic, it need not intercept O2, and the gas generated from its common culture solution which contains inorganic ingredients (YNOB3), peptone and glucose was composed of only H2 and CO2. As the tests for kitchen garbage, from each garbage of apples, oranges, bananas and spinage, H2 were obtained at the rate of 0.51, 0.27, 0.09 and 0.15 m mol/g respectively. Guts of fishes, tofu, tofu-refuse and eggs were alternative nitrogen sources of peptone. Especially, miso, soy sauce and soybean flour were very good substrates for hydrogen production as well as good nitrogen sources. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties of MFe2O4 (M=Co, Mg, Mn, Ni) nanoparticles using ricin oil as capping agent

    We focused on obtaining MFe2O4 nanoparticles using ricin oil solution as surfactant and on their structural characterization and magnetic properties. The annealed samples at 500 °C in air for 6 h were analyzed for the crystal phase identification by powder X-ray diffraction using CuKα radiation. The particle size, the chemical composition and the morphology of the calcinated powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. All sintered samples contain only one phase, which has a cubic structure with crystallite sizes of 12–21 nm. From the infrared spectra of all samples were observed two strong bands around 600 and 400 cm−1, which correspond to the intrinsic lattice vibrations of octahedral and tetrahedral sites of the spinel structure, respectively, and characteristic vibration for capping agent. The magnetic properties of fine powders were investigated at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The room temperature M–H hysteresis loops show ferromagnetic behavior of the calcined samples, with specific saturation magnetization (Ms) values ranging between 11 and 53 emu/g. - Highlights: ► MFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained using ricin oil as surfactant. ► The structures were confirmed by SEM micrographs, FTIR spectra and XRD spectroscopy. ► The samples contain only one phase with crystallite sizes of 12–21 nm.

  4. Size tuned polyol-made Zn0.9M0.1Fe2O4 (M = Mn, Co, Ni) ferrite nanoparticles as potential heating agents for magnetic hyperthermia: from synthesis control to toxicity survey

    Zn-rich substituted Zn0.9M0.1Fe2O4 (M = Mn, Co, Ni) ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) of about 5 and 10 nm were produced by the so-called polyol method. They were engineered for hyperthermia therapy based on their magnetic and morphological properties. Indeed, because of their comparatively low Curie temperature and reasonable magnetization, these probes may turn into useful self-regulated heating agents under suitable conditions. For such a purpose, the structure, the microstructure, the magnetic and magnetocalorimetric properties of the produced NPs as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity were investigated. Our results demonstrate that the magnetic properties of these magnetically diluted spinel ferrite particles can be largely modified by just changing their size. They also show that the about 10 nm sized manganese-based ones exhibit the highest heating power under a 700 kHz ac magnetic field and the lowest cytotoxicity on Immortalized human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). (paper)

  5. Simultaneous fluorination of active material and conductive agent for improving the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Song, Min Sang; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Eunjun; Choi, Jae Man; Kim, Hansu


    High-voltage cathode materials have gained much attention as one of the promising electrode materials to increase power density of lithium ion batteries by raising the working voltage. However, the use of such high-voltage cathode materials is still challenging, because their working voltage is close to the electrochemical oxidation potential of organic electrolyte used in lithium ion batteries. In this work, we demonstrated that simultaneous fluorination of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) particles as well as conductive agent in the electrode could significantly improve the electrochemical stability of LNMO cathode. The resulting electrode showed better cycle performance both at room temperature and elevated temperature compared to both bare LNMO electrode and the electrode with only LNMO fluorinated. These results showed that direct fluorination of high voltage cathode can reduce the side reaction of high voltage cathode electrode with the electrolyte, thereby stabilizing the surface of carbon black as well as that of high voltage cathode material.

  6. Study of diesel combustion and soot formation as observed by high-speed photography; Kosokudo satsuei ni yoru diesel kikan no nensho oyobi soot seisei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Shioji, M.; Yamane, K.; Ikegami, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ito, S. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to contribute to reduction of soot formation in diesel engines, processes of combustion and the soot formation at a low engine speed were studied, especially surveying the effectiveness of high-pressure injection in detail. The experiment was performed by a direct-injection engine and a specially designed injection system with a high-pressure device by fast hydraulic acceleration of spool. The behavior of flames was observed by high-speed photographs, and the processes of combustion and soot formation were compared with the rates of heat release. The distribution of soot particles in the combustion space was observed by the photograph and a laser-light sheet method at various injection pressures and nozzle diameters. The results obtained were as follows: On the condition of high injection pressure and explosive combustion, luminosity of flames over the combustion space is stronger and the luminosity fluctuation becomes less as the injection pressure increases. On the condition of high pressure and small nozzle diameter, soot clouds are observed only in the middle part of combustion process but disappear in the latter. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Study on vibration fatigue damage due to the blow of OPGW aluminum tube; OPGW aluminium kan no kyofu ni yoru shindo hiro hason ni kansuru kenkyu

    Aikawa, S.; Kohara, H. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    The cause of damage in the cashing portion of an aluminum tube incorporating OPGW (OPAC 120mm{sup 2}) was investigated and proper measures for the prevention of recurrence were examined. The investigation result of the past accident of the same kind or the result of stress measurement showed that the cause of aluminum tube damage is the fatigue rupture based on the repeated stress occurring by the rolling of OPGW. Moreover, it was known that the attached wire in a jumper lead-in system is most effective and valid as preventative measures of damage. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Study on automatic detection for magnetic particle indications using image processing; Gazo shori ni yoru jifun tansho no jidoka ni kansuru ichikokoromi

    Sekine, K.; Suzuki, S.; Iwai, O. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Magnetic particle indications have a good detection ability to fine surface flaws in high magnetic materials mainly for iron and steel materials, and widely used in the quality inspection of semi-finished steel products and the maintenance inspection of welds due to their simplicity. In this study, concerning the experiment of the magnetic particle indications as an objective of cracks in steel welds including seam cracks of steel billets, the extraction of the flaw indications and the evaluation of its length were attempted by the application of a common personal computer and simple image processing technique. Moreover, the basic investigation on the evaluation of crack depth was conducted, the possibility of the automatic detection of cracks in welds during the maintenance inspection was examined. In the image processing system to detect crack indications, a reflecting light was produced by irradiating an ultra-violet light in the detecting part using two sets of black lights and it was taken by image processing equipment with a lens and camera system, and thus image data were obtained. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Investigation of measurement conditions for automatic umu test by flow injection; Flow shiki hanno sochi ni yoru umu test no jidoka ni tomonau sokutei joken

    Kobayashi, U.; Somiya, I.; Mori, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ono, Y> [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)


    Various bioassays have been applied to evaluate safety of environmental water and treated water. The umu test is a method for the detection of genotoxicity by using SOS function of Salmonella typhimurium. The protocol of the umu test is divided into 5 phases, (1) pre-incubation of test strain, (2) addition of samples, (3) induction of umuC gene, (4) {beta}-galactosidase enzymatic reaction, and (5) measurement of absorption in a spectrophotometry and calculation of the activity. In usual procedure, all phases are performed in batch-type reactors, using test tubes. In this study, we tried to develop the device of flow-injection style to perform the umu test automatically. The culture was flowed through a tube and added samples by using a rotary pump. The various conditions were investigated and modified for detection of genotoxicity of AF-2. Even after 24hr of incubation under control, test strain showed activity. Within 1.5hr, the test strain was most active at 36degC and longer than 2.0hr, it was so at 37degC. At each phases some more conditions have been investigated, and we suggest that new device of flow-injection style could be effective to screen or monitor the genotoxicity of environmental water. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Estimation of performance of a high-speed boat by using the Rankine source method; Kosokutei no rankinsosuho ni yoru seino suitei ni tsuite

    Eguchi, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes estimation of performance of a high-speed boat by using the Rankine source method. An orthogonal coordinate system is considered, which uses the center of a hull as the zero point, and is made dimensionless by using the hull length. The catamaran boat or the single hull boat being the subject of the discussion is supposed to have a transom stern, and to be sailing at a constant speed in the -X direction. A governing equation and a border condition were formulated using disturbance speed potential and X-direction speed differentiation. An inverse specular image was employed as a specular image system upon considering attitude change in the high-speed boat. As to the division of hull surface, the portions protruded above the static water surface were cut off from among the panel data of boat CAD. Considering a high speed condition in which the water surface is completely separated at the transom section, the water level at the transom section was supposed to be at the same height as at the rear end of the hull. Blow-out intensity at the water surface was derived in such a way that a CAD panel of the rear end of the hull is searched and wave height agrees with the height of the transom in the Z direction. A resistance curve may be obtained easily by using a personal computer. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Evaluation for characteristics of around the Nojima fault; Butsuri tansa ni yoru `Nojima jishin danso` shuhen no jiban bussei ni kansuru ichihyoka

    Shimizu, K.; Tsuji, T. [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan); Tsuji, M. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Various surveys were conducted for the area around the Nojima fault, including ground surface, two-dimensional electrical and boring surveys and elastic wave tomography, in order to grasp properties of the ground around the `Nojima earthquake fault.` The resistivity image method as one of the two-dimensional electrical methods was used to grasp fault shapes over a wide range of the 1.6km long section extending between Esaki and Hirabayashi. The courses of traverse were set in the direction almost perpendicular to the fault. Boreholes were excavated and elastic wave tomography was conducted between the boreholes on the 9th and 17th courses of traverse, to confirm ground/mountain conditions and to compare the results with observed elastic wave velocities. Very low resistivities are observed at places where granite is distributed, suggesting that the fault-induced changes are not limited to the area around the fault. The zone in which elastic wave velocity decreases is narrow, 10m at the longest, at a velocity of 2.4km/s or lower, which is a low velocity for that propagating in granite. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Interpretation of seismic section by acoustic modeling. Study of large amplitude events; Hadoba modeling ni yoru jishin tansa danmen no kaishaku. Kyoshinhaba event ni taisuru kosatsu

    Tamagawa, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Sato, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Minegishi, M.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A large amplitude event difficult to interpret was discovered in the overlap section in offset data beyond 10km targeting at deep structures, and the event was examined. A wave field modeling was carried out by use of a simplified synclinal structure model because it had been estimated that the large amplitude event had something to do with a synclinal structure. A pseudospectral program was used for modeling the wave field on the assumption that the synclinal structure model would be an acoustic body and that the surface would contain free boundaries and multiple reflection. It was found as the result that a discontinuous large amplitude event is mapped out in the synclinal part of the overlap section when a far trace is applied beyond the structure during a CMP overlap process. This can be attributed to the concentration of energy produced by multiple reflection in the synclinal part and by the reflection waves beyond the critical angle. Accordingly, it is possible that phenomena similar to those encountered in the modeling process are emerging during actual observation. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Model experiments on imaging subsurface fracture permeability by pulsed Doppler borehole televiewer; Pulse doppler borehole televiewer ni yoru kiretsu tosuisei hyoka ni kansuru model jikken

    Inagaki, Y.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper reports model experiments to evaluate flow rates of fluids passing through a fracture by using a Doppler borehole televiewer (DBHTV). A supersonic transducer disposed on a well axis transmits transmission pulses, and a transducer receives scattered waves generated by particulates in water and waves reflected on a well wall. This signal is applied with time gating to extract only the scattered waves from particulates in the vicinity of the well wall. Deriving spectra in the recorded Doppler signal obtains flow velocity components in the direction of the well radius. A model was made with a polyvinylchloride pipe with a diameter of 14.6 cm to simulate a well, to which an aluminum pipe with an inner diameter of 2 mm is connected to be used as a simulated fracture, and mud water is circulated in the pipe. The result of deriving a passed flow volume in this model by integrating flow rate distribution derived by using the above method to a predetermined range in the vicinity of the fracture showed a good proportional relationship with actual flow rate in the simulated fracture. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  14. Evaluation stationariness of triaxial seismic while drilling and detection of reflected wave; Kosei kussaku ni tomonau danseiha no sanjiku kaiseki ni yoru hiteijo hyoka to hanshaha no kenshutsu

    Yoshida, T.; Asanuma, H.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper reports a method to detect reflected wave components contained in an elastic wave caused in association with well drilling. Measurement was made on an elastic wave caused in association with well drilling in an experimental field by using a triaxial elastic wave detector disposed in a measurement well. Analyzing the particle motion tracks in the derived elastic wave signals (to derive the main axial direction of a three-dimensional hologram) revealed that oscillation direction of the signals changes non-steadily by time centering around the S-wave oscillation direction. In addition, a sound source position was estimated during the drilling. Existence probability of the S-wave signal in the non-steady continuous signals was estimated by handling the particle motion tracks stochastically. In addition, this existence probability was used as a weighting function for a correlative analysis to detect a reflected wave from directly reaching wave components in the non-steady continuous signals. Thus, improvement in reliability of reflected wave detection was attempted. Effectiveness of this method was endorsed by the field data. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Interpretation SP anomaly caused by subsurface fluid flow; Chika ryudokei ni yoru shizen den`i anomaly no kaishaku ni tsuite

    Yasukawa, K. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Mogi, T.; Kawahira, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A PTSP simulator, developed by combining a fluid flow simulator and a simulator for computing the spontaneous potential (SP) out of flow velocity distribution, was used to investigate the impact of the distribution of terrain, permeability, and resistivity upon the ground surface SP. SP computation using simple models such as highlands or cliffs indicated that the terrain-caused SP anomaly was negatively dependent upon elevation. It was also indicated, however, that, in some types of resistivity distribution, the SP profile changes, the peak goes out of place, and even the apparent polarity may reverse in extreme cases. In the study of the SP profile for the Takeyu hot spa, Oita Prefecture, PTSP-aided modeling was carried out. It was then found that fluid flows caused by the terrain were not enough to explain the peak at the middle of the mountain, which suggested the existence of a fluid flow caused by temperature distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Fundamental study on leak detection of underground gas pipeline using passive acoustic method; Judogata onkyo keisoku ni yoru maisetsu gas dokan hason kasho no kenshutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Jinguji, M.; Imaizumi, H.; Kunimatsu, S.; Isei, T. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    With an objective to detect gas leaking from an underground gas pipeline, discussions have been given on a method which utilizes acoustic characteristics of leakage. On leaking sound generated from damaged portions, the form of damaging was hypothesized as pinholes, and spectra of leaking sounds from holes with different diameters were measured. The dominant frequency decreases as the hole diameter increases, while it is in a region of relatively high frequency of 1 kHz or higher. However, detection from the ground surface was impossible when cover soil has thickness from 0.5 to 1.5 m. In an experiment to measure leaking sound inside the pipe, pressure in the pipe was adjusted to 0.02 atm which is a standard pressure for a low-pressure pipe, and the sound was measured when the hole diameters were varied. In any of the results obtained by varying the hole diameter, spectra having the dominant frequency in the region of 1 kHz or higher were measured. In addition, it was found that sound pressure difference of as much as 50 dB at maximum is generated as compared with a case of no sound leakage. The above results verified that monitoring the high frequency of 1 kHz or higher is effective in detecting leakage from small damages. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Study on fracture behavior within rock made by hydraulic fracturing; Suiatsu hasai ni yoru ganbannai kiretsu no kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu



    The paper studied the thickness of crack made in deep underground and the distribution of hydraulic pressure of the fluid flowing in the crack. The study having been made were described on hydraulic fracturing, water flow in the crack, and dynamic behavior of cracks. The result was showed of the estimation of width of the crack made in the laboratory experiment and the distribution of hydraulic pressure in the crack. To confirm whether or not the distribution of crack thickness can be estimated from surface displacement even if making the specimen larger by the above-mentioned method, an experiment as small-scale id-situ experiment was conducted with the wall face of mine roadway as the observation area for the displacement. From the surface displacement, validity was discussed of a method to estimate the hydraulic pressure in the crack and the distribution of aperture width. An estimation was attempted of the distribution of aperture width of the crack made in the hydraulic fracturing test conducted in 1992 at the site of the Hijiori hot dry rock power generation. The paper summarized the result of estimating the distribution of hydraulic pressure in the crack and the distribution of crack thickness in experiments different in scale and the knowledge/information obtained in the estimation, based on the pressure distribution determined from the cubic law including the fluid flow friction proposed by Lomize and on the relation between the earth pressure and the crack width of the Bed-of-Nails model. 81 refs., 90 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Study on heavy duty truck stability control by braking force control; Seidoryoku seigyo ni yoru truck no sharyo kyodo anteika ni taisuru ichikosatsu

    Matsuda, K.; Shinjo, H.; Harada, M.; Ohata, K.; Sakata, K. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Now a days we are discussing about the vehicle stability control system which freely controls the braking force of each wheel to apply the yaw t and decelerate the vehicle. The system drastically improve the vehicle cornering performance and stabilize the vehicle behavior in its critical area. This paper discusses a point to notice in case of applying this technique for heavy duty trucks, and describes the possibility of the stabilization for vehicle cornering behavior about heavy duty truck. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Research of environmental bioecosensing technology using ecological information. Part 2; Seitaikei joho ni yoru kankyo bio ecosencing gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 2



    Basic considerations of exploring and cultivating environmental reporter organisms are summarized. Mechanism of genetic engineering amplification and molecular biological amplification, and approach to combining them to a hardware as a bioindicator system are investigated. For the current status of molecular biological measurement technology for measuring ecological environment and its application, environmental diagnosis from a phyropathological viewpoint, environmental diagnosis using microorganisms, test fabrication of genetic sensor, and overseas examples of environmental monitoring network are described. For the application of ecological information and functions for developing innovative environmental remediation technology, issues and potential areas for research and development regarding the bioremediation technology in which the US has achieved a progress for the benefit of soil environment remediation are summarized. For the phytoremediation, an area of bioremediation, the metabolism of microorganisms which live in the rhizosphere, and the technology for controlling the microorganisms in the soil through plants are investigated. 66 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Investigation on innovation of technology development by means of strategic energy intelligence; Energy senryakurontekina approach ni yoru gijutsu kaihatsu no kakushin ni kansuru chosa



    For the purpose of developing the future innovative energy technology, the paper described a strategic point of view. Effects of the energy issue are remarkable on the next generation and thereafter as seen in the finite of energy resource, global-scale environmental changes, the increasing energy demand, natural/social influences of large-scale technology development. If the technological development is going on in the same way as until now, there will appear limits. Relating to the strategies, to seek what energy should be among the strategies, it is necessary to consider not only global-scale problems but particular conditions in Japan (self-sufficiency, international cooperation, creativity, etc.) Also, wisdom and technique are necessary to attain it. Technological development in a wide sense plays a major role in the energy strategy. Technology innovation must be advanced according to the energy strategy. Integrating ideology into the development of energy technology and selecting therefrom developmental subjects which meet the purpose, required is the construction of the energy system with high flexibility and functionality. Looking at the conventional way of thinking from a different angle and posing a future pull plan, Japan should show leadership to the world. 20 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Research on giving antibacteria activity of tailored dental materials; Gin ion ni yoru shikayo zairyo no kokinsei fuyo ni kansuru kenkyu



    The secondary dental caries easily occur by breeding of bacteria in cavities between living body and composite resin, false tooth or root of tailored tooth as tooth repairing materials. The antibacteria activity of tailored dental materials was thus studied by implanting Ag ion. The antibacteria effect with time after culture of caries bacteria was studied by implanting Ag ion into SiO2 powder, PMMA samples and Ti alloy samples at 20 and 200keV in energy of ion. In addition, the antibacteria activity of SiO2 powder as composite material was found at 25keV which was previously effective for the antibacteria activity. This SiO2 filler (Ag{sup +} filler) showed the antibacteria activity on every bacteria sample after 2h, and in particular, could kill all of 3 kinds of bacteria obtained from a composite resin surface after 12h. The number of living S. salivarius was reduced by half after 12h. The application of the composite resin filler implanted with Ag{sup +} is significant to prevent recurrence of caries. 5 refs., 27 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Tyre noise predictions from computed road surface texture induced contact pressure; Romen no outotsu ni kiinsuru sesshoku atsuryoku ni yoru tire soon no suitei

    Mikami, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)


    A method for tire/road noise prediction is studied based on the result of road surface profile measurement (horizontal direction measurement interval 3mm, horizontal direction measurement accuracy 8{mu}m, distance measured 1655m, using a laser-aided profile meter). The obtained road surface profile is used for the calculation of contact pressure that occurs between the tire tread and road surface (using the 2-dimensional calculation model of Clapp et al.). For the examination of the relationship between the contact pressure and generated noise, tire noise is measured using a microphone array provided near the tire circumference. The frequency spectral ratio between the generated noise and contact pressure is determined as a transmission function. It may be said that the transmission function is unique to the tire, not dependent on the road surface profile. The road surface profile is determined by use of the transmission function, and this enables the prediction of the noise from the tire. Noises were measured on several kinds of road surfaces different in coarseness for a passenger car and truck, and the values from these actual measurements are compared with the predicted values, and then it is found that the prediction model is valid. (NEDO)

  3. Agent engineering

    Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P


    Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

  4. Antibiotic Agents

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  5. Chelating agents in pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics

    The proceedings contain 71 abstracts of papers. Fourteen abstracts were inputted in INIS. The topics covered include: the effects of chelating agents on the retention of 63Ni, 109Cd, 203Hg, 144Ce, 95Nb and the excretion of 210Po, 63Ni, 48V, 239Pu, 241Am, 54Mn; the applications of tracer techniques for studies of the efficacy of chelation therapy in patients with heart and brain disorders; and the treatment of metal poisoning with chelating agents. (J.P.)

  6. Relationship between the electric resistivity and the rain fall in discontinuity zone of rock slope by the continuous measurement; Renzoku tokei ni yoru ganban shamen no furenzokutaibu ni okeru mikake hiteiko henka to kou tono kankei ni tsuite

    Kusumi, H.; Nishida, K. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    The relationship between change in resistivity and rainfall was studied by continuously measuring resistivities of fracture zone and stratum boundary along the measuring line of 95m long from the top to bottom of rock slope. The measurement field was located on a hill of 150-200m high at the northern part of Arima-Takatsuki tectonic line. Electrodes of 30m in maximum measuring depth were arranged at 289 points by dipole-dipole method. Resistivity was continuously measured at time intervals of 6 hours. Apparent resistivity was hardly affected by rainfall at points with less infiltration of stormwater from the ground surface, while it decreased by rainfall at points on fracture zone, stratum boundary or bleeding channel. The change rate of apparent resistivity could be approximated with the exponential function of rainfall. In such case, the apparent resistivity under most dried condition at the concerned point should be used as reference maximum apparent resistivity. The change rate of apparent resistivity due to rainfall in fracture zone reflects infiltration of stormwater, suggesting to be useful for disaster prevention of slopes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Studies on power augmentation of horizontal axis wind turbine with variable speed control. 2nd Report. Determination of optimum slip due to second-power torque control; Kahensoku unten ni yoru field suiheijiku fusha no koseinoka ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Jijo torque seigyo ni yoru saiteki suberi no kettei

    Shimizu, Y.; Takada, M.; Maeda, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kamikawa, H.; Marumo, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan)


    An inverter-assisted variable speed power generation system is subjected to a field test and the optimum slip for optimum operation against changing wind velocities is determined. The system is a horizontal-axis wind turbine of the up-wind type provided with three variable-pitch blades. The rotor is 8.2m in diameter, the rotation axis is positioned 12.7m above the ground, and the output is rated at 8kW. The rotation of the rotor is multiplied nine times by a step-up gear using a timing belt, and drives the 8-pole/3-phase squirrel-cage 8kW induction generator whose rotation is rated at 900rpm. The generated AC power is converted into DC by transistors before being charged into storage batteries. In the experiment, power is generated at variable speeds using the inverter and four types of second-power torque control are tested, different from each other in the magnitude of slips. After an overall evaluation of the amount of generated power and system efficiency, it is found that a slip of -2.0% is the optimum for the control of power generation in this type of wind turbine. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  8. Simulation by using model of two species of biomass on biological phosphorus removal processes. Seibutsugaku teki datsu rin katei no niso seibutsu model ni yoru simulation

    Cho, H.; Suzuki, M. (Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science)


    This study experimented with a simple model on the process of biological phosphorus removal by anaerobic/aerobic processes in order to estimate the changes in the concentration of phosphorus and biomass. In this model, assuming that an active sludge is constituted of two phases of phosphorus removability and non-phosphorus removability in microorganisms, characteristics in the change of concentrations of phosphous and biomass in a cycle period were examined. According to the study on the factors affecting the phosphorus concentration change during a cycle period, content of microorganisms capable of removing phosphorus in the chamber and the concentration of organic materials in the initial anaerobic stage greatly influence the behavior of phosphorus. In addition, the comparative study with the experimental results indicates that this model can roughly, accurately express the characteristics of concentration change. However, the future problem left is a proposal of a model which can apply to the accummulation and and decomposition of the biomass in the non-phosphorus microorganisms. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Computational study on full-wave inversion based on the acoustic wave-equation; Onkyoha hado hoteishiki full wave inversion no model keisan ni yoru kento

    Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Uesaka, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The effect of initial models on full-wave inversion (FWI) analysis based on acoustic wave-equation was studied for elastic wave tomography of underground structures. At present, travel time inversion using initial motion travel time is generally used, and inverse analysis is conducted using the concept `ray,` assuming very high wave frequency. Although this method can derive stable solutions relatively unaffected by initial model, it uses only the data of initial motion travel time. FWI calculates theoretical waveform at each receiver using all of observed waveforms as data by wave equation modeling where 2-D underground structure is calculated by difference calculus under the assumption that wave propagation is described by wave equation of P wave. Although it is a weak point that FWI is easily affected by noises in an initial model and data, it is featured by high resolution of solutions. This method offers very excellent convergence as a proper initial model is used, resulting in sufficient performance, however, it is strongly affected by initial model. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Inversion of Love wave phase velocity using smoothness-constrained least-squares technique; Heikatsuka seiyakutsuki saisho jijoho ni yoru love ha iso sokudo no inversion

    Kawamura, S. [Nippon Geophysical Prospecting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Smoothness-constrained least-squares technique with ABIC minimization was applied to the inversion of phase velocity of surface waves during geophysical exploration, to confirm its usefulness. Since this study aimed mainly at the applicability of the technique, Love wave was used which is easier to treat theoretically than Rayleigh wave. Stable successive approximation solutions could be obtained by the repeated improvement of velocity model of S-wave, and an objective model with high reliability could be determined. While, for the inversion with simple minimization of the residuals squares sum, stable solutions could be obtained by the repeated improvement, but the judgment of convergence was very hard due to the smoothness-constraint, which might make the obtained model in a state of over-fitting. In this study, Love wave was used to examine the applicability of the smoothness-constrained least-squares technique with ABIC minimization. Applicability of this to Rayleigh wave will be investigated. 8 refs.

  11. In situ observation of skin. Novel photoacoustic spectrometric approach; Hikari to oto de hifu wo miru. Hikari onkyoho ni yoru atarashii apurochi

    Takamoto, R. [Shiseido Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Author`s work is introduced on the title approach for in situ determining and evaluating percutaneous absorption of test substances as medicines into living human skin, precisely, easily, fast and safely. The research has been conducted with the following concept in order to remove noise that occurs when heat emitted on photo-absorption of substances into skin is tried to be determined by means of sonic waves transmitted by heat, and to develop sensors sensitive only to sound to be measured. First, since noise sounds such as pulse, environmental sounds distribute in a frequency range of tens to hundreds Hz, differentiation of sounds should be tried by making a frequency of photoacoustic(PA) signal high enough not to be affected by those noise. Second, PA cell structure should be designed to be resonate at specific, optimum frequency so as to be high-sensitive only to sounds that turn to PA spectrometric(PAS) signals. Third, noise components that intervene in spite of the above provisions should be subtracted. The acoustic cell of double resonance differentiation type that was developed according to the above concept was proved to be so excellent in the ratio of PAS/noise signals as 118. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Development of wall-surface operation robot with the use of multiple hole sucker disc; Tako kyuban ni yoru hekimen sagyo robot no kaihatsu

    Takasu, M. [Tokyu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Development effort is being given on a robot to move on a wall while it is sucked onto the wall by vacuum and perform different kinds of works. This paper introduces a robot body and a tile detachment detector. Assuming power supply failure, the robot body is supported supplementarily by a fall preventing device which works from above a building. A ground section is arranged with a control panel to control the robot body, and an air compressor to generate vacuum for sucking the robot onto the wall and to drive air cylinders. Movement of the robot is performed by a parallel link mechanism to determine the amount and direction of the movement by controlling three links that link the suckers A and B. The robot weighs 40 kg. The tile detachment detecting system is consisted of a sound wave sensor with a construction being pressed by an air cylinder by using two ball casters containing vibrators on the signal transmitting and receiving sides. As a result of the experiment, waveforms with different voltage levels were detected on the healthy portion and the detached portion, verifying the possibility of determining existence of detachment. 9 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Explosive treatment of Illinois No.6 coal with a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol; Mizu-cyclohexanol kongo yozai ni yoru Illinois tan no bakusai shori

    Hashimoto, T.; Takada, H.; Asami, K.; Yano, M. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Coal was treated at high temperature under high pressure in the binary system mixed solvent of water and organic solvent, and the solvent treated coal was liquefied. When the treated coal was treated again by the explosive method in which high temperature and pressure were released immediately, the oil yield was higher than that by the normal method in which high temperature and pressure were reduced gradually to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this study, an explosive treatment unit with increased scale of sample amount was newly fabricated. Illinois No.6 coal was treated by the explosive method in a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol using this unit. Changes in shape on the surface, specific surface area, and functional groups were analyzed. The explosively treated coal contained more amount of low boiling point components than the normally treated coal. It was suggested that the oil yield of explosively treated coal increased due to the liquefaction of these components during the successive hydrogenation process. For the explosively treated coal, micro pores were fractured by the rapid change in the volume of solvent molecules, and the specific surface area was smaller than that of the normally treated coal. When the treatment temperature was increased from 300{degree}C to 350{degree}C, specific surface areas of both the treated coals increased. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Depolymerization of coal by O2 oxidation followed by acid hydrolysis; Sanso sanka-kasui bunkai ni yoru sekitan no teionkai jugo

    Aizawa, S.; Hayashi, J.; Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With an objective to elucidate characteristics of oxygen addition to coal, and characteristics of solvent extraction by means of depolymerization, experiments were performed on oxygen oxidation and acid hydrolysis of brown coals. Coals used for the experiments are Morwell (MW), Yallourn (YL) , South Banko (SB) and Wyoming (WY) coals. Test samples were suspended in weak alkaline aqueous solution, and then oxygen was blown into them with pressure kept at atmospheric pressure. After a lapse of a predetermined time, the samples were cooled, and made as acidic as pH 1.3 in hydrochloric acid, followed by acid hydrolysis. Oxygen consumption increased with the reaction time, and with the MW coal, one mol oxygen reacted to 11 mols of coal. Spectral analysis on the YL and WY coal experiments revealed that aliphatic carbon combined with aromatic carbon or ether group has turned to peroxide, whose C-C or C-O bond was broken down as a result of acid hydrolysis of the peroxide, producing oxygen containing compounds. As a result of the depolymerization, the rate of extraction by using DMF, DMSO and methanol/THF mixed solvent increased to 90% or higher. Proportion of bond and cutting-off affects largely collapse of the cross-link structure. The carbon conversion to volatiles was at most 4%. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  15. Estimation for origin of coals on biomaker analysis; Jinko sekitan oyobi tennen sekitan no biomaker bunseki ni yoru sekitan kigen busshitsu no suitei

    Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sugimoto, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to study coal production processes, an estimation study was carried out on coal originating materials by using biomaker analysis. Test samples are original coals collected directly from a mine in Hokkaido (not having been subjected cleaning). Mixing and solvent extraction were performed after pulverization, and then tests were given on saturated hydrocarbon components divided by using a silicagel column chromatograph for the present study. It can be known from n-alkane distribution in the coal that low molecular alkane increases with increasing degree of coalification. Artificial coal made by wet-heating Metasequoia leaves contains only little n-alkane. Diterpenoid compound exists in the Taiheiyo and Akabira coals. Tetra-cyclic diterpernoid is contained abundantly in subtropical coniferous trees, serving as a parameter for warm environment. The compound is contained also in the Fushun coal, but not in Indonesian coals. Hopanoid constitution shows very high similarity, but H/C atomic ratio may vary largely even if the coalification is at the same degree. This is likely to be caused from difference in originating materials. Hopanoids are bacteria attributed substances, whose activities are not affected by the originating materials. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kochiku chishiki to bubunteki energy hyoka ni yoru sekitan bunshi kozo kochiku system

    Okawa, T.; Sasai, T.; Komoda, N. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The computer aided coal structure construction system is proposed, and a computational construction example is presented. The coal structure construction engine of this system fabricates molecular structure by connecting fragments sequentially inputted through a user interface. The best structure candidate is determined using construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation every addition of one fragment, and this process is subsequently repeated. The structure evaluation engine analyzes the 3-D conformation candidate by molecular dynamics, and evaluates the conformation by determining the energy value of an optimum structure. As an example, this system was applied to construction of coal molecular structure based on the actual data of partial structure composed of 26 structures from 2l kinds of aromatic cluster structures, 27 bonds from 2 kinds of bridged bonds, and 16 groups from 2 kinds of terminal substitutional groups. As a result, this system could construct a superior structure according to expert knowledge from the viewpoint of energy. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Characterization of interactions of coal surface with solvent by flow microcalorimetric measurement. 3; Netsuryo sokutei ni yoru sekitan hyomen to yozai tono sogo sayo no hyoka. 3

    Wang, N.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Corporation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    An investigation was given on the relationship between methanol adsorbing behavior of reformed coal surface and oxygen containing functional groups in coal. Akabira bituminous coal was air-oxidized or Yallourn brown coal was decarbonated in oil as a reformation treatment. Both of the treated and untreated coals showed an adsorption heat curve of the Langmuir type. The Akabira coal had its oxygen content and the adsorption heat increased as a result of the air oxidizing reformation treatment. The Yallourn coal had its oxygen content and adsorption heat decreased as a result decarbonation reformation treatment. Oxygen containing functional groups act as strong adsorption sites for methanol, and the maximum adsorption amount depends on oxygen content in the coals. Since the coal surface is non-uniform in terms of energy, methanol is adsorbed first into sites with higher molar adsorption heat, and then into lower sites sequentially. Therefore, distribution of the molar adsorption heat can be derived from the relationship between adsorption amount and adsorption heat by changing methanol adsorption amount. The distribution of molar adsorption heat becomes broader when the oxygen content is high, and narrower when low. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Inhalation of diesel engine exhaust affects spermatogenesis in growing male rats; Diesel enigne hai gas bakuro ni yoru seicho yusei rat no seishi keisei eno eiky

    Kawai, A. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)


    The paper investigated effects of the exposure of diesel engine exhaust on internal secretion function of genital organs of rats being in growth. Exposure tests were divided into a group of exposing rats to total exhaust gas (TG), a group of exposing rats to particulate-free exhaust gas (PFG), and a group of exposing rats to clean air (comparison group). The tests were carried out for 6 hours/day, for 5 days/week, and for 3 months from the birth. As to the weight at the time of finishing tests, there were no significant differences in weights of testicle and epididymis in each group. About the concentration of male/female sex hormones in serum, the values were significantly higher in TG and PFG groups than the comparison group. The follide stimulating hormone significantly decreased in both exposure groups as compared with the comparison group. The luteinizing hormone significantly decreased in TG group as compared with the comparison group and PFG group. Further, the sperm productivity and testicle hyaluronidase activity significantly decreased in both exhaust exposure groups as compared with the comparison group. It is indicated that the diesel engine exhaust stimulates the secretion of adrenal cortical hormone, reduces emission of gonadotropic hormone, and controls the spermatogenesis of rats. (NEDO)

  19. Study of CO2 fixation by and effective utilization of very fine alga; Bisai sorui nado ni yoru nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu

    Ikenouchi, M. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan)


    Various technologies are under development toward the prevention of global warming and inhibition of CO2 emission. This report covers the recent result of an effort to use very fine alga for CO2 fixation in a NEDO-commissioned joint program participated in by the industry, government institutes, and universities. This is a project that aims to make use of solar energy through the intermediary of the photosynthetic activity of very fine alga for the fixation of the CO2 gas in presence in high concentration in exhaust gas and, at the same time, to extract useful substances out of the alga. More than 3000 kinds have already be collected, screened, isolated, and evaluated for their multiplication performance. A number of superior strains have been selected, including standard strains whose CO2 fixing capacity is higher than the predetermined level, those superb in resisting high temperature or tough in the given environment (flexible with varied culture conditions), and others that are excellent in yielding useful substances such as oil. A 200-liter class bioreactor of the airlift-plate type is now available, and full-scale experiments have been under way since April, 1997. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Separation of polyunsaturated fatty acid esters by flowing liquid membrane with porous partition.; Kakumaku gata ryudo ekimaku ni yoru kodo fuhowa shibosan esuteru no bunri

    Yokosawa, R.; Nii, S.; Takahashi, K. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Depertment of Chemical Engineering; Misawa, Y. [Harima Chemicals, Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    A laboratory-constructed flowing liquid membrane apparatus with porous partition (FLM) was applied to the separation of such polyunsaturated fatty acid esters (PUFA-Ets) as eicosapentaenoic acid ethylester (EPA-Et) and docosahexaenoic acid ethylester (DHA-Et) at 293 K. The hydrophilic porous membrane was used as a partition, and 2 M AgNO{sub 3} aqueous solution was used as a membrane liquid. By using dodecane as a feed diluent and m-xylene as a recovery solution, PUFA-Ets were successfully separated from mixture of fatty acid esters. The recovery fraction of PUFA-Ets and the separation degree between DHA-Et and EPA-Et were investigated ; it increases with the velocity of membrane liquid and the flow path length in the module, while it decreased with the velocity of feed and recovery solution. The recovery fraction of DHA-Et reachs 60% with only 8 s-retention time by the continuous operation. The concentrations of the DHA-Et at the outlet of the module were simulated based on the mass transfer model, which gave nearly 85% recovery fraction with 30 s-retention time. These results show that a stable operation, a high recovery and a high recovery and a high throughput are realized by the FLM. (author)

  1. Study of lightning attack location by detecting polarization fluctuation in OPGW; OPGW denpako no henpa hendo ni yoru sodensen raigekiten hyotei no kento

    Kurono, M.; Kuribara, M.; Asakawa, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Sumitani, H. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    A method has been established by which lightning attack location can be automatically measured by detecting polarization fluctuation in OPGW. A return transmission method and a two way transmission method were proposed, and their characteristics were made clear. For the both methods, optical fiber is used as detecting and transmission media. Additional equipment such as fault locator, the conventional linkage apparatus to transmission line is not required. Optical fiber can be also used as optical communication circuit using wavelength multiplex. For the return transmission method, two times of rising polarization fluctuations can be separated using delaying fiber. Tailings of the fluctuation are often overlapped. A value of polarization fluctuation velocity d{beta} was determined from instantaneous differential values of three measured polarization components. Thus, a method has been proposed by which the lightning attack time can be derived from the peak time. The fluctuation peak could be distinguished from the waveform of d{beta} using data of largest lightning attack polarization fluctuations, and the distances to the lightning attack spots could be calculated. The lightning location agreed well with the result of location by LLS. 9 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Experiment on measuring temperature distribution in OPGW as a result of electric heating; OPGW tsuden kanetsu ni yoru ondo bunpu sokutei jikken

    Yamashita, I. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    An experiment was performed on measuring variation in temperatures in the lengthwise direction when optical fibers laid on an overhead power transmission line (OPGW) are heated electrically and by using arc discharge. The OPGW has a structure that the optical fibers are wrapped by a metallic sheathing made of aluminum for example. The OPGW can be heated when the sheathing is energized electrically or given arc discharge. A 40-m OPGW was laid in insulated condition with a tensile force of 500 kg. The core wire was extended for 100 m by using an optic fiber cord, and connected to a temperature measuring instrument. Large current pulse was applied for electric heating to measure temperature variation in the OPGW. A change in which temperature rises sharply during the energization was measured successfully. The measured value agreed well with that from a thermocouple. Both ends of the OPGW were grounded, and arc discharge was made from a discharge electrode connected to a central voltage generator. Experiments were carried out with three patterns of charge of 50C, 100C and 200C with the discharge time set to 20 ms. It was possible to measure the temperature rise variation during the discharge. Measurements using GI fibers achieved good results on time resolution and temperature resolution, verifying the effectiveness of an optical fiber sensor as the temperature measuring technology. (NEDO)

  3. Magnetic field analysis of DC blushless motor with skewed magnet by 2-D FEM; Nijigen yugen yosoho ni yoru skew wo koryoshita chokuryu blushless motor no jikai kaiseki

    Kitamura, S. [Kusatsu Electric Co. Ltd., Shiga (Japan); Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)


    In this paper, we propose an analytical method for a motor with skewed magnets. In our proposal method, a motor is divided into the some segments, and then the sum of the induced voltage of each segments are coupled with the circuit equation, so that it becomes possible for 2-D FEM to take skewed effects into account. The proposed method has been applied to the analysis of DC Blushless Motor. Calculated results of induced voltage waveforms on no-load show close agreement with measured values. In addition the results of winding current waveforms and average torque vs. speed characteristics in steady state indicate good results. These results confirmed the validity of this method. 9 refs., 19 figs.

  4. Weldability of alloy tool steel (SKS 93) by electron beam welding; Denshi beam yosetsu ni yoru gokin koguko (SKS 93) no yosetsusei

    Okubo, M.; Ando, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science


    This paper pursues weldability of electron beam welding on an alloy tool steel. Electron beam welding was applied onto an alloy tool steel with a plate thickness of 16 mm as a hypereutectoid steel to discuss welding defects and mechanical properties. Metals welded by bead welding may have a condition to develop transversal cracks showing a pattern of high-temperature cracking or longitudinal cracks showing a pattern of low-temperature cracking. However, if welded under prescribed appropriate welding conditions, no defects are recognized in welds, and beads present good appearance. Trend of transversal and longitudinal crack generation may be reduced by reducing cross section area of the welded metals by making the objective distance to focusing distance ratio 0.9 or by effect of preheating. As a result of discussing a suitable heat treatment condition of welds by using a joint tensile test, a joint efficiency of 100% was obtained when cooled in air with retention time of 45 minutes at 1113 and 1133 K. If cooled in air with retention time of 45 minutes at 1173 K, deposition of carbides is observed on the welded metals and heat affected zones, which causes mechanical properties of the joints to degrade. 10 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Evaluation of building envelopes from the viewpoint of capability of controlling thermal environment; Onnetsu kankyo chosei noryoku ni yoru kenchiku gaihi no hyoka no kokoromi

    Umeda, K.; Ono, S. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shukuya, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The ability that architectural space improves the thermal environment in comparison with outdoor environment is called the `capability of controlling thermal environment.` As the value becomes higher, the indoor thermal environment is more improved. In this paper, the controlling capability of six building envelopes with different window systems was compared. The heat transfer in the wall and window system is approximated using a lumped mass model of heat capacity to obtain a heat balance equation and combined with the heat balance equation in indoor air for backward difference. The wall surface temperature and indoor air temperature in a calculation model are then calculated. A radiation absorption coefficient is used for mutual radiation on each wall. In the model, the adjoining room or first- and second-floor rooms were made the same in conditions as the model on the assumption that the one-side lighted office in an RC reference floor is in the non-illumination and non-airconditioning state. In summer, the controlling capability remarkably varies depending on the window system. For the window facing the south, the annual capability is more advanced than in other directions and the indoor thermal environment is improved on the average. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Characteristics on the heat storage and recovery by the underground spiral heat exchange pipe; Chichu maisetsu spiral kan ni yoru chikunetsu shunetsu tokusei

    Imai, I. [Kure National College of Technology, Hiroshima (Japan); Taga, M. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan)


    The consistency between the experimental value of a soil temperature and the calculation value of a soil temperature given by a non-steady heat conduction equation was confirmed. The experimental value is obtained by laying a spiral heat exchange pipe in the heat-insulated soil box and circulating hot water forcibly in the pipe. The temperature conductivity in soil significantly influences the heat transfer in soil. The storage performance is improved when the temperature conductivity increases because of the contained moisture. As the difference between the initial soil temperature and circulating water temperature becomes greater, the heat storage and recovery values increase. A thermal core heat transfer is done in the spiral pipe. Therefore, the diameter of the pipe little influences the heat storage performance, and the pitch influences largely. About 50 hours after heat is stored, the storage performance is almost the same as for a straight pipe that uses the spiral diameter as a pipe diameter. To obtain the same heat storage value, the spiral pipe is made of fewer materials than the straight pipe and low in price. The spiral pipe is more advantageous than the straight pipe in the necessary motive power and supply heat of a pump. 1 ref., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Thermal design verification of large reflectors using flight data; Flight data ni yoru ETS-VI tosai ogata hanshakyo no netsusekkei hyoka

    Miyasaka, A.; Tsunoda, H.; Ayatsuka, Y. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Evaluations were given on flight data of the large reflectors mounted on the engineering test satellite VI (ETS-VI) launched on the H-II rocket. Effects of albedo by the earth and infrared radiation on the main reflector mirror temperatures were derived by using a heat quantity analysis. The values thereof that the main reflector mirror absorbs at a perigee reached 25 and 50 W/m{sup 2} respectively, whereas it was found that their effects cannot be ignored since the solar light absorption is close to zero. Even on the winter solstice at which solar light radiation reaches its maximum, the highest temperature on the main reflector mirror was 70{degree}C, and the maximum temperature difference in the mirror was 120{degree}C, both being within the tolerance. The temperature on the main reflector mirror was about -130{degree}C while in an ellipse orbit (about 10 degrees lower than the static orbit) between eclipses at the apogee where there is no thermal input by the infrared radiation and the albedo. This temperature is higher than the minimum allowable temperature. In addition, it was estimated that the temperature difference in the mirror surface should be small when it moves to an eclipse. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Archaeological prospecting using electrical resistivity method. Case history of Kaibukiyama ancient tomb; Denki tansaho ni yoru iseki tansa. Kaibukiyama kofun no chosarei

    Mizunaga, H.; Ushijima, K.; Kishikawa, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    To grasp the three-dimensional structure of ancient tomb during the archaeological prospecting of Kaibukiyama ancient tomb, various electrical resistivity methods were tried. For the survey, firstly, in order to clarify the electrical resistivity structure of rear circular part of ancient tomb, roughly, mapping was conducted by means of two-electrode method using a multi-channel measuring system. Then, the vertical prospecting was conducted densely with a mesh form having VES intervals of 2 m as a detailed survey by means of Schlumberger method. For the three-dimensional inverse analysis of apparent electrical resistivity data by the two-electrode method, a program with high calculation speed was developed by using algorithm where Jacobian with a homogeneous model is adopted for the Jacobian calculation. As a result of the analysis, an outline of underground 3-D resistivity structure was determined. The resistivity anomaly with high values obtained from the results of 2-D inverse analysis of VES curve by means of Schlumberger method agreed well with the central part of the ancient tomb, which was confirmed during the archaeological survey. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Fault detection by Turam TEM survey. Numerical model studies and a case history; TEM ho Turam sokutei haichi ni yoru danso kenshutsu no kokoromi. Model keisan to jisshirei

    Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T. [Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science; Takeuchi, A. [Toyama University, Toyama (Japan). Faculty of Science; He, P. [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to detect faults estimated to exist along the Shigesumi valley in the Kamioka mine, discussions were given by using electromagnetic survey, which uses the Turam measurement arrangement based on the TEM method, and three-dimensional model calculations. The Turam measurement arrangement, which installs transmission loop fixedly, is used to identify nature and distribution of electrically conductive objects upon noticing abnormal portions in magnetic fields in the measurement data. In the model calculation, the plate model calculation method and the FDTD method were used, and so was the calculation code TEM3DL. The result revealed that strong topographical influence is seen from steep V-shaped valley existing along the traverse line in the measurement data, but an abnormal resistivity band accompanying remarkable distortion in the curve was detected. According to the result of the model calculation, anomaly detection may be found difficult in locations where a low resistivity band has not grown enough locally. It was possible from these facts to assume a model in which the low resistivity band exists directly below the Shigesumi valley, suggesting existence of faults. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Coordinated control of space-robots using angular velocity norm estimation; Kakusokudo norm suitei to sentan sokudo seigyo ni yoru kyocho seigyo

    Taniwaki, S.; Matsunaga, S.; Okami, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    This paper proposes a coordinated control method based on the norm estimation of the angular velocity of the satellite attitude and the control of the head speed of the manipulator. In this method, the angular velocity norm of the satellite attitude is estimated in real time from the target value of the head speed of the manipulator, i.e. the target payload speed during a coordinated control operation in which the variation of the inertial parameters of a space robot is compensated, and the head speed of the manipulator is controlled by using this estimated value. This enables the variation of the attitude of the satellite body to be within a permissible range. The restriction on the manipulator control speed at this time is alleviated more than that satisfying the Lyapunov stability conditions, so that the operability of the manipulator is improved. The effectiveness of this method was ascertained by a numerical simulation. The attitude variation could be within a permissible range by correcting the head speed of the manipulator so that the estimated value became not higher than a permissible range. 7 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Production of icosapetaenoic acid from marine bacteria and its genetic engineering; Kaiyo saikin ni yoru EPA n seisan to idenshi kogaku

    Yazawa, K.; Yamada, A. [Sagami Chemical Research Center, Kanagawa (Japan)


    A marine bacterium, judged as a new species close to Shewanella putrefaciens, was isolated from the intestinal contents of the Pacific mackerel. The isolated strain SCRC-2728 produced EPA as a sole polyunsaturated fatty acid amounting to 25-40 % of the total fatty acid in the cells. EPA existed as phospholipids in the cell and was found in the sn-2-position of phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl glycerol. The physiological activity of the EPA-phospholipids extracted from SCRC-2738 cells was examined following administration to stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. After four weeks of oral administration, serum lipids (cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid) and the systolic blood pressure were reduced significantly, compared to the control rats fed soybean lecithin. Moreover, we observed a significant reduction of the weight of perirenal and paraepididymal adipose tissues (26-38 %). The 38 kbp genom DNA fragment was cloned from SCRC-2738 and expressed in Escherichia coli, which resulted in the production of EPA. The nucleotide sequence of the 38 kbp DNA fragment was determined. The DNA fragment contains eight open reading frames, and three of them possess homology with enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis. 18 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Landfill deepage water treatment using struvite deposition process and microbiological fluidized bed. Strabite shoseki to biseibutsu ryudosho ni yoru umetatechi shinshutsu mizushori

    Harada, H.; Nakajima, S. (Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Tanaka, K. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan))


    General waste landfill sites in recent years are receiving an increasing amount of ash of waste burned in combustion plants. Phosphorous acid has been used conventionally for the microbiological treatment of seepage water from these sites. The present report proposes to add phosphorous acid to the physical treatment process prior to microbiological treatment. The idea is to recover the added phosphorous acid as deposites, along with ammonia and other material, and use the remaining phosphorous acid as nutrient for the microorganisms so that the ammonia load in the biological treatment process will be reduced. When PO {sub 4}{sup 3 {minus}} is added to landfill seepage water containing Ca {sup 2+} and NH {sub 4}{sup +} in high concentrations, NH {sub 4} CaPO {sub 4} is formed and a high removal rate is achieved. In another test, this NH {sub 4} CaPO {sub 4} formation is performed prior to biological treatment of low BOD/COD seepage water. A 69% removal rate is achieved without the addition of methanol. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Stresscorrosion cracking of SUS 310S steel single crystal with slow strain rate technique. SSRT ho ni yoru+SUS 310S ko tankessho no oryoku fushokuware

    Uchida, H.; Inoue, S.; Oido, T.; Koterazawa, K. (Himeji Institeu of Technology, Hyogo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    A slow strain rate technique (SSRT) has recently been taken notice of as a rapid experimental method of stress corrosion cracking (SSC). Its correspondence to other experimental methods and availability for cracking susceptibility evalution and mechanism elucidation have been pointed out. This paper makes a crystallographic study on susceptibility to SCC and crack plane orientation, using SUS 310S steel single crystals with tensile axis orientation and examining nominal stress-strain curves in a boiling 42% MgCl {sub 2} solution by the SSRT. As a result, SSC occurs at strain rates below 2.38{times}10{sup {minus}5} S{sup {minus}1}, and tensile strength and fracture strains reduce with a decrease of the strain ratE. Moreover, it is found that the susceptibility index to SCC, which is the standard of the maximum stress ratio and the maximum stress strain ratio in the SCC testing solution/oil, decreases with a decrease of the strain rate, almost independent of tensile axis orientation. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Flame-Retarding of Cotton/Polyester Blended Yarn Fabrics Using Two-Component Sequential Treatment; Nidankai shori ni yoru men/poriesuteru konboshifu no nannenka

    Kubokawa, Hiroo. [Textile Research Institute of Gunma Prefecture, Gunma (Japan)


    Cotton/polyester (C/P) blended yarn fabrics were treated with several flame retardants used for poly (ethylene terephthalate)(PET) using pad-dry-cure method. The relationships between the chemical structures of the flame retardants and their partition into PET fibers were investigated. When tetrabromobisphenol A (TBP-A) was tested, the amount of sorption increased with increasing concentration of TBP-A in treating acetone solution, and reached 4.0%o.w.f. (% on the weight of the fibre) at 10 wt%. THis treated fabric was again treated with a flame retardant for cotton, Pyrovatex CP New, which contains dimethyl 2-(N-hydroxymethylcarbamovl)ethylphosphonate as a main component. However, sufficient flame retardancy was not obtained. The second partition of TBP-A to cotton during heating was thought to lower the sorption efficiency of Pyrovatex CP New. Based on this assumption, for the case of the two-component sequential treatment, the Pyrovatex CP New treatment, which generates covalent bonds with hydroxy groups of cellulose, should be carried out prior to the TBP-A treatment. When a C/P blended yarn fabric was treated with Pyrovatex CP New and then with TBP-A, the amount of sorption of Pyrovatex CP New was 9.6%o.w.f. and the amount of sorption of TBP-A was 4.6%o.w.f. The limiting oxygen index of the treated fabric was 27.2%, a sufficient value for flame retardancy. Fromthis result, it was concluded that the practica flame-retardant finishing of c/p blended yarn fabrics could be carried out by using a simple finishing machine. (author)

  15. Laboratory investigation on streaming potential for sandy soil and weathered rock; Shitsunai jikken ni yoru sashitsu jiban oyobi fuka ganban no ryudo den`i no kento

    Sato, H.; Shima, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Laboratory experiment on sandy soil and weathered rock was conducted to clarify the generation mechanism of streaming potential due to underground fluid. Streaming potential is caused by underground fluid flow, namely by fluid flow in porous substances as electrokinetic phenomenon. In experiment, Inagi sand, Toyoura sand and strongly decomposed weathered granite were used. In Inagi and Toyoura sands, positive streaming potential was observed downstream in fluid flow. Streaming potential could be nearly determined as primary function of fluid velocity, and generated streaming potential increased with fluid resistivity. Streaming potential was higher in Inagi sand than Toyoura sand, probably depending on hydraulic radius, size of bleeding channel, and conductivity of sand surface. In weathered granite, negative streaming potential was measured. In the case of positive {zeta} potential, negative streaming potential is theoretically generated downstream in fluid flow. This experiment suggested possible generation of negative streaming potential in some kinds of ground. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Three dimensional numerical modeling for ground penetrating radar using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method; Jikan ryoiki yugen sabunho ni yoru chika radar no sanjigen suchi modeling

    Sanada, Y.; Ashida, Y.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    3-D numerical modeling by FDTD method was studied for ground penetrating radar. Radar radiates electromagnetic wave, and determines the existence and distance of objects by reflection wave. Ground penetrating radar uses the above functions for underground surveys, however, its resolution and velocity analysis accuracy are problems. In particular, propagation characteristics of electromagnetic wave in media such as heterogeneous and anisotropic soil and rock are essential. The behavior of electromagnetic wave in the ground could be precisely reproduced by 3-D numerical modeling using FDTD method. FDTD method makes precise analysis in time domain and electric and magnetic fields possible by sequentially calculating the difference equation of Maxwell`s equation. Because of the high calculation efficiency of FDTD method, more precise complicated analysis can be expected by using the latest advanced computers. The numerical model and calculation example are illustrated for surface type electromagnetic pulse ground penetrating radar assuming the survey of steel pipes of 1m deep. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Evaluation of earth pressure on triple multi-face shield tunnel based on centrifuge model tests; Enshin mokei jikken ni yoru yoko sanren shield tunnel no doatsu hyoka

    Sugihara, Y.; Igarashi, H.; Fujisaki, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Recently, various needs for the utilization of underground space in urban areas, i.e., those for utilizing underground spaces with complicated cross-section shapes, have been encouraging the research and development of new shield methods. There have been considerations of building many tunnels with various cross-section shapes, such as horizontal double multi-face, horizontal triple multi-face, vertical double multi-face, MMST (multi-micro shield tunnel), and large-section tunnels with combinations of those shapes. The horizontal triple multi-face shield method is a new technique applied to underground railway stations with respect to construction period and safety. Since the horizontal triple multi-face shield tunnel has a laterally flatter shape than the former one circle shield tunnel, it is necessary to verify the validity of design using a usual method of evaluating earth pressure mainly for circle cross-sections. Therefore, the force on segments and deformation of surrounding soil were measured by using a centrifuge model equipment. Consequently, it was found that the earth pressure on horizontal triple multi-face shield segments in sandy ground is between earth pressure as evaluated by Terzaghi`s method and full earth pressure. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Three dimensional transient electromagnetic model study for fracture prediction from tunnel face; Sanjigen model keisan ni yoru TEM ho no tunnel zenpo tansa eno tekiyosei no kento

    Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T.; Saito, A. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hara, T. [Toda Corp., Tokyo, (Japan); Zhdanov, M. [University of Utah, UT (United States)


    In order to apply TEM model to fracture prediction at tunnel face, 3-D TEM model computation by FEM was conducted by installing a transmission loop on a tunnel face. MT field responses diffusing into the 3-D model were computed by time-domain difference calculus, and analytical precision was improved by introducing a staggered grid method. In the case where a low resistive zone exists before a tunnel face, time variance in diffused eddy current and induction current in the low resistive zone could be obtained. The difference in tunnel-axial transient curve (transient phenomenon curve in magnetic field) between uniform medium and low resistive zone models was based on the absorption process of diffused eddy current into the low resistive zone, and the expanding process of it toward the outside. Change in background condition could be predicted from the background and the ratio of transient curves every measurement. The detection limit of the low resistive zone was dependent on resistivity contrast, distance and geometry. Fluctuation in measurement due to noises and S/N ratio were also essential. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Numerical solution of thermal and fluid flow with phase change by VOF method; VOF ho ni yoru sohenka wo tomonau netsuryudo no suchikaiho

    Shirakawa, H.; Satonaka, S. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Takata, Y.; Kuroki, T.; Ito, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Numerical method for thermal and fluid flow with free surface and phase change has been developed. Equations of continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy are solved simultaneously both for liquid and vapor phases. The calculation result of one-dimensional solidification problem agrees with Neumann's theoretical value. In the evaporation of liquid film, the flow caused by volume change with phase change can be calculated. We applied it to a bubble growth in superheated liquid and obtained the result that a bubble grows with spherical shape. The present method can be applicable to various phase change problems. (author)

  20. Synthesis of voiced sound with a one-dimensional unsteady glottal flow model. Ichijigen hiteijo seimon nagare ni yoru onsei no seisei

    Ikeda, T. (Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Matsuzaki, Y. (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Commonly, studies on synthesis of voiced sound have been developed as an analogy of an electric circuit net. Approaches for an essential understand of the phenomena are indispensable form a mechanical viewpoint, clarification of mechanism on speech production is important concerning to development of an artificial throat and diagnosis of dysfunction of voiced sound. In this study, for clarifying the mechanism of speech production, from a mechanical viewpoint, a mathematical model considering the vibration of vocal cords, the separated flow at the glottis inlet and the glottis outlet, resonance in the vocal tract was constructed. The simulation of speech production was performed by numerically solving the governing equation of this model. As a result, the continuous vibration of vocal cords was obtained, effect of vocal waveform on shape of a vocal tract, and effects of frequency and amplitude of the sound on the pulmonary pressure and stiffness of the vocal cords were clarified. Then, the voiced sound was measured in practical and was compared with the results obtained by numerical simulation, a qualitative agreement of these vocal waveform was showed. 24 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Fracture inspection by BHTV logging through a vinyl chloride tube; Enbi pipe ga sonyusareta kosei deno BHTV ni yoru kiretsu chosa

    Horikawa, H.; Okabe, T.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)


    A borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging was conducted to investigate cracks in bored wells. The logging process shoots ultrasonic waves onto bore walls and utilizes reflection waves from the bore walls. If the bores are filled with muddy water, or the ultrasonic waves can pass through even if vinyl chloride tubes have been inserted after excavation, the state of the bore walls can be investigated in principle. Conventional optical scanners are, however, incapable of making this investigation. The BHTV logging can be used for identifying lithofacies from reflection intensities from bore walls (it depends on sound impedance of rocks), not to speak of finding cracks. As a result of making logging upon setting time windows from 105 to 145 {mu} sec in a bored well inserted with a vinyl chloride tube, cracks in the bore wall were identified clearly through the vinyl chloride tube. If the distance between the bore wall and the vinyl chloride tube becomes smaller, setting the time window becomes difficult, making reflection data acquisition more difficult. Impacts of decentering in the vinyl chloride tube on the data and the crack analysis result are small. The reflection intensity has decreased by about half as a result of having the circular vinyl chloride tube inserted. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Furukawa, Y.; Tomono, K.; Takahashi, H.; Uchida, T. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Study on the inside gas flow visualization of oxygen sensor cover; Kashika ni yoru O2 sensor cover nai no gas nagare hyoka

    Hocho, S.; Mitsuishi, Y.; Inagaki, M. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Hamaguchi, S.; Mizusawa, K. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    In order to make clear the difference of the response time between the oxygen sensors with different protection covers, we visualized gas flow inside of sensor covers by means of two experimental methods: One is `Smoke Suspension Method` using liquid paraffin vapor as the smoke. With smoke suspension method, we detected the streamlines inside of the covers. The other is `Color Reaction Method` using the reaction of phenolphthalein and NH3 gas. With color reaction method, we confirmed the streamline inside of the cover and furthermore detected the difference of the response time of each sensor. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Development of aluminium viscous damper by high speed MIG welding process; Kosoku MIG yosetsuho ni yoru aluminium sei viscous damper no kaihatsu

    Hino, H.; Hotta, M. [Nippon Light Metal Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Maeda, Y.; Shimizu, H. [Fukoku Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)


    We have developed a welded aluminum viscous damper to improve the joining strength between the case and the cover of the conventional damper mechanically fastened by adhesion. The distortion of the welded damper was decreased to an acceptable level using the high speed MIG welding process. Sound quality and good appearance were obtained by optimizing the initial speed of the filler wire and by controlling the welding conditions at the starting part and in the lap part. The leakage load and the fatigue limit of the welded damper were 5 and 10 times those of the conventional damper, respectively. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Reaction mechanism for the methane-methanol conversion by soluble methane monooxygenase; Metanmonookishigenaze (MMO) ni yoru metan - metanoru henkan no hanno kiko

    Yoshizawa, K.; Ota, Y.; Yamabe, T. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)


    Methane monooxygenase (MMO) is a metalloenzyme with binuclear iron atoms as an active center and has ability to oxidize methane which is the most unreactive hydrocarbon. Among recent studies on the reaction mechanism of MMO, the oxygen rebound mechanism, a sort of radical reaction mechanism is critically examined. The two-step concerted mechanism for the hydroxylation of methane and other reaction mechanisms for MMO are discussed. The intermediate of the catalytic cycle of MMO is proposed to consist of two high valiant iron-oxo species based on the experimental result with EXAFS. Fe0{sup +} is known to oxidize methane into methanol in the gaseous state. This reaction has been analyzed by density functional method and methane is found to be activated efficiently through deformation into C{sub 3v} or D{sub 2d} form and combined with iron atom. Reaction mechanism of the methane-methanol conversion is analyzed by the density functional method and shows that the two-step concerted mechanism reproduces the reactivity of soluble MMO. 34 refs., 16 figs.

  6. Estimation of bainite transformation temperatures in steels by the empirical formulas; Hagane no bainite hentai ondo no jikkenshiki ni yoru suitei

    Okada, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kunitake, T.


    Relational formulas were proposed for bainite transformation temperatures and chemical compositions in steels. Thirty-one isothermal transformation charts were selected, whose forms are such that transformation regions in both of pearlite stage and bainite stage are separated, and bainite transformation starting temperature reaches a constant value on the longer duration side in isothermal retention. Multiplex analysis was performed on the charts. Then, an experimental formula was presented to derive the bainite transformation temperature from chemical compositions of the steels. An assessed value very close to the measured value was derived. Another experimental formula was presented to estimate the bainite transformation temperature from the chemical compositions of the steels during continuous cooling, which is more practicable than isothermal transformation in heat treatment of the steels. Two kinds of parameters, B {sub 1} and B {sub 2} were introduced into the formula. The parameter B {sub 1} is a bainite transformation starting temperature in the case when cooling is performed at a critical cooling rate in which the pearlite transformation can appear, and B {sub 2} is a bainite transformation starting temperature when cooling is performed at such a critical cooling rate that a structure containing bainite is transformed completely to a pearlite transformed structure. A formula more versatile than conventional formulas was obtained. 9 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Formation of the highly oriented clay-film by Langmuir-Blodgett technique; Langnuir-Blodgett ho ni yoru haikosei nendomaku no sakusei

    Inukai, K.; Tomura, S.; Suzuki, K.; Miyawaki, R.; Koshino, T. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)


    A synthetic hydrophobic saponite intercalated by stearyltrimethylammonium cation was spread on the surface of water. The surface pressure (2) was measured against reduced surface area (A). The best reproducible 2-A curve was obtained at the concentration of ten milligrams of hydrophobic saponite dispersed in 100cm{sup 3} of chloroform. The relaxation time of spreading should be longer when the amount of the spreading solution is larger. The maximum surface pressure to keep monolayer film spread on the surface of water was about 20mNm{sup -1} and higher pressure resulted the film collapse. The multilayer clay film was able to build up on a plate at the pressure less than 20mNm{sup -1}. According to the X-ray diffraction and IR analyses, the structure of the multilayer clay film was the same as that of the saponite powder intercalated by stearyltrimethylammonium cation. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Application to advanced reinforced precast concrete frame system in conciliation of design and construction; Sekkei to seko no kyocho ni yoru kairyogata ramen purekyasuto koho no jissen

    Kobayakawa, S.; Mikame, A.; Kura, M.; Kuroda, Y. [Fujita Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The reinforced precast concrete (RPC) frame system has been applied frequently in recent years because of its considerable manpower saving at construction sites, its big effect of shortening construction periods and its wide application range in terms of composition technique, but since it has been developed for its practical application aiming at buildings of relatively big scales and simple configurations, there still remain several issues in its application to buildings of small scales and complicated configurations. The building of the health control center which has been built quite recently by the Health Insurance Association of Fuji Heavy Industry in Ota City, Gumma Prefecture is an outcome of the efforts of practical application and execution of the prerequisite of introduction of the latest new techniques and design methods from the very beginning of the entire planning based on the adoption of the RPC method by each division of design, technical development and construction in an united way. In this article, regarding the new techniques and the technical improvements adopted in the construction works, the aims of its introduction and their results are reported. This building has 5 stories above the ground and its building area is 1,078m{sup 2}. The new techniques are the reduction of cross sections of members by using high strength material, the improvement of beam joining methods, etc.. 6 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Dust explosion accident in IC cleanroom and its prevention by automation; IC seizo clean room deno haiki duct funjin bakuhatsu jiko to jidoka ni yoru saihatsu boshi

    Harada, H. [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes dust explosion accident in IC cleanroom and its prevention measures. A dust explosion occurred during periodical cleaning works of dust deposits in an exhaust duct of plasma CVD system in an IC factory in Toyama Prefecture in August, 1996, which killed one worker. Dust was removed by flowing a large amount of air in the duct from the end of duct. This dust is combustible, and it was well known that a dust explosion occurs when mixed with air. Nitrogen gas is used for the transport of powders with high risk of explosion, such as wheat flour and toner, and the full automatic operation is adopted. The prevention of this accident is to adopt automation based on the principle of powder transportation. A safety detection-type safety system has been proposed so as to remove the dust deposits in the duct automatically as well as to detect the deposition conditions in the duct. Based on the comparison between monitoring data of operation in an exhaust duct and past data, operation conditions of duct can be confirmed to ensure the safety by stopping the CVD system urgently when safety can not be confirmed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Recent automatic in-line surface inspection methods. Performed by laser optic visual inspections; Hyomen kensa no jidoka / inline ka no doko. Laser ni yoru mokushi kensa

    Nishida, K.; Nagasuga, H.; Fujimoto, S


    Some kind of nondestructive testing including visual inspections has been applied for all types of weld surface. As for destruction testing, the methods are where the results are obtained by ultrasonic flow testing, eddy current testing and electric signal like that of strain measurement, and visual inspection methods such as radiation transmission testing, magnetic particle testing and penetrant testing. As for testing of weld surface, the automation has not been progressed from the fact that the visual inspection is the main test. On the other hand, distance measurement technology using laser has been used in various fields as a 3 dimensional measurement technology. Further, it is going to be applied for the automation of visual inspection by solving the visual problems such as reflection, scattering, halation and so forth. In this report, some practical examples of laser visual inspections are introduced. Results of applying test system using laser measurement technology for the defects on welding surface confirmed that it is a system with good quantification and memory ability and can be applied for form measurement that is the object for visual inspection. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  11. On-line temperature control of fluidized bed incinerator using fuzzy algorithm; Fuzzu seigyo donyu ni yoru ryudosogata shokyakuro unten no jidoka

    Okayasu, S.; Kuratani, T.; Imai, H. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    Automatic control of incinerators for their stable operation has been desired for the preservation of the environment in the factory. An on-line fuzzy control system has been successfully introduced for temperature control of the fluidized bed of incinerator for industrial wastes. In this case, manual control can be applied to the plant instead of a PID control system, because of the complexity of the waste materials and the large delay in detection of the temperature change in the fluidized bed sand. On the basis of analyzing the dynamic performance of the process and the know-how of skilled operators, membership functions and fuzzy control rules are selected, then determined carefully for the system. Introduction of the system resulted in almost the same performance as manual control. Subsequently the operators are freed from manual operation in the control room for an hour. 6 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Selective extraction of palladium with caffeine from acidic chloride media; Sansei enkabutsu yoeki karano kafuein ni yoru parajiumu no sentakuteki chushutsu

    Kaikake, K.; Baba, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    In order to examine the possibility of caffeine as an extractant, the extraction of metal ions from acidic chloride media was studied at 298 K using the mixture solvent of chloroform and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Caffeine has exhibited a high selectivity for palladium (2) over base metals such as copper (2), nickel (2), and iron (3), and over precious metal such as platinum (4). The stoichiometric relation in the extraction of palladium (2) with caffeine was elucidated by examining the effects of chloride ion, hydrogen ion, and caffeine concentrations on its extractability. In addition, palladium (2) was found to be extracted selectively with caffeine from the mixture containing a 25-fold amount of platinum (4) or copper (2). The stripping of palladium (2) was performed to an extent of 80% by a single batchwise treatment with an aqueous mixture solution of hydrochloric acid and thiourea. (author)

  13. Development of spherical fine powders by high-pressure water atomization using swirl water jet; Senkaisui jet wo mochiita koatsusui atomize ni yoru kyujo bifun no kaihatsu

    Kikukawa, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Inaba, T.; Iwatsu, O.; Takeda, T. [Fukuda Metal Foil and Powder Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)


    In order to obtain spherical fine powders, a new high-pressure water atomization method using swirl water jet was developed. In this paper the effects of jet swirl angle ({omega}) upon the properties of powders were investigated. Cu-10 mass%Sn alloy was atomized by this method at the constant water pressure of 83.3 MPa and constant metal orifice diameter of 4mm, while {omega} was varied from 0 to 0.18 rad. Median diameter of the powder by the laser diffraction method (D{sub 50}) decreased from 12.5 {mu}m to 7.5{mu}m with increasing {omega}, and this corresponded to Fisher average diameter (D{sub FS}) at about w=0.18 rad. The apparent and tap density of the powder increased about 1 and 1.5 Mg/m{sup 3} respectively, and the particle shape observed by SEM became spherical with increasing {omega}. (author)

  14. Analysis of soots from the combustion of various oils using pyrolysis GC/MS; Netsubunkai GC/MS ho ni yoru yurui no susu no bunseki

    Takatsu, M. [Hyogo Prefectural Police Headquarters, Kobe (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan)


    Generally, mineral oils contains alkyl benzenes, fatty group hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this paper, soot from the combustion of 9 kinds of mineral oils are analyzed by pyrolysis GC/MS, and compared with soot of 7 kinds of fatty group hydrocarbons and 2 kinds of vegetable oils or soot of alkyl benzene which comparison has been carried out before, and the detected components are studied. The more bigger number of the hydrocarbons, the more quantity of the soot of the PAH is detected from the 7 kinds of fatty group hydrocarbons. However, very similar components only has been detected from soot of these fatty group hydrocarbons, olive oils and soybean oils, but no characterized components have been detected out. On the other hand, as for the mineral oils, special oxygen-containing components such as dibenzofuran, nitrogen-containing components such as isoquinoline 1-naphthalencarbonitride etc. have been detected from soot of tar, and special PAH such as biphenyl etc. has been detected from the soot of heavy oils and tars. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Method for calculating wave resistance in a catamaran by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru katamaran no zoha teiko keisanho

    Kataoka, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes a method for calculating wave resistance in a catamaran by using a simple panel method. Two Wigley models were put side by side to make a catamaran, speccular images were taken on a face symmetrical in the left and right sides, and only one side (the demi-hull) was used as a region to be calculated. Considering blow-out onto the demi-hull surface and still water surface, a model was constituted, in which discrete vortices were distributed on the demi-hull camber to flow the vortices out to an infinitely distance place from the stern. A free surface condition according to double model linearization by Dawson was derived for this model in terms of numerical analysis. The Kutta`s condition is incorporated when SQCM is used concurrently with the Rankine source method, but not incorporated when not used. Calculations were performed on both conditions. Wave resistance was derived by using pressure integral on the hull surface. It is better to consider the Kutta`s condition when the distance between the demi-hulls is small. However, if the distance is large, or speed is great for the boat length resulting in less interference between the demi-hulls, there is very little difference due to the Kutta`s condition. Difference in the wave shapes causes how waves are made to vary. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Method for solving an inverse problem of wing type by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru yokugata gyaku mondai no ichikaiho

    Ando, J.; Matsumoto, D.; Maita, S.; Nakatake, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes one method for solving an inverse problem of wing type based on the source and quasi continuous vortex lattice method (SQCM) in designing marine propellers and underwater wings. With the SQCM, vortices and control points are distributed on wing camber according to the QCM, and wing surface is divided into certain number of panels. This is the method to decide vortex intensity and blow-out intensity simultaneously from the condition that vertical speed on the camber and the wing surface is zero, upon having distributed blow-out with certain intensity inside the panel. The method solves the inverse problem with the following process: specific point distribution is so determined that the targeted velocity on the wing surface is satisfied when wing surface pressure distribution and uniform flow velocity are given; and then the panels are so rearranged as in parallel with direction of the flow on the surface of the wing calculated by using these specific points to derive the targeted wing shape. This paper describes the problem solving procedure in great detail. It also introduces examples of numerical calculations. It shows one method for solving the inverse problem in wing type using the SQCM as a simple panel method, whereas its good convergence and stability were verified. Considerations on effects of free surface and expansion of the method into three-dimensional problems will be implemented in the future. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Estimation of subsurface-fracture orientation with the three-component crack-wave measurement; Kiretsuha sanjiku keisoku ni yoru chika kiretsumen no hoko suitei

    Nagano, K.; Sato, K. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    This paper reports experiments carried out to estimate subsurface-fracture orientation with the three-component crack-wave measurement. The experiments were performed by using existing subsurface cracks and two wells in the experimental field. An air gun as a sound source was installed directly above a subsurface crack intersection in one of the wells, and a three-component elastic wave detector was fixed in the vicinity of a subsurface crack intersection in the other well. Crack waves from the sound source were measured in a frequency bandwidth from 150 to 300 Hz. A coherence matrix was constituted relative to triaxial components of vibration in the crack waves; a coherent vector was sought that corresponds to a maximum coherent value of the matrix; and the direction of the longer axis in an ellipse (the direction being perpendicular to the crack face) was approximated in particle motions of the crack waves by using the vector. The normal line direction of the crack face estimated by using the above method was found to agree nearly well with the direction of the minimum crust compression stress measured in the normal line direction of the crack face existed in core samples collected from the wells, and measured at nearly the same position as the subsurface crack. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Sensitivity study of anomalous body by model studies; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Model kaiseki ni yoru ijotai no kando chosa kekka

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    An examination was made by a model analysis on sensitivity and the like against a resistive anomalous body, in connection with an electromagnetic tomography system with surface earthquake sources and underground receiver arrangements. A resistivity model was of a three-dimensional structure, and built with a 5 ohm{center_dot}m low resistivity anomalous body assembled in a 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous medium. As a result of the examination, it was shown that the size limitation of an analyzable anomalous body was 50{times}50{times}20m at a frequency of 8 to 10kHz and that a system with high precision in a high frequency range was necessary. The examination of effects under a shallow anomalous body revealed, for example, that the fluctuation of a low frequency response was large compared with a deep anomalous body and that, where a second anomalous body existed under it, the effect also appeared with a surface earthquake source positioned in the opposite side from the anomalous body. The examination of effects under the three dimensional structure revealed, for example, that a remarkable change appeared in the data with the change in the inclined angle of the transmission line against the strike of the anomalous body. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Forward prediction of tunnel face by use of equi-traveltime planes; Tosojimen no riyo ni yoru tunnel kiriha zenpo tansa

    Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirano, T. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The result is reported herein of a depth transform algorithm application utilizing equi-traveltime planes in reflection seismic exploration for the purpose of knowing the structure configuration in front of the tunnel face in a tunnel excavation process. A vibration producing hole was provided 0.5m above the ground surface while a vibration receiving hole was provided at 1.5m above the ground surface, and the excavated lengths were 1.5m and 0.5m, respectively. There were 24 recording channels, from which inline offset records were taken. The on-site records were subjected to 100-1000Hz band pass filtering. The elastic wave propagation rate in the rock used for depth conversion was set at 400m/s in consideration of the distance and direct wave travel time from the vibration source to the vibration receiving point. As the result of study, weak layers were found in the neighborhood of 230-240m, 260-270m, and 280-290m. This method requires less core memory for calculation and completes calculation in a shorter period of time, which enables a conclusion that it will be effective in grasping the 3-dimensional structure in front of the tunnel face in the working scene. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Simulation on breakage of heterogeneous materials caused by detonative loading; Bakugo shogeki ni yoru fukinshitsu zairyo no hakai gensho no simulation

    Sassa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Investigations were conducted by simulation of breakage of inhomogeneous materials (rock) attributable to detonative loading, which simulation used the Days-2 Code. During the simulation, one-free-face blastings were used for testing a homogeneous structure, horizontal 2-layer structure, and horizontal 3-layer structure. Property values were assigned to the rocks on the assumption that they were sedimentary rocks such as sandstone or mudstone or hard rocks such as granite. As the result, it was found that a detonative loading resulted in shear failure in a sphere near the focus that was followed by radially developed cracks due to tension breakage, that more area is damaged in a soft rock than in a hard rock, that cracks due to breakage are produced by the overlapping of waves directly from the focus and those reflected from the free face in case of one-free-face blastings, that such cracks propagated along the soft rock layer in case there is a soft rock layer in a hard rock, but that breakage does not extend beyond the soft rock layer. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Field test results using existing equipment; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Kison sochi ni yoru test sokutei kekka

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    With the purpose of developing an electromagnetic tomography system, an observation was carried out with existing equipment combined, and the data was analyzed. The measuring equipment consisted of existing borehole vertical magnetic field sensors as the sensor part, MT method receivers as the receiving device, and existing CSMT method transmitters as the transmitting device. The measuring was performed at the Richmond Field Station which was abundant in existing data and which had a comparatively simple resistivity structure. The borehole vertical magnetic field sensors were lowered inside the borehole, and signal sources were arranged at 10m apart on the traverse line in the direction from northeast to southwest with the borehole as the center. The analysis of the data was made with the use of EM1D by three models, namely, 10 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, and horizontal 7 layer model prepared on the basis of electric logging results; and a comparative examination was made against the measured data. As a result, it was demonstrated that the test measurement agreed very well with the model from the electric logging results and that it was the data reflecting a resistivity structure. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Fundamental principles of a new EM tool for in-situ resistivity measurement; Denji yudoho ni yoru den`ichi hiteiko sokutei sochi no kento

    Noguchi, K.; Aoki, H. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Saito, A. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the purpose of measuring in-situ resistivity without contact with the rock, a study was made about a measuring device using electromagnetic induction. This measuring device has two concentric transmission loops and a receiving point at the center of the loops, and performs focusing by canceling the primary magnetic field at the receiving point. Using this device, a trial was made to eliminate the influence of surface undulation. In the model calculation, response was calculated after the structure with a heavily undulated ground surface was replaced by a two-layer structure with the first layer provided with a higher resistivity. In the model, the first layer had a resistivity of 10000 Ohm m, and the second layer 1000 Ohm m. Using the ratio between the transmission loop radii as a parameter, relationship with the thickness of the first layer was studied, and it was found that the sensitivity to the second layer resistivity increases when the inner and outer loops are nearer to each other in terms of radius and that this eliminates the influence near the surface layer. A decision needs to fall within a scope assuring good reception because response intensity decreases as the ratio between the transmission loop radii approaches 1. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Optimization of the catalytic converter internal flow by using 3D-CFD; Sanjigen nagare kaiseki ni yoru shokubai converter nai nagare no saitekika

    Toi, M.; Sugiura, S. [Toyota Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    By using computational fluid dynamics and statistical quality control method, we investigated the contribution of front and rear catalytic converter cone shape for the pressure loss and the partial flow, also led the optimal terms and the predictional formulations efficiently. According to this, we can investigate the optimal position of the catalytic converter from the planning. 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Improvement of D.I. diesel engine combustion using numerical simulation; Chokufun diesel kikan no nensho kaizen shuho. Suchi kaiseki ni yoru torikumi

    Minami, T.; Adachi, T.; Isyii, Y. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the purpose of improving DI diesel engine combustion, it is important to predict air flow of intake and exhaust manifold, intake port flow, combustion chamber swirl and fuel spray combustion. This paper describes the application of numerical simulation to the engines, the analysis of phenomena and a problem of simulation model modification. (author)

  5. Life prolongation and cost reduction of steel ladles with improving refractories and their structure; Taikabutsu zaishitsu to kozo kaizen ni yoru shuka taikabutsu no chojumyoka to kosuto teigen

    Nakai, Masato; Kasahara, Hajime; Fukutani, Fujio; Imai, Hiroyuki [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Steel Making Plant, Hirohata Iron Works, Nippon Steel Corp. succeeded to reduce the cost of furnace materials by measures described below down to 49% compared to that in 1992. (1) For tuyre bricks, cleanability against oxygen was improved by compacting by vacuum cast forming. (2) For SL bricks, the cost was reduced by applying imported bricks and optimization of the range of use. (3) For alumina-magnesia amorphous refractories for side walls, low expansion and breaking resistance were improved by optimization of magnesia quantity and silica ultra fine powder quantity. (4) For side wall structure, improvement of tie-in between the ground part and the side wall and lining with efficient thickness were carried out. (NEDO)

  6. Improvements of diesel combustion with pilot and main injections at different piston positions; Piston iso wo koryoshita pilot funsha ni yoru diesel nenshono kaizen

    Li, C.; Ogawa, H.; Miyamoto, N. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sakai, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The fuel spray distribution in a DI diesel engine with a pilot injection was actively controlled by pilot and main fuel injections at different piston positions to avoid the main fuel injection from hitting the pilot flame. A CFD analysis demonstrated that the movement of the piston with a cavity divided by a central lip along the center of the sidewall effectively separated the cores of the pilot and main fuel sprays. The experiments showed that more smoke was emitted with pilot injection in an ordinary cavity without the central lip while smokeless and low NO{sub x} operation was realized with pilot injection in a cavity divided by a central lip even at heavy loads where ordinary operation without pilot injection emitted smoke so much. The indicated specific energy consumption ISEC was a little bit higher with the pilot injection, mainly because of the reduction in the degree of constant volume combustion. With the advanced pilot injection, ISEC was improved more than that with the retarded pilot injection while the NO{sub x} is a little higher than the retarded pilot injection maintaining still much lower than in ordinary operation. (author)

  7. Application of monolithic lining to tundish and extension of tundish life with improvement of refractories; Tandeisshu futeiseika to taikabutsu kaizen ni yoru jumyo kojo

    Mori, Eiichiro; Fujta, Takashi; Tanikawa, Kanji [Kobe Steel Corp., Hyogo (Japan)


    As a part of realization of monolithic liming of a tundish lining refractory, a study on 2CC and 3CC tundish monolithic refractories was carried out to improve placing efficiency and extend its life. Main inspection points were set on (1) casting facility specifications and (2) structure and material. A force feeding pump system with a high degree of freedom for placing layout was selected. It was judged preferable than a hopper dolly type ladle repair facility in the degree of freedom for a placing site and facility expenses, though little inferior at maintenance. A force feeding pump is combined with a boom to enable the facility to cast for plural objects. Low expansion and creep properties were given to the refractory by reviewing the addition of the expansive material and the structure was improved by setting anchor blocks at corner parts. The cost of refractories was reduced and labor saving of refractory placing workers was achieved by widely extending the life. (NEDO)

  8. Stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan with end wall injection and suction; Hekimen fukidashi suidashi ni yoru han'yo jikuryu sofuki no shissoku kaizen

    Nishioka, K.; Kuroda, H.; Obata, S.; Chimura, O. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)


    The experimental studies are conducted to reveal the mechanism of stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan by injection or suction from the end wall. In case of injection, the largest improvement is obtained by the injection at about 0. 14 {approx} 0 .21 times axial chord length downstream from leading edge. The reason for large improvement is that stall vortex, shed intermittent separation vortex and tip leakage vortex are dissipated by this injection, and also that this blowing suppresses the separation of boundary layer. In case of suction, the largest improvement is found for the suction from the end wall near leading edge. The amplitude of periodic static pressure after stall inception becomes smaller in comparison with injection cases. These effects are increased with the increase of suction flow rate, because the discharge of the vortex occurs more easily. On the other hand, the suction from the upstream of leading edge reduces the axial velocity near rotor tip, and then it induces stall. Also we tried to visualize the tip region flow, The suppression mechanism is discussed based on the visualization. The suppression of stall is successfully photographed. (author)

  9. Improvement of wells turbine performance by means of 3D guide vanes; Sanjigen annai hane ni yoru wells turbine seino no kaizen

    Takao, M.; Kim, T.H. [Saga University, Saga (Japan); Setoguchi, T. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Inoue, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Performance of a Wells turbine was improved by equipping 3D guide vanes before and behind a rotor. For further improvement, 3D guide vanes have been proposed in this paper. The performance of the Wells turbine with 2D and 3D guide vanes have been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions. Then, the running and starting characteristics in irregular ocean waves have been obtained by a computer simulation. As a result, it is found that both of the running and starting characteristics of the Wells turbine with 3D guide vanes are superior to those of the turbine with 2D guide vanes. (author)

  10. Improvement of lean combustion characteristics of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen addition; Suiso tenka ni yoru kokyu tanka suisokei nenryo no kihaku nensho no kaizen

    Sakai, Y. [Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ishizuka, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The Lewis numbers of lean heavy-hydrocarbon fuels are larger than unity, and hence, their flames are prone to extinction in a shear flow, which occurs in a turbulent combustion. Here, propane is used as a representative fuel of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels because the Lewis number of lean propane/air mixtures is larger than unity, and an attempt to improve its combustion characteristics by hydrogen addition has been made. A tubular flame burner is used to evaluate its improvement, since a rotating, stretched vortex flow is established in the burner. The results show that with' hydrogen addition, the fuel concentration, the flame diameter and the flame temperature at extinction are reduced and its combustion characteristics are improved. However, it is found that the effective equivalence ration at extinction cannot become so small as that of lean methane/air mixture, which has a Lewis number less than unity. (author)

  11. Cavity detection based on EM migration of TEM data; TEM ho data no denji migration ni yoru kudo kenshutsu no kokoromi

    Shiga, N.; Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hara, T. [Toda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to discuss applicability of resistivity imaging using electromagnetic migration to detection of underground cavity, an applicability test was carried out on calculation of a numerical model and measurement data. By using the numerical model, a calculation was performed on a hypothetical case that a cubic cavity with sides each at 40 m exists in a homogenous medium of 200 ohm-m, with the cavity top located 20 m below the ground surface. As a result, it was possible to structure in a very short calculation time an image of the cavity which cannot be identified by one-dimensional inverse analysis. In the case of this cavity, a center of the image was structured on its lower face. It was shown that a location to indicate the image must be changed according to difference in the measurement locations. In a test on data measured in an underground cavity in the city of Utsunomiya, Tochigi Prefecture, it was found that the result may vary largely depending on structure of the background necessary for migration. Referring to a result of measurement performed in a location in which no target has been set can provide a good result. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Computational study on full-wave inversion based on the elastic wave-equation; Dansei hado hoteishiki full wave inversion no model keisan ni yoru kento

    Uesaka, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Algorithm is constructed and a program developed for a full-wave inversion (FWI) method utilizing the elastic wave equation in seismic exploration. The FWI method is a method for obtaining a physical property distribution using the whole observed waveforms as the data. It is capable of high resolution which is several times smaller than the wavelength since it can handle such phenomena as wave reflection and dispersion. The method for determining the P-wave velocity structure by use of the acoustic wave equation does not provide information about the S-wave velocity since it does not consider S-waves or converted waves. In an analysis using the elastic wave equation, on the other hand, not only P-wave data but also S-wave data can be utilized. In this report, under such circumstances, an inverse analysis algorithm is constructed on the basis of the elastic wave equation, and a basic program is developed. On the basis of the methods of Mora and of Luo and Schuster, the correction factors for P-wave and S-wave velocities are formulated directly from the elastic wave equation. Computations are performed and the effects of the hypocenter frequency and vibration transmission direction are examined. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Development of micro capacitive accelerometer for subsurface microseismic measurement; Micromachining ni yoru chika danseiha kenshutsu no tame no silicon yoryogata kasokudo sensor no seisaku

    Nishizawa, M.; Niitsuma, H.; Esashi, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A silicon capacitive accelerometer was fabricated to detect subsurface elastic waves by using micromachining technology. Characteristics required for it call for capability of detecting acceleration with amplitudes from 0.1 to 1 gal and flat amplitude characteristics in frequency bands of 10 Hz to several kHz. For the purpose of measuring transition phenomena, linear phase characteristics in the required bands must be guaranteed, cross sensitivity must be small, and resistance to water, pressure and heat is demanded. Sensitivity of the sensor is determined finally by noise level in a detection circuit. The sensor`s minimum detection capability was 40 mgal in the case of the distance between a weight and an electrode being 3 {mu}m. This specification value is a value realizable by the current micromachining technology. Dimensions for the weight and other members were decided with the natural frequency to make band width 2 kHz set to 4 kHz. Completion of the product has not been achieved yet, however, because of a problem that the weight gets stuck on the electrode plate in anode bonding in the assembly process. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Numerical simulation for submerged body fitted with hydrofoil by boundary element method; Kyokai yosoho ni yoru yokutsuki bossuitai mawari no nagare keisan

    Masuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Ashidate, I. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In a high-speed boat of a type using hydrofoils, lifting force increases in proportion to square of its length, while displacement is proportional to the third power. Therefore, an idea has come up that speed of a large boat may be increased by combining the hydrofoils with a submerged body. In other words, the idea is to levitate a ship by using composite support consisting of buoyancy of the submerged body and lifting force caused by the hydrofoils. Insufficiency of the lifting force may be complemented by the buoyancy of the submerged body which increases in an equivalent rate as that in the displacement. However, combining a submerged body with hydrofoils render a problem that lifting force for hydrofoils decreases because of interactions among the submerged body, hydrofoils, and free surface. Therefore, assuming a model of a submerged body with a length of 85 m cruising at 40 kt, analysis was given on decrease in lifting force for hydrofoils due to interactions between the submerged and lifting body and free surface by using the boundary element method. As a result, it was verified that the lifting force for the hydrofoils decreases as a result of creation of a flow that decreases effective angle of attach of the hydrofoils. It was also made clear that making the submerging depth greater reduces the decrease in the lifting force. 9 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Numerical prediction with `DMDF` model of pack ice motion in the Okhotsk sea; DMDF model ni yoru Okhotsk kai ryuhyo undo no suchi yosoku

    Matsuzawa, T.; Yamaguchi, H.; Suzuki, S.; Kato, H. [The University of Tokyo (Japan); Rheem, C. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science


    A simulation was performed on pack ice motion in the Okhotsk Sea in winter by using the distributed mass/discrete floe (DMDF) method that carries out a dynamic numerical calculation of pack ice motion. Several kinds of cases were compared and calculated. As a result, effectiveness was verified on a DMDF model with boundary conditions which are relatively large in range and complex in nature. At the same time, it was possible to estimate part of the characteristics of pack ice motion in this sea area. The numerical calculation used the floe distribution on February 1, 1994 as the initial condition, and performed calculations on conditions until February 8 giving considerations on meteorological and hydrographic data. As a result, the calculation result showed the same movements as those in the observed ice conditions. If an ocean current is hypothesized steady, the calculation is affected more than necessarily by the ocean current, and it derives a result departed from reality. From these findings, it was elucidated that floe motions are governed mainly by wind; and in making a numerical modeling, a consideration including composition with the ocean current is necessary. Shear stress of wind has its acting direction displaced from the wind direction because of effect of the Corioli`s force. 6 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Simulation of tandem hydrofoils by finite volume method with moving grid system; Henkei koshi wo tsukatta yugen taisekiho ni yoru tandem suichuyoku no simulation

    Kawashima, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Miyata, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With an objective to clarify possibility of application of time-advancing calculated fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation by using a finite volume method with moving grid system, a simulation was performed on motion of a ship with hydrofoils including the control system therein. The simulation consists of a method that couples a moving grid system technology, an equation of motion, and the control system. Complex interactions between wings and with free surface may be considered automatically by directly deriving fluid force from a flow field by using the CFD. In addition, two-dimensional flows around tandem hydrofoils were calculated to solve the motion problem within a vertical plane. As a result, the following results were obtained: a finite volume method using a dynamic moving grid system method was applied to problems in non-steady tandem hydrofoils to show its usefulness; a method that couples the CFD with the equation of motion was applied to the control problems in the tandem hydrofoils to show possibility of a new technology for simulating motions; and a simulation that considers such wing interference as wave creation, discharged vortices, and associated flows was shown useful to understand characteristics of the tandem hydrofoils. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  17. Improvement in riding comfort of the vehicle by hysteresis loop of leaf spring. Bankan masatsuryoku kaiseki ni yoru leaf spring sha no norigokochi kaizen

    Takayama, N.; Numazaki, I. (Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Yamamoto, E.; Hamamo, T. (NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan))


    This paper describes improvement in friction characteristics in a vehicle whose suspension consists of leaf-springs. It also explains riding comfort improving measures and their effects by using suspension specifications based on experiments considering inter-leaf friction force, and simulation calculations. As a result of experimenting behavior in each leaf, it was found that an improved Berlin-eye taper leaf-spring has much more gradual inclination in transfer portion in the hysteresis curve than in the conventional upturn-eye springs. This leads to a belief that rise in the diagonal line spring constants at small amplitude is suppressed, thus contributing largely to improving the riding comfort. Inter-leaf friction force at large amplitude is maintained equal to that in the upturn-eye springs if the spring consists of the same number of leaf. The former spring provides good steering stability. As a result of simulations using a simplified model with two degrees of freedom, the Berlin-eye spring had the resonance frequency on the spring seen at small amplitude moved closer to lower frequency side than with the upturn-eye spring. The acceleration levels have decreased in higher frequency zones than the resonance frequency. Sufficient riding comfort improvement was discerned as a result of bench vibration and road tests, and car driving test for feeling evaluation. 5 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Analysis of power distribution by a hybrid MCG and ECG approach; Shinjizu shindenzu heiyoho ni yoru shinzonai denryoku bunpu no suitei

    Doi, T.; Hayano, S.; Saito, Y. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan); Nakaya, Y. [Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan)


    SQUID was developed using the quantum effect of a superconductor so that the magnetocardiography (MCG) can be measured. The temporal change of power distribution in the human heart was estimated to propose the method for assigning a stimulation conduction path by using MCG jointly with electrocardiogram (ECG) and by using a sampled pattern matching (SPM) method for the analysis of an inverse problem. The portion where the power is consumed can be estimated when this method is used for a simple simulation model and when the power distribution inside the target area is estimated from the distribution of the locally measured electric and magnetic fields. Moreover, the result obtained when this method was actually used for ECG and MCG showed that the temporal change of the power distribution estimated by normal examples and trouble examples differs definitely. In the present stage, however, a different result was only obtained when the data on the patient with a different trouble was analyzed. Medical verification is required for application to the actual diagnosis. The effectiveness of this method for the human heart`s diagnosis must be verified as a theme in future. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction. ; Hydrogenolysis of model compound using synthetic pyrite as catalyst. Sekitan ekika hanno kiko. ; Gosei ryukatetsu shokubai ni yoru model kagobutsu no hanno

    Ito, H.; Amemiya, S.; Makabe, M.; Yoneda, N. (Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Hydrogenolysis reaction of a model compound was studied using synthetic pyrite as catalyst to compare with a stabilized nickel catalyst. Benzyle phenyl ether was used as model compound, while naphthalene, tetralin or decalin as solvent. The model compound was hydrogenated at reaction temperatures of 325-459[degree]C and hydrogen pressures of 3-10 MPa for 0-60 min. As a result, unlike a stabilized nickel catalyst, the synthetic pyrite catalyst produced not only decomposed products as toluene and phenol but also a large amount of condensation products as di- and tribenzyle phenyl. It was thus suggested that a large amount of condensation products is produced in the initial stage of the reaction, and those are then converted to smaller decomposed products during the following reaction. Because of the weak hydrogenation activity of the synthetic pyrite, only a very small amount of hydrogenated products was obtained during the reaction within 15 min even at higher reaction temperatures and hydrogen pressures. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  20. Support for planning and designing power plant construction works by integration of CAD data; CAD data no togo ni yoru karyoku hatsudensho kensetsu koji no keikaku sekkei shien

    Hirata, K. [Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ichinose, Y.; Mizushima, Y. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    Basic plans and loading data are frequently changed in planning and designing civil engineering facilities for a steam power plant, because of magnitude of the overall scale and peculiarity involved in the plant facility construction. The CAD data of facilities and geological/ground conditions are integrated to establish a supporting system for Chugoku Electric Power Co.`s Ohsaki Power Plant construction works, in order to effectively cope with the above situations. This is for common use and integrated management of updated plan and design drawing information. This paper outlines the system and associated activities. It integrates various CAD data, such as geographical maps, land preparation plans, basic plans of various facilities and implementation design structures, to improve working efficiency for planning and designing civil engineering and building facilities in the power plant. The system improves planning/designing efficiency of the implementation design works for designing underground line facilities with the aid of three-dimensional CAD data, planning methods for foundation construction, and drawing efficient civil engineering plans. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Production and application of single cell oils containing C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids; Biseibutsu ni yoru kodo fuhowa shibosan wo fukumu shinkina kinosei yushi no seisan to riyo

    Shimizu, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture


    Mycelia of a fungus Mortierella alpina 1S-4 and the mutants derived from it are new and rich sources of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of pharmacologically and dietary importance. M. alpina 1S-4 produces a unique triacylglycerol with high n-6 PUFA content. The mycelial content of arachidonic acid reaches 274 mg/g dry mycelia (4.3 g/L) on cultivation of the fungus in a medium containing glucose and yeast extract. The value accounts nearly 70 % of the total fatty acids in the extracted oil. Mutants defective in {delta}5 desaturase are potent produces of dihomo-{gamma}-linolenic acid (4.1 g/L). A {delta}12 desaturase-defective-mutant produces an oil containing only n-9 PUFAs. The mycelial Mead acid content is 141 mg/g dry mycelia (1.9 g/L). An oil rich in n-3 PUFAs can be produced by the same mutant when grown in a medium containing linseed oil. The content of total n-3 PUFAs (i.e.,{alpha}-linolenic acid+8, 11, 14, 17-cis-icosa-tetraenoic acid+5, 8, 11, 14, 17-cis-icosapentaenoic acid) is nearly 50% in total mycelial fatty acid. The enzyme systems for the biosynthesis of PUFAs in the Mortierella fungi is also discussed. 33 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Dynamic analysis concerned with rotational displacement of skewed bridges caused by horizontal ground motion; Shakyo no suihei jishindo ni yoru kaiten kyodo kaiseki

    Otsuka, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kanda, M. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Kawakami, M. [Nippon Engineering Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Several skewed bridges were slid and fell down from their supports by the 1995 Hyogo-Ken Nanbu Earthquake. The purpose of this paper is to study the in-plane rotational behaviour of the skewed bridges after failure of side blocks of the bearing by the horizontal ground motion. Firstly, geometric configuration of the skewed bridges in which the rotation is inevitable is investigated. Then, the rotational displacement of the skewed bridges are obtained by conducting non- linear time- history analyses in which a friction type hysteresis model is assumed to simulate the sliding of the bridge at the supports. It is found that the skewed bridges with small width-span ratios and small skew angles may have considerable sliding rotational displacements and fall down from their supports if adequate seat width is not provided. The requirement of the support length in skewed bridges is also presented. 6 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Dynamic analysis of sliding behavior of curved bridge superstructure caused by horizontal ground motion; Suihei jishindo ni yoru kyokusenkyo jobu kozo no ido kyodo kaiseki

    Otsuka, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kanda, M. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yoshizawa, T. [Nippon Engineering Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    It is observed often in the past earthquakes that the curved bridge tends to move to the radial direction of its curved bridge line when large seismic movement occurs and the bearings are broken. The rigid body movement of the curved girder which affects the sliding behavior is estimated. Some cases of dynamic nonlinear analysis to simulate the movement of bearing damaged curved bridge, and the parametric study to examine the dynamic characteristics of curved bridges are carried out. Based on the relationship between the traveling of girder and the various parameters of girder shape, the equation to calculate the length of the girder on the pier for curved bridges is estimated. 7 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Excitation of waves on a molten metal by an intermittent alternating magnetic field; Kanketsugata koryu jiba inka ni yoru ekitai kinzoku no kashin

    Chino, Y.; Iwai, K.; Asai, S. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Toyama, Y. [Mitsubishi Space Software Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A new process for wave generation on the free surface of a molten metal is proposed where an intermittent alternating magnetic field with the stepwise change of amplitude is adopted to induce the time variation of magnetic pressure generating a wave motion. Based on a linear small-amplitude wave theory, a mathematical model has been developed, which describes the wave motion as a function of operating variables such as intermittent frequency, amplitude of magnetic pressure and vessel size. The function is indicated as combination of a free vibration determined by a vessel size and a forced vibration, in which the amplitude of the latter is in proportion to the magnetic pressure difference at the maximum and the minimum magnetic fields. To confirm the validity of the mathematical model, an experiment with liquid gallium was performed. It was found from FFT analysis of the wave motion measured by a laser level sensor that the frequencies of the wave motion are composed of an intermittent frequency of the magnetic pressure and the intrinsic frequencies of a vessel. A resonance phenomenon was observed when the intermittent frequency coincided with the intrinsic frequency. Except the resonance case, the amplitude of the wave motion was in proportion to the amplitude of the magnetic pressure difference. These observed results are well predicted by the mathematical model. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Ceramics sintering process by millimeter-wave radiation and pulsed high current supply; Miri ha taidenjiha narabini pulse daidenryu inka ni yoru ceramics shoketsu process

    Miyake, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Joining and Welding Research Institute


    Research on ceramics sintering by milimeter-wave range microwaves is briefly reviewed in conjunction with that by pulsed high current supply. Unique features of mm-wave sintering are demonstrated in comparison with sintering by electrical furnaces as well as by 2.45 GHz radiation. Studies on mm-wave sintering of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}+ZrO{sub 2} composite and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, as well as of TiN + Cr{sub 2}N composite, which has been conducted at JWRI, Osaka University, are described. Sintering mechanism of mm-wave radiation and pulsed high current supply is discussed based on the electromagnetic phenomena within the powder particles and grain boundaries. (author)

  6. Rayleigh-Benard convection under applied magnetic fields using GSMAC FEM; GSMAC yugen yosoho ni yoru inka jibaka no Rayleigh-Benard tairyu no kaiseki

    Jung, C.H.; Tanahashi, T. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Ogaya, K. [Nippon Telegragh and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The Rayleigh-Benard convection occurs, if the fluid between the parallel plates is heated from the bottom plate and cooled from the upper plate above the critical temperature difference. The Rayleigh-Benard convection is seen in the blast furnace. Particularly, the lower Prandtl fluid like the fused metal tends to be time dependence flow. This flow disturbs the pressure field and temperature field, and hinders the formation of the metal with the good crystal. The Lorentz force by DC magnetic field can control this flow. By this way, the time dependence flow changes to laminar flow and the three dimensional structure changes to the two dimensional roll structure. In this thesis, the computations have been performed for Rayleigh-Benard convection in the three dimensional cubic cavity, using GSMAC-FEM with {phi} method. From the solution, the author investigated the effect of magnetic field to the flow and temperature field and the two dimensional roll structure. (author)

  7. Fatigue behavior of piezoelectric ceramics under an applied electric field and stress; Denkai/niomo no doji inka ni yoru atsuden seramikkusu no hiro kyodo

    Sakai, Takenobu; Ogawa, Shusui; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Hiroaki [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Aichi (Japan)


    Fatigue tests of ceramics are usually performed under cyclic stress. However, piezoelectric materials are used under an applied electric field and stresses are caused by the displacement. It is very important to understand the relation between the fatigue behavior and the compositional conditions. S-N curves of fatigue test in an applied electric field were composed of two curves having different gradients, acceleration was observed in the range of many time cycles. Fatigue behavior of piezoelectric ceramics considers accumulative fatigue which shows markedly decrease of strength caused by internal-crack with domain switching. (author)

  8. Treatment efficiencies of nitrite nitrogen in industrial wastewater by using amido sulfonic acid; Amido ryusan ni yoru kojo haisuichu no ashosansei chisso no shori koka

    Inoue, M. [Kanagawa Environmental Research Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Chemical denitrification of NO2-N conducted with amido sulfonic acid was studied to treat NO2-N in both bench and in situ experiments. In bench experiments, following optium conditions for NO2-N removal were obtained. The dosage of amide sulfate was 6.9 times equivalent to NO2-N load, pH value and stirring rate were 2.5 and 50 r.p.m., respectively in the bench reactor, and the period for reaction was more than 60 minutes. Nitrogenous gases like NOx, and N2O, which are causative materials for air pollution and global warming, were not detected in the gas exhaust. In situ experiment was made with wastewater containing NO2-N discharged from a factory and with its operating parameters same as the optimum conditions obtained in the bench experiment. It ran in batch style and was controlled automatically. Results showed that efficient chemical denitrification could be conducted through continuously stirring during treated wastewater discharging, and through covering nitrite sensor to keep it from the nitrogenous gases generated in the reaction. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Interactive character segmentation of ancient documents by controlling binary level and its evaluation; Komonjo gazo no nichika level seigyo ni yoru taiwagata moji bunkatsu to sono hyoka

    Tomita, H.; Araki, Y [Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto (Japan); Shibayama, M. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan)


    Almost all ancient documents were handwritten with cursive styles using writing brush, as result, successive strokes that represent characters are generally connected and individual character patterns are considerably deformed. Character segmentation for documents plays an important role in character recognition and in building image database using such documents. In order to segment each character on a document, we identify the points at which the pressure of the writing brush changes infinitesimally between individual characters. We propose a method for effective segment positioning by automatic binary level control and interactive character segmentation. Result using the above method for character segmentation indicates that the proposed method has an 84.5% ratio of segmentation, which is about 27.2% higher as compared with the result when the method is not used. This paper describes the algorithm for estimating effective segmentation position and result based on this algorithm are evaluated. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Analysis of combustion in an ATAC engine with measurement of radical luminescence; Radical hakko keisoku ni yoru ATAC engine no nensho kaiseki

    Park, Y.; Oguma, H.; Ueda, H.; Iida, N. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to make clear of the combustion mechanism and the frame structure in two stake, so called, active thermo-atmosphere combustion (ATAC) engine fueled by gasoline and methanol, we measured the 2-demensional images of OH, CH and C2 radical band spectra in both ATAC and SI combustion mode. From the results of pressure data in the cylinder, the heat release rate was calculated. We evaluated the correlation of radical luminescence intensity and the rate of heat release. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Quantitative measurements of air-fuel mixture distribution in a cylinder using LIF; LIF ni yoru tonai kongoki nodo no teiryoteki keisoku

    Kato, S.; Kadoi, N. [Subaru Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of mixture formation in a cylinder to improve engine performance, especially for a gasoline direct injection engine. In this study, a quantitative air-fuel mixture measurement technique using PLIF was developed. Across a laser sheet, a transparent liner was placed between two calibration cells which increased the reliability of fuel concentration. This technique was applied to gasoline direct injection engine to clarify the effect of injection timing on stratified charged mixture. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Increase in information by improvement of measuring method in a multichannel taste sensor; Multichannel aji sensor no sokutei hoho no kairyo ni yoru johoryo no zoka

    Ikezaki, H.; Taniguchi, A. [Anritsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    We have developed a multichannel taste sensor with lipid membranes which can detect and quantify the basic taste substances in aqueous solution. The aim of the present study is to increase selectivity to adsorptive taste substances (bitter, umami and astringent taste substances) for quantification of taste by improving measuring methods. High selectivity to adsorptive taste substances is obtained by CPA measurement algorithm (CPA: Change of membrane Potential caused by Adsorption). High repeatability is also obtained by developing a cleaning technique of taste sensor. 18 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Production of activated carbon from acrylonitrile and methyl acrylate copolymers. Akurironitoriru/akuriru san mechiru kyojugotai wo mochiita kagaku shoriho ni yoru tansokei kyuchakuzai no seizoho

    Noda, Y.; Yamada, K.; Ishibashi, K. (Government Industrial Development Lab. Hokkaido, Sapporo (Japan)); Kumamoto, S.; Takahashi, Y. (Environmental Research Inst. of Sanyu Plant Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)); Kobashi, T.; Takagi, J. (Japan Exlan Co. Ltd., Okayama (Japan))


    Carbonization of carbonaceous adsorbents, in which acrylonitrile (AN) and methyl acrylate copolymers(PANA) are used as raw materials, in order to discover high functionability, manufacture condition of the activated coal by chemical activation method using phosphate and zinc chloride as an activation promoters, and the performance of each formed products, are reported. The maximum value of methylene blue absorption quantity(MB) and the inner surface area(S) was shown by both the samples within the activation temperature range of 600[degree]C to 900[degree]C. The values of MB and S has increased linearly with the increase of activation temperature for both PANACHZ and PANACHP which are obtained by adding ZnCl2 and H3PO4 respectively in thermal condensation product(PANACH). Adsorbability of PANACHZ and PANACHP increased with the increase of activation temperature. The amounts of adsorption by activation products and organic gases of PANACHZ and PANACHP were pursued. As a result, it was revealed that the amounts of adsorption for both chars increased with the increase of activation temperature. Furthermore, adsorption quantity of butyl mercaptan gas was more than twice of comparative activated carbon on the market, and highly efficient adsorbent was obtained. 19 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Studies on sleep patterns and fatigue due to shift work and their work adaptability. Kotai sagyo ni yoru suimin dotai to hiro oyobi sono sagyo tekiosei no kenkyu

    Matsuoka, N.; Yokota, A. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Studies were made on sleep patterns and fatigue due to shift work and their work adaptability with respect to the following items: (1) With a nurse work system as the object, a survey of rectum temperature, heart rate and rhythm before and after a midnight shift, and sleep at rising in the morning using the OSA survey method; (2) To analyze actual conditions of cumulative fatigue felt by shift workers and fatigue factors, a survey on shift work history, overtime work time, work patterns, symptoms of cumulative fatigue, and and life satisfaction; (3) A survey on daytime sleep record maintained at working places of guards including those of middle or advanced age, and sleep as affected by a nap; (4) A method of improving complains of circadian rhythm disorders because of variations in sleep and emergence rhythms experienced by shift workers, and discussions of usability of light radiation; and (5) Establishment of a technique to indicate effects of psychological burdens and psychogenic stress on visual functions of shift workers using tensions in focal adjustment. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Local space air conditioning by covering with a plane jet. Part 2. Theoretical analysis; Kukimaku riyo ni yoru kyokusho kukan kucho. 2. Rironteki kaiseki

    Yamada, N. [Shinryo Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kubota, H.; Ijichi, T.; Kurosawa, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Hanaoka, Y. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)


    The local space air conditioning using air curtain was theoretically analyzed. The conditions, where the Coanda effect appeared in the case of local heating, and the temperature characteristics in the eddy generated by the effect were clarified. The force generated by the pressure difference between upper and lower parts of entrained air as well as the buoyancy is applied to the warm plane jet. When the trajectory of the warm jet was theoretically estimated, the critical condition where the jet attaches to the floor was identified as K{sub c}=1.0k{sub p}{sup -0.96} (where K=Ar(H{sub s}/h){sup 3/2}, k{sub p}: center line velocity constant, Ar: Archimedes number, and H{sub s}/h: offset ratio). The critical condition where the attached warm jet goes up was expressed by K>1.39/((2.35+1.25h/H{sub s})k{sub p}{sup 1/2}). The temperature in the eddy region is maintained by the heat, which is supplied with the warm jet collided against the floor due to the Coanda effect and divided into the eddy region. The temperature characteristics within the eddy, which are theoretically derived, were approximated by the following equation, {delta}{theta}{sub c}/{delta}{theta}{sub o}{approx} 0.90(H{sub s}/(k{sub p}h)){sup -1/2} (where {delta}{theta}{sub c} is temperature difference between cavity and room air, and {delta}{theta}{sub o} is temperature difference between outlet and room air). 6 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Synthesis of calcium-deficient by hydroxyapatite-collage composite by the electrolytic deposition method; Denkai sekishutsu ho ni yoru karushiumu kesson hidorokishiapataito-coragen fukugotai no gosei

    Okamura, H. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School Of Science and Technology; Yasuda, M.; Oota, M. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)


    Hydroxyapatite is known as that it has a good joining property with teeth and bone, and a study on the application to the living body was conducted by using this property. Its application examples were given as the cement used in dentistry, the artificial tooth root, the artificial bone, the bone cement and the artificial joint. However, they were a sinter heated at more than 1000degC, and were put into use by means of reinforcement using a titanium alloy since their mechanical strength was low. In this study, synthesis of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (DAp) and collagen composite by the electrolytic deposition method was attempted in order to develop bionic materials, and the correlation of various physical properties of the obtained composite and the electrolytic deposition conditions were investigated. When the electrolytic voltage is more than 22.0V, a single phase of DAp could be obtained. It was clarified that a DAp and collagen composite was synthesized from results of IR and ESR. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Numerical simulation of an excited round jet under helical disturbances by three-dimensional discrete vortex method; Helical kakuran ni yoru reiki enkei funryu no uzuho simulation

    Izawa, S.; Kiya, M.; Mochizuki, O. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    The evolution of vortical structure in an impulsively started round jet has been studied numerically by means of a three-dimensional vortex blob method. The viscous diffusion of vorticity is approximated by a core spreading model originally proposed by Leonard (1980). The jet is forced by axisymmetric, helical and multiple disturbances. The multiple disturbances are combinations of two helical disturbances of the same mode rotating in the opposite directions. The multiple disturbances are found to enhance both the generation of small-scale structures and the growth rate of the jet. The small-scale structures have highly organized spatial distributions. The core spreading method is effective in aquiring the core overlapping in regions of high extensional rate of strain. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Surface wettability control by titanium dioxide photo-induced reaction. Super-hydrophilic properties; Sanka chitan ni yoru hikari reiki shinsuika gijutsu. Hikari shokubai chosinsuisei

    Watanabe, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology


    Hydrophilicity results when the surface of titanium dioxide is reduced for the specified oxygen to be replaced by hydroxyl groups. The ease with which such a structural change occurs is subject to variation between titanium dioxide crystal surfaces, and is dependent greatly on the atmosphere. No hydrophilic trend is observed in an atmosphere of oxygen only without moisture and, in darkness without light, hydrophobicity occurs early. Although the contacta angle titanium dioxide with water with stability is not known, yet it is presumed, on the analogy of the case of strontium titanate, that it is in the range of 20-40 degrees. A hydrophilic trend below the range is attrributed to structural changes. The control of surface wettability is one of the basic tasks to fulfill in various kinds of mechanisms and manufacturing processes. The technology of wettability control using a titanium dioxide coating which is quite durable will be applied not only to functions involving defogging, dripproof, and self-cleaning, but also to the control of heat transmission in the mechanism and to the bonding process. (NEDO)

  19. Surface wettability control by titanium dioxide photo-induced reaction. Super-hydrophilic properties. Sanka chitan ni yoru hikari reiki shinsuika gijutsu. Hikari shokubai chosinsuisei

    Watanabe, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology)


    Hydrophilicity results when the surface of titanium dioxide is reduced for the specified oxygen to be replaced by hydroxyl groups. The ease with which such a structural change occurs is subject to variation between titanium dioxide crystal surfaces, and is dependent greatly on the atmosphere. No hydrophilic trend is observed in an atmosphere of oxygen only without moisture and, in darkness without light, hydrophobicity occurs early. Although the contacta angle titanium dioxide with water with stability is not known, yet it is presumed, on the analogy of the case of strontium titanate, that it is in the range of 20-40 degrees. A hydrophilic trend below the range is attrributed to structural changes. The control of surface wettability is one of the basic tasks to fulfill in various kinds of mechanisms and manufacturing processes. The technology of wettability control using a titanium dioxide coating which is quite durable will be applied not only to functions involving defogging, dripproof, and self-cleaning, but also to the control of heat transmission in the mechanism and to the bonding process. (NEDO)

  20. Control of population of excited nitrogen molecules by mixing hydrogen in low pressure discharge; Chisso jun`antei reiki bunshi mitsudo no quenching ni yoru seigyo no kento

    Uematsu, K.; Yumoto, M.; Sakai, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The authors have studied on surface treatment of PTFE by a low pressure discharge. It is deduced that excited nitrogen molecules contribute to introduce polar components on the surface. To confirm the speculation, we tried to change population of metastable nitrogen N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) by quenching precursor N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g), with hydrogen molecule. The decrease of relaxation time which indicates a change of excited molecule and measured by emission spectroscopy using a time after glow method was obtained. As a result, the relaxation times of N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g) and N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) decreased to 55% and 20% respectively, when mixing ratio of hydrogen was 3%. It was also deduced that hydrogen atom may take a part in a quenching process of N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}). 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Geoelectrical structure by electrical logs and Schlumberger sounding at the Akinomiya geothermal field, Akita Prefecture; Denki kenso oyobi Schlumberger ho ni yoru Akinomiya chinetsu chiiki no hiteiko kozo

    Kajiwara, T.; Takemoto, S.


    Based on the electrical logging data of the existed well and Schlumberger sounding data obtained in 1974, a two-dimensional inversion analysis of the specific resistance profile was conducted at the Akinomiya geothermal field, Akita Prefecture. From the electrical logging data, relationships between the geology and the specific resistance were illustrated. The specific resistance values of basement rocks showed more than 100 ohm-m, which were higher than those of the other seams. Intrusive rocks and tuffs in the basement rocks showed locally low values less than 100 ohm-m. Younger volcanic rocks showed low values around 10 ohm-m. As a result of the two-dimensional inversion analysis, the basement rocks could be detected as high specific resistance layers. Accordingly, it was considered that the basement rocks in this field can be detected as high specific resistance layers by analyzing the results of field survey sufficiently. Low specific resistance zones were observed in the shallow depth, which corresponded to the fumarolic gases. There were some layers with remarkably varied specific resistance values, which were considered to be related with alteration. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Laboratory study on streaming potential for exploring underground water flow; Shitsunai jikken ni yoru ryudo den`i wo mochiita mizu michi tansa no kanosei no kento

    Sato, H.; Shima, H. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    To investigate a possibility of exploration of underground water flow as well as to grasp the underground fluid flow by measuring streaming potential at the ground surface, some experiments were conducted using a model unit by considering the difference of permeability. For this experimental unit, water is driven by adding head difference between the polyethylene vessel filled with water and the experimental water tank. The size of water tank is 350{times}160 mm with a height of 160 mm. Twenty platinum electrodes are set on the cover of water tank. Toyoura standard sand and Kanto loam were used for the experiments. For the experiments, fluid was injected in various combined models by considering the permeability, to measure the streaming potential. As a result, it was explained by the streaming potential that the fluid flows in a form of laminar flow in the experimental water tank, and that the movement of fluid in the Kanto loam is quite slow. It was also confirmed that the streaming potential method is an effective technique for grasping the movement of fluid. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Studies on utilization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria for saving energy; Chisso koteikin no katsuyo ni yoru sho energy no kenkyu

    Uozumi, T.; Koyama, R.; Horiuchi, M.; Hidaka, M.; Masaki, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shigematsu, T.; Inoue, A. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)


    This paper describes analysis and enhancement of nitrogen-fixing gene of rice root bacteria, such as Klebsiella oxytoca, Azospirillum lipoferumn and Sphingomonas paucimobilis, for realizing energy saving through conservation of nitrogenous fertilizers. For K. oxytoca, modified strain R-16 was developed, which can fix nitrogen effectively even in the presence of NH4{sup +}. Nitrogen-fixing ability of A. lipoferumn depends on the activity control by the modification of nitrogen-fixing enzyme as well as on the adjustment of transcription level by the transcription activating gene, nifA. The control gene relating to the above was analyzed by making clones. As a result, a modified strain TAl without the control by NH4{sup +} was developed. The R-16 and TAl strains were inoculated into rice sterile-cultured without nitrogen. Consequently, inoculated strains were settled in the root, which resulted in the increased vegetation weight of plant to two times heavier than that without inoculation. 9 refs.

  4. Analysis on the R-R interval time series of automobile long distance drivers; Kosoku doro no chojikan soko ni yoru R-R kankakuji keiretsu kaiseki

    Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya Municipal Women`s College, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshioka, T.; Watanabe, Y. [Toyota National College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)


    Analyses were performed on change in living body information as time elapses while driving a car, the differences between automobile drivers and fellow passengers, and between automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers. A comparison on body temperatures in automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers shows sharper changes in the motorcycle drivers. Motorcycles, being different from automobiles, put the drivers exposed to atmosphere during driving, applying larger living body load. Adrenalin increases its concentration when a human is under mental load, so does noradrenalin when under physical load. Both of adrenalin and noradrenalin showed an increasing trend in the afternoon as compared with in the morning. From the comparison with the normal daily life, fellow passengers have also large mental living body load, who were found to have concentration change of nearly two times or more than that in normal conditions. A subject who rode in a car in the first experiment and drove a motorcycle in the second experiment was discovered to have his right hand grasping power decreased remarkably after the second experiment. Fatigue factors unique to motorcycle driving are thought the engine vibration, the hot air, the need of taking balance of the motorcycle attitudes, and stress from noise. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Preparation of Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salt (2); Yukisan'en tofu netsubunkai ho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei (2)

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)


    A method of forming superconductive film by firing substrate coated organ solution consisting of organic metal compound and organic solvent was investigated. After spin coating of octyl acid salt solution on Ag tape, YBCO film was produced by heat treatment at 920 degrees of centigrade for 10-60 minutes. Three kinds of Ag tapes with different of surface roughness was used, but oriented film in film plane of them could not be obtained. However, oriented YBCO film in film plane could be obtained on (100) substrate of LaAlO{sub 3}. (NEDO)

  6. Preparation o Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salts; Yukisanen tofu netsubunkaiho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)


    Critical current characteristics in the magnetic field is excellent in the Y system oxide superconducting wire rod, and it is expected as next generation wire rod, because the magnetic field dependence is good even in the liquid nitrogen temperature. We have carried out the examination of the Bi system superconductor tape wire rod by the applicator in respect of organic metal raw material on the metal tape state backing since the convention continue. This time, we newly made the octyl acid salt to be a raw material, and we examined the Y system superconductive film manufacture on the polycrystal Ag tape substrate. (NEDO)

  7. Recognition and detection of seismic phases by artificial neural network detector; Jinko neural network ni yoru jishinha no ninshiki to kenshutsu

    Yamazaki, K.; Wang, W. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Initial parts of P-waves, medium or high in intensity, are detected using an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN is the generic name given to information processing systems of the non-Neumann type configured to human brain in point of information processing function, and is packaged into computers in the form of software capable of parallel processing, self-organizing, learning, etc. In this paper, a hierarchical ANN-assisted seismic motion recognition system is constructed on the basis of an error reverse propagation algorithm. It is reported here, with a remark that this study wants much more data from tests for the evaluation of the quality of the recognition, that P-wave recognition has been achieved. When this technique is applied to the S-wave, much more real-time information will become available. For the improvement of the system, a number of problems have to be solved, including the establishment of automatic refurbishment through adaptation-and-learning and configuration that incorporates frequency-related matters. It is found that this system is effective in seismic wave phase recognition but that it is not suitable for precision measurement. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  8. FY1995 studies on saving energy by use of nitrogen- fixing bacteria; 1995 nendo chisso koteikin no katsuyo ni yoru sho energy no kenkyu



    To save energy by improving the ability of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Kebsiella oxytoca, Azospirillum lipoferum and Sphingomonas paucimobilis) in the rhizosphere of rice, by means of genetic analysis and engineering of the nif genes. Analysis and improvement of the nif genes were performed in 3 species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the rhizoshere of rice. (1) In an facultative anaerobe, K. oxytoca, the repressor gene, nifL was destroyed, and the activator gene, nifA was fortified, to attain a novel mutant strain R16, which fixes nitrogen even in the presence of NH{sub 4}{sup +}. (2) In a microaerophilic nitrogen fixer, A. lipoferum, the regulatory genes draT and draG were cloned and analysed, and an improved strain TA1 was obtained by introduction of K. oxytoca nifA gene. (3) In an aerobic nitrogen-fixer S. paucimobilis, the nifA gene was cloned and sequenced, and the activity was expressed in E. coil to show that the product activates the nif promoters of Azospirillurn and Klebsiella. (4) The improved strains K. oxytoca R16 and A. lipoferun TA1 were inoculated to rice plant cultured in a pot without addition of nitrogen source. The inoculated plant showed twice as much dry weight as the noninoculated plant, showing that the improved strains are effective to stimulate the growth of rice. (NEDO)

  9. Thermospray ionization mass spectrometric characterization on thermal stability of developing pharmaceutical products; TSP shitsuryo bunsekiho ni yoru kaihatsu iyakuhin no netsuanteisei hyoka no kokoromi

    Nishimura, T.; Ishizuka, Y. [Pharmacia and Upjohn Tsukuba Research Lab., Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to ensure quality of pharmaceutical products, the data concerning stability of pharmaceutical products are a kind of important parameters. It is well known that hydrolytic ion peaks caused by heat at initial stage appear in the positions that do not correspond to the molecular ion peaks according to the thermospray ionization LC/MS. It is an obstacle for obtaining high quality LC/MS data, and it is necessary to minimize it by restraining the spray temperature. In this study, using thermospray ionization mass spectrometric analyzer, re-evaluation of an on-line investigation method of pharmaceutical products in solution is studied. And, an example of its application, namely, an application on two kinds of pharmaceutical products, PNU-52047 that is a kind of anticancer drugs (USAN name: Menogaril) and PNU-100766 that is antibiotic material used for mesitylene resistance yellow staphylococcus (MRSA) that is a reason of in hospital inflection, is illustrated. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Improvement on performance in marine diesel engines by use of electric control systems; Denshi seigyo system ni yoru hakuyo diesel kikan no kokoritsuka

    Baba, S.; Asada, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Hada, T.; Sawada, K. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)


    In recent years, an electronic-controlled system has been widely used for the engine. The authors developed a new system using hydraulic-actuated mechanisms, and applied to the fuel injection control sad the drive control of the suction valve/exhaust valve of the medium-speed four-stroke test engine. Then, it was applied to the fuel injection control system and the exhaust valve drive system of the large sized two stroke test engine, and it was confirmed that it is possible to achieve the same or higher engine performance as compared to the ease with conventional cam system. Moreover, combining `Electronically Controlled Exhaust Valve system` and `Scavenging Controlled Valve system` as a mechanism of a new concept, the authors were able to control freely the scavenging air and exhaust timing of engine. As a result, the effective work of the engine was increased, and the specific fuel oil consumption was improved by 8 g/kwh. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Lenguajes expresivos: concepciones de los agentes educativos desde una perspectiva de inclusión de niños y niñas con discapacidad, en el marco de la Política de Educación Inicial

    Barreto Munévar, Deisy Paola


    Esta investigación tiene como propósito brindar unas recomendaciones a nivel de formación inicial, in situ y continua en el marco de la Política de Educación Inicial, que le permita a las diferentes instancias formadoras (instituciones de educación superior) revisar y orientar los procesos de formación con relación a la comprensión y desarrollo de los lenguajes expresivos en el aula diversa como medio de participación de los niños y niñas a partir de la exploración y el reconocimiento de las ...

  12. Controlled growth of Cu-Ni nanowires and nanospheres for enhanced microwave absorption properties

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Dong, Lifeng; Zhang, Baoqin; Yu, Mingxun; Liu, Jingquan


    Copper is a good dielectric loss material but has low stability, whereas nickel is a good magnetic loss material and is corrosion resistant but with low conductivity, therefore Cu-Ni hybrid nanostructures have synergistic advantages as microwave absorption (MA) materials. Different Cu/Ni molar ratios of bimetallic nanowires (Cu13@Ni7, Cu5@Ni5 and Cu7@Ni13) and nanospheres (Cu13@Ni7, Cu5@Ni5 and Cu1@Ni3) have been successfully synthesized via facile reduction of hydrazine under similar reaction conditions, and the morphology can be easily tuned by varying the feed ratio or the complexing agent. Apart from the concentrations of Cu2+ and Ni2+, the reduction parameters are similar for all samples to confirm the effects of the Cu/Ni molar ratio and morphology on MA properties. Ni is incorporated into the Cu-Ni nanomaterials as a shell over the Cu core at low temperature, as proved by XRD, SEM, TEM and XPS. Through the complex relative permittivity and permeability, reflection loss was evaluated, which revealed that the MA capacity greatly depended on the Cu/Ni molar ratio and morphology. For Cu@Ni nanowires, as the molar ratio of Ni shell increased the MA properties decreased accordingly. However, for Cu@Ni nanospheres, the opposite trend was found, that is, as the molar ratio of the Ni shell increased the MA properties increased.

  13. Agent, autonomous

    Luciani, Annie


    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructured Fe-Ni Alloy Whisker

    DONG Guo-jun; WANG Gui-xiang; ZHANG Mi-lin; LI Ru-Min; WANG Jun


    The nanocrystalline γ-(Fe,Ni) alloy whiskers have been prepared by chemical reduction of Fe2+ and Ni2+ ions with potassium borohydride under the function of a dispersant agent PE followed by heat treatment at 600℃ under the protection of nitrogen.Conditions, such as quantity of NaOH, concentration of salts, and species of surfactants, of preparation of Fe-Ni alloy have been discussed. X-ray diffraction(XRD), transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM) characterized the synthesized Fe-Ni alloy. Character, capability and use of the materials have been summarized.

  15. Dissolution de phases minérales MSiO3 ( M Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Mg) imparfaitement cristallisées au contact de solutions d'agents complexants organiques (porphyrines, amino-acides, asphaltènes)

    Bergaya, F.; Perruchot, A.; Van Damme, H.


    The kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the dissolution of ill-organized ("gels") high surface area silicates of general formula MO- SiO2- nH2O( M = Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Mg) in the presence of the following organic compounds have been investigated: meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (H 2TPP, water insoluble), mesotetra(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (H 3TMPyP, water soluble), glycine, and asphaltenes. Kinetic aspects were emphasised in the case of H 2TMPyP. The initial rate of the gross dissolution complexation process followed almost quantitatively (passing from one metal to another) the complexation rate of M2+ ions by H 2TMPyP in a purely homogeneous medium, suggesting that the rate limiting step of the overall process is not related to the chemical or physical processes occurring in the solid particles or at the solid-solution interface, but is simply the complexation, in the solution, of the M2+ ions released by the gel particles. Thermodynamic aspects were emphasised in the case of glycine. The total amount of metal which is extracted at equilibrium can be reasonably well predicted from a simple model which takes into account (i) the stability constant of the metal-glycine complex. (ii) the "solubility product" of the gel particles in water. The results obtained with asphaltones are closer to those obtained with glycine than to those obtained with porphyrins, suggesting that porphyrins represent only a minor population in the complexing functional groups of asphaltenes.

  16. Deposition of electroless Ni-P/Ni-W-P duplex coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy


    The electroless Ni-P/Ni-W-P duplex coatings were deposited directly on AZ91D magnesium alloy by all acid-sulfate nickel bath.Nickel suitIhate and sodium tungstate were used as metal ion sources and sodium hypophosphite was used as reducing agent.The coating was characterized for its structure,morphologies,microhardness and corrosion properties.The presence of dense and coarse nodules in the duplex coatings Was observed by SEM and EDS.Tungsten content in Ni-P/Ni-W-P alloy is about 0.65%(mass fraction)and the phosphorus content is 8.1 8%(mass fraction).The microhardness of the coatings is 622 VHN.The coating shows good adhesion to the substrate.The results of electrochemical analysis,the porosity and the immersion test show that Ni-P/Ni-W-P duplex coatings possess noble anticorrosion properties to protect the AZ91D magnesium alloy.

  17. Antifungal agents.

    Ryder, N S


    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  18. Trading Agents

    Wellman, Michael


    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  19. Metal-Based Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents: Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Biological Evaluation of Co(II, Cu(II, Ni(II, and Zn(II Complexes with Amino Acid-Derived Compounds

    Zahid H. Chohan


    Full Text Available A series of antibacterial and antifungal amino acid-derived compounds and their cobalt(II, copper(II, nickel(II, and zinc(II metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by their elemental analyses, molar conductances, magnetic moments, and IR, and electronic spectral measurements. Ligands (L1–(L5 were derived by condensation of β-diketones with glycine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine and act as bidentate towards metal ions (cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc via the azomethine-N and deprotonated-O of the respective amino acid. The stoichiometric reaction between the metal(II ion and synthesized ligands in molar ratio of M: L (1: 1 resulted in the formation of the metal complexes of type [M(L(H2O4]Cl (where M = Co(II, Cu(II, and Zn(II and of M: L (1: 2 of type [M(L2(H2O2] (where M = Co(II, Cu(II, Ni(II, and Zn(II. The magnetic moment data suggested for the complexes to have an octahedral geometry around the central metal atom. The electronic spectral data also supported the same octahedral geometry of the complexes. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands and their metal(II complexes agree with their proposed structures. The synthesized ligands, along with their metal(II complexes, were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexeneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains and for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glaberata. The results of these studies show the metal(II complexes to be more antibacterial/antifungal against one or more species as compared to the uncomplexed ligands. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study their in vitro cytotoxic properties. Five compounds, (3, (7, (10, (11, and (22, displayed potent cytotoxic

  20. Metal-Based Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents: Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Biological Evaluation of Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) Complexes With Amino Acid-Derived Compounds.

    Chohan, Zahid H; Arif, M; Akhtar, Muhammad A; Supuran, Claudiu T


    A series of antibacterial and antifungal amino acid-derived compounds and their cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II), and zinc(II) metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by their elemental analyses, molar conductances, magnetic moments, and IR, and electronic spectral measurements. Ligands (L(1))-(L(5)) were derived by condensation of beta-diketones with glycine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine and act as bidentate towards metal ions (cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc) via the azomethine-N and deprotonated-O of the respective amino acid. The stoichiometric reaction between the metal(II) ion and synthesized ligands in molar ratio of M : L (1 : 1) resulted in the formation of the metal complexes of type [M(L)(H(2)O)(4)]Cl (where M = Co(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II)) and of M : L (1 : 2) of type [M(L)(2)(H(2)O)(2)] (where M = Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)). The magnetic moment data suggested for the complexes to have an octahedral geometry around the central metal atom. The electronic spectral data also supported the same octahedral geometry of the complexes. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands and their metal(II) complexes agree with their proposed structures. The synthesized ligands, along with their metal(II) complexes, were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexeneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glaberata. The results of these studies show the metal(II) complexes to be more antibacterial/antifungal against one or more species as compared to the uncomplexed ligands. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study their in vitro cytotoxic properties. Five compounds, (3), (7), (10), (11), and (22

  1. Radioprotective Agents

    Ilker Kelle


    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  2. Educational games: training of community healthcare agents on children's respiratory diseases Alimentación del recién nacido después del alta hospitalaria de una Institución Amiga del Niño Jogo educativo: capacitação de agentes comunitários de saúde sobre doenças respiratórias infantis

    Raquel Dully Andrade


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the use of an educational game about children's respiratory diseases by community healthcare agents (CHAs in the Family Health Program. METHODS: This is a descriptive, intervention study, with the application of the game to 101 CHAs in Passos-MG. The game was structured with cases of children and families and their respective answer sheets. For evaluation, a test about the topic was applied before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Correct answers in the test increased from 59.5% to 79.3% after participating in the game, which corresponds to a 20% increase. CONCLUSION: The increase in the CHA's knowledge, revealed after the intervention, indicates that the educational game is a satisfactory instrument for healthcare education.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la utilización de un juego educativo, sobre enfermedades respiratorias infantiles, por agentes comunitarios de salud (ACS del Programa de Salud de la Familia. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo y de una intervención, con la aplicación del juego en 101 ACS de Passos-MG. El juego fue estructurado en forma de casos de niños y familias y sus respectivas tarjetas de respuestas. Para la evaluación, fue aplicado un test sobre el tema, antes y después de la intervención. RESULTADOS: Las respuestas correctas en el test pasaron de 59,5% a 79,3%, después de haber participado en el juego, logrando un aumento de aproximadamente el 20%. CONCLUSIÓN: La elevación en conocimiento de los ACS, revelada después de la intervención, señala al juego educativo como un instrumento satisfactorio en la educación en salud.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a utilização de um jogo educativo sobre doenças respiratórias infantis por agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS de Programa de Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo descritivo e de intervenção, com a aplicação do jogo em 101 ACS de Passos-MG. O jogo foi estruturado em forma de casos de crianças e famílias e suas respectivas

  3. Suppression of inducer stall based on inlet recirculation in a centrifugal impeller. 1st Report. Improvement in stall limit by ring groove arrangement; Enshin haneguruma iriguchi junkanryu ni yoru inducer shissoku no yokusei. 1. kanjoko ni yoru shissoku genkai no kaizen

    Ueki, H.; Ishida, M.; Sakaguchi, D.; Sun, Z. [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A ring groove arrangement is proposed to suppress unstable flow or surge in a centrifugal blower. The ring groove arrangement connects the upstream position of impeller inlet and the inducer throat tip through a bypass. The recirculation flow 'vas formed by the pressure difference between the two positions, and the recirculation flow rate was changed by increasing the ring groove widths. The inlet recirculation results in a decrease in the flow rate of unstable flow inception, and an up to 800 improvement in stall limit was obtained by the ring groove arrangement at a small expense of the delivery pressure drop. The improvement of stall limit in the present experiment seems to be mainly due to decrease in flow incidence based on the inlet recirculation flow. Tre flow incidence decreases more as the recirculation flow rate increases, thus resulting in a larger improvement in stall limit. (author)

  4. Developments of DPF systems with mesh laminated structures. Performances of DPF systems which consist of the metal-mesh laminated filter combustion with the alumina-fiber mesh, and the combustion device of trapped diesel particles; Mesh taso kozo no DPF no kaihatsu. Kinzokusen to arumina sen`i mesh ni yoru fukugo filter to filter heiyo heater ni yoru DPF no seino

    Kojima, T.; Tange, A.; Matsuda, K. [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)


    For the purpose of continuous run without any maintenance, new DPF (diesel particulate filter)systems laminated by both metal-wire mesh and alumina-fiber mesh alternately, are under the developments. The perfect combustion of trapped diesel particulate can be achieved by a couple of the resistance heating devices inserted into the filter. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.


    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  6. Residual stress in Ni-W electrodeposits

    Mizushima, Io; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;


    of complexing agent and the current efficiency have an influence on the residual stress. In all cases, an increase in tensile stress in the deposit with time after deposition was observed. Pulse plating could improve the stress level for the electrolyte containing equal amounts of citrate,glycine and......In the present work, the residual stress in Ni–W layers electrodeposited from electrolytes based on NiSO4 and Na2WO4, is investigated. Citrate, glycine and triethanolamine were used as complexing agents, enabling complex formation between the nickel ion and tungstate. The results show that the type...

  7. Formation of flow interface of resin around spear implemented in hot-runner varied by heating densities; Hot runner ni okeru spear hatsunetsu mitsudo ni yoru jushi kyokaiso keisei

    Yokoyama, T. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). FAculty of Engineering; Sato, A. [Fuji Xerox Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ito, C. [Seiki Corp., Yamagata (Japan); Yoshida, T. [Toppan Lebel, Tokyo (Japan)


    The SPEAR-SYSTEM, one of the Hot-Runner molding, is rational and economical thermal valve-gate system. A resin around the SPEAR which is heating object like a spear, sorts into the solidification-layer and flow-layer. The former takes important role of insulator, then prevents a resin leak at molding. Though location of the interface of solidification varies due to flow and thermal condition, quantitative treatment is not applied yet. Engineers have just depended on their experiences for thermal design as to Hot-Runner System. In this paper we have measured temperature field inside the Runner-bush and location of the interface, on the other hand established a numerical code and compared both values. As a result, we have confirmed agreements between the experiment and the numerical. Therefore we could forecast what happens in flow and temperature field around Spear under a variety of conditions. (author)

  8. On the hydroelastic response of box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. Tank test with large scale model; Senkitsusui hakogata futai no harochu dansei oto ni tsuite. Ogata mokei ni yoru suiso shiken

    Yago, K.; Endo, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    The hydroelastic response test was carried out in waves using an approximately 10m long large model, and the numerical analysis was done by the direct method, for a commercial-size (300m long) box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. The scale ratio of the model is 1/30.8, and the minimum wave cycle is around 0.7s from wave-making capacity of the tank, which corresponds to 4 to 14s with the commercial-size structure. Elastic displacement and bending strain were measured. The calculated results by the direct method are in good agreement with the observed results. The fluid dynamic mutual interference effects between elements are weak in added mass but strong in damping force, indicating that the range of mutual interference is strongly related to rolling cycle in the range of mutual interference. Wave pressure on the floating structure bottom is high at the upper side of the wave, greatly damping towards the downside of the wave. However, response amplitude of elastic displacement tends to increase at the ends, both in upside and downside of the wave. For the floating structure studied, the 0 to 4th mode components are predominant in longitudinal waves, and the 6th or higher mode components are negligibly low. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Bubble motion in liquid nitrogen under a non-uniform electric field in a microgravity environment; Bisho juryoku kankyoka ni okeru ekitai chissochu kiho no denkai ni yoru undo

    Suda, Y.; Muto, K.; Sakai, Y. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Honma, N. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., Sapporo (Japan)


    The motion of bubbles in liquid nitrogen (LN2) in a non-uniform electric field are observed in a microgravity environment just after release from the terrestrial gravity. The dynamic behavior of the bubbles is analyzed considering the electro-hydrodynamics and thermodynamics, and is explained consistently by a theory including these forces. The shrink of the bubbles in supercooled LN2 is discussed. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Ab initio MO study on the thermal stability of 1-phenyl-1H-tetrazoles; Hikeikenteki bunshi kidoho ni yoru 1-Ph-1H tetorazoru yudotai no netsu anteisei hyoka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Ono, Yoshio.; Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Arai, Mitsuru.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering; Matsunaga, Takehiro. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Ab initio MO calculations of 1-phenyl-1H-tetrazoles were carried out, in order to explain a substituent effects on its high thermal stability and to estimate the thermal stability of the other tetrazoles. Similar to 1H-tetrazole, five bonds in the tetrazole ring have intermediate lengths between single and double bond lengths. Phenyl and tetrazole rings are not both on one plane showing no interaction. Three indexes addopted as a measure of thermal stability indicate that the more equal the bond lengths of the ring are and that the bigger the stabilization energy by ring formation is, the more thermally stable they are. It is found out that there is the relationship between the thermal stability and the ring charge. That is, the more negative the ring charge is, the more thrmally stable the tetrazole is. Also, there is a good relationship between the thermal stability and the energy level of orbital of which orbital is an anti bonding type with respect to the N3-N4 bond. The higher the energy level is, the more thermally stable the tetrazole is. (author)