There is little doubt at Minnetonka High School that the integrated personal law and consumer problems course is effective. The areas studied promote variety, concentration on vital matters, and student interest in the business department as a source of general education. (Author)
Jaime Baquero de la Calle
Full Text Available All law is intended to achieve the common good. Within this institutional framework, justice is the supreme value that seeks to ensure the competent authority. When is it possible to say that it is acting according to justice? Finding an answer requires going back to the fundamental principles that have given rise to any legal formulation. And behind these principles is the person ordering the final recipient. The written policy is not based (at least should not be in random or political ideas of government. Faced with the imminent presence of a Constituent Assembly, it is imperative to return to the ultimate foundations of all rule of law.
Bigger, J. T. Jr; Steinman, R. C.; Rolnitzky, L. M.; Fleiss, J. L.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.
BACKGROUND. The purposes of the present study were (1) to establish normal values for the regression of log(power) on log(frequency) for, RR-interval fluctuations in healthy middle-aged persons, (2) to determine the effects of myocardial infarction on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), (3) to determine the effect of cardiac denervation on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), and (4) to assess the ability of power law regression parameters to predict death after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied three groups: (1) 715 patients with recent myocardial infarction; (2) 274 healthy persons age and sex matched to the infarct sample; and (3) 19 patients with heart transplants. Twenty-four-hour RR-interval power spectra were computed using fast Fourier transforms and log(power) was regressed on log(frequency) between 10(-4) and 10(-2) Hz. There was a power law relation between log(power) and log(frequency). That is, the function described a descending straight line that had a slope of approximately -1 in healthy subjects. For the myocardial infarction group, the regression line for log(power) on log(frequency) was shifted downward and had a steeper negative slope (-1.15). The transplant (denervated) group showed a larger downward shift in the regression line and a much steeper negative slope (-2.08). The correlation between traditional power spectral bands and slope was weak, and that with log(power) at 10(-4) Hz was only moderate. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were used to predict mortality and were compared with the predictive value of traditional power spectral bands. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were excellent predictors of all-cause mortality or arrhythmic death. To optimize the prediction of death, we calculated a log(power) intercept that was uncorrelated with the slope of the power law regression line. We found that the combination of slope and zero-correlation log(power) was an outstanding predictor, with a
Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.
Rank-order consistency of personality traits increases from childhood to age 30. After that, different summaries of the literature predict a plateau at age 30, or at age 50, or a curvilinear peak in consistency at age 50. These predictions were evaluated at group and individual levels using longitudinal data from the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory over periods of up to 42 years. Consistency declined toward a non-zero asymptote with increasing t...
Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.
Rank-order consistency of personality traits increases from childhood to age 30. After that, different summaries of the literature predict a plateau at age 30, or at age 50, or a curvilinear peak in consistency at age 50. These predictions were evaluated at group and individual levels using longitudinal data from the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory over periods of up to 42 years. Consistency declined toward a non-zero asymptote with increasing time-interval. Although some scales showed increasing stability after age 30, the rank-order consistencies of the major dimensions and most facets of the Five-Factor Model were unrelated to age. Ipsative stability, assessed with the California Adult Q-Set, was also unrelated to age. These data strengthen claims of predominant personality stability after age 30. PMID:16861305
Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T; McCrae, Robert R
Rank-order consistency of personality traits increases from childhood to age 30. After that, different summaries of the literature predict a plateau at age 30, or at age 50, or a curvilinear peak in consistency at age 50. These predictions were evaluated at group and individual levels using longitudinal data from the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for periods of up to 42 years. Consistency declined toward a nonzero asymptote with increasing time interval. Although some scales showed increasing stability after age 30, the rank-order consistencies of the major dimensions and most facets of the Five-Factor Model were unrelated to age. Ipsative stability, assessed with the California Adult Q-Set, also was unrelated to age. These data strengthen claims of predominant personality stability after age 30. PMID:16861305
The Muslim population of South Africa follows a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 108 of 1996 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, Muslim personal law is, at this stage, not formally recognised in terms of South African law. Since Muslim personal law receives no constitutional recognition the question may be asked whether the 199...
This volume contains papers presented at the conference on "Law and Learning in the Middle Ages" held at the Carlsberg Academy in Copenhagen in May 2005. Here, a group of European and American scholars give their contribution to the examination of the theological and legal schooling that the...
Recent debates about personal law and a uniform civil code in India have seen both Hindu and Muslim leaders insist on the ‘religious’ status of Muslim law vis-à-vis a more secular or ‘civil’ Hindu legal system. This article argues that such claims obscure very important similarities in the development and functioning of these legal systems. Tracing the origins of the current debate to late nineteenth and early twentieth-century debates about law reform, it argues that the systems of personal ...
Ilyushnikov S. M.
Full Text Available In the article we have investigated the multiplicity of civil law. The author distinguishes different types of plurality of persons and presents a detailed analysis of the stops on the relations arising from a simple partner-ship agreement as a form of plurality of persons
This paper explores a class of firms: the intermediaries of personal information. In the economics of personal information, scarcity is no longer the only, and foremost, determinant of value. The most important determinant of value becomes connection. Adapting what Gervais claims to be the first law of an information-flooded cloud-modelled economy, value is not derived from scarcity but rather from the fact that those who value it most will find it. Personal information is the raw material to...
Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.
Investigated age changes and differences in personality as measured by the Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT). Concluded that the HIT measures perceptual-cognitive variables that are moderately stable in adulthood. (Author/ABB)
Walz, Thomas; And Others
Reviews major research data associated with aging among the developmentally disabled including prevalence, longevity patterns, morbidity profiles, mental decline, mental illness, comparative experiences of disabled persons in institutions and in community based living situations, and approaches used to define aging in this population. Discusses…
M.J.O.M. de Haas; W. van Eerde
We investigated Person-Organization (P-O) Fit specific for professional services firms, based on archetype theory. To do so, we first established the applicability of archetype theory for the big law firms in The Netherlands. Subsequently, we developed a measure to investigate P-O fit between early
Mroczek, Daniel K.
This commentary on the special section on conscientiousness and healthy aging focuses on several topics brought up in this collection of articles. One is the promise of personality interventions. Despite skepticism on the part of some, such interventions may ultimately prove successful. This is in part because of similarities between personality…
Start of the insolvency proceedings influences the two basic problems of corporate governance:restriction about the "soft budget" of corporation and "information asymmetry"between the interior and exterior person.In fact,the insolvency law is a mechanism of the potential exterior supervision.In the insolvency proceedings,most of the information is open to the creditor and to the superintendent,who is liable for protecting the interest of the creditor.The key problems of corporate governance are transparency and information disclosure.The insolvency law provides the power of supervision to the creditor when corporation insolvency.Of importance is that power is conducted by collectivity and supported by judicatory and professional organization.In June 2004,the finance committee submitted the new draft of the insolvency law to the standing committee of the national people's congress.There are many articles about corporate governance.These articles are generally divided into two kinds,one is restriction on conduct of the supervisors in the period of the insolvency proceedings,and the other is examination of the conduct before the start of the insolvency proceedings.
Fagan, Ron; Squitiera, Paula
This study focuses on the relationship between the personality characteristics of entering law students and academic success in law school. The subjects (137) were entering law school students at Pepperdine University School of Law. Students were administered the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) as a measure of their temperament and…
Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman
Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.
Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.
Presented at the 81st APA Convention, Montreal, 1973, this study showed how a cluster analytic approach was used to determine age differences in personality measured by the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Subjects were 969 adult male volunteers, 25 to 34, 35 to 54, and 55 to 82. Openness to experience showed age-related…
Chen, Xi; Niu, Pei; Niu, Xiaolong; Shen, Wenzeng; Duan, Fei; Ding, Liang; Wei, Xiliang; Gong, Yanjun; Huo, Yong; Kassab, Ghassan S; Tan, Wenchang; Huo, Yunlong
Despite the well-known design principles of vascular systems, it is unclear whether the vascular arterial tree obeys some scaling constraints during normal growth and ageing in a given species. Based on the micro-computed tomography measurements of coronary arterial trees in mice at different ages (one week to more than eight months), we show a constant exponent of 3/4, but age-dependent scaling coefficients in a length-volume scaling law (Lc=K(length-volume) · Vc³/⁴; Lc is the crown length, Vc is the crown volume, K(length-volume) is the age-dependent scaling coefficient) during normal growth and ageing. The constant 3/4 exponent represents the self-similar fractal-like branching pattern (i.e. basic mechanism to regulate the development of vascular trees within a species), whereas the age-dependent scaling coefficients characterize the structural growth or resorption of vascular trees during normal growth or ageing, respectively. This study enhances the understanding of age-associated changes in vascular structure and function. PMID:26701881
Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.
The stability of individual differences in personality traits is typically examined at the group level with test-retest correlations across two assessments. For 684 subjects (age range 17–76) we computed individual coefficients from three sequential assessments to evaluate intra-individual (i.e., within-person) change in stability over time. For both trait and profile (ipsative) stability, results indicate that intra-individual stability increases up to age 30 and then plateaus. Neither demographic variables (sex, ethnicity, education, and secular trends), nor the standing on the five major dimensions of personality, were predictors of change in trait stability. Contrary to results from studies of adolescents, personality “maturity” was unrelated to personality stability in adulthood. These findings support the notion that personality stability plateaus early in adulthood. PMID:20305728
Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela
People presumably choose and create their daily environments according to their personality. Prior research shows that, for example, more extraverted people engage more often in social situations, and more conscientious people engage more often in work-related activities compared with less extraverted or less conscientious people, respectively. The current study examined such personality-situation transactions in people's daily life. Based on the assumption that older people know themselves and their personality better than younger people, we investigated whether momentary and proximate personality-situation associations (i.e., changing from 1 type of situation into another) increase with older age. Three-hundred and 78 people aged 14 to 82 years described their Big Five traits and took part in a 3-week experience-sampling phase. Using mobile-phone based assessments in daily life, participants reported on average 55 times on their momentary situation. Multilevel modeling results showed that personality-situation associations varied with the age of participants. Some of the "established" personality-situation associations, such as for extraversion and time spent with friends or conscientiousness and time spent with work activities, were only observed in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, other personality-situation associations appeared only in late adulthood, such as for openness and time spent with friends. Yet most personality-situation associations did not vary significantly with people's age. In addition, personality traits predicted maintaining or entering personality-congruent situations. The latter results point to the active role of personality in shaping one's environment. The findings imply that some personality-situation transactions may be largely similarly across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26167797
Md. Nuruzzaman Haque
Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.
Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.
The stability of individual differences in personality traits is typically examined at the group level with test-retest correlations across two assessments. For 684 subjects (age range 17–76) we computed individual coefficients from three sequential assessments to evaluate intra-individual (i.e., within-person) change in stability over time. For both trait and profile (ipsative) stability, results indicate that intra-individual stability increases up to age 30 and then plateaus. Neither demog...
Md. Nuruzzaman Haque
Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male...
Cerqueiro, G.M.; Penas, M.F.
We analyze the effect of changes in U.S. state personal exemptions on the financing structure and performance of a representative sample of start-ups. An increase in the amount of borrower’s personal wealth protected in bankruptcy reduces the availability of bank credit to all start-ups. Owners of u
Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong
Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950224
Full Text Available The provisions of the Law no 249/2006 for the amending and completion of Law no 393/2004 onthe Statute of the local elected include a new issue of cessation de jure of the mandate as a local or countycouncilor and mayor, before the expiry of its normal duration, reasoned by the resignation of the politicalparty or of the organization of the national minorities on whose list he was elected. The Constitutionalprovisions enhance the representativeness of the local elected mandate, as with the parliamentary one, in thesense of an implied prohibition of any interference in the work of the elected that would come from voters,political parties, state authorities, NGOs. The independent status of the local elected receives extensiveconnotations if we relate up to their moving from one political party to another, and in the context in whichthis is sanctioned by law we face the restrictions of the representative mandate.
Chapman, Benjamin P; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John
We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how. In fact, the notion that personality could be changed was part and parcel of many schools of psychotherapy, which suggested that long-term and meaningful change in symptoms could not be achieved without change in relevant aspects of personality. We review intervention research documenting change in personality. On the basis of an integrative view of personality as a complex system, we describe a bottom-up model of change in which interventions to change basic personality processes eventuate in changes at the trait level. A 2nd framework leverages the descriptive and predictive power of personality to tailor individual risk prediction and treatment, as well as refine public health programs, to the relevant dispositional characteristics of the target population. These methods dovetail with, and add a systematic and rigorous psychosocial dimension to, the personalized medicine and patient-centeredness movements in medicine. In addition to improving health through earlier intervention and increased fit between treatments and persons, cost-effectiveness improvements can be realized by more accurate resource allocation. Numerous examples from the personality, health, and aging literature on Conscientiousness and other traits are provided throughout, and we conclude with a series of recommendations for research in these emerging areas. PMID:23978300
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability (CRPD) took effect in 2008. This paper discusses a number of flashpoints where the CRPD will require real and significant reconsideration of English mental health and mental capacity law. The CRPD introduces a new paradigm into international disability law, relying on the social model of disability. While that is no doubt a good thing, there is as yet no clear sense as to how that is to be implemented. After providing ...
Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John
We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…
McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.
The NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3) is a modification of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) designed to be more understandable to adolescents. Data from adults aged 21 to 91 showed that the NEO-PI-3 also functions as well or better than the NEO-PI-R in adults. Age trends from combined adolescent (n = 500) and adult (n = 635)…
Switzerland, like the European Union, has an extensive protection of privacy. An omnibus law, the Data Protection Act, ensures a high level of protection for every data relating to an identified or identifiable person, including legal persons. This Act applies both to data treated inside Switzerland and to data exported abroad. Data can only be transmitted if an adequate level of protection is granted.For countries where the legal framework is not deemed to be sufficient like the U.S., partic...
Avdeyeva Irina Olegovna
Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.
Perry, E L; Kulik, C T; Bourhis, A C
The researchers explored personal and contextual factors that inhibit or facilitate the use of older worker stereotypes in a selection context. The authors suggest that older worker stereotypes are more likely to be used and influence applicant evaluations when raters are biased against older workers, when raters do not have the cognitive resources to inhibit the use of age-associated stereotypes, or when applicants apply for age-incongruent jobs. The researchers explored the extent to which raters differing in older worker bias make discriminatory decisions about young or old individuals applying for age-typed jobs under conditions of high- and low-cognitive demands. A laboratory study was conducted with 131 undergraduate students who evaluated applicants in a simulated employment context. Results indicated that older worker bias, cognitive busyness, and job age-type interact to affect the extent to which applicant age plays a role in selection decisions. PMID:9019121
... regulations; persons liable for tax. 20.31 Section 20.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Administrative Provisions Liability for Tax § 20.31 Applicable laws and regulations;...
Ирина Олеговна Авдеева
Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-9
Full Text Available Switzerland, like the European Union, has an extensive protection of privacy. An omnibus law, the Data Protection Act, ensures a high level of protection for every data relating to an identified or identifiable person, including legal persons. This Act applies both to data treated inside Switzerland and to data exported abroad. Data can only be transmitted if an adequate level of protection is granted.For countries where the legal framework is not deemed to be sufficient like the U.S., particular contractual clauses are necessary. In order to facilitate the exchange of data Switzerland and the U.S. have developed a Safe Harbor Framework. Every company certified compatible with the Safe Harbor is automatically recognized as offering the adequate level of protection required under Swiss law.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the psychometric properties of an on-line version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ by sex and age. The questionnaire was responded by 1598 people, 474 males and 1124 females, with a mean age of 32.57 (SD = 11.72. Males and females differed in their responses to all personality dimensions evaluated by this instrument, in a similar way as that reported in past research. In addition, younger people scored higher in the Aggressiveness factor, especially concerning the Physical Aggression facet, whereas older people scored higher in the Activity factor. Besides, younger people scored higher in the Neuroticism and the Sensation Seeking factors, even though there were no age differences in the Extraversion factor. The ZKA-PQ five-factor structure was clear and yielded high congruence coefficients with the original Spanish validation sample. Altogether, the findings support the validity of the online version of this instrument. The ZKAPQ online version is therefore helpful in both, basic and applied research settings about human personality and individual differences.
Borges, Ernesto P.
We analyze the cumulative distribution of total personal income of USA counties, and gross domestic product of Brazilian, German and United Kingdom counties, and also of world countries. We verify that generalized exponential distributions, related to nonextensive statistical mechanics, describe almost the whole spectrum of the distributions (within acceptable errors), ranging from the low region to the middle region, and, in some cases, up to the power-law tail. The analysis over about 30 ye...
This article is dedicated to one of the most interesting aspects of International Procedural Law – litigation with participation of foreign persons. Author focused on a comparative analysis of Russian and Kazakh legislation concerning the regulation of international procedural relations. Article includes two paragraphs: the first one considers international jurisdiction of Russian arbitrazh courts and Kazakh economic courts on commercial matters; the second one examines the recognition and en...
Shyian, D; Galata, D; Potapov, S; Gargin, V
The study of the clinical anatomy and functional features of the cortex, subcortical and conductive pathways of the cerebellum is necessary for clinicians for elaboration rational surgical approaches to these formations, for determination the localization of pathological processes associated with these formations. Cerebellar nucleus neurons are crucial to the olivo-cerebellar circuit as they provide the sole output of the entire cerebellum. The relationship between mobility and cognition in aging is well established, but the relationship between mobility and the structure and function of the aging brain is relatively unknown. In connection with the above, the purpose of our study was detection of the morphological characteristics of the cerebellum nuclei in aged persons. Study was performed on 48 specimens of the cerebellum from people (24 male and 24 female), who died at the age from 75 to 99 years due to diseases, which were not related to the central nervous system damaging. Formalin-fixed human hemispheres were dissected with the Ludwig and Klingler fiber dissection technique under x6 to x40 magnifications of binocular microscope Olympus BX41 (Japan). The morphological features of the human cerebellar nuclei were established. Namely, on the series of sections of the cerebellum in the horizontal, frontal and sagittal planes, as well as on the macro-microscopic preparations of the cerebellar nuclei location, their relative position, shape, linear dimensions, weight and volume were described. The features of macro-microscopic and histological structure of the nuclei of the cerebellum were made own classification of the gyri and teeth of the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum was offered. Macro-microscopic dissection of persons died after 75 years old show no significant variability of linear dimensions of cerebellar nuclei with their specific location and options. Simultaneously, reliable reducing of cellular density was detected for Purkinje, granule and basket
Graham, Eileen K.; Lachman, Margie E.
Personality traits and cognitive performance are related, but little work has examined how these associations vary by personality facet or age. 154 adults aged 22 to 84 completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) and the NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed negative emotional aspects of personality (neuroticism, depression) were associated with lower reasoning, and social aspects of personality (assertiveness) were associ...
... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18 Years of Age; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection; Comments Requested ACTION: 60-day Notice...
... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Antidepressant Use in Persons Aged 12 and Over: United ... in 10 Americans aged 12 and over takes antidepressant medication. 1 Significantly different from age group 18â€“ ...
Hutengs, O.; Stadtmann, G.
We estimate Okun's coefficients for five different age cohorts for several Eurozone countries. We find a stable pattern for all countries: the relationship between business cycle fluctuations and the unemployment rate is the strongest for the youngest cohort and gets smaller for the elderly cohorts....
Adams, Gerald R.; Huston, Ted L.
This study indicates that more socially desirable characteristics are attributed to physically attractive than unattractive middle-aged persons. It is suggested that this difference in social desirability is greater for female than male stimuli and that elderly persons stereotype middle-aged persons more favorably than young adults do. (JMB)
Reza Omani Samani
Full Text Available Background: A family traditionally consisted of a married man, his wife, and their children. The new reproductive technologies including use of the third party as egg, sperm and embryo donation and also surrogacy have changed the traditional meanings of lineage, ancestry and family. The increasing number of lesbians and gays in addition to single women requesting fertility treatment from IVF centers in the world has brought a debate: “Can fertility treatment be offered to single persons or homosexuals?” According to ASRM and ESHRE taskforces, there is no such limitation, but as legislations and law, also ethical and social considerations depending on the culture, believes and religion of societies must be considered as limitations in some contexts like Iran.Materials and Methods: In this study we review the Iran law and also some Islamic resources about offering the fertility treatment to single mothers or homosexuals.Results: Homosexuality is not accepted in Islamic contexts and is considered as a crime. Children should have a family with both mother and father, unless they lose one of them or both. In the latter situation Islamic court will hand over the custody of the child to someone else like uncle or grandfather.Conclusion: We concluded that according to Islam and Iran’s law, fertility treatment cannot be offered to single mothers and homosexuals mostly because of welfare of the child.
Matthee, Jacques Louis
The South African legal system is dualistic in nature with the one part consisting of the Western common law and the other consisting of African customary law. Although these two legal systems enjoy equal recognition, they regularly come into conflict with each other due to their divergent value systems. It is especially within the context of the South African criminal law that this conflict becomes apparent, because an accused's conduct can be viewed as lawful in terms of A...
Recent Supreme Court decisions, which interpret the 200-year-old Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution, are used to provide a brief overview of some search and seizure subjects important to management and officers responsible for physical protection of nuclear facilities. The overview is framed in practical terms in order to make the comments applicable to the everyday activity of nuclear-protective-force persons. The Supreme Court has described several exceptions where searches and seizures (arrests) are permitted without a warrant, despite the Fourth Amendment which states that warrants are always required. The seven exceptions briefly discussed are search incidents to a lawful arrest, the automobile-search exception, the suitcase or container exception, the hot-pursuit or emergency exception, the stop-and-frisk exception, the plain-view exception, and consent to be searched
Newton, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.
It has been argued that the predominant focus of midlife personality development is generativity; other research has found that social roles influence both its onset and its expression. In this article, we examine women's midlife personality development and its relationship to career and family commitments. Results for a sample of 90 women…
Groot, I.J.M. de; Witte, L.P de
OBJECTIVE: While life expectancy is improving for persons with spinal muscular atrophy, new physical complaints may arise. To investigate this, we studied persons with a long duration and severe course (high functional limitations) of the disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SUBJECTS/
The 4th Amendment to the German Nuclear Law has procured the legal base for the disposal of radioactive waste in the German Federal Republic. The Nuclear Law states that the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig is responsible for the disposal of radioactive waste. The PTB can be assisted in its responsibilities by persons and institutions of private character. Involving private persons and corporations in the licensing process figures a legal problem, and there has been a seminar in the PTB discussing such problems. The present contribution gives a brief summary of the opinions stated by the various legal experts taking part in this seminar. (orig./HP)
van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.; Ormel, J.; Rispens, P
Objective: This study investigated physical fitness as a function of age and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in a community-based sample of 624 persons aged 57 yr and older. Methods: LTPA during the last 12 months was assessed through personal interviews. A wide range of physical fitness compo
Lucas, Richard E.; Donnellan, M. Brent
Cross-sectional age differences in the Big Five personality traits were examined in a nationally representative sample of Australians (N = 12,618; age range = 15-84). Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness were negatively associated with age, whereas Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were positively associated with age. Effect sizes comparing…
Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza; Behr, Elijah R; Ingemann-Hansen, Ole; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Ottesen, Gyda Lolk; Gislason, Gunnar H; Bundgaard, Henning; Haunsø, Stig; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the burden and causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is sparse in persons aged<50 years; better understanding is needed to lower the risk of SCD. The aim of this study was to report SCD incidence rates and autopsy findings in persons aged 1 to 49 years. METHODS AND RESULTS......: All deaths in persons aged 1 to 49 years were included in 2007 to 2009. Death certificates were reviewed by 2 physicians. History of previous admissions to hospital was assessed, and discharge summaries were read. Sudden unexpected death cases were identified and autopsy reports were collected. In the...... artery disease was the most common cause of death and was found in 158 (36%) autopsied cases, followed by 135 (31%) cases of sudden unexplained death. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide cohort of persons aged<50 years, the annual incidence rate of SCD was ≈10× higher in persons aged 36 to 49 years than in...
Robert Kaestner; Benjamin Yarnoff
We examine whether adult alcohol consumption and traffic fatalities are associated with the legal drinking environment when a person was between the ages of 18 and 20. We find that moving from an environment in which a person was never allowed to drink legally to one in which a person could always drink legally was associated with a 20 to 30 percent increase in alcohol consumption and a ten percent increase in fatal accidents for adult males. There were no statistically significant or practic...
The rise of digital media has caused transformations and new phenomena in different fields. In the digital age such branches as personal sports branding and nation branding has acquired new opportunities for development. The research focuses on representation of the personal sports brand of Zlatan Ibrahimovic on digital media platforms and its connection to the nation brand of Sweden. Previous research deals with existing studies on personal branding, personal sports branding in digital media...
Wafaa Binti Yusof
Full Text Available The non-conformity in the use of the terms concerning children and their age in the Shariah criminal legal system in the states in Malaysia has given rise to legal conflict as well as causing difficulties in terms of the execution and enforcement of shariah legal crime and its procedures in each of the afore stated states. The existing laws show that there exists non-dissidence in determining the position of children which conflicts with syariah crime. The term young offender was duly provided in the shariah procedural enactment but not in states’ shariah criminal law. Similarly, the term ‘baligh’ was defined and the position of non-baligh children was elucidated in the said law but not under the shariah procedural enactment. Hence, this articles serves to lay down the provisions of both enactments concerned and to compared them with the shariah criminal principles in terms of ascertainment of age and the position of children which are in conflict with the shariah criminal law through the ulama and Islamic fuqaha’s standpoint. This approach was adopted to determine as to what extent are the distinctive provisions shariah-compliant. This article unmasks the lacunae on shariah criminal law in the states particularly those pertaining children, conflicting with shariah. This finding raises the possibility re-examination as to the existing provisions. The analysis depicts the fact that each ‘baligh’ provision is duly reinforced by the ulama and fuqaha’s views which contribute to khilaf in this case. Correspondingly, the provision in shariah procedural enactments in Malaysia that a young offender is one who is not less than 10 years of age and not more than 16 years old is still very much debatable, considering the provisions on baligh. Thus, the detailed re-examination of the shariah criminal legal system pertaining children which conflicts with shariah criminal law is very much necessary for the justice of all of the parties concerned.
O'Malley, Patrick M.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.
This research was undertaken to delineate cross-sectional differences among U.S. high school seniors and young adults that may be due to variations in recent years in state-level minimum drinking age laws, and to examine the effects of recent changes in minimum drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, and on other relevant attitudes and…
Talavera, Oleksandr; Yin, Shuxing; Zhang, Mao
This study examines the role of board age diversity on bank performance. Using a sample of 97 Chinese banks, we document a negative and significant relationship between age diversity and bank performance. To further investigate the negative link between age diversity and bank performance, we decompose age diversity into personal value diversities. In particular, a variety of directors’ views with respect to work, prudence, and wealth harm bank performance. This indicates that age diversity am...
Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224
Mottus, R.; Allik, J.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kööts-Ausmees, L.; Realo, A.
Roč. 30, č. 1 (2016), s. 4-11. ISSN 0890-2070 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : variance * individual differences * personality * five-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.347, year: 2014
The overall aim of the thesis was to understand elderly people's lived experiences of ageing and their life situation in very old age. The participating persons have been involved in and followed through all studies in the thesis. In study I some characteristics of quality of life in old age were illustrated by means of empirical data and Allardt's definition of the concept. To the elderly people investigated, quality of life meant contentment and a peaceful life, independen...
Full Text Available Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endive and vegetable with medicinal properties.
Shanahan, Michael J; Hill, Patrick L; Roberts, Brent W; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Friedman, Howard S
The Conscientiousness (C) of the self and significant others influences health by way of mediational chains involving socioeconomic attainment, the avoidance and neutralization of stressors, the promotion of health behaviors and the minimization of risk behaviors, and the management of symptoms and diseases. Yet, meta-analyses reveal that these associations are moderated by factors that are not well understood. We propose the Life Course of Personality Model (LCP Model), which comprises a series of hypotheses that suggest how such mediational chains are subject to 2 sources of contingency. First, the mechanisms by which C translates into health and the avoidance of risk change from early childhood to late adulthood, involving processes that are specific to phases of the life course; also, however, C influences health by way of continuous processes extending over many decades of life. Second, C may be more consequential in some social contexts than in others, and when accompanied by some constellations of personality characteristics than by others. That is, the mediational processes by which C translates into health and the avoidance of disease are likely moderated by timing, social context (including the C of others), and other aspects of the individual's personality. We consider methodological implications of the LCP Model. PMID:23244406
A Chinese student of American constitutional law looks at problems and prospects in the application of the American constitutional experience in China and encourages more comparative study of consitutional law. (MSE)
Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W
A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts. PMID:25773456
The state law of South Africa consists of the common law and the customary law. However, in reality there exist various cultural and religious communities who lead their private lives outside of state law. For example, the Muslim community in South Africa is a close-knit community which lives according to their own customs and usages. Muslims are subject to informal religious tribunals whose decisions and orders are neither recognised nor reviewable by the South African courts. The non-recogn...
GHEORGHE MIHAI; EMILIA MIHAI
Modern times consider as a person the individual man being endowed with reason and conscience; this man cannot be but person because he shows so many persons. According to the positive law the human individual is considered a person: natural person in civil relations; criminal in criminal relations; public officer in administrative relations, etc. “Natural person”, “criminal”, “public officer” are terms from legal terminology of different branches of law that define the individual in the law,...
... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Emergency Department Visits by Persons Aged 65 and Over: ... 2009â€“2010, a total of 19.6 million emergency department (ED) visits in the United States were ...
Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver
The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…
Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.
Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…
Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RS is a neurological disease affecting mainly females, characterized by an arrest of brain development caused by an X-linked mutation. Rett syndrome is the first human disease found to be caused by defects in a protein involved in regulating gene expression through its interaction with methylated DNA. The disease has been traced to a defective gene called MECP2. The case stories presented here and recent findings show that females with RS are able to live into old age. Due to the observed longevity of individuals with RS, and the fact that individuals with RS present the therapist/physician with specific clinical challenges, it is suggested that proper, long-term, and individually tailored, intensive care should be provided at all ages in the hope to prevent or at least reduce the age-related deterioration that is typical of this population.
Mõttus, Rene; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian
Personality development in old age is a largely underexplored area, especially in the ninth decade of life. Lothian Birth Cohorts 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal stability and change of Five-Factor Model personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort stability and mean-level differences between ages 69 and 81 years. Measurements within the FFM framework appeared to be adequately stable both within and across cohorts, and high rank-...
Lehmann, B.A.; Bos, A.E.R.; Rijken, M.; Cardol, M.; Peters, G.J.Y.; Kok, G.; Curfs, L.M.G.
Background: The population of ageing people with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (ID) is growing rapidly. This study examines how personal resources (physical health, mental health and social networks) impact the well-being of ageing people with ID. Methods: Longitudinal survey data on 667 people with a mild or moderate ID were acquired via interviews in 2006 and 2010. Indicators of personal resources (physical health, mental health and social networks) were assessed, as were indi...
Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; IACONO, WILLIAM G.; McGue, Matt
Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but n...
Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; IACONO, WILLIAM G.; McGue, Matt
Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but n...
Ruben C Arslan; Lars Penke; Wendy Johnson; Iacono, William G.; Matt McGue
Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but n...
Chan, W.; McCrae, R.R.; De Fruyt, F.; Jussim, L.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Sutin, A.; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Yik, M.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J.-P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, M.; Knežević, G.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.
Roč. 103, č. 6 (2012), s. 1050-1066. ISSN 0022-3514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2394 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : aging * stereotypes * cross-cultural Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 4.877, year: 2012
Stewart, Michael; Morgenstern, Uwe
Understanding runoff generation is important for management of freshwater systems. Determining transit time distributions of streamwaters and how they change with discharge gives information on the flowpaths and recharge sources of streams - vital information for determining the responses of streams to stressors such as pollution, landuse change, or climate change. This work takes a first look at unique information on how transit time distributions change with discharge in some New Zealand catchments. Transit time distributions of streamwaters have been determined from tritium measurements on single samples in this work. This allows changes with stream discharge to be observed, in contrast to previous isotope studies which have given averaged transit time distributions based on series of samples. In addition, tritium reveals the wide spectrum of ages present in streams whereas oxygen-18 or chloride variations only show the younger ages (Stewart et al., 2010). It was found that the mean transit time (MTT) data could be reasonably represented by straight lines in log-log plots, indicating power law relationships between MTT and discharge. Similar power law behaviour has been observed for the rock forming elements such as silica in streamwaters (Godsey et al., 2009). Case studies are presented for two New Zealand catchments, both with volcanic ash substrates. Toenepi is a dairy catchment near Hamilton, which shows well-constrained power law relationships between MTT and discharge, and between silica concentration and discharge (Morgenstern et al., 2010). Baseflow MTTs vary from 2.5 to 157 years. Tutaeuaua is a pastoral farming catchment near Taupo. Results for nested catchments along the stream also show power law relationships for both MTT and silica with discharge. Streamwater MTTs vary from 1 to 11 years. The results indicate that (1) relatively old waters dominate many streams, (2) streamwater ages vary with discharge, and (3) age, like silica, varies according to
Mannella, Paolo; Giannini, Andrea; Russo, Eleonora; Naldini, Gabriele; Simoncini, Tommaso
Pelvic floor dysfunction is a growingly frequent condition in aging individuals. Urinary or rectal incontinence, constipation, pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic pain or sexual dysfunction are common problems in this age range. Such conditions carry a severe impact on quality of life, but also limit individual independence in daily activities, favor social isolation and carry health risks. Diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction in aging women is tricky, since multiple interfering conditions affecting muscle tone and nerve function are common in these individuals. Diabetes mellitus, sarcopenia, use of drugs that affect cognition or impact bowel or urinary function are just a few examples. These conditions need to be thoroughly taken into account during pre-operative work up for their potential impact on the success of surgery and vice versa. Functional reconstruction aimed at treating symptoms rather than anatomic defects is key to success. The recent advancements in surgical treatment of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse allow for more options to achieve the best surgery in each patient. PMID:26142653
Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David
Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)
McCrae, Robert R.; And Others
Administered translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory to adults in Germany, Italy, Portugal, Croatia, and South Korea. Found declines in neuroticism, extraversion and openness, and increases in agreeableness and conscientiousness age for both men and women. Results support hypothesis that age differences reflect universal maturational…
Feely, Mary; Vetere, Arlene; Myers, Lynn B.
One of the most prevalent visual impairments of people aged 60 and older is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which ranks third globally as a cause of visual impairment (World Health Organization, 2006). The purpose of this study was to conduct a tentative subjective assessment of eccentric viewing by persons with AMD. The authors recruited…
Y.Y. Hoogendam (Jory); F. van der Lijn (Fedde); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); A. Hofman (Albert); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); A. van der Lugt (Aad); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); J.N. van der Geest (Jos)
textabstractIntroduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods: Particip
Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Gansevoort, Ron T; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Navis, Gerjan; Dullaart, Robin P.F.; Slaets, Joris P J
APOE genotype is associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated whether APOE genotype was associated with cognitive function in predominantly middle-aged persons. In a population-based cohort of 4,135 persons aged 35 to 82 years (mean age (SD), 55 (12) years), cognitive function was measured with the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT; worst score, 0 points; best score, 175 points). APOE genotype (rs429358 and rs7412) was determined by polymerase chain rea...
Wafaa Binti Yusof; Anita Abdul Rahim
The non-conformity in the use of the terms concerning children and their age in the Shariah criminal legal system in the states in Malaysia has given rise to legal conflict as well as causing difficulties in terms of the execution and enforcement of shariah legal crime and its procedures in each of the afore stated states. The existing laws show that there exists non-dissidence in determining the position of children which conflicts with syariah crime. The term young offender was duly provide...
M.J.O.M. de Haas
This study investigates the conditions and mechanisms of fit between lawyers’ values and ambitions, on the one hand, and law firms’ values and other characteristics on the other hand. The big law firms in The Netherlands are distinguished according to their configuration as a professional partnershi
Sedžad Milanović; Elvira Sefer
The legal regulation of the persons with mental disabilities their support primarily finds in international legal acts of which provisions each state by their free determination incorporate into their regulations and coordinate them with the national legal norms. The persons with the mental disabilities are the persons with some degree of mental retardation who in greater or lesser extent are not able to independently take care of the realization and protection of their rights. Bo...
Full Text Available Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimensions, the relative influence that sex and age have on each other during categorization of infant, younger adult, and older adult faces was investigated. Results of these experiments demonstrate that when sex and age dimensions are simultaneously categorized, only for infant faces does age influence sex categorization. In contrast, the sex of both young and older adults was shown to influence age categorization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed in light of previous person perception research.
Ruben C Arslan
Full Text Available Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.
Yang, J; McCrae, R R; Costa, P T
Life experiences for corresponding age cohorts in the United States (US) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) have been dramatically different. If cohort effects account for cross-sectional age differences in mean levels of personality traits, different patterns of age differences should be seen in samples from the US and the PRC. The present study examined scores on scales from the California Psychological Inventory (CPI; Gough, 1987) in US (N = 348, age = 19-92 years) and PRC (N = 2,093, age = 18-67 years) samples. Very similar patterns of age correlations were seen. To compare results to other cross-cultural studies, CPI scales were interpreted in terms of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality; an FFM Age-Relatedness Index based on American data accurately predicted CPI age correlations not only in the US but also in the PRC sample. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that there are universal intrinsic maturational changes in personality. PMID:9826970
Valentina A. Polyanskaya; Irina V. Ganusenko
The article considers the results of psychological-educational research, implemented in teaching process of law students’, studying at bachelor level. Special attention is attached to self-determination of future lawyers in professional specialization during introduction training
Schwartz, H. Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Kern, Margaret L.; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Ramones, Stephanie M.; Agrawal, Megha; Shah, Achal; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Martin E. P. Seligman; Ungar, Lyle H.
We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psy...
De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991), are…
Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years, from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy.
Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio
Down Syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier) in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy. PMID:25419980
Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone
Down Syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study...
Hopper, L.M.; Price, S. A.; Freeman, H.D.; Lambeth, S.P.; SCHAPIRO, S. J.; Kendal, R L
Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different ...
Barros, CP; Caporale, GM; Garcia, MTM
This paper analyses the relationship between ageing and personal retirement savings plan participation in the Portuguese population, taking into account heterogeneity and endogeneity in preferences. A mixed logit model is used to analyse the determinants of retirement saving behaviour, allowing for heterogeneity and endogeneity in the responses. We find considerable heterogeneity among individuals (in terms of socio-economic variables such as age, gender and income), which must be taken into ...
Szmukler, George; Daw, Rowena; Callard, Felicity
People with a mental illness may be subject to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), depending on definitions of terms such as ‘impairment’, ‘long-term’ and the capaciousness of the word ‘includes’ in the Convention's characterisation of persons with disabilities. Particularly challenging under the CRPD is the scope, if any, for involuntary treatment. Conventional mental health legislation, such as the Mental Health Act (England and Wales) appears to violate...
Oosthuizen, H; Fick, G; Els, C
Mental illness or insanity has a dramatic influence on a person's legal status. A person's status determines his or her competencies such as legal capacity, capacity to act, accountability and capacity to litigate. A mentally ill person is incapable of performing juristic acts; he or she is not capable of becoming a party to legal proceedings; is virtually incapable of committing a crime or being liable for a delict; etc. However, not all mentally ill persons are precluded from performing legal acts or, for that matter, giving valid consent to medical treatment. The reason being that status is factually determined according to the degree to which the mental illness is present at the time when the mentally ill person participates in the legal traffic. The measure of capability depends on the patient's intellectual and volitional capacities that will decide whether the patient can validly contract, litigate or consent to medical treatment. More specifically medical research of a non-therapeutic nature can only be carried out on mental patients who are capable of consenting thereto. This article endeavours to touch upon the different aspects of the mentally ill person's legal status. PMID:8668008
Mõttus, Rene; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J
Lothian Birth Cohorts, 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal comparability of Five-Factor Model (McCrae & John, 1992) personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort comparability between ages 69 and 81 years. Personality was measured using the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Satisfactory measurement invariance was established across time and cohorts. High rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts...
Full Text Available Jordi Naval,1 Vicente Alonso,1,2 Miquel Angel Herranz11Genocosmetics Lab, Barcelona, Spain; 2Dermatology Unit, Hospital Nisa 9 de Octubre, Valencia, SpainIntroduction: Skin changes are among the most visible signs of aging. Skin properties such as hydration, elasticity, and antioxidant capacity play a key role in the skin aging process. Skin aging is a complex process influenced by heritable and environmental factors. Recent studies on twins have revealed that up to 60% of the skin aging variation between individuals can be attributed to genetic factors, while the remaining 40% is due to non-genetic factors. Recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics approaches have led to the association of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to skin properties. Our aim was to classify individuals based on an ensemble of multiple polymorphisms associated with certain properties of the skin for providing personalized skin care and anti-aging therapies.Methods and results: We identified the key proteins and SNPs associated with certain properties of the skin that contribute to skin aging. We selected a set of 13 SNPs in gene coding for these proteins which are potentially associated with skin aging. Finally, we classified a sample of 120 female volunteers into ten clusters exhibiting different skin properties according to their genotypic signature.Conclusion: This is the first study that describes the actual frequency of genetic polymorphisms and their distribution in clusters involved in skin aging in a Caucasian population. Individuals can be divided into genetic clusters defined by genotypic variables. These genotypic variables are linked with polymorphisms in one or more genes associated with certain properties of the skin that contribute to a person's perceived age. Therefore, by using this classification, it is possible to characterize human skin care and anti-aging needs on the basis of an individual's genetic signature, thus opening the door
Lindahl, Marianne; Hvalsoe, Berit; Poulsen, Jeppe Rosengaard;
Research in quality of rehabilitation has mostly concerned patients with chronic diseases, but the aim of the present study was to investigate what constitutes good quality in rehabilitation after a person has sustained a fracture at working age, from both patients' and therapists' perspectives....
Crow, Kristina M.; Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.
This study compared and analyzed the language capabilities of 10 school-age children raised in either single parent homes resulting from divorce or in two parent families. More specifically, it compared the context and complexity of oral personal event narratives produced by both groups of children. The study also investigated the usefulness and…
Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E;
OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether social relations during a 7-year follow-up influence oral health among generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 years. METHOD: The present investigation is based on a subsample of 129 dentate community-dwelling individuals from The Kungsholmen...
Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.
This study administered the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of an adult measure of the Five-Factor Model, to 449 boys and girls aged 12 and 13, who described themselves or a peer. Analyses of readability, reliability, factor structure, and convergent and discriminant validity suggested that the NEO-PI-3 can be…
Heijden, Beatrice van der; Vuuren, Tinka van; Kooij, Dorien; Lange, Annet de
Purpose – The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper aim
Heijden, Beatrice van der; Vuuren, Tinka van; Kooij, Dorien; Lange, Annet de
Purpose – The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper aims
Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Vuuren, T. van; Kooij, D.; Lange, A.H. de
- Purpose – The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper ai
Yoon, Dae Hyun; Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Pyo-Min; Park, Doo-Heum; Ryu, Seung Ho; Yu, Jaehak; Ha, Jee Hyun
Objective Low-income adults are considered to be a group at high risk for suicide. We sought to examine the effect of type D personality and other socio-demographic factors on suicidality in low-income, middle-aged Koreans. Methods In total, 306 low-income, middle-aged Koreans [age: 49.16±5.24 (40-59) years, 156 males, 150 females] were enrolled from the Korean National Basic Livelihood Security System. Socio-demographic data, including employment status, income, health, marital status, and e...
Picci, R. L.; Furlan, P. M.; M. V. Pacchiana Parravicini; Ladisa, E.; Pinessi, L.; Zennaro, A.; I. Rainero; Cavallo, M.; M. Zuffranieri; Ostacoli, L.
Objective. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the link between the age of onset of mood disorders and the complexity of the personality traits. Methods. 209 patients with major depressive or manic/hypomanic episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I diagnoses and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. 17.2% of the patients had no elevated MCMI-III scores, 45.9% had one peak, and 36.9% had a complex personality disorder wit...
Baek, Yousun; Martin, Peter; Siegler, Ilene C; Davey, Adam; Poon, Leonard W
The current study attempted to describe how personality traits of older adults are associated with components of successful aging (cognition, volunteering, activities of daily living, and subjective health). Three-hundred and six octogenarians and centenarians who participated in the third phase of the Georgia Centenarian Study provided data for this study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the existence of two higher-order factors of the Big Five personality traits, and a two-factor model (alpha and beta) fit the data well. Also, blocked multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between personality traits and four components of successful aging. Results indicated that low scores on neuroticism and high scores on extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are significantly related to the components of successful aging. After controlling for demographic variables (age, gender, residential type, and race/ethnicity), alpha (i.e., emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) was associated with higher levels of cognition, higher likelihood of engaging in volunteer work, higher levels of activities of daily living, and higher levels of subjective health. Beta (i.e., extraversion and openness to experience) was also positively associated with cognition and engaging in volunteer work. PMID:27298487
Full Text Available Despite early ratification of the United Nations Trafficking in Persons Protocol, the Criminal Code offence of trafficking in persons in Canada has received little analytical or interpretive attention to date. Adopted in 2005, this offence has resulted in successful convictions in a limited number of cases and criminal justice authorities have continued to rely on alternate or complementary charges in cases of human trafficking. In particular, prosecutions for cases involving non-sexual labour trafficking remain extremely low. This article provides a socio-legal examination of why the offence of trafficking in persons in Canada is under-utilized in labour trafficking cases. Based on an analysis of data generated from 56 one-on-one interviews gathered from a variety of actors involved in counter trafficking response mechanisms and a legal examination of the key components of the offence, we argue that definitional challenges have resulted in narrow understandings and problematic interpretations of the Criminal Code offence. Such narrow interpretations have resulted in restricted applicability, particularly in cases of labour trafficking. More broadly, the article points to the need to address the limitations of the Criminal Code while formulating responses to trafficking that are not dependent on criminal law.
Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Navis, Gerjan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Slaets, Joris P. J.
APOE genotype is associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated whether APOE genotype was associated with cognitive function in predominantly middle-aged persons. In a population-based cohort of 4,135 persons aged 35 to 82 years (mean age (SD), 55 (12) years), cognitive function was measured with the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT; worst score, 0 points; best score, 175 points). APOE genotype (rs429358 and rs7412) was determined by polymerase chain reaction. The mean RFFT score (SD) of the total cohort was 69 (26) points. Unadjusted, the mean RFFT score in homozygous APOE ε4 carriers was 4.66 points lower than in noncarriers (95% confidence interval, -9.84 to 0.51; p = 0.08). After adjustment for age and other risk factors, the mean RFFT score in homozygous APOE ε4 carriers was 5.24 points lower than in noncarriers (95% confidence interval, -9.41 to -1.07; p = 0.01). The difference in RFFT score was not dependent on age. There was no difference in RFFT score between heterozygous APOE ε4 carriers and noncarriers. The results indicated that homozygous APOE ε4 carriers aged 35 years or older had worse cognitive function than heterozygous carriers and noncarriers. PMID:22110642
Companies are founded by two or more physic persons or entities that are awarded for the achievement of common objectives in business, making contributions to society, as defined in its charter that in essence is a general term that means a society - society trading. As such the company has an identity apart from the legal authentic it is clearly separate from its members or shareholders. In this segment Kosovo has an interesting and intense legislative history. The transformation of the Comp...
... for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older...
Reavey, Catherine E; Warnock, Neil D; Garbett, Amy P; Cotter, Sheena C
How much should an individual invest in immunity as it grows older? Immunity is costly and its value is likely to change across an organism's lifespan. A limited number of studies have focused on how personal immune investment changes with age in insects, but we do not know how social immunity, immune responses that protect kin, changes across lifespan, or how resources are divided between these two arms of the immune response. In this study, both personal and social immune functions are considered in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We show that personal immune function declines (phenoloxidase levels) or is maintained (defensin expression) across lifespan in nonbreeding beetles but is maintained (phenoloxidase levels) or even upregulated (defensin expression) in breeding individuals. In contrast, social immunity increases in breeding burying beetles up to middle age, before decreasing in old age. Social immunity is not affected by a wounding challenge across lifespan, whereas personal immunity, through PO, is upregulated following wounding to a similar extent across lifespan. Personal immune function may be prioritized in younger individuals in order to ensure survival until reproductive maturity. If not breeding, this may then drop off in later life as state declines. As burying beetles are ephemeral breeders, breeding opportunities in later life may be rare. When allowed to breed, beetles may therefore invest heavily in "staying alive" in order to complete what could potentially be their final reproductive opportunity. As parental care is important for the survival and growth of offspring in this genus, staying alive to provide care behaviors will clearly have fitness payoffs. This study shows that all immune traits do not senesce at the same rate. In fact, the patterns observed depend upon the immune traits measured and the breeding status of the individual. PMID:26664685
Sironi, Emanuele; Gallidabino, Matteo; Weyermann, Céline; Taroni, Franco
Due to the rise of criminal, civil and administrative judicial situations involving people lacking valid identity documents, age estimation of living persons has become an important operational procedure for numerous forensic and medicolegal services worldwide. The chronological age of a given person is generally estimated from the observed degree of maturity of some selected physical attributes by means of statistical methods. However, their application in the forensic framework suffers from some conceptual and practical drawbacks, as recently claimed in the specialised literature. The aim of this paper is therefore to offer an alternative solution for overcoming these limits, by reiterating the utility of a probabilistic Bayesian approach for age estimation. This approach allows one to deal in a transparent way with the uncertainty surrounding the age estimation process and to produce all the relevant information in the form of posterior probability distribution about the chronological age of the person under investigation. Furthermore, this probability distribution can also be used for evaluating in a coherent way the possibility that the examined individual is younger or older than a given legal age threshold having a particular legal interest. The main novelty introduced by this work is the development of a probabilistic graphical model, i.e. a Bayesian network, for dealing with the problem at hand. The use of this kind of probabilistic tool can significantly facilitate the application of the proposed methodology: examples are presented based on data related to the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis. The reliability and the advantages of this probabilistic tool are presented and discussed. PMID:25794687
Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane;
all deaths), of which 156 (25%) were not autopsied. Of the 469 autopsied cases, 314 (67%) were SCD. The most common cardiac cause of death was ischaemic heart disease (13%); 29% of autopsied sudden unexpected death cases were unexplained. In 45% of SCD cases, the death was witnessed; 34% died during....... Death certificates were read independently by two physicians. The National Patient Registry was used to retrieve information on prior medical history. All autopsy reports were read and the cause of death was revised based on autopsy findings. We identified 625 cases of sudden unexpected death (10% of......Aims The aim of this investigation was to study the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in persons aged 1-35 years in a nationwide setting (5.38 million people) by systematic evaluation of all deaths. Methods and results All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included...
Hopper, Lydia M; Price, Sara A; Freeman, Hani D;
two novel foraging puzzles. We included both female (N=24) and male (N=12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14-47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females' estrous state-a potential influence on cognitive reasoning-by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally...... tumescent (associated with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female's estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees' success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees' personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel...
Skulachev, V P
Analysis of the programmed death phenomena from mitochondria (mitoptosis) to whole organisms (phenoptosis) clearly shows that suicide programs are inherent at various levels of organization of living systems. Such programs perform very important functions, purifying (i) cells from damaged (or unwanted for other reasons) organelles, (ii) tissues from unwanted cells, (iii) organisms from organs transiently appearing during ontogenesis, and (iv) communities of organisms from unwanted individuals. Defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS) is probably one of primary evolutionary functions of programmed death mechanisms. So far, it seems that ROS play a key role in the mito-, apo-, organo- and phenoptoses. Here a concept is described which tries to unite Weismann's concept of aging as an adaptive programmed death mechanism and the alternative point of view considering aging as an inevitable result of accumulation in an organism of occasional injuries. It is suggested that injury accumulation is monitored by special system sending a death signal to actuate a phenoptotic program when the number of injuries reaches some critical level. The system in question is organized in such a way that the lethal case appears to be a result of phenoptosis long before occasional injuries make the functioning of the organism impossible. This strategy is supposed to prevent the appearance of asocial monsters capable to ruining kin, community and entire population. These relationships are regarded as an example of the Samurai law of biology: 'It is better to die than to be wrong'. It is stressed that for humans these cruel regulations look like an atavism that should be overcome to prolong the human life span. PMID:11404047
Jasmin Cloutier; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Nalini Ambady
Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimens...
Xu Wu,a former firefighter with the Wuhan Iron and Steel (Group) Corp.(WISCO),a state-owned steelmaker in central China's Hubei Province,finally returned to his family in early June.The 43-year-old claimed he had been incorrectly diagnosed with paranoid personality disorder and kept in a psychiatric rehabilitation facility for more than four years.He insisted he had beer sent to the facility because his employer wanted to punish him for his longstanding petitioning over a wage dispute.
Maria Carmen Aguilar Del Castillo
The aim of the article is, on the one hand, to analyze the content and scope of fundamental right to the protection of personal data, provided by art. 18.4 of the Spanish Constitution; on the other, to decline this right in the context of the employment relationship starting from the interpretation given by the Spanish Constitutional Court in judgment no. 39/2016. The contrast between this right and the freedom of enterprise, which is realized in the power of organization, control and supervi...
Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda el desarrollo conceptual que ha tenido la nacionalidad de las personas jurídicas en el derecho de protección de las inversiones extranjeras. La base del análisis está constituida por los tratados y jurisprudencia arbitral internacional. Como resultado de esta investigación, surge un concepto funcional de la nacionalidad de las sociedades, cuyo alcance concreto se determina a la luz de los objetivos del régimen regulatorio de las inversiones transfronterizasThe aim of this article is to analyse the development of the notion of nationality regarding legal persons (companies, commercial entities, etc. in foreign investment laws. The author reviews international treaties and arbitral decisions concerning the subject. A functional notion of nationality can be drawn from this analysis. The reach of the notion shall be determined in light of the purposes of the foreign investment regulatory scheme
Chauhan, N S; Dhar, U; Singh, Y
It is a study of sociogenic need satisfactions that determines the homeostasis of 'being' by remaining contingent conditions of perpetuation or debasement of the social 'self'. The paper has a focus on identification satisfaction and differentiation experience of patients of the highly stigmatized leprosy. The study proceeds with an 'Experimental Group--Control-Group' randomized design. Experimental Groups are two, viz., those of Lepromatous and Non-lepromatous patients. 'Control Group' consists of 'disease-free' normal people. The three independent variables are disease types, age, personality factors. The dependent variables are two, viz., score of identification satisfaction and differentiation experience, measured by standardized tools. Each dependent variable has four '3 X 3 X 2' factorial experiments to test 56 'Null Hypotheses'. The sample consists of 360 elements for each one of the eight experiments. Leprosy elements are drawn from the Central JALMA Institute for Leprosy and the 'Kushta Seva Sadan' (Agra). The 'F' test is run for statistical verification of 'Null hypotheses'. Results show presence of 'role-reversion' and 'role negation' of age and personality factors. The disease possesses 'anti-roles'. It does not allow age and personality factors to promote identification satisfaction and to demote differentiation and experience. The disease actively promotes differentiation and demotes identification through its own 'alien system'. The senescents are the greatest sufferers. 'Social Stigma' works a 'social thanatos' and exposes senescents to substantial 'self-erosion'. PMID:6548499
@@ Ⅰ. Getting help from lawyers and its realization according to international standards The right to defense for a person involving in a law suit is a universal human right. Article 11 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides: "Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence."
The objectives of the article are represented by the prove of the fact that the decisions of the courtgive birth to rights and obligations in natural persons and judicial persons’ patrimonies, in internal law, sothat the problem if these can prevail from the authority of the thing judged is posed? Besides this situation,the rules of international law are applied by national courts according to national constitutions and fordomestic purposes. According to the theory of the act of state, even i...
Horvath, Keith J; Weinmeyer, Richard; Rosser, Simon
The aims of this study were to describe the overall pattern and predictors of attitudes toward criminalizing unprotected sex without disclosure by persons living with HIV among a broad sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the USA, and to examine whether attitudes and sexual risk behavior differ by states with HIV-specific laws or no such laws. Participants (n=1725) were recruited in a 3.5 month period to complete a cross-sectional 70-minute online survey assessing attitudes and high risk sexual behavior. Participants self-identified as male, 18 years of age or older, a US resident, and having ever had sex with a man. In addition, participants were coded as residing in a state with HIV-specific laws or not. Results showed that most (65%) respondents believed it should be illegal for persons living with HIV to have unprotected sex without disclosure. However, among the total sample and HIV-positive MSM, attitudes and unprotected sex with recent partners did not vary by state law. Believing that it should not be illegal for persons living with HIV to have unprotected sex without disclosure was associated with HIV-positive status (OR=0.33), higher education (ORs=0.42-0.64), gay orientation (non-gay orientation: OR=1.54), perceptions that state residents were somewhat or very accepting toward homosexuality (OR=0.75), unprotected anal intercourse with two or more recent sexual partners (OR=0.72), and lower perceptions of responsibility (OR=0.75). The results did not support the proposition that HIV-specific laws deter high-risk sexual behavior, however further research is needed to examine whether they act as a barrier for MSM at highest risk for acquiring or transmitting HIV. PMID:20635241
Gavin, Lorrie; MacKay, Andrea P; Brown, Kathryn; Harrier, Sara; Ventura, Stephanie J; Kann, Laura; Rangel, Maria; Berman, Stuart; Dittus, Patricia; Liddon, Nicole; Markowitz, Lauri; Sternberg, Maya; Weinstock, Hillard; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Ryan, George
This report presents data for 2002-2007 concerning the sexual and reproductive health of persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. Data were compiled from the National Vital Statistics System and multiple surveys and surveillance systems that monitor sexual and reproductive health outcomes into a single reference report that makes this information more easily accessible to policy makers, researchers, and program providers who are working to improve the reproductive health of young persons in the United States. The report addresses three primary topics: 1) current levels of risk behavior and health outcomes; 2) disparities by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and geographic residence; and 3) trends over time. The data presented in this report indicate that many young persons in the United States engage in sexual risk behavior and experience negative reproductive health outcomes. In 2004, approximately 745,000 pregnancies occurred among U.S. females aged pregnancy rates for female Hispanic and non-Hispanic black adolescents aged 15-19 years are much higher (132.8 and 128.0 per 1,000 population) than their non-Hispanic white peers (45.2 per 1,000 population). Non-Hispanic black young persons are more likely to be affected by AIDS: for example, black female adolescents aged 15-19 years were more likely to be living with AIDS (49.6 per 100,000 population) than Hispanic (12.2 per 100,000 population), American Indian/Alaska Native (2.6 per 100,000 population), non-Hispanic white (2.5 per 100,000 population) and Asian/Pacific Islander (1.3 per 100,000 population) adolescents. In 2006, among young persons aged 10-24 years, rates for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis were highest among non-Hispanic blacks for all age groups. The southern states tend to have the highest rates of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes, including early pregnancy and STDs. Although the majority of negative outcomes have been declining for the past decade, the most recent data suggest
Maria Carmen Aguilar Del Castillo
Full Text Available The aim of the article is, on the one hand, to analyze the content and scope of fundamental right to the protection of personal data, provided by art. 18.4 of the Spanish Constitution; on the other, to decline this right in the context of the employment relationship starting from the interpretation given by the Spanish Constitutional Court in judgment no. 39/2016. The contrast between this right and the freedom of enterprise, which is realized in the power of organization, control and supervision of work performance, is resolved by the Constitutional Court in the light of the principles of proportionality, suitability and necessity. The outcome of the balancing leads the Constitutional Court to establish the prevalence of the entrepreneurial freedom on the right to privacy of the employee.
Full Text Available This article addresses the ethical requirements to be considered when conducting clinical trials involving human subjects whose mental condition limits their ability to understand the information and to express fully autonomous and informed consent. It does not address other categories of vulnerable persons, such as children, or advanced directives concerning end-of-life care. There are many ethical issues entailed in clinical trials involving subjects with mental disabilities: how to obtain informed consent, balancing risks and benefits, balancing individual benefits with collective scientific and social interests, legal representation and many more. This article focuses on the issues surrounding the concept of minimal risk and the relationship between informed consent and risk. These issues are addressed with particular emphasis on the regulations adopted by the European Union and the federal government of the United States of America. The conclusion proposes a list of working criteria.
Robert Kaestner; Benjamin Yarnoff
We examine whether adults' alcohol consumption and traffic fatalities are associated with the legal drinking environment those adults experienced between the ages of 18 and 20. We find that the difference between an environment in which a person was never allowed to drink legally at those ages and one in which a person could always drink legally is associated with a 20-33 percent increase in alcohol consumption and a 10 percent increase in fatal accidents for adult males. There are no statist...
G. N. Leonova
Full Text Available Abstract. Immunological efficiency of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE vaccine Encepur® Adult (Chiron Behring GmbH, Germany was studied according to the sex- and age stratification of inoculated persons. The group under observation consisted of 117 residents of Vladivostok, Russian Far East, 17 to 68 years old, in whom anti-TBE antibodies were not detectable. Vaccination was performed according to the classical schedule, i.e., 0 days-28 days-12 months. Specific immune response was evaluated before vaccination, a month after first inoculation, 1 month following second vaccination, 1 year after two inoculations, and a month after third vaccination. Total index of marked immunological protection reached 100% after the 3rd vaccination. The highest response rates were revealed in young subjects and women. It was shown that the male persons from young and mature age groups travel to the forest more commonly than females, as opposed to the appropriate groups at older ages. However, in the older age group we have reversed situation. These data substantiate application of the tick-borne encephalitis vaccine Encepur® Adult as an effective mean for TBE prevention in endemic areas of Russia, where different strains of TBE virus are encountered.
Sensitive to allegations of "nanny state" paternalism, Australian governments support the doctrine that combating obesity is a matter of personal responsibility. Policy-makers endorse the "holistic" approach to obesity prevention, with a view to managing both sides of the nutritional energy equation. This paradigm allows the food and drinks industry to deflect its contributory responsibility for the epidemic and to avoid more stringent regulatory intervention beyond existing self-regulatory and corporate social responsibility regimes. This article argues that the industry must bear shared responsibility for the extent of the obesity crisis, although it cannot bear sole responsibility It defends the public interest case for more invasive, government-led regulation, reframing the crisis as one of public not individual burdens. Mindful of the political risk associated with unfocused calls for regulatory intervention, it articulates a set of regulatory principles to ensure that the interests of consumers and industry are properly acknowledged prior to further regulatory intervention. Finally, the article clarifies the subject, object and content of possible regulatory initiatives, offering an evaluation of their efficacy, practicality and fairness. PMID:26554202
Soto, Gloria; Solomon-Rice, Patti; Caputo, Michele
Children who use augmentative and alternative communication have been found to experience significant difficulties in the production of fictional and personal narratives. The important role of personal narratives in establishing personal and social identity has received substantial attention in developmental psychology but little attention in the…
Panek, Paul E.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Pruett, Jessica H.
In order to evaluate the gender differences on the experience of aging, 142 individuals 50 years of age and older completed an interview regarding experiences with another individual conveying the message that they were "old." Interviewees were asked about the type of situation, the age and gender of the response person, and the…
Lindahl, Marianne Pia; Hvalsøe*, Berit; Rosengaard, Jeppe;
need partnership, respect, and understanding through the rehabilitation course. Personal relations were important for continuity of rehabilitation (i.e. that organizational quality depended more on therapists' efforts to promote continuity for the patient than organizational tools).......OBJECTIVE: Research in quality of rehabilitation has mostly concerned patients with chronic diseases, but the aim of the present study was to investigate what constitutes good quality in rehabilitation after a person has sustained a fracture at working age, from both patients' and therapists...... theory method. RESULTS: Partnership was a central theme that was constituted by continuity of rehabilitation and therapists' use of a patient-centred approach. Patients' experiences of continuity of rehabilitation was supported, not only by organizational factors, but depended also on values constituting...
Full Text Available In this essay, I argue that the rise of personal genomics is technologically, economically, and most importantly, discursively tied to the rise of network subjectivity, an imperative of which is an understanding of self as always already a subject in the network. I illustrate how personal genomics takes full advantage of social media technology and network subjectivity to advertise a new way of doing research that emphasizes collaboration between researchers and its members. Sharing one’s genetic information is considered to be an act of citizenship, precisely because it is good for the network. Here members are encouraged to think of themselves as dividuals, or nodes, in the network and their actions acquire value based on that imperative. Therefore, citizen bioscience is intricately tied, both in discourse and practices, to the growth of the network in the age of new media.
Blake, Peter R.; Ganea, Patricia A.; Harris, Paul L.
Children can identify owners either by seeing a person in possession of an object (a visual cue) and inferring that they are the owner or by hearing testimony about a claim of ownership (a verbal cue). A total of 391 children between 2.5 and 6 years of age were tested in three experiments assessing how children identify owners when these two cues…
Tejero, E. (Eloy)
Recensión de: "THE PONTIFICAL UNIVERSITY OF JOHN PAUL II IN CRACOW SECTION IN TARNÓW, The Person and the Challenges. The Journal of Theology, Education, Canon Law and Social Studies Inspired by Pope John Paul II, Vol, I, n. 1 (2011), 266 pp. y vol. I n. 2 (2011) 248 pp., Press: Wydawnictwo Polihymnia, Lublin."
Shore, Rebecca Martin
Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions and numerous…
Baird, Paul N; Hageman, Gregory S; Franzco, Robyn H Guymer
It can be argued that age-related macular degeneration is one of the best characterized complex trait diseases. Extensive information related to genetic and environmental risk factors exists, and a number of different biological pathways are strongly implicated in its aetiology. Along with recent improvements in high throughput and relatively inexpensive genetic technologies, we are now in a position to consider developing a presymptomatic, personalized approach towards the assessment, management and treatment of this disease. We explore the applicability and challenges of this approach if it is to become commonplace for guiding treatment decisions for individuals with pre-existing disease or for those at high risk of developing it. PMID:19878229
Padir, Taşkin; Skorinko, Jeanine; Dimitrov, Velin
We present our preliminary results from the design process for developing the Worcester Polytechnic Institute's personal assistance robot, FRASIER, as an intelligent service robot for enabling active aging. The robot capabilities include vision-based object detection, tracking the user and help with carrying heavy items such as grocery bags or cafeteria trays. This work-in-progress report outlines our motivation and approach to developing the next generation of service robots for the elderly. Our main contribution in this paper is the development of a set of specifications based on the adopted user-centered design process, and realization of the prototype system designed to meet these specifications. PMID:26737419
Toronto prides itself on being “the world’s most diverse city,” and its officials seek to support this diversity through programs and policies designed to promote social inclusion. Yet this progressive vision of law often falls short in practice, limited by problems inherent in the political culture itself. In Everyday Law on the Street, Mariana Valverde brings to light the often unexpected ways that the development and implementation of policies shape everyday urban life. Meli...
Anna Jurczak; Krzysztof Safranow; Elżbieta Grochans
Background . The topic that is increasingly discussed is the contribution of personality traits to many aspects of life, including maintenance and restoration of health. Since health status is an essential element of quality of life, the latter may be significantly influenced by personality. Objectives . The aim of this study was to determine how personality traits influence the quality of life of late reproductive age women. Material and methods . The study included 345 late reprod...
Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E.J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55–64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity...
Mõttus, René; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J
Lothian Birth Cohorts, 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal comparability of Five-Factor Model (McCrae & John, 1992) personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort comparability between ages 69 and 81 years. Personality was measured using the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Satisfactory measurement invariance was established across time and cohorts. High rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts. Almost no mean-level change was observed in the younger cohort, whereas Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect declined significantly in the older cohort. The older cohort scored higher on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. In these cohorts, individual differences in personality traits continued to be stable even in very old age, mean-level changes accelerated. PMID:21604884
The battle between the recording industry and those illegal sharing music over the Internet has gripped headlines over the last few years like few others related to the digital age. At its core, it is a battle about the meaning of property and thus a battle over the heart of the emerging information economy. This article critically examines the double punch of law and technology the simultaneous and interwoven deployment of legal and electronic measures to protect digital content and asks whe...
Stadtmann, Georg; Hutengs, Oliver
The paper investigates Scandinavian countries and their male and female unemployment rates. Okun’s law is used to estimate age cohort and gender-specific Okun coefficients to make inference about the business-cycle dependence of young peoples’ unemployment across Scandinavian countries. Results...... show that men have higher Okun coefficients in absolute terms. Thus, their unemployment rate reacts more strongly to any change in GDP....
Chinedu Thomas Ekwealor
Full Text Available this paper purports to present the account of twin phenomena of age and constitution that anointed the relegation of African youth to the wastebasket of oppression. African youth have been studied by various scholars; and social, economic, and political statistical analyses of the youth were habitually deduced from [un]employment quotient. According to National Treasury discussion paper this instrument may not be a reliable tool in either understanding insecurity regimes threatening the youth in Africa and may not suffice in championing policy course for a secured African youth. [Un]employment are only symptoms of asymmetrical laws governing many African states. The principal problems are the constitution, and age limitations respectively (Ombagi 2012. In this guide, the instrument valid for testing and indeed, observing the true condition of young Africans are: the roles of state’s constitution; and the Age Grade limitation factors. These, are critical in the development and security of the youth. George McGovern cited in Jeanette Rankin (2012 noted that he [was] fed up to the ears with old men dreaming up wars for young people to die. Two salient factors, rudimentary to youth insecurity in the region in McGovern’s assertions are the law which authorises war and the age grade legally targeted in the war. In assortment of ways, constitutions provide the basis for definition, qualification and categorisation of the youth, who in turn are the direct sufferers of numerous human and state insecurity conditions forced on them by law. Constitution, therefore, plays exclusivist roles and enables the central authority to enforce rules on, and dictate norms for the youth. Despite the need for the state to adjust its behavior to reflect the actual or anticipated preferences of all citizens through a process of policy coordination, laws deprive the youth.
Stacey, C.; And Others
Evaluates the effects of exercise on simple cognitive performance and on psychological well-being in persons over 50 years of age. It also assesses the relationship between a set of subject variables and dropout from fitness programs. Results suggest that the beneficial effects of exercise may extend to cognitive and personality processes.…
Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta
Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people. PMID:26960686
Katja Franke; Michael Ristow
Aging alters brain structure and function. Personal health markers and modifiable lifestyle factors are related to individual brain aging as well as to the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study uses a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker to assess the effects of 17 health markers on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estim...
Franke, Katja; Ristow, Michael; Gaser, Christian
Aging alters brain structure and function. Personal health markers and modifiable lifestyle factors are related to individual brain aging as well as to the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study used a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker to assess the effects of 17 health markers on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estim...
Ferrara, Santo Davide; Baccino, Eric; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Comandè, Giovanni; Domenici, Ranieri; Hernandez-Cueto, Claudio; Gulmen, Mete Korkut; Mendelson, George; Montisci, Massimo; Norelli, Gian Aristide; Pinchi, Vilma; Ranavaya, Mohammed; Shokry, Dina A; Sterzik, Vera; Vermylen, Yvo; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Viel, Guido; Zoja, Riccardo
Compensation for personal damage, defined as any pecuniary or non-pecuniary loss causally related to a personal injury under civil-tort law, is strictly based on the local jurisdiction and therefore varies significantly across the world. This manuscript presents the first "International Guidelines on Medico-Legal Methods of Ascertainment and Criteria of Evaluation of Personal Injury and Damage under Civil-Tort Law". This consensus document, which includes a step-by-step illustrated explanation of flow charts articulated in eight sequential steps and a comprehensive description of the ascertainment methodology and the criteria of evaluation, has been developed by an International Working Group composed of juridical and medico-legal experts and adopted as Guidelines by the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM). PMID:26342285
The european law prohibit direct and indirect discrimination and harrasment on grounds of sex, racial or ethnic, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. The question is what is the situation when someone is discriminated on can claim to be the victim of unlawful discrimination because he or she is associated with another person who has the protected characteristic. The the Court of Justice of the European Union’s judgment in Coleman v Attridge Law and Steve Law confirms, fo...
H Andrew Schwartz
Full Text Available We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psychosocial processes yielding results that are face valid (e.g., subjects living in high elevations talk about the mountains, tie in with other research (e.g., neurotic people disproportionately use the phrase 'sick of' and the word 'depressed', suggest new hypotheses (e.g., an active life implies emotional stability, and give detailed insights (males use the possessive 'my' when mentioning their 'wife' or 'girlfriend' more often than females use 'my' with 'husband' or 'boyfriend'. To date, this represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality.
Schwartz, H. Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Kern, Margaret L.; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Ramones, Stephanie M.; Agrawal, Megha; Shah, Achal; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ungar, Lyle H.
We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psychosocial processes yielding results that are face valid (e.g., subjects living in high elevations talk about the mountains), tie in with other research (e.g., neurotic people disproportionately use the phrase ‘sick of’ and the word ‘depressed’), suggest new hypotheses (e.g., an active life implies emotional stability), and give detailed insights (males use the possessive ‘my’ when mentioning their ‘wife’ or ‘girlfriend’ more often than females use ‘my’ with ‘husband’ or 'boyfriend’). To date, this represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality. PMID:24086296
Full Text Available Self-handicapping is one of the strategies people use when facing potential failure. Paper presents new scale for assessing self-handicapping tendency as relatively stable trait, as well as its relations with personality traits, sex and age. Self-handicapping questionnaire and shortened form of Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire were administered to 230 participants of both sexes, age 18 to 59. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that model with four latent dimensions, encompassed by a higher-order latent dimension, fits the data well. Those lower order dimensions correspond to originally created scales: External handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in achievement area and External handicaps in achievement area. Results of MANCOVA shows that Neuroticism is predictor of all dimensions of self- handicapping. Impulsive sensation seeking predicts choice of external handicaps in interpersonal area, as well as internal handicaps in achievement area. Latter is predicted also by low Activity. Younger subjects show significantly higher tendency to use internal handicaps, and men in general show more self-handicapping tendency than women, except in choosing internal handicaps in achievement area, where sex shows no significant effect.
Full Text Available The basic principle for which a democratic governance stands, are expressed in the “Declaration of Independence of the United States of America with the words of Thomas Jefferson: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” The government of a democratic state does not exist to recognize the basic human rights, but to respect and guarantee the protection of these rights that any person possesses and benefits due to his existence starting from the most important right: The right to life, which is faced against the duty of the state for the protection of the human person’s life! In this sense this article analyzes the criminal-law protection of life in the Western Balkans.
Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Viruela, Ana M.; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós
The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness. PMID:27148121
Ibáñez, Manuel I; Viruela, Ana M; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós
The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness. PMID:27148121
Chen, Chi Shing
There is an increasing interest in incorporating significant citizen participation into the law-making process by developing the use of the internet in the public sphere. However, no well-accepted e-participation model has prevailed. This article points out that, to be successful, we need critical reflection of legal theory and we also need further institutional construction based on the theoretical reflection. Contemporary dominant legal theories demonstrate too strong an internal legal p...
Full Text Available The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3, more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality, suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p < 0.0002 residual age-correlations. When facets were residualized for their domain scores, a majority had significant (p < 0.002 residual age-correlations. For each domain, a series of latent factors were specified using random quarters of their items: scores of such latent factors varied notably (within domains in correlations with age. We argue that manifestations of aetiologically coherent traits should show similar age group differences. Given this, the FFM domains and facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Although an extraordinary visual acuity is achieved following the extracapsular cataract extraction with the implantation of intraocular lens, all the problems of vision are not solved in so doing and many of them should be considered. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of age, dioptric power of intraocular lens, corneal astigmatism and optic diameter of intraocular lens on glare in pseudophakic subjects. Methods. We examined 152 patients who underwent final correction at least two weeks after the suture removing what was performed if the astigmatism more than 2.0 D was measured by the use of a Javal keratometer. Examination was performed by a Rodenstock Adaptometer Nyctomat. According to the recommendation of the manufacturer, healthy persons should notice 50% of contrast under the constant glare and in the given time. Statistical data processing was performed by χ2 test. Results. In the group of patients with the findings lower than normal at constant glare there were 112 of eyes (73.68% as follows: 22 eyes (14.47% at the age from 50-55 years; 15 eyes (9.87% were at the age from 56-60 years; 18 eyes (11.84% were at the age from 61-65 years, and 57 eyes (37.50% were at the age from 66-70 years. Dioptric power of lenses up to 20.0 D had 37 eyes (24.3%, from 20.5-22.0 D 85 eyes (56.9% and more than 22.5 D, 27 eyes (17.8%. Regarding the results of discomfort caused by glare and corneal astigmatism, measured by a Javal keratometer, in the observed group normal results were found in 112 eyes (73.68%, and out of that number 95 (62.50% were with corneal astigmatism less than 20.0 D, and 17 (11.18% had astigmatism of 20.0 D and more. Out of 112 eyes there were 58 of them (38.16% with findings lower than normal in relation to the constant glare and with the lens diameter of 5.5 mm, 48 (31.58% with the lens diameter of 6.0mm, and 6 of them (3.95% with lens diameter of 6.5mm. Conclusion. The study determined a
Full Text Available The paper examines the main common issues of crimes against the person, and some other situations of more favorable criminal law enforcement. The innovations consist in the conducted examination and the views expressed on some situations in which the more favorable criminal law should be applied. The main change with a strong preventive feature is to introduce the two institutions, namely, the renunciation of applying the punishment and postponing the punishment, which generally is given a favoring regime to physical or legal entities being at their first conflict with the law or in the case of committing crimes whose seriousness is reduced. The paper continues other papers published in the field, and it can be useful both to academics and practitioners in the domain of preventing and combating crime of this kind.
Luong Thi, My Quynh
In Vietnam, practical settlement of criminal cases tends to indicate that incorrect judgments still exist that naturally prejudices the legitimate rights and interests of citizens, including the right to have defense counsel. This results from various causes, of which the overlapping and contradictory nature of the laws is one. This dissertation focuses on examining the contents of the applicable provisions of international law and the laws of Vietnam, Germany and the United States on ...
Mac Sithigh, Daithi
This article assesses the regulation of smartphone ‘app stores’. At the outset, the significance of smartphones and apps to the debate on Internet regulation is considered, and places in the context of the adoption of smartphones and apps. The importance (commercially and as a study in governance and control) of the iOS App Store (Apple) is highlighted, as is the need to explore forms of regulation that are not linked with a violation of competition law. Section ‘Developer-focused issues’ dea...
Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Eugénia; Campos, Rui C.; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta; Junqueira, Diana
As part of the research relating personality and depression, this study seeks to predict depressive experiences in aging women according to Sidney Blatt’s perspective based on the Five-Factor Model of Personality. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were administered. The domains Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted self-criticism, explaining 68% of the variance; the domains Neuroticism and Extraversion predicted dependency, exp...
Mottus, Rene; Johnson, Wendy; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.
We tested the associations between individual differences in the Big Five personality traits and their changes over the ninth decade of life and levels of and changes in cognitive functioning, physical fitness, and everyday functioning. Besides mean-level changes in personality traits, there were significant individual differences in their rates of change between ages 81 and 87. The changes in the Big Five traits were not strongly intercorrelated, suggesting little common influence on persona...
Leszko, Magdalena; Elleman, Lorien G.; Bastarache, Emily D.; Graham, Eileen K.; Mroczek, Daniel K.
Over the past 20 years, empirical evidence has brought about a change in the view on how, or even whether, personality traits change or develop in adulthood and later life. Now we know personality can and does change for many people, if not most. Changes in personality may occur due to biological or environmental factors. This paper presents key empirical findings on personality change in adulthood and provides evidence that personality change affects mental and physical health. Our goal is t...
This is the second of three papers investigating the legislative history concerning infanticide. It compares the efforts of various states to protect the newborn infant between 534 and 1532 CE. When the Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century, the jurisdiction of infanticide was relegated to the church, which regarded carnal delicts a sin rather than a crime. The punishment - public penance of the mother for 7-15 years - was milder than that which the murder of an adult would incur. The Council of Florence decreed in 1439 that the souls of children who died without having been baptized descend to hell. This turned infanticide from a penitential sin to the most heinous of all crimes. The states passed laws that abominated infanticide even more than the murder of older humans and punished women with ever more cruel forms of execution. Towards the men, however, who usually abandoned the women they had impregnated, the laws were lenient. Churches and society continued to vilify illegitimate birth, thus enhancing rather than preventing infanticide. The Habsburg-German legislation of 1532 ordained to torture any woman who had concealed pregnancy and birth and claimed the infant was stillborn. Legislation developed similarly in other countries, albeit at a different speed. French (1556) and British (1623) legislation reversed the burden of proof and demanded the death penalty for concealing pregnancy and birth when a dead infant was found. PMID:26583381
Snowdon, John; Draper, Brian; Wyder, Marianne
Data concerning 127 persons aged 35 years or above who died by suicide (as determined in consecutive cases by a Sydney coroner) were analyzed. Psychological autopsy (PA) interviews were conducted in 52 cases, and details were compared with the 75 cases where data were available only from coroner's files (CF). Most characteristics of the two groups…
Hoogendam, Y.Y.; Van der Lijn, F.; Vernooij, M.W.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W.J.; Van der Lugt, A.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Van der Geest, J.N.
Introduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older, we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral-drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods: Participants were
The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present. (CW)
Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos
Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia. PMID:24495576
This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…
Wu, I-Chien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Hsiung, Chao A
A chronic disease in older adults usually runs a course that is less predictable than in younger individuals. Unexplained variations in disease incidence, prognosis, therapeutic responses, and toxicity are frequently observed among older adults. This heterogeneity poses huge challenges to the current one-size-fits-all health care systems, and calls for more personalized managements of chronic diseases in older adults. Aging is characterized by progressive deterioration of bodily functions with increasing risk of failure over time. The entire process is hierarchically organized, and progresses from intracellular events to changes at systemic and ultimately organism levels at different rates among different individuals. Aging biology exerts great influences on the development and progression of most age-related chronic diseases. Thus, aging biology could contribute to the complexity of illnesses that increase with age, and aging biomarkers possess a great potential to enable personalized health risk assessment and health care. We review evidences supporting the roles of aging biomarkers in risk assessment of prevalent age-related diseases. Frailty phenotype is an objectively measured indicator of advanced-stage aging that is characterized by organism-level dysfunction. In contrast, altered inflammation markers level signifies an earlier stage between cellular abnormalities and systems dysfunction. Results of human observational studies and randomized controlled trials indicate that these measures, albeit simple, greatly facilitate classification of older patients with cancer, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus into groups that vary in disease incidence, prognosis and therapeutic response/toxicity. As the detailed mechanisms underlying the complex biologic process of aging are unraveled in the future, a larger array of biomarkers that correlate with biologic aging at different stages will be discovered. Following the
Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Terracciano, Antonio; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.
We examined the influence of personality traits on mean levels and age trends in four single-item measures of self-rated health: General rating, comparison to age peers, comparison to past health, and expectations for future health. Community-dwelling participants (N = 1,683) completed 7,474 self-rated health assessments over a period of up to 19-years. In hierarchical linear modeling analyses, age-associated declines differed across the four health items. Across age groups, high neuroticism ...
Racco, A; Penna, T J P
In this work we check the occurrence of the Azbel assumption of mortality within the framework of a bit string model for biological ageing. We reproduced the observed feature of linear correspondence between the fitting parameters of the death rate as obtained by Azbel with demographic data.
Elísabet Þórðardóttir 1965
Background: Personality is associated with various mental disorders. The personality factor of neuroticism is a risk factor for developing depression; extraversion and conscientiousness can also have an impact on depression. Few studies have looked at the elderly population in relation to personality and depression. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the Big Five personality factors of neuroticism, extroversion and conscientiousness and symptoms of depression and dep...
Writers of golden age crime fiction (1920 to 1945), and in particular female writers, have been seen by many critics as socially and politically detached. Their texts have been read as morality tales, theoretically rich mise en scenès, or psychic fantasies, by necessity emerging from an historical epoch with unique cultural and social concerns, but only obliquely engaging with these concerns by toying with unstable identities, or through playful, but doomed, private transgressi...
Morse, Douglas E; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Holm-Pedersen, Jytte;
The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) evaluated the oral health status of generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, an area in central Stockholm. This paper reports findings regarding the prevalence and severity of dental caries among the d...
Morack, Jennifer; Infurna, Frank J.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis
Subjective health is known to predict later outcomes, including survival. However, less is known about subjective health changes across adulthood, how personality moderates those changes, and whether such associations differ with age. We applied growth models to 10 waves of data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey…
AlFuqaha, Isam Najib; Tobasi, Adnan
This article attempts to probe the level of creative thinking of teachers at Philadelphia University in Jordan, and to define its relation with several independent demographic variables, namely age, gender, duration of experience, specialization, and personality types and traits. To accomplish this purpose, three questionnaires are administered on…
Full Text Available Aging alters brain structure and function. Personal health markers and modifiable lifestyle factors are related to individual brain aging as well as to the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD. This study uses a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based biomarker to assess the effects of 17 health markers on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for developing AD. Within this cross-sectional, multi-center study 228 cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects (118 males completed an MRI at 1.5T, physiological and blood parameter assessments. The multivariate regression model combining all measured parameters was capable of explaining 39% of BrainAGE variance in males (p < 0.001 and 32% in females (p < 0.01. Furthermore, markers of the metabolic syndrome as well as markers of liver and kidney functions were profoundly related to BrainAGE scores in males (p < 0.05. In females, markers of liver and kidney functions as well as supply of vitamin B12 were significantly related to BrainAGE (p < 0.05. In conclusion, in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects several clinical markers of poor health were associated with subtle structural changes in the brain that reflect accelerated aging, whereas protective effects on brain aging were observed for markers of good health. Additionally, the relations between individual brain aging and miscellaneous health markers show gender-specific patterns. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of subtly abnormal patterns of brain aging probably preceding cognitive decline and development of AD.
Full Text Available The objectives of the article are represented by the prove of the fact that the decisions of the courtgive birth to rights and obligations in natural persons and judicial persons’ patrimonies, in internal law, sothat the problem if these can prevail from the authority of the thing judged is posed? Besides this situation,the rules of international law are applied by national courts according to national constitutions and fordomestic purposes. According to the theory of the act of state, even if it would seem that, at least internal actsof implementation of international rules are subjected to internal jurisdictions, the resolutions implementedoften touch the problem of security and public order which escapes the judicial competency. In order torealize this study the systemic method, the comparative method and the logical method were used, but a tightcollaboration, a combination of research methods are imposed, so that each has the vocation to seize theuniverse, thus it is proper to mention the contribution of epistemology as a reflection on sciences, bringinginto discussion a normative discourse in systems of descriptive texts. In conclusion, the national judge is freeto ignore the decisions of ICJ or to keep in mind these decisions in interpreting an internal law norm, aninternational law rule or to avoid the reexamining of problems already presented in these decisions. It isimportant to also realized an approach of the image of the law and of its meanings, beyond the clichés we gotused to, observing that, due to its complexity, law can not be reduced to one and unique representation.
Full Text Available The study was to determine the presence or usefulness of the main components of the relationship of physical and psycho-physiological state in the personality structure of children of preschool age. The experiment involved 107 children aged 4 years (54 male, 53 female. Factor analysis of the structure of the motor system, the intellectual and moral sphere of children. Found that it is determined six orthogonal factors. The results give reason to believe that the development of the physical, intellectual and moral sphere of children of this age is complex. The interpretation of these data in the pedagogical aspect suggests that pre-school children are becoming a person under the influence of biological and psychological factors. Their activation is possible in the process of physical education.
Gaeta, Michael J.
The unit on an aging program described is designed to provide students with an accurate knowledge base of the biological, psychological, and sociological aspects of aging as well as with experiences to sensitize them to the realities of aging. (JMF)
Full Text Available Sonya Brownie, Susan NancarrowSchool of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Several residential aged-care facilities have replaced the institutional model of care to one that accepts person-centered care as the guiding standard of practice. This culture change is impacting the provision of aged-care services around the world. This systematic review evaluates the evidence for an impact of person-centered interventions on aged-care residents and nursing staff.Methods: We searched Medline, Cinahl, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Proquest, and Expanded Academic ASAP databases for studies published between January 1995 and October 2012, using subject headings and free-text search terms (in UK and US English spelling including person-centered care, patient-centered care, resident-oriented care, Eden Alternative, Green House model, Wellspring model, long-term care, and nursing homes.Results: The search identified 323 potentially relevant articles. Once duplicates were removed, 146 were screened for inclusion in this review; 21 were assessed for methodological quality, resulting in nine articles (seven studies that met our inclusion criteria. There was only one randomized, controlled trial. The majority of studies were quasi-experimental pre-post test designs, with a control group (n = 4. The studies in this review incorporated a range of different outcome measures (ie, dependent variables to evaluate the impact of person-centered interventions on aged-care residents and staff. One person-centered intervention, ie, the Eden Alternative, was associated with significant improvements in residents' levels of boredom and helplessness. In contrast, facility-specific person-centered interventions were found to impact nurses' sense of job satisfaction and their capacity to meet the individual needs of residents in a positive way. Two studies found that person-centered care was actually associated with an
Full Text Available Aging of the world's population represents one of the most remarkable success stories of medicine and of humankind, but it is also a source of various challenges. The aim of the collaborative cross-cultural European study of adult well being (ESAW is to frame the concept of aging successfully within a causal model that embraces physical health and functional status, cognitive efficacy, material security, social support resources, and life activity. Within the framework of this project, we show here that the degree of heterogeneity among people who view aging in a positive light is significantly lower than the degree of heterogeneity of those who hold a negative perception of aging. We base this conclusion on our analysis of a survey involving 12,478 people aged 50 to 90 from six West European countries. We treat the survey database as a bipartite network in which individual respondents are linked to the actual answers they provide. Taking this perspective allows us to construct a projected network of respondents in which each link indicates a statistically validated similarity of answers profile between the connected respondents, and to identify clusters of individuals independently of demographics. We show that mental and physical well-being are key factors determining a positive perception of aging. We further observe that psychological aspects, like self-esteem and resilience, and the nationality of respondents are relevant aspects to discriminate among participants who indicate positive perception of aging.
Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to determine the representation of different types of leucocytes in the mucosal layer of the cheek in person of old and senile age. The mucosal layer of the maxillary, mandibulary and intermediate zones on the cheek of 12 persons from 40 till 80 years died from reasons not connected with diseases or damage of the head were used. The serial thin sections were stained by toluidin blue and polychrome. Additionally the thickness of the mucosal layer, the sizes of the cells and vessels diameters were measured. The amount and representation of immune cells showed the dynamic changes in persons of old age, and the plasmocytes undergo the most changes. The amount of plasmocytes in this group was more than in the senile group. In our opinion, it is a result of depress of humoral immunity and processes of antibodies secretion which inactivate of antigens. We conclude that the compensate mechanisms of the immune defenсe in the mucosal layer of old person take place by the participation of histiocytes and free macrophages of connective tissue. The defence function in the mucose layer of the senile persons carry out by neutrophills and free macrophages.
Yoo Young eHoogendam; Fedde evan der Lijn; Meike W eVernooij; Albert eHofman; Wiro J eNiessen; Aad evan der Lugt; M Arfan eIkram; Jos N evan der Geest
Introduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral-drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods: Participants were required to trace a template of a spiral on an electronic drawing board. Clinical scores from this test were obtained by visual assessment of the drawings. Quantitative measures were objectively dete...
Hülür, Gizem; Ram, Nilam; Willis, Sherry L; Schaie, K Warner; Gerstorf, Denis
A central aim of life-span psychology is to understand ontogenetic changes in the structure of individuals' actions, thoughts, and behaviors. The dedifferentiation hypothesis of cognitive aging suggests that the structure of individuals' cognitive abilities becomes less differentiated in old age. Empirical tests have almost exclusively approached this hypothesis from a between-person difference perspective and produced a mixed set of findings. In the present study, we pursue a within-person test of the hypothesis using up to 8 repeated measures of cognitive abilities over up to 49 years, covering fluid (inductive reasoning), visualization (spatial orientation), and crystallized abilities (number, verbal meaning, and word fluency), obtained from 419 now-deceased individuals who participated in the Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS) and have provided at least 4 observations for each cognitive test. Results revealed that with advancing age and proximity to death, within-person coupling increased (a) among the crystallized abilities, (b) between visualization and fluid abilities, (c) between visualization and crystallized abilities, and (d) between fluid abilities and crystallized abilities. We discuss the importance of within-person analyses for understanding changes in the structure of behavior and consider how our findings inform research on cognitive decline and dedifferentiation later in life. PMID:25961879
Van den Broeck, Joke; Rossi, Gina; De Clercq, Barbara; Dierckx, Eva; Bastiaansen, Leen
Research on the applicability of the five factor model (FFM) to capture personality pathology coincided with the development of a FFM personality disorder (PD) count technique, which has been validated in adolescent, young, and middle-aged samples. This study extends the literature by validating this technique in an older sample. Five alternative FFM PD counts based upon the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) are computed and evaluated in terms of both convergent and divergent validity with the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders Questionnaire (shortly ADP-IV; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth edition). For the best working count for each PD normative data are presented, from which cut-off scores are derived. The validity of these cut-offs and their usefulness as a screening tool is tested against both a categorical (i.e., the DSM-IV - Text Revision), and a dimensional (i.e., the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology; DAPP) measure of personality pathology. All but the Antisocial and Obsessive-Compulsive counts exhibited adequate convergent and divergent validity, supporting the use of this method in older adults. Using the ADP-IV and the DAPP - Short Form as validation criteria, results corroborate the use of the FFM PD count technique to screen for PDs in older adults, in particular for the Paranoid, Borderline, Histrionic, Avoidant, and Dependent PDs. Given the age-neutrality of the NEO PI-R and the considerable lack of valid personality assessment tools, current findings appear to be promising for the assessment of pathology in older adults. PMID:22913535
Moor, Caroline; Zimprich, Daniel; Schmitt, Marina; Kliegel, Matthias
Since the global item of subjective health has emerged as a strong predictor of important health outcomes such as mortality, there have been many attempts to uncover its correlates. In this study, we tested whether personality as assessed via the five-factor model of personality predicted subjective health when physician-rated health and…
Hallgren, Jenny; Fransson, Eleonor I; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K
The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe and compare individual characteristics of hospitalized and not hospitalized community living persons, and (2) to determine factors that are associated with hospitalization risk over time. We conducted a prospective study with a multifactorial approach based on the population-based longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). A total of 772 Swedes (mean age at baseline 69.7 years, range 46-103, 59.8% females) answered a postal questionnaire about physical and psychological health, personality and socioeconomic factors. During nine years of follow-up, information on hospitalizations and associated diagnoses were obtained from national registers. Results show that 484 persons (63%) had at least one hospital admission during the follow-up period. The most common causes of admission were cardiovascular diseases (25%) and tumors (22%). Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age, sex and dependency within twin pairs, showed that higher age (HR=1.02, pHR=1.09, p=0.028) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization, while marital status (unmarried (HR=0.75, p=0.033) and widow/widower (HR=0.69, pHR=0.93, p=0.029) were associated with lower risk of hospitalization. Social factors were important for hospitalization risk even when medical factors were controlled for in the analyses. Number of diseases was not a risk in the final regression model. Hospitalization risk was also different for women and men and within different age groups. We believe that these results might be used in future interventions targeting health care utilization. PMID:27281475
The present study investigated age and gender differences in Big Five in a Malay speaking Malaysian youth (N=1036). Participants ranging in age from 15 to 39 years completed Big Five Inventory (BFI). Age differences were found suggesting that mean levels of Neuroticism are negatively associated with age, whereas Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Extraversion are positively associated. Openness to experience demonstrated a curvilinear associated with age with highest mean levels in middle a...
Bottke, William; Ghent, Rebecca; Mazrouei, Sara; Robbins, Stuart; Vokrouhlicky, David
rate as Earth. Fitting model craters to observations, we estimate Venus’ average surface age as ~130 Myr, a lower value than previous predictions. This result, if true, has interesting implications for Venus’s evolutionary history.
The "spectre of eugenics" is often raised about various current reproductive practices that imply a form of choice between future possible persons. Some of these practices are linked to genetic technologies such as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, others merely entail the choice of a procreator having specific traits, such as in artificial insemination with donor. The weight and limits of this reproof of eugenics are examined, with special attention to the conceptual problems resulting from confusing choices involving virtual persons with the selection of existing persons. PMID:26228932
Full Text Available The article presents the results of study on the relationship of personality traits and intelligence in Russian high school students. The study focused on Big Five personality traits - Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness - and the structure of their relationships with nonverbal intelligence, as measured by the test “Standard Progressive Matrices”. Significant correlations were only found between nonverbal intelligence and Openness (r = 0.26, p < 0.05. The results are interpreted in the context of investment theory, which assumes that personality traits can promote the formation of individual differences in intelligence.
Company as a legal person has the independent personality and shareholders limited liability, which is one of the important systems of company law. At first, but the limited liability of shareholders is the purpose of in order to protect the shareholders, but tend to damage the interests of others. This paper discusses the relevant theories of disregard of corporation law, and put forward its imperfections, and on this basis puts forward his own idea.%公司作为法人，具有独立的人格，股东承担有限责任，这是公司法的重要制度。但是股东有限责任起初的目的是为了保护股东，但是往往会损害其他人的利益。本文探讨了公司法人格否认制度的相关理论，提出了它的不完善之处，并在此基础上提出自己的构想。
Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...
Diego Armando Yáñez Meza
Full Text Available Initially the theory of repairing the damage caused by act or omission attributable to the state as a subject faced the dogma of irresponsibility. This was a paradigm that in the context of the new constitutional law should not be allowed any validity because it is not a case of the exercise of a divine power or Leviathan because of its superiority over the inhabitants, as institutionalist theses of yore held. However, as it will be evident, there is some jurisprudence position that reminds us of those theses concerning the state responsibility because of the case of displaced persons and there are doctrinal realities that pose their attenuated return since the law of non-contractual liability appears as an option which is ill-suited for the victims. Hence the need to determine the pattern of resolution to the legal problem posed by the Administrative Justice in order to identify its characteristics and to establish the road map drawn to repair one of the most flagrant violations of human rights and humanitarian international law.
van Eersel, Marlise E. A.; Joosten, Hanneke; Koerts, Janneke; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.
The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) is a cognitive test to measure executive function. Longitudinal studies have shown that repeated testing improves performance on the RFFT. Such a practice effect may hinder the interpretation of test results in a clinical setting. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal performance on the RFFT in persons aged 35–82 years. Performance on the RFFT was measured three times over an average follow-up period of six years in 2,515 participants of the Preventi...
Angela Pires Pinto
Full Text Available The case “Guerrilha do Araguaia” is well known in Brazil in the view of the disappearances of opponents to the military regime occurred between 1972 and 1974, in the region known as Araguaia. Despite the efforts made by the families of the victims to seek responsibility and redress, few progress has been done. In 1995, Brazil recognized its responsibilities for the deaths and established a Commission to provide compensation to the families of the victims. The Amnesty Law prevented the State to initiate the criminal proceedings related to the responsibilities of those involved in the disappearances, torture and killings. On December 2010, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights decided that Brazil is responsible for the enforced disappearances in the Araguaia's region and, following its previous jurisprudence, determined that the State initiate adequate investigation and criminal proceedings related to the facts that amount to crimes against the humanity. In the view of the determination of criminal responsibilities on the “Guerrilha do Araguaia”'s case, this article will examine the grounds of criminal liability of the alleged offenders under the international criminal law as well as under the Brazilian domestic law, analysing the limitations that arise from both jurisdictions.
Naval J; Alonso V; Herranz MA
Jordi Naval,1 Vicente Alonso,1,2 Miquel Angel Herranz11Genocosmetics Lab, Barcelona, Spain; 2Dermatology Unit, Hospital Nisa 9 de Octubre, Valencia, SpainIntroduction: Skin changes are among the most visible signs of aging. Skin properties such as hydration, elasticity, and antioxidant capacity play a key role in the skin aging process. Skin aging is a complex process influenced by heritable and environmental factors. Recent studies on twins have revealed that up to 60% of the skin aging vari...
A natural person, especially celebrities for their own talent, virtue, skills and achievements have a certain influence in the society.So businesses use this effect in a particular product or service is, to meet business objectives.The celebrity to achieve through the certain carrier. The businessman is to realize its commercial sales by this external carrier,So these are commercial use of the carrier's mark of personality.The benefits of personality identification using this legal phenomenon description,Chinese scholars use the concepts of "merchandising right","Public right", "right of publicity", "commercial rights of personality" etc.The concept of variety, extremely messy. Whether it is from the concept intension and extension are a far cry from the it concept which are across three completely different rights category these are the personality right, property right, intellectual property rights. The paper put this legal phenomenon attributed to the concept of personality interests.definite the concept from the concept and attribute in order to protect the civil law on the legal interest.Personality forms the object should include the identification performance characteristic such as name,the sound and the other personality with identification and individual identification.%我国学者使用了“商品化权”“、公开权”“、形象权”、“商事人格权”等概念，来描述人格标识利益。不管是从概念内涵还是外延上都相去甚远，跨越了人格权、财产权、知识产权三个完全不同的权利类别。对这种法律现象归于人格标识利益这一概念，从概念加属性对此概念进行界定，以期对该种法益进行民法上的保护，其客体的人格标识表现形式应当包括能够表现其识别性特点的姓名、声音和其他具有识别性和个性化的标识。
Kâ, Ousseynou; Faye, Atoumane; Mbaye, El Hadji; Tall, Alioune Badara; Gaye, Awa; Sow, Papa Gallo; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane
In Senegal, due to the young age of the population (60%) the concerns of the old tend to be put in the background. And yet, problems related to old age are a reality. These problems come up not in terms of demography (the old represent only 4.7% of the population), but in terms of the breaking-up of the social fabric, urbanization and the dismantling of the solidarity and poverty networks. This work is based on a collection of qualitative data from three studies conducted between 2008 and 2011 with the elderly to assess their real- life experiences, their perception of aging, their challenges and coping strategies. The results showed a transformation in the role and status of the old; this transformation being caused by social and society-related mutations. As a result, the inter-generation solidarity links have much loosened in the urban areas making the old people more vulnerable (in economic, social, health terms), especially those in charge of a family. The situation has been made worse by the unemployment affecting their offspring. In addition, the old people, who are often suffering from chronic diseases, find it hard to take charge of their medical expenses, despite the institution of the National Sesame Health Plan for the old or free health care policy. This has made them even more vulnerable. Yet before this precarious situation, the elderly develop strategies to cope with difficulties. Some recommendations have been made with a view to improving their lives and socioeconomic condition. PMID:26852947
The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....
Angela Pires Pinto
The case “Guerrilha do Araguaia” is well known in Brazil in the view of the disappearances of opponents to the military regime occurred between 1972 and 1974, in the region known as Araguaia. Despite the efforts made by the families of the victims to seek responsibility and redress, few progress has been done. In 1995, Brazil recognized its responsibilities for the deaths and established a Commission to provide compensation to the families of the victims. The Amnesty Law prevented the State t...
The present proposition of law has for object to establish the presumption of a relationship between on the one hand the nuclear weapons tests and on the other hand the pathologies developed by the civil or military personnel having worked on the concerned sites as well as the populations present in the contaminated areas. the present proposition aims to establish equality between the victims and to create the legal framework that will allow the state to proceed to the just compensations of damages imposed by actions then considered as national interest. (N.C.)
随着我国社会保险制度改革的不断深化,原有的军人社会保险法律制度暴露出不足,已不适应新形势的需要。文章在分析我国军人社会保险法律制度存在问题的基础上,充分借鉴国外军人保险制度的有益经验,结合商业保险制度的优势,推进军人保险与商业保险相结合,提出要通过提升军人保险的立法级次,确保保险法规的统一性;将军人保险业务纳入社会化运作,引入竞争机制;增设新的险种,规范军人保险基金的管理等措施建立和完善军人社会保险法律制度,从而有效保障军人的切身利益。%With the deepening of reform of our country＇s insurance regulations,the original military personal social insurance regulations expose their insufficient and can＇t suit the needs of new environment.Based on analysis of the problems of the military personal social insurance regulation,using the social insurance experience of other countries for reference,combining the superiority of business insurance and improving the combination of the military personal social insurance and business insurance,the article aims to perfect the military personal social insurance law through proposing some suggestions.We should ensure integration of the insurance regulation through promoting legislative level of the military personal insurance,bring the military personal insurance business into social operation and introduce a competitive mechanism,establish some new insurance types,standardize management of the military personal insurance fund so as to safeguard the interests of soldiers.
Kleppinger, Courtney A; Cain, Jeff
In recent years, society's rapid adoption of social media has made the boundary between professional and private life nearly indistinguishable. The literature provides guidance on how to demonstrate professionalism via social media platforms. Social media policies within health professions education tend to be legalistic in nature, serving primarily to highlight behaviors students should avoid. One missing element in social media literature is the concept of online invisibility. In this paper, we define personal digital branding, discuss the professional implications of choosing to abstain from social media use, and urge educators to recognize that the personal digital branding may be an emerging asset for young professionals in the twenty-first century. PMID:26430266
Rosenberg, Dori E.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Hoffman, Jeanne M.; Basia Belza
With the aging of the baby boomer population and their accompanying burden of disease, future disability rates are expected to increase. This paper summarizes the state of the evidence regarding physical activity and aging for individuals with mobility disability and proposes a healthy aging research agenda for this population. Using a previously published framework, we present evidence in order to compile research recommendations in four areas focusing on older adults with mobility disabilit...
Hoogendam, Yoo Young; van der Lijn, Fedde; Vernooij, Meike W.; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J.; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan; Van Der Geest, Jos N
Introduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older, we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral-drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods: Participants were required to trace a template of a spiral on an electronic drawing board. Clinical scores from this test were obtained by visual assessment of the drawings. Quantitative measures were objectively ...
Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.
Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.
Hřebíčková, Martina; Urbánek, Tomáš; McCrae, R. R.; Costa, P. T.; Martin, T. A.; Oryol, V. E.; Rukavishnikov, A. A.; Senin, I. G.
Roč. 18, - (2004), s. 143-157. ISSN 0890-2070 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/01/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : Personality traits * cross-cultural Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.672, year: 2004
Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.
This article presents comments on the original article "Patterns of Mean-Level Change in Personality Traits Across the Life Course: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies," by B. W. Roberts, K. W. Walton, and W. Viechtbauer. Although Roberts et al depicted the present authors as proponents of the immutability of traits, in fact we have always…
Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.
Construct validity and longitudinal stability evidence for three cluster dimensions of personality identified as Anxiety, Extraversion, and Openness is examined in a sample of adult males. Correlations with Allport-Vernon-Lindsay Value scales, Cornell Medical Index scores, Eysenck E and N scales, and factors from the SVIB are presented. (Author)
Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis is a slowly progressive degenerative disease characterized by gradual loss of articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis is not a normal process of ageing processes. Age related changes are distinct from osteoarthritic changes but when coupled with certain precipitating factors like obesity, muscle weakness and neurological dysfunction may play an important role in the causation of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis occurrence appears to increase with patient's age in a non-linear fashion. The prevalence of disease increases dramatically after the age of 50 years, likely because of age related alterations in collagen and proteoglycan synthesis coupled with diminished nutrient supply to the cartilage. Methods: In this paper presenting the naked eye assessment of radiographic appearance of articular cartilage of knee joints of 100 persons (both men and women of 35 to 65 years of age with symptoms like pain and stiffness of the joint. Results: Parameters like changes in the joint space width, the presence or absence of osteophytes and subchondral sclerosis and cysts were noted. The correlation between the patient's age, sex, symptoms and radiological appearance were observed. Conclusion: Osteoarthritis has a higher prevalence and more often generalized in women than in men. Before the age of 50 years, the incidence of osteoarthritis is low and men have a slightly higher prevalence than women, but after the age of 50 years, the disease becomes more frequent and women have a much higher prevalence with a female to male ration of about 12:1. The reason for this is sex difference in cartilage volume. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 22-26
Allen, Mark S.; Vella, Stewart A.
This study explored longitudinal associations between personality and body-mass-index (BMI) in school-age children, including the potential mediating role of screen time and physical activity, and the potential moderating roles of child demographics and neighbourhood socioeconomic position. Participants were the parents (and teachers) of 3857 ten-year-old children, who completed questionnaires at baseline with a two-year follow-up. After controlling for child demographics (e.g., sex, pubertal status), we found that personality was unimportant for concurrent BMI, but was important for subsequent BMI and change in BMI over two years. Low levels of introversion and persistence at baseline, and decreases in persistence over time, were associated with a higher BMI at follow-up and a greater increase in BMI over time. Moderator analyses showed that introversion was more strongly related to subsequent BMI for children listed as aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The relationship between personality and change in BMI was mediated by screen time, but not by physical activity. To conclude, findings demonstrate that personality is important for change in body mass in Australian children (particularly indigenous children), and that screen-based sedentary behaviour features an important role in this association. PMID:27486752
Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.
This study observed young, middle-aged, and older adults (N = 239; M[subscript age] = 49.6 years; range = 18-89 years) for 30 consecutive days to examine the association between daily stress and negative affect, taking into account potential risk (i.e., self-concept incoherence) and resilience (i.e., age, perceived personal control) factors.…
Carney, Gemma M; Gray, Mia
This article uses feminist scholarship to investigate 'the elderly mystique'-which contends that the potential of old age is masked by a set of false beliefs about ageing (i.e. ageism) which permeate social, economic, and political life (Cohen, 1988). The article presents a theoretical model which explores the extent to which institutionalised ageism shapes the trajectory of life after 60.(1) The hypothesis underpinning the model is simple: The challenge for ageing societies is not the average age of a given population, but rather, how age is used to structure economic, social and political life. An inter-disciplinary framework is used to examine how biological facts about ageing are used to segregate older from younger people, giving older people the status of 'other'; economically through retirement, politically through assumptions about 'the grey vote,' and socially through ageist stereotyping in the media and through denial and ridicule of the sexuality of older people. Each domain is informed by the achievements of feminist theory and research on sexism and how its successes and failures can inform critical investigations of ageism. The paper recognises the role of ageism in de-politicising the lived experience of ageing. The paper concludes that feminist scholarship, particularly work by feminists in their seventies, eighties, and nineties, has much to offer in terms of re-framing gerontology as an emancipatory project for current and future cohorts of older people. PMID:26568222
Mullen, Kacy L; Edens, John F
Although professional surveys suggest that the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) is a popular instrument among forensic and correctional psychologists, relatively little is known about the specific types of legal cases in which it is applied, the particular types of questions it is used to address, or the extent to which its admissibility has been at issue in court cases. Using a comprehensive legal database, we surveyed all published U.S., Canadian, European, and Australian criminal and civil cases in which the PAI was administered. The PAI appears to be introduced by examiners in a wide variety of civil (e.g., child custody, personal injury) and criminal (e.g., insanity, competence) cases to aid in the assessment of a broad range of psychopathology. Additionally, the PAI seems to be used frequently to assess questions concerning potential dissimulation and response styles. Surprisingly, the admissibility of the PAI into evidence was never at issue in any of the cases reviewed. PMID:18444127
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Discourse-based interventions were studied less in speech therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of discourse-based intervention on language disabilities in school-aged children with borderline intelligence quotient (IQ.Methods: In an experimental study, 33 students at the age of 6-13 years with borderline intelligence quotient (17 students for intervention and 16 students for control group were selected with available sampling. The intervention lasted 14 sessions (every session: 45 minutes that focused on the structure and content of discourse. Personal narrative was elicited with explanation of the same topic (go to a trip for pre- and post-test.Results: Mean scores of intelligence quotient, age and education had no difference between the two groups. The intervention caused the increase of compound sentences (p=0.038, types of cohesive conjunctions (p=0.003, and related information (p=0.008 and decrease of ungrammatical sentences (p=0.031.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that participation in the intervention program has a clinically significant effect on the participants' abilities to produce personal narrative.
Chen, Ying-Ling; Shi, L.; Lewis, J. W. L.; Wang, M.
Personalized eye modeling of normal and diseased eye conditions is attractive due to the recent availability of detailed ocular measurements in clinic environments and the promise of its medical and industrial applications. In the customized modeling, the optical properties of the crystalline lens including the gradient refractive index, the lens bio-geometry and orientation are typically assigned with average lens parameters from literature since typically they are not clinically available. ...
Miyaji, Karina Takesaki; Luiz, André Machado; Lara, Amanda Nazareth; do Socorro Souza Chaves, Tania; Piorelli, Roberta de Oliveira; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam
Introduction: Older age has been associated to serious adverse events (AE) following yellow fever (YF) vaccination in passive surveillance studies, but few prospective studies involving seniors have been published.
刘宋时期儒学复振的核心是礼法兼治。在崇礼重法的背景下，士人地位提高，礼学著述的数量增加，以儒立身、以札持家的名门不断涌现。与此同时，玄学学术化，众多文士与名僧大德结交，佛教也日渐强调礼法的普世性、合理性。刘宋士人大多囿于门阀利益，移忠作孝，强调对儒家礼法传统的灵活继承，在进退出处之中呈现出多元化的人格特征。%The law-discipline rites was the core of the renaissance of Confucianism in Liu Song Dynasty. Under the background of law - discipline rites being strengthened, the scholar's status was enhanced and the quantities of Confucian works were increased and the famed families performing law-discipline rites sprang up gradually. Meanwhile, metaphysics took on academic feature, many scholars and writers made friends with the famous monks, and the latter admitted the rationality and universality of Confucianism step by step. However, the scholars in Liu Song Dynasty were limited usually in their own family benefits and transfered the loyahy to the piety, so their personalities presented multitraits.
Fuellen Georg; Schofield Paul N.; Flatt Thomas; Schulz Ralf-Joachim; Boege Fritz; Kraft Karin; Rimbach Gerald; Ibrahim Saleh; Tietz Alexander; Schmidt Christian; Köhling Rüdiger; Simm Andreas
Research into ageing and its underlying molecular basis enables us to develop and implement targeted interventions to ameliorate or cure its consequences. However, the efficacy of interventions often differs widely between individuals, suggesting that populations should be stratified or even individualized. Large-scale cohort studies in humans, similar systematic 56 studies in model organisms, and detailed investigations into the biology of ageing can provide individual validated biomarkers a...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH(3 or CO(2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E, radicalism (Q(1, self-sentiment integration (Q(3, and ergic tension (Q(4, and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in
Full Text Available : PURPOSE: Personal music players are important part of our lives as a recreational tool. Teenagers use and then abuse the technology, but due to lack of adequate knowledge about the harmful effects, this population is under risk for early sensorineural hearing loss and morbidity. We, therefore, investigated the effects, the relationship between music players, usage patterns and outcome in our study population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 104 MBBS students were interviewed personally regarding their use of portable music players, including the time and type of player and the type of headphone used. Pure tone audiometry was performed in each subject. RESULTS: Out of 104 students, 13 (12.6% were found to be having sensorineural hearing loss with volume settings directly correlating with degree of hearing loss. CONCLUSION: Use of music players has a direct relationship with prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss among the subject population. To prevent permanent effects, the duration and intensity of sound should be at minimum.
Dalton, Arthur J.; Fedor, Bettye L.
Because dyspraxia (partial loss of the ability to perform purposeful motor acts) is an early symptom of Alzheimer disease, a 62-item dyspraxia scale adapted for adults with Down syndrome (DS) was developed. Use of the measure over 3.5 years with 72 DS individuals (age 40 or older) found statistically significant deterioration that suggested…
Carmeli, Eli; Imam, Bita; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav
The decline in cognitive ability and physical performance in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is accompanied by less participation in social activities and a sedentary lifestyle; however the pathogenesis is not clear yet. It was recently suggested that chronic disease, adverse drug reactions, and aging create a cascade of events…
Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Chan, Alfred C. M.; Phillips, David R.
What might add quality to life during the last period of the life cycle? In study I, five focus groups of elderly participants representing different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds provided descriptions of quality of life (QOL) from their own perspectives. These descriptions formed the basis of a questionnaire that was administered to a…
Huber, Jessica G.; Jutai, Jeffrey W.; Strong, J. Graham; Plotkin, Ann D.
Closed-circuit televisions (CCTVs) are used by many elderly people who have age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The functional vision of 68 participants, which was measured immediately after they adopted CCTVs, suggested successful outcomes, but the psychosocial impact of the use of CCTVs did not peak until a month later. The findings help…
Lai, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yen-Yu
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the evaluative language performance of Mandarin-Chinese-speaking young children and their mothers. The participants were 65 mother-child dyads recruited in Taiwan. Thirty-four of these dyads were from middle-class families and 31 were from…
Full Text Available The research is looking into the study and comparison between personality traits and coping strategies and their relationship with one another among opium addicts within the age of 30-36. For this purpose, a research group comprising 50 opium addicts was selected with respect to control variables. In order to compare the results, 50 other individuals were selected as a observation group and with regard to control variables both groups were matched together. The five-factor personality trait inventory (NEO-FFI and the coping strategy inventory of Carver and Shearer were used. Moreover, in order to control the effects of depression and anxiety on personality traits, Beck’s test for anxiety and depression was used. The results indicated that without taking the effects of depression and anxiety into account, the addicts showed higher neuroticism trait but lower extraversion, agreeableness and conscientious traits. But when the effects of depression and anxiety were taken into account, the two groups showed a meaningful difference in the conscientious trait. Furthermore, addicts rarely use concentrated coping strategies and usually use non-effective strategies. Non-effective strategies had direct relationship with neuroticism and opposite relationship with conscientiousness.
Takadama, Keiki; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Matsushima, Hiroyasu; Hattori, Kiyohiko; Nakajima, Nobuo
This paper proposes the sleep stage estimation method that can provide an accurate estimation for each person without connecting any devices to human's body. In particular, our method learns the appropriate multiple band-pass filters to extract the specific wave pattern of heartbeat, which is required to estimate the sleep stage. For an accurate estimation, this paper employs Learning Classifier System (LCS) as the data-mining techniques and extends it to estimate the sleep stage. Extensive experiments on five subjects in mixed health confirm the following implications: (1) the proposed method can provide more accurate sleep stage estimation than the conventional method, and (2) the sleep stage estimation calculated by the proposed method is robust regardless of the physical condition of the subject.
For the assessment of an occupational incorporation of thorium or uranium it is essential to know which portion of the measured activity is caused by natural sources. In the present study the daily urinary excretion of 232Th and 238U was measured in 76 healthy volunteers. None of them had a previous history of occupational exposure to thorium or uranium. The data show no difference in the excretion between male and female subjects. Whereas in adolescents only little excretion of 232Th and 238U is found, a significantly increasing variation of thorium and uranium in urine is observed with progressing age. From the data obtained an age-related upper limit of 232Th and 238U urinary excretion can be derived, which may be useful for the interpretation of a measured value due to the occupational exposure. (orig.)
The world’s population is changing rapidly. At the same time older workers are encouraged to continue being professionally active and younger workers face postponed and precarious entry to the world of work. Moreover, there is a growing problem of generational division (e.g., Shore, 2008) and skills shortage (Hertel, van der Heijden, de Lange, & Deller, 2013). Therefore, contemporary policy makers, companies and workers are facing a challenge of building a long-term productive and engaged age...
Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Tadenuma, Tadashi; Nakamura, Kyoko; Kume, Hitoshi; Imai, Tetsuya; Kihara, Ritsuko; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Benno, Yoshimi
Effect of yogurt (LKM512 yogurt) prepared Bifidobacterium lactis LKM 512, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LKM 1759 and Streptococcus thermophilus LKM 1742 on fecal microflora in 11 volunteers (six males and five females, average age 76.9 years) given this yogurt 100 g/day for 2 weeks were determined. At week 2 of consumption, the number of bifidobacteria in the fecal microflora increased significantly (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the frequencies of occurrence of peptostreptococci, veil...
Chakravarthy, Bharath; Frumin, Erica; Lotfipour, Shahram
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published significant data and trends related to suicide rates in the United States (U.S.). Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in U.S. adults, and rates are increasing across all geographic regions. There is a significant increase in the suicide rate among adults in the 35–64 age range. We present findings from the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) with commentary on current resources and barriers to psychiatric...
Palumbo, Antonio; Bringhen, Sara; Ludwig, Heinz;
elderly patients with MM are ineligible for autologous transplantation, and the standard treatment has, until recently, been melphalan plus prednisone. The introduction of novel agents, such as thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide, has improved outcomes; however, elderly patients with MM are more...... screening for vulnerability and an assessment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, hepatic, and neurologic functions, as well as age > 75 years, at the start of therapy allows treatment strategies to be individualized and drug doses to be tailored to improve tolerability and optimize efficacy. Similarly...
... for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt...) Years of Age and Older ER10MR98.004...
Full Text Available The voice quality in prebysphonia is conditioned by morphological changes in the vocal folds mucosa. The studies including light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed changes within the basal membrane epithelium and the stroma of the vocal folds mucosa. Age-related changes in thickness of the epithelium and direction of the basal membrane, increased number of collagenous fibres (C and fibroblasts and chronic inflammatory process in the stroma were found. Vacuolated and keratinised epithelial cells, enlarged extracellular spaces and numerous blood vessels confirm the edematous form of prebysphonia. Thinned epithelium with signs of hyalinization, inflammatory infiltrations in the stroma with numerous collagenous fibres and small number of blood vessels indicate atrophy of the vocal folds mucosa. Edematous and atrophic changes in the vocal folds mucosa are most frequently reported form of prebysphonia.