Full Text Available The issue of individual differences has always been an important area of research in psychology and, more recently, neuroimaging. A major source of interindividual variability stems from differences in basic affective dispositions. In order to make a contribution to this field of research, we have developed a new type of assessment - the In-Out Dispositional Affective Style Questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ - to measure the proneness between two different ways of feeling situated: a predominantly body-bound one in the case of the inward tendency and an externally anchored one in the case of the outward tendency (Arciero and Bondolfi, 2009. The IN-OUT DASQ contains 2 scales of 7 items each, Self-centric engagement (SCE and Other-centric engagement (OCE, as a disposition index for inwardness and outwardness respectively. The exploratory factor analysis in sample 1 (n= 292 confirmed a two-factor solution. Confirmatory factor analysis in sample 2 (n= 300 showed the good fit of this two-factor model. Next, we examined construct validity also investigating the correlations between the IN-OUT DASQ, the Big Five Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule in sample 3 (n=153. The SCE and OCE scales had robust internal consistency and reliability, and therefore the capacity to discriminate higher inward and outward participants was stronger in SCE. Although further validation research is required, the present study suggests the IN-OUT DASQ has the potential to be a measurement tool for detecting individual differences in social behavior and social affective neuroscience.
Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G
Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. PMID:22119478
Ortigosa, Alvaro; Paredes, Pedro; Rodriguez, Pilar
One of the main concerns when providing learning style adaptation in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems is the number of questions the students have to answer. Most of the times, adaptive material available will discriminate among a few categories for each learning style dimension. Consequently, it is only needed to take into account the…
Rodriguez-Naranjo, Carmen; Cano, Antonio
We describe the development and psychometric characteristics of a new version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ; Seligman, Abramson, Semmell, & Von Baeyer, 1979)--a version called the Attributional Style Questionnaire for Adolescents (ASQ-A)--using 3 samples (Ns = 547, 438, and 240) of Spanish secondary school students. In Study 1, the…
Thomas E. Ford
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.
Higgins, N. C.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Hay, Jana L.
Confirmatory factor analysis of data from 1,346 respondents to the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) (C. Peterson and others, 1982) reveals that adequate fit is provided by a three-factor attributional style model that includes context-dependent item sets. Results suggest that there is no such thing as a nonsituational attributional style.…
Thompson, Martie; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Weiss, Bahr; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
The psychometric properties of the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (CASQ) (N. Kaslow and S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) were studied with 1086 children, 9 to 12 years old. Results indicate the revised version to be somewhat less reliable than the original, but with equivalent criterion-related validity for self-reported depression.…
Schulman, P; Castellon, C; Seligman, M E
We compare two methods of assessing explanatory style--the content analysis of verbatim explanations (CAVE) and the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The CAVE technique is a method that allows the researcher to analyze any naturally occurring verbatim materials for explanatory style. This technique permits the measurement of various populations that are unwilling or unable to take the ASQ. We administered the ASQ and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to 169 undergraduates and content analyzed the written causes on the ASQ for explanatory style by the CAVE technique. The CAVE technique correlated 0.71 with the ASQ (P less than 0.0001, n = 159) and -0.36 with BDI (P less than 0.0001, n = 159). The ASQ correlated -0.51 with the BDI (P less than 0.0001, n = 160). Both the CAVE technique and the ASQ seem to be valid devices for assessing explanatory style. PMID:2818415
Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja
The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16–24, 25–35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80–.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66–.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5–35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0–15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus–despite similar labels–these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles. PMID:27547259
Full Text Available Purpose: Learning-style instruments assist students in developing their own learning strategies and outcomes, in eliminating learning barriers, and in acknowledging peer diversity. Only a few psychometrically validated learning-style instruments are available. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable learning-style instrument for nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in two nursing schools in two countries. A purposive sample of 156 undergraduate nursing students participated in the study. Face and content validity was obtained from an expert panel. The LSS construct was established using principal axis factoring (PAF with oblimin rotation, a scree plot test, and parallel analysis (PA. The reliability of LSS was tested using Cronbach’s α, corrected item-total correlation, and test-retest. Results: Factor analysis revealed five components, confirmed by PA and a relatively clear curve on the scree plot. Component strength and interpretability were also confirmed. The factors were labeled as perceptive, solitary, analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles. Cronbach’s α was > 0.70 for all subscales in both study populations. The corrected item-total correlations were > 0.30 for the items in each component. Conclusion: The LSS is a valid and reliable inventory for evaluating learning style preferences in nursing students in various multicultural environments.
This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…
Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Seligman, Martin E. P.
Cognitive styles are the lenses through which individuals habitually process information from their environment. In this study, we evaluated whether different cognitive style individual difference variables, such as explanatory style and dispositional optimism, could predict changes in affective state over time in community-dwelling older adults.…
Abstract Decision making is one of the most important and frequent tasks among managers and employees in an organization. Knowledge about more stable cognitive characteristics underlying decision making styles has been requested. This study aimed to examine the relationship between rational decision making style, cognitive style, self efficacy and locus of control. Possible interaction effects in relation to gender were also analyzed. 186 employees at the Ministry of Defence were surveyed...
Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Schreiber, James B.
The Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ; C. Peterson et al., 1982) has been the subject of some debate challenging its usefulness in research. This study examines the ASQ component structure for Central American immigrants to the United States. Research and cultural implications are discussed.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, compromising and accomodating conflict resolution styles while those working in a competitive work environment would choose forcing and avoiding strategies. Results also showed that while positive job related affective well being is a major predictor o problem solving, compromising, accomodating and avoiding conflict resolution styles, negative job related affective well being significantly predicts forcing and avoiding strategies. Overall, the results draw attention to the preferred conflict resolution strategies assumed by Turkish employees, the role of the conflict environment as well as actors’ affective well being
Elford, L; Brown, A
Although considerable research has explored the role of parents in affecting child eating habits and weight, there has been little consideration of the impact of other key care providers in the early years. A controlling maternal child-feeding style (e.g. use of pressure to eat or restricting certain foods) has been associated with over consumption, fussy eating and weight issue. Conversely, responsive child-feeding styles whereby children are allowed to regulate their own intake but encouraged to eat a range of foods and try new tastes are associated with healthier eating styles and weight. Increasing numbers of preschool children now spend time in day care settings, many for up to fifty hours a week but interactions with caregivers during mealtimes remain unexplored. The aim of the current study was to begin to explore child-feeding styles of nursery practitioners working with children aged 0-5 years. Sixty three nursery practitioners completed an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire to examine their interactions with children during mealtimes. Themes included pressure to eat, encouragement to eat and use of reward. Typically practitioners reported responsive child-feeding styles with low levels of pressure to eat but high levels of encouragement to try new foods. Use of reward to eat certain foods or as a bribe to modify behaviour was however more common. The findings have important implications for understanding the role of childcare providers in affecting child eating habits and weight. PMID:24854825
Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Chinnock, Anne
This study designed and validated a questionnaire aimed at examining parental feeding styles to encourage healthy eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Adolescents (n=133; mean age 15.4 years), and their parents, participated in the study. The parents completed a parental feeding style questionnaire, and the adolescents completed 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest four distinct parental feeding styles, (a) verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors; (b) use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food; (c) direct control of access to and intake of food; and (d) use of food to regulate emotions and behavior. There were no correlations between dietary intake and the verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors, but there were significant negative correlations between (1) "the use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food", and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, of calcium, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid intake, and (2) between the "direct control of access to and intake of food" and fast food consumption and total carbohydrates intake. The use of food to regulate emotions and behavior was positively correlated with high energy-dense food consumption. Stratification of the data shows significant differences by gender in the correlations between parental feeding style and dietary intake. Understanding parental feeding styles in a Latin American context is a first step in helping researchers develops culturally-appropriate parenting intervention/prevention strategies to encourage healthy eating behaviors during adolescence. PMID:20600415
This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, comprom...
Giovani de Paula Batista
Full Text Available AbstractThe use of instruments with evidence of validity in education research brings advances to the production of knowledge. This article reports the stages of a survey of teaching style and the evidence for its validity. One thousand teachers participated in a study of different levels of education. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a structure of four factors in which 55 items had a factorial load greater than .30. The correlation steps made it possible to identify how the four factors are related to each other. As a final result, the questionnaire was composed of 40 items, distributed into groups of 10 items organized by teaching style. Evidence of factorial validity and internal consistency of the items that make up the instrument was seen. Analysis of variance indicated that the scale is sensitive to individual differences in the comparison among the four different teaching styles and the gender and teaching level variables.
Kupeli, N.; Norton, S; Chilcot, J.; Schmidt, U. H.; Campbell, I. C.; Troop, N. A.
The Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ; Bifulco et al., Psychological Medicine, 33, 1099–1110, 2003) was developed to assess adult attachment as a vulnerability factor for developing depression and identified two subscales, insecure attachment and proximity-seeking. The present study sought to confirm and further validate the factor structure of the VASQ in a large community convenience sample. The VASQ was completed by a large sample of men and women (N = 1236) as part of an onl...
Ali Firoozabadi; Zabihollah Abedi; Roqayeh Aliyari; Behzad Zolfaghari; Ahmad Ghanizadeh
Background: Attachment relationship provides a secure base for the infants from which to explore the environment and a safe haven to return to in times of danger. Attachment style shapes the behavior of individuals in adulthood. There are many different measures of attachment and a lot of controversy about what they measure and how they relate to each other. Hence, we tried to evaluate the psychometric properties of one of such questionnaires on a sample of the Iranian population. Methods...
Quentin J M Huys
Full Text Available The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations.The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants. External validity was measured on a subset of 90 subjects.The resulting CSQ-SF-D had good to excellent reliability, both across items and subscales, and similar external validity to the original English version. The internality subscale appeared less robust than other subscales. A detailed analysis of individual item performance suggests that stable results could be achieved with a very short form (CSQ-VSF-D including only 27 of the 72 items.The CSQ-SF-D is a validated and freely distributed translation of the CSQ-SF into German. This should make efficient assessment of cognitive style in German samples more accessible to researchers.
Masoud Janbozorgi; Ali Reza Zahiroddin; Ruhollah Shabanpour; Padideh Ghaeli
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare defense styles and mechanisms in adult patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD) with normal subjects in Iran . Methods: Defensive patterns of 22 patients with OCD, 28 patients with PD and those of 116 normal individuals (as a control group) were assessed using the Farsi version of Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The content validity of this questionnaire was done prior to the initiation of the...
以Learning Styles Questionnaire在国内的使用进行效度研究为目的,在全国范围内选取了304个样本进行测验,问卷回收后利用SPSS15.0和VB6.0对数据进行统计分析,测验量表在中国使用的信度和效度.其结果为:内部一致性系数为r =0.766,复本信度为0.943、0.543、0.695、0.673,效标效度系数为0.626.研究结果表明Learng Styles Questionnaire 在国内使用信度和效度尚可以接受,但有待于进一步提高.
Full Text Available Background: Attachment relationship provides a secure base for the infants from which to explore the environment and a safe haven to return to in times of danger. Attachment style shapes the behavior of individuals in adulthood. There are many different measures of attachment and a lot of controversy about what they measure and how they relate to each other. Hence, we tried to evaluate the psychometric properties of one of such questionnaires on a sample of the Iranian population. Methods: “Attachment style questionnaire” designed by Van Oudenhoven measures four dimensions: secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated in a cross sectional study on 730 adults in Isfahan, Iran. Statistical analysis of data was performed by the explanatory factor analysis with the principal component method, Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson correlation coefficients, and the multiple analysis of variance (MANCOVA. Results:The Cronbach’s alpha for all items was 0.704. As a whole, the internal consistency was good. There was a high inter-scale correlation between preoccupied and fearful, also the secure style correlated negatively with fearful and preoccupied. The stability coefficient of the attachment scales were 0.625, 0.685, 0.777 and 0.605 for secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing styles respectively (P<0.001. Regarding construct validity, factor analysis showed that some items require iterations to fit the Iranian population. Conclusion: This study showed that the Persian version of ASQ has a reasonable reliability and validity in general and the questionnaire is appropriate for use among the Iranian population in future studies.
In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...
M. J. Viljoen
Full Text Available Various authors have indicated the need for and value of identifying the learning style preferences of individual learners. Similar needs have been voiced in the South African context.The focal point of this study was the development of a normative instrument for predicting the preferred learning styles of individuals. Secondary aims were to determine whether there are differences between groups formed on the basis of gender, academic qualifications and functional disciplines as far as their learning style preferences are concerned. Based on a review of the literature and an existing questionnaire, namely the Learning Style Inventory (LSI 85, the Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (LSPQ consisting of 136 items was developed and administered to respondents (N= 542 in a large organisation. The LSPQ was subjected to a principal factor analysis and six factors were obtained.The six factors were rotated to simple structure by means of the Direct Oblimin procedure. The matrix of intercorrelations of the six factorswas subjected to a second-order factor analysis and yielded a single factor. Opsomming Verskeie outeurs het na die behoefte aan asook die waarde van identi¢kasie van leerstylvoorkeure van individuele leerders verwys. Soortgelyke behoeftes is ook in Suid-Afrikaanse verband geopper.Die fokus van hierdie studie was die ontwikkeling van ’n normatiewe instrument om die leerstylvoorkeure van individue te meet. Sekondere doelwitte was omte bepaal of daar verskille tussen groepe is wat saamgestel is op grond van geslag, akademiese kwalifikasies en funksionele dissiplines wat hul leerstylvoorkeure betref. Gegrond op ’n oorsig van die literatuur en ’n bestaande vraelys, tewete die ‘‘Learning Style Inventory’’ (LSI 85, is die ‘‘Learning Style PreferenceQuestionnaire‘‘ (LSPQ, bestaande uit 136 items, gekonstrueer en op 542 respondente in’n groot organisasie toegepas. Die LSPQ is aan ’n hoo¡aktorontleding onderwerp en ses
Sohail, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rashid
In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The ques...
Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel
individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.001) and......Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...
Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel
Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving......Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.001) and...
This study addressed how the ability to manage change affects leadership style. The problem addressed in this project was the natural human tendency to resist change and how the inability to mange this tendency can interfere with the development of leadership skills. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how an individual's…
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare defense styles and mechanisms in adult patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, and panic disorder (PD with normal subjects in Iran . Methods: Defensive patterns of 22 patients with OCD, 28 patients with PD and those of 116 normal individuals (as a control group were assessed using the Farsi version of Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40. The content validity of this questionnaire was done prior to the initiation of the present study. Results: Both groups of patients with OCD or PD used more immature and less mature styles compared to the control group. No significant difference was observed in the use of neurotic style between the two groups . Conclusion: It is suggested that immature defenses may have an important role in the pathogenesis of OCD and PD.
Rojon, Céline; McDowall, Almuth
This paper outlines a cross-validation of the Cultural Orientations Framework assessment questionnaire (COF, Rosinski, 2007; a new tool designed for cross-cultural coaching) with the Saville Consulting Wave Focus Styles questionnaire (Saville Consulting, 2006; an existing validated measure of occupational personality), using data from UK and German participants (N = 222). The convergent and divergent validity of the questionnaire was adequate. Contrary to previous findings which used differen...
Rojon, C.; McDowall, A.
This paper outlines a cross-validation of the Cultural Orientations Framework assessment questionnaire (COF, Rosinski, 2007; a new tool designed for cross-cultural coaching) with the Saville Consulting Wave Focus Styles questionnaire (Saville Consulting, 2006; an existing validated measure of occupational personality), using data from UK and German participants (N = 222). The convergent and divergent validity of the questionnaire was adequate. Contrary to previous findings which u...
Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Anna Di Dona,1 Serena Marianna Lavano,2 Michele Roccella,4 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, The Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyBackground: In recent years, great attention has been given to the presence of psychological problems and psychiatric comorbidity that are also present in children affected by primary headaches. The relationship between pain and attachment has been identified, and it may be that pain perception may change in relation with specific attachment styles. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalent attachment style and verify its putative relationship and correlation with the main characteristics of migraine attacks, in school-aged children affected by migraine without aura (MoA.Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 219 children (103 males, 116 females aged between 6 and 11 years (mean 8.96 ± 2.14 years, consecutively referred for MoA compared with 381 healthy controls (174 males, 207 females; mean age 9.01 ± 1.75 years randomly selected from schools. All the children were classified according to the attachment typologies of the Italian modified version of the Separation Anxiety Test; monthly headache frequency and mean headache duration were assessed from daily headache diaries kept by all the children. Headache intensity was assessed on a visual analogue scale. The chi-square test and t-test, where appropriate, were applied, and the Spearman rank correlation test was applied to explore the relationship between the types of attachment
Agustín Freiberg Hoffmann
Full Text Available Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire’s psychometric properties were analyzed. In order to do this, two different studies were developed: content and facies validity in one hand, and construct validity procedures in the other. The very first examined items and scale by expert judgment. The second one used principal components analysis (PCA and internal consistency in a preliminary stage, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA in the following. Two independent Argentinian college student samples were analyzed. Content validity results indicate the needing of modifying 8 items. Dichotomous answer scale was preserved. According to the results of construct validity, CPA showed four dimensions with better fit and good internal consistency. Only one of them -pragmatic component- responded to the original model. The remaining factors –assimilatory, convergent, adaptive- were identified as belonging to Kolb´s (1984 theoretical model. Confirmatory factor analysis compared PCA model with Alonso, Gallego and Honey´s model (1994, obtaining a better fit for the first. Results support PCA´s structural dimensions for the questionnaire.
Hunter, A G
Studies concerning the psychosocial aspects of skeletal dysplasias that cause disproportionate short stature have been few and have usually involved small numbers of patients. As part of a study involving patients with chondrodysplasias and their families, an assessment battery of standardised instruments designed to measure depression, anxiety, self-esteem, personal support networks, marital adjustment, and family structure were completed by patients and, in many cases, their sibs, spouses, and/or parents. This first in a series of six papers reports the results of a Life-Styles Questionnaire which provides some insights into the levels of satisfaction with various aspects of life, including friendships, employment, the use of some substances and services, and the impact of the skeletal dysplasia on career, marriage, and childbearing. Results are presented for patients and the unaffected parents of patients. Overall, the study has shown a high level of satisfaction with many aspects of life. However, there are important differences in attitudes between the married and unmarried patients, and in some cases the unaffected parents, in a number of areas including health, overall satisfaction with life, and concerns surrounding child bearing and employment. PMID:9637414
Terp, Helene; Rottmann, Nina; Larsen, Pia Veldt;
OBJECTIVE: Participation bias may be a problem in couple-based psychosocial studies. Therefore, it is important to investigate the characteristics associated with participation. The aim of this study was to analyze whether participation in a longitudinal psychosocial questionnaire study among...
Marta Figueiredo Pedro
Full Text Available Os estilos parentais educativos constituem um conceito central na área de estudos da parentalidade e do desenvolvimento infantil. Neste sentido, décadas de investigação demonstram o impacto dos estilos parentais em vários aspectos do ajustamento socioemocional da criança e do adolescente. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades psicométricas e a validade fatorial da versão portuguesa de autorrelato do Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. A amostra foi constituída por 2081 indivíduos portugueses (1085 mães; 996 pais com filhos dos 3 aos 15 anos. Os resultados da análise fatorial confirmatória replicaram a estrutura original de três fatores: autoritativo, autoritário e permissivo. Os índices de ajustamento revelaram uma boa adequação do modelo aos dados. Os níveis de consistência interna dos fatores autoritativo e autoritário revelaram-se adequados, mas o fator permissivo apresentou valores ligeiramente abaixo dos aceitáveis. Os valores de validade convergente e discriminante também se revelaram adequados. Apesar dos níveis menos aceitáveis de consistência interna do factor permissivo, o QDEP revelou, em geral, qualidades psicométricas adequadas para fins de investigação e clínicos, permitindo não só a avaliação de estilos parentais como também de diferentes dimensões e comportamentos parentais com impacto relevante no ajustamento socioemocional da criança e do adolescente.
Farman Ali Khan; Sabine Graf; Edgar R. Weippl; A Min Tjoa
Learning styles and affective states influence students’ learning. The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for identifying and integrating learning styles and affective states of a learner into web-based learning management systems and therefore provide learners with adaptive courses and additional individualized pedagogical guidance that is tailored to their learning styles and affective states. The study was carried out in three phases, the first of which was the inve...
Urval, Rathnakar P.; Kamath, Ashwin; Ullal, Sheetal; Shenoy, Ashok K.; Shenoy, Nandita; Udupa, Laxminarayana A.
While there are several tools to study learning styles of students, the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire is a simple, freely available, easy to administer tool that encourages students to describe their behavior in a manner they can identify with and accept. The aim is to understand the preferred sensory modality (or modalities) of students for learning. Teachers can use this knowledge to facilitate student learning. Moreover, students themselves can use this knowledge...
Ortigosa, Álvaro; Paredes Barragán, Pedro; Rodríguez Marín, Pilar
Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Authoring of Adaptive and Adaptable Hypermedia One of the main concerns when providing learning style adaptation in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems is the number of questions the students have to answer. With respect to learning styles, it is possible to decrease the number of versions taking into account the general tendency of the student and not the specific score obtained in each dimension. In this paper we present a new app...
M.J. Viljoen; J. M. Schepers; K. Van Zyl
Various authors have indicated the need for and value of identifying the learning style preferences of individual learners. Similar needs have been voiced in the South African context.The focal point of this study was the development of a normative instrument for predicting the preferred learning styles of individuals. Secondary aims were to determine whether there are differences between groups formed on the basis of gender, academic qualifications and functional disciplines as far as their ...
DiDonato, Theresa E.; Jakubiak, Brittany K.
Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256
Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Burton, Richard; Obel, Børge;
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how misalignments between the organizational climate (measured as information-processing demand) and the leadership style (measured as information-processing capability) may result in negative performance consequences.......The purpose of this paper is to investigate how misalignments between the organizational climate (measured as information-processing demand) and the leadership style (measured as information-processing capability) may result in negative performance consequences....
Aarti Deveshwar; Indu Aneja
Current Global Corporative World provides the opportunity to the organizations to interact with various nations across the geographical limits. These interactions grant the cultural and value variations among the nations which recognized as the biggest challenge in front of the corporative managers. Suitability of an organization depends on the Effective leadership style in the complex competitive world. An Effective and Efficient Leadership style is the best tool to face these kinds of chall...
Kräuchi, K; Reich, S; Wirz-Justice, A
Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state. PMID:9056125
Walker, M A; Whittaker, S J; Walker, Marilyn A.; Cahn, Janet E.; Whittaker, Stephen J.
This paper introduces Linguistic Style Improvisation, a theory and set of algorithms for improvisation of spoken utterances by artificial agents, with applications to interactive story and dialogue systems. We argue that linguistic style is a key aspect of character, and show how speech act representations common in AI can provide abstract representations from which computer characters can improvise. We show that the mechanisms proposed introduce the possibility of socially oriented agents, meet the requirements that lifelike characters be believable, and satisfy particular criteria for improvisation proposed by Hayes-Roth.
Zeynep Merve Unal
Humor is a common dimension of human interaction. Therefore, it has an effect on working groups and organizations. The influence of humor on interpersonal relationship and behavior has been considered by various enterprises. In this work, we report that adaptive humor styles employed by leader buffers job related positive affective well-being of employees whereas maladaptive humor styles employed by leaders buffers job related negative affective well-being of employees. Our results indicate t...
Eruzun, Ayşegül; Eruzun, Aysegul
Previous literature on affective and substantive workplace conflicts has been dominated by studies on intragroup efficiency and effectiveness with little attention paid to the relationship between these types of conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles. To improve understanding of how different types of conflicts are managed by employees this thesis has explored the relationship between affective and substantive types of conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles in ...
Lee, SJ; Li, L.; Thammawijaya, P
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (standardized beta [B]=-0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more lik...
van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J
An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208
Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais
Maria Inês Lobato; Walter José Koff; Tiago Crestana; Camila Chaves; Jaqueline Salvador; Analídia Rodolpho Petry; Esalba Silveira; Alexandre Annes Henriques; Fábio Cervo; Eduardo Siam Böhme; Raffael Massuda
Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant dif...
Suzana Carmen CISMAS
Full Text Available Our current approach offers an opportunity to analyse the trends in a wide range of educational topics, policies and best practice over the past decade and to assess the challenges lying ahead. We hope that this body of data and information will serve as a valuable source for decision makers in various education areas. Reviewing and reforming educational strategies need to be performed so as to ensure access to high quality instruction and training for all citizens, thus facilitating long-term socio-economic growth and stability. This study analyses the main young adult English learning styles & strategies used in acquiring and improving the communicative competence in English for effectively meeting the demands of the future career. The labour market nowadays is characterized by rapid changes in technology, spectacular developments, higher standards and unprecedented mobility and comfort. All these have essentially changed the way we live and communicate, generating the need for lifelong learning, not only for jobs, but also for active and creative adaptation to the rhythm of common daily life. Foreign language(s communication competences, as well as computer skills, are indispensable for meeting the current employment standards.
Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Thammawijaya, Panithee
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (standardized beta [B]=-0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more likely to perceive their parents as caring (B=0.48, p=0.002). Children who scored lower on their self-esteem reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=-0.30, p=0.030), and children reporting higher levels of stress reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=0.12, p=0.010). Children reporting caring parenting style were significantly more likely to report higher emotional intelligence (B=0.66, p=0.001). Parenting styles play an important role in the emotional intelligence. Identifying and testing interventions to help parents improve their parenting styles, while helping their HIV-affected children cope with stress and self-esteem, are essential in promoting mental health of HIV-affected children in Thailand. PMID:23651471
Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin
The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative affect and difficulties in its regulation have been connected to several adverse psychological consequences. While several questionnaires exist, it would be important to have a theory-based measure that includes clinically relevant items and shows good psychometric properties in healthy and patient samples. This study aims at developing such a questionnaire, combining the two Gross  scales Reappraisal and Suppression with an additional response-focused scale called Externalizing Behavioral Strategies covering clinically relevant items. Methods The samples consisted of 684 students (mean age = 23.3, SD = 3.5; 53.6% female and 369 persons with mixed mental disorders (mean age = 36.0 SD = 14.6; 71.2% female. Items for the questionnaire were derived from existing questionnaires and additional items were formulated based on suggestions by clinical experts. All items start with “When I don’t feel well, in order to feel better…”. Participants rated how frequently they used each strategy on a 5-point Likert scale. Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to verify the factor structure in two separate student samples and a clinical sample. Group comparisons and correlations with other questionnaires were calculated to ensure validity. Results After modification, the CFA showed good model fit in all three samples. Reliability scores (Cronbach’s α for the three NARQ scales ranged between .71 and .80. Comparisons between students and persons with mental disorders showed the postulated relationships, as did comparisons between male and female students and persons with or without Borderline Personality Disorder. Correlations with other questionnaires suggest the NARQ’s construct validity. Conclusions The results indicate that the NARQ is a psychometrically sound and reliable measure with practical use for therapy planning and tracking of treatment outcome across time. We advocate the integration
Full Text Available In 698 respondents selected from the community, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA; Feldman, Joormann, & Johnson, 2008 which measures ruminative and dampening thoughts in response to positive affect. In a first sample ('n' = 170, exploratory factor analyses largely replicated the 3-factor model obtained by Feldman et al. (2008 with the following factors: Dampening, Self-focused positive rumination, and Emotion-focused positive rumination. The 3-factor model revealed in the first sample was confirmed using confirmatory factor analyses in a second independent sample of 528 respondents. All subscales showed adequate internal consistency and evidence of convergent and incremental validity with concurrent measures of depressive rumination, depressive symptoms, trait hypomania, and positive and negative affect. Results underscore the value of assessing responses to positive as well as negative affect in the study of mood disorders.
Full Text Available AIM: This study was carried out descriptively with the aim of determining the variables affecting healthy life style behaviors of the nurses. METHOD: The study was carried on between the dates may-June 2007 at Ataturk University Yakutiye Research Hospital on Suleyman Demirel Training and Research Hospitals. The research was carried out with 205 nurses. In the collection of the data survey form including personal behaviors of the nurses, and the Health Promotion Life-Style Profile prepared by researchers were used in the direction of literature. RESULTS: Total score of Health Promotion Life-Style Profile of the nurses participating in the research was 121.20±18.30, and sub-group scale scores; health responsibility is 20.88±3.76 and physical activities is 14.04±4.22, and nutritional habit is 19.57±3.80, and mental development is 25.36±4.47, and relations between persons is 24.04±4.07, and stress management is 17.09±3.59. There was statistically significant distinction between total score average and the situation of hawing children, and working duration and education level of the nurses (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: At the end of the result, it was determined that average of Health Promotion Life-Style Profile of the nurses was middle level and that the most common and most noticeable health life style behaviors of the nurses was mental development, and that the least applied health life style behaviors of the nurses was physical activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 487-492
Oveis, Christopher; Gruber, June; Keltner, Dacher; Stamper, Juliet L.; Boyce, W. Thomas
We investigate the claim that thin slices of expressive behavior serve as reliable indicators of affective style in children and their families. Using photographs, we assessed smile intensity and tactile contact in kindergartners and their families. Consistent with claims that smiling and touch communicate positive emotion, measures of children’s smile intensity and warm family touch were correlated across classroom and family contexts. Consistent with studies of parent-child personality asso...
Between-species or between-population variation in social tolerance can affect the development of social skills or social behaviours, especially in primate species that are often subjected to a great influence of inter-individual social relationships. The 20 macaque species are all organized in multi-male, multi-female groups but vary along a continuum from despotic/intolerant to egalitarian/tolerant social systems. These different social styles influence a wide range of behaviours including ...
Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Aldridge, Arianna A; Villodas, Feion
Many researchers underscore the importance of coping in the daily lives of adolescents, yet very few studies measure this and related constructs at this level. Using a daily diary approach to stress and coping, the current study evaluated a series of mediational coping models in a sample of low-income minority adolescents (N = 89). Specifically, coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between attributional style (and dimensions) and daily affect. Using random coefficient regression modeling, the relationship between (a) the locus of causality dimension and positive affect was completely mediated by the use of acceptance and humor as coping strategies; (b) the stability dimension and positive affect was completely mediated by the use of both problem-solving and positive thinking; and (c) the stability dimension and negative affect was partially mediated by the use of religious coping. In addition, the locus of causality and stability (but not globality) dimensions were also directly related to affect. However, the relationship between pessimistic explanatory style and affect was not mediated by coping. Consistent with previous research, these findings suggest that attributions are both directly and indirectly related to indices of affect or adjustment. Thus, attributions may not only influence the type of coping strategy employed, but may also serve as coping strategies themselves. PMID:22029618
Gill, Michael J; Andreychik, Michael R
Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions--social explanations--have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ), which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1-3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4-6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation), and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast). Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles--perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ--will be
Michael J Gill
Full Text Available Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions--social explanations--have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ, which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1-3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4-6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation, and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast. Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles--perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ
Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais
Maria Inês Lobato
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Identidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes. Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi
Lotzin, Annett; Kriston, Levente; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Leichsenring, Irina; Ramsauer, Brigitte; Schäfer, Ingo
To date no instrument for the assessment of parenting styles is available in the German -language area that has been validated in patients with addictive disorders. Therefore the aim of this study was the confirmatory evaluation of the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Parental Attitudes and Rearing Practices (FEPS) in 186 alcohol dependent patients. The model as proposed by the test developers with the 4 factors Care, Autonomy, Low Punishment, and Low Material Reinforcement showed acceptable fit when residual correlations were allowed (mother: χ(2)/df=1,92, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,79; father: χ(2)/df=1,75, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,82). All factors showed sufficient factor reliabilities as well as good to very good internal consistencies. Factor loadings, discriminations and difficulties of the indicators could be regarded as good, with the exception of 2 items. These results indicate the factorial validity of the FEPS in patients with alcohol dependence. PMID:23446826
Roedler, Frauke S; Pohl, Sabine; Oechtering, Gerhard U
Brachycephalic syndrome (BS) is a complex canine disease, which is characterized by diverse clinical signs primarily involving the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Through a structured owner questionnaire, the present study investigated how owners perceived the frequency and severity of a broad spectrum of welfare-relevant impairments caused by this hereditary disease. One hundred owners of brachycephalic dogs (Pugs and French bulldogs) referred for surgical treatment of BS completed the questionnaire. As a basis for comparison, 20 owners of mesocephalic dogs also completed part of the questionnaire. Questionnaire responses revealed that in addition to the well-known respiratory signs, brachycephalic dogs experienced severe exercise intolerance and prolonged recovery time after physical exercise (88%), significant heat sensitivity (more severe signs at temperatures above 19°C; 50%) and a variety of sleep problems (56%). To our knowledge, this is the first study using a structured owner questionnaire specifically to investigate a broad range of problems caused by selective breeding for brachycephaly. In particular, decreased exercise tolerance, increased recovery time due to heat intolerance and the extent of sleep problems have either been underestimated in the past, or have severely worsened over recent generations of dogs. The extent and severity of clinical signs and their impact on quality of life greatly exceeded our expectations. This study emphasizes the major impact that selective breeding for extreme brachycephalic features has on animal welfare. PMID:24176279
Full Text Available Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection.Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understanding of the role of traditional variables like job demands and job control with humorous coping styles and affective variables with regard to the explanation of the frequency of URTI.Research design, approach and method: A sample of 2094 employees filled out questionnaires assessing job demands, job control, generic (MSHS-C, antecedent-focused and responsefocused humorous coping (QOHC and job-related affect (JAWS.Main findings: Job demands were indirectly related to the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections, mediated by their relationships with job control and negative job-related affect. Generic and response-focused humorous coping were less relevant for the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections than the presumably ‘healthy’ antecedentfocused humorous coping style. The latter showed a negative association with negative jobrelated affect. The frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was better predicted by job control and negative job-related affect than by humorous coping, in the expected directions.Practical/managerial implication: These findings may have practical relevance for the improvement of stress management interventions in organisations.Contribution/value-add: Although it was shown that healthy humorous coping does contribute to decreases in upper respiratory tract infection, job demands, job resources and negative affective state seem the most important predictors.
Mallan, Kimberley M; Liu, Wei-Hong; Mehta, Rati Jani; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea; Battistutta, Diana
The aim of this study was to validate the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in three ethnically and culturally diverse samples of mothers in Australia. Confirmatory factor analysis utilising structural equation modelling examined whether the established 8-factor model of the CEBQ was supported in our three populations: (i) a community sample of first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH trial (mean child age=24months [SD=1]; N=244); (ii) a sample of immigrant Indian mothers of children aged 1-5years (mean age=34months [SD=14]; N=203), and (iii) a sample of immigrant Chinese mothers of children aged 1-4years (mean age=36months [SD=14]; N=216). The original 8-factor model provided an acceptable fit to the data in the NOURISH sample with minor post hoc re-specifications (two error covariances on Satiety Responsiveness and an item-factor covariance to account for a cross-loading of an item (Fussiness) on Satiety Responsiveness). The re-specified model showed reasonable fit in both the Indian and Chinese samples. Cronbach's α estimates ranged from .73 to .91 in the Australian sample and .61-.88 in the immigrant samples. This study supports the appropriateness of the CEBQ in the multicultural Australian context. PMID:23333562
Maricle, William H.
This study investigated the variables of self-perceived leadership styles and occupational burnout among school administrators in the states of Texas and Louisiana. The purpose of this study was to investigate if relationships exist between school administrator self-perceived leadership styles and occupational burnout. A review of the literature…
Background: The adolescents children of HIV-infected parents tend to have several psycho-behavioral challenges including functioning at schools and in their families. Objective of this study is to examine 1) the role of parenting style, parent's quality of life, and family functioning in self-esteem and emotional intelligence of HIV-affected adolescents in Thailand, 2) associations of perceived social support, emotional intelligence and self-esteem of HIV-affected adolescents with their stres...
Harlaar, Nicole; Santtila, Pekka; Björklund, Johanna; Alanko, Katarina; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, Kenneth
Individual differences in parenting behaviors are due, in part, to genetic factors. In the present study, the authors sought to determine whether the degree of genetic influence varied according to the type of parental behavior under consideration. A population-based sample of 2,334 pairs of Finnish twins provided ratings on the physical affection, control, abusiveness, and indifference shown by their father and mother during childhood. Genetic influences, shared environmental influences, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for a small-to-medium proportion (17%-30%), a small-to-large proportion (22%-44%), and a medium-to-large proportion (37%-55%) of the variance in each parenting measure, respectively. There were no significant differences in effect sizes for mothers and fathers or across the 4 types of parental behavior. The genetic results may reflect characteristic styles with which parents respond to genetically influenced behaviors of individuals (gene-environment correlations) or individual perceptions of this relationship (gene-person correlation processes). The findings have implications for intervention and prevention work with families and for interpretation of evidence for interactions between genes and parenting behaviors. PMID:18729674
Mark Enrick R. Abante; Benjie C. Almendral; Jay-ren E. Manansala; Jovielyn Manibo
Learning or thinking styles refer to the preferred way an individual processes information and also describe a person’s typical mode of thinking, remembering or problem solving. The basic learning styles are visual that uses visual objects such as graphs, charts, pictures, and seeing information; auditory that retains information through hearing and speaking; and kinesthetics that likes to use the hands-on approach to learn new material. Student’s difficulty in learning may be due to differen...
Hsieh, Chengtu; Mache, Melissa; Knudson, Duane
Students' learning style preferences have been widely adapted into teaching and learning environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported and assessed learning style preferences (visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic: VARK) on performance in different types of multiple-choice examinations (T1: text only format and T2: visual format) given in an introductory biomechanics class. Students who enrolled in three biomechanics classes at a state university were recruited to participate in the study. Ninety students (47 males and 43 females) completed a learning style survey and two types of examinations. Results showed that approximately half of the students were assessed and self-reported as kinesthetic for their preferred learning style. There was no significant difference in test performance between students who preferred visual and reading/writing learning styles (self-reported and assessed). These students demonstrated similar learning and comprehension of biomechanical concepts regardless of whether the test material was presented in their preferred sensory mode or not. Interestingly, female students' perceptions of their learning style preference may have a positive effect on the test results when the test is presented in their preferred format. PMID:22518949
Kyung Myun Lee
Full Text Available Dance and music often co-occur as evidenced when viewing choreographed dances or singers moving while performing. This study investigated how the viewing of dance motions shapes sound perception. Previous research has shown that dance reflects the temporal structure of its accompanying music, communicating musical meter (i.e. a hierarchical organization of beats via coordinated movement patterns that indicate where strong and weak beats occur. Experiments here investigated the effects of dance cues on meter perception, hypothesizing that dance could embody the musical meter, thereby shaping participant reaction times (RTs to sound targets occurring at different metrical positions.In experiment 1, participants viewed a video with dance choreography indicating 4/4 meter (dance condition or a series of color changes repeated in sequences of four to indicate 4/4 meter (picture condition. A sound track accompanied these videos and participants reacted to timbre targets at different metrical positions. Participants had the slowest RT's at the strongest beats in the dance condition only. In experiment 2, participants viewed the choreography of the horse-riding dance from Psy's "Gangnam Style" in order to examine how a familiar dance might affect meter perception. Moreover, participants in this experiment were divided into a group with experience dancing this choreography and a group without experience. Results again showed slower RTs to stronger metrical positions and the group with experience demonstrated a more refined perception of metrical hierarchy. Results likely stem from the temporally selective division of attention between auditory and visual domains. This study has implications for understanding: 1 the impact of splitting attention among different sensory modalities, and 2 the impact of embodiment, on perception of musical meter. Viewing dance may interfere with sound processing, particularly at critical metrical positions, but embodied
Karageorghis, CI; Jones, L.; Lane, AM; Bishop, DT
Since the late 1970s exercise classes have been a popular form of physical activity. A greater understanding of the personal factors that might influence the outcomes of such classes could help to minimize the high dropout rates associated with exercise. The study explored the effects of dominant attentional style and self-determination on affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes following structured exercise classes. Data from 417 female participants revealed that those with a dominant ...
Sema Üstündag; Ayten Demir Zencirci
Objective: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting cancer patients′ quality of life. Methods: We collected data from 352 chemotherapy patients of an Outpatient Chemotherapy Unit in a state hospital. We included volunteered chemotherapy patients with a signed informed consent and at least 50 Karnofsky Performance Scale points. We gathered data by Personal Information Form and Nightingale Symptom Assessment Scale (N-SAS) and analyzed via basi...
Full Text Available Objective: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting cancer patients′ quality of life. Methods: We collected data from 352 chemotherapy patients of an Outpatient Chemotherapy Unit in a state hospital. We included volunteered chemotherapy patients with a signed informed consent and at least 50 Karnofsky Performance Scale points. We gathered data by Personal Information Form and Nightingale Symptom Assessment Scale (N-SAS and analyzed via basic descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis. Results: Patients were women (54.8%, married (83.5%, elementary school graduates (57.1%, housewives (44.6% and undergoing fluorouracil-based therapy (47.2%, and almost all patients had religious and cultural rituals for the disease. Women experienced worse physical and social well-being than men (P = 0.001, P = 0.0001. Singles had worse psychological and general well-being (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001. Housewives had the worst physical and social well-being (P 0.05. Breast cancer and sarcoma patients had the worst social well-being than other cancer patients. The N-SAS points of patients were not affected by blessings/prays, vow/sacrifice, consulting local herbalists and visiting "ocaks (folk physicians" (P > 0.05. Patients with bad quality of life practiced lead pouring and amulets (P < 0.05. Gender was the first factor affecting the quality of life. Conclusion: Advanced studies on individual quality of life factors affecting cancer would empower nurses for better personal care techniques and patients for easily overcoming the disease.
Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Michele Roccella,2 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical, and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and headache is meaningful and complex. Children affected by migraines tend to show many sleep disorders, such as insufficient sleep duration and excessive daytime somnolence. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the rate of reported sleep habits and self-reported sleepiness in a large pediatric sample of individuals affected by migraine without aura (MoA.Methods: The study population consisted of 271 children aged between 6 and 13 years affected by MoA. The control group was composed of 305 typically developing children. To assess the sleep habits of all individuals (MoA and control, parents filled out the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, and to check the degree of subjective perceived daytime sleepiness, all subjects were administered the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale.Results: The two study groups were matched for age (P = 0.124, sex distribution (P = 0.775, and body mass index z-score (P = 0.107. Parents of children affected by MoA reported a higher total score of sleep disorder symptoms (P < 0.001, disorders of initiating and maintaining (P < 0.001, and disorders of arousal (P < 0.001 than did parents of controls. No significant differences were found in disorders of excessive somnolence. Conversely, in the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale, migraine children had higher scores (24.67 ± 3.19 vs 11.94 ± 4.81; P < 0.001 and a reduction in referred total sleep time mean duration (469.83 ± 98.112 vs 527.94 ± 83.02; P < 0.001 than typically
This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…
Reichold, Astrid; Brenner, Sibylle A; Förster-Fromme, Karin;
In the last three decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has markedly increased. Results from epidemiologic studies indicate that not only a general overnutrition but rather a diet rich in sugar, fat and cholesterol (= Western style diet) maybe a risk factor for the developme...
Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess
This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following research…
Elodie Gentina; Pallavi Singh
The role of adolescents as influencers on their familiesâ€™ environmental behavior is potentially a catalyst for change towards increasing eco-friendly actions. In this paper, the authors report on a cross-cultural study of ecological resocialization in France and India. Using in-depth dyadic interviews, they investigated parental styles, cultural attributes and extent of adolescentsâ€™ influence over parental eco-behavior. The study reveals that ecological resocialization across countries di...
Reichold, Astrid; Brenner, Sibylle A.; Förster-Fromme, Karin; BERGHEIM, INA; Mollenhauer, Jan; Stephan C Bischoff
In the last three decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has markedly increased. Results from epidemiologic studies indicate that not only a general overnutrition but rather a diet rich in sugar, fat and cholesterol (= Western style diet) maybe a risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Concerning liver diseases, it is known that Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 is amongst others related to liver injury and repair. In addition Deleted in ma...
Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…
The diploma thesis deals with a healthy life style and its influence on the most frequent civilization diseases. In the subsequent parts there has been elaborated a questionnaire with the main topic -- healthy life style. Based on this questionnaire are also the results which confirm or contradict the hypotheses formulated in the process of the presented diploma thesis.
By analyzing the learners'characteristics and their learning style,we can draw the conclusion in our teaching preparation that:"The best methods are therefore those that supply'comprehensible input'in low anxiety situations.containing messages that students really want to hear.These methods do not force early production in the second language,but allows students tO produce when they are"ready",recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input,and not from forcing and correcting production."(Krashen,1987)
Nel, Maria Elizabeth
Lack of parental involvement is one of the biggest challenges schools face. Due to lack of support or too much interference from the parent the academic learning process of the student is disturbed and delayed. This also puts a lot of stress on the teacher trying to support the student in achieving to the best of his or her abilities as well as managing the parents on the side. The purpose of this study was to investigate how 1) different parenting styles deliver different results and if that...
Full Text Available The role of adolescents as influencers on their families’ environmental behavior is potentially a catalyst for change towards increasing eco-friendly actions. In this paper, the authors report on a cross-cultural study of ecological resocialization in France and India. Using in-depth dyadic interviews, they investigated parental styles, cultural attributes and extent of adolescents’ influence over parental eco-behavior. The study reveals that ecological resocialization across countries differs substantially, according to a combination of national cultural values, parental style and influence strategy. French teens exhibit a greater impact than Indian teens on their parents’ eco-behavior and use bilateral influence strategies. In India, not all mothers engage in ecological resocialization, but those who do are susceptible to unilateral strategies. The role of environmental knowledge, and the context and effectiveness of each kind of strategy is discussed. The findings have implications for how public policy officials and agencies can encourage adolescents as key resocialization agents to influence their parents’ pro-environmental consumption by using the most adapted influence strategy across cultures.
López-López, Antonio; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Moreno-Baquero, José María; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio
This work studies the effects of the substitution of NaCl with KCl and CaCl2 on the physicochemical, mineral and sensory profile of fermented green Spanish-style Manzanilla olives, using an enlarged centroid mixture design. An increasing presence of CaCl2 in the initial brines improved the colour index, L(∗), b(∗) values, and firmness. The Na in the olives decreased (linearly) while the levels of K and Ca increased (quadratic) as a function of the KCl and CaCl2 concentrations in the initial brines. CaCl2 also improved the retention of Zn and P in the flesh. PLS showed a strong relationship between Ca and bitterness, hardness, fibrousness, crunchiness and saltiness (negative) and allowed for the prediction of sensory attributes (except acid) from the mineral contents in the flesh. Most of the treatments could lead to new green Spanish-style Manzanilla olive presentations with reduced Na and healthier characteristics. PMID:27283650
Johansen, I.B.; Sørensen, C.; Sandvik, G.K.;
behavioral flexibility in LR compared to HR fish and we hypothesize that this divergence is caused by differences in neural plasticity. Genes involved in neural plasticity and neurogenesis were investigated by quantitative PCR in brains of LR and HR fish at baseline conditions and in response to two......Here we use a comparative model to investigate how behavioral and physiological traits correlate with neural plasticity. Selection for divergent post-stress cortisol levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has yielded low- (LR) and high responsive (HR) lines. Recent reports show low...... PCNA and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in both lines, whereas LTS stress generally suppressed PCNA and NeuroD expression while leaving BDNF expression unaltered. These results indicate that the transcription of neuroplasticity-related genes is associated with variation in coping style, while...
Petersen, Sibylle; von Leupoldt, Andreas; den Bergh, Omer Van
Autonomous system models of interoception describe perception of bodily sensations as an active process in which the brain generates and tests hypotheses about the body on the basis of proximal information. This view of perception as inference allows a new perspective on the role of affect in perception. Affect and interoception are closely linked, but processes underlying this link are poorly understood. We suggest that a predictive coding perspective allows acknowledging affect as integral part of information processing. We outline how affect may intrinsically modify processes of interoception by acting as threshold mechanism in stimulus grouping and information compression. We outline how well-established methods, for example, from categorization research may allow quantifying this influence of affect on perception in empirical tests of predictive coding models. We discuss how this may enrich the study of the relationship between affect and interoception and may have important clinical relevance. PMID:26441780
Johansson, Per; Cherro, Samir
The study examines the relationship between project leadership styles and success when affected by pressures such as time, project type, complexity and cultural diversity. The research examines the two well-known leadership approaches of transformational- and transactional leadership, and argues that transactional leadership, which has less focus on the leader-follower relationship, is more suitable and successful in projects with limited time. The transformational leadership style, which has...
Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany
Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…
Götz, Katja; Berger, Sarah; Gavartina, Amina; Zaroti, Stavria; Szecsenyi, Joachim
Background: Well-being at work is an important aspect of a workforce strategy. The aim of the study was to explore and evaluate psychosocial factors and health and work-related outcomes of practices assistants depending on their employment status in general medical practices. Methods: This observational study was based on a questionnaire survey to evaluate psychosocial aspects at work in general medical practices. A standardized questionnaire was used, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionna...
Cibeles Miralles; José Navarro
The present study focuses on the affect generated by cognitive appraisals of work events in workers daily life. In this relationship, two moderators have been tested, relevance of the event and explanatory style. Seventy-three workers answered an attributional style questionnaire once (between-level data) and also a daily questionnaire (within-level data) about work events and affect for ten days (N = 730 observations).Multilevel analysis results showed that the influence of moderators in the...
Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…
Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad
The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…
S.H. Mousavi; Akbar Heidary; Farzad Khamse Pour
The aim of this study is to consider the relationship betweenleadership styles and physical education teachers` creativity. Thestatistical sample included 160 physical education administratorsand physical education teachers and research questionnaire wasleadership style (Leadership style assessment questionnaire) andthe creativity questionnaires (Randsepp). Results showed that theaverage leadership style score 127/9 (maximum possible score of200). Average score for male and female physical ed...
Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse
Cognitive styles play an important role in influencing the learning process, but to date no relevant study has been conducted using lag sequential analysis to assess knowledge construction learning patterns based on different cognitive styles in computer-supported collaborative learning activities in online collaborative discussions. This study…
Leadership is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of corporate governance. Based on existing research results,through questionnaire design,statistical survey,empirical analy-sis,hypothesis testing,mechanism of different leadership styles affection to human resource manage-ment effectiveness was carried out. This will help to improve the human resource management per-formance.%领导是影响企业管理成效的关键因素之一。基于现有研究观点，通过问卷设计、统计调查、实证分析、假设检验等过程，研究不同领导风格对企业人力资源管理效能的影响机制，以期对企业人力资源管理效能提升有所帮助。
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study--an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. METHODS: In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48 reported mood, self-esteem and response styles to depression, together with contextual information, up to 60 times over a period of six days, using experience sampling diaries. Entries were cued by quasi-random bleeps from digital watches. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated, with mood and self-esteem as predictors of subsequent response styles. Similar models were then estimated with response styles as predictors of subsequent mood and self-esteem. Cross-sectional associations of daily-life correlates with symptoms were also examined. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, symptoms of depression as well as mania were significantly related to low mood and self-esteem, and their increased fluctuations. Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time point. Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in increased positive mood. Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to directly test the relevance of response style theory, originally developed to explain unipolar depression, to understand symptom changes in bipolar disorder patients. The findings show that response styles significantly impact on
Skakon, Janne; Nielsen, Karina M.; Borg, Vilhelm;
This study is an overview of published empirical research on the impact of leaders and leadership styles on employee stress and affective well-being. A computerized search and systematic review of nearly 30 years of empirical research was conducted. Forty-nine papers fulfilled the inclusion...... criteria, which include the requirements for papers to report empirical studies and to be published during the period 1980 to 2009 in English-language peer-reviewed journals. The studies were mostly cross-sectional (43/49 papers) and examined the impact of leaders’ stress (4 papers), leaders’ behaviours (e.......g. support, consideration and empowerment) (30 papers) and specific leadership styles (20 papers) on employees’ stress and affective well-being. Three research questions were addressed. The review found some support for leader stress and affective well-being being associated with employee stress and...
Eiszler, Charles F.
The "Perceptual Preferences" section of the Learning Styles Questionnaire (Dunn and Dunn, 1975) was administered to 170 ninth grade students with self-reported measures of self-esteem, general affect, and achievement (i.e., grade-point average). Data were analyzed to determine if modality preferences are a significant component of student learning…
Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian
The aim of this study is research the impact of management level’s charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level’s charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is t...
Hana Pavlickova; Filippo Varese; Angela Smith; Inez Myin-Germeys; Turnbull, Oliver H.; Richard Emsley; Bentall, Richard P.
BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study--an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. METHODS: In...
Andersen, Christina Maar; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Olesen, Frede;
-patient communication. This project focuses on the period until the start of targeted diagnostic investigation. The time interval can be divided into patient delay and doctor delay: • Patient delay is the time from the patients experience the first symptom until they seek medical help. • Doctor delay is the time from...... to be able to contribute as an explanatory model. This theory describes the evolutionary and developmental origin of patterns of close interpersonal relationships OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present project are to examine whether attachment styles in general practitioners as well as in their patients...... influence length of patient delay and doctor delay in patients diagnosed with cancer. Interactions between patients’ attachment styles and general practitioners’ attachment styles on patient and doctor delay will also be explored. METHODS: The project is a cross-sectional study based on registry data...
陈健; 周丽华; 燕良轼; 苏林雁
This study examined the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Short-Form version of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire(CCSQ-SF).415 Chinese undergraduates(306 men,109 women; mean age=19.2 years,SD=1.04)completed the CCSQ-SF along with the Hopelessness Depression Symptom Questionnaire(HDSQ) and Self-Compassion Scale(SCS).The internal consistency of the CCSQ-SF was high(Cronbach alpha=0.77),and the split-half coefficient and test-retest correlation after 4 weeks were satisfactory(r=0.67 and 0.85,respectively).Pearson correlations of the scores on the CCSQ-SF with the criterion measures(HDSQ and SCS) were in the expected directions.The CCSQ-SF is appropriate for measuring negative cognitive style among Chinese students.%目的:检验中文版认知方式问卷(短版)的信效度.方法:用中文版认知方式问卷(短版)、无望抑郁问卷、自悯量表对415名大学生进行测量,对其中55名大学生四周后重测中文版认知方式问卷(短版).结果:中文版认知方式问卷(短版)的Cronbaeh α系数为0.77,分半信度为0.67,四周的重测信度为0.85;探索性因素分析得一个特征根大于1的因子,解释总变异的40.32％;中文版认知方式问卷(短版)的得分与无望抑郁问卷的得分显著正相关,与自悯量表的得分显著负相关.结论:中文版认知方式问卷(短版)具有较好的信效度,可以用来测量我国大学生的认知方式.
Veiga, Feliciano; Santos, Elisabete
Neste estudo, procedeu-se à adaptação portuguesa de uma escala de empatia, ―A Questionnaire to Assess Affective and Cognitive Empathy in Children‖ (QACEC), de Zoll e Enz (2010). A amostra envolveu 328 alunos do ensino básico de escolas de Lisboa, 4º e 6º anos, com sujeitos do género masculino e feminino. A escala apresentou bons índices de consistência interna. Numa análise de componentes principais com rotação varimax, foram identificadas duas dimensões, a afectiva e a cogn...
Köteles, Ferenc; Bárány, Eszter; Varsányi, Péter; Bárdos, György
Relationship among modern health worries (MHWs), somatosensory amplification (SSA), and attributional styles was investigated in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. A total of 99 university students, 104 patients visiting their General Practitioners, and 102 future alternative therapists completed questionnaires assessing MHWs, SSA, negative affect (NA), and psychological, somatic and normalizing (environmental) attribution styles. Significant correlation between SSA and MHWs was found in all three samples. MHWs and psychological attribution style were significantly associated with Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)-orientation in the regression equation even after controlling for SSA, NA, and sociodemographic variables. MHWs were independent from any attribution styles in the student and patient samples, while significant correlations with all three styles were found in the CAM group. Previously described association between MHWs and SSA was replicated in three different samples. The connection between MHWs and CAM preference seems to be independent from SSA, NA or any particular attribution style. PMID:21883257
Davis, H; Zaichkowsky, L
Mentally tough' athletes show resilience and an ability to compete during adverse conditions. The present study investigated mental toughness and assessed causal explanations for positive and negative reactions to imagined events using Seligman's Attributional Style Questionnaire. Pessimistic Explanatory style on this scale is a risk factor for negative affect and behavior following negative events. 38 elite athletes in ice hockey were rated for mental toughness by the National Hockey League's scouts on consensually derived criteria. The comparison of players above and below the median split on mental toughness showed composite explanations for negative events that were more internal, stable and global for players above the median. Contrary to predictions, these results suggest that a Pessimistic Explanatory style may benefit hockey performance. PMID:9885080
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.
Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.
Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…
Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli
The grounded theory method was used to analyze the parenting styles used by caregivers to rear children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to investigate parents' experiences regarding how to help their child overcome the symptoms. Thirty-two parents from 28 families of children with ASD in mainland China were interviewed. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed four patterns of parenting styles which varied in affiliation to the roles of caretaker and coach. Based on their experience, a sizable group of parents perceived that their own emotions influence the child's emotions and his/her symptoms. The results suggest the value of developing intervention programs on emotion regulation and positive parenting for the parents of children with ASD. PMID:24400727
System) 2.0 interface features several visualization tools such as Author Network and Metrics. This research study involves 20 ADS long term users who participated in a usability and eye tracking research session. Participants first completed a cognitive test, and then performed five tasks in ADS 2.0 where they explored its multiple visualization tools. Results show that over half of the participants were Imagers and half of the participants were Analytic. Cognitive styles were found to have ...
Topal, Kenan; Sarıkaya, Özlem; Basturk, Ramazan; Buke, Akile
Objectives: The process of development and evaluation of undergraduate medical education programs should include analysis of learners’ characteristics, needs, and perceptions about learning methods. This study aims to evaluate medical students’ perceptions about problem-based learning methods and to compare these results with their individual learning styles.Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted at Marmara University Medical School where problem-based learning was implemented in the...
Höglund, Erik; Gjoen, H.-M.; Pottinger, T.G.;
This work examined behavioural responses in yolk-sac rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss larvae originating from strains selected for high (HR) or low (LR) plasma cortisol response to a standardized stressor. The results showed that yolk-sac larvae originating from the HR strain were more sensitive...... on internal factors, which suggest that at least some aspects of stress-coping styles are inherent to the individual, before factors such as social experience or variable access to food resources could modify behavioural strategy....
cultural differences affect the management behavior and management style.Participatory management style in the United States and instructional management style in China has a deep cultural roots.In terms of the type of management style,they are equal.As long as management style is consistent with its culture accordingly,the leadership will be effective.
Julio J. ROTEMBERG; Garth Saloner
We study the relationship between a firm's environment and its optimal leadership style. We use a model in which contracts between the firm and managers are incomplete so that providing incentives to subordinates is not straightforward. Leadership style, whether based on organizational culture or on the personality of the leader, then affects the incentive contracts that can be offered to subordinates. We show that leaders who empathize with their employees adopt a participatory style and tha...
Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam
Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother’s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior high schools in Isfahan. Data collection was done with a questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by the adolescents. After data collection, the parenting styles were determined and the social adaptability of the four groups was compared. Findings: The mean social adaptability in adolescents who their mothers have the authoritative parenting style was 49.6 ± 6.1, in the permissive parenting style 50.1 ± 5.8, the authoritarian parenting style 44.2 ± 6.5 and in the neglectful parenting style was 42.2 ± 7.5. The social adaptability of the four groups was significantly different (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study shows that the permissive parenting style and after that authoritative parenting style were followed by higher social adaptability in adolescent girls. PMID:23833590
Full Text Available The way in which positive and negative affects are perceived may be associated with a distinct pattern of behaviors and attitudes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between various combinations of affections and gender along with tendencies towards neuroticism, rumination, reflection, and life satisfaction. The participants were 348 students, who answered the questionnaire in groups. The euphoric group showed the highest scores of life satisfaction and emotional stability, while the dysphoric group presented the lowest scores. The emotional and apathetic groups showed no significant differences in relation to life satisfaction, depression, anxiety and vulnerability. From these results, it can be assumed that positive affect can lessen the impact that negative affect has on the development of vulnerability and other psychopathological symptoms. Interventions based on positive affect increase might be efficient to prevent vulnerability.
Rana Rashid Rehman
Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to collect data from 113respondents. Regression analysis is utilized to study the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles and step-wise regression analysis is used to study moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The study foundthat transformational leadership style strongly predicts rational and dependant decision making styles and weakly predict intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles while no association founds with avoidant decision making styles. Present research also foundthat emotional intelligence moderates the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles.
Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...
Full Text Available Communicative style and method among people are of effective factors on their behaviors. Managers’ communication method by which they behave workers can affect on employees’ behavior. This research studies the relationship between managers’ communicative styles and employees’ counterproductive in Shahrbabak copper complex. Statistical society of the research includes formal employed employees in Shahrbabak copper complex containing 746 people from which 186 people were selected as the sample by Cochrane formulation. Data gathering instruments were two questionnaires. Communicative styles standard questionnaire for which validity was obtained 0.92 by Hashemi (2013. Also to measure employees’ counterproductive behaviors a certain questionnaire by validity of 0.93 was used. Every questionnaire’s validity was obtained by Cronbache Alpha method 0.90 and 0.87 respectively. To test hypotheses Pearson & Spearman correlation coefficient was used. All statistical analyses were done by SPSS statistical software. According to obtained results it is determined that there is a positive meaningful relationship between control and avoidance communicative styles; but there is a reverse relationship between equity, dynamic, entrusting and avoidance communicative styles with counterproductive behaviors. By the way there is no relationship between structuralism communicative style and counterproductive behaviors. Regarding the results from research hypotheses managers are suggested to use inclined dynamic communicative styles more to decrease counterproductive behaviors.
潘静洲; 韩仁生; 周文霞
工作归因风格作为重要的认知方式，对于员工的心理与行为有重要的影响。但是，国内至今没有一套工作归因风格问卷问世。本研究开发中国背景下的工作归因风格问卷。通过访谈、开放式问卷以及参考相关文献，形成工作归因风格问卷的初始条目。经过预测和探索性因素分析，对问卷进一步修改，得到正式问卷。问卷分为：积极和消极两个分问卷，每个分问卷包括5个场景，问题涵盖“内外性”、“稳定性”、“普遍性”三个维度，一共包括30个条目。对正式问卷进行探索性因素分析、验证性因素分析等统计分析，结果显示，问卷结构清晰，信效度检验均符合测量学标准。最后，本文探讨了工作归因风格问卷对管理实践的影响和应用，以及研究存在的局限。%Attribution theory has been the important topic in the psychology field. With the development of attribution theory, researchers began to expand on the study of attribution theory to research on organization and management field. But the Chinese researchers didn＇t pay enough attention to the field of occupational attribution style. There is no a questionnaire of Chinese occupational attributional style. At the same time, exciting work attributional style questionnaires developed in western context, contain some drawbacks, such as low reliability, unstable constructs and so on. Based on this, the present study tries to develop ＂Chinese Work Attributional Style Questionnaire＂ （CWASQ） and examine its reliability and validity. The present study developed the Occupation Attributional Style Questionnaire in Chinese context. Through in-terviews, open questionnaires and the relevant literatures, the researcher formed the first draft of the questionnaire.Through exploratory factor analysis, the first one was revised in some aspects. The results of the formal questionnaire＇ s exploratory factor
Wardle, J.; Guthrie, C. A.; Sanderson, S; Rapoport, L.
Individual differences in several aspects of eating style have been implicated in the development of weight problems in children and adults, but there are presently no reliable and valid scales that assess a range of dimensions of eating style. This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a parent-rated instrument to assess eight dimensions of eating style in children; the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Constructs for inclusion were derived both from t...
Chin-Parker, Seth; Bradner, Alexandra
Cognitive scientists are interested in explanation because it provides a window into the cognition that underlies one's understanding of the world. We argue that the study of explanation has tended to focus on what makes an explanation "bona fide" as opposed to the processes involved in how the explanation is generated. In the current study, we asked participants to respond to the request for an explanation within a novel domain after we manipulated their initial exposure to the domain, and thus the background of the request. In two experiments, we found evidence that the background shaped participants' interpretations of the prompt for the explanation and that this, in turn, influenced whether they used a causal or functional style of explanation when responding to the prompt. We also asked participants to evaluate a number of explanations and found that the manipulation of the background did not have the same effect on the evaluative tasks. Our data support a pragmatic approach (e.g. The scientific image. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1980) to the study of explanation generation, a philosophical approach which argues that the background influences the interpretation of the question, the development of a relevance relation which connects the question and explanation, and the identification of some set of candidate answers. We also suggest there is an important difference between the process of generating an explanation and evaluating an explanation, a difference that has escaped the attention of cognitive scientists thus far. PMID:19859755
Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C
A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting. PMID:25956587
Abbas Pourhosein Gilakjani
Full Text Available It is important to study learning styles because recent studies have shown that a match between teaching and learning styles helps to motivate students´ process of learning. That is why teachers should identify their own teaching styles as well as their learning styles to obtain better results in the classroom. The aim is to have a balanced teaching style and to adapt activities to meet students´ style and to involve teachers in this type of research to assure the results found in this research study. Over 100 students complete a questionnaire to determine if their learning styles are auditory, visual, or kinesthetic. Discovering these learning styles will allow the students to determine their own personal strengths and weaknesses and learn from them. Teachers can incorporate learning styles into their classroom by identifying the learning styles of each of their students, matching teaching styles to learning styles for difficult tasks, strengthening weaker learning styles. The purpose of this study is to explain learning styles, teaching styles match or mismatch between learning and teaching styles, visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles among Iranian learners, and pedagogical implications for the EFL/ESL classroom. A review of the literature along with analysis of the data will determine how learning styles match the teaching styles.
Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.
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A maximum of 3 CEUs will be awarded per correctly completed test.CPD questionnaires must be completed online at www.mpconsulting.co.za. After submission, you can check the answers and print your certificate.This programme is available free of charge to members of the SA HIV Clinicians Society and SAMA only.
Zarra-Nezhad, Maryam; Aunola, Kaisa; Kiuru, Noona; Mullola, Sari; Moazami-Goodarzi, Ali
This study investigated the associations between parenting styles (affection, behavioral control, and psychological control) and children’s emotional development (emotion expression) during the first grade of primary school, and the moderating role of children’s temperament (easy, difficult, and inhibited) in these associations. Mothers and fathers of 152 children responded to a questionnaire concerning their parenting styles and their child’s temperament at the beginning of their child’s fir...
Suliman, Wafika A
This is a descriptive study conducted at a multinational working environment, where 1500 nurses representing 52 nationalities are employed. The study aimed at exploring the predominant leadership style of nurse managers through self-evaluation and staff nurses' evaluation and the impact of working in a multinational environment on their intention to stay or quit. The value lies in its focus on leadership styles in an environment where national diversity among managers, staff, and patients is very challenging. The study included 31 nurse managers and 118 staff nurses using Bass and Avolio's (1995) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The results showed that nurse managers and staff nurses reported transformational leadership as predominant with significant difference in favor of nurse managers. Participants' nationality and intention to stay or quit affected their perception of transformational leadership as a predominant style. The implications highlight the need for senior nursing management to set effective retention strategies for transformational nurse managers who work at multinational environments. PMID:19893443
Gentzler, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Black, Katelyn R
This study investigated how mothers' attachment was related to their responses to their own and their children's positive events and positive affect (PA). Ninety-seven mothers reported on their attachment and their responses to their own and their 7-12-year-old children's positive events and emotions. Children reported on their mothers' responses to the children's positive events and their attachment security with their mothers. The results indicated that more avoidant mothers reported less intense PA in response to their own and their children's positive events. More avoidant mothers also were less likely to encourage their children to savor positive events (through expressing PA, reflecting on PA or themselves, giving rewards, and affectionate responses). Mothers higher on anxiety reported greater likelihood of dampening (e.g., minimizing the event's importance) their own positive events and reported being more likely to feel discomfort and to reprimand their children for expressing PA. Children's security was predicted by mothers' lower likelihood of encouraging children's dampening and of reprimanding children for PA displays. This study advances the literature on how mothers' attachment is related to the ways in which they regulate their own and their children's PA, which may have implications for children's attachment and developing PA regulation. PMID:26095911
Rana Rashid Rehman; Ajmal Waheed
The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to coll...
The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait. It was used the personal style of the therapist questionnaire (PST – Q), the Argentinean attachment inventory and the big five inventory. The study sample consisted of 120 psychotherapists average age of 36.28 years (SD = 9.65), and the average years of experience was 7.90 years (SD = 8.04). The analysis of the results showed that there is a positive, signi...
Full Text Available The target of this thesis is to study the relations among the perfectionism, the coping style and the interpersonal relationship of university students. The main study methods are to make the use of Frost multi-dimensional perfectionism scale, coping style questionnaire and university student interpersonal relationship comprehensive diagnostic scale to measure 350 university students. The results of the study show that: (1 There is a significant negative correlation between the perfectionism and the mature coping style of university students, whereas there is a significant positive correlation between the perfectionism and the immature coping style. (2There is a significant positive correlation between the perfectionism and the interpersonal relationship. (3There is a significant positive correlation between the interpersonal relationship and immature/mixture coping style, whereas there is a significant negative correlation between the interpersonal relationship and mature coping style.(4The concerning mistakes (CM, the action procrastination (AP, mixture and mature coping style can predict the perplexity of conversation distinctly.(5The AP,personal standard (PS, immature and mature coping style can predict the perplexity of social intercourse & making friend distinctly.(6The CM, parent criticism (PC and mixture coping style can predict the perplexity of dealing with people distinctly.(7The CM,AP, PS, parent expectation (PE, mixture and mature coping style can predict the perplexity of relating to the opposite sex distinctly. Therefore the conclusion of the thesis is as follows: there are close relations among perfectionism, coping style and interpersonal relationship; the perfectionism and coping style affect the interpersonal relationship of university students to a significant extent.
Asif, Muhammad; Ayyub, Samia; Bashir, Muhammad Khawar
This study explores the relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment of employees with mediating role of psychological empowerment in the textile sector Punjab Pakistan. Data was collected using tools from 250 employees. The transformational leadership questionnaire, MLQ-Multifactor leadership Questionnaire  was used to verify the perception of the employees towards transformational leadership style in two dimensions i.e. idealized influence and inspirational motivation. The organizational commitment questionnaire designed by  was used to verify the affective organizational commitment. Further, psychological empowerment questionnaire was developed by  which was used to examine the state of psychological empowerment of textile sector employees. Pearson Correlation revealed that there exists a positive significant relationship between idealized influence and affective organizational commitment, Inspirational motivation and affective organizational commitment, affective organizational commitment and psychological empowerment. The results from the study put forward that there is a significant relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment. The mediating variable which one is suitable in the model i.e. psychological empowerment and the model is good fit as the F value is significant.
刘红霞; 柳群方; 王秋玲; 姚宁; 贺慧丽
目的 为探讨独生子女情感障碍患者人格、心理防御机制及父母教养方式的关系.方法 采用艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)、防御方式问卷(DSQ)、父母教养方式评价量表(EMBU)对住院的100例独生子女情感障碍患者和正常独生子女进行测评,其中患者在自知力恢复以后测评.结果 独生子女情感障碍患者更多地使用投射、抱怨、幻想、退缩、躯体化等不成熟的防御机制,EPQ得分精神质、神经质、内外倾性高于正常独生子女(P＜0.01),相关分析发现,精神质、神经质与不成熟防御机制、中间防御机制呈正相关,内外倾性与成熟防御机制呈正相关,独生子女情感障碍患者的父母惩罚、父母拒绝、父亲保护、母亲干涉因子分高于正常独生子女(P＜0.01),而父亲温暖因子低于正常独生子女,相关分析发现,父母惩罚、父母拒绝、父母干涉、父亲保护与不成熟防御机制正相关,而父母温暖与不成熟防御机制负相关.结论 独生子女情感障碍患者多使用不成熟防御机制、不良的父母教养方式,存在个性缺陷,且三者之间密切相关.%Objective To explore the association of personality, psychological defense mechanisms, and parenting style with one—child affective disorder. Methods Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) of the parenting styles, Evaluation Scale (EMBU) were used to evaluate 100 one—child emotional disorder inpatients and the normal child as control. The assessments were also made in patients after the in—hospital treatment. Results One —child affective disorder patients were significant (P＜0. 01) more projection, complaining, fantasy, withdrawal, soma-tization, immature defense mechanisms such as the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire score psychoti-cism, neuroticism, extraversion inside and outside than the normal one—single child children. Correlation analysis found that spiritual
In a learning environment, leadership style reflects a leader's deeply held educational beliefs, which are mirrored in the school's culture. Case studies illustrate how the leadership styles of three principals affect school ambience. Good leadership practice means acknowledging each person's differing gifts, strengths, and concerns, and utilizing…
Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian
The aim of this study is research the impact of management level's charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level's charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises. PMID:26628936
Komer, Anne C.; Jason, Leonard A.; Harvey, Ronald; Olson, Brad
Oxford House recovery homes are unusual compared to most recovery homes in that they function entirely without the use of staff; instead members are elected to officer positions. The aim of this study was to perform preliminary analysis of the types of leadership styles utilized by members of oxford house. Twentynine house residents of five Oxford Houses were asked to rate their own leadership styles using the leader behavior description questionnaire and the multifactor leader questionnaire....
Viccaro, Marco; Zuccarello, Francesco
Geochemical investigations of Mt. Etna magmas have led to notable findings on the nature of compositional heterogeneity of the mantle source beneath the volcano. Some of the observed features explain the short-term geochemical variability of volcanic rocks erupted at Mt. Etna in recent times, which are characterized by increase of LILE, 87Sr/86Sr and decrease of 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb,176Hf/177Hf. This compositional behavior has not attributed exclusively to differentiation processes such as fractional crystallization, crustal assimilation and effects of volatile flushing. In this study, based on some geochemical similarities of the Etnean and Hyblean alkaline magmas, we have modeled partial melting of a composite source constituted by two rock types, inferred by various observations performed on some Hyblean xenoliths, namely: a spinel lherzolite bearing phlogopite-amphibole and a garnet pyroxenite in form of veins intruded into lherzolite that is interpreted as metasomatic high-temperature fluids (silicate melts) crystallized at mantle conditions. Partial melting modeling has been applied to each rock type and the resulting primary liquids have been then mixed in various proportions. The concentrations of major and trace elements along with the water obtained from the modeling are remarkably comparable with those of Etnean melts re-equilibrated at primary conditions. Different proportions of spinel lherzolite bearing metasomatic phases and garnet pyroxenite can account for the signature of a large spectrum of Etnean alkaline magmas and for their geochemical variability through time. Our study implies that magmas characterized by variable compositions and volatile contents directly inherited from the source can undergo distinct histories of ascent and evolution in the plumbing system at crustal levels, potentially leading to a wide range of eruptive styles. A rather shallow source inferred from the model also excludes the presence of deep mantle structures
Full Text Available A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. Parents create their own style from a combination of factors, and these may evolve over time as the children develop their own personalities and move through life's stages. A total sample of 210 children in the age group of 8-10 years were chosen for the study which was equally divided among 3 different schools i.e. Municipal, Private, & Aided with the help of purposive sampling. Aself- structured questionnaire was prepared on children's perception on parenting styles with 10 hypothetical statements. The tool was validated and the reliability of the tool was found Father: r = 0.979, Mother: r= 0.983. The data was quantitatively analyzed. The findings indicate that the schooling background doesn't affect the parenting styles. Most of the parents use authoritative parenting styles, want their children to be responsive and mature, they develop a sense of independence in their children, but still have limits and consequences.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait. It was used the personal style of the therapist questionnaire (PST – Q, the Argentinean attachment inventory and the big five inventory. The study sample consisted of 120 psychotherapists average age of 36.28 years (SD = 9.65, and the average years of experience was 7.90 years (SD = 8.04. The analysis of the results showed that there is a positive, significant and low intensity between the personality factor of openness to experience and personal style of involvement, a negative correlation, significant and of medium intensity between low extraversion factor correlation and mode not anxious romantic attachment and a significant positive relationship between the low–intensity factor neuroticism personality and how anxious romantic attachment.
Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez
Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.
Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce
This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…
Rinehart, Amanda; Sharkey, Jennifer; Kahl, Chad
Do librarians with different characteristics, such as type of work responsibilities or age, have different learning styles? The authors analyzed results from over 1,500 responses to a version of the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire based on the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles model. This model consists of eight dimensions paired on…
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…
Shmulsky, Solvegi; Gobbo, Ken
Objective: This study uses the Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ) to measure the causal thinking of 42 college students with diagnosed language-based learning disabilities (LD), ADHD, or co-occurring ADHD and LD. Attribution style, or explanatory style, is a term used to describe the tendencies of individuals to think that the causes of…
Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda
A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities. PMID:27609458
The purposes of this study were to identify learning styles of traditional baccalaureate nursing students, registered nurse baccalaureate students, baccalaureate nursing students holding a previous non-nursing degree, and nursing educators and to determine the effects of teacher/student learning style congruency on academic performance, when controlled for students' previous academic achievement. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory and a Descriptive Data Questionnaire were administered to 334 nursing students and their respective nurse educators from two nursing schools in Mississippi. Learning style scores were computed and faculty and student learning style congruency was described as: 1) matched on both abstract-concrete and active-reflective dimensions; 2) matched on only the abstract-concrete dimension; 3) matched on only the active-reflective dimension; or 4) not matched on either dimension. There were no significant differences in learning style among the three groups of nursing students, and learning style congruency between student and faculty did not appear to significantly affect academic performance of students. PMID:8926523
Just as students have different personalities, so do they have various learning styles. Why Otherwise might two people,compatible in age, intelligence and expectations, exposed to the same amount of opportunity, react so differently?Although an individual's learning style is regarded as relatively fixed and not easily changed, it is possible to help learners explore their own preferences and to shape their learning approaches to meet the demands of the requirements of what they intend to achieve. Using Honey and Mumford's Questionnaire and the systemized theory behind the questionnaire for analysis, this paper presents two arguments: 1. Trainers can help learners identify their learning style preferences and increase their awareness about them.2. Learners can become more effective learners once they are aware of their learning styles and the strong points and weak points of the different styles. The results of the investigation support the two arguments.
Steijn, D.J. van; Oerlemans, A.M.; Ruiter, S.W. de; Aken, M.A.G. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.J.
An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child
Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....
Paredes Barragán, Pedro; Rodríguez Marín, Pilar
This paper shows a way of using some dimensions of learning styles of students in order to improve the efficiency of adaptive learning systems. Firstly, it reviews the literature and previous work related to the taxonomy of learning styles and its application to web-based education. Later, it introduces the Felder-Silverman learning style model and the procedure of extracting information about students’ learning styles from the Felder-Soloman ILS questionnaire. Then, it presents a me...
Eckstein, Daniel; Goldman, Alan
Effective communication is a cornerstone of marital happiness. The Couples' Gender-Based Communication Questionnaire is presented as a method for identifying male-female different communication styles. Suggests that once people realize that their partners have different conversational styles, they are inclined to accept difference without blaming…
Li Yueh; Ying Lee; F. Barry Barnes
This study examined how transformational and transactional leadership styles affect knowledge-based customer relationship management implementation in the Taiwanese hotel industry. A model of the relationship was created based on earlier research and used Bass and Avolioâ€™s Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire along with questions to assess a multi-dimensional construct for CRM. The model was tested and modified using structural equation modeling. The results generally support a positive re...
Dehon, Hedwige; Laroi, Frank; Van Der Linden, Martial
Recent research has shown that there are individual differences in how preexisting (internal) schemata (versus cues from the outside world) affect encoding processes, which can be reliably assessed with the internal and external Encoding Style Questionnaire (ESQ, Lewicki, 2005). Since reliance on preexisting schemata at encoding has been found to increase the production of false memories in the DRM paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995), while item-specific encoding has been sho...
Mehrali Hemmatinezhad; Seyed Mohammad Hossein Razavi; Farogh Fathi Kajal
The purpose of this survey is to study the change-oriented, pragmatic, and neutered leadership styles of the heads of physical education departments in the province of Ardebil. 180 heads of sports commissions answered a multi-factor leadership questionnaire (MLQ). The multi-factor leadership questionnaire includes 41 questions covering three leadership styles of change-oriented, pragmatic, and neutered. The validity of questionnaire has been studied and verified through the corrective feedbac...
Tai, Wing-yin.; 戴詠賢.
This research aimed to investigate whether or not intellectual styles are value-laden and if they are malleable. This aim was achieved through understanding the types of intellectual styles that teachers and students prefer each other to use in the teaching-learning process. It was further achieved by examining whether or not teaching styles affect students’ learning styles and their career interests. This research employed a mixture of experimental and longitudinal designs as well as a c...
Nina Pološki Vokić; Sanja Sontor
The objective of the paper, except determining the dominant conflict handling style in Croatian organizational setting, was to explore individual characteristics affecting the choice of conflict resolution style of Croatian employees. Therefore, the variables of gender, age, level of education achieved, field of work, hierarchical level, marital status and parenthood were included in the study. Compromising conflict handling style was found to be the most frequently used style among Croatian ...
Full Text Available The present study focuses on the affect generated by cognitive appraisals of work events in workers daily life. In this relationship, two moderators have been tested, relevance of the event and explanatory style. Seventy-three workers answered an attributional style questionnaire once (between-level data and also a daily questionnaire (within-level data about work events and affect for ten days (N = 730 observations.Multilevel analysis results showed that the influence of moderators in the relationship of appraisal-affect is asymmetric for positive and negative affect. At within-level there is a moderation of the importance attributed to the event for negative affect, but not for positive affect. In the same line, but in an inter-level relationship, the explanatory style has a moderator effect for negative affect when the event is appraised as important. Nevertheless, such an influence is not found for positive affect. The study provides new elements for a multilevel study of third variables in the daily dynamics of appraisal and affect.
Full Text Available The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Preferences Questionnaire was used. Results indicated that the six learning style preferences considered in the questionnaire were positively preferred. Overall, kinesthetic and tactile learning were major learning styles. Auditory, group, visual, and individual were minor.Keywords: Learning Style Preferences, High School Students, EFL
every student has her/his own individual way to resolve their problems in learning. In learning process, students individual differences exist. These differences lead to different learning speed and learning style of the student. The purpose of this study was to investigate the high achievement students learning styles. This study was based on Reids learning styles theory and also uses Reids Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ to investigate students learning styles. The main finding of this study is that students learning style preference is group style. According to student learning style preferences results, students prefer to learn together with others or in group and learn in a more interactive way.
ZAHED ZAHEDANI, ZAHRA; REZAEE, RITA; YAZDANI, ZAHRA; BAGHERI, SINA; NABEIEI, PARISA
Introduction Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and parenting style is one significant factor. The current study has been done with the purpose of investigating the relationship between parenting styles, academic achievement and career path of students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods This is a correlation study carried out at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Among 1600 students, 310 students were selected randomly as the sample. Baumrind’s Parenting Style and Moqimi’s Career Path questionnaires were used and the obtained scores were correlated with the students' transcripts. To study the relation between variables Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results There was a significant relationship between authoritarian parenting style and educational success (p=0.03). Also findings showed a significant relationship between firm parenting style and Career Path of the students, authoritarian parenting style and Career Path of the students, educational success and Career Path of the students (p=0.001). Conclusion Parents have an important role in identifying children’s talent and guiding them. Mutual understanding and close relationship between parents and children are recommended. Therefore, it is recommended that the methods of correct interaction of parents and children be more valued and parents familiarize their children with roles of businesses in society and the need for employment in legitimate businesses and this important affair should be more emphasized through mass media and family training classes. PMID:27382580
ZAHRA ZAHED ZAHEDANI
Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and parenting style is one significant factor. The current study has been done with the purpose of investigating the relationship between parenting styles, academic achievement and career path of students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a correlation study carried out at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Among 1600 students, 310 students were selected randomly as the sample. Baumrind’s Parenting Style and Moqimi’s Career Path questionnaires were used and the obtained scores were correlated with the students’ transcripts. To study the relation between variables Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results: There was a significant relationship between authoritarian parenting style and educational success (p=0.03. Also findings showed a significant relationship between firm parenting style and Career Path of the students, authoritarian parenting style and Career Path of the students, educational success and Career Path of the students (p=0.001. Conclusion: Parents have an important role in identifying children’s talent and guiding them. Mutual understanding and close relationship between parents and children are recommended. Therefore, it is recommended that the methods of correct interaction of parents and children be more valued and parents familiarize their children with roles of businesses in society and the need for employment in legitimate businesses and this important affair should be more emphasized through mass media and family training classes.
Considerable studies on Chinese leadership styles apply Western models to test Chinese managers, and then define Chinese leadership style with Western ideas. This study assumes that Chinese managers have their own leadership styles distinctive from Westerners and tried to investigate the cultural and historical origin of Chinese leadership style, especially to explore how Confucianism have affected and shaped Chinese leadership style in modern Chinese society. This study adopted a qualitative...
Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W
The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. PMID:21232566
Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.
Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…
This article examines the effects of the leadership style of the principal, “transformational leadership and transactional leadership”, along with teachers' job satisfaction on school's organizational health. Specifically speaking, it investigates to what extent the variations in school health can be related to principal's leadership style and teachers' job satisfaction. To this end, a Likert-type questionnaire was administered to 635 teachers out of 875-person sample, wor...
Although current literature on learning styles shows that matching a teacher’s instructional style with the learning styles of students affects performance in a classroom environment, little is known about the influence of learning styles in online interaction. The paper argues that students’ individual learning styles influences how students interact online and that rather than adapt to user’s learning styles, online environments tend to force behavior change on users’ learning styles. The p...
Full Text Available Forgiveness and empathy are factors which are influential in improving the relationships between people, themselves can be affected by various factors in turn. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the styles of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy among female students in the city of Qom. 250 students were selected from the city of Qom by cluster sampling. Three questionnaires were used: styles of attachment to God by Kirkpatrick and Rowatt, emotional empathy by Mehrabian and Epstein and forgiveness inventory by Enzeit. Pearson correlation and Regression analysis were used for data analysis. The style of secure attachment to God had a significantly positive relationship with forgiveness and empathy. Furthermore, the style of avoidant attachment to God and the style of bilateral attachment to God had a significantly negative relationship with forgiveness. In addition, the standard coefficients of all three predictive variables (Secure attachment, bilateral and avoidant to God were all significant at p=0.05. Assessment and recognition of the style of attachment to God, the students and its relation with forgiveness and empathy can have valuable implications in providing the mental health of the students. Conclusion: The findings of this research show a connection between the style of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy, indicate the clarification of attachment to God in students' forgiveness and empathy. Based on the findings, it can be suggested that the theory of attachment to God can be used in psychotherapy.
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to introduce the Children-parents relationship questionnaire (VOS and to present its metric characteristics. The questionnaire is based on parental styles of D. Baumrind (1967 and 3D model of parental styles developed by Milivojević and others (2004. The questionnaire was developed under assumption that relationship between children and their parents influences educational achievement of children. Results on convenience sample (N = 333 of seventh, eighth and ninth grade students in Slovenia show a three dimensional structure of the questionnaire: (a authoritative parental style and autonomy, (b authoritarian parental style and (c rewarding. Questionnaires' reliability in terms of internal consistency (,72 > α < ,95 as well as sensitivity (average r = ,67 proved to be sufficient. Our results show significant gender differences in perceived authoritative parental style and autonomy as well as low association between school grades and the perceived relationship.
Griffiths, Carol; İnceçay, Görsev
Although the learning style construct has aroused much interest over the years, questions remain regarding basic issues such as definition, the validity and/or reliability of various measurement instruments, and the relationship between learning style and successful learning. Furthermore, although maintaining stylistic flexibility is recommended by many authors, few studies have attempted to relate the style-stretching concept to successful learning. This study therefore attempted to address these questions. According to results, conducted among 106 Turkish university students, using an original instrument constructed using elements from established questionnaires, a small group of styles was significantly correlated with exam results, accounting for about a quarter of the variance (considered a large effect size in social science). In addition, higher-scoring students reported a more eclectic range of styles, suggesting more willingness to style-stretch, while lower-scoring students reported a more limited range. Pedagogical implications as well as areas for ongoing research are suggested. PMID:25893275
Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula
Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia. PMID:26077339
Satterfield, J M; Monahan, J; Seligman, M E
The explanatory styles of 387 law students were assessed prior to law school using the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ). Longitudinal performance measures were collected throughout law school and related to each student's initial explanatory style. In contrast to studies with undergraduates, students who made stable, global, and internal attributions for negative events combined with the converse attributions for success (typically called pessimists) outperformed more optimistic students on measures of grade point averages and law journal success. We discuss the limitations of current attributional research methodologies and suggest the prudent and cautious perspective necessary for law or skill-based professions may account for our findings. PMID:9160992
The International Space Station Expedition 11 crew, set for liftoff Apr. 15 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, is to perform two extravehicular activities-one in Russian and the other in U.S. spacesuits, a unique combination that points up different national space-operating styles. The outgoing Expedition 10 commander, astronaut Leroy Chiao, addressed the differences in an e-mail exchange from the ISS. Chiao is well qualified to discuss these topics, having logged four shuttle-based EVAs in the American suit and two in the Russian Orlan, the most recent one Mar. 28. Chiao and Expedition 10 cosmonaut Salizhan Sharipov are to return to Earth in their own Soyuz Apr. 25.
Ana Kozina; Mojca Rožman; Tina Rutar Leban
The purpose of the article is to introduce the Children-parents relationship questionnaire (VOS) and to present its metric characteristics. The questionnaire is based on parental styles of D. Baumrind (1967) and 3D model of parental styles developed by Milivojević and others (2004). The questionnaire was developed under assumption that relationship between children and their parents influences educational achievement of children. Results on convenience sample (N = 333) of seventh, eighth and ...
Chernyshkova Elena Vyacheslavovna; Rodionova Tatyana Vyacheslavovna; Mukhina Marina Yurievna; Veretelnikova Yulia Yakovlevna; Chernyshkov Danila Vsevolodovich
The article presents the analysis of the results of elderly people’s (aged 55–65) questionnaires concerning the basic precepts of healthy life style for activity prolongation (N = 180). It has been established that the basic principles of healthy life style include regular moderate physical loads, a rational diet, giving up bad habits. Healthy life style popularization may become a promising measure to increase activity motivation of elderly people.
Chayata Viriya; Sutthirak Sapsirin
Abstract: This paper seeks to investigate the gender differences in language learning style and language learning strategies. The study used the perceptual learning-style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) to investigate the learning style preferences and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) version 7.0 designed by Oxford (1990) to find the learning strategy preferences of first year University students at the faculty of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Thailand....
Peterson, C; De Avila, M E
Eighty-six adults completed questionnaires that measure explanatory style and perception of health problems. Subjects on the average saw themselves as below average in risk for a variety of health problems. Those subjects with an optimistic explanatory style, who explained bad events with external, unstable, and specific causes, in particular saw themselves as less at risk (r = .30, p explanatory style and perceived risk, which suggests that perceived preventability may mediate this link. PMID:7782467
Alevriadou, Anastasia; Pavlidou, Kyriaki
Teachers' interpersonal style is a new field of research in the study of students with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviors in school context. In the present study, we investigate emotions and causal attributions of three basic types of challenging behaviors: aggression, stereotypy, and self-injury, in relation to teachers' interpersonal style. One hundred and seventy seven Greek general and special educator teachers participated in the study by completing a three-scaled questionnaire. Statistical analysis revealed that the type of challenging behaviors affected causal attributions. According to regression analysis, emotions, teaching experience, expertise in special education, and gender explained a significant amount of variance in interpersonal style. Emotions were found to have a mediating role in the relationship between causal attributions and interpersonal style of "willingness to support," when challenging behaviors were attributed to stable causes or causes under the control of the individual with intellectual disabilities. PMID:26283661
Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Ann K.; Fortner, Lauren A.; Mullis, Ronald L.
Relationships between parenting styles, academic performance, and the mediating effects of motivation, goal orientation, and self-efficacy were examined. One hundred forty-eight high school students participated, including 58 males and 90 females. The Parenting Style/Parental Involvement Questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of…
Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith
The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58 [plus or minus] 1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression;…
Winsler, A.; Madigan, A.L.; Aquilino, S.A.
The goal of the present study was to investigate perceived similarities and differences in parenting styles between mothers and fathers in the same family. The 56 parents of 28 preschool children independently completed the parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ) [Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Frost Olsen, S., & Hart, C. H. (2001).…
Eva Boštjančič; Maja Pezdir; Janez Stare
The focus of this study was the relatively unexplored link between perceived leadership styles and employees' current levels of workplace stress and coping strategies. The participants were 442 employees in five IT organisations in Slovenia. The theoretical background for leadership styles was taken from the full-range leadership model. Data were collected using three questionnaires: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a single questionnaire item on the cur...
Full Text Available Problem Statement. Teaching style is the expression (form of expression of preferred behavioral modalities who return with some regularity in the work of teacher (E.Geissler, Purpose of Study. The intention of this paper is to identify a pattern of expression interact between two dimensions-professional of primary school teachers: the dominant teaching style and the dominant authority type of each teacher. I opted for a classification according to the particular act of communication: emotional-improvising style, emotional-methodical style, rational-improvising style and rational-methodical style. Methods. To identify the dominant teaching style was built a questionnaire consisting of 16 questions. The second questionnaire was proposed for a self-evaluative kind of authority expressed in the daily professional work. To identify the dominant type of authority were updated two classifications: traditional axis authoritarian - democratic - laissez-faire and a classification inspired by John RP French and B. Raven expert authority, rewards, position and personal. In this investigation were involved 30 teachers for primary education. Findings and Results. Exists a moderate correlation between rational-improvising style and authoritarian and position styles of authority. Also, indicates significant statistical connection between rational-improviser teaching style and authoritarian, democratic and expert teacher’s authority. The indexes indicate statistical connections moderate correlation between rational-methodical style and personal authority. The indexes of correlation indicates significant statistical link between emotional-improvisational style teaching styles and reward and expert authority. The indexes indicate statistical connections moderate correlation between emotional-style improvisation and styles of authority laissez-faire, and his model.
Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena
Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common. PMID:23008767
Kvrgić Svetlana T.
Full Text Available Indroduction Life style (behavior is one of the most significant factors affecting health. Although a number of factors participate in creating behavior, family is one the most important. The goal was to analyze the life style of children without parental care. Material and methods The research was done using cross-sectional data from "Children village" in Sremska Kamenica (N=127, and a questionnaire was especially created for this purpose. Results and discussion It was established that 75% of elementary school children and 43% of high school children are physically active. The greatest health risk is smoking (only 50% of students reported never to smoke cigarettes, while 17.5% were daily smokers. The problem is greatest in high school children (43% polled are daily smokers. Alcohol consumption is less common than in the general population of the same age (10% polled drink beer and wine several times a month, while 5% drink spirits - brandy, whisky etc.. Attitudes to sports, smoking and alcohol are mainly positive, but at older age there is an increased number of children with negative attitudes. Knowledge regarding healthy diet is on a lower level comparing with general population, meals are more regular, but with less desirable food. Conclusion From the aspect of health, life style of children without parental care is characterized by risky behavior, particularly in high school children.
There are a few unique English teaching and learning styles among some Chinese teachers and learners, which affect their work efficiency or are toxic to their work and study. Some suggestions on getting rid of toxic teaching and learning styles are necessary to the improvement of teaching and learning efficiency. Cultivating healthy styles for…
Smith Staley, Charlesetta
This quantitative study explored the leadership styles of mentors for retained first-year adult students to analyze whether the prevalent style had a higher impact on first-year adult student retention. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) 5x was used to collect data on the mentors' leadership styles from the perspective of retained…
Stone, D. H.
The design of questionnaires is a craft which has been badly neglected by the medical profession. A questionnaire should be appropriate, intelligible, unambiguous, unbiased, capable of coping with all possible responses, satisfactorily coded, piloted, and ethical. The key steps in designing a questionnaire are to: decide what data you need, select items for inclusion, design the individual questions, compose the wording, design the layout and presentation, think about coding, prepare the firs...
Yildirim, Osman; Acar, Ahmet Cevat; Bull, Susan; Sevinc, Levent
There is debate about whether the leadership style of the teacher or the learning style of the student affects academic achievement more. A large sample (n = 746) of eighth-grade students in Istanbul, Turkey, participated in a study where the leadership style of the teacher was assessed in terms of people orientation and task orientation. The…
M Behnam Moghadam
Full Text Available Background & aim: learning style(s is one of the factors effective learning. Information about students learning styles can aid the presentation of teaching appropriate to their individual style. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of Yasuj nursing and midwifery students based on the VARK model in 2013. Methods: The present research was a descriptive- analytical study which was conducted on 140 students from nursing and midwifery faculty of Yasuj university of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2013. Sampling was done using census method, and data were collected using demographic information questionnaire followed by questionnaire of learning styles. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18, and descriptive- inferential statistics. Results: The mean age of the students was 20.68±1.34. Of the total of 140 students, 98 (70% just selected only one type of the learning styles, whereas, 42 students preferred combination of different styles. Reading-writing style was the prevailing style among single learning style which selected by 43 students but the most frequent style among multi style was double style which was selected only by 15% of the participants. Conclusion: Most of the students had an individual learning style. Identifying the dominant learning style(s of the students and adjusting them to the teaching methods of lecturers and also developing lesson plans based on learning styles could improve educational objectives.
Sibe Doosje; Martijn P.M. de Goede; Lorenz J.P. van Doornen; Rens van de Schoot
Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI).Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection.Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understandi...
Full Text Available The purpose of this survey is to study the change-oriented, pragmatic, and neutered leadership styles of the heads of physical education departments in the province of Ardebil. 180 heads of sports commissions answered a multi-factor leadership questionnaire (MLQ. The multi-factor leadership questionnaire includes 41 questions covering three leadership styles of change-oriented, pragmatic, and neutered. The validity of questionnaire has been studied and verified through the corrective feedbacks by the management and programming teachers of physical education, and the stability of questionnaire was determined 86% using Cronbach's alpha. In order to analyze the data, the statistical tests of chi-square and Friedman and Bonferroni post hoc test were used at a significant level (P ≤ 0 / 05. The Results showed that there was a significant difference between the pragmatic, change-oriented, and neutered leadership styles of the heads of physical education departments. Also, there was a significant difference among the priorities of the leadership styles of heads of physical education department. And, the change-oriented leadership style was placed as the first priority, while the pragmatic and neutered styles were considered as next priorities. There are significant differences among the subscales of the change-oriented and pragmatic leadership styles of physical education administrators.
Contains : Questionnaire Stage 1: Vision, Games Concept and Strategy. - Questionnaire Stage 2: Governance, Legal and Venue Funding. - Questionnaire Stage 3: Games Delivery, Experience and Venue Legacy.
Haagen, C. Hess
This questionnaire assesses marijuana use practices in college students. The 30 items (multiple choice or free response) are concerned with personal and demographic data, marijuana smoking practices, use history, effects from smoking marijuana, present attitude toward the substance, and use of other drugs. The Questionnaire is untimed and…
Ayesha Nuzhat; Raneem O. Salem; Mohammed S.A. Quadri; Nasir Al-Hamdan
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine preferred learning styles of undergraduate medical students at King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, King Fahad Medical College, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional study of preclinical students with 74 male and 72 female (n= 146) was performed. The validated VARK questionnaire was used to categorize the learning styles of students. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles:...
Georgeta PÂNIȘOARĂ; Sandu, Cristina; Nicoleta DUȚĂ
The present paper aims to study the differences in self-esteem and the communication style, depending on the level of education (at high school and university subjects). It is analyzed also how the positive self-esteem can correlate with a style of communication and assertively-positive approach. The participants are 120 subjects, 60 high school students and 60 students. The data was collected using two instruments: the Rosenberg questionnaire and a questionnaire on communication style. The d...
Phelps, L H; Waskel, S A
An assessment of the relationship between explanatory style and perceived general job satisfaction is presented for 135 employed women age 40 and over who were asked to complete the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Although a forced-order multiple regression analysis did not yield a significant correlation between explanatory style and perceived general job satisfaction, several interesting factors emerged. PMID:8058876
Cooley, Eileen L.; Van Buren, Amy; Cole, Steven P.
Attachment styles, social skills, and depression were studied in 3 college women using the Relationship Questionnaire (K. Bartholomew & L. M. Horowitz, 1991), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), and the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (D. Buhrmester, W. Furman, M. T. Wittenberg, & H. T. Reis,…
M. van Wijk-Herbrink; H. Andrea; R. Verheul
This study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire-60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interview) in a lar
M. van Wijk-Herbrink (Marjolein); H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel)
textabstractThis study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire- 60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interv
Momayyezi, Mahdieh; FALLAHZADEH, HOSSEIN; Momayyezi, Mohammad
Background: Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire ...
Full Text Available This research has tried to find most proper leadership styles based on a approved model to direct hospital manpower appropriately. The main objective of this research was the comparison between manager’s existing leadership styles and suggested styles to them in order to direct existing styles toward suggested ones. In this cross- sectional study all Qom province hospital managers participated. From the hospital the staff, 385 persons were selected by randomized stratifying sampling. Data were collected by two types of validated questionnaires, one for the staff and another for managers, and analyzed by SPSS software. The finding showed that among four types of leadership styles, 75% of manager’s leadership style was “consultative” and rest were “exploitative- authoritative” or “benevolent- authoritative”, but in the view of about 78% of the staff, manager’s leadership style was “benevolent- authoritative” and only 0.8% of them believed that manager’s style was participative .In general, based on the staff point of view, managers behaved less participative. On the other hand, Tannenbaum and Schmidt leadership style continuum model proved that the best leadership style for all the hospital managers was the “consultative” one. It can be concluded that there was 25% gap between existing leadership styles and suggested ones and it should be tried to close this gap as far as posible.
Aunola, K; Stattin, H; Nurmi, J E
The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Three hundred and fifty-four 14-year-old adolescents completed a Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire and a family parenting style inventory. Analogous questionnaires were also completed by the adolescents' parents. Based on adolescents' report of the parenting styles, four types of families were identified: those with Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, and Neglectful parenting styles. The results further showed that adolescents from authoritative families applied most adaptive achievement strategies characterized by low levels of failure expectations, task-irrelevant behaviour and passivity, and the use of self-enhancing attributions. Adolescents from neglectful families, in turn, applied maladaptive strategies characterized by high levels of task-irrelevant behaviour, passivity and a lack of self-enhancing attributions. The results provide a basis for understanding some of the processes by which parenting styles may influence adolescents' academic achievement and performance. PMID:10831143
Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...
Maria Giulia Olivari; Elisabeth Hertfelt Wahn; Katerina Maridaki-Kassotaki; Katerina Antonopoulou; Emanuela Confalonieri
Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES...
Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between the psychological bearing capacity and trait coping style of military chauffeurs, and explore their influencing factors. Methods By random cluster sampling, a total of 390 military drivers (experimental group and 396 military non-drivers (control group were chosen as subjects, and they were investigated with the Military Personnel Resilience Scale (MPRS and Trait Coping Styles Questionnaire (TCSQ. The relationship between the psychological bearing capacity and trait coping style, and the influencing factors were analyzed. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis were performed by SPSS 17.0 software. Results Compared to the control group, the scores of problem-solving, will power, self-confidence and the total score of MPRS were higher in experimental group (P<0.01 or 0.05. Correlation analysis suggested all the factors of MPRS in the drivers were positively correlated with positive coping style (P<0.01 or 0.05 and negatively correlated with negative coping style (P<0.01; the will power was positively correlated with educational level (P<0.05. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that both the positive and negative coping style were incorporated into the regression equation with problem-solving, will power, interpersonal relationship, self-confidence and total score of MPRS as the dependent variables (P<0.01; negative coping style was incorporated into the regressive equation with family support as the dependent variables (P<0.01 and educational level was incorporated into the regressive equation with will power as the dependent variables (P<0.01. Conclusions The military drivers show a stronger psychological bearing capacity, and the major factor is trait coping style. In addition, educational level may affect the will power, so it may be regarded as a reference on psychological intervention to improve the
Chen Su-may Sheih
Full Text Available Few studies have addressed the topic on leadership within the field of librarianship. With a hope to add to the narrative literature of the leadership, the researcher employed literature review and analysis, questionnaires, and statistics analysis, to explore the leadership style of middle managers in the university libraries in Taiwan area. 343 university librarians and 85 department heads participated in this survey. The survey data indicates that there is a discrepancy between middle managers’ self expressed leadership behavior profiles and those perceived by subordinate librarians. And some subordinate librarians’ demographics may affect their perceptions of leadership behavior demonstrated by department heads. [Article content in Chinese
This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56). PMID:16673976
The purpose of this study was to determine the discipline styles of high school teachers. The population of this research included students of 10rd grade at central high schools in Niğde. There were 789 students at these high schools in the educational term of 2006-2007. The sample of this study was randomly selected 334 students. The data of the research were collected with an inventory called “Teacher Discipline Style Inventory” developed by Tomal (1999, 2001). The questionnaire is based up...
Goodyer Ian M
Full Text Available Abstract Background A mood-related ruminative response style increases the risk of onset and persistence of depression. This preliminary study investigated whether, in depressed adolescents, cognitive-behaviour therapy reduces mood-related ruminative response style. Whether specific factors within the rumination scale were differentially affected by CBT is also reported. Methods 26 depressed adolescents were randomised to receiving serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRI plus psychosocial treatment as usual or SSRI and psychosocial treatment as usual plus CBT. Ruminative response style and depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and after 30 weeks of treatment, with the Responses to Depression Questionnaire and Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Results There were significantly greater reductions in ruminations in the CBT group compared to the non-CBT group (p = .002. There was no significant difference in the reduction in self-reported depressive symptoms between the groups. Rumination was reduced to levels of never-depressed controls in adolescents who had recovered from depression and received CBT. There were greater falls in the CBT group in the more pathological 'brooding' factor of rumination. Conclusion These findings suggest that adding CBT to SSRI medication in the presence of active clinical care causes a greater reduction in mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents. This may reduce the risk of future relapse. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCNT83809224.
حسینی فاطمی ، پیشقدم حسینی فاطمی ، پیشقدم
Full Text Available The major aim of this article is to determine the role of culture in perceptual learning style (PLS preferences of Iranian English learners, in order to minimize teacher-student style conflict in the classroom. To do this, 400 university students from different fields of study were selected from Allameh Tabatabaee University in Tehran, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were asked to answer Reid’s questionnaire (1987 which was designed to specify 6 types of learning styles including: visual, auditory, tactile, kinesthetic, individual and group. The results indicated that: (a the subjects mostly drew on tactile and kinesthetic styles and had the least preference for the individual style of learning. (b No meaningful association was found between gender, age, proficiency and preference for certain style.
This paper examines two theoretical constructs: Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences as variables in the teaching-learning process of Spanish as a Foreign Language. The group learning profile has been analyzed through the use of the Questionnaire of Honey-Alonso of Learning Styles (CHAEA, 2007) and Silver and Strong Questionnaire for Multiple Intelligences (2000) while learning journals have been utilized to triangulate the data obtained through the questionnaires. Three moderate correl...
Andersson, Patric; Engelberg, Elisabeth
This paper was motivated by a paucity of research addressing how consumer decision-making is related to beliefs about money and different modes of reasoning. To investigate this issue, data were collected from 142 participants, who filled out questionnaires involving scales aimed to measure affective and rational purchase approaches, intuitive and analytical decision-making styles, as well as money attitudes. One finding was that consumers interchangeably rely on affective and rational approa...
Maghviroh Rovila El
Leadership style used in a higher education institution affects the competence-based performance of the lecturers and the administrative staff. In turn, their performance will affect the institution performance. So, leadership style influences the institution toward strengthening its strategy to sustain. This study examined the transactional and transformational leadership styles toward the lecturers and the administrative staff of STIE Perbanas Surabaya. Transformational leadership was measu...
Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F
The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups. PMID:27086223
Kleim, B; Gonzalo, D; Ehlers, A
A depressogenic attributional style, i.e., internal, stable and global causal interpretations of negative events, is a stable vulnerability factor for depression. Current measures of pessimistic attributional style can be time-consuming to complete, and some are designed for specific use with student populations. We developed and validated a new short questionnaire suitable for the measurement of depressogenic attributions in clinical settings, the Depressive Attributions Questionnaire (DAQ)....
Brix, Jacob; Lauridsen, Karen M.
Issues of innovation and knowledge management are often treated from an organisational learning perspective. As a complement to this, there is a vast potential in the strategic enhancement of individual learning by implementing learning styles profiles and creating personal learning strategies...... for management and employees in a knowledge based organisation. Based on an action-research case study, we offer an example of how learning styles affects individual learning and thus personal knowledge creation in practice. The paper argues that innovation and knowledge management is enhanced and facilitated...... in practice by working with the learning styles of individuals and groups/teams....
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Whether and how the manager with his management style affects the creativity of employees in departmentproduction preparation?Purpose: The purpose is to examine the management style through the eyes of managers and employees. In addition, the purpose was todiscover the optimal management style to be used by the manager tomaintain maximum creative employees in a work group.Method: The method used was to review existing literature and quantitative analysis of a closed - type questionnaire. Data analysiswas performed by using the average value, dependent ANOVA test andPearson correlation coefficient.Results: The results of the study provided a deeper insight into themanagement of the studied work group. Managers and most of the workers assessed management style as a dense (unified, but other tendencies were also visible. Employees estimated that in the workplace creativity is promoted with dense (unified management style, and partly contributes to the goal achievement with an ambitious management style.Organization: The organization will analyse the results and, if necessary, introduce improvements to procedures to improve overallbusiness excellence.Society: Study was conducted in one of the fastest growing companiesin the Dolenjska - Posavje region in which they are aware of theresponsibilities and role model to other businesses in the region,which is reflected in the constant care for employees withappropriate conditions for work and education, decent wages andbonuses. This is all cared for by responsible and capable management.Originality: This is the first research study of this type in the company studied.Limitations/Future Research: This study was conducted only in the production preparation department, but such an analysis should be implemented within other departments.
Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine
The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. PMID:25693911
Sandra Jimena Perdomo Escobar
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the bond style according to the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption and violence in marital dyads of women who belong to middle and low socioeconomic status. A factorial 2x2 non-experimental cross sectional design was applied to a sample of 101 women who participated voluntarily. The questionnaire of Alcohol and Couple Violence Co-occurrence and the Adults’ Bond Scale were used. Moreover, the c2, the OR and the c2 tests by Mantel & Haenszel were applied. It was found that 79% of women and 89,9% of their husbands were regular consumers. Marital violence towards women occurred in 31,6% of the cases, meanwhile this type of violence was suffered by men in 25% of the cases. Co-occurrence of consumption and maltreatment was found in 22 cases. So, consumption would be a risk factor for marital violence. However, there was not a significant correlation between these aspects and women’s bond style. Mantel y Haenszel’s c2 showed significantly (p=0,036 that this kind of bond was only affected by OH consumptionif it co-occurs with marital violence. But, if the last factor does not occur, bond style behaves orthogonally to the OH consumption. It was concluded that there is an interdependence relationship between bond style according to differential occurrence of alcohol consumption and marital violence.
To compare the depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Place and Duration of study: Study was carried out at University of the Punjab, Lahore from 17 February to 31st August 2010. Methods: A purposive sample of 600 students (boys=300; girls=300) was divided into two age groups; early adolescents (13-15 years) and late adolescents (16-18 years). Participants were administered beck anxiety inventory, beck depression inventory-II and coping strategies questionnaire. Data was analyzed on SPSS14 version using independent sample t test. Results: The overall results of the study indicated that early adolescents exhibit more depression and anxiety symptoms as compared to the late adolescents. Moreover, early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways as active practical coping styles were more utilized by late adolescents. On the other hand, religious focused and avoidance focused coping styles were mostly used by the early adolescents. Besides, there was no significant group difference on active distractive coping styles. Conclusion: The current study revealed that significant changes during adolescence may affect adaptive processes and have implications for intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of stress during this period. The findings also suggest early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways that become more diverse and adaptive with development through the adolescent years. (author)
Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia
This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles. PMID:20863600
Salah M. Diab
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test The Impact of Leadership Styles on the Organizational Change Areas (An Empirical Study on the Jordanian Pharmaceutical Companies. Data for this research were collected through a questionnaire from, (240 leaders in all levels of management, from (5 pharmaceutical companies in Jordan, which are; (JPHM, (DADI, (HIKMA, (ACPH, and the (PIC. Grynbach constancy coefficients reached 84.0%, Percentages, Means, standard deviation, and, simple and multiple regressions analysis s were used to test the hypothesized relationships. The results indicate that, The Jordanian pharmaceutical companies (JPCs practiced both types transformational and Transactional leadership, in different proportions. All the organizational change areas in the (JPCs are possible, a strongly positive relationship between styles of leadership (transformational and Transactional combined and the organizational change areas, Inspiration as one of the Transformational leadership elements is the less influential ,in addition to that there’s a variation impact on the organizational change areas for all the leader ship styles elements, transformational leadership does not affect on changes in human resources and job description, On the light of the study results the following recommendations may be submitted, More attention to the transformational leadership style to bring a long-term organizational change, without depends only on the transactional leadership, specially the incentive element, increased the enrichment knowledge of the departments leader through involvement in academic courses Encourage leaders, who have the qualities and skills possessed by transformational leadership style for the assumption Managerial positions in the (JPHs and other recommendations.
胡安艳; 黄莹; 李燕; 陈桂存
Objective To study the relationship between parental rearing style and middle school students' coping style, and to provide bases for the further intervention. Methods By using Parents Education Style Value Questionnaire and Coping Style Questionnaire to investigate 4 189 middle school students in Kunming. Results There were significant differences between male and female students,difference between middle school and high school in parents' emotional warmth and understanding, severe punishment, resolving problem and seeking social support. Parents' rearing style was apparently correlated with some factors of coping style. Conclusion There are gender differences in parental styles and coping style, and parental rearing pattern obviously affect coping style.%目的 探讨父母教养方式与中学生应对方式的关系,为进一步采取干预措施提供依据.方法 采用父母养育方式评价量表(EMBU)、中学生应对方式量表,对分层随机整群抽取的昆明市4 189名中学生进行问卷调查.结果 父母养育方式中的父母情感温暖、理解,惩罚、严厉等因子以及应对方式中的问题解决、寻求社会支持等因子均存在显著性别差异和学段差异.父母养育方式中的各因子与应对方式中的一些因子显著相关.结论 中学生父母教养方式和应对方式有显著的性别、年级差异,中学生的父母教养方式对其应对方式有显著影响.
Full Text Available A Webliography collects resources about citation Styles For internet resources, it divided by the styles: Chicago University style, MLA style, APA style, ISO style, and some articles about internet resources citation.
Aye Aye Mon
Full Text Available Generally, different students employ different learning styles dur-ing their studies and medical students are exposed to diverse methods of teaching. Therefore, understanding students’ learning style preference is an important consideration for a high quality and effective teaching and learning process.The aim of the study was to study the variation of learning styles among pre-clinical medical students of SEGi University, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was performed by using VARK (Visual, Audio, Reading and Kinaesthetic questionnaire version 7.2 to assess the learning style preference of 98 (n=98 pre-clinical medical students in SEGi University. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles: visual, aural, reading/writing and kin-esthetic. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the learning styles of students. 61 students preferred multimodal as their learning style, out of which 43 (70% of them were female stu-dents and 18 (30% were male students. 37 students preferred unimodal as their learning style out of which 22 (59% of them were female students and 15 (41% were male students. In addi-tion, female students had more diverse preferences than male students by having 10 out of the other 11 possible combinations in multimodal learning style of preference, whereas the male stu-dents only had 5 out of the 11 combinations. In this study, there was no significant gender difference in the percentages of males and female students who preferred unimodal and multimodal styles of information presentation (P= 0.263; α=0.05. To con-clude, the majority of students of both genders had chosen quad-modal as their learning style preference. The results of this study can provide useful information for improving the quality of the teaching and learning experiences of students.
Hjelle, L A; Busch, E A; Warren, J E
The relationship between two cognitive personality constructs (explanatory style and dispositional optimism) and retrospective self-reports of maternal and paternal behavior were investigated. College students (62 men and 145 women) completed the Life Orientation Test, Attributional Style Questionnaire, and Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire in a single session. As predicted, dispositional optimism was positively correlated with reported maternal and paternal warmth/acceptance and negatively correlated with aggression/hostility, neglect/indifference, and undifferentiated rejection during middle childhood. Unexpectedly, explanatory style was found to be more strongly associated with retrospective reports of paternal as opposed to maternal behavior. The implications of these results for future research concerning the developmental antecedents of differences in explanatory style and dispositional optimism are discussed. PMID:8955430
Phelps, L H; Waskel, S A
We examined the relationship between explanatory style and work reinforcers, that is, specific sources in the work environment that appear to promote job satisfaction. Our subjects were 135 employed women aged 40 to 75 years who were asked to complete the Attributional Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967). Using Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis, weak but significant relationships were found between explanatory style and the work reinforcers of ability utilization, activity, and creativity. Individuals with a depressive explanatory style experienced less job satisfaction in areas related to these reinforcers. PMID:7932292
Kim, Kyung–Sun; Moore, Joi
This study investigates how students’ characteristics and behaviors affect their satisfaction and learning experience within Web–based courses. Eighty–two graduate students taking a Web–based course from a Midwest university participated in the study. Web–based questionnaires were used to collect data on student demographics as well as learning experiences and styles. Findings suggest that students’ interaction with classmates and their instructor may have an impact on their satisfaction with...
Giltinane, Charlotte Louise
It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice. PMID:23905259
Ángela Camargo Uribe; Christian Hederich-Martínez; Omar López Vargas
In this paper the relationship among high school students’ mathematics achievement, use of self-regulated learning strategies and cognitive style in the field dependence-independence dimension is examined. Subjects were 128 tenth graders of a public school at Bogotá, Colombia. The MSLQ Questionnaire was used to assess students’ level of self-regulation and the EFT test was used to measure students’ field dependence-independence cognitive style. Mathematics achievement was indicated by the gra...
حسینی فاطمی ، پیشقدم حسینی فاطمی ، پیشقدم
The major aim of this article is to determine the role of culture in perceptual learning style (PLS) preferences of Iranian English learners, in order to minimize teacher-student style conflict in the classroom. To do this, 400 university students from different fields of study were selected from Allameh Tabatabaee University in Tehran, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were asked to answer Reid’s questionnaire (1987) which was designed to...
This article reports a study using a self-reporting questionnaire adapted from Reid (1987) toexamine the preferred learning styles of the students majoring in English in Hubei Three Gorges Univer-sity Humanities’ College,Hubei,China.Based on the results the study generated,activities were createdthat could reflect the students’ learning style preferences.These activities were effective in motivatingour students and developing productive language skills.
Stephanie Plenty; Susanne Bejerot; Kimmo Eriksson
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ) and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biolo...
Bučiūnienė Ilona; Škudienė Vida
This article investigates the relationship between employees' organizational commitment dimensions and leadership styles in Lithuanian manufacturing companies. The findings of the study reveal positive correlations between a transformational leadership style and affective and normative employee commitments. A laissez-faire leadership style was found to be negatively associated with employees' affective commitment.
Phalkey, R.; Pritchard, Catherine; Myles, P.
Background: The impact of students preferred learning styles on their performance has been investigated in medical and nursing education but little has been done for students enrolling on postgraduate taught programmes in Public Health and Epidemiology. Summary of Work: We use the 40 item Honey and Mumford (1986) learning styles questionnaire that identifies four learning styles (Activist, Theorist, Reflector and Pragmatist) and administered it at the start (Oct 2014) and end of the course...
Full Text Available Orientation: The mining industry is a notoriously difficult environment in which to achieve positive work outcomes, such as organisational commitment. Therefore it was decided to investigate the association between transformational leadership and organisational commitment at a coal mine in Phola in the Mpumalanga province, a geographical area largely neglected by scientific researchers. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the transformational and transactional leadership styles (as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X and organisational commitment (as measured by the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire in the coal mining industry at a specific site in Phola. Motivation for the study: A need was identified for research to be conducted in the coal mining industry in Mpumalanga on a leadership style that enhances organisational commitment. Committed employees represent valuable human capital that should be retained for as long as possible. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design with random sampling (n = 88 was used to collect the necessary data. Both instruments showed acceptable internal consistencies. Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were found between two variables: organisational commitment (for the purposes of this article, this refers to affective commitment and leadership styles (transactional and transformational. Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resource practitioners will benefit from the knowledge gained by the study. Line managers should practise transformational leadership to improve commitment, engagement and satisfaction among their subordinates. Contribution/value add: The findings of this research add to the body of existing knowledge on transformational leadership and commitment. Valuable insights have been gained on the appropriate leadership style needed to improve
García García, Inmaculada; Santa-Bárbara, Emilio Sánchez
This quantitative study aimed to empirically evidence the relationship between the power bases of the leader and the leadership styles of nurses. The random sample consisted of 204 nursing professionals from a public hospital. The following measurement instruments were used: the SBDQ (Supervisory Behavior Description Questionnaire) to identify leadership styles and the Power Perception Profile to determine the types of power used by leaders. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. Based on the results, two relationships proposed by the SLT (Situational Leadership Theory) were verified: between coercive power and S1 leadership style (telling), and between referent power and S3 leadership style (participating). In other cases, results have been opposite to expectations: the use of power proposed by the model decreases the probability of performing the prescribed leadership style. PMID:19669037
Ziegler, D J; Hawley, J L
This study investigated the possible relationship between Ellis's construct of irrational thinking and Seligman's construct of explanatory style, with a view toward possibly strengthening the personality theory underlying Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy in particular and cognitive-behavior therapies more generally. In this investigation 180 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the Attributional Style Questionnaire to measure irrational thinking and explanatory style, respectively. Students who scored higher on Pessimistic Explanatory Style also scored higher on Overall Irrational Thinking and on Low Frustration Tolerance than did those who were categorized as having an Optimistic Explanatory Style. This indicates support for Ellis's developing personality theory, especially his theoretical account of depression. PMID:11351894
Barber, Jacques P; Abrams, Michael J; Connolly-Gibbons, Mary Beth; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Barrett, Marna S; Rynn, Moira; Siqueland, Lynne
Change in explanatory style (measured by the Attributional Style Questionnaire [ASQ]) has often been considered specific to cognitive therapy (CT). We used data from 59 patients who had received supportive-expressive (SE) dynamic therapy after meeting DSM-III-R criteria for a depressive spectrum disorder and who had completed the ASQ at intake and termination of treatment. We found that depressive symptoms decreased significantly and that explanatory style became more optimistic over the course of treatment. Furthermore, change in ASQ correlated with change in depression. There was some evidence suggesting that ASQ at termination predicted level of depression at follow-up. PMID:15625679
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between humour styles and shyness. The sample consisted of 640 (330female; 310 male university students. Humour styles and shyness levels of these students were measured by the use of theHumour Styles Questionnaire, and Shyness Scale respectively. To analyze the data, regression analysis and correlation analysiswere employed. A significant effect of humour styles on shyness was detected. All humour styles (affiliative, self-enhancing,aggressive, and self-defeating were found to be significantly correlated to shyness.
Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.
College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…
Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.
This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…
-, 8 November (2010), s. 1-21. ISSN 2190-3328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : National Style * Czech architecture * Czech design Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.riha-journal.org/articles/2010/hnidkova-rondocubism-versus-national-style
Designing a page style has long been a pain for novice users. Some parts are easy; others need strong LATEX knowledge. In this article we will present the memoir way of dealing with page styles, including new code added to the recent version of memoir that will reduce the pain to a mild annoyance...