Sample records for aerodynamic noise

  1. Active Control of Aerodynamic Noise Sources

    Reynolds, Gregory A.


    Aerodynamic noise sources become important when propulsion noise is relatively low, as during aircraft landing. Under these conditions, aerodynamic noise from high-lift systems can be significant. The research program and accomplishments described here are directed toward reduction of this aerodynamic noise. Progress toward this objective include correction of flow quality in the Low Turbulence Water Channel flow facility, development of a test model and traversing mechanism, and improvement of the data acquisition and flow visualization capabilities in the Aero. & Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. These developments are described in this report.

  2. Noise aspects at aerodynamic blade optimisation projects

    The Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) has often been involved in industrial projects, in which blade geometries are created automatic by means of numerical optimisation. Usually, these projects aim at the determination of the aerodynamic optimal wind turbine blade, i.e. the goal is to design a blade which is optimal with regard to energy yield. In other cases, blades have been designed which are optimal with regard to cost of generated energy. However, it is obvious that the wind turbine blade designs which result from these optimisations, are not necessarily optimal with regard to noise emission. In this paper an example is shown of an aerodynamic blade optimisation, using the ECN-program PVOPT. PVOPT calculates the optimal wind turbine blade geometry such that the maximum energy yield is obtained. Using the aerodynamic optimal blade design as a basis, the possibilities of noise reduction are investigated. 11 figs., 8 refs

  3. Wind turbines. Unsteady aerodynamics and inflow noise

    Riget Broe, B.


    Aerodynamical noise from wind turbines due to atmospheric turbulence has the highest emphasis in semi-empirical models. However it is an open question whether inflow noise has a high emphasis. This illustrates the need to investigate and improve the semi-empirical model for noise due to atmospheric turbulence. Three different aerodynamical models are investigated in order to estimate the lift fluctuations due to unsteady aerodynamics. Two of these models are investigated to find the unsteady lift distribution or pressure difference as function of chordwise position on the aerofoil. An acoustic model is investigated using a model for the lift distribution as input. The two models for lift distribution are used in the acoustic model. One of the models for lift distribution is for completely anisotropic turbulence and the other for perfectly isotropic turbulence, and so is also the corresponding models for the lift fluctuations derived from the models for lift distribution. The models for lift distribution and lift are compared with pressure data which are obtained by microphones placed flush with the surface of an aerofoil. The pressure data are from two experiments in a wind tunnel, one experiment with a NACA0015 profile and a second with a NACA63415 profile. The turbulence is measured by a triple wired hotwire instrument in the experiment with a NACA0015 profile. Comparison of the aerodynamical models with data shows that the models capture the general characteristics of the measurements, but the data are hampered by background noise from the fan propellers in the wind tunnel. The measurements are in between the completely anisotropic turbulent model and the perfectly isotropic turbulent model. This indicates that the models capture the aerodynamics well. Thus the measurements suggest that the noise due to atmospheric turbulence can be described and modeled by the two models for lift distribution. It was not possible to test the acoustical model by the measurements

  4. Noise aspects at aerodynamic blade optimisation projects

    Schepers, J.G. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands)


    This paper shows an example of an aerodynamic blade optimisation, using the program PVOPT. PVOPT calculates the optimal wind turbine blade geometry such that the maximum energy yield is obtained. Using the aerodynamic optimal blade design as a basis, the possibilities of noise reduction are investigated. The aerodynamic optimised geometry from PVOPT is the `real` optimum (up to the latest decimal). The most important conclusion from this study is, that it is worthwhile to investigate the behaviour of the objective function (in the present case the energy yield) around the optimum: If the optimum is flat, there is a possibility to apply modifications to the optimum configuration with only a limited loss in energy yield. It is obvious that the modified configurations emits a different (and possibly lower) noise level. In the BLADOPT program (the successor of PVOPT) it will be possible to quantify the noise level and hence to assess the reduced noise emission more thoroughly. At present the most promising approaches for noise reduction are believed to be a reduction of the rotor speed (if at all possible), and a reduction of the tip angle by means of low lift profiles, or decreased twist at the outboard stations. These modifications were possible without a significant loss in energy yield. (LN)

  5. Wind Turbines: Unsteady Aerodynamics and Inflow Noise

    Broe, Brian Riget

    the highest emphasis in semi-empirical models. However it is an open question whether inflow noise has a high emphasis. This illustrates the need to investigate and improve the semi-empirical model for noise due to atmospheric turbulence. Three different aerodynamical models are investigated...... (Sears, W. R.: 1941; and Graham, J. M. R.: 1970). An acoustic model is investigated using a model for the lift distribution as input (Amiet, R. K.: 1975, Acoustic radiation from an airfoil in a turbulent stream). The two models for lift distribution are used in the acoustic model. One of the models...... profile. Comparison of the aerodynamical models with data shows that the models capture the general characteristics of the measurements, but the data are hampered by background noise from the fan propellers in the wind tunnel. The measurements are in between the completely anisotropic turbulent model...

  6. Aerodynamical noise from wind turbine generators

    Two extensive measurement series of noise from wind turbines have been made during different modifications of their rotors. One series focused on the influence from the tip shape on the noise, while the other series dealt with the influence from the trailing edge. The experimental layout for the two investigations was identical. The total A-weighted noise from the wind turbine was measured in 1/3 octave bands from 50 Hz to 10 kHz in 1-minute periods simultaneously with wind speed measurements. The microphone was mounted on a hard board on the ground about 40 m directly downwind of the wind turbine, and the wind speed meter was placed at the same distance upwind of the wind turbine 10 m above ground. Regression analysis was made between noise and wind speed in each 1/3 octave band to determine the spectrum at 8 m/s. During the measurements care was taken to avoid influence from background noise, and the influence from machinery noise was minimized and corrected for. Thus the results display the aerodynamic rotor noise from the wind turbines. By use of this measurement technique, the uncertainty has been reduced to 1.5 - 2 dB per 1/3 octave band in the relevant frequency range and to about 1 dB on the total A-weighted levels. (au) (10 refs.)

  7. Analysis of broadband aerodynamic noise from VS45

    Dundabin, P. [Renewable Energy Systems Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)


    This paper describes the analysis of acoustic data taken from the VS45 at Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog. The aim was to investigate the dependence of aerodynamic noise on tip speed and angle of attack. In particular, the dependence of noise in individual third octave bands on these variable is examined. The analysis is divided into 3 sections: data selection, data checks and analysis of broadband nacelle noise; analysis of broadband aerodynamic noise and its sensitivity to tip speed and angle of attack. (LN)

  8. Analysis of Aerodynamic Noise Generated from Inclined Circular Cylinder

    YasutakeHaramoto; ShoujiYasuda; 等


    Making clear the generation mechanism of fluid dynamic noise is essential to reduce noise deriving from turbomachinery.The analysis of the aerodynamic noise generated from circular cylinder is carried out numerically and experimentally in a low noise wind this study,aerodynamic sound radiated from a circular cylinder in uniform flow is predicted numericaslly by the following two step method,First,the three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is solved using the high order accurate upwind scheme.Next.the sound pressure level at the observed point is calculated from the fluctuating surface pressure on the cylinder.based on modified Lighthill-Curl's equation.It is worth to note that the noise generated from the model is reduced rapidly when it is inclined against the mean flow.In other works,the Peak level of the radiated noise decreases apidly with inclination of the circular cylinder.The simulated SPL for the inclined circular cylinder is compared with the measured value .and good agreement is obtained for the peak spectrum fequency of the sound pressue level and tendency of noise reduction,So we expect that the change of flow structures makes reduction of the aerodynamic noise from the inclined models.

  9. Numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise radiated from cross flow fan

    Anbang CHEN; Song LI; Dongtao HUANG


    The flow field in a cross flow fan was simulated by solving the 2-D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The calculated pressure fluctuations of the blades, the vortex wall, and the rear wall were then used as noise sources to calculate the sound field. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation was employed to predict the noise field caused by these sources. The predictions show that the rear wall and the vortex wall sources contribute significantly to the total noise and that both the predicted aerodynamic perform-ance and noise agree well with the experimental results.

  10. Aerodynamic Noise Prediction Using stochastic Turbulence Modeling

    Arash Ahmadzadegan


    Full Text Available Amongst many approaches to determine the sound propagated from turbulent flows, hybrid methods, in which the turbulent noise source field is computed or modeled separately from the far field calculation, are frequently used. For basic estimation of sound propagation, less computationally intensive methods can be developed using stochastic models of the turbulent fluctuations (turbulent noise source field. A simple and easy to use stochastic model for generating turbulent velocity fluctuations called continuous filter white noise (CFWN model was used. This method based on the use of classical Langevian-equation to model the details of fluctuating field superimposed on averaged computed quantities. The resulting sound field due to the generated unsteady flow field was evaluated using Lighthill's acoustic analogy. Volume integral method used for evaluating the acoustic analogy. This formulation presents an advantage, as it confers the possibility to determine separately the contribution of the different integral terms and also integration regions to the radiated acoustic pressure. Our results validated by comparing the directivity and the overall sound pressure level (OSPL magnitudes with the available experimental results. Numerical results showed reasonable agreement with the experiments, both in maximum directivity and magnitude of the OSPL. This method presents a very suitable tool for the noise calculation of different engineering problems in early stages of the design process where rough estimates using cheaper methods are needed for different geometries.


    Caridi, Domenico


    Real challenges to suppress undesirable fluid-excited acoustics are posed by a wide variety of engineering disciplines. Noise regulations, passenger comfort and component stability are motivators which are continuing to stimulate substantial efforts towards the understanding of aeroacoustic phenomena, and not least to quantify the usability (practicability and value) of traditional and advanced prediction methods. The latter is the primary focus of this thesis, particularly as applied to the ...

  12. An aerodynamic noise propagation model for wind turbines

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong


    temperature and airflow. At a given receiver point, the sound pressure is corrected by taking into account these propagation effects. As an overall assumption, the noise field generated by the wind turbine is simplified as a point source placed at the hub height of the wind turbine. This assumtion......A model based on 2-D sound ray theory for aerodynamic noise propagation from wind turbine rotating blades is introduced. The model includes attenuation factors from geometric spreading, sound directivity of source, air absorption, ground deflection and reflection, as well as effects from...

  13. Time domain analysis method for aerodynamic noises from wind turbine blades

    Hua ZHAO


    Full Text Available The issue of the aerodynamic noises from wind turbine blades affecting the surrounding residents life begins to attract researcher's attention. Most of the existing researches are based on CFD software or experimental data fitting method to analyze the aerodynamic noises, so it is difficult to adapt the demand to dynamic analysis of the aerodynamic noises from wind speed variation. In this paper, the operation parameters, the inflow wind speed and the receiver location are considered, and a modified model to calculate aerodynamic noises from wind turbine blades which is based on traditional acoustic formulas is established. The program to calculate the aerodynamic noises from the 2 MW wind turbine blades is compiled using a time-domain analysis method based on the Simulink modular in Matlab software. And the pressure time sequence diagrams of the aerodynamic noises from wind turbine blades are drawn. It has provided a theoretical foundation to develop low noise wind turbine blades.

  14. Experimental Characterization of Wind Turbine Blade Aerodynamic Noise

    Ingemanson, Megan Lynn

    Wind turbine noise at low frequencies less than 300Hz is not only annoying to humans but has been proven to cause serious health issues. Additionally, animals are severely affected by wind turbines because a small increase in ambient noise (as is produced by wind turbines) significantly reduces their listening ability. In an attempt to better understand and characterize the aerodynamic noise of wind turbine blades, experimental testing was completed on PowerWorks 100kW and GudCraft WG700 blade specimens in the University of California, Davis Transportation Noise Control Center's anechoic chamber. Experimental testing and data analysis proved approximately 4.0dB to 6.0dB was produced due to the blades' geometric design for both blade specimens at low frequencies. This noise was maximized at the blades' leading edge along the central portion of the blades' radius. Theoretical prediction models have been used to determine that, for typical wind speeds and low frequencies, noise generated due to the tip passing frequency is clearly predominant.

  15. An unsteady aerodynamic formulation for efficient rotor tonal noise prediction

    Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.


    An aerodynamic/aeroacoustic solution methodology for predction of tonal noise emitted by helicopter rotors and propellers is presented. It is particularly suited for configurations dominated by localized, high-frequency inflow velocity fields as those generated by blade-vortex interactions. The unsteady pressure distributions are determined by the sectional, frequency-domain Küssner-Schwarz formulation, with downwash including the wake inflow velocity predicted by a three-dimensional, unsteady, panel-method formulation suited for the analysis of rotors operating in complex aerodynamic environments. The radiated noise is predicted through solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The proposed approach yields a computationally efficient solution procedure that may be particularly useful in preliminary design/multidisciplinary optimization applications. It is validated through comparisons with solutions that apply the airloads directly evaluated by the time-marching, panel-method formulation. The results are provided in terms of blade loads, noise signatures and sound pressure level contours. An estimation of the computational efficiency of the proposed solution process is also presented.

  16. Landing Gear Aerodynamic Noise Prediction Using Building-Cube Method

    Daisuke Sasaki


    Full Text Available Landing gear noise prediction method is developed using Building-Cube Method (BCM. The BCM is a multiblock-structured Cartesian mesh flow solver, which aims to enable practical large-scale computation. The computational domain is composed of assemblage of various sizes of building blocks where small blocks are used to capture flow features in detail. Because of Cartesian-based mesh, easy and fast mesh generation for complicated geometries is achieved. The airframe noise is predicted through the coupling of incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver and the aeroacoustic analogy-based Curle’s equation. In this paper, Curle’s equation in noncompact form is introduced to predict the acoustic sound from an object in flow. This approach is applied to JAXA Landing gear Evaluation Geometry model to investigate the influence of the detail components to flows and aerodynamic noises. The position of torque link and the wheel cap geometry are changed to discuss the influence. The present method showed good agreement with the preceding experimental result and proved that difference of the complicated components to far field noise was estimated. The result also shows that the torque link position highly affects the flow acceleration at the axle region between two wheels, which causes the change in SPL at observation point.

  17. Study of Aerodynamic Design Procedure of a Large-Scale Aircraft Noise Suppression Facility

    Kawai, Masafumi; Nagai, Kiyoyuki; Aso, Shigeru

    The aerodynamic design procedure of a large-scale aircraft noise suppression facility has been developed. Flow quality required for the engine inlet flow has been determined through basic experiment. Aerodynamic design of the facility has been performed by using wind tunnel experiment and CFD. Important relationship between the length of the facility and the inlet flow quality has been found. The operational envelope of the designed facility has been estimated. Then, the aerodynamic characteristics of an actual large-scale aircraft noise suppression facility, constructed based on the new design procedure, have been measured. Obtained flow field showed good agreement with CFD results, and the effectiveness of the design procedure based on CFD and wind tunnel experiment has been confirmed. The engine operations were satisfactory under various wind conditions. Furthermore, the data under commercial operations thereafter have been collected and analyzed. As the result, the aerodynamic design procedure has been validated.

  18. Numerical Aerodynamic Evaluation and Noise Investigation of a Bladeless Fan

    mohammad jafari


    Full Text Available Bladeless fan is a novel fan type that has no observable impeller, usually used for domestic applications. Numerical investigation of a Bladeless fan via Finite Volume Method was carried out in this study. The fan was placed in center of a 4×2×2m room and 473 Eppler airfoil profile was used as cross section of the fan. Performance and noise level of the fan by solving continuity and momentum equations as well as noise equations of Broadband Noise Source (BNS and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H in both steady state and unsteady conditions were studied. Flow increase ratio of the fan was captured. Furthermore, BNS method could find outlet slit of the air as the main source of the noise generation. In order to validation of aeroacousticcode results, a simulation of noise for NACA 0012 airfoil via FW-H method was compared to experimental results and good agreement was obtained.

  19. Diagnostic techniques for measurement of aerodynamic noise in free field and reverberant environment of wind tunnels

    El-Sum, H. M. A.; Mawardi, O. K.


    Techniques for studying aerodynamic noise generating mechanisms without disturbing the flow in a free field, and in the reverberation environment of the ARC wind tunnel were investigated along with the design and testing of an acoustic antenna with an electronic steering control. The acoustic characteristics of turbojet as a noise source, detection of direct sound from a source in a reverberant background, optical diagnostic methods, and the design characteristics of a high directivity acoustic antenna. Recommendations for further studies are included.

  20. A Numerical Study of Aerodynamic Performance and Noise of a Bionic Airfoil Based on Owl Wing

    Xiaomin Liu; Xiang Liu


    Noise reduction and efficiency enhancement are the two important directions in the development of the multiblade centrifugal fan. In this study, we attempt to develop a bionic airfoil based on the owl wing and investigate its aerodynamic performance and noise-reduction mechanism at the relatively low Reynolds number. Firstly, according to the geometric characteristics of the owl wing, a bionic airfoil is constructed as the object of study at Reynolds number of 12,300. Secondly, the large eddy...

  1. Landing Gear Aerodynamic Noise Prediction Using Building-Cube Method

    Daisuke Sasaki; Deguchi Akihito; Hiroshi Onda; Kazuhiro Nakahashi


    Landing gear noise prediction method is developed using Building-Cube Method (BCM). The BCM is a multiblock-structured Cartesian mesh flow solver, which aims to enable practical large-scale computation. The computational domain is composed of assemblage of various sizes of building blocks where small blocks are used to capture flow features in detail. Because of Cartesian-based mesh, easy and fast mesh generation for complicated geometries is achieved. The airframe noise is predicted through ...

  2. Design of a high performance low aerodynamic noise axial flow fan

    Lanuza Fabregat, Manuel


    The project starts with a description of the main sources of noise in an axial flow fan for concluding that the thing we should avoid is the trailing edge noise. After that the formulas for designing a fan and an aerodynamics background are presented. Once we get the results of these formulas a low noise optimization is carried on for leading us to a table of results where the main characteristics of design for our fan are obtained. After these tables the design of the fan is obtained with Pr...

  3. Systematic comparison of predictions and experiment for wind turbine aerodynamic noise

    A new wind turbine aerodynamic noise prediction method, based on aeroacoustic theory was reported in December 1992. In that report comparison was made between the predictions of the method and experimental data on three wind turbines. In another report in December 1992, data was gathered together on noise data from a wide variety of wind turbines. The objective of the present work is to give a systematic comparison of the results from the new prediction method with the data. The result of this work is to establish the strengths and the weaknesses of the new prediction method against actual wind turbine noise measurements. (author)

  4. Improved prediction of aerodynamic noise from wind turbines

    Guidati, G.; Bareiss, R.; Wagner, S. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. of Aerodynamics and Gasdynamics, Stuttgart (Germany)


    This paper focuses on an improved prediction model for inflow-turbulence noise which takes the true airfoil shape into account. Predictions are compared to the results of acoustic measurements on three 2D-models of 0.25 m chord. Two of the models have NACA-636xx airfoils of 12% and 18% relative thickness. The third airfoil was acoustically optimized by using the new prediction model. In the experiments the turbulence intensity of the flow was strongly increased by mounting a grid with 60 mm wide meshes and 12 mm thick rods onto the tunnel exhaust nozzle. The sound radiated from the airfoil was distinguished by the tunnel background noise by using an acoustic antenna consisting of a cross array of 36 microphones in total. An application of a standard beam-forming algorithm allows to determine how much noise is radiated from different parts of the models. This procedure normally results in a peak at the leading and trailing edge of the airfoil. The strength of the leading-edge peak is taken as the source strength for inflow-turbulence noise. (LN) 14 refs.

  5. Aerodynamic noise suppression using pile-fabrics; Jumo wo mochiita kuriki soon no seigyo shuho

    Nishioka, M. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The paper explained a study of technology of aerodynamic noise suppression by vorticity operation. It is known that an owl flies quiet without making big noise even when it is flying flapping its wings. In a picture taken of the instant when an owl flies for game, it was found that the lower side of wing is covered with comparatively long high-density feathers. The author paid attention to it and conducted the experimental study on the reduction of aerodynamic noise using pile fabric. As a result, it was found that the aerodynamic noise can be controlled when relaxing vorticity around the object by covering the surface of the object exposed to the flow with pile fabric. The flow around the fabric element of pile fabric is the flow of the low Reynolds number. It is thought that the drag is proportional to viscosity coefficient and local speed. Pile fabric works as such a resistor and has a function to relax vorticity. When the soft pile fabric is displaced by flow, additional transfer of energy and momentum occurs. By making simulation with no consideration of it, the study is being proceeded with. (NEDO)

  6. Design of low noise airfoil with high aerodynamic performance for use on small wind turbines

    Taehyung; KIM; Seungmin; LEE; Hogeon; KIM; Soogab; LEE


    Wind power is one of the most reliable renewable energy sources and internationally installed capacity is increasing radically every year.Although wind power has been favored by the public in general,the problem with the impact of wind turbine noise on people living in the vicinity of the turbines has been increased.Low noise wind turbine design is becoming more and more important as noise is spreading more adverse effect of wind turbine to public.This paper demonstrates the design of 10 kW class wind turbines,each of three blades,a rotor diameter 6.4 m,a rated rotating speed 200 r/min and a rated wind speed 10 m/s.The optimized airfoil is dedicated for the 75% spanwise position because the dominant source of a wind turbine blade is trailing edge noise from the outer 25% of the blade.Numerical computations are performed for incompressible flow and for Mach number at 0.145 and for Reynolds numbers at 1.02×106 with a lift performance,which is resistant to surface contamination and turbulence intensity.The objectives in the design process are to reduce noise emission,while sustaining high aerodynamic efficiency.Dominant broadband noise sources are predicted by semi-empirical formulas composed of the groundwork by Brooks et al.and Lowson associated with typical wind turbine operation conditions.During the airfoil redesign process,the aerodynamic performance is analyzed to reduce the wind turbine power loss.The results obtained from the design process show that the design method is capable of designing airfoils with reduced noise using a commercial 10 kW class wind turbine blade airfoil as a basis.Therefore,the new optimized airfoil showing 2.9 dB reductions of total sound pressure level(SPL) and higher aerodynamic performance are achieved.

  7. Aerodynamic Performance of Scale-Model Turbofan Outlet Guide Vanes Designed for Low Noise

    Hughes, Christopher E.


    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on an understanding of the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine. In order to more fully understand the physics of noise in a turbofan engine, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test programs was conducted called the 'Source Diagnostic Test.' The text was cooperative effort between NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines, as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. A 1/5-scale model simulator representing the bypass stage of a current technology high bypass ratio turbofan engine was used in the test. The test article consisted of the bypass fan and outlet guide vanes in a flight-type nacelle. The fan used was a medium pressure ratio design with 22 individual, wide chord blades. Three outlet guide vane design configurations were investigated, representing a 54-vane radial Baseline configuration, a 26-vane radial, wide chord Low Count configuration and a 26-vane, wide chord Low Noise configuration with 30 deg of aft sweep. The test was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9 by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at velocities simulating the takeoff and approach phases of the aircraft flight envelope. The Source Diagnostic Test had several acoustic and aerodynamic technical objectives: (1) establish the performance of a scale model fan selected to represent the current technology turbofan product; (2) assess the performance of the fan stage with each of the three distinct outlet guide vane designs; (3) determine the effect of the outlet guide vane configuration on the fan baseline performance; and (4) conduct detailed flowfield diagnostic surveys, both acoustic and aerodynamic, to characterize and understand the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan engine. This paper addresses the fan and stage aerodynamic performance results from the Source Diagnostic Test.

  8. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.


    Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39º and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  9. Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Bionic Serrated Structures on the Aerodynamic Noise of a Circular Cylinder

    Lei Shi; Chengchun Zhang; Jing Wang; Luquan Ren


    Flow control can effectively reduce the aerodynamic noise radiated from a circular cylinder.As one of the flow control methods,a bionic method,inspired by the serrations at the leading edge of owls' wing,was proposed in this paper.The effects of bionic serrated structures arranged on the upper and lower sides of a cylinder on the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of the cylinder were numerically investigated.At a free stream speed of 24.5 m·s-1,corresponding to Reynolds number of 1.58 × 104,the simulation results indicate that the bionic serrated structures can decrease the frequency of the vortex shedding and control the fluctuating aerodynamic force acting on the cylinder,thus reduce the aerodynamic noise.A qualitative-view of the vorticity in the wake of the cylinder suggest that the serrated structures reduce aerodynamic sound by suppressing the unsteady motion of vortices.

  10. Aerodynamic Performance and Noise Characteristics of a Centrifugal Compressor with Modified Vaned Diffusers

    Yutaka OHTA; Yasuhiko OKUTSU; Takashi GOTO; Eisuke OUTA


    Improvement of aerodynamic performance and reduction of interaction tone noise of a centrifugal compressor with vaned diffusers are discussed by experiments and visualization techniques using a colored oil-film method.The focus of the research is concentrated on the leading edge shape of diffuser vanes that are deeply related to the generation mechanism of the interaction tone noise.The compressor-radiated noise can be reduced by more than ten decibels by using modified diffuser vanes which have 3-D tapered shapes on both pressure and suction surfaces of the leading edge.Furthermore,by adopting the proposed modified diffuser vanes,the secondary flow which is considered to be an obstruction of diffuser pressure recovery can be suppressed,and also the pressure decrease observed in the throat part of the diffuser flow passage is reducible.Thus,the proposed diffuser vanes show a favorable result for both noise and the aerodynamic performance of the centrifugal compressor,and offer a few basic guidelines for the diffuser vane design.

  11. Effect of Trailing Edge Flow Injection on Fan Noise and Aerodynamic Performance

    Fite, E. Brian; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.


    An experimental investigation using trailing edge blowing for reducing fan rotor/guide vane wake interaction noise was completed in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Data were acquired to measure noise, aerodynamic performance, and flow features for a 22" tip diameter fan representative of modern turbofan technology. The fan was designed to use trailing edge blowing to reduce the fan blade wake momentum deficit. The test objective was to quantify noise reductions, measure impacts on fan aerodynamic performance, and document the flow field using hot-film anemometry. Measurements concentrated on approach, cutback, and takeoff rotational speeds as those are the primary conditions of acoustic interest. Data are presented for a 2% (relative to overall fan flow) trailing edge injection rate and show a 2 dB reduction in Overall Sound Power Level (OAPWL) at all fan test speeds. The reduction in broadband noise is nearly constant and is approximately 1.5 dB up to 20 kHz at all fan speeds. Measurements of tone noise show significant variation, as evidenced by reductions of up to 6 dB in the 2 BPF tone at 6700 rpm.: and increases of nearly 2 dB for the 4 BPF tone at approach speed. Aerodynamic performance measurements show the fan with 2 % injection has an overall efficiency that is comparable to the baseline fan and operates, as intended, with nearly the same pressure ratio and mass flow parameters. Hot-film measurements obtained at the approach operating condition indicate that mean blade wake filling in the tip region was not as significant as expected. This suggests that additional acoustic benefits could be realized if the trailing edge blowing could be modified to provide better filling of the wake momentum deficit. Nevertheless, the hot-film measurements indicate that the trailing edge blowing provided significant reductions in blade wake turbulence. Overall, these results indicate that further work may be required to fully understand the proper

  12. Aerodynamic noise analysis of the NW35 wind turbine number 10 in Slootdorp, Netherlands (NL)

    Experimental research has been done to reduce the aerodynamic noise production of the NW35 wind turbines of NedWind. The research focussed on the influence of the trailing edge of the rotor blades. Three different trailing edge shapes have been compared to each other,The test turbine was turbine 10 of the wind farm in Slootdorp, the Netherlands. This turbine has a two bladed rotor and a nominal power of 500 kW. Three measurement campaigns have been performed: (1) with two original blades, (2) with one original blade and one blade with a wedge shaped trailing edge, and (3) with one original blade and one blade with a sharp trailing edge. During the campaigns the flow was visualized using tufts on one blade and a rotating video camera. The acoustic noise of the two blades of the rotor has been measured simultaneously but separately using an acoustic parabola. The result of the first measurement campaign was that one of the two original blades produced much more noise than the other one. After inspection it was found that the blade tip did not close properly. The results of the other two measurement campaigns were that the noise production of blades with a wedge shaped or with a sharp trailing edge showed no significant differences with the original blade. As a consequence the manufacturer of the blades has no reason to apply specially shaped (and thus vulnerable) trailing edges. 18 figs., 2 refs

  13. High speed train noise emission: Latest investigation of the aerodynamic/rolling noise contribution

    Mellet, C.; Létourneaux, F.; Poisson, F.; Talotte, C.


    The aim of this paper is to discuss the quantification of aeroacoustic and rolling noise sources emitted by high-speed trains externally. This work relies on the comparison of experimental data obtained in the DEUFRAKO Annex K and K2 projects and those produced more recently. These are firstly measurements obtained within the NOEMIE project dedicated to the High Speed Technical Specifications for Interoperability involving the measurement of the acoustic emission of different rolling stock travelling at 250, 300 and 320 km/h (TGV-Duplex, ICE3, Thalys). Additionally, measurements are considered that are obtained in the framework of an SNCF acoustic test campaign performed on a TGV-Duplex at speeds up to 350 km/h. These comprise source localisation using two-dimensional acoustic array measurements and assessment of the wayside noise increase as a function of the speed. The conclusions drawn in the DEUFRAKO K project are compared with the new set of data. A detailed analysis of the results is also provided, supported by complementary measurements (wheel and rail measurements) and simulations (TWINS calculations).

  14. Aerodynamic noise prediction of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine using Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation and acoustic analogy

    Highlights: • The noise predictions are performed by Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings method. • There is a direct relation between the radiated noise and the wind speed. • The tonal peaks in the sound spectra match with the blade passing frequency. • The quadrupole noises have negligible effect on the low frequency noises. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of the aerodynamic and aero-acoustic prediction of the flow field around the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Phase VI wind turbine. The Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence model is applied to obtain the instantaneous turbulent flow field. The noise prediction is carried out using the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy. Simulations are performed for three different inflow conditions, U = 7, 10, 15 m/s. The capability of the Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence model in massive separation is verified with available experimental data for pressure coefficient. The broadband noises of the turbulent boundary layers and the tonal noises due to the blade passing frequency are predicted via flow field noise simulation. The contribution of the thickness, loading and quadrupole noises are investigated, separately. The results indicated that there is a direct relation between the strength of the radiated noise and the wind speed. Furthermore, the effect of the receiver location on the Overall Sound Pressure Level is investigated

  15. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.


    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  16. Experimental study of the aerodynamic noise radiated by cylinders with different cross-sections and yaw angles

    Latorre Iglesias, E.; Thompson, D. J.; Smith, M. G.


    Vortex shedding from cylinders has been extensively studied due to its occurrence in many engineering fields. Many experimental studies reported in the literature focus on the aerodynamics of the vortex shedding process but the literature about the radiated noise is more scarce. The aim of the work presented here is to extend the available noise data. Aero-acoustic wind tunnel tests were carried out using cylinders with different cross-sections: circular, square, rectangular and elliptical. Flow speeds between 20 and 50 m/s were used, corresponding to Reynolds numbers in the range from 1.6×104 to 1.2×105. The dependence of the noise on the yaw angle, flow speed, cross-sectional shape, angle of attack and radiation angle (directivity) is assessed. The results obtained are compared, where possible, with those found in the literature for similar cases. It is intended that the results can be used for the validation and calibration of numerical and empirical aerodynamic noise prediction models.

  17. Piloted Simulation Study of the Effects of High-Lift Aerodynamics on the Takeoff Noise of a Representative High-Speed Civil Transport

    Glaab, Louis J.; Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.


    As part of an effort between NASA and private industry to reduce airport-community noise for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) concepts, a piloted simulation study was initiated for the purpose of predicting the noise reduction benefits that could result from improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance for a typical HSCT configuration during takeoff and initial climb. Flight profile and engine information from the piloted simulation were coupled with the NASA Langley Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) to estimate jet engine noise and to propagate the resulting source noise to ground observer stations. A baseline aircraft configuration, which also incorporated different levels of projected improvements in low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance, was simulated to investigate effects of increased lift and lift-to-drag ratio on takeoff noise levels. Simulated takeoff flights were performed with the pilots following a specified procedure in which either a single thrust cutback was performed at selected altitudes ranging from 400 to 2000 ft, or a multiple-cutback procedure was performed where thrust was reduced by a two-step process. Results show that improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance provides at least a 4 to 6 dB reduction in effective perceived noise level at the FAA downrange flyover measurement station for either cutback procedure. However, improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance reduced maximum sideline noise levels only when using the multiple-cutback procedures.

  18. The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary, G.; Woodward, Richard P.; Jeracki, Robert, J.


    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on identifying and understanding the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine, as well as determining their contribution to the overall aircraft noise signature. Therefore, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test program was conducted called the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test as part of the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program. The test was performed in the anechoic NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a 1/5 scale model turbofan simulator which represented a current generation, medium pressure ratio, high bypass turbofan aircraft engine. The investigation focused on simulating in model scale only the bypass section of the turbofan engine. The test objectives were to: identify the noise sources within the model and determine their noise level; investigate several component design technologies by determining their impact on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan stage; and conduct detailed flow diagnostics within the fan flow field to characterize the physics of the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan model. This report discusses results obtained for one aspect of the Source Diagnostic Test that investigated the effect of the bypass or fan nozzle exit area on the bypass stage aerodynamic performance, specifically the fan and outlet guide vanes or stators, as well as the farfield acoustic noise level. The aerodynamic performance, farfield acoustics, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter flow diagnostic results are presented for the fan and four different fixed-area bypass nozzle configurations. The nozzles simulated fixed engine operating lines and encompassed the fan stage operating envelope from near stall to cruise. One nozzle was selected as a baseline reference, representing the nozzle area which would achieve the design point operating conditions and fan stage performance. The total area change from

  19. Aerodynamic Noise Radiated by the Intercoach Spacing and the Bogie of a High-Speed Train



    Full-scale acoustic experiments on a TGV are performed with on-board measurement techniques. Some spectral characteristics of the intercoach spacing and the bogie region are highlighted and interpreted. Two measurement techniques are described; they both extract the acoustical information of a particular aerodynamic source from the signal given by a flow imbedded probe.

  20. Aerodynamic noise from wind turbines. Experiments with modification of full scale rotors, 2

    Jakobsen, J.; Andersen, B.


    Two series of measurements have been made where the noise from a wind turbine is measured during different modifications of its rotor. One series dealt with different shapes of trailing edge, while the other focused on the tip design. The investigations form a succession of earlier work and basically the same measurement technique was used. In the present investigation the pitch setting of the wind turbine was varied so that the significance of this parameter could be quantified as well. Measurement were made simultaneously of noise in the downwind direction and of the wind speed at 10 m height upwind of the wind turbine, both averaged over 1-minute periods. Regression analysis was made between the wind speed and the noise level in each 1/3-octave band in the range 50 Hz - 10 kHz. Intermittent background noise was omitted during the data collection, and stationary and wind-induced background noise was corrected for. The investigations of trailing edge noise gave no clear indication of an optimum trailing edge sharpness. The characteristic narrowband noise from trailing edge bluntness was demonstrated, and its dependence on trailing edge thickness, wind speed, and pitch setting was determined. The noise level of the narrowband has a `reverse` wind speed dependence; it decreases with increasing wind speed (and increasing angle of attack). In the tip noise investigation three tip shapes were tested, the original thick square tips with slightly rounded edges, an elliptically rounded thin tip shape, and an Ogee tip designed after the most quiet tip tested in the previous project. The round tip was slightly more noisy than the square tip, and the Ogee tip gave rise to a broadband noise around 2 kHz where the wind speed dependence was again `reversed`. (EG)

  1. Characteristics of Aerodynamic and Noise for Tubular Centrifugal Fan (2nd report) : Effects of Belt Case, Inclination of Blade, Size of Casing and Preventive Plate against Reverse Flow

    Kodama, Yoshio; Futigami, Shinichirou; Hayashi, Hidechito; Mimura, Yujirou


    The effects of the belt case, the inclination of blade, the size of casing and the preventive plate of a tubular centrifugal fan on both fan noise and the aerodynamic characteristics are experimentally investigated by using three impellers. The results are summarized as follows : A considerable amount of a rise of pressure and fan efficiency can be expected by using the inclined blade and taking off belt case. Therefore, the specific noise level of the tubular centrifugal fan decrease conside...

  2. Research on the Aerodynamic Noise Optimization of Wind Turbine Airfoil%风力机翼型气动噪声优化设计研究

    刘雄; 罗文博; 陈严; 叶枝全; 周鹏展


    In order to obtain wind turbine airfoils with high lift-to-drag ratio and low noise level, the aerodynamic noise is introduced into the wind turbine airfoil design process. To evaluate the airfoil aerodynamic noise level, the airfoil self-noise model is studied and the NASA self-noise model based on extensive experiments is applied to modeling the airfoil aerodynamic noise. With the airfoil profile described by using shape function perturbation method, taking the aerodynamic performance as a constraint, a noise optimization method is set up with the objective to satisfy the lowest self-noise level. In the design process, XFOIL is used to get the boundary layer parameters and evaluate the airfoil aerodynamic performance. By combining the flow field solver and the direct optimization method, and using the complex method to carry out the search iterations, a Matlab based optimization program is developed. By taking NACA 4415 as the original airfoil and applying the developed program, an airfoil with high aerodynamic performance and low noise level is obtained.%为获得高升阻比、低噪声水平的风力机翼型,将气动噪声引入到风力机专用翼型的设计中.为评价翼型气动噪声水平,对翼型自身噪声进行讨论和研究,应用NASA基于大量试验而得到的翼型自身噪声模型进行建模.采用型函数扰动法对翼型廓线进行表示,以翼型自身噪声水平作为优化目标,将气动特性作为性能约束,建立翼型的优化设计模型.设计过程中,采用XFOIL获取翼型边界层参数,及对翼型的气动性能进行评价.将流场求解程序和直接优化方法相结合,采用复合形法进行搜索寻优,用Matlab编制优化程序.以NACA4415作为原始翼型进行优化设计,得到一种具有高气动性能、低噪声水平的风力机专用翼型.

  3. Toward Affordable, Theory-and-Simulation-Inspired, Models for Realistic Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Noise

    Ladeinde, Foluso; Alabi, Ken; Li, Wenhai


    The problem of generating design data for the operation of a farm of wind turbines for clean energy production is quite complicated, if properly done. Potential flow theories provide some models, but these are not suitable for the massive aerodynamic separation and turbulence that characterize many realistic wind turbine applications. Procedures, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which can potentially resolve some of the accuracy problems with the purely theoretical approach, are quite expensive to use, and often prohibit real-time design and control. In our work, we seek affordable and acceptably-accurate models derived from the foregoing approaches. The simulation used in our study is based on high-fidelity CFD, meaning that we use high-order (compact-scheme based), mostly large-eddy simulation methods, with due regards for the proper treatment of the stochastic inflow turbulence data. Progress on the project described herein will be presented.

  4. Simulation of Turbine Tone Noise Generation Using a Turbomachinery Aerodynamics Solver

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane


    As turbofan engine bypass ratios continue to increase, the contribution of the turbine to the engine noise signature is receiving more attention. Understanding the relative importance of the various turbine noise generation mechanisms and the characteristics of the turbine acoustic transmission loss are essential ingredients in developing robust reduced-order models for predicting the turbine noise signature. A computationally based investigation has been undertaken to help guide the development of a turbine noise prediction capability that does not rely on empiricism. As proof-of-concept for this approach, two highly detailed numerical simulations of the unsteady flow field inside the first stage of a modern high-pressure turbine were carried out. The simulations were computed using TURBO, which is an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes code capable of multi-stage simulations. Spectral and modal analysis of the unsteady pressure data from the numerical simulation of the turbine stage show a circumferential modal distribution that is consistent with the Tyler-Sofrin rule. Within the high-pressure turbine, the interaction of velocity, pressure and temperature fluctuations with the downstream blade rows are all possible tone noise source mechanisms. We have taken the initial step in determining the source strength hierarchy by artificially reducing the level of temperature fluctuations in the turbine flowfield. This was accomplished by changing the vane cooling flow temperature in order to mitigate the vane thermal wake in the second of the two simulations. The results indicated that, despite a dramatic change in the vane cooling flow, the computed modal levels changed very little indicating that the contribution of temperature fluctuations to the overall pressure field is rather small compared with the viscous and potential field interaction mechanisms.

  5. Computation of unsteady flow and aerodynamic noise of NACA0018 airfoil using large-eddy simulation

    The flow field around a symmetrical NACA airfoil in the uniform flow under generation of noise was numerically studied. The numerical simulation was carried out by a large-eddy simulation that employs a deductive dynamic model as the subgrid-scale model. The results at small angle of attack α = 3-6o indicate that the discrete frequency noise is generated when the separated laminar flow reattaches near the trailing edge of pressure side and the strong instability thereafter affects positive vortices shed near the trailing edge. The quasi-periodic behavior of negative vortex formation on the suction side is affected by the strength and the periodicity of positive vortices near the trailing edge. The computation using aero-acoustic analogy indicates the primary discrete peak at the Strouhal frequency (=2f . δ/U ) of 0.15 by the vortex shedding from the trailing edge, which is in a close agreement with the experiment

  6. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 4: Computer user's manual for UAAP turboprop aeroacoustic code

    Menthe, R. W.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.


    The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) code calculates the airloads on a single rotation prop-fan, or propeller, and couples these airloads with an acoustic radiation theory, to provide estimates of near-field or far-field noise levels. The steady airloads can also be used to calculate the nonuniform velocity components in the propeller wake. The airloads are calculated using a three dimensional compressible panel method which considers the effects of thin, cambered, multiple blades which may be highly swept. These airloads may be either steady or unsteady. The acoustic model uses the blade thickness distribution and the steady or unsteady aerodynamic loads to calculate the acoustic radiation. The users manual for the UAAP code is divided into five sections: general code description; input description; output description; system description; and error codes. The user must have access to IMSL10 libraries (MATH and SFUN) for numerous calls made for Bessel functions and matrix inversion. For plotted output users must modify the dummy calls to plotting routines included in the code to system-specific calls appropriate to the user's installation.

  7. Characteristics of Aerodynamic Noise Source for Turbocharger Compressor%涡轮增压器压气机的气动噪声源特性研究

    温华兵; 桑晶晶; 刘红丹; 杨兴林


    Based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and Realizable two-equation turbulence model ,the com-pressible flow model of internal air in a large turbocharger compressor was built by CFD software .The flow characteristics of internal flow velocity and pressure were analyzed in different operating conditions and aerodynamic noise source of compressor was studied by broadband noise model .The results show that the impeller region is the main source of aerodynamic noise .The disturbance intensity and the impeller speed are the dominant influential factors of aerodynamic noise sound power .Besides ,the distribution trend of broadband noise is the same as that of turbulence intensity .The research results provide the important ref-erence for the mechanism analysis and control of aerodynamic noise source .%基于雷诺平均纳维-斯托克斯方程与Realizableκ-ε双方程湍流模型,利用CFD软件建立了某大型涡轮增压器离心式压气机内部气体的可压缩流动仿真模型。分析了不同工况下压气机内部气流的速度、压力等流动特性,利用宽带噪声模型对压气机进行了气动噪声源数值研究。结果表明,叶轮区域是压气机的主要气动噪声源;压气机内扰动强度和叶轮转速是气动噪声声功率的主要影响因素;宽带噪声与湍流强度的分布趋势一致。研究结果对分析压气机的气动噪声源产生机理及其控制具有参考价值。

  8. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Akishita, Sadao


    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  9. Aerodynamic noise characterization of a full-scale wind turbine through high-frequency surface pressure measurements

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian;


    wind turbine with a 80 m diameter rotor as well as measurements of an airfoil section tested in a wind tunnel. The turbine was extensively equipped in order to monitor the local inflow onto the rotating blades. Further a section of the 38 m long blade was instrumented with 50 microphones flush......The aim of this work is to investigate and characterize the high-frequency surface pressure fluctuations on a full-scale wind turbine blade and in particular the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. As these fluctuations are highly correlated to the sources of both turbulent inflow noise and...... trailing edge noise, recognized to be the two main sources of noise from wind turbines, this work contributes to a more detailed insight into noise from wind turbines. The study comprises analysis and interpretation of measurement data that were acquired during an experimental campaign involving a 2 MW...

  10. Application and Method on Separation of Open Rotor Aerodynamic Noise%开式叶轮气动噪声信号离析方法和运用

    万剑峰; 杨爱玲; 戴韧


    比较了同工况下开式叶轮气动噪声声压信号的测量结果,发现不论是在时域还是在频域上都存在较大的浮动。若采用旋转机械常用的时域同步平均法处理噪声信号,不仅需要另外安装锁相装置,还会过滤了宽频噪声信号以及使得其它非谐频信号的幅值失真。为了离析出稳定且正确的开式叶轮气动噪声信号,本文提出了一种无须安装锁相装置同时又能解决上述问题的信号处理方法,并从理论和实际运用中验证此方法的可行性。进一步分析了开式叶轮气动噪声尖峰间距特征和叶片固有频率对噪声幅值的影响。为了避免物理设备的误差,本文提出用尖峰区域下的占空比来区分旋转噪声和宽频噪声,在此基础上,计算了旋转噪声的能量在气动噪声中所占的比例和在频域下旋转噪声的能量分布。%In comparison with measurement results of open rotor sound pressure sign ,whether in frequency domain or in time domain,there is much fluctuation in those results .If by the method of time synchronous averaging ,not only locking phase equip-ment will be fixed addinally ,but also broadband noise sign can be filtered and the sign of harmonic frequency except times rotating frequency will be of distortion .In order to extract steady and true sign from rotor aerodynamic noise ,this paper introduces a simple and practical method without locking phase equipment , which can solve above mentioned problems .Then the method is proved to be true in theory and application analyses .What’s more, the following problems are analyzed in this paper:a distance between peeks of noise keeping a some value and how to effect noise amplitude by blade natural frequency .To avoid physical equipment error, rotating noise is able to be distinguished from broadband by computing duty ratio .On the basis, those are computed:a en-ergy ratio of rotating noise to broadband noise and energy

  11. Noise

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  12. The Aeroacoustics and Aerodynamics of High-Speed Coanda Devices, Part 2: Effects of Modifications for Flow Control and Noise Reduction

    Carpenter, P. W.; Smith, C.


    The paper describes two studies of the effects of flow control devices on the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of a high-speed Coanda flow that is formed when a supersonic jet issues from a radial nozzle and adheres to a tulip-shaped body of revolution. Shadowgraphy and other flow-visualization techniques are used to reveal the various features of the complex flow fields. The acoustic characteristics are obtained from far- and near-field measurements with an array of microphones in an anechoic chamber. First the effects of incorporating a step between the annular exit slot and the Coanda surface are investigated. The step is incorporated to ensure that the breakaway pressure is raised to a level well above the maximum operating pressure. It substantially increases the complexity of the flow field and acoustic characteristics. In particular, it promotes the generation of two groups of discrete tones. A theoretical model based on a self-generated feedback loop is proposed to explain how these tones are generated. The second study investigates the effects of replacing the annular exit slot with a saw-toothed one with the aim of eliminating the discrete tones and thereby substantially reducing the level of noise generated.

  13. V 形仿生非光滑结构对轮胎花纹气动噪声影响%Effect of bionic V-riblet non-smooth structure on aerodynamic noise of tire tread pattern

    周海超; 杨建; 梁晨; 王国林


    In order to explore the method for reducing noise ,the tire model of 205/55R16 was chosen as the research object ,and the effect of bionic V‐riblet non‐smooth surface on tire pattern aerodynamic noise was studied .By taking the single pitch groove volume variation information during tire rolling as the boundary condition ,the pattern aerodynamic noise model was established by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) .A noise spectrum comparison between the calculated with measured was used to validate the proposed model .Inspired by the bionic design ,the influences of bionic V‐riblet non‐smooth structure designed in the bottom of groove on pattern aerodynamic noise were analyzed .From the Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy ,the noise reduction mechanism of the non‐smooth structure on pattern aerodynamic noise was revealed .The optimum bionic V‐riblet non‐smooth struc‐ture design with the maximum noise reduction was ported to the mix grooves ,and the results show that a mixed arrangement with non‐smooth structure can reduce the groove internal fluid instabilities , thus significantly reduce the noise ,w hich can reach to 4 .6 dB .%为探索降低花纹气动噪声的方法,以205/55R16半钢子午线轮胎为研究对象,研究V形仿生非光滑结构对轮胎花纹气动噪声的影响.以滚动轮胎单一节距的花纹沟体积变化信息为边界条件,采用计算流体力学建立了花纹气动噪声仿真模型,通过与试验测试声压频谱二者信息对比,说明了花纹气动噪声模型的可靠性.在此基础上,借鉴工程流体领域仿生减阻降噪的思路,研究了花纹沟底部布置不同尺寸的V形非光滑结构对花纹气动噪声的影响,从雷诺应力、湍流动能两个流体流场参数揭示了非光滑结构对花纹气动噪声降噪机理.将降噪效果最佳的V形非光滑结构移植到混合花纹沟上并进行花纹气动噪声分析,结果表明:在混合

  14. 高速列车受电弓绝缘子的气动噪声计算及外形优化%Aerodynamic noise calculation and shape optimization of high-speed train pantograph insulators

    肖友刚; 时彧


    By using large eddy simulation and FW - H equation, the aerodynamic noises radiated from pantograph insulators were calculated, including rectangular, circular, oval - shaped cross - section insulators, the optimized cross - section shape was confirmed. The results show that in the same model, the sound pressure level (SPL) distribution at each sound receiver point from different sound receivers is basically the same, but the amplitude is reduced with the increase of distance from insulators. In different models, the SPL distribution is different at each frequency point. From rectangular, circular to oval shaped cross -section model, the freguency of the maxmium SPL gradually reduces. For reducing aerodynamic noise, the oval section insulator is optimal, and the long oval axis should be consistent with the air flow. The pantograph with bigger parts size and less parts number is helpful to reduce the aerodynamic noise.%采用大涡模拟法和FW-H方程计算截面为矩形、圆形、椭圆形时受电弓绝缘子的气动噪声,确定了优化的受电弓绝缘子截面形状.研究结果表明:对同一个模型,噪声在各声接收点的分布规律基本相同,只是幅值不同;对不同模型,声压在各声接收点的分布规律不同;绝缘子截面从矩形→圆形→椭圆形,最大声压所在的频率区逐渐降低;从降低气动噪声的角度出发,优化的绝缘子截面形状应该是椭圆形,且椭圆的长轴应跟气流流向一致;加大受电弓零部件尺寸,减少受电弓零部件数量,有利于降低受电弓的气动噪声.

  15. Natural aerodynamics

    Scorer, R S


    Natural Aerodynamics focuses on the mathematics of any problem in air motion.This book discusses the general form of the law of fluid motion, relationship between pressure and wind, production of vortex filaments, and conduction of vorticity by viscosity. The flow at moderate Reynolds numbers, turbulence in a stably stratified fluid, natural exploitation of atmospheric thermals, and plumes in turbulent crosswinds are also elaborated. This text likewise considers the waves produced by thermals, transformation of thin layer clouds, method of small perturbations, and dangers of extra-polation.Thi

  16. Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics

    Filippone, Antonino


    "Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature, for...

  17. Evaluation of aerodynamic derivatives from a magnetic balance system

    Raghunath, B. S.; Parker, H. M.


    The dynamic testing of a model in the University of Virginia cold magnetic balance wind-tunnel facility is expected to consist of measurements of the balance forces and moments, and the observation of the essentially six degree of freedom motion of the model. The aerodynamic derivatives of the model are to be evaluated from these observations. The basic feasibility of extracting aerodynamic information from the observation of a model which is executing transient, complex, multi-degree of freedom motion is demonstrated. It is considered significant that, though the problem treated here involves only linear aerodynamics, the methods used are capable of handling a very large class of aerodynamic nonlinearities. The basic considerations include the effect of noise in the data on the accuracy of the extracted information. Relationships between noise level and the accuracy of the evaluated aerodynamic derivatives are presented.

  18. Aerodynamic noise prediction for wind turbine airfoils using non-linear acoustics solvers%风力机翼型气动噪声非线性声学计算

    余雷; 宋文萍


    采用非线性计算气动声学方法和基于雷诺平均NS方程的计算流体力学方法对常规尖后缘风力机翼型及其修型后的钝后缘翼型的气动噪声进行了计算.首先,对两种方法得到的翼型气动性能及翼型绕流流动进行了对比,结果表明非线性方法提供的湍流相关信息比基于雷诺平均NS方程的计算方法更加详细.然后,将声学计算结果与相关声学实验进行了对比,非线性方法对两种翼型气动噪声的预测结果与实验结果吻合良好,而基于雷诺平均NS的计算方法则明显低估了尖后缘风力机翼型的气动噪声.最后,对两种翼型不同的噪声产生机理进行了分析,并讨论了两种计算方法不同的数值模拟能力.%The aerodynamic noise of a conventional sharp trailing edge wind turbine airfoil and its flatback version has been predicted using a non-linear computational aeroacoustics method and a traditional Reynold averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics method in this paper. The flow structure obtained from the two methods is observed and compared, indicating that the non-linear method can provide much more detailed turbulence informations than the traditional RANS method. Compared with the aeroacoustics experimental data, results from the non-linear method show good agreement for both airfoils, while the other method gives an obvious underestimate for the sharp trailing edge airfoil. Finally, different noise generation mechanisms of the two airfoils are analyzed and different simulation capabilities of the two methods are discussed.

  19. Radiation characteristics of intermittence exhaust noise

    ZHAO Shengdun; SHANG Chunyang; ZHAO Zhigang; SHI Weixiang


    Aerodynamic characteristics, the noise characteristics in the course of intermittence exhaust are investigated and the expressions for sound pressure level of the noise generated by single-pole source and quadrupole source in the intermittence exhaust noise are established. The effects of all parameters in pneumatic system on the noise are also comprehensively studied.

  20. Wind turbine noise source characterization

    Wind turbine noise is a function of many parameters. Aerodynamics noise is a direct function of the rotor characteristics and wind speed, which can change rapidly with time. Mechanical noise is primarily a function of electrical power output, but the radiation of such noise is highly modified by vibration behaviour within the turbine. An experiment has been performed to isolate the behaviour of the major WTG noise sources with respect to electrical power output and wind speed. Twelve ground based microphones equispaced around the turbine gave detailed noise directionality information. Additional instrumentation was added to allow the separation of aerodynamic and mechanical noise components. Noise was found to be very well correlated to electrical power output. (author)

  1. Unsteady transonic aerodynamics

    Various papers on unsteady transonic aerodynamics are presented. The topics addressed include: physical phenomena associated with unsteady transonic flows, basic equations for unsteady transonic flow, practical problems concerning aircraft, basic numerical methods, computational methods for unsteady transonic flows, application of transonic flow analysis to helicopter rotor problems, unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications, alternative methods for modeling unsteady transonic flows

  2. Computation of dragonfly aerodynamics

    Gustafson, Karl; Leben, Robert


    Dragonflies are seen to hover and dart, seemingly at will and in remarkably nimble fashion, with great bursts of speed and effectively discontinuous changes of direction. In their short lives, their gossamer flight provides us with glimpses of an aerodynamics of almost extraterrestrial quality. Here we present the first computer simulations of such aerodynamics.

  3. Modeling Aerodynamically Generated Sound of Helicopter Rotors

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.


    A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound of rotors over the past decade. Although the modeling effort has focused on helicopter main rotors, the theory is generally valid for a wide range of rotor configurations. The Ffowcs Williams Hawkings (FW-H) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. The monopole and dipole source terms of the FW-H equation account for the thickness and loading noise, respectively. Bladevortex-interaction noise and broadband noise are important types of loading noise, hence much research has been directed toward the accurate modeling of these noise mechanisms. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H equation has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparisons of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems. Finally, significant progress has been made incorporating the rotor noise models into full vehicle noise prediction tools.

  4. Wind turbine noise. Primary noise sources

    Oerlemans, S.


    Wind is a clean, cheap, and inexhaustible source of energy. However, the noise from wind turbines constitutes an important hindrance for the widespread application of wind energy. As a result, there is considerable interest in wind turbine noise, from a number of angles. As public clamour grows from those living near turbines, and misinformation and disinformation begin to take root, there is a clear need for a scientifically accurate book to give an account of the noise generated, its effects on people, and possible remedies either through technology or legislation or both. The different potential source mechanisms are described and the theoretical characteristics of flowinduced sound from wind turbine blades are explained. The noise sources on wind turbines are characterized experimentally by means of wind tunnel and field experiments. Methods to predict and reduce wind turbine noise are discussed. The dominant noise source for typical modern large wind turbines is broadband trailing edge noise from the outer part of the blades. The swishing character of the sound can be explained by trailing edge noise directivity and convective amplification. A semi-analytical, semi-empirical prediction method can accurately predict the characteristics of wind turbine noise. Wind turbine noise can be halved by means of serrations, without adverse effects on the aerodynamic performance. The book is aimed at people with a personal or professional involvement in wind turbine noise, such as environmental health or public health practitioners, wind farm developers or informed wind farm supporters and objectors.

  5. Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics for Wind Turbines

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    obtain more detailed information of the flow structures and to determine more accurately loads and power yield of wind turbines or cluster of wind turbines, it is required to resort to more sophisticated techniques, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). As computer resources keep on improving year...... Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA). With the spread of wind turbines near urban areas, there is an increasing need for accurate predictions of aerodynamically generated noise. Indeed, noise has become one of the most important issues for further development of wind power, and the ability of controlling and......To analyse the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine rotors, the main tool in use today is the 1D-Blade Element Momentum (BEM) technique combined with 2D airfoil data. Because of its simplicity, the BEM technique is employed by industry when designing new wind turbine blades. However, in order to...

  6. Reinforced aerodynamic profile


    The present invention relates to the prevention of deformations in an aerodynamic profile caused by lack of resistance to the bending moment forces that are created when such a profile is loaded in operation. More specifically, the invention relates to a reinforcing element inside an aerodynamic ...... profile and a method for the construction thereof. The profile is intended for, but not limited to, useas a wind turbine blade, an aerofoil device or as a wing profile used in the aeronautical industry....

  7. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics

    Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.


    Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.

  8. Aero-acoustic noise of wind turbines. Noise prediction models

    Maribo Pedersen, B. [ed.


    Semi-empirical and CAA (Computational AeroAcoustics) noise prediction techniques are the subject of this expert meeting. The meeting presents and discusses models and methods. The meeting may provide answers to the following questions: What Noise sources are the most important? How are the sources best modeled? What needs to be done to do better predictions? Does it boil down to correct prediction of the unsteady aerodynamics around the rotor? Or is the difficult part to convert the aerodynamics into acoustics? (LN)

  9. Simulation and analysis of aerodynamics for high speed face milling cutters


    In high speed face milling,noise can be broadly categorized as idling noise and cutting noise.Idling noise mainly consists of aerodynamic noise.A mathematical model is developed based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Equation.The noise predicted with the mathematical model compares well with the experimental observations.The characteristics of aerodynamic noise with the different model parameters (number of teeth,tooth spacing) and locations of observation points are investigated.The directivity of noise is found and the peak value of sound power can be moved from the rotating frequency to higher frequency.This investigation can provide theoretical foundation for the design of face milling cutters with low noise.

  10. Noise from wind turbines

    Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

  11. Comparison of measured and predicted airfoil self-noise with application to wind turbine noise reduction

    In the ongoing JOULE-III project 'Development of Design Tools for Reduced Aerodynamic Noise Wind Turbines (DRAW)', prediction codes for inflow-turbulence (IT) noise and turbulent boundary layer trailing-edge (TE) noise, are developed and validated. It is shown that the differences in IT noise radiation between airfoils having a different shape, are correctly predicted. The first, preliminary comparison made between predicted and measured TE noise spectra yields satisfactory results. 17 refs

  12. Mimicking the humpback whale: An aerodynamic perspective

    Aftab, S. M. A.; Razak, N. A.; Mohd Rafie, A. S.; Ahmad, K. A.


    This comprehensive review aims to provide a critical overview of the work on tubercles in the past decade. The humpback whale is of interest to aerodynamic/hydrodynamic researchers, as it performs manoeuvres that baffle the imagination. Researchers have attributed these capabilities to the presence of lumps, known as tubercles, on the leading edge of the flipper. Tubercles generate a unique flow control mechanism, offering the humpback exceptional manoeuverability. Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the flow pattern over the tubercle wing is quite different from conventional wings. Research on the Tubercle Leading Edge (TLE) concept has helped to clarify aerodynamic issues such as flow separation, tonal noise and dynamic stall. TLE shows increased lift by delaying and restricting spanwise separation. A summary of studies on different airfoils and reported improvement in performance is outlined. The major contributions and limitations of previous work are also reported.

  13. Noise and noise abatement in fans and blowers: A review

    Neise, W.


    Noise generation and its reduction industrial fans (ventilators) is addressed. A review is given of the fan types commonly in use and their practical applications, the mechanisms of the aerodynamic noise generation in fans, theoretical and empirical prediction methods for fan noise, acoustic similarity laws, and noise reduction methods by means of the fan construction and fan operation. Measurement procedures are discussed with respect to the noise radiated from different parts of a fan, e.g. from the fan inlet or outlet, from the fan casing, from the fan as a whole, and to the noise radiated into ducts connected to the fan. Finally, considerations are made, for which classes of fans noise standards can be defined to characterize the noise emission of the various fan types.

  14. Aerodynamic Measurements in a Wind Tunnel on Scale Models of a 777 Main Landing Gear

    Ringshia, Aditya K


    Aerodynamic measurements were taken over models of the Boeing 777 high fidelity isolated landing gear in the 6- by 6-foot Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel (VT-SWT) at a free-stream Mach number of 0.16. Noise control devices (NCD) were developed at Virginia Tech [9] to reduce noise by shielding gear components, reducing wake interactions and by streamlining the flow around certain landing gear components. Aerodynamic measurements were performed to understand the flow over the landing gear a...

  15. Aerodynamic Characteristic of the Active Compliant Trailing Edge Concept

    Nie, Rui; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Li, Dawei


    This paper introduces a novel Morphing Wing structure known as the Active Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE). ACTE structures are designed using the concept of “distributed compliance” and wing skins of ACTE are fabricated from high-strength fiberglass composites laminates. Through the relative sliding between upper and lower wing skins which are connected by a linear guide pairs, the wing is able to achieve a large continuous deformation. In order to present an investigation about aerodynamics and noise characteristics of ACTE, a series of 2D airfoil analyses are established. The aerodynamic characteristics between ACTE and conventional deflection airfoil are analyzed and compared, and the impacts of different ACTE structure design parameters on aerodynamic characteristics are discussed. The airfoils mentioned above include two types (NACA0012 and NACA64A005.92). The computing results demonstrate that: compared with the conventional plane flap airfoil, the morphing wing using ACTE structures has the capability to improve aerodynamic characteristic and flow separation characteristic. In order to study the noise level of ACTE, flow field analysis using LES model is done to provide noise source data, and then the FW-H method is used to get the far field noise levels. The simulation results show that: compared with the conventional flap/aileron airfoil, the ACTE configuration is better to suppress the flow separation and lower the overall sound pressure level.

  16. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig;


    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  17. Noise suppression by noise

    Vilar, J. M. G.; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel


    We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.

  18. Fitting aerodynamics and propulsion into the puzzle

    Johnston, Patrick J.; Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.; Chapman, Gary T.


    The development of an airbreathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, in particular the problems of aerodynamics and propulsion integration, is examined. The boundary layer transition on constant pressure surfaces at hypersonic velocities, and the effects of noise on the transition are investigated. The importance of viscosity, real-gas effects, and drag at hypersonic speeds is discussed. A propulsion system with sufficient propulsive lift to enhance the performance of the vehicle is being developed. The difficulties of engine-airframe integration are analyzed.

  19. Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics

    Shang, Joseph J S


    Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...

  20. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further, the...

  1. aerodynamics and heat transfer

    J. N. Rajadas


    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary optimization procedure, with the integration of aerodynamic and heat transfer criteria, has been developed for the design of gas turbine blades. Two different optimization formulations have been used. In the first formulation, the maximum temperature in the blade section is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint is imposed on the blade average temperature and a lower bound constraint is imposed on the blade tangential force coefficient. In the second formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. In both formulations, bounds are imposed on the velocity gradients at several points along the surface of the airfoil to eliminate leading edge velocity spikes which deteriorate aerodynamic performance. Shape optimization is performed using the blade external and coolant path geometric parameters as design variables. Aerodynamic analysis is performed using a panel code. Heat transfer analysis is performed using the finite element method. A gradient based procedure in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique is used for optimization. The results obtained using both optimization techniques are compared with a reference geometry. Both techniques yield significant improvements with the multiobjective formulation resulting in slightly superior design.

  2. Noise constraints effecting optimal propeller designs

    Miller, C. J.; Sullivan, J. P.


    A preliminary design tool for advanced propellers was developed combining a fast vortex lattice aerodynamic analysis, a fast subsonic point source noise analysis, and an optimization scheme using a conjugate directions method. Twist, chord and sweep distributions are optimized to simultaneously improve both the aerodynamic performance and the noise observed at a fixed relative position. The optimal noise/performance tradeoffs for straight and advanced concept blades are presented. The techniques used include increasing the blade number, blade sweep, reducing the rotational speed, shifting the spanwise loading and diameter changes.

  3. Aerodynamic data of space vehicles

    Weiland, Claus


    The capacity and quality of the atmospheric flight performance of space flight vehicles is characterized by their aerodynamic data bases. A complete aerodynamic data base would encompass the coefficients of the static longitudinal and lateral motions and the related dynamic coefficients. In this book the aerodynamics of 27 vehicles are considered. Only a few of them did really fly. Therefore the aerodynamic data bases are often not complete, in particular when the projects or programs were more or less abruptly stopped, often due to political decisions. Configurational design studies or the development of demonstrators usually happen with reduced or incomplete aerodynamic data sets. Therefore some data sets base just on the application of one of the following tools: semi-empirical design methods, wind tunnel tests, numerical simulations. In so far a high percentage of the data presented is incomplete and would have to be verified. Flight mechanics needs the aerodynamic coefficients as function of a lot of var...

  4. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    Hansen, Martin O L


    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis W

  5. Design Oriented Aerodynamic Modelling of Wind Turbine Performance

    The development of a wind turbine aerodynamics model using a Boundary Integral Equation model (BIEM) is presented. The methodology is valid to study inviscid unsteady flows around three dimensional bodies of arbitrary shape and arbitrarily moving with respect to the incoming flow. The extension of this methodology to study viscosity effects in turbine blade flow at high angle of attack is addressed and an approach to determine aerodynamic loads over a wide range of turbine operating conditions is proposed. Numerical applications considering a selected test cases from the NREL experimental dataset are presented. Finally, the application of the proposed turbine aerodynamics model into a multi-disciplinary study including aeroelasticity of pylon-turbine assembly and aeroacoustics modelling of induced noise is briefly described

  6. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    Mehta, R. D.

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  7. Experimental characterization of airfoil boundary layers for improvement of aeroacoustic and aerodynamic modeling

    Fischer, Andreas


    and to improve it, because the predictions gave in general too low far field noise levels. Our main finding is that the acoustic formulations to relate the fluctuating surface pressure field close to the trailing edge of airfoil to the radiated far field sound give excellent results when compared to far field......The present work aims at the characterization of aerodynamic noise from wind turbines. There is a consensus among scientists that the dominant aerodynamic noise mechanism is turbulent boundary trailing edge noise. In almost all operational conditions the boundary layer flow over the wind turbine...... blades makes a transition from laminar to turbulent. In the turbulent boundary layer eddies are created which are a potential noise sources. They are ineffective as noise source on the airfoil surface or in free flow, but when convecting past the trailing edge of the airfoil their efficiency is much...

  8. Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

    Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke


    Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

  9. Aerodynamic Optimization of an Over-the-Wing-Nacelle-Mount Configuration

    Daisuke Sasaki


    Full Text Available An over-the-wing-nacelle-mount airplane configuration is known to prevent the noise propagation from jet engines toward ground. However, the configuration is assumed to have low aerodynamic efficiency due to the aerodynamic interference effect between a wing and a nacelle. In this paper, aerodynamic design optimization is conducted to improve aerodynamic efficiency to be equivalent to conventional under-the-wing-nacelle-mount configuration. The nacelle and wing geometry are modified to achieve high lift-to-drag ratio, and the optimal geometry is compared with a conventional configuration. Pylon shape is also modified to reduce aerodynamic interference effect. The final wing-fuselage-nacelle model is compared with the DLR F6 model to discuss the potential of Over-the-Wing-Nacelle-Mount geometry for an environmental-friendly future aircraft.

  10. Modeling the High Speed Research Cycle 2B Longitudinal Aerodynamic Database Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions

    Morelli, E. A.; Proffitt, M. S.


    The data for longitudinal non-dimensional, aerodynamic coefficients in the High Speed Research Cycle 2B aerodynamic database were modeled using polynomial expressions identified with an orthogonal function modeling technique. The discrepancy between the tabular aerodynamic data and the polynomial models was tested and shown to be less than 15 percent for drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients over the entire flight envelope. Most of this discrepancy was traced to smoothing local measurement noise and to the omission of mass case 5 data in the modeling process. A simulation check case showed that the polynomial models provided a compact and accurate representation of the nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies contained in the HSR Cycle 2B tabular aerodynamic database.

  11. EUDP Project: Low Noise Airfoil - Final Report

    to develop and implement a design procedure to manufacture airfoil profiles with low noise emission. The project involved two experimental campaigns: one in the LM Wind Power wind tunnel, a classical aerodynamic wind tunnel, in Lunderskov (DK), the second one in the Virginia Tech Stability Wind...... Tunnel at the Aerospace and Ocean Engineering Department of Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, VA,(USA), also a classical aerodynamic wind tunnel but equipped with an anechoic chamber that allow to perform acoustic measurements. On the theoretical side, the above experiments yield a series of model validations......This document summarizes the scientific results achieved during the EUDP-funded project `Low-Noise Airfoil'. The goals of this project are, on one side to develop a measurement technique that permits the evaluation of trailing edge noise in a classical aerodynamic wind tunnel, and on the other side...

  12. Noise Pollution

    ... Overview » Title IV - Noise Pollution Title IV - Noise Pollution The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments added a ... abatement 7642 Authorization of appropriations What is Noise Pollution? The traditional definition of noise is “unwanted or ...

  13. Introduction to transonic aerodynamics

    Vos, Roelof


    Written to teach students the nature of transonic flow and its mathematical foundation, this book offers a much-needed introduction to transonic aerodynamics. The authors present a quantitative and qualitative assessment of subsonic, supersonic, and transonic flow around bodies in two and three dimensions. The book reviews the governing equations and explores their applications and limitations as employed in modeling and computational fluid dynamics.  Some concepts, such as shock and expansion theory, are examined from a numerical perspective. Others, including shock-boundary-layer interaction, are discussed from a qualitative point of view. The book includes 60 examples and more than 200 practice problems. The authors also offer analytical methods such as Method of Characteristics (MOC) that allow readers to practice with the subject matter.  The result is a wealth of insight into transonic flow phenomena and their impact on aircraft design, including compressibility effects, shock and expansion waves, sho...

  14. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Wind Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum...... method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate the...

  15. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.


    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  16. Wind turbine wake aerodynamics

    Vermeer, L.J. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Section Wind Energy; Sorensen, J.N. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Crespo, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica


    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions. For the far wake, the survey focuses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines. The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines. (author)

  17. Cable Aerodynamic Control

    Kleissl, Kenneth

    categorization of the different control technics together with an identification of two key mechanisms for reduction of the design drag force. During this project extensive experimental work examining the aerodynamics of the currently used cable surface modifications together with new innovative proposals have...... drag force due to the high intensity of streamwise vorticity, whereas the helical fillets resulted in a more gradual flow transition because of the spanwise variation. During yawed flow conditions, the asymmetrical appearance of the helical solution was found to induce a significant lift force with a...... were tested. While a proper discrete helical arrangement of Cylindrical Vortex Generators resulted in a superior drag performance, only systems applying "mini-strakes" were capable of complete rivulet suppression. When the strakes was positioned in a staggered helical arrangement, the innovative system...

  18. Advanced Aerodynamic Technologies for Future Green Regional Aircraft

    Catalin NAE


    Future Green Regional Aircraft (GRA) will operate over airports located in the neighborhood of densely populated areas, with high frequency of takeoff/ landing events and, hence, strongly contribute to community noise and gaseous emissions. These issues currently limit further growth of traffic operated by regional airliners which, in the next future, will have to face even more stringent environmental normative worldwide and therefore re-designed to incorporate advanced active aerodynamic te...

  19. Noise annoyance from wind turbines a review

    This study summarises present knowledge on noise perception and annoyances from wind turbines in areas were people live or spend recreation time. There are two main types of noise from a wind turbine: mechanical noise and aerodynamic noise. The aerodynamic noise emits from the rotor blades passing the air. It has a swishing character with a modulation that makes it noticeable from the background noise. This part of the wind turbine noise was found to be the most annoying. Field studies performed among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines showed that there was a correlation between sound pressure level and noise annoyance, but annoyance was also influenced by visual factors such as the attitude to wind turbines' impact on the landscape. Noise annoyance was found at lower sound pressure levels than in studies of annoyance from traffic noise. There is no scientific evidence that noise at levels created by wind turbines could cause health problems other than annoyance. No studies on noise from wind turbines in wilderness areas have been found, but the reaction to other noise sources such as aircraft have been studied. In recreational areas, the expectation of quietness is high among visitors, but wind turbines are, in contrary to aircraft, stationary and could be avoided by recreationists. The visual impact of wind turbines might though be the dominant source of annoyance. Regulations on noise from wind turbines are based on different principles. Some states, e.g. Denmark, have a special legislation concerning wind turbines, while others, like Sweden, have used recommendations originally developed for a different noise source. The noise level could either be absolute, as in Germany, or related to the background noise level as in France. This background noise level could be standardised, measured or related to wind speed

  20. Noise Pollution Prevention in Wind Turbines: Status and Recent Advances

    Greg Naterer


    Full Text Available The global push towards sustainability has led to increased interest in alternative power sources other than coal and fossil fuels. One of these sustainable sources is to harness energy from the wind through wind turbines. However, a significant hindrance preventing the widespread use of wind turbines is the noise they produce. This study reviews recent advances in the area of noise pollution from wind turbines. To date, there have been many different noise control studies. While there are many different sources of noise, the main one is aerodynamic noise. The largest contributor to aerodynamic noise comes from the trailing edge of wind turbine blades. The aim of this paper is to critically analyse and compare the different methods currently being implemented and investigated to reduce noise production from wind turbines, with a focus on the noise generated from the trailing edge.

  1. Wavy-Planform Helicopter Blades Make Less Noise

    Brooks, Thomas F.


    Wavy-planform rotor blades for helicopters have been investigated for the first time in an effort to reduce noise. Two of the main sources of helicopter noise are blade/vortex interaction (BVI) and volume displacement. (The noise contributed by volume displacement is termed thickness noise.) The reduction in noise generated by a wavyplanform blade, relative to that generated by an otherwise equivalent straight-planform blade, affects both main sources: (1) the BVI noise is reduced through smoothing and defocusing of the aerodynamic loading on the blade and (2) the thickness noise is reduced by reducing gradients of thickness with respect to listeners on the ground.

  2. Naval Aerodynamics Test Facility (NATF)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NATF specializes in Aerodynamics testing of scaled and fullsized Naval models, research into flow physics found on US Navy planes and ships, aerosol testing and...

  3. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.


    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  4. Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics

    Schaffarczyk, Alois Peter


    Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.

  5. Aerodynamics of badminton shuttlecocks

    Verma, Aekaansh; Desai, Ajinkya; Mittal, Sanjay


    A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock considered is in the range of 25-50 m/s. The relative contribution of various parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.

  6. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Dvořák Rudolf


    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  7. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Dvořák, Rudolf


    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  8. Wind turbine noise: detailed analysis of new data and comparison with theory

    A new technique for wind turbine noise measurement has provided systematic, accurate, and repeatable data on wind turbine noise. This paper reports further more detailed results using the new technique. For the V34 wind turbine studied a clear separation of aerodynamic noise and mechanical noise was found, and excellent definition of both directionality and wind speed/frequency dependence of the noise, especially the aerodynamic sources. Comparison with theory has shown very satisfactory agreement for overall levels, although several detail aspects of the theoretical predictions were not confirmed. The new approach has demonstrated considerable potential for providing more accurate and reliable data for characterisation of wind turbine noise. (Author)

  9. The Parametric Aircraft Noise Analysis Module - status overview and recent applications

    Bertsch, Lothar; Guerin, Sebastien; Looye, Gertjan; Pott-Polenske, Michael


    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is investigating aircraft noise prediction and noise reduction capabilities. The Parametric Aircraft Noise Analysis Module (PANAM) is a fast prediction tool by the DLR Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology to address overall aircraft noise. It was initially developed to (1) enable comparative design studies with respect to overall aircraft ground noise and to (2) indentify promising low-noise technologies at early aircraft design stages. A brief surve...

  10. Effect of chevrons on the slat noise of straight and swept wings

    Belyaev, I. V.; Zaytsev, M. Yu.; Kopiev, V. F.


    An experimental study of the airframe noise for small-scale wing models with high-lift devices (slat and flap) is performed. It is shown that installation of chevrons on the lower edge of a slat leads to noise reduction on both straight and swept wings. Simultaneous acoustic and aerodynamic measurements show that chevrons lead to suppression of the slat tonal noise components without significantly affecting the wing aerodynamics.

  11. Noise Pollution

    ... EPA Home Air and Radiation Noise Pollution Noise Pollution This page has moved. You should be immediately ... gov/clean-air-act-overview/title-iv-noise-pollution Local Navigation Air & Radiation Home Basic Information Where ...

  12. Discrete vortex method simulations of aerodynamic admittance in bridge aerodynamics

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Larsen, Allan; Walther, Jens Honore

    The meshless and remeshed Discrete Vortex Method (DVM) has been widely used in academia and by the industry to model two-dimensional flow around bluff bodies. The implementation “DVMFLOW” [1] is used by the bridge design company COWI to determine and visualise the flow field around bridge sections......, and to determine aerodynamic forces and the corresponding flutter limit. A simulation of the three-dimensional bridge responseto turbulent wind is carried out by quasi steady theory by modelling the bridge girder as a line like structure [2], applying the aerodynamic load coefficients found from the...... current version of DVMFLOW in a strip wise fashion. Neglecting the aerodynamic admittance, i.e. the correlation of the instantaneous lift force to the turbulent fluctuations in the vertical velocities, leads to higher response to high frequency atmospheric turbulence than would be obtained from wind tunnel...

  13. Low-Noise Rotorcraft Blades

    Brooks, Thomas F.


    Blades of helicopter rotors, tilt rotors, and like reshaped to reduce noise, according to proposal. Planform features combination of rearward and forward sweep. Forward sweep over large outer portion of blade constitutes primary noise-reduction feature. Relieves some of compressive effect in tip region, with consequent reduction of noise from compressive sources. Performance at high advance ratio improved. Cabin vibration and loading noise reduced by load-averaging effect of double-sweep planform. Aft-swept section provides balancing of aerodynamic and other dynamic forces on blade along 1/4-chord line of straight inboard section and along projection of line to outermost blade radius. Possible for hub-hinge forces and moments to remain within practical bounds. Provides stabilizing blade forces and moments to counteract any instability caused by forward sweep.

  14. 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise

    Anderson, David; Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Iida, Masanobu; Nelson, James; Thompson, David; Tielkes, Thorsten; Towers, David; Vos, Paul


    The book reports on the 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held on 9 – 13 September, 2013, in Uddevalla, Sweden. The event, which was jointly organized by the Competence Centre Chalmers Railway Mechanics (CHARMEC) and the Departments of Applied Mechanics and Applied Acoustics at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, covered a broad range of topics in the field of railway noise and vibration, including: prospects, legal regulations and perceptions; wheel and rail noise; prediction, measurements and monitoring; ground-borne vibration; squeal noise and structure-borne noise; and aerodynamic noise generated by high-speed trains. Further topics included: resilient track forms; grinding, corrugation and roughness; and interior noise and sound barriers. This book, which consists of a collection of peer-reviewed papers originally submitted to the workshop, not only provides readers with an overview of the latest developments in the field, but also offers scientists and engineers essent...

  15. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    Gülçat, Ülgen


    In this book, the author introduces the concept of unsteady aerodynamics and its underlying principles. He provides the readers with a comprehensive review of the fundamental physics of free and forced unsteadiness, the terminology and basic equations of aerodynamics ranging from incompressible flow to hypersonics. The book also covers modern topics related to the developments made in recent years, especially in relation to wing flapping for propulsion. The book is written for graduate and senior year undergraduate students in aerodynamics and also serves as a reference for experienced researchers. Each chapter includes ample examples, questions, problems and relevant references.   The treatment of these modern topics has been completely revised end expanded for the new edition. It now includes new numerical examples, a section on the ground effect, and state-space representation.

  16. Noise prevention

    Methods for noise abatement are discussed. Noise nuisance, types of noise (continuous, fluctuating, intermittent, pulsed), and types of noise abatement (absorption, vibration damping, isolation) are defined. Rockwool panels, industrial ceiling panels, baffles, acoustic foam panels, vibration dampers, acoustic mats, sandwich panels, isolating cabins and walls, ear protectors, and curtains are presented.

  17. The aerodynamics of wind turbines

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels;


    In the paper we present state-of-the-art of research in wind turbine aerodynamics. We start be giving a brief historical review and a survey over aerodynamic research in wind energy. Next, we focus on some recent research results obtained by our wind energy group at Department of Mechanical...... Engineering at DTU. In particular, we show some new results on the classical problem of the ideal rotor and present a series of new results from an on-going research project dealing with the modelling and simulation of turbulent flow structures in the wake behind wind turbines....

  18. Engineering models in wind energy aerodynamics: Development, implementation and analysis using dedicated aerodynamic measurements

    Schepers, J.G.


    The subject of aerodynamics is of major importance for the successful deployment of wind energy. As a matter of fact there are two aerodynamic areas in the wind energy technology: Rotor aerodynamics and wind farm aerodynamics. The first subject considers the flow around the rotor and the second subj

  19. Noise map

    Němcová, Michaela


    The aim of this paper is to introduce the measurement of noise and create a noise map in a geographic information system. The first part is focused on describing the physical properties of sound in space, atmospheric and physiological acoustics. It also deals with the physiological effects of noise on the human body and technology needed for measure and process noise. Other part describes the structure of a geographic information system and noise map. The last part is about the practical crea...

  20. Snowmobile noise

    Liikonen, Larri; Alanko, Mikko; Jokinen, Sirpa; Niskanen, Ilkka; Virrankoski, Lauri


    Planning snowmobiling routes and considering the possible need for off-road traffic restrictions requires that the noise impact of snowmobile traffic is known. The objective of this report was to take off-road readings in order to determine snowmobile noise emissions and the spread of noise from snowmobile routes into the environment. Based on the readings taken, it can be said that the noise zones created by snowmobile traffic are quite narrow at current traffic levels. Noise pollution ca...

  1. Industrial Noise

    Mehran zolfaghari


    Various risk factors in industrial environments can affect hearing status and healthy in today’s modern society. Noise control and hearing conservation program is very crucial in preventing workers exposed to high levels of noise in the work places. In the current article we are going to discuss issues such as industrial noise control, noise characteristics and standards and techniques for noise control. Then the methods for individual hearing conservation and medical care will be described i...

  2. Adaptive noise

    Viney, Mark; Reece, Sarah E.


    In biology, noise implies error and disorder and is therefore something which organisms may seek to minimize and mitigate against. We argue that such noise can be adaptive. Recent studies have shown that gene expression can be noisy, noise can be genetically controlled, genes and gene networks vary in how noisy they are and noise generates phenotypic differences among genetically identical cells. Such phenotypic differences can have fitness benefits, suggesting that evolution can shape noise ...

  3. Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application

    Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan


    In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.

  4. Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application

    Qing Wang; Kai-Feng He; Wei-Qi Qian; Tian-Jiao Zhang; Yan-Qing Cheng; Kai-Yuan Wu


    In view of engineering application,it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components:the static aerodynamics,the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations,and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow.The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms,while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration,the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch,yaw,roll,and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations.The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics,respectively.The results show that:(1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points,but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence,stability,and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously.Furthermore,the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected.It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft.Finally,the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.

  5. Aerodynamic and Performance Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.R.; Machefaux, E.; Fingersh, L. J.; Schreck, S.


    This paper provides an overview of a detailed wind turbine field experiment being conducted at NREL under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain knowledge about the aerodynamics, performance, noise emission and structural characteristics of the Siemens SWT-2.3-101 wind turbine.

  6. Nostril Aerodynamics of Scenting Animals

    Settles, G. S.


    Dogs and other scenting animals detect airborne odors with extraordinary sensitivity. Aerodynamic sampling plays a key role, but the literature on olfaction contains little on the external aerodynamics thereof. To shed some light on this, the airflows generated by a scenting dog were visualized using the schlieren technique. It was seen that the dog stops panting in order to scent, since panting produces a turbulent jet which disturbs scent-bearing air currents. Inspiratory airflow enters the nostrils from straight ahead, while expiration is directed to the sides of the nose and downward, as was found elsewhere in the case of rats and rabbits. The musculature and geometry of the dog's nose thus modulates the airflow during scenting. The aerodynamics of a nostril which must act reversibly as both inlet and outlet is briefly discussed. The eventual practical goal of this preliminary work is to achieve a level of understanding of the aerodynamics of canine olfaction sufficient for the design of a mimicking device. (Research supported by the DARPA Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Neutralization Program.)

  7. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    Jameson, Antony


    The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

  8. Advanced Aerodynamic Technologies for Future Green Regional Aircraft

    Catalin NAE


    Full Text Available Future Green Regional Aircraft (GRA will operate over airports located in the neighborhood of densely populated areas, with high frequency of takeoff/ landing events and, hence, strongly contribute to community noise and gaseous emissions. These issues currently limit further growth of traffic operated by regional airliners which, in the next future, will have to face even more stringent environmental normative worldwide and therefore re-designed to incorporate advanced active aerodynamic technologies. The new concept behind GRA is based on several mainstream technologies: airframe low-noise (LN, aerodynamic load control (LC and load alleviation (LA. These technologies integrate relevant concepts for hybrid and natural laminar flow (HLC/NLF wing, active control of wing movables and aeroelastic tailoring for LC/LA functions, passive means (micro-riblets for turbulent flow drag reduction, innovative gapless architectures (droop nose, morphing flap beside conventional high-lift devices (HLDs, active flow control through synthetic jets, low-noise solutions applied to HLDs (liners, fences, and to fuselage-mounted main and nose landing gears (bay/doors acoustic treatments, fairings, wheels hub cap. The paper deals with the technological readiness level (TRL assessment of the most promising technologies and overall integration in the new generation of GRA, as a highly optimized configuration able to meet requirements for FlighPath 2050.

  9. Empirical Prediction of Aircraft Landing Gear Noise

    Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor); Guo, Yue-Ping


    This report documents a semi-empirical/semi-analytical method for landing gear noise prediction. The method is based on scaling laws of the theory of aerodynamic noise generation and correlation of these scaling laws with current available test data. The former gives the method a sound theoretical foundation and the latter quantitatively determines the relations between the parameters of the landing gear assembly and the far field noise, enabling practical predictions of aircraft landing gear noise, both for parametric trends and for absolute noise levels. The prediction model is validated by wind tunnel test data for an isolated Boeing 737 landing gear and by flight data for the Boeing 777 airplane. In both cases, the predictions agree well with data, both in parametric trends and in absolute noise levels.

  10. Design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Hrgovan, Iva; Okulov, Valery;


    This paper presents the aerodynamic design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts. The aerodynamic model is based on Blade Element Momentum theory whereas the aeroacoustic prediction model is based on the BPM model. The investigation is started with a 3MW baseline...

  11. USB noise reduction by nozzle and flap modifications

    Hayden, R. E.


    The development of concepts for reducing upper surface blown flap noise at the source through flap modifications and special nozzles is reviewed. In particular, recent results obtained on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of flaps with porous surfaces near the trailing edge and multi-slotted nozzles are reviewed. Considerable reduction (6-10 db) of the characteristic low frequency peak is shown. The aerodynamic performance is compared with conventional systems, and prospects for future improvements are discussed.

  12. Tandem Cylinder Noise Predictions

    Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; CHoudhari, Meelan M.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.


    In an effort to better understand landing-gear noise sources, we have been examining a simplified configuration that still maintains some of the salient features of landing-gear flow fields. In particular, tandem cylinders have been studied because they model a variety of component level interactions. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders spatially separated in the streamwise direction by 3.7 diameters. Experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have provided steady surface pressures, detailed off-surface measurements of the flow field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), hot-wire measurements in the wake of the rear cylinder, unsteady surface pressure data, and the radiated noise. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number of 166 105 based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent shedding process and simulate the effects of a high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The current calculations further explore the influence of the grid resolution and spanwise extent on the flow and associated radiated noise. Extensive comparisons with the experimental data are used to assess the ability of the computations to simulate the details of the flow. The results show that the pressure fluctuations on the upstream cylinder, caused by vortex shedding, are smaller than those generated on the downstream cylinder by wake interaction. Consequently, the downstream cylinder dominates the noise radiation, producing an overall directivity pattern that is similar to that of an isolated cylinder. Only calculations based on the full length of the model span were able to

  13. Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.

    Barone, Matthew Franklin


    Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. An assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.

  14. Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics

    Fabunmi, James A.


    The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.

  15. Unjust noise

    Paul Voice


    In this paper I argue that noise is a significant source of social harm and thoseharmed by noise often suffer not merely a misfortune but an injustice. I arguethat noise is a problem of justice in two ways; firstly, noise is a burden of socialcooperation and so the question of the distribution of this burden arises. And,secondly, some noises, although burdensome, are nevertheless just becausethey arise from practices that are ‘reasonable’. I offer a number of distinctions,between necessary an...

  16. Computational aerodynamics and aeroacoustics for wind turbines

    Shen, W.Z.


    was developed in [11], and in [12] tunnel wall corrections for wind tunnels with closed or open test sections were developed. The second part of the thesis deals with Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA). With the spread of wind turbines near urban areas, there is an increasing need for accurate predictions of aerodynamically generated noise. Indeed, noise has become one of the most important issues for further development of wind power, and the iv Wen Zhong Shen ability of controlling and minimising noise emission may be advantageous when competing on the world energy market. To predict generation and propagation of aerodynamic noise, it is required to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. As the scales of the flow and the acoustic waves are quite different (about 1/M, M=Mach number=Uinfinity/c), it is difficult to resolve them together at the same time. Hardin and Pope proposed a non-linear two-step (viscous incompressible flow and inviscid acoustic perturbation) splitting procedure for computational aero-acoustics that is suitable for both generation and propagation. The advantage of the splitting approach, as compared to the acoustic analogies, is that the source strength is obtained directly and that it accounts for sound radiation as well as scattering. In [13] and [14] an inconsistency in the original formulation of Hardin and Pope 1994 was analysed and a consistent formulation was proposed and applied to laminar flows. An aero-acoustic formulation for turbulent flows was in [15] developed for Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation (URANS) and Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). In [16] a collocated grid / finite volume method for aero-acoustic computations was developed and implemented in the EllipSys2D/3D code. In [17] and [18] three dimensional flowacoustic computations were carried out. Finally, the aero-acoustic formulation using high order Finite Difference schemes (Dispersion Relation Preserving (DRP

  17. Rotor noise

    Schmitz, F. H.


    The physical characteristics and sources of rotorcraft noise as they exist today are presented. Emphasis is on helicopter-like vehicles, that is, on rotorcraft in nonaxial flight. The mechanisms of rotor noise are reviewed in a simple physical manner for the most dominant sources of rotorcraft noise. With simple models, the characteristic time- and frequency-domain features of these noise sources are presented for idealized cases. Full-scale data on several rotorcraft are then reviewed to allow for the easy identification of the type and extent of the radiating noise. Methods and limitations of using scaled models to test for several noise sources are subsequently presented. Theoretical prediction methods are then discussed and compared with experimental data taken under very controlled conditions. Finally, some promising noise reduction technology is reviewed.


    Nduwayezu Eric; Mehmet Bayrak


    This paper evaluates the use of simulations to investigate wind turbine mass and aerodynamic imbalances. Faults caused by mass and aerodynamic imbalances constitute a significant portion of all faults in wind turbine. The aerodynamic imbalances effects such as deviations between the three blades pitch angle are often underrated and misunderstood. In practice, for many wind energy converters the blade adjustment is found to be sub-optimal. The dynamics of a model wind turbine was s...

  19. Engineering models in wind energy aerodynamics: Development, implementation and analysis using dedicated aerodynamic measurements

    Schepers, J. G.


    The subject of aerodynamics is of major importance for the successful deployment of wind energy. As a matter of fact there are two aerodynamic areas in the wind energy technology: Rotor aerodynamics and wind farm aerodynamics. The first subject considers the flow around the rotor and the second subject considers the (wake) flow within a wind farm. For both areas calculational models have been developed which are implemented i rotor design and wind farm design codes respectively. Accurate roto...

  20. Analysis of noise emission from the Bonus Kombi wind turbine

    Part of the problem in comparing noise emission levels from wind turbines with theory is that it is difficult to know exactly which mechanism is responsible for noise in each part of the spectrum. The majority of noise measurements are made at ground level, some distance away from the machine, and generally the results are expressed as average values over many cycles of the turbine. The aim of these experiments was to address this problem, and to develop a technique for investigating each noise mechanism separately. A microphone was placed behind a rotating blade, and the output voltage sampled rapidly. We would expect to detect leading edge noise before detecting trailing edge noise, and therefore it should be possible to separate these two noise sources. More importantly, the very low frequency microphone trace can provide information about the aerodynamic conditions on the blade. A calculation to see if it is possible to deduce the bound circulation on the blade directly from the low frequency pressure fluctuation detected by the microphone is described. An accurate description of the decrease in bound circulation near the tip could be a useful input to a tip noise theory, especially if comparisons were made for tips of different shapes. The analysis technique also allows the separation of mechanical discrete frequency noise from aerodynamic broad band noise, and in the final section, the question of whether mechanical noise is radiated by the blades is addressed. (author)

  1. Aerodynamics Laboratory Facilities, Equipment, and Capabilities

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The following facilities, equipment, and capabilities are available in the Aerodynamics Laboratory Facilities and Equipment (1) Subsonic, open-jet wind tunnel with...

  2. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) project will focus on the development and demonstration of hypersonic inflatable aeroshell technologies...

  3. Feminizing noise

    Thompson, Marie


    Marie will explore the relationship between constructions of femininity and noise, which is understood here as an affective transformative force, rather than simply as unwanted sound. She will suggest that ‘feminine’ noises are often deemed negative; not because of what they mean, but as a result of the transformations they threaten to induce. Marie will raise questions around essentialism – does talking of a feminine or feminized noise require us to adopt an essentialist position, or can an ...


    Cristina Voican; Constantin Stanescu


    Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. After the watershed passage of the United States Noise Control Act of 1972, other local and state governments passed further regulations. Although the UK and Japan enacted national laws in 1960 and 1967 respectively, these laws were not at all comprehensive or fully enforceable as to address generally rising ambient noise, enforceable...

  5. Discrete vortex method simulations of aerodynamic admittance in bridge aerodynamics

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Larsen, Allan;

    The meshless and remeshed Discrete Vortex Method (DVM) has been widely used in academia and by the industry to model two-dimensional flow around bluff bodies. The implementation “DVMFLOW” [1] is used by the bridge design company COWI to determine and visualise the flow field around bridge sections, ...... solution for the admittance of a turbulent flow past a flat plate [4] and two types of bridge girder sections. A fair agreement is observed for sufficiently low turbulence intensities and sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions.......The meshless and remeshed Discrete Vortex Method (DVM) has been widely used in academia and by the industry to model two-dimensional flow around bluff bodies. The implementation “DVMFLOW” [1] is used by the bridge design company COWI to determine and visualise the flow field around bridge sections......, and to determine aerodynamic forces and the corresponding flutter limit. A simulation of the three-dimensional bridge responseto turbulent wind is carried out by quasi steady theory by modelling the bridge girder as a line like structure [2], applying the aerodynamic load coefficients found from the...

  6. The basic aerodynamics of floatation

    Davies, M.J.; Wood, D.H.


    The original derivation of the basic theory governing the aerodynamics of both hovercraft and modern floatation ovens, requires the validity of some extremely crude assumptions. However, the basic theory is surprisingly accurate. It is shown that this accuracy occurs because the final expression of the basic theory can be derived by approximating the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly shows the limitations of the theory. These limitations are used in discussing the relatively small discrepancies between the theory and experiment, which may not be significant for practical purposes.

  7. Elemental study of aerodynamic profile

    In teaching fluid Mechanics, it would be convenient to provide the students with simple theoretical tools which allow them to deal with real and of technological interest situations. For instance, the apparently simple fluid motion around wing sections of arbitrary shape can not be overcome by using the mathematical methods available for students. In this article we present a simple theoretical procedure to analyze this problem. In the proposed method the role played by the analytical and numerical calculations are greatly reduced in order to emphasize the purely aerodynamic concepts. (Author) 3 refs. 001ES0100130

  8. Aircraft Noise

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  9. Noise Traders

    James Dow; Gary Gorton


    Noise traders are agents whose theoretical existence has been hypothesized as a way of solving certain fundamental problems in Financial Economics. We briefly review the literature on noise traders. The is an entry for The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition (Palgrave Macmillan: New York), edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume, forthcoming in 2008.

  10. Leading Edge Device Aerodynamic Optimization

    Marius Gabriel COJOCARU


    Full Text Available Leading edge devices are conventionally used as aerodynamic devices that enhance performances during landing and in some cases during takeoff. The need to increase the efficiency of the aircrafts has brought the idea of maintaining as much as possible a laminar flow over the wings. This is possible only when the leading edge of the wings is free from contamination, therefore using the leading edge devices with the additional role of shielding during takeoff. Such a device based on the Krueger flap design is aerodynamically analyzed and optimized. The optimization comprises three steps: first, the positioning of the flap such that the shielding criterion is kept, second, the analysis of the flap size and third, the optimization of the flap shape. The first step is subject of a gradient based optimization process of the position described by two parameters, the position along the line and the deflection angle. For the third step the Adjoint method is used to gain insight on the shape of the Krueger flap that will extend the most the stall limit. All these steps have been numerically performed using Ansys Fluent and the results are presented for the optimized shape in comparison with the baseline configuration.

  11. Aerodynamic seal assemblies for turbo-machinery

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Wolfe, Christopher; Fang, Biao


    The present application provides an aerodynamic seal assembly for use with a turbo-machine. The aerodynamic seal assembly may include a number of springs, a shoe connected to the springs, and a secondary seal positioned about the springs and the shoe.

  12. Review paper on wind turbine aerodynamics

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Aagaard Madsen, Helge


    The paper describes the development and description of the aerodynamic models used to estimate the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine constructions. This includes a status of the capabilities of computation fluid dynamics and the need for reliable airfoil data for the simpler engineering models...

  13. Aerodynamics of wind turbines emerging topics

    Amano, R S


    Focusing on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines with topics ranging from Fundamental to Application of horizontal axis wind turbines, this book presents advanced topics including: Basic Theory for Wind turbine Blade Aerodynamics, Computational Methods, and Special Structural Reinforcement Technique for Wind Turbine Blades.

  14. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains

    Ding, San-San; Li, Qiang; Tian, Ai-Qin; Du, Jian; Liu, Jia-Li


    Compared with the traditional train, the operational speed of the high-speed train has largely improved, and the dynamic environment of the train has changed from one of mechanical domination to one of aerodynamic domination. The aerodynamic problem has become the key technological challenge of high-speed trains and significantly affects the economy, environment, safety, and comfort. In this paper, the relationships among the aerodynamic design principle, aerodynamic performance indexes, and design variables are first studied, and the research methods of train aerodynamics are proposed, including numerical simulation, a reduced-scale test, and a full-scale test. Technological schemes of train aerodynamics involve the optimization design of the streamlined head and the smooth design of the body surface. Optimization design of the streamlined head includes conception design, project design, numerical simulation, and a reduced-scale test. Smooth design of the body surface is mainly used for the key parts, such as electric-current collecting system, wheel truck compartment, and windshield. The aerodynamic design method established in this paper has been successfully applied to various high-speed trains (CRH380A, CRH380AM, CRH6, CRH2G, and the Standard electric multiple unit (EMU)) that have met expected design objectives. The research results can provide an effective guideline for the aerodynamic design of high-speed trains.

  15. Biomimetic Approach for Accurate, Real-Time Aerodynamic Coefficients Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerodynamic and structural reliability and efficiency depends critically on the ability to accurately assess the aerodynamic loads and moments for each lifting...

  16. Assessment and prediction of wind turbine noise

    The significance of basic aerodynamic noise sources for wind turbine noise are assessed, using information on the aero-acoustic mechanisms of other rotors, which have been studied in depth for many years. From the analysis, areas of potential improvement in wind turbine noise prediction are defined. Suggestions are made for approaches to wind turbine noise control which separate the noise problems at cut-in from those at rated power. Some of these offer the possibility of noise reduction without unfavourable effects on performance. Based on this analysis, a new model for prediction of wind turbine noise is presented and comparisons made between prediction and experiment. The model is based on well established aeroacoustic theory and published laboratory data for the two principal sources, inflow turbulence and boundary layer trailing edge interaction. The new method gives good agreement with experiment with the case studied so far. Parametric trends and sensitivities for the model are presented. Comparisons with previous prediction methods are also given. A consequence of the new model is to put more emphasis on boundary layer trailing edge interaction as a noise source. There are prospects for reducing noise from this source detail changes to the wind turbine design. (author)

  17. Removing Background Noise with Phased Array Signal Processing

    Podboy, Gary; Stephens, David


    Preliminary results are presented from a test conducted to determine how well microphone phased array processing software could pull an acoustic signal out of background noise. The array consisted of 24 microphones in an aerodynamic fairing designed to be mounted in-flow. The processing was conducted using Functional Beam forming software developed by Optinav combined with cross spectral matrix subtraction. The test was conducted in the free-jet of the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig at NASA GRC. The background noise was produced by the interaction of the free-jet flow with the solid surfaces in the flow. The acoustic signals were produced by acoustic drivers. The results show that the phased array processing was able to pull the acoustic signal out of the background noise provided the signal was no more than 20 dB below the background noise level measured using a conventional single microphone equipped with an aerodynamic forebody.

  18. Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Williams, John Robert


    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.

  19. The basic aerodynamics of floatation

    Davies, M. J.; Wood, D. H.


    It is pointed out that the basic aerodynamics of modern floatation ovens, in which the continuous, freshly painted metal strip is floated, dried, and cured, is the two-dimensional analog of that of hovercraft. The basic theory for the static lift considered in connection with the study of hovercraft has had spectacular success in describing the experimental results. This appears surprising in view of the crudity of the theory. The present investigation represents an attempt to explore the reasons for this success. An outline of the basic theory is presented and an approach is shown for deriving the resulting expressions for the lift from the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly indicates the limitations on the validity of the expressions. Attention is given to the generally good agreement between the theory and the axisymmetric (about the centerline) results reported by Jaumotte and Kiedrzynski (1965).

  20. Chasing Noise

    Mendel, Brock; Shleifer, Andrei


    We present a simple model in which rational but uninformed traders occasionally chase noise as if it were information, thereby amplifying sentiment shocks and moving prices away from fundamental values. We fill a theoretical gap in the literature by showing conditions under which noise traders can have an impact on market equilibrium disproportionate to their size in the market. The model offers a partial explanation for the surprisingly low market price of financial risk in the Spring of 2007.

  1. Crackling Noise

    Sethna, James P.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Christopher R Myers


    Crackling noise arises when a system responds to changing external conditions through discrete, impulsive events spanning a broad range of sizes. A wide variety of physical systems exhibiting crackling noise have been studied, from earthquakes on faults to paper crumpling. Because these systems exhibit regular behavior over many decades of sizes, their behavior is likely independent of microscopic and macroscopic details, and progress can be made by the use of very simple models. The fact tha...

  2. Noise Bubbles

    Mario Forni; Luca Gambetti; Marco Lippi; Luca Sala


    We introduce noisy information into a standard present value stock price model. Agents receive a noisy signal about the structural shock driving future dividend variations. The resulting equilibrium stock price includes a transitory component — the "noise bubble" — which can be responsible for boom and bust episodes unrelated to economic fundamentals. We propose a non-standard VAR procedure to estimate the structural shock and the "noise" shock, their impulse response functions and the bubble...

  3. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using A Real-Number-Encoded Genetic Algorithm

    Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.


    A new method for aerodynamic shape optimization using a genetic algorithm with real number encoding is presented. The algorithm is used to optimize three different problems, a simple hill climbing problem, a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle problem using an Euler equation solver and a three-dimensional transonic wing problem using a nonlinear potential solver. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm is easy to implement and extremely reliable, being relatively insensitive to design space noise.

  4. Research on mine noise sources analysis based on least squares wave-let transform

    CHENG Gen-yin; YU Sheng-chen; CHEN Shao-jie; WEI Zhi-yong; ZHANG Xiao-chen


    In order to determine the characteristics of noise source accurately, the noise distribution at different frequencies was determined by taking the differences into account between aerodynamic noises, mechanical noise, electrical noise in terms of in frequency and intensity. Designed a least squares wavelet with high precision and special effects for strong interference zone (multi-source noise), which is applicable to strong noise analysis produced by underground mine, and obtained distribution of noise in different frequency and achieves good results. According to the results of decomposition, the characteristics of noise sources production can be more accurately determined, which lays a good foundation for the follow-up focused and targeted noise control, and provides a new method that is greatly applicable for testing and analyzing noise control.

  5. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    Envia, Edmane


    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level. The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources (i.e., thickness and loading), for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole sources be included in the analysis.

  6. Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems : Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on RailwayNoise

    Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Hanson, Carl; Hemsworth, Brian; Nelson, James; Schulte-Werning, Burkhard; Thompson, David; Vos, Paul


    This volume contains the contributions to the 10th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held October 18–22, 2010, in Nagahama, Japan, organized by the Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI), Japan. With 11 sessions and 3 poster sessions, the workshop featured presentations by international leaders in the field of railway noise and vibration. All subjects relating to 1. prospects, legal regulation, and perception; 2. wheel and rail noise; 3. structure-borne noise and squeal noise; 4. ground-borne vibration; 5. aerodynamic noise and micro-pressure waves from tunnel portals; 6. interior noise and sound barriers; and 7. prediction, measurements, and monitoring are addressed here. This book is a useful “state-of-the-art” reference for scientists and engineers involved in solving environmental problems of railways.

  7. Aerodynamic study of a small horizontal-axis wind turbine

    Cornelia NITA


    Full Text Available The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbine will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, nowadays, the noise emissions from wind turbines represent one of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. Moreover, the energetic efficiency of these wind turbines has to be high even at low and medium wind velocities because, usually the cities are not windy places. The numerical results clearly show that the wakes after the trailing edge are the main noise sources. In order to decrease the power of these noise sources, we should try to decrease the intensity of wakes after the trailing edge, i.e. the aerodynamic fields from pressure and suction sides would have to be almost the same near trailing edge. Furthermore, one observes a strong link between transport (circumferential velocity and acoustic power level, i.e. if the transport velocity increases, the acoustic power level also augments.

  8. Euromech Colloquium 509: Vehicle Aerodynamics. External Aerodynamics of Railway Vehicles, Trucks, Buses and Cars - Proceedings

    Nayeri, Christian Navid; Löfdahl, Lennart; Schober, Martin


    During the 509th Colloquium of the Euromech society, held from March 24th & 25th at TU Berlin, fifty leading researchers from all over europe discussed various topics affecting both road vehicle as well as railway vehicle aerodynamics, especially drag reduction (with road vehicles), cross wind stability (with trains) and wake analysis (with both). With the increasing service speed of modern high-speed railway traffic, aerodynamic aspects are gaining importance. The aerodynamic research topics...

  9. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology for noise assessment of wind turbine.

    Shahaboddin Shamshirband

    Full Text Available Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  10. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology for noise assessment of wind turbine.

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin


    Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method. PMID:25075621

  11. Unsteady interactional aerodynamics of helicopter configuration

    In this paper we present the aerodynamic simulation of a complex rotor/fuselage configuration performed with the Cfd solver Rosita (Rotorcraft Software Italy), developed at the Aerospace Department of the Politecnico di Milano.

  12. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. The results of the Phase I investigation of concepts for morphing aircraft...

  13. Prediction of Unsteady Transonic Aerodynamics Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An accurate prediction of aero-elastic effects depends on an accurate prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic forces. Perhaps the most difficult speed regime is...

  14. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. Concepts are presented for morphing aircraft, to enable the aircraft to...

  15. Aerodynamic drag of modern soccer balls

    Asai, Takeshi; Seo, Kazuya


    Soccer balls such as the Adidas Roteiro that have been used in soccer tournaments thus far had 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, the Adidas Teamgeist II and Adidas Jabulani, respectively having 14 and 8 panels, have been used at tournaments; the aerodynamic characteristics of these balls have not yet been verified. Now, the Adidas Tango 12, having 32 panels, has been developed for use at tournaments; therefore, it is necessary to understand its aerodynamic characteristics. Through...

  16. Computer Aided Aerodynamic Design of Missile Configuration

    Panneerselvam, S; P. Theerthamalai; A.K. Sarkar


    Aerodynamic configurations of tactical missiles have to produce the required lateral force with minimum time lag to meet the required manoeuvability and response time. The present design which is mainly based on linearised potential flow involves (a) indentification of critical design points, (b) design of lifting components and their integration with mutual interference, (c) evaluation of aerodynamic characteristics, (d) checking its adequacy at otherpoints, (e) optimization of parameters an...

  17. Airframe noise prediction


    This Data Item 90023, an addition to the Noise Sub-series, provides the FORTRAN listing of a computer program for a semi-empirical method that calculates the far-field airframe aerodynamic noise generated by turbo-fan powered transport aircraft or gliders in one-third octave bands over a frequency range specified by the user. The overall sound pressure level is also output. The results apply for a still, lossless atmosphere; other ESDU methods may be used to correct for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflection, lateral attenuation, and wind and temperature gradients. The position of the aircraft relative to the observer is input in terms of the height at minimum range, and the elevation and azimuthal angles to the aircraft; if desired the user may obtain results over a range of those angles in 10 degree intervals. The method sums the contributions made by various components, results for which can also be output individually. The components are: the wind (conventional or delta), tailplane, fin, flaps (single/double slotted or triple slotted), leading-edge slats, and undercarriage legs and wheels (one/two wheel or four wheel units). The program requires only geometric data for each component (area and span in the case of lifting elements, flap deflection angle, and leg length and wheel diameter for the undercarriage). The program was validated for aircraft with take-off masses from 42,000 to 390,000 kg (92,000 to 860,000 lb) at airspeeds from 70 to 145 m/s (135 to 280 kn). Comparisons with available experimental data suggest a prediction rms accuracy of 1 dB at minimum range, rising to between 2 and 3 dB at 60 degrees to either side.

  18. The Effects of Crosswind Flight on Rotor Harmonic Noise Radiation

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.


    In order to develop recommendations for procedures for helicopter source noise characterization, the effects of crosswinds on main rotor harmonic noise radiation are assessed using a model of the Bell 430 helicopter. Crosswinds are found to have a significant effect on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise radiation when the helicopter is trimmed with the fuselage oriented along the inertial flight path. However, the magnitude of BVI noise remains unchanged when the pilot orients the fuselage along the aerodynamic velocity vector, crabbing for zero aerodynamic sideslip. The effects of wind gradients on BVI noise are also investigated and found to be smaller in the crosswind direction than in the headwind direction. The effects of crosswinds on lower harmonic noise sources at higher flight speeds are also assessed. In all cases, the directivity of radiated noise is somewhat changed by the crosswind. The model predictions agree well with flight test data for the Bell 430 helicopter captured under various wind conditions. The results of this investigation would suggest that flight paths for future acoustic flight testing are best aligned across the prevailing wind direction to minimize the effects of winds on noise measurements when wind cannot otherwise be avoided.

  19. Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship

    Andan, Amelda Dianne; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.


    The objective of this paper is to present the results of a numerical study of the aerodynamic parameters of a wingless and a winged-hull airship. The total forces and moment coefficients of the airships have been computed over a range of angles. The results obtained show that addition of a wing to a conventional airship increases the lift has three times the lifting force at positive angle of attack as compared to a wingless airship whereas the drag increases in the range of 19% to 58%. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically stable, however, both the conventional airship and the hybrid or winged airships were found to have poor rolling stability. Wingless airship has slightly higher longitudinal stability than a winged airship. The winged airship has better directional stability than the wingless airship. The wingless airship only possesses static rolling stability in the range of yaw angles of -5° to 5°. On the contrary, the winged airship initially tested does not possess rolling stability at all. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations show that modifications to the wing placement and its dihedral have strong positive effect on the rolling stability. Raising the wings to the center of gravity and introducing a dihedral angle of 5° stabilizes the rolling motion of the winged airship.

  20. Sharp Hypervelocity Aerodynamic Research Probe

    Bull, Jeffrey; Kolodziej, Paul; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)


    The objective of this flight demonstration is to deploy a slender-body hypervelocity aerodynamic research probe (SHARP) from an orbiting platform using a tether, deorbit and fly it along its aerothermal performance constraint, and recover it intact in mid-air. To accomplish this objective, two flight demonstrations are proposed. The first flight uses a blunt-body, tethered reentry experiment vehicle (TREV) to prove out tethered deployment technology for accurate entries, a complete SHARP electronics suite, and a new soft mid-air helicopter recovery technique. The second flight takes advantage of this launch and recovery capability to demonstrate revolutionary sharp body concepts for hypervelocity vehicles, enabled by new Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) recently developed by Ames Research Center. Successful demonstration of sharp body hypersonic vehicle technologies could have radical impact on space flight capabilities, including: enabling global reentry cross range capability from Station, eliminating reentry communications blackout, and allowing new highly efficient launch systems incorporating air breathing propulsion and zeroth staging.

  1. Aerodynamics of Unsteady Sailing Kinetics

    Keil, Colin; Schutt, Riley; Borshoff, Jennifer; Alley, Philip; de Zegher, Maximilien; Williamson, Chk


    In small sailboats, the bodyweight of the sailor is proportionately large enough to induce significant unsteady motion of the boat and sail. Sailors use a variety of kinetic techniques to create sail dynamics which can provide an increment in thrust, thereby increasing the boatspeed. In this study, we experimentally investigate the unsteady aerodynamics associated with two techniques, ``upwind leech flicking'' and ``downwind S-turns''. We explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and camera array, sailed expertly by a member of the US Olympic team. The velocity heading of a sailing boat is oriented at an apparent wind angle to the flow. In contrast to classic flapping propulsion, the heaving of the sail section is not perpendicular to the sail's motion through the air. This leads to heave with components parallel and perpendicular to the incident flow. The characteristic motion is recreated in a towing tank where the vortex structures generated by a representative 2-D sail section are observed using Particle Image Velocimetry and the measurement of thrust and lift forces. Amongst other results, we show that the increase in driving force, generated due to heave, is larger for greater apparent wind angles.

  2. Trailing Edge Noise Model Validation and Application to Airfoil Optimization

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian


    The aim of this article is twofold. First, an existing trailing edge noise model is validated by comparing with airfoil surface pressure fluctuations and far field sound pressure levels measured in three different experiments. The agreement is satisfactory in one case but poor in two other cases....... Nevertheless, the model reproduces the main tendencies observed in the measurements with respect to varying flow conditions. Second, the model is implemented into an airfoil design code that is originally used for aerodynamic optimization. An existing wind turbine airfoil is optimized in order to reduce its...... noise emission, trying at the same time to preserve some of its aerodynamic and geometric characteristics. The new designs are characterized by less cambered airfoils and flatter suction sides. The resulting noise reductions seem to be mainly achieved by a reduction in the turbulent kinetic energy...

  3. Improving Gabor Noise

    Lagae, Ares; Lefebvre, Sylvain; Dutré, Philip


    We have recently proposed a new procedural noise function, Gabor noise, which offers a combination of properties not found in existing noise functions. In this paper, we present three significant improvements to Gabor noise: (1) an isotropic kernel for Gabor noise, which speeds up isotropic Gabor noise with a factor of roughly two, (2) an error analysis of Gabor noise, which relates the kernel truncation radius to the relative error of the noise, and (3) spatially varying Gabor noise, which e...

  4. Aerodynamic Parameter Identification of a Venus Lander

    Sykes, Robert A.

    An analysis was conducted to identify the parameters of an aerodynamic model for a Venus lander based on experimental free-flight data. The experimental free-flight data were collected in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel with a 25-percent Froude-scaled model. The experimental data were classified based on the wind tunnel run type: runs where the lander model was unperturbed over the course of the run, and runs were the model was perturbed (principally in pitch, yaw, and roll) by the wind tunnel operator. The perturbations allow for data to be obtained at higher wind angles and rotation rates than those available from the unperturbed data. The model properties and equations of motion were used to determine experimental values for the aerodynamic coefficients. An aerodynamic model was selected using a priori knowledge of axisymmetric blunt entry vehicles. The least squares method was used to estimate the aerodynamic parameters. Three sets of results were obtained from the following data sets: perturbed, unperturbed, and the combination of both. The combined data set was selected for the final set of aerodynamic parameters based on the quality of the results. The identified aerodynamic parameters are consistent with that of the static wind tunnel data. Reconstructions, of experimental data not used in the parameter identification analyses, achieved similar residuals as those with data used to identify the parameters. Simulations of the experimental data, using the identified parameters, indicate that the aerodynamic model used is incapable of replicating the limit cycle oscillations with stochastic peak amplitudes observed during the test.

  5. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform

    Lentink, David; Ingersoll, Rivers


    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on tethered experiments with robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for nonintrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is ...

  6. On-road and wind-tunnel measurement of motorcycle helmet noise.

    Kennedy, J; Carley, M; Walker, I; Holt, N


    The noise source mechanisms involved in motorcycling include various aerodynamic sources and engine noise. The problem of noise source identification requires extensive data acquisition of a type and level that have not previously been applied. Data acquisition on track and on road are problematic due to rider safety constraints and the portability of appropriate instrumentation. One way to address this problem is the use of data from wind tunnel tests. The validity of these measurements for noise source identification must first be demonstrated. In order to achieve this extensive wind tunnel tests have been conducted and compared with the results from on-track measurements. Sound pressure levels as a function of speed were compared between on track and wind tunnel tests and were found to be comparable. Spectral conditioning techniques were applied to separate engine and wind tunnel noise from aerodynamic noise and showed that the aerodynamic components were equivalent in both cases. The spectral conditioning of on-track data showed that the contribution of engine noise to the overall noise is a function of speed and is more significant than had previously been thought. These procedures form a basis for accurate experimental measurements of motorcycle noise. PMID:23967933

  7. Relativistic Noise

    Kapusta, Joseph; Mueller, Berndt; Stephanov, Misha


    The relativistic theory of hydrodynamic fluctuations, or noise, is derived and applied to high energy heavy ion collisions. These fluctuations are inherent in any space-time varying system and are in addition to initial state fluctuations. We illustrate the effects with the boost-invariant Bjorken solution to the hydrodynamic equations. Long range correlations in rapidity are induced by propagation of sound modes. The magnitude of these correlations are directly proportional to the viscositie...

  8. Skewed Noise

    David Dillenberger; Uzi Segal


    Experimental evidence suggests that individuals who face an asymmetric distribution over the likelihood of a specific event might actually prefer not to know the exact value of this probability. We address these findings by studying a decision maker who has recursive, non-expected utility preferences over two-stage lotteries. For a binary lottery that yields the better outcome with probability p, we identify noise around p with a compound lottery that induces a probability distribution over t...

  9. Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel


    This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

  10. Potential of neuro-fuzzy methodology to estimate noise level of wind turbines

    Nikolić, Vlastimir; Petković, Dalibor; Por, Lip Yee; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Zamani, Mazdak; Ćojbašić, Žarko; Motamedi, Shervin


    Wind turbines noise effect became large problem because of increasing of wind farms numbers since renewable energy becomes the most influential energy sources. However, wind turbine noise generation and propagation is not understandable in all aspects. Mechanical noise of wind turbines can be ignored since aerodynamic noise of wind turbine blades is the main source of the noise generation. Numerical simulations of the noise effects of the wind turbine can be very challenging task. Therefore in this article soft computing method is used to evaluate noise level of wind turbines. The main goal of the study is to estimate wind turbine noise in regard of wind speed at different heights and for different sound frequency. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to estimate the wind turbine noise levels.

  11. Towards Identifying Contribution of Wake Turbulence to Inflow Noise from Wind Turbines

    Agrawal Bharat Raj


    Full Text Available Downstream turbines in a wind farm often operate under the influence of wakes from upstream turbines. Aerodynamic losses and aeromechanical issues (stochastic loads associated with such wake-turbine interactions have been investigated before. However, the role such interactions play in the generation of aerodynamic noise has not been evaluated. This paper presents a two-step approach for predicting noise due to wake-turbine interaction. The first step involves an aerodynamic analysis of a wind farm using large eddy simulations. Time accurate data and turbulence statistics in the turbine wakes are obtained from this simulation just ahead of the downstream wind turbines. The second step uses the turbulence information with aeroacoustic models to predict radiated noise in the far field. Simulation results of two simplified model problems corresponding to these two steps are presented in this paper.

  12. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise (XMIN) on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design

    Herron, Andrew J.; Reed, Darren K.; Nance, Donald K.


    Characterization of flight vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is often studied via large scale wind tunnel testing. Boundary layer noise is measured by miniature pressure transducers installed in a model. Noise levels (2-5 dB ref. 20 µPa) can be induced when transducer is mounted out of flush with model outer surface. This effect must be minimized to accurately determine aerodynamically induced acoustic environments.

  13. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.


    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  14. Physics of badminton shuttlecocks. Part 1 : aerodynamics

    Cohen, Caroline; Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe


    We study experimentally shuttlecocks dynamics. In this part we show that shuttlecock trajectory is highly different from classical parabola. When one takes into account the aerodynamic drag, the flight of the shuttlecock quickly curves downwards and almost reaches a vertical asymptote. We solve the equation of motion with gravity and drag at high Reynolds number and find an analytical expression of the reach. At high velocity, this reach does not depend on velocity anymore. Even if you develop your muscles you will not manage to launch the shuttlecock very far because of the ``aerodynamic wall.'' As a consequence you can predict the length of the field. We then discuss the extend of the aerodynamic wall to other projectiles like sports balls and its importance.

  15. Photogrammetry of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    Kushner, Laura Kathryn; Littell, Justin D.; Cassell, Alan M.


    In 2012, two large-scale models of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic decelerator were tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. One of the objectives of this test was to measure model deflections under aerodynamic loading that approximated expected flight conditions. The measurements were acquired using stereo photogrammetry. Four pairs of stereo cameras were mounted inside the NFAC test section, each imaging a particular section of the HIAD. The views were then stitched together post-test to create a surface deformation profile. The data from the photogram- metry system will largely be used for comparisons to and refinement of Fluid Structure Interaction models. This paper describes how a commercial photogrammetry system was adapted to make the measurements and presents some preliminary results.

  16. Wind turbine aerodynamics research needs assessment

    Stoddard, F. S.; Porter, B. K.


    A prioritized list is developed for wind turbine aerodynamic research needs and opportunities which could be used by the Department of Energy program management team in detailing the DOE Five-Year Wind Turbine Research Plan. The focus of the Assessment was the basic science of aerodynamics as applied to wind turbines, including all relevant phenomena, such as turbulence, dynamic stall, three-dimensional effects, viscosity, wake geometry, and others which influence aerodynamic understanding and design. The study was restricted to wind turbines that provide electrical energy compatible with the utility grid, and included both horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) and vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). Also, no economic constraints were imposed on the design concepts or recommendations since the focus of the investigation was purely scientific.

  17. Aerodynamic optimization studies on advanced architecture computers

    Chawla, Kalpana


    The approach to carrying out multi-discipline aerospace design studies in the future, especially in massively parallel computing environments, comprises of choosing (1) suitable solvers to compute solutions to equations characterizing a discipline, and (2) efficient optimization methods. In addition, for aerodynamic optimization problems, (3) smart methodologies must be selected to modify the surface shape. In this research effort, a 'direct' optimization method is implemented on the Cray C-90 to improve aerodynamic design. It is coupled with an existing implicit Navier-Stokes solver, OVERFLOW, to compute flow solutions. The optimization method is chosen such that it can accomodate multi-discipline optimization in future computations. In the work , however, only single discipline aerodynamic optimization will be included.

  18. Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation

    Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.


    NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.

  19. Low noise road surfaces

    Bolčina, Matjaž


    Noise is everywhere. Noise is a sound that makes people stressful and irritate. It often couses sleep disorders and also health problems like different cardiovascular disorders, hearing loss…In most cases traffic noise is the most disturbing. There are different ways to prevent people from traffic noise like building noise barriers and insulation of facades. However noise barriers and insulation of facades do not prevent noise formation, but are lowering existing noise. Another disadvantage i...

  20. Noise in Optical Amplifiers

    Jeppesen, Palle


    Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived.......Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived....

  1. Investigation of computational aeroacoustic tools for noise predictions of wind turbine aerofoils

    In this work trailing edge noise levels of a research aerofoil have been computed and compared to aeroacoustic measurements using two different approaches. On the other hand, aerodynamic and aeroacoustic calculations were performed with the full Navier-Stokes CFD code Fluent [Fluent Inc 2005 Fluent 6.2 Users Guide, Lebanon, NH, USA] on the basis of a steady RANS simulation. Aerodynamic characteristics were computed by the aid of various turbulence models. By the combined usage of implemented broadband noise source models, it was tried to isolate and determine the trailing edge noise level. Throughout this work two methods of different computational cost have been tested and quantitative and qualitative results obtained. On the one hand, the semi-empirical noise prediction tool NAFNoise [Moriarty P 2005 NAFNoise User's Guide. Golden, Colorado, July. simulators/NAFNoise] was used to directly predict trailing edge noise by taking into consideration the nature of the experiments

  2. Design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts

    This paper presents the aerodynamic design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts. The aerodynamic model is based on Blade Element Momentum theory whereas the aeroacoustic prediction model is based on the BPM model. The investigation is started with a 3MW baseline/reference turbine rotor with a diameter of 80 m. To reduce the noise emission from the baseline rotor, the rotor is reconstructed with the low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils which has been tested in the acoustic wind tunnel located at Virginia Tech. Finally, 3MW low noise turbine rotors are designed using the concepts of Betz and Joukowski, and the CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils. Performance analysis shows that the newly designed turbine rotors can achieve an overall noise reduction of 6 dB and 1.5 dB(A) with a similar power output as compared to the reference rotor

  3. Prediction of aerodynamic performance for MEXICO rotor

    Hong, Zedong; Yang, Hua; Xu, Haoran;


    The aerodynamic performance of the MEXICO (Model EXperiments In Controlled cOnditions) rotor at five tunnel wind speeds is predicted by making use of BEM and CFD methods, respectively, using commercial MATLAB and CFD software. Due to the pressure differences on both sides of the blade, the tip...... the reliability of the MEXICO data. Second, the SST turbulence model can better capture the flow separation on the blade and has high aerodynamic performance prediction accuracy for a horizontal axis wind turbine in axial inflow conditions. Finally, the comparisons of the axial and tangential forces as well...

  4. Yesterday's noise - today's signal

    Plant performance can be improved by noise analysis. This paper describes noise characteristics, imposed noise and response functions, a case history of cost benefits derived from application of noise analysis techniques, areas for application of noise analysis techniques with special reference to the Gentilly-1 nuclear generating station, and the validity of noise measurement results. (E.C.B.)

  5. On Noise Assessment for Blended Wing Body Aircraft

    Guo, Yueping; Burley, Casey L; Thomas, Russell H.


    system noise studies, which include aerodynamic performance, propulsion efficiency, flight profile limitation and many other factors. For a future aircraft concept to achieve the NASA N+2 noise goal it will require a range of fully successful noise reduction technology developments.

  6. Landing gear noise prediction using high-order finite difference schemes

    Liu, W.; Kim, J. W.; Zhang, X; Angland, D.; BASTIEN, C


    Aerodynamic noise from a generic two-wheel landing-gear model is predicted by a CFD/FW-H hybrid approach. The unsteady flow-field is computed using a compressible Navier–Stokes solver based on high-order finite difference schemes and a fully structured grid. The calculated time history of the surface pressure data is used in an FW-H solver to predict the far-field noise levels. Both aerodynamic and aeroacoustic results are compared to wind tunnel measurements and are found to be in good agree...

  7. Nonequilibrium Spin Noise and Noise of Susceptibility

    Schad, Pablo; Narozhny, Boris N.; Schön, Gerd; Shnirman, Alexander


    We analyze out-of-equilibrium fluctuations in a driven spin system and relate them to the noise of spin susceptibility. In the spirit of the linear response theory we further relate the noise of susceptibility to a $4$-spin correlation function in equilibrium. We show that, in contrast to the second noise (noise of noise), the noise of susceptibility is a direct measure of non-Gaussian fluctuations in the system. We develop a general framework for calculating the noise of susceptibility using...

  8. Quantum Noise

    Quantum Noise is advertised as a handbook, and this is indeed how it functions for me these days: it is a book that I keep within hand's reach, ready to be consulted on the proper use of quantum stochastic methods in the course of my research on quantum dots. I should point out that quantum optics, the target field for this book, is not my field by training. So I have much to learn, and find this handbook to be a reliable and helpful guide. Crispin Gardiner previously wrote the Handbook of Stochastic Methods (also published by Springer), which provides an overview of methods in classical statistical physics. Quantum Noise, written jointly with Peter Zoller, is the counterpart for quantum statistical physics, and indeed the two books rely on each other by frequent cross referencing. The fundamental problem addressed by Quantum Noise is how the quantum dynamics of an open system can be described statistically by treating the environment as a source of noise. This is a general problem in condensed matter physics (in particular in the context of Josephson junctions) and in quantum optics. The emphasis in this book in on the optical applications (for condensed matter applications one could consult Quantum Dissipative Systems by Ulrich Weiss, published by World Scientific). The optical applications centre around the interaction of light with atoms, where the atoms represent the open system and the light is the noisy environment. A complete description of the production and detection of non-classical states of radiation (such as squeezed states) can be obtained using one of the equivalent quantum stochastic formulations: the quantum Langevin equation for the field operators (in either the Ito or the Stratonovich form), the Master equation for the density matrix, or the stochastic Schroedinger equation for the wave functions. Each formulation is fully developed here (as one would expect from a handbook), with detailed instructions on how to go from one to the other. The

  9. Aerodynamic Aspects of Wind Energy Conversion

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    -blade geometry. The basics of the blade-element momentum theory are presented along with guidelines for the construction of airfoil data. Various theories for aerodynamically optimum rotors are discussed, and recent results on classical models are presented. State-of-the-art advanced numerical simulation tools...

  10. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  11. Small Radial Compressors: Aerodynamic Design and Analysis

    K. A. R. Ismail; Rosolen, C. V. A. G.; Benevenuto, F. J.; Lucato, D.


    This paper presents a computational procedure for the analysis of steady one-dimensional centrifugal compressor. The numerical model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and has been utilized to predict the operational and aerodynamic characteristics of a small centrifugal compressor as well as determining the performance and geometry of compressor blades, both straight and curved.

  12. Small Radial Compressors: Aerodynamic Design and Analysis

    K. A. R. Ismail


    Full Text Available This paper presents a computational procedure for the analysis of steady one-dimensional centrifugal compressor. The numerical model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and has been utilized to predict the operational and aerodynamic characteristics of a small centrifugal compressor as well as determining the performance and geometry of compressor blades, both straight and curved.

  13. Computer Aided Aerodynamic Design of Missile Configuration

    S. Panneerselvam


    Full Text Available Aerodynamic configurations of tactical missiles have to produce the required lateral force with minimum time lag to meet the required manoeuvability and response time. The present design which is mainly based on linearised potential flow involves (a indentification of critical design points, (b design of lifting components and their integration with mutual interference, (c evaluation of aerodynamic characteristics, (d checking its adequacy at otherpoints, (e optimization of parameters and selection of configuration, and (f detailed evaluation including aerodynamic pressure distribution. Iterative design process in involed because of the mutual dependance between aerodynamic charactertistics and the parameters of the configuration. though this design method is based on third level of approximation with respect to real flow, aid of computer is essential for carrying out the iterative design process and also for effective selection of configuration by analysing performance. Futuristic design requirement which demand better accuracy on design and estimation calls for sophisticated super computer based theoretical methods viz. , full Euler solution/Navier-Strokes solutions.

  14. Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

    Morelli, Eugene A.


    A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.

  15. Nature-Inspired Airfoils for Environmental Noise Reduction

    Han, Suyeong; Kyung, Richard


    Recently, study on the insects' flapping flight became one of the challenging research subjects in the field of environmental engineering and aeronautics because of its potential applicability to intelligent micro-robots capable of autonomous flight and the next generation aerial-vehicles. In order to uncover its curious unsteady characteristics, many researchers have conducted experimental and computational studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of insects' flapping flight. In the present work, the unsteady flow physics around insect wings are conducted by utilizing numerical and computational simulation. The e-AIRS [6] (e-Science Aerospace Integrated Research System) gives a balanced service between computational and experimental aerodynamics, along with integrated research process of these two research activities. This paper presents the wing motions and their aerodynamics with a two dimensional approach to reduce environmental noise during the airflight. Also this paper shows an optimal phase angle, where the thrust is maximized at the position of minimized drag, which occurs when noise is minimized. Aside from the two-dimensional approach, stroke angles and phase angles of the airfoils are set as parameters, to determine which motion yields the best aerodynamic characteristics.

  16. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers


    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565

  17. Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory

    Reuther, James


    Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.

  18. Research on aerodynamic means of isotope enrichment

    The results of a research program directed toward the understanding of the fundamental gas dynamics involved in aerodynamic isotope enrichment are summarized. The specific aerodynamic isotope enrichment method which was examined in this research is based on a velocity slip phenomenon which occurs in the rarefied hypersonic expansion of a heavy molecular weight gas and a light carrier gas in a nozzle or free jet. This particular aerodynamic method was chosen for study because it contains the fundamental molecular physics of other more complex techniques within the context of a one-dimensional flow without boundary effects. From both an experimental and theoretical modeling perspective this provides an excellent basis for testing the experimental and numerical tools with which to investigate more complex aerodynamic isotope enrichment processes. This report consists of three separate parts. Part I contains a theoretical analysis of the velocity slip effect in free jet expansions of binary and ternary gas mixtures. The analysis, based on a source flow model and using moment equations is derived from the Boltzmann equation using the hypersonic approximation. Part II contains the experimental measurements of velocity slip. The numerical simulation of the slip process was carried out by using a Monte-Carlo numerical technique. In addition, comparisons between the theoretical analysis of Part I and the experiments are presented. Part III describes impact pressure measurements of free jet expansions from slot shaped two dimensional nozzles. At least two methods of aerodynamic isotope enrichment (opposed jet and velocity slip) would depend on the use of this type of two dimensional expansion. Flow surveys of single free jet and the interferene of crossed free jets are presented

  19. Aero-Acoustics of Modern Transonic Fans—Fan Noise Reduction from Its Sources

    L. Xu; J.D. Denton


    The noise of aerodynamics nature from modern transonic fan is examined from its sources with the perspective of noise reduction through aero-acoustics design using advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools.In particular the problems associated with the forward propagating noise in the front is addressed. It is identified that the shock wave spillage from the leading edge near the fan tip is the main source of the tone noise. Two different approaches have been studied to reduce the forward arc tone noise and two state-of-art transonic fans are designed using the strategies developed. The following rig tests show that while the fans exhibit other noise problems,the primary goals of noise reduction have been achieved through both fans and the novel noise reduction concept vindicated.

  20. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

    Sean Graham


    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products

  1. Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion

    Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.


    This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.

  2. Noise reduction for centrifugal fan with non-isometric forward-swept blade impeller

    Jianfeng MA; Datong QI; Yijun MAO


    To reduce the noise of the T9-19No.4A centri-fugal fan, whose impeller has equidistant forward-swept blades, two new impellers with different blade spacing were designed and an experimental study was conducted. Both the fan's aerodynamic performance and noise were measured when the two redesigned impellers were com-pared with the original ones. The test results are discussed in detail and the effect of the noise reduction method for a centrifugal fan using impellers with non-isometric for-ward-swept blades was analyzed, which can serve as a reference for researches on reduction of fan noise.

  3. Inhibitory noise

    Alain Destexhe


    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vivo may operate in high-conductance states, in which the major part of the neuron's input conductance is due to synaptic activity, sometimes several-fold larger than the resting conductance. We examine here the contribution of inhibition in such high-conductance states. At the level of the absolute conductance values, several studies have shown that cortical neurons in vivo are characterized by strong inhibitory conductances. However, conductances are balanced and spiking activity is mostly determined by fluctuations, but not much is known about excitatory and inhibitory contributions to these fluctuations. Models and dynamic-clamp experiments show that, during high-conductance states, spikes are mainly determined by fluctuations of inhibition, or by inhibitory noise. This stands in contrast to low-conductance states, in which excitatory conductances determine spiking activity. To determine these contributions from experimental data, maximum likelihood methods can be designed and applied to intracellular recordings in vivo. Such methods indicate that action potentials are indeed mostly correlated with inhibitory fluctuations in awake animals. These results argue for a determinant role for inhibitory fluctuations in evoking spikes, and do not support feed-forward modes of processing, for which opposite patterns are predicted.

  4. Flow and Noise Characteristics of Centrifugal Fan under Different Stall Conditions

    Lei Zhang


    Full Text Available An implicit, time-accurate 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS solver is used to simulate the rotating stall phenomenon in a centrifugal fan. The goal of the present work is to shed light on the flow field and particularly the aerodynamic noise at different stall conditions. Aerodynamic characteristics, frequency domain characteristics, and the contours of sound power level under two different stall conditions are discussed in this paper. The results show that, with the decrease of valve opening, the amplitude of full pressure and flow fluctuations tends to be larger and the stall frequency remains the same. The flow field analysis indicates that the area occupied by stall cells expands with the decrease of flow rate. The noise calculation based on the simulation underlines the role of vortex noise after the occurrence of rotating stall, showing that the high noise area rotates along with the stall cell in the circumferential direction.

  5. Noise and Hearing Protection

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Noise and Hearing Protection Noise and Hearing Protection Patient ... it is. How can I tell if a noise is dangerous? People differ in their sensitivity to ...

  6. Aerodynamic Design of a Tailless Aeroplan

    J. Friedl


    Full Text Available The paper presents an aerodynamic analysis of a one-seat ultralight (UL tailless aeroplane named L2k, with a very complicated layout. In the first part, an autostable airfoil with a low moment coefficient was chosen as a base for this problem. This airfoil was refined and modified to satisfy the design requirements. The computed aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils for different Reynolds numbers (Re were compared with available experimental data. XFOIL code was used to perform the computations. In the second part, a computation of wing characteristics was carried out. All calculated cases were chosen as points on the manoeuvring and gust envelope. The vortex lattice method was used with consideration of fuselage and winglets for very complicated wing geometry. The PMW computer program developed at IAE was used to perform the computations. The computed results were subsequently used for structural and strength analysis and design.

  7. Aerodynamics of Rotor Blades for Quadrotors

    Bangura, Moses; Naldi, Roberto; Mahony, Robert


    In this report, we present the theory on aerodynamics of quadrotors using the well established momentum and blade element theories. From a robotics perspective, the theoretical development of the models for thrust and horizontal forces and torque (therefore power) are carried out in the body fixed frame of the quadrotor. Using momentum theory, we propose and model the existence of a horizontal force along with its associated power. Given the limitations associated with momentum theory and the inadequacy of the theory to account for the different powers represented in a proposed bond graph lead to the use of blade element theory. Using this theory, models are then developed for the different quadrotor rotor geometries and aerodynamic properties including the optimum hovering rotor used on the majority of quadrotors. Though this rotor is proven to be the most optimum rotor, we show that geometric variations are necessary for manufacturing of the blades. The geometric variations are also dictated by a desired th...

  8. Visualization of numerically simulated aerodynamic flow fields

    The focus of this paper is to describe the development and the application of an interactive integrated software to visualize numerically simulated aerodynamic flow fields so as to enable the practitioner of computational fluid dynamics to diagnose the numerical simulation and to elucidate essential flow physics from the simulation. The input to the software is the numerical database crunched by a supercomputer and typically consists of flow variables and computational grid geometry. This flow visualization system (FVS), written in C language is targetted at the Personal IRIS Workstations. In order to demonstrate the various visualization modules, the paper also describes the application of this software to visualize two- and three-dimensional flow fields past aerodynamic configurations which have been numerically simulated on the NEC-SXIA Supercomputer. 6 refs

  9. Particle Methods in Bluff Body Aerodynamics

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj

    flow. The method is validated by simulating the turbulent flow past a flat plate and past the Great Belt East bridge, the Øresund bridge and the Busan-Geoje bridge. The dissertation introduces a novel multiresolution vortex-in-cell algorithm using patches of varying resolution. The Poisson equation...... important. This dissertation focuses on the use of vortex particle methods and computational efficiency. The work is divided into three parts. A novel method for the simulation of the aerodynamic admittance in bluff body aerodynamics is presented. The method involves a model for describing oncoming...... turbulence in two-dimensional discrete vortex method simulations by seeding the upstream flow with vortex particles. The turbulence is generated prior to the simulations and is based on analytic spectral densities of the atmospheric turbulence and a coherence function defining the spatial correlation of the...

  10. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  11. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A


    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).


    Jan Dostal


    Full Text Available This paper presents results obtained between 2010 and 2014 in the field of fan aerodynamics at the Department of Composite Technology at the VZLÚ aerospace research and experimental institute in Prague – Letnany. The need for rapid and accurate methods for the preliminary design of blade machinery led to the creation of a mathematical model based on the basic laws of turbomachine aerodynamics. The mathematical model, the derivation of which is briefly described below, has been encoded in a computer programme, which enables the theoretical characteristics of a fan of the designed geometry to be determined rapidly. The validity of the mathematical model is assessed continuously by measuring model fans in the measuring unit, which was developed and manufactured specifically for this purpose. The paper also presents a comparison between measured characteristics and characteristics determined by the mathematical model as the basis for a discussion on possible causes of measured deviations and calculation deviations.

  13. Aerodynamic control inside an internal combustion engine

    The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of intake port geometry on in-cylinder flow. The in-cylinder aerodynamics of an optical engine has been characterized using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Many geometries have been tested and their impact has been evaluated by an estimation of the tumble ratio, an analysis of the cycle-to-cycle variations and a flow structure analysis based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Such a tool allows the reduction of the PIV database in order to consider in-cylinder aerodynamic control by a device placed in the intake port. This simplification is based on a reduction of the number of modes and a polynomial fitting of the POD coefficients. Thus, some new geometries have been numerically created, and their impact on the tumble ratio has been evaluated

  14. Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling

    Morelli, Eugene A.


    Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.

  15. Nash equilibrium and multi criterion aerodynamic optimization

    Tang, Zhili; Zhang, Lianhe


    Game theory and its particular Nash Equilibrium (NE) are gaining importance in solving Multi Criterion Optimization (MCO) in engineering problems over the past decade. The solution of a MCO problem can be viewed as a NE under the concept of competitive games. This paper surveyed/proposed four efficient algorithms for calculating a NE of a MCO problem. Existence and equivalence of the solution are analyzed and proved in the paper based on fixed point theorem. Specific virtual symmetric Nash game is also presented to set up an optimization strategy for single objective optimization problems. Two numerical examples are presented to verify proposed algorithms. One is mathematical functions' optimization to illustrate detailed numerical procedures of algorithms, the other is aerodynamic drag reduction of civil transport wing fuselage configuration by using virtual game. The successful application validates efficiency of algorithms in solving complex aerodynamic optimization problem.

  16. Specialized computer architectures for computational aerodynamics

    Stevenson, D. K.


    In recent years, computational fluid dynamics has made significant progress in modelling aerodynamic phenomena. Currently, one of the major barriers to future development lies in the compute-intensive nature of the numerical formulations and the relative high cost of performing these computations on commercially available general purpose computers, a cost high with respect to dollar expenditure and/or elapsed time. Today's computing technology will support a program designed to create specialized computing facilities to be dedicated to the important problems of computational aerodynamics. One of the still unresolved questions is the organization of the computing components in such a facility. The characteristics of fluid dynamic problems which will have significant impact on the choice of computer architecture for a specialized facility are reviewed.

  17. Integrated structural-aerodynamic design optimization

    Haftka, R. T.; Kao, P. J.; Grossman, B.; Polen, D.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.


    This paper focuses on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration, with emphasis on the major difficulty associated with multidisciplinary design optimization processes, their enormous computational costs. Methods are presented for reducing this computational burden through the development of efficient methods for cross-sensitivity calculations and the implementation of approximate optimization procedures. Utilizing a modular sensitivity analysis approach, it is shown that the sensitivities can be computed without the expensive calculation of the derivatives of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix, and the derivatives of the structural flexibility matrix. The same process is used to efficiently evaluate the sensitivities of the wing divergence constraint, which should be particularly useful, not only in problems of complete integrated aircraft design, but also in aeroelastic tailoring applications.

  18. Estimation of morphing airfoil shape and aerodynamic load using artificial hair sensors

    Butler, Nathan S.; Su, Weihua; Thapa Magar, Kaman S.; Reich, Gregory W.


    An active area of research in adaptive structures focuses on the use of continuous wing shape changing methods as a means of replacing conventional discrete control surfaces and increasing aerodynamic efficiency. Although many shape-changing methods have been used since the beginning of heavier-than-air flight, the concept of performing camber actuation on a fully-deformable airfoil has not been widely applied. A fundamental problem of applying this concept to real-world scenarios is the fact that camber actuation is a continuous, time-dependent process. Therefore, if camber actuation is to be used in a closed-loop feedback system, one must be able to determine the instantaneous airfoil shape as well as the aerodynamic loads at all times. One approach is to utilize a new type of artificial hair sensors developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory to determine the flow conditions surrounding deformable airfoils. In this work, the hair sensor measurement data will be simulated by using the flow solver XFoil, with the assumption that perfect data with no noise can be collected from the hair sensor measurements. Such measurements will then be used in an artificial neural network based process to approximate the instantaneous airfoil camber shape, lift coefficient, and moment coefficient at a given angle of attack. Various aerodynamic and geometrical properties approximated from the artificial hair sensor and artificial neural network system will be compared with the results of XFoil in order to validate the approximation approach.

  19. Adaptive noise level estimation

    Yeh, Chunghsin; Roebel, Axel


    We describe a novel algorithm for the estimation of the colored noise level in audio signals with mixed noise and sinusoidal components. The noise envelope model is based on the assumptions that the envelope varies slowly with frequency and that the magnitudes of the noise peaks obey a Rayleigh distribution. Our method is an extension of a recently proposed approach of spectral peak classification of sinusoids and noise, which takes into account a noise envelope model to improve the detection...

  20. Noise-Measuring Method

    Diamond, J. M.


    A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test.......A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....

  1. Aeroacoustic Evaluation of Flap and Landing Gear Noise Reduction Concepts

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Lockard, David P.; Ravetta, Patricio A.


    Aeroacoustic measurements for a semi-span, 18% scale, high-fidelity Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The model was used as a test bed to conduct detailed studies of flap and main landing gear noise sources and to determine the effectiveness of numerous noise mitigation concepts. Using a traversing microphone array in the flyover direction, an extensive set of acoustic data was obtained in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the information was acquired with the model in a landing configuration with the flap deflected 39 deg and the main landing gear alternately installed and removed. Data were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24 over directivity angles between 56 deg and 116 deg, with 90 deg representing the overhead direction. Measured acoustic spectra showed that several of the tested flap noise reduction concepts decrease the sound pressure levels by 2 - 4 dB over the entire frequency range at all directivity angles. Slightly lower levels of noise reduction from the main landing gear were obtained through the simultaneous application of various gear devices. Measured aerodynamic forces indicated that the tested gear/flap noise abatement technologies have a negligible impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  2. Motion of rotor supported on aerodynamic bearings

    Půst, Ladislav; Šimek, J.; Kozánek, Jan

    Praha : Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR, v. v. i., 2007 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 235-236 ISBN 978-80-87012-06-2. [Engineering Mechanics 2007: national conference with international participation. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2007-17.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/06/1787 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : rotor dynamics * aerodynamic bearing * tilting pad s Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  3. Mutual interaction of two aerodynamic bearings

    Půst, Ladislav; Kozánek, Jan

    Lodz : Department of Automatics and Biomechanics Technical University of Lodz, 2007, s. 387-394. ISBN 978-83-924382-9-8. [Conference on Dynamical Systems - Theory and Applications /9./. Lodz (PL), 17.12.2007-20.12.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/06/1787 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : aerodynamic bearing * evolutive systems * numerical solution Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  4. Unsteady aerodynamics of high work turbines

    Richardson, David


    One method aircraft engine manufactures use to minimize engine cost and weight is to reduce the number of parts. A significant reduction includes reducing the turbine blade count or combining two moderately loaded turbines into one high-work turbine. The risk of High Cycle Fatigue in these configurations is increased by the additional aerodynamic forcing generated by the high blade loading and the nozzle trailing edge shocks. A lot of research has been done into the efficiency implications of...

  5. Aerodynamic investigations of ventilated brake discs.

    Parish, D.; MacManus, David G.


    The heat dissipation and performance of a ventilated brake disc strongly depends on the aerodynamic characteristics of the flow through the rotor passages. The aim of this investigation was to provide an improved understanding of ventilated brake rotor flow phenomena, with a view to improving heat dissipation, as well as providing a measurement data set for validation of computational fluid dynamics methods. The flow fields at the exit of four different brake rotor geometrie...

  6. The aerodynamics of the beautiful game

    Bush, John W. M.


    We consider the aerodynamics of football, specifically, the interaction between a ball in flight and the ambient air. Doing so allows one to account for the characteristic range and trajectories of balls in flight, as well as their anomalous deflections as may be induced by striking the ball either with or without spin. The dynamics of viscous boundary layers is briefly reviewed, its critical importance on the ball trajectories highlighted. The Magnus effect responsible for the anomalous curv...

  7. Influence of Icing on Bridge Cable Aerodynamics

    Koss, Holger; Frej Henningsen, Jesper; Olsen, Idar


    determination of these force coefficients require a proper simulation of the ice layer occurring under the specific climatic conditions, favouring real ice accretion over simplified artificial reproduction. The work presented in this paper was performed to study the influence of ice accretion on the aerodynamic...... forces of different bridge cables types. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel facility capable amongst others to simulate incloud icing conditions....

  8. Integrated aerodynamic-structural-control wing design

    Rais-Rohani, M.; Haftka, R. T.; Grossman, B.; Unger, E. R.


    The aerodynamic-structural-control design of a forward-swept composite wing for a high subsonic transport aircraft is considered. The structural analysis is based on a finite-element method. The aerodynamic calculations are based on a vortex-lattice method, and the control calculations are based on an output feedback control. The wing is designed for minimum weight subject to structural, performance/aerodynamic and control constraints. Efficient methods are used to calculate the control-deflection and control-effectiveness sensitivities which appear as second-order derivatives in the control constraint equations. To suppress the aeroelastic divergence of the forward-swept wing, and to reduce the gross weight of the design aircraft, two separate cases are studied: (1) combined application of aeroelastic tailoring and active controls; and (2) aeroelastic tailoring alone. The results of this study indicated that, for this particular example, aeroelastic tailoring is sufficient for suppressing the aeroelastic divergence, and the use of active controls was not necessary.

  9. Aerodynamic sampling for landmine trace detection

    Settles, Gary S.; Kester, Douglas A.


    Electronic noses and similar sensors show promise for detecting buried landmines through the explosive trace signals they emit. A key step in this detection is the sampler or sniffer, which acquires the airborne trace signal and presents it to the detector. Practicality demands no physical contact with the ground. Further, both airborne particulates and molecular traces must be sampled. Given a complicated minefield terrain and microclimate, this becomes a daunting chore. Our prior research on canine olfactory aerodynamics revealed several ways that evolution has dealt with such problems: 1) proximity of the sniffer to the scent source is important, 2) avoid exhaling back into the scent source, 3) use an aerodynamic collar on the sniffer inlet, 4) use auxiliary airjets to stir up surface particles, and 5) manage the 'impedance mismatch' between sniffer and sensor airflows carefully. Unfortunately, even basic data on aerodynamic sniffer performance as a function of inlet-tube and scent-source diameters, standoff distance, etc., have not been previously obtained. A laboratory-prototype sniffer was thus developed to provide guidance for landmine trace detectors. Initial experiments with this device are the subject of this paper. For example, a spike in the trace signal is observed upon starting the sniffer airflow, apparently due to rapid depletion of the available signal-laden air. Further, shielding the sniffer from disruptive ambient airflows arises as a key issue in sampling efficiency.

  10. Aerodynamics of a rigid curved kite wing

    Maneia, Gianmauro; Tordella, Daniela; Iovieno, Michele


    A preliminary numerical study on the aerodynamics of a kite wing for high altitude wind power generators is proposed. Tethered kites are a key element of an innovative wind energy technology, which aims to capture energy from the wind at higher altitudes than conventional wind towers. We present the results obtained from three-dimensional finite volume numerical simulations of the steady air flow past a three-dimensional curved rectangular kite wing (aspect ratio equal to 3.2, Reynolds number equal to 3x10^6). Two angles of incidence -- a standard incidence for the flight of a tethered airfoil (6{\\deg}) and an incidence close to the stall (18{\\deg}) -- were considered. The simulations were performed by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes flow model using the industrial STAR-CCM+ code. The overall aerodynamic characteristics of the kite wing were determined and compared to the aerodynamic characteristics of the flat rectangular non twisted wing with an identical aspect ratio and section (Clark Y profil...