Di Iorio, Osvaldo
A compilation of the known natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries is provided. Food items of adult Cetoniinae include pollen and/or nectar (flower visitors), sap and/or slime flux, ripened fruits on plants, green tissues and leaves, and honey. Of the 36 species of Cetoniinae from Argentina, food items are known only for 11 species (30.5%). Attraction to light and bait-traps, adult activity periods, vertebrate predators, and the occurrence in bird nests are presented and discussed. Other insects that share the same food sources and bait-traps with Cetoniinae are mentioned. PMID:24869870
Dwyer, Andrew A.; Hayes, Frances J.; Plummer, Lacey; Pitteloud, Nelly; Crowley, William F.
Context and Objective: Adult-onset idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (AHH) is a rare disorder characterized by an isolated failure of gonadotropin secretion occurring after an otherwise normal sexual maturation in men. This study aims to examine the etiology and long-term natural history of this disorder.
Mochel, Fanny; Schiffmann, Raphael; Steenweg, Marjan E.; Akman, Hasan O.; Wallace, Mary; Sedel, Frédéric; Laforêt, Pascal; Levy, Richard; Powers, J. Michael; Demeret, Sophie; Maisonobe, Thierry; Froissart, Roseline; Da Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos; Fogel, Brent L.; Natowicz, Marvin R.; Lubetzki, Catherine; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Rosenmann, Hanna; Barash, Varda; Kakhlon, Or; Gomori, J. Moshe; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Lossos, Alexander
Objective Adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy characterized by neurogenic bladder, progressive spastic gait, and peripheral neuropathy. Polyglucosan bodies accumulate in the central and peripheral nervous systems and are often associated with glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) deficiency. To improve clinical diagnosis and enable future evaluation of therapeutic strategies, we conducted a multinational study of the natural history and imaging features of APBD. Methods We gathered clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in 50 APBD patients with GBE deficiency from Israel, the United States, France, and the Netherlands. Brain and spine magnetic resonance images were reviewed in 44 patients. Results The most common clinical findings were neurogenic bladder (100%), spastic paraplegia with vibration loss (90%), and axonal neuropathy (90%). The median age was 51 years for the onset of neurogenic bladder symptoms, 63 years for wheelchair dependence, and 70 years for death. As the disease progressed, mild cognitive decline may have affected up to half of the patients. Neuroimaging showed hyperintense white matter abnormalities on T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences predominantly in the periventricular regions, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the external capsule, and the pyramidal tracts and medial lemniscus of the pons and medulla. Atrophy of the medulla and spine was universal. p.Y329S was the most common GBE1 mutation, present as a single heterozygous (28%) or homozygous (48%) mutation. Interpretation APBD with GBE deficiency, with occasional exceptions, is a clinically homogenous disorder that should be suspected in patients with adult onset leukodystrophy or spastic paraplegia with early onset of urinary symptoms and spinal atrophy. PMID:23034915
Tazi, Abdellatif; de Margerie, Constance; Naccache, Jean Marc; Fry, Stéphanie; Dominique, Stéphane; Jouneau, Stéphane; Lorillon, Gwenaël; Bugnet, Emmanuelle; Chiron, Raphael; Wallaert, Benoit; Valeyre, Dominique; Chevret, Sylvie
Background The natural history of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) has been unclear due to the absence of prospective studies. The rate of patients who experience an early progression of their disease is unknown. Additionally, conflicting effects of smoking cessation on the outcome of PLCH have been reported. Methods In this prospective, multicentre study, 58 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PLCH were comprehensively evaluated over a two-year period. Our objectives were...
Salmaggi, A; Fariselli, L; Milanesi, I; Lamperti, E; Silvani, A; Bizzi, A; Maccagnano, E; Trevisan, E; Laguzzi, E; Rudà, R; Boiardi, A; Soffietti, R
Brainstem gliomas in adults are rare tumors, with heterogeneous clinical course; only a few studies in the MRI era describe the features in consistent groups of patients. In this retrospective study, we report clinical features at onset, imaging characteristics and subsequent course in a group of 34 adult patients with either histologically proven or clinico-radiologically diagnosed brainstem gliomas followed at two centers in Northern Italy. Of the patients 18 were male, 14 female, with a median age of 31. In 21 of the patients histology was obtained and in 20 it was informative (2 pilocytic astrocytoma, 9 low-grade astrocytoma, 8 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 glioblastoma). Contrast enhancement at MRI was present in 14 patients. In all of the 9 patients who were investigated with MR spectroscopy, the Cho/NAA ratio was elevated at diagnosis. In 8 of the patients, an initial watch and wait policy was adopted, while 24 were treated shortly after diagnosis with either radiotherapy alone  or radiotherapy and chemotherapy  (mostly temozolomide). Only minor radiological responses were observed after treatments; in a significant proportion of patients (9 out of 15) clinical improvement during therapy occurred in the context of radiologically (MRI) stable disease. Grade III or IV myelotoxicity was observed in 6 patients. After a follow-up ranging from 9 to 180 months, all but 2 patients have progressed and 14 have died (12 for disease progression, 2 for pulmonary embolism). Median overall survival time was of 59 months. Investigation of putative prognostically relevant parameters showed that a short time between disease onset and diagnosis was related to a shorter survival. Compared with literature data, our study confirms the clinical and radiological heterogeneity of adult brainstem gliomas and underscores the need for multicenter trials in order to assess the efficacy of treatments in these tumors. PMID:18293027
Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter
The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is usually described with a focus on change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) over time as this allows for exploration of risk factors for an accelerated decline-and thus of developing COPD. From epidemiological studies we...
The general popularity of natural history in the eighteenth century is mirrored in the frequency and importance of the more than 4,500 articles on natural history in the Encyclopedie. The main contributors to natural history were Daubenton, Diderot, Jaucourt and d'Holbach, but some of the key animating principles derive from Buffon, who wrote nothing specifically for the Encyclopedie. Still, a number of articles reflect his thinking, especially his antipathy toward Linnaeus. There was in principle a natural tie between encyclopedism, with its emphasis on connected knowledge, and the task of natural historians who concentrated on the relationships among living forms. Both the encyclopedists and the natural historians aimed at a sweeping overview of knowledge, and we see that Diderot's discussions of the encyclopedia were apparently informed by his reading of natural history. Most of the articles on natural history drew from traditional sources, but there are differences in emphasis and choice of subject, depending upon the author. Diderot's 300 contributions are often practical, interesting, and depend upon accounts from other parts of the world. Jaucourt, who wrote more articles on natural history than anyone else, followed in his foodsteps. Daubenton's 900 articles reflected a more narrow, professional approach. His contributions concluded for the most part with Volume 8, and Jaucourt carried on almost single-handedly after that. While staking out traditional ground (description, taxonomy) and advancing newer theoretical views linked with Buffon, natural history in the Encyclopedie avoided almost completely the sentimentalism concerning nature that developed after Rousseau. PMID:11624414
Kuhns, Benjamin D.; Weber, Alexander E.; David M. Levy; Wuerz, Thomas H.
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a clinical syndrome resulting from abnormal hip joint morphology and is a common cause of hip pain in young adults. FAI has been posited as a precursor to hip osteoarthritis (OA); however, conflicting evidence exists and the true natural history of the disease is unclear. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of how FAI damages the hip joint by highlighting its pathomechanics and etiology. We then review the current evidence r...
Vargas, Arturo Novoa
Ovarian cancer is a disease laden with paradigms, and it is a serious health problem. It is important to know its natural history, as it is multifactorial in origin, and also to understand its behaviour given its risk factors which can lead to death from metastasis in patients. It continues to be a challenge for oncologists. An analytical literature review was performed to update the latest concepts of its origin, evolution, risk factors, pre-clinical horizon, and its clinical manifestations;...
Benjamin D. Kuhns
Full Text Available Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI is a clinical syndrome resulting from abnormal hip joint morphology and is a common cause of hip pain in young adults. FAI has been posited as a precursor to hip osteoarthritis, however, conflicting evidence exists and the true natural history of the disease is unclear. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of how FAI damages the hip joint by highlighting its pathomechanics and etiology. We then review the current evidence relating FAI to osteoarthritis. Lastly, we will discuss the potential of hip preservation surgery to alter the natural history of FAI, reduce the risk of developing osteoarthritis and the need for future arthroplasty.
In quantitative studies the authors found significant correlations between radiographic scores and physical and functional status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The authors review data as it applies to the natural history of RA, with attention to the pathophysiology of specific radiographic features. Cross-sectional analysis in 200 patients demonstrated significant correlations between radiographic scores and duration of disease; longitudinal studies of serial films in 52 patients revealed progression of disease in 92%. The findings of substantial radiographic abnormality and rapid progression early in the disease may provide a rationale for early aggressive therapy of RA
Marília P. Gaiarsa
Full Text Available Even though natural history information is crucial for answering key ecological, evolutionary, and conservation questions, basic studies are still lacking for Neotropical snakes. This study aims at contributing to the knowledge of the Neotropical tribe Pseudoboini, based on literature data, analysis of museum specimens and unpublished data. The tribe is mainly composed of moderate-sized snakes, although small and large-sized snakes also occur in the clade. Mean fecundity ranged from two (Rodriguesophis iglesiasi to 29 eggs (Clelia plumbea and the species are predominantly terrestrial and nocturnal. Most species are diet specialists and lizards are the most commonly consumed prey (found in the diet of 29 species, followed by small mammals (consumed by 20 species and snakes (consumed by 18 species. Although the tribe Pseudoboini appears to be well studied, for 15 species (32% only a small amount of information or none was available. We hope that our study can motivate research on the least known species.
@@ 1 Technology of natural materials Early man used conveniently shaped stones as tools."Workshop" areas have been found with large numbers of stones, some showing signs of being worked.However, organic materials like wood will decay under normal wet conditions in the presence of oxygen, so we won't find the same sort of evidence for wooden tools. It is safe to assume that early man used sticks as probes and clubs, and maybe even for making some sort of nestlike protection against the elements and predators, since we see chimpanzees and other animals doing this sort of thing. So wood, and almost certainly other plant materials such as fibrous leaves, and bone and other materials gleaned from dead animals, would be used from the earliest times. We need to know this in order to establish the idea that Man can be expected to have a long history of the use and manipulation of natural materials. This needs skills in choosing materials for certain uses on the basis of their mechanical properties,whether those properties are to do with the ease of shaping the material or the effectiveness of that material in use. Occasionally the material was chosen simply because it was readily available. If we find that a particular material was always used for a certain job, it's reasonable to deduce that Man was exerting materials selection criteria through experience.
OBJECTIVE: Early elective termination of pregnancy is the most common outcome of a diagnosis of anencephaly in developed countries. Experience and expertise with management of ongoing pregnancies is limited. We aimed to investigate the natural history of these pregnancies from diagnosis to delivery and to determine timing of death. METHOD: A retrospective review of cases of anencephaly diagnosed between 2003 and 2009 in tertiary-referral university teaching hospitals in Cork. RESULTS: The majority of cases (25\\/26; 96%) were diagnosed prenatally at a median gestation of 21(+2) weeks (range 13(+4)-32(+4)). The median maternal age was 30 years (range 17-41) and 50% were primigravidae. Seven pregnancies were complicated by polyhydramnios and four deliveries were complicated by shoulder dystocia. The median gestation at delivery was 35 weeks (range 22(+5)-42(+6)); 69% of labours were induced at a median gestation of 34 weeks. Six women (6\\/26; 23%) had a pre-labour intrauterine fetal death and nine women (9\\/26; 35%) had an intrapartum fetal death. Median neonatal survival time was 55 min (range 10 min to 8 days). Six parents donated neonatal organs for transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study provides useful information for health professionals caring for patients with a diagnosis of anencephaly. The majority of these infants die prior to delivery but short-term survival is possible.
Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is X-linked recessive hereditary disease. DMD gene mutations result in dystrophin deficiency, which causes not only muscle movement disorders but also scoliosis, cognitive dysfunction, urinary tract diseases, respiratory diseases and heart diseases. Most patients die in early adult for respiratory and circulatory failure. Early multidisciplinary therapies will significantly delay disease progression and improve patients' quality of life. However, DMD diagnosis and treatment exist significantly time delay now. In this study, we review the natural history of DMD, including motor, cognitive, respiratory and heart function, for improving DMD early recognition, diagnosis and treatment, so as to benefit DMD patients. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.05.004
Rennard, Stephen I.; Vestbo, Jørgen
Concepts relating to the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) arise most importantly from the classic study of Fletcher and colleagues (The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976). This study, which evaluated working English men over 8 years, was used to construct a proposed life-long natural history. Although this is a classic study that has greatly advanced understanding of COPD, it has a number of limitations....
Curtis, Valerie A
In unpacking the Pandora’s box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behav...
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Rennard, Stephen I; Vestbo, Jørgen
Concepts relating to the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) arise most importantly from the classic study of Fletcher and colleagues (The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976). This study, which evaluated working...... English men over 8 years, was used to construct a proposed life-long natural history. Although this is a classic study that has greatly advanced understanding of COPD, it has a number of limitations. Its duration is relatively short compared with the duration of COPD, so it is more cross-sectional than...... longitudinal. It was unable to distinguish among varied "natural histories." It assessed primarily the FEV(1), and the natural history of other features of COPD is largely undescribed. With advances in understanding the clinical features of COPD and with the development of evaluating new tools to assess...
Winkler Prins, V.; Nieuwenhof, L.J.L. van den; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Bor, J.H.J.; Weel, C. van
BACKGROUND: We examined the natural history of asthma in a primary care cohort of patients 10 years after the cohort was stratified for asthma risk by responses to a questionnaire and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) testing. METHODS: Children and young adults who were born between 1967 and 1979
Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G
Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behaviour have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg-to-adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analysed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodelling and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg-to-adult development time and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with traits involved with reproductive isolation and revealed previously undocumented
Discusses the value of developing and promoting a natural history library by school library media specialists. Topics include benefits to students; promoting outdoor education; recommended reading for high school students; using technology; and other aids to promote outdoor education. (LRW)
Allsopp, Basil A
Ehrlichia ruminantium is an obligately intracellular proteobacterium which causes a disease known as heartwater or cowdriosis in some wild, and all domestic, ruminants. The organism is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma, and it is of serious economic importance wherever the natural vectors occur, an area which includes all of sub-Saharan Africa, and several islands in the Caribbean. The disease was first recognized in South Africa in the 19th century, where its tick-borne nature was determined in 1900, but the organism itself was not demonstrated until 1925, when it was recognized to be a rickettsia, initially named Rickettsia ruminantium. It was thus the first species of what are now known as Ehrlichia to be discovered, and most of the early work to elucidate the nature of the organisms, and its reservoirs and vectors, was performed in South Africa. The next milestone was the development, in 1945, of an infection and treatment regimen to immunize livestock, and this is still the only commercially available "vaccine" against the disease. Then in 1985, after fruitless attempts over many years, the organism was propagated reliably in tissue culture, opening the way for the first application of the newly developed techniques of molecular genetics. From 1990 onwards the pace of heartwater research accelerated rapidly, with notable advances in phylogeny, diagnosis, epidemiology, immunology, and vaccine development. The complete genome sequence was published in 2005, and during the last two years a new understanding has arisen of the remarkable genetic variability of the organism and new experimental vaccines have been developed. Despite all this the goal of producing an effective vaccine against the disease in the field still remains frustratingly just beyond reach. This article summarises our current understanding of the nature of E. ruminantium, at a time when the prospects for the development of an effective vaccine against the organism seem better than at
Winkler Prins, V.; Nieuwenhof, L.J.L. van den; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Bor, J.H.J.; van Weel, C
BACKGROUND: We examined the natural history of asthma in a primary care cohort of patients 10 years after the cohort was stratified for asthma risk by responses to a questionnaire and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) testing. METHODS: Children and young adults who were born between 1967 and 1979 within 1 of 4 affiliated family practices of the Nijmegen Department of Family Medicine, The Netherlands, were asked to participate in an asthma study in 1989. Of 926 patients available, 581 (63%) ...
Antonio G Valdecasas; Ana M Correas
It appears that developed countries, such as the US, the UK and Italy, are losing the race against irrationalism and arbitrary thinking in regard to nature and human interactions. The incidence of misguided beliefs and the detachment from and, in some cases, outright hostility toward science are on the rise. Paradoxically, this is probably the period in the history of advanced countries in which increasing public and personal efforts have been directed toward the dissemination of scientific knowledge to increase public understanding of science. This article vindicates the role of natural history museums in consolidating rational and critical scientific thinking while briefly examining scientific illiteracy in developed countries. It also discusses methods to improve the involvement of natural history museums in the promotion of rational thinking, the only appropriate avenue for objective knowledge.
Chaisson, Eric J
Nature's many varied complex systems (including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society) are islands of order within the increasingly disordered universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. This is global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across 14 billion years of time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, non-equilibrium thermodynamics) is needed to describe cosmic evolution's major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. In particular, energy rate density is an objective metric suitable to gauge...
Goh, George Boon-Bee; McCullough, Arthur J
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains among the most common liver diseases worldwide, with increasing prevalence in concert with the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemic. The evidence on the natural history, albeit with some ambiguity, suggests the potential for some subsets of NAFLD to progress to cirrhosis, liver-related complications and mortality with fibrosis being the most important predictor of hard long-term endpoints such as mortality and liver complications. In this setting, NAFLD proves to be a formidable disease entity, with considerable clinical burden, for both the present and the future. Our understanding of the natural history of NAFLD is constantly evolving, with nascent data challenging current dogma. Further clarification of the natural history is required with well-designed, well-defined studies using prospectively collected data. Identifying the predictors of long-term outcomes should be used to direct development of clinical trial endpoints in NAFLD. PMID:27003142
Nguyen, Rosa; Dombi, Eva; Akshintala, Srivandana; Baldwin, Andrea; Widemann, Brigitte C
To characterize spinal abnormalities in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). NF1 patients with at least one spine MRI were selected from participants prospectively enrolled in the National Cancer Institute NF1 Natural History Study. Data were analyzed retrospectively. Ninety-seven patients (38 females, median age 14.2 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.6) had baseline imaging of the spine, and 26 patients (27 %) had one follow-up spine MRI (follow up time 2.5 years, SD 1.1, range 0.7-4.7). Seventy-eight patients (80 %) had spinal neurofibromas, with rising frequency from 70 % in patients younger than 10 years to 80 % in patients aged 10-18 years to 89 % in individuals older than 18 years of age. At baseline, 33/97 patients (34 %) had MRI changes consistent with spinal cord compression that was most prevalent at the cervical (43 %) and lumbar spine region (40 %). Seven of nine patients with progression of their spinal neurofibromas developed cord compression. Paraspinal plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) were present in 77/97 patients (79 %), of which 68 patients (88 %) had concomitant spinal neurofibromas. Spinal curvature abnormality was present in 50/97 patients (51 %, 20 females, median age 14.6 years, SD 7.6). Patients with paraspinal PNs had six-fold higher odds of developing spinal curvature abnormalities compared to patients without PN (OR = 5.9, 95 % CI 1.81 to 19.44, p = 0.0033). A total of 58/97 patients (60 %, median age 16.1 years, SD 7.8, range 4.8-48.2 years) presented with neurologic abnormalities that progressed in 12/26 patients (46 %). Substantial spinal neurofibroma and paraspinal PN burden was observed in our study population, which represents a selective group of patients with specifically more severe tumor involvement than the general NF1 population. Occurrence and progression of spinal neurofibromas on repeat evaluations highlight the need for longitudinal clinical monitoring in patients with known
Thomsen, Simon F
The atopic diseases - atopic dermatitis, asthma, and hay fever - pose a great burden to the individual and society, not least, since these diseases have reached epidemic proportions during the past decades in industrialized and, more recently, in developing countries. Whereas the prevalence of the...... atopic diseases now seems to have reached a plateau in many Western countries, they are still on the increase in the developing world. This emphasizes continuing research aimed at identifying the causes, risk factors, and natural history of these diseases. Herein, the fundamental aspects of the natural...... history and epidemiology of the atopic diseases are reviewed....
Angelini, Corrado; Nascimbeni, Anna C.; Fanin, Marina
We studied the role of autophagy in a series of 10 infantile-, juvenile-, and adult-onset GSDII patients and investigated autophagy blockade in successive biopsies of adult cases during disease natural history. We also correlated the autophagosome accumulation and efficiency of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in four treated cases (two infantile and two juvenile-adult onsets).
Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Caye-Thomasen, Per
This article describes various epidemiologic trends for vestibular schwannomas over the last 35 years, including a brief note on terminology. Additionally, it provides information on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing level following the diagnosis of a vestibular schwannoma...
The paper investigates the ideas that have prevented environmental knowledge from developing into action and change. According to Clarence J. Glacken throughout European history design ideas about the relation between man and nature have prevented the many local observations of the negative conse...
To assess natural history, treatment outcome and pattern of relapse in patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma. A review was conducted of the medical records of all adult patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma, who were treated at King Faisal Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1990 and December 1999. A total of 60 patients were identified for analysis, 36 men and 24 women; the median age was 58-years (range 23-95). Major presenting symptoms were facial swelling 55%, facial pain 50%, and nasal obstruction 43.4%, with a median duration of 5-months (range 1-24). Histology was quamous cell carcinoma in 71.7% and adenoid cystic in 16.7%. They were restaged according to American Joint Committee on Cancer classification 1997 as II, III and IV in 1, 10 and 49. Thirty patients received treatment with curative intent (surgery in 4 patients, radiotherapy in 2, and combined modality in 24), 6 patients refused treatment and 24 were treated palliatively. With a median follow up of 50-months (range 2-128) in surviving patients treated with a curative intent, 12/30 failed locally, 4/30 in the regional neck nodes and 2/30 had systemic relapse. The actuarial 5-year overall survival (OS), relapse free survival (RFS) and local control rate (LC) were 55%, 39% and 51%. Treatment modality was the only significant prognostic factor for outcome, with 5 year OS, RFS and LC of 72%, 49% and 61%, for combined modality using surgery followed by radiotherapy compared to 0% for single approach (p=0.0003, p=0.0052 and p=0.0098). This study indicates that the majority of our patients presented with advanced disease, resulting in poor outcome to conventional treatment modalities. Efforts should be directed to minimize the delay in diagnosis at the primary care level. Combined modality treatment should be offered to all patients with locally advanced disease. New approaches such as neoadjuvant or concurrent chemoradiotherapy with or without surgery need to
U.S. Geological Survey
Natural history collections play an indispensable and often overlooked role in the conservation and management of our Nation’s flora and fauna. Scientific specimens housed in museum collections not only open an important window into the current and past diversity of life on Earth, but also play a vital role in fueling cutting-edge scientific research in many disciplines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) curates a collection of vertebrates from the Intermountain and Southwestern United States that is used by researchers from around the globe. As one of the largest Federal natural history collections in the western United States, the USGS specimen holdings offer unique opportunities to study the fauna of this incredibly diverse and unique region.
Intracranial atherosclerotic disease was very common among stroke patients of Asians, Blacks, and Hispanics ancestry. Furthermore, stroke patients with intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) have higher recurrence rate of cerebral ischemia and death than those without ICAS. However, the natural history of intracranial atherosclerotic disease is still in controversy. Most of the studies were retrospective and randomized controlled trial of drugs. This review summarized the prognosis of symptomati...
Fonkem, Ekokobe; Lok, Edwin; Robison, David; Gautam, Shiva; Wong, Eric T
Intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) is a rare and clinically devastating form of extranodal B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the literature on IVL's published between 1959 and 2011 and evaluated the natural history as well as identified prognostic and predictive factors in patients. Nonparametric two-tailed Mann–Whitney U-test and Mantel–Cox log rank test were used to evaluate the survival intervals and prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis of variance...
Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC). Date Released: 6/9/2010.
As part of their defence of evolutionary theory, T. H. Huxley and Herbert Spencer argued that natural history was no longer a legitimate scientific discipline. They outlined a secularized concept of life from biology to argue for the validity of naturalism. Despite their support for naturalism, they offered two different responses to the decline of natural history. Whereas Huxley emphasized the creation of a biological discipline, and all that that entailed, Spencer was more concerned with constructing an entire intellectual system based on the idea of evolution. In effect, Spencer wanted to create a new scientific worldview based on evolutionary theory. This had consequences for their understanding of human history, especially of how science had evolved through the ages. It affected their conceptions of human agency, contingency, and directionality in history. Examining Huxley's and Spencer's responses to the "end" of natural history reveals some of the deep divisions within scientific naturalism and the inherent problems of naturalism in general. Whereas Huxley chose to separate the natural and the historical, Spencer opted to fuse them into a single system. PMID:26751794
Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou
Objective:To review the natural history and growth kinetics of small renal masses (SRMs).Data Sources:The literature concerning natural history and growth kinetics of SRMs was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2014.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on the active surveillance (AS) or delayed treatment for SRMs in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:SRMs under AS have a slow growth potential in general.The mean linear growth rate is 0.33 cm/year,the mean volumetric growth rate is 9.48 cm3/year.The rate of metastasis during AS is below 2％.Some factors are associated with the growth rate of SRMs,including tumor grade,histological subtype,initial tumor size,age,radiographic characteristics,and molecular markers.No definite predictor of growth rate of SRMs is defined at present.SRMs with high tumor grade and the subtype of clear cell renal cell carcinoma may have aggressive growth potential.Conclusions:AS is a reasonable choice for elderly patients with SRMs,who are at high risk from surgery.Progression during observation is the biggest concern while performing AS.There is no definite predictor of progression for SRMs under AS.Percutaneous renal biopsy providing immunohistological and genic biomarkers may improve the understanding of natural history of SRMs.
Buchs, Nicolas C; Mortensen, Neil J; Ris, Frederic; Morel, Philippe; Gervaz, Pascal
While diverticular disease is extremely common, the natural history (NH) of its most frequent presentation (i.e., sigmoid diverticulitis) is poorly investigated. Relevant information is mostly restricted to population-based or retrospective studies. This comprehensive review aimed to evaluate the NH of simple sigmoid diverticulitis. While there is a clear lack of uniformity in terminology, which results in difficulties interpreting and comparing findings between studies, this review demonstrates the benign nature of simple sigmoid diverticulitis. The overall recurrence rate is relatively low, ranging from 13% to 47%, depending on the definition used by the authors. Among different risk factors for recurrence, patients with C-reactive protein > 240 mg/L are three times more likely to recur. Other risk factors include: Young age, a history of several episodes of acute diverticulitis, medical vs surgical management, male patients, radiological signs of complicated first episode, higher comorbidity index, family history of diverticulitis, and length of involved colon > 5 cm. The risk of developing a complicated second episode (and its corollary to require an emergency operation) is less than 2%-5%. In fact, the old rationale for elective surgery as a preventive treatment, based mainly on concerns that recurrence would result in a progressively increased risk of sepsis or the need for a colostomy, is not upheld by the current evidence. PMID:26649154
Tamburrino, M B; Campbell, N B; Franco, K N; Evans, C L
Rumination has been reported to be a relatively rare disorder of eating during infancy. Over the past decade, there appears to be a renewed interest in and recognition of adult rumination. Although some authors believe adult rumination is benign, others have begun to link it with both eating disorders and depressive symptoms. This paper presents two adult cases whose rumination was associated with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. More identification and study of adult rumination is needed to clarify its course and medical significance. PMID:7894448
Eric J. Chaisson
Full Text Available Nature’s many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to describe cosmic evolution’s major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.
Elte, J. W.; Bussemaker, J K; Haak, A.
In this communication data on the natural history of euthyroid multinodular goitres are presented. From a total group of 140 patients (mean age 54.6 years, 14 men and 126 women; 88 with autonomous, 52 with non-autonomous function), follow-up data were available for 90 patients (mean age 54.0 years, 11 men and 79 women; 64 with autonomous, 26 with non-autonomous function). During follow-up (means: 5.0 years, maximum 12.2 years) transitions in function were seen 15 times; 8 autonomous patients ...
Full Text Available Juliana L Basko-Plluska, Vesna Petronic-RosicDepartment of Medicine, Section of Dermatology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease which affects primarily the skin and joints. It occurs worldwide, but its prevalence varies considerably between different regions of the world. Genetic susceptibility as well as environmental factors play an important role in determining the development and prognosis of psoriasis. Genome-wide association studies have identified many genetic loci as potential psoriasis susceptibility regions, including PSORS1 through PSORS7. Histocompatibility antigen (HLA studies have also identified several HLA antigens, with HLA-Cw6 being the most frequently associated antigen. Epidemiological studies identified several modifiable risk factors that may predispose individuals to developing psoriasis or exacerbate pre-existing disease. These include smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, diet, infections, medications and stressful life events. The exact mechanism by which they trigger psoriasis remains to be elucidated; however, existing data suggest that they are linked through Th1-mediated immunological pathways. The natural history of psoriasis varies depending on the clinical subtype as well as special circumstances, including pregnancy and HIV infection. In general, psoriasis is a chronic disease with intermittent remissions and exacerbations. The differential diagnosis is vast and includes many other immune-mediated, inflammatory disorders.Keywords: psoriasis, epidemiology, natural history, differential diagnosis
HUGO ESCOBAR MELO
Full Text Available The main intention of this document is to outstand a view of the Evolutive Psychology as an area ofspecific knowledge the approaches the course of changes and progress the construction of diversepsychological process thought life. The text identifies the classical historical antecedents of the currentEvolutive Psychology, its great landmarks and discusses some views about “evolution” and proposesa theoretical reflection from the disciplinary intersection perspective.Proposes that Evolutive Psychology shows ruptures and transformations in terms of a Overcomingthe image of the child as an adult in miniature. b Children, an organism that gets adapted and evolves.c The evolution of the child, the adolescent and the adult are different subjects d The subject as logicalthinker and scientific natural placed in the intersubjectivity e Identification and characterization ofunsuspected neonative competitions analogies homologies and improving rationality f Study of theinevitable transitions for aging and death. Discuses some current debates in the context of a conceptionof evolution that shows transformations, ruptures, regressions and reorganizations with progressionsthat do not establish lineal connections between the initial points with the final ones.
The author examined the natural history of intracranial meningioma after radiotherapy using CT or MR imaging. Twenty patients with intracranial meningioma received radiotherapy from a high-energy linear accelerator (4-10 MV X rays) from 1980 to 1996. The total doses were 50 Gy to the tumor bed in single doses of 2 Gy in 5 weekly fractions. Meningiomas in 10 of 20 patients were reduced within 1 to 38 months after radiotherapy, the average being 11 months. The tumors were controlled for a median of 60 months after radiotherapy (range 19-126 months). Four other patients have shown no change in tumor size after radiotherapy. The tumors were controlled for a median of 70 months after radiotherapy (range 37-127 months). The other six patients have shown tumor growth within 3 to 25 months after radiotherapy, after which the tumors stopped growing for a median of 71 months (range 2-181 months). Neither tumor size nor histological type was related to response. The growth of tumors was controlled by radiotherapy for a median duration of 43 months in the meningothelial type, 52 months in the fibroblastic type, and 61 months in the transitional type. The median duration for all benign tumors was 52 months. A moderate correlation was noted between tumor response and functional outcome after radiotherapy in 9 patients with neurological deficits. The natural histories of intracranial meningiomas after radiotherapy were grouped into three categories. Some tumors showed no change in size over a long period. This was a characteristic response after radiotherapy that differed from that of other brain tumors. The results of this study provide important information for the follow-up of intracranial meningiomas after radiotherapy. (author)
Gregory, Alice M.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Koenen, K.; Eley, Thalia C.; Poulton, Richie
OBJECTIVE: Information about the psychiatric histories of adults with anxiety disorders was examined to further inform nosology and etiological/ preventive efforts. METHOD: The authors used data from a prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort (N=1,037) from ages 11 to 32 years, making psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM criteria. For adults with anxiety disorders at 32 years, follow-back analyses ascertained first diagnosis of anxiety and other juvenile dis...
possible for a geomorphologist to travel back in the past, a delicate and speculative succession of operations: as noted by Schumm (1979, 485), "The extrapolation of measured average rates of erosion and deposition to longer periods of time is misleading, in the sense that they do not reveal the natural complexity of landform development or the variability of existing landforms". Any extrapolation in the past or future implies true actualiste approach verifying only methodological uniformitarianism (i.e. spatial and temporal invariance of natural laws) as well as quantitative models purged of any hint of gradualism and which takes into account variations of timing, frequency and intensity in the action of morphogenetic forcings. In continuation of Hack's work, the concepts of landscape sensitivity developed by Brunsden and Thornes (1979) explain that some landforms are particularly well fitted to the present conditions of endogenetic and exogenetic forcings (characteristic landforms) while others not at all (transient landforms). This highly effective approach within the Holocene and the Pleistocene marks the beginning of a return to the investigation of the past in geomorphology, given that for the Neogene or even older times, the ancient concept of "héritage" (Birot, 1958) seems more relevant than the concepts of transient or characteristic landforms. We propose here as an illustration to describe the sequence of landforms defined in the Southern Massif Central (France). The full sequence is to be observed between the Languedoc Lowlands and the Monts de Lacaune Highlands, while an elision of the lower terms of the sequence towards the Aquitaine Basin allow to highlight a highly significant limit between two modes of landform development at regional level. In short, the natural history of landforms deserve a high status in the Earth sciences: geomorphology not only needs mechanics and chemistry (i.e. the changing ratio of tectonic-driven to climatic-driven processes
Ekpenyong, Lawrence E.
Discusses the methodology by which people arrive at "knowledge" and how knowledge has been seen by philosophers and critical thinkers through history. Includes the theories of Jurgen Habermas, Jack Mezirow, Thomas Kuhn, and Paulo Freire. Cites implications for adult education. (JOW)
Oh, Myoung-don; Lee, Jong-koo
Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that reduced the mortality. Major vaccine preventable diseases have decreased dramatically after the introduction of immunization program in Korea. In this article, we review milestones in history of immunization program, especially in adult vaccination.
Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M
This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:25365695
Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign, non functioning tumors, mostly small and asymptomatic. We report the natural history of a giant adrenal myelolipoma. We could follow with CT the natural progression of the tumor during a 5-year interval. (orig.)
Ruiz, Miguel; Kramer-Duffield, Jacob; Greenberg, Jane; Hall, Nathan
5 p. This panel aims to discuss the importance of creating digital libraries for biodiversity and natural history collections, the state of the art in terms of standards, best practices and the challenges that natural history museums and herbaria face when trying to digitize their collections, and the creation and management of personal digital libraries for botanical learning.
Warnow, T.; Ringe, D.; Taylor, A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
In this paper we present a new methodology for determining the evolutionary history of related languages. Our methodology uses linguistic information encoded as qualitative characters, and provides much greater precision than previous methods. Our analysis of Indo-European (IE) languages resolves questions that have troubled scholars for over a century.
KE, QING; ZHANG Li
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is X-linked recessive hereditary disease. DMD gene mutations result in dystrophin deficiency, which causes not only muscle movement disorders but also scoliosis, cognitive dysfunction, urinary tract diseases, respiratory diseases and heart diseases. Most patients die in early adult for respiratory and circulatory failure. Early multidisciplinary therapies will significantly delay disease progression and improve patients' quality of life. However, DMD diagnosi...
Making "Nature" is the first book to chronicle the foundation and development of Nature, one of the world's most influential scientific institutions. Now nearing its hundred and fiftieth year of publication, Nature is the international benchmark for scientific publication. Its contributors include Charles Darwin, Ernest Rutherford, and Stephen Hawking, and it has published many of the most important discoveries in the history of science, including articles on the structure of DNA, the discovery of the neutron, the first cloning of a mammal, and the human genome. But how did Nature become such an essential institution? In Making "Nature," Melinda Baldwin charts the rich history of this extraordinary publication from its foundation in 1869 to current debates about online publishing and open access. This pioneering study not only tells Nature's story but also sheds light on much larger questions about the history of science publishing, changes in scientific communication, and shifting notions of "scientific comm...
Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.
immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course of...
Smith, Rebecca L.; Leigh, Vicki; Crew, Diana Lee
This sourcebook prepares students for a visit to the "Prehistoric Journey" exhibit at the Denver Museum of Natural History. The exhibit opened October 23, 1995, and offered a dramatic exploration of 3.5 billion years of life on Earth. Dioramas and "enviroramas" depict seven critical points in life's history. In addition to the chronological…
Gómez Carrasco, J A; Orive Iglesias, I; Linares López, P; Blanco Quirós, A; Andión Dapena, R
Out of 2.513 clinical files of allergic children, we have found 200 pollen-allergic patients, which represent 7.9% of the total allergic pathology in children, in our environment. We have studied in these 200, the most important epidemiological parameters and the influence that this can cause upon the characteristics of this disease. A male predominance has been found (70%) and it has been discovered that 52% of the total were born in spring (p less than 0.0005). An hundred per cent have shown grass-pollen sensitiveness and 52% have also shown other kinds of pollen hypersensitivity. It has been found familiar allergic background in 76.5% of the cases and in 32.5% familiar allergic history of pollinosis. Unexpectedly, those who were in lack of familiar allergic history began their clinical symptoms earlier; 51.06% before 6 years of age (p less than 0.05). Other kinds of allergic manifestations were found in 51%, being respiratory symptoms the most important (35.5%), followed by the cutaneous (23.5%) and digestive ones (10.5%). Allergy to drugs was found in 10.5%. The more frequent symptoms of pollinosis were in order of importance: rhinitis (86.5%), conjunctivitis (77%), asthma (48%), spasmodic cough (27.5%) and urticaria (4%). Asthma induced by grass-pollen hypersensitivity was equally suffered by the males as by the females, and this was more frequent among the patients who had previously suffered from non-pollinic respiratory allergies. PMID:3706920
Black, Donald W
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD a...
Sabin, C. A.; Lundgren, J D
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course of untreated HIV infection varies widely with some HIV-positive individuals able to maintain high CD4 cell counts and/or suppressed viral load in the absence of ART. Although similar, the underlying mechanis...
Simon Francis Thomsen
Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease with early onset and with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 20%. The aetiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but the recent discovery of filaggrin mutations holds promise that the progression of atopic dermatitis to asthma in later childhood may be halted. Atopic dermatitis is not always easily manageable and every physician should be familiar with the fundamental aspects of treatment. This paper gives an overview of the natural histor...
Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert
On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care. PMID:26968958
In May 1953 the first natural history television programme was broadcast from Bristol by naturalist Peter Scott and radio producer Desmond Hawkins. By 1997 the BBC's Natural History Unit has established a global reputation for wildlife films, providing a keystone of the BBC's public service broadcasting charter, playing an important strategic role in television scheduling and occupying a prominent position in a competitive world film market. The BBC's blue-chip natural history programmes regu...
Karesh, William B; Dobson, Andy; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Lubroth, Juan; Dixon, Matthew A; Bennett, Malcolm; Aldrich, Stephen; Harrington, Todd; Formenty, Pierre; Loh, Elizabeth H; Machalaba, Catherine C; Thomas, Mathew Jason; Heymann, David L
More than 60% of human infectious diseases are caused by pathogens shared with wild or domestic animals. Zoonotic disease organisms include those that are endemic in human populations or enzootic in animal populations with frequent cross-species transmission to people. Some of these diseases have only emerged recently. Together, these organisms are responsible for a substantial burden of disease, with endemic and enzootic zoonoses causing about a billion cases of illness in people and millions of deaths every year. Emerging zoonoses are a growing threat to global health and have caused hundreds of billions of US dollars of economic damage in the past 20 years. We aimed to review how zoonotic diseases result from natural pathogen ecology, and how other circumstances, such as animal production, extraction of natural resources, and antimicrobial application change the dynamics of disease exposure to human beings. In view of present anthropogenic trends, a more effective approach to zoonotic disease prevention and control will require a broad view of medicine that emphasises evidence-based decision making and integrates ecological and evolutionary principles of animal, human, and environmental factors. This broad view is essential for the successful development of policies and practices that reduce probability of future zoonotic emergence, targeted surveillance and strategic prevention, and engagement of partners outside the medical community to help improve health outcomes and reduce disease threats. PMID:23200502
From pre-historic times miners represented the group which received, inadvertently, occupational exposure to natural radionuclides. At the end of the 19th century scientists researching the newly found radiation called ''radioactivity'' became exposed frequently to uranium, thorium and their decay chains, still hardly aware of the potential risks associated with their work. In the first half of the 20th century some employees in the radium industry received high doses in the course of their professional duties as chemists, maintenance workers, or radium dial painters; many of them lacked adequate information on radiation protection. After World War II the increased international demand for uranium in the military and civilian sector caused overexposures of several thousands of miners (volunteers, prisoners), mostly due to the inhalation of elevated levels of radon and its decay products. By comparison on an international scale a relatively small number of workers was exposed to increased levels of thorium and its decay products in the thorium and rare-earth extraction industry. Health effects due to these past exposures range from relatively weak associations to statistically significant excesses for a variety of symptoms, such as respiratory diseases or cancer of the bone, lung or pancreas. An assessment of today industrial exposure situations indicates a wide range of occupations exposed to partly significant levels of natural radionuclides. 36 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs
Parkes, J D; Baraitser, M; Marsden, C D; Asselman, P
This study describes the clinical features, natural history and treatment of 100 patients with narcolepsy. Over half had one or more affected relatives. Symptoms commenced in adolescence or early adult life in most patients, and remissions were uncommon. Narcolepsy occurred several times each day, often in unusual circumstances and sometimes with little warning. The mean total sleep time of narco-leptics was a little over 9 hours in each 24 hour period, as compared with under 8 in normal subjects. Cataplexy occurred in 93 patients, most commonly when subjects were tired. Attacks were similar in nature to physiological weakness with laughter, although other sudden sensory or emotional stimuli did not cause paralysis of voluntary movement nor loss of muscle tone in normal subjects. Half these patients had frequent dreams before the onset of proper sleep, and 62 had sleep paralysis. This was often frightening, with feelings of suffocation, accompanied by dreams, and of uncertain length. A minority of patients with narcolepsy had muscle aches and jerks before sleep, double vision or loss of focus during cataplexy, went sleep-walking by day, and had daytime hallucinations. Amphetamines had been given to 71 patients for periods of up to 33 years with adequate, but rarely complete, control of narcolepsy. Side effects were common and almost half these patients became tolerant, needing higher dosage to control symptoms. Three patients had a cerebrovascular accident whilst taking amphetamines. Imipramine or clomipramine had ben given in combination with amphetamines to 33 patients for periods of up to 6 years with considerable improvement in both cataplexy and sleep paralysis, and few side effects. Sustained or paroxysmal hypertension as a result of amphetamines or combined treatment did not occur. PMID:19899267
Black, Donald W
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization. PMID:26175389
E. C. Cashman
Full Text Available Globus pharyngeus is a common disorder and accounts for 5% of all ENT referrals. Objectives. To evaluate the role of barium swallow and endoscopy in these patients, to ascertain the incidence, if any, of aerodigestive tract malignancy in this group and to assess the natural evolution of globus pharyngeus. Materials and Methods. Seventy-nine patients underwent barium swallow and rigid oesophagoscopy for globus pharyngeus between January 2005 and October 2008. Fifty-five patients were contacted by phone on average 5 years and 3 months after intervention and asked if their symptoms still persisted. Twenty-four patients were uncontactable or lost to followup, three patients were deceased, two of cardiac related disease and one of renal failure. Results. The majority of patients, 36 of 55 (65%, had a normal barium swallow. Forty-five of 55 (82% of patients had normal rigid endoscopies. Thirty-one of 55 (56% patients were at an average followup time of 5 years and 3 months. No patient developed a malignant lesion. Conclusion. Globus pharyngeus is a relatively common but benign condition of indeterminate origin. Our study demonstrates that many of these patients spontaneously improve with time.
Barbier, Edward B.
The role of natural resources in fostering economic development is examined for key historical epochs, from the agricultural revolution in 8,000 BC to the present. Natural resource exploitation has been important to development for most of global history. Depending on which epoch is examined, resource-based development could be viewed as â€œsuccessfulâ€ and sometimes not. Simply because a developing economy or region was endowed with abundant natural resources does not guarantee that its natu...
Graves, Jennifer; Balcer, Laura J.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and leading cause of disability in young adults. Vision impairment is a common component of disability for this population of patients. Injury to the optic nerve, brainstem, and cerebellum leads to characteristic syndromes affecting both the afferent and efferent visual pathways. The objective of this review is to summarize the spectrum of eye disorders in patients with MS, their natural history, and current stra...
Flowers, R. Wills; Chaboo, Caroline S.
The fi rst natural history account of Discomorpha (Discomorpha) biplagiata (Guérin) (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Omocerini) from Ecuador is presented. Larvae and adults feed on the leaves and stems of Cordia hebeclada Johnst. (Boraginaceae), the fi rst documented host plant for the species. Oviposition and pupation also occur on this host. Young larvae suffered heavy predation, especially from Ectatomma sp. (Formicidae: Ponerinae) and Oplomus nr. marginalis (Pentatomidae: Asopinae).
Palmer, S.E.; Stephens, K.; Dale, D.C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis (ADCH; cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disorder manifested by transient neutropenia that recurs every three weeks. To facilitate mapping the ADCH gene by genetic linkage analysis, we studied 9 ADCH families with 42 affected individuals. Pedigrees revealed AD inheritance with no evidence for decreased penetrance. Similar intra- and interfamilial variable expression was observed, with no evidence to support heterogeneity. At least 3 families displayed apparent new mutations. Many adults developed chronic neutropenia, while offspring always cycled during childhood. Children displayed recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis, lymphadenopathy, fever, and skin and other infections with additional symptoms. Interestingly, there were no cases of neonatal infection. Some children required multiple hospitalizations for treatment. Four males under age 18 died of Clostridium sepsis following necrotizing enterocolitis; all had affected mothers. No other deaths due to ADCH were found; most had improvement of symptoms and infections as adults. Adults experienced increased tooth loss prior to age 30 (16 out of 27 adults, with 9 edentulous). No increase in myelodysplasia, malignancy, or congenital anomalies was observed. Recombinant G-CSF treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of symptoms and infections. The results suggest that ADCH is not a benign disorder, especially in childhood, and abdominal pain requires immediate evaluation. Diagnosis of ADCH requires serial blood counts in the proband and at least one CBC in relatives to exclude similar disorders. Genetic counseling requires specific histories as well as CBCs of each family member at risk to determine status regardless of symptom history, especially to assess apparent new mutations.
Jay P. Yadav; Bashisth N. Singh
We present evidence for coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling their life history traits in a natural population using the same resource, at the same time and same place. D. ananassae has faster larval development time (DT) and faster DT(egg-fly) than other two species thus utilizing the resources at maximum at both larval and adult stages respectively. Therefore, D. ananassae skips the interspecific competition at preadult stage but suffers more from intraspecific competition. However, D. melanogaster and D. biarmipes have rescheduled their various life history traits to avoid interspecific competition. Differences of ranks tests for various life history traits suggest that except for DT(egg-pupa), the difference of ranks is highest for the combination of D. melanogaster and D. ananassae for all other life history traits. This difference is maintained by tradeoffs between larval development time and pupal period and between pupal period and DT(egg-pupa) in D. ananassae.
Woods, Will; Scanlon, Eileen
This paper reports on the progress that has been made towards the development of a mobile application to enable people to learn more about natural history by helping them to identify observations of nature as part of the iSpot project www.ispot.org. The paper identifies relevant research in mobile learning within the field of science and the challenges faced when designing and developing a mobile application for participatory science including the user-centred design approach and evaluation ...
There is increasing evidence that the environment experienced early in life can strongly influence adult life histories. It is largely unknown, however, how past and present conditions influence suites of life-history traits regarding major life-history trade-offs. Especially in animals with indeterminate growth, we may expect that environmental conditions of juveniles and adults independently or interactively influence the life-history trade-off between growth and reproduction after maturati...
Full Text Available We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae. By ‘coastal habitats’ we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs. The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state. Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database. The ‘Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes’ section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history. The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the
The natural history and surgical management of radio enteritis is reviewed. Predisposing factors include the dose of radiation patients build, combination with chemotherapy, previous operations and vascular disease. Management is related to the stage of disease at presentation, and tailored to the clinical problem. Surgical management must take into account the poor healing associated with irradiated intestine. (author)
Analysis of 819 participants enrolled in the Rett syndrome (RTT) Natural History Study, validates recently revised diagnostic criteria. Seven hundred sixty-five females fulfilled 2002 consensus criteria for classic (653/85.4%) or variant (112/14.6%) RTT. All participants classified as classic RTT fu...
Leonardo D. Fernández
Full Text Available Welcome to the first issue of Biodiversity and Natural History, a peer-reviewed, open-access and electronic journal published by the Centro de Estudios en Biodiversidad de Chile (Center for Studies in Biodiversity. The journal was created in 2009 under the name of Boletín de Biodiversidad de Chile with the aim of being a contribution to the dissemination of the Chilean biodiversity and natural history. True to its original purpose, the journal only published Chilean manuscripts in the early years. However, as time went by, the journal also started to receive and publish manuscripts coming from elsewhere in the planet. Accordingly, the journal gradually became an international channel for the scientific promotion and dissemination of biodiversity and natural history and thus, the name of the journal, as well as its original scope and goals were no longer representative.Because of this, in late 2014 the Editorial Board decided to change the original name of the journal to Biodiversity and Natural History a...
Lawrence N Hudson
Full Text Available The world's natural history collections constitute an enormous evidence base for scientific research on the natural world. To facilitate these studies and improve access to collections, many organisations are embarking on major programmes of digitization. This requires automated approaches to mass-digitization that support rapid imaging of specimens and associated data capture, in order to process the tens of millions of specimens common to most natural history collections. In this paper we present Inselect-a modular, easy-to-use, cross-platform suite of open-source software tools that supports the semi-automated processing of specimen images generated by natural history digitization programmes. The software is made up of a Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux desktop application, together with command-line tools that are designed for unattended operation on batches of images. Blending image visualisation algorithms that automatically recognise specimens together with workflows to support post-processing tasks such as barcode reading, label transcription and metadata capture, Inselect fills a critical gap to increase the rate of specimen digitization.
Andreone, Franco; Bartolozzi, Luca; Boano, Giovanni; Boero, Ferdinando; Bologna, Marco A.; Bon, Mauro; Bressi, Nicola; Capula, Massimo; Casale, Achille; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Chiozzi, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Doria, Giuliano; Durante, Antonio; Ferrari, Marco; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Lanzinger, Michele; Latella, Leonardo; Maio, Nicola; Marangoni, Carla; Mazzotti, Stefano; Minelli, Alessandro; Muscio, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Paola; Pievani, Telmo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Sabella, Giorgio; Valle, Marco; Vomero, Vincenzo; Zilli, Alberto
Abstract The Italian natural history museums are facing a critical situation, due to the progressive loss of scientific relevance, decreasing economic investments, and scarcity of personnel. This is extremely alarming, especially for ensuring the long-term preservation of the precious collections they host. Moreover, a commitment in fieldwork to increase scientific collections and concurrent taxonomic research are rarely considered priorities, while most of the activities are addressed to public events with political payoffs, such as exhibits, didactic meetings, expositions, and talks. This is possibly due to the absence of a national museum that would have better steered research activities and overall concepts for collection management. We here propose that Italian natural history museums collaborate to instate a “metamuseum”, by establishing a reciprocal interaction network aimed at sharing budgetary and technical resources, which would assure better coordination of common long-term goals and scientific activities. PMID:25709525
Objectives: To understand the natural history of thyroid cancer and high risk groups; To define the biological behavior of thyroid cancer and relate it to various prognostic factors and risk groups; To divide the management strategies into conservation, radical surgery and radioactive iodine treatment; To define the role of external radiation therapy and the management of complex and advanced thyroid cancer; To analyze the results of management of anaplastic thyroid cancer and make a plea for combined modality treatment; To define the current role of genetic studies in medullary thyroid cancer. At the end of this refresher course, the attendees will be able to understand the natural history, the prognostic factors and risk groups and surgical and combined modality treatment in thyroid cancer
The natural history of HCV infection remains ill-defined. The knowledge accumulated on the progression of HCV to date is important, however. It is now abundantly clear that the progression of disease is generally slow, and the development of cirrhosis and its complications is a possibility, not a probability as hitherto thought. Predicting the outcome remains a quandary for clinicians. Ultimately it will be possible to define the natural history of hepatitis C infection through a combination of research in the fields of virology, immunology, and molecular biology and by monitoring the biochemical and histologic progress of the disease. Only then will it be possible to intervene appropriately and develop new therapies to prevent the progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
The American Museum of Natural History, one of the world's largest natural history museums, is the locus of a rich array of scientific research, exhibition and educational resources through its Department of Astrophysics, its Rose Center for Earth and Space and its Hall of Meteorites. For the past decade, the Museum's National Center for Science Literacy, Education and Technology has leveraged these assets to create a panoply of web-based resources for students, teachers and the general public. This session will review several of these resources, including the Digital Universe (a three-dimensional mapping of the Universe); The Solar System (an online graduate course for K-12 teachers); multimedia highlighting searches for exoplanets and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays; Journey to the Stars (a DVD version of the current planetarium show); and the astronomy section of Ology (a website for children ages 7 and up). A copy of the Journey to the Stars DVD will be provided to all attendees. )
Newman, L. S.; Lloyd, J.; Daniloff, E.
With the advent of in vitro immunologic testing, we can now detect exposed individuals who are sensitized to beryllium and those who have chronic beryllium disease (CBD) with lung pathology and impairment. Earlier detection and more accurate diagnostic tools raise new questions about the natural history of sensitization and granulomatous disease. Preliminary data suggest that early detection identifies people who are sensitized to beryllium and that these individuals are at risk for progressi...
Buckwalter, Joseph A.; Brandser, Eric; Robinson, Robert A.
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is not a well defined or predictable disease. Instead, it is a spectrum of disorders of unknown etiology that vary widely in presentation and natural history, but have in common the proliferation of histiocytic cells and infiltration of these cells into normal tissues. Although the lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis consist primarily of histiocytes, eosinophils are a prominent feature in some lesions. Lesions may develop in any tissue, but bone, skin and ly...
In Kashmir Valley the skin cancer has a very peculiar distribution as most of these are directly/indirectly attributed to the use of Kangri -an indigenous fire pot used to generate warmth and used in winter months to protect body from cold. In this presentation authors have tried to evaluate the natural history of this peculiar skin cancer and the protocol of use of prophylactic nodal irradiation to achieve a cure with better quality of life
Hsu, Jason; Keener, Jay D.
Degenerative rotator cuff disease is commonly associated with ageing and is often asymptomatic. The factors related to tear progression and pain development are just now being defined through longitudinal natural history studies. The majority of studies that follow conservatively treated painful cuff tears or asymptomatic tears that are monitored at regular intervals show slow progression of tear enlargement and muscle degeneration over time. These studies have highlighted greater risks for d...
Wedatilake, Y; Brown, R; Mcfarland, R.; Yaplito-Lee, J.; Morris, A.A.; Champion, M; Jardine, P E; Clarke, A.; Thorburn, D R; Taylor, R. W.; Land, J M; Forrest, K.; Dobbie, A.; Simmons, L; Aasheim, E. T.
Background SURF1 deficiency, a monogenic mitochondrial disorder, is the most frequent cause of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficient Leigh syndrome (LS). We report the first natural history study of SURF1 deficiency. Methods We conducted a multi-centre case notes review of 44 SURF1-deficient patients from ten different UK centres and two Australian centres. Survival data for LRPPRC-deficient LS and nuclear-encoded complex I-deficient LS patients were obtained from previous publications. The su...
Wong, Su Yong; Bennett, Bruce
The natural history of severe thrombocytopenia in two patients with infectious mononucleosis (minimum platelet counts under 10 × 109 and 17 × 109/l respectively) is described. In both, the platelet count rose rapidly and spontaneously, reaching approximately 100 × 109/l on the seventh day. Bleeding symptoms were also transient and never life-threatening. The possibility of very rapid spontaneous recovery from severe thrombocytopenia must be borne in mind in assessing the effect of any drug in...
Karnebeek, van, C.D.; Naeff, M.S.J.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Hennekam, R C M; Offringa, M
AIMS—To investigate the natural history of mitral valve and aortic abnormalities in patients with Marfan syndrome during childhood and adolescence. METHODS—Fifty two patients with Marfan syndrome were followed for a mean of 7.9 years. Occurrence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes was measured clinically and by ultrasound examination. RESULTS—Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) was diagnosed in 46 patients at a mean age of 9.7 years, more than 80% of whom presented as "silent MVP"...
Tammelin, Mira; Kauppila, Tommi
For efficient inland water protection, it is essential to know the natural states of lakes or, at least, the reference conditions before intensive human impact. The estimation of the natural state is particularly difficult for geologically anomalous areas, where naturally eutrophic lakes are located within nutrient-poorer regions. This is because of the lack of monitoring data and pristine reference lakes and the poor functioning of regional paleoecological nutrient models in such anomalous areas. A paleoecological model that is specifically targeted to the anomalously eutrophic area, however, could be used to interpret the eutrophication histories and natural states of the naturally eutrophic lakes in that area. We applied a targeted paleoecological diatom-total phosphorus transfer function to examine the natural eutrophy and eutrophication history of a central basin and two upstream lakes of the anomalously nutrient-rich Iisalmi watercourse in Eastern Finland. In addition to the nutrient reconstruction based on stratigraphic diatom samples, we studied chrysophyte cyst to diatom ratio, taxonomic diversity and the magnetic susceptibility of the sediment core to find further evidence for possible changes in the lakes and their catchments. The results show that the three lakes are naturally eutrophic with average background total phosphorus levels between 40 μg/l - 60 μg/l. However, human-induced eutrophication has also affected the lakes, which can be seen as rapid changes in the diatom assemblages and magnetic susceptibility between the sediment depths of 40 cm and 90 cm. The modeled lake water total phosphorus concentration has increased less abruptly, approximately 20 μg/l altogether, and the reconstructions of the top sediments mainly correspond well with the water quality observations of the last few decades. The results of this study indicate that a targeted paleoecological nutrient model can be used to interpret the natural state and the eutrophication
As a reading group,young adults are specially targeted to make them grow healthily.Generally speaking,the moral sense of young adult literature is positive.To explore the outlook on nature of young adult literature,this paper selects four books as analyzing sources including Charlotte’s Web(1952),A Day No Pigs Would Die(1972),Julie of the Wolves(1972),and Homecoming(1981).
MARY F WILLSON
Full Text Available In recent years natural history has been derided by some scientists as an old-fashion endeavor that does not follow the model of "hard" science and therefore should be considered "dead" and replaced by modern ecology, evolutionary biology, and conservation biology. We contend that natural history has much to offer to contemporary scientists and that it has a primary role in the creative process of generating novel hypotheses and designing significant field experiments and observationsEn años recientes, la historia natural ha sido desacreditada por científicos que la consideran un modelo obsoleto de ciencia y que, en consecuencia, se trataría de una disciplina "muerta" que ha sido reemplazada por la ecología moderna, la biología evolutiva y la biología de la conservación. Argumentamos aquí que la historia natural tiene mucho que ofrecer a los científicos contemporáneos y que juega un rol principal en el proceso de creación de hipótesis y en el diseño acertado de observaciones y experimentos de campo
Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa
Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…
Newson, Rachel S.; Kemps, Eva B.
The current study investigated the nature of subjective cognitive complaints of older adults in relation to a broad array of individual cognitive functions known to decline with age. A 60-item questionnaire was developed to examine: (1) whether older adults experience problems with these cognitive functions (problems with cognition); (2) the…
Full Text Available Workers from the genus Aphaenogaster are among the most abundant ants in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. The biology of these so-called rudis-group ant species, including details about their sociometry, productivity, natural history, and behavior, are synthesized here using published and newly collected data. The latter was collected, in part, using an artificial field nest, and its construction and use are explained. Ants of the rudis group occur in high densities in forest habitats (0.5–1.3 nests m2, have moderate sized colonies (population means from 266 to 613 workers per nest, and are keystone seed dispersers. Many aspects of their life history and behavior follow an annual cycle that tracks seasonal changes. These include foraging, reproduction, the production of new workers and nest migrations. This synthesis highlights what is known about these ants and reveals gaps in our knowledge that require further study.
Biswas, Rabiul; Herman, Frederic
Recently, optical luminescences from quartz and feldspar have been proposed to have great potential in low temperature thermochronology (natural luminescence levels, which are in the dynamic equilibrium because of competition between growth due to ambient radioactivity and decay due thermal and athermal loss, are determined using multiple aliquot regeneration (MAR) protocol. Multiple thermal signals with wide range of thermal stability, extracted from composite glow curve, particularly low temperature part which is more sensitive to ambient temperature, is promising for better constraint on late stage cooling history.
Kjærgaard, Peter C.
to take the discussion of science and religion beyond our own professional circles. Peter Harrison's The Territories of Science and Religion gives us an opportunity to do so. We can use his book to understand why people consistently get the relation wrong. However, we need to take the next step ourselves......, involve historians in the common academic goal, across disciplines, to make sense of the world around us and make that combined knowledge truly useful. Evolution and natural history might help to that effect....
Aim: To elucidate the natural history of dot-like or “black spot” cavernomas. Materials and methods: Data of 18 children with black spot cavernomas were analysed retrospectively. Results: Eleven boys and seven girls presented 187 black spot cavernomas during a mean observation period of 5.5 years. Mean and median age at diagnosis of the 187 cavernomas was 9.6 years. There were 70 de novo black spot cavernomas. Boys presented significantly more cavernomas than girls. There were three KRIT1 mutation carriers and four PDCD10 mutation carriers. Children with a PDCD10 mutation presented significantly more lesions than those children with a KRIT1 mutation (mean number of lesions per patient: 23.3 versus 3.3, respectively). There were 10 radiological haemorrhagic events caused by 10 black spot lesions. Two of these events were symptomatic. The haemorrhage rate of black spot cavernomas was 0.7% per lesion-year. Conclusions: A mean bleeding rate of 0.7% per lesion-year is lower than the overall haemorrhage rates provided in the literature. Nonetheless, black spot cavernomas are not purely benign lesions. Furthermore, genetic mutations may play a role in the natural history of black spot cavernomas
Thombs, Brett D.; Bennett, Wendy; Roy C Ziegelstein; Bernstein, David P; Scher, Christine D.; Forde, David R.
Background A number of practice guidelines and recommendations call for the assessment of childhood abuse history among adult medical patients. The cultural sensitivity of screening questions, however, has not been examined. Objective To assess whether questions that inquire about childhood abuse history function differently for black and white patients. Design Cross-sectional telephone surveys in 1997 and 2003. Subjects Randomly sampled adults from Memphis, Tenn (1997, N = 832; 2003, N = 967...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Natural History Museum of Utah has... may contact the Natural History Museum of Utah. Repatriation of the human remains and...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT... Natural History, 1390 E. Presidents Circle, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, telephone (801) 581-3876, before... inventory of human remains in the possession and control of the Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Natural History Museum of Utah has... may contact the Natural History Museum of Utah. Repatriation of the human remains and...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT...: Professor Derek E.G. Briggs, Director, Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 208118, New Haven..., Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 208118, New Haven, CT 06520-8118, telephone (203)...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT...: Professor Derek E.G. Briggs, Director, Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 208118, New Haven... Natural History, P.O. Box 208118, New Haven, CT 06520-8118, telephone (203) 432-3752 before May 31,...
Becerra, José María
Full Text Available We propose the founding of a Natural History bioinformatics framework, which would solve one of the main problems in Natural History: data which is scattered around in many incompatible systems (not only computer systems, but also paper ones. This framework consists of computer resources (hardware and software, methodologies that ease the circulation of data, and staff expert in dealing with computers, who will develop software solutions to the problems encountered by naturalists. This system is organized in three layers: acquisition, data and analysis. Each layer is described, and an account of the elements that constitute it given.
Se presentan las bases de una estructura bioinformática para Historia Natural, que trata de resolver uno de los principales problemas en ésta: la presencia de datos distribuidos a lo largo de muchos sistemas incompatibles entre sí (y no sólo hablamos de sistemas informáticos, sino también en papel. Esta estructura se sustenta en recursos informáticos (en sus dos vertientes: hardware y software, en metodologías que permitan la fácil circulación de los datos, y personal experto en el uso de ordenadores que se encargue de desarrollar soluciones software a los problemas que plantean los naturalistas. Este sistema estaría organizado en tres capas: de adquisición, de datos y de análisis. Cada una de estas capas se describe, indicando los elementos que la componen.
Smith, Sanford Sherrick
Pennsylvania's 4-H Youth Development Program relies on adult volunteers to reach youth with educational information and opportunities. Finding adults willing to do this volunteer work is challenging. This study looks at the current status of adult volunteerism with natural resources 4-H projects, and seeks to understand potential volunteers. The literature has much to offer in regards to general volunteer trends, management, motivations, and task preferences; however, few studies focus on volunteers in natural resources or environmental education. A telephone survey conducted with county 4-H agents revealed that only 3.2% of Pennsylvania's 4-H volunteers work with natural resources projects in 56 out of 67 counties, and that very few volunteers have any formal background in natural resources. Semi-structured interviews with 41 adult volunteers currently working with natural resources projects explored volunteer demographics, history, program design preferences, and ideas for seeking more volunteers. Findings from the telephone survey and the semi-structured interviews were used to generate a mail survey with large, random samples from three population groups: (1) 4-H Volunteers, (2) 4-H Parents, and (3) Natural Resources Professionals. Confidence with youth and subject matter, and adult willingness to volunteer was explored for each of the groups in relation to background, demographic characteristics, motivational needs, past and present volunteer activity, personal interests, and program design importance. Natural resources subject matter confidence was shown to be the most significant variable determining willingness to volunteer for all three groups. The variables that contributed to subject matter and youth confidence varied for each population. Key variables effecting willingness to volunteer included outdoor activity level, personal interest in natural resources, the need to fulfill feelings of social responsibility, and confidence with youth. Program design
Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Raja, Manickam; Vijayakumar, Chinnian; Malaiammal, Punniyam; Mayden, Richard L
The Zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a well-known vertebrate model species widely used in research associated with biomedical areas and comparative and evolutionary biology. Interestingly, despite the importance of this species, little is known about the natural history, habitats, and native distribution. In our study of the species, we collected individuals from twenty-one wild populations from within the species' natural distribution, ranging from streams/rivers of the Western Ghats of Peninsular India to those of the Western and North-Eastern Himalayas. Habitat types are identified from various geographic locations. Danio rerio is largely confined to and most frequently associated with habitats of low flow and with a sandy substrate in secondary and tertiary channels connected with the main channel of a stream/river, or habitats adjacent to wetlands and paddy fields. These connections can be natural channels or man-made irrigation canals, beels, or culture ponds. Among the 21 populations, individuals from two populations (one from Orissa and another from Arunachal Pradesh) were much larger in size (total length) when compared to other populations. The general habitats of Danio rerio vary from small to large mountainous and lowland streams/rivers, wetlands, and paddy fields. PMID:23590398
Dubois, Bruno; Hampel, Harald; Feldman, Howard H; Scheltens, Philip; Aisen, Paul; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Benali, Habib; Bertram, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Broich, Karl; Cavedo, Enrica; Crutch, Sebastian; Dartigues, Jean-François; Duyckaerts, Charles; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Gauthier, Serge; Genthon, Remy; Gouw, Alida A; Habert, Marie-Odile; Holtzman, David M; Kivipelto, Miia; Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, José-Luis; O'Bryant, Sid E; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rowe, Christopher; Salloway, Stephen; Schneider, Lon S; Sperling, Reisa; Teichmann, Marc; Carrillo, Maria C; Cummings, Jeffrey; Jack, Cliff R
During the past decade, a conceptual shift occurred in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering the disease as a continuum. Thanks to evolving biomarker research and substantial discoveries, it is now possible to identify the disease even at the preclinical stage before the occurrence of the first clinical symptoms. This preclinical stage of AD has become a major research focus as the field postulates that early intervention may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. To date, very little evidence is established on this "silent" stage of the disease. A clarification is needed about the definitions and lexicon, the limits, the natural history, the markers of progression, and the ethical consequence of detecting the disease at this asymptomatic stage. This article is aimed at addressing all the different issues by providing for each of them an updated review of the literature and evidence, with practical recommendations. PMID:27012484
Full Text Available Michael Tomasello has greatly expanded our knowledge of human cognition and how it differs from that of other animals. In this commentary to his recent book A Natural History of Human Thinking, I first critique some of the presuppositions and arguments of his evolutionary story about how homo sapiens’ cognition emerged. For example, I question the strategy of relying on the modern chimpanzee as a model for our last shared ancestor, and I doubt the idea that what changed first over evolutionary time was hominin behavior, which then in turn brought about changes in cognition. In the second half of the commentary I aim to show that the author oscillates between an additive and a transformative account of human shared intentionality. I argue that shared intentionality shapes cognition in its entirety and therefore precludes the possibility that humans have the same, individual intentionality (as shown in, e.g. their instrumental reasoning as other apes.
Polypoid cystitis is a benign exophytic mucosal lesion of the bladder. Differentiating it from papillary transitional cell carcinoma is difficult due to their similar characteristics. Although indwelling catheter is the main well-known cause of polypoid cystitis, some case reports unrelated to catheterization have been described. However, the radiological findings of polypoid cystitis have rarely been reported. We hereby describe polypoid cystitis in a 20-year-old man without a history of catheterization along with the computed tomographic findings.
Javaheri, Shahrokh; Smith, Jason; Chung, Eugene
Rationale: Central sleep apnea (CSA) may occasionally occur in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during titration with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and the natural history of CPAP-emergent CSA. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 1286 patients with a diagnosis of OSA who underwent titration with a positive airway device during a 1-year period. Patients were seen in consultation and underwent full-night attended polysomnography followed by full-night attended CPAP titration. Four weeks after CPAP therapy, patients returned to the clinic for follow-up, and objective adherence to CPAP was recorded. In patients who had CSA on CPAP, a second full-night attended CPAP titration was recommended. Results: Eighty-four of the 1286 patients developed a central apnea index (CAI) of 5 or greater per hour while on CPAP. The incidence of CSA varied from 3% to 10% monthly, with an overall incidence of 6.5%. Forty--two of the 84 patients returned for a second CPAP titration. In 33 patients, CSA was eliminated. In each of the remaining 9 patients, the CAI remained at 5 or greater per hour, with an average of 13 per hour. These patients characteristically had the most severe OSA, and 5 had a CAI of 5 or more per hour at baseline. Two of the 9 patients were on opioids Conclusions: In this large retrospective study of 1286 patients with a diagnosis of OSA, 6.5% had CPAP-emergent or persistent CSA. However, CPAP-emergent CSA was generally transitory and was eliminated within 8 weeks after CPAP therapy. The prevalence of CPAP-persistent CSA was about 1.5%. Severity of OSA, a CAI of 5 or greater per hour, and use of opioids were potential risk factors. Citation: Javaheri S; Smith J; Chung E. The prevalence and natural history of complex sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):205-211. PMID:19960639
Fortune, Anne F
Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL) is an indolent T lymphoproliferative disorder that was difficult to diagnose with certainty until clonality testing of the T cell receptor gene became routinely available. We studied the natural history and response to treatment in 25 consecutive patients with T-LGL diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 in which the diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis, to define an effective treatment algorithm. The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 27-78), with a male to female ratio of 1:1.8 and presenting features of fatigue (n = 13), recurrent infections (n = 9), and\\/or abnormal blood counts (n = 5). Thirteen patients with symptomatic disease were treated as follows: pentostatin (nine patients), cyclosporine (six patients), methotrexate (three patients), and alemtuzumab in two patients in whom pentostatin was ineffective. Pentostatin was the single most effective therapy, with a response rate of 75% and minimal toxicity. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) 37 months from diagnosis were 80% and 52%, respectively. Treatment of T-LGL should be reserved for patients with symptomatic disease, but in this series, pentostatin treatment was less toxic and more effective than cyclosporine or methotrexate.
Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Cox, Trevor F
Increased circulating homogentisic acid in body fluids occurs in alkaptonuria (AKU) due to lack of enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase leading in turn to conversion of HGA to a pigmented melanin-like polymer, known as ochronosis. The tissue damage in AKU is due to ochronosis. A potential treatment, a drug called nitisinone, to decrease formation of HGA is available. However, deploying nitisinone effectively requires its administration at the most optimal time in the natural history. AKU has a long apparent latent period before overt ochronosis develops. The rate of change of ochronosis and its consequences over time following its recognition has not been fully described in any quantitative manner. Two potential tools are described that were used to quantitate disease burden in AKU. One tool describes scoring the clinical features that includes clinical assessments, investigations and questionnaires in 15 patients with AKU. The second tool describes a scoring system that only includes items obtained from questionnaires in 44 people with AKU. Analysis of the data reveals distinct phases of the disease, a pre-ochronotic phase and an ochronotic phase. The ochronotic phase appears to demonstrate an earlier slower progression followed by a rapidly progressive phase. The rate of change of the disease will have implications for monitoring the course of the disease as well as decide on the most appropriate time that treatment should be started for it to be effective either in prevention or arrest of the disease. PMID:21748407
Full Text Available Honeybees and their products are highly prized by many cultures around the world, and as a result, indigenous communities have come to possess rich and detailed knowledge of the biology of these important insects. In this paper, I present an in-depth investigation into some aspects of honeybee natural history, as related to me by the Solega people of southern India. The Solega recognize, name, and exploit four honeybee species, and are well aware of the geographical and temporal distributions of each one. In spite of not being beekeepers – as they only forage for wild honey – their knowledge of obscure and complex phenomena such as honeybee gender and reproduction rivals that of comparable, non-industrial beekeeping societies. Swarming, another hard-to-understand honeybee behavior, is also accurately explained by Solega consultants. I contrast this knowledge to that of European bee-keeping cultures, as evidenced by the writings of Aristotle and 18th century European beekeepers. This paper shows that the Solega have a reliable and internally consistent body of honeybee knowledge based entirely on brief encounters with these wild, migratory insects that are present in the forest for only part of the year.
Seringe, R; Bonnet, J-C; Katti, E
Based on a review of the literature, the authors have made a critical study of several etiological factors. Endogenous factors such as acetabular dysplasia, increased anteversion of the femoral neck, and capsular laxity support the genetic theory but are neither constant nor necessary and are only facilitating factors. The major factor seems to be a mechanical one linked to the position in the uterus: hyperflexion with adduction and external rotation constituting the dislocating foetal posture combined with abnormal pressure on the greater trochanter and leading to expulsion of the head upward and backward. This theory can explain the natural history of C D H which is first, at birth a hip instability followed by two possible evolutions: either persistent luxation becoming irreducible or spontaneous stabilisation leading sometimes to complete healing or to residual abnormalities (subluxation or dysplasia). This concept suggests practical conclusions: the importance of an early diagnosis, the selection of the signs of the hip at risk, the pattern of prevention, the role for non-clinical investigations, the principles of the treatment based on postures, the indications for the different types of treatment. PMID:24456762
Grimaldi, Antonio; Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Freers, Juergen; Lachaud, Matthias; Mirabel, Mariana; Ferreira, Beatriz; Narayanan, Kumar; Celermajer, David S; Sidi, Daniel; Jouven, Xavier; Marijon, Eloi
Tropical endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is a neglected disease of poverty that afflicts rural populations in tropical low-income countries, with some certain high-prevalence areas. Tropical EMF is characterized by the deposition of fibrous tissue in the endomyocardium, leading to restrictive physiology. Since the first descriptions in Uganda in 1948, high-frequency areas for EMF have included Africa, Asia, and South America. Although there is no clear consensus on a unified hypothesis, it seems likely that dietary, environmental, and infectious factors may combine in a susceptible individual to give rise to an inflammatory process leading to endomyocardial damage and scar formation. The natural history of EMF includes an active phase with recurrent flare-ups of inflammation evolving to a chronic phase leading to restrictive heart failure. In the chronic phase, biventricular involvement is the most common presentation, followed by isolated right-sided heart disease. Marked ascites out of proportion to peripheral edema usually develops as a typical feature of EMF. EMF carries a very poor prognosis. In addition to medical management of heart failure, early open heart surgery (endocardectomy and valve repair/replacement) appears to improve outcomes to some extent; however, surgery is technically challenging and not available in most endemic areas. Increased awareness among health workers and policy makers is the need of the hour for the unhindered development of efficient preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27297343
Bixler, Edward O; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Liao, Duanping; Calhoun, Susan; Rodriguez-Colon, Sol M; Gaines, Jordan; He, Fan; Vgontzas, Alexandros N
Because there is a lack of agreed upon diagnostic criteria, it is critical to understand the natural history of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in children in order to establish treatment strategies based on objective data.The Penn State Child Cohort is a representative, general-population sample of 700 elementary school children at baseline, of whom 421 were reassessed 8 years later, during adolescence.The remission of childhood apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥2 events per h in adolescence was 52.9%. Using the higher threshold of AHI ≥5 events per h, remission was 100.0%, with 50.0% partially remitting to AHI 2- obesity). Moreover, consistent with recent studies in adults, this study includes the novel cross-sectional finding that visceral fat is associated with SDB as early as adolescence. PMID:26846837
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.
This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of the...
Nyamathi, Adeline M; Marlow, Elizabeth; Branson, Catherine; Marfisee, Mary; Nandy, Karabi
HBV vaccination rates for incarcerated adults remain low despite their high risk for infection. This study determined predictors of vaccine completion in homeless adults (N=297) who reported histories of incarceration and participated in one of three nurse-led hepatitis programs of different intensity. Moreover time since release from incarceration was also considered. Just over half of the former prisoners completed the vaccine series. Older age (≥ 40), having a partner, and chronic homeless...
Kriyakala, also known as Shatkriyakala, is predominantly a concept of Ayurveda which describes different phases of disease formation in its own unique way. This concept can be comparable with natural history of disease in modern medicine. Though many authorities compare it simply with pathogenesis but a meticulous look will reveal its relation with natural history of disease. A good understanding of natural history of disease helps to frame public health intervention strategies, more speciall...
Knight-Davis, Stacey; Bruns, Todd; Tucker, Gordon C.
INTRODUCTION Digitization of natural history collections is underway in earnest around the world and presented via platforms such as JSTOR Plants. Few natural history digital collections of specimens exist in academic institutional repositories, in spite of the fact that many universities have repositories and also hold extensive natural history collections. At Eastern Illinois University, a mid-sized public university, librarians worked with the Biological Sciences department to develop the ...
van Karnebeek, C D M; Naeff, M; Mulder, B; Hennekam, R; Offringa, M
AIMS—To investigate the natural history of mitral valve and aortic abnormalities in patients with Marfan syndrome during childhood and adolescence. METHODS—Fifty two patients with Marfan syndrome were followed for a mean of 7.9 years. Occurrence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes was measured clinically and by ultrasound examination. RESULTS—Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) was diagnosed in 46 patients at a mean age of 9.7 years, more than 80% of whom presented as "silent MVP". Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurred in 25 patients, aortic dilatation in 43, and aortic regurgitation (AR) in 13. Both MVP and aortic dilatation developed at a constant rate during the age period 5-20 years. In 23 patients MVP was diagnosed before aortic dilatation, in 18 the reverse occurred, and in 11 patients the two abnormalities were diagnosed simultaneously. During follow up, 21 patients showed progression of mitral valve dysfunction; progression of aortic abnormalities occurred in 13. Aortic surgery was performed in 10; two died of subsequent complications. Mitral valve surgery was performed in six. In sporadic female Marfan patients the age at initial diagnosis of MVP, MR, aortic dilatation, and AR was lowest, the grade of MR and AR most severe, the time lapse between the occurrence of MVP and subsequent MR as well as between dilatation and subsequent AR shortest, and the risk for cardiovascular associated morbidity and mortality highest. CONCLUSIONS—During childhood and adolescence in Marfan syndrome, mitral valve dysfunction as well as aortic abnormalities develop and progress gradually, often without symptoms, but may cause considerable morbidity and mortality by the end of the second decade, especially in female sporadic patients. PMID:11159287
Hough, R.; Cleverley, J. S.
New studies of gold are revealing how metallography is a key component of our understanding of the deposition of precious alloys in primary ore systems. Alluvial gold nuggets once thought to be secondary in origin have now been shown to be the erosional residue of hypogene systems, i.e. primary. This has been achieved through analysis of the internal crystallography using electron back scattered diffraction of large area ion beam polished gold samples. Comparisons of the microstructure are also being made with experiments on gold alloys with the same Ag contents where real time heating and in-situ microstructure mapping reveal the structures are of high temperature origin. A new frontier in gold analysis in both hypogene and supergene systems is the nano domain. In hypogene settings gold at all scales can be metallic and particulate as has been directly observed in refractory ores, or the so called "invisible gold" in pyrite and arsenopyrite. Such nanoparticulate and colloidal transport of gold is a viable mechanism of dispersing the gold during weathering of ore deposits. These gold nanoparticles, long known about in materials sciences and manufacturing have now been seen in these natural environments. Such colloids are also likely to play an important role in gold transport in hydrothermal deposits. The regularly heterogeneous distribution, trace concentration and nanoparticulate grain size of metallic gold in all ore systems has made it difficult for direct observation. Yet, it is critical to be able to establish a broad view of the microstructural/microchemical residence of the actual gold in a given sample. New generation element mapping tools now allow us to 'see' this invisible gold component for the first time and to probe its chemistry and controls on deposition. These studies have the potential to provide a new approach and view of the formation, deposition and provenance history of the metal in all gold deposits.
Kruszka, Paul; Addissie, Yonit A; Yarnell, Colin M P; Hadley, Donald W; Guillen Sacoto, Maria J; Platte, Petra; Paelecke, Yvonne; Collmann, Hartmut; Snow, Nicole; Schweitzer, Tilmann; Boyadjiev, Simeon A; Aravidis, Christos; Hall, Samantha E; Mulliken, John B; Roscioli, Tony; Muenke, Maximilian
Muenke syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by coronal suture craniosynostosis, hearing loss, developmental delay, carpal, and calcaneal fusions, and behavioral differences. Reduced penetrance and variable expressivity contribute to the wide spectrum of clinical findings. Muenke syndrome constitutes the most common syndromic form of craniosynostosis, with an incidence of 1 in 30,000 births and is defined by the presence of the p.Pro250Arg mutation in FGFR3. Participants were recruited from international craniofacial surgery and genetic clinics. Affected individuals, parents, and their siblings, if available, were enrolled in the study if they had a p.Pro250Arg mutation in FGFR3. One hundred and six patients from 71 families participated in this study. In 51 informative probands, 33 cases (64.7%) were inherited. Eighty-five percent of the participants had craniosynostosis (16 of 103 did not have craniosynostosis), with 47.5% having bilateral and 28.2% with unilateral synostosis. Females and males were similarly affected with bicoronal craniosynostosis, 50% versus 44.4% (P = 0.84), respectively. Clefting was rare (1.1%). Hearing loss was identified in 70.8%, developmental delay in 66.3%, intellectual disability in 35.6%, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 23.7%, and seizures in 20.2%. In patients with complete skeletal surveys (upper and lower extremity x-rays), 75% of individuals were found to have at least a single abnormal radiographical finding in addition to skull findings. This is the largest study of the natural history of Muenke syndrome, adding valuable clinical information to the care of these individuals including behavioral and cognitive impairment data, vision changes, and hearing loss. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26740388
This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.
Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian
Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature. PMID:27476147
Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.
Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…
Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.
Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…
Life history or biographical approaches to research in lifelong learning may be particularly useful for researchers working from a social purpose and/or feminist perspective. Adult educators working from an emancipatory framework are often curious about factors that shape people's lives, both from an individualistic, biographical perspective…
Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R
Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities. PMID:24580636
Curtis, Valerie A
Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of disgust. Intuition about hygiene, dirt and disease can be found underlying belief about health and disease through...
Greeney, Harold F.; Dyer, Lee A.; Pyrcz, Tomasz W.
The immature stages and natural history of Mygona irmina Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Pronophilina) from northeastern Ecuadorian cloud forests are described based on 17 rearings. The dwarf bamboo, Chusquea c.f. scandens Kunth (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly on the bottom side of mature host plant leaves. Larvae take 102–109 days to mature from egg to adult. Adults are encountered most frequently on sunny days, flying rapidly over areas ...
Asher Marc A
risks of major surgery, a 6 to 29% chance of requiring re-operation, and the remote possibility of developing a pain management problem. Knowledge of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis natural history and long-term treatment effects is and will always remain somewhat incomplete. However, enough is know to provide patients and parents the information needed to make informed decisions about management options.
Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan
The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...
Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Barrows, C. W.
In the Anthropocene, the relevancy of natural history in environmental science is challenged and marginalized today more than ever. We tested the hypothesis that natural history is relevant to the fields of environmental science and ecology by assessing the values, needs, and decisions related to natural history of graduate students and environmental science professionals across 31 universities and various employers, respectively, in California. Graduate students surveyed (93.3%) agreed that natural history was relevant to science, approximately 70% believed it "essential" for conducting field-based research; however, 54.2% felt inadequately trained to teach a natural history course and would benefit from additional training in natural history (> 80%). Of the 185 professionals surveyed, all felt that natural history was relevant to science and "essential" or "desirable" in their vocation (93%). Our results indicate a disconnect between the value and relevancy of natural history in 21st century ecological science and opportunities for gaining those skills and knowledge through education and training.
Haagsma, EB; Kok, T; Schirm, J; Smid, WM; van der Meer, J
Background/Aims: Knowledge of the natural history of hepatitis C is useful for counselling patients and planning treatment, More data are needed from unselected patient groups without concomitant disease, The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of hepatitis C, two decades after inf
Markaki, Vassiliki; Tsiflidou, Effie; Triperina, Evangelia; Gkinis, Stayros; Palavitsinis, Nikos
Natural History Museums (NHMs) are unique spaces that have only recently come to comprehend the effectiveness of the learning opportunities they offer to their visitors. Their collections form a rich source of knowledge about Earth’s biodiversity and natural history with a high quality scientific content aiming with the exploitation of new online technologies and tools to become available to everyone. In this paper, we focus in the use of digital cultural resources, and more specifically digi...
Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.
Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful – dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862
Gerofotis, Christos D; Ioannou, Charalampos S; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T
Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful - dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862
Tschinkel, Walter R
The arboreal ant, Crematogaster ashmeadi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is the most dominant arboreal ant in the pine forests of the coastal plain of northern Florida. The majority of pine trees harbor a colony of these ants. The colonies inhabit multiple chambers abandoned by bark-mining caterpillars, especially those of the family Cossidae, in the outer bark of living pines. They also inhabit ground level termite galleries in the bark, often locating the queen in galleries. The density of chambers and ants is highest in the base of the tree and drops sharply with height on the trunk. Because chambers are formed in the inner layer of bark, they gradually move outward as more bark layers are laid down, eventually sloughing off the tree's outer surface. Chambers have a mean lifetime of about 25 yr. The abundant chambers in pine bark are excavated by a small population of caterpillars and accumulate over decades. Ant colonies also inhabit abandoned galleries of woodboring beetles in dead branches in the crowns of pines. Because newly mated queens found colonies in abandoned woodboring beetle galleries in the first dead branches that form on pine saplings, C. ashmeadi is dependent on cavities made by other insects throughout its life cycle, and does little if any excavation of its own. Mature colonies nest preferentially in chambers greater than 10 cm(2) in area, a relatively rare chamber size. In natural pine forests, this does not seem to limit the ant's populations. Founding queens contain about 50% fat and lose about half of their dry weight during the claustral period, converting approximately half of this lost weight into progeny. The claustral period is about 40 to 50 days at 27 degrees C. Mature colonies contain several tens of thousands of workers (est. up to 80,000), and have a life expectancy of 10 to 15 years. Each colony occupies an entire tree, and sometimes two trees if they are close together. Within a colony, there is a single queen capable of
Sakyi, Kwame; Melchior, Maria; Chollet, Aude; Surkan, Pamela,
International audience BACKGROUND: The joint effects of multiple social risk factors on substance use, such as parental divorce and parental history of depression, have rarely been studied in young adult offspring. METHODS: We examined the combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on current cannabis use among a community sample of young adults in France. Parental divorce was ascertained as divorce or separation before 2009. Parental history of depression base...
It has been believed that the outbreak of echinococcosis at Rebun Island had ceased by 1970. The first patient was diagnosed in 1936 and 131 patients have been authorized as echinococcosis so far. The conference of measures against the outbreak had been organized in 1948 and started to eradicate Echinococcus multilocularis from the Island. Medical examination to detect the patients and the capture and autopsy of dogs and cats had been carried out hard till 1970. At that time, foxes imported from Simusiru Island in the middle Kuriles during the years 1924 to 1926 had already disappeared and it has seemed to be sure that stray dogs and cats might carry E. multilocularis and excrete infectious eggs in stead of foxes. Since we have had no real data concerning the natural history of patients with echinococcosis without any treatments, it can not be recognized the time of infection and the role of dogs or cats on the spread of echinococcosis at Rebun Island. From the new data, it is concluded that the active life cycle of E. multilocularis between foxes and vole might be closed by 1940, since the last patient infected with E. multilocularis was born in 1940 and died in 1945. Furthermore, it is estimated that more than 200 patients (3 to 4% of people at the island) might die from echinococcosis, because of the fact of the unusual increase of mortality of liver disorders and oldness observed during the years of 1940 to 1960. 81 patients with the high possibility of echinococcosis detected from 1937 to 1963 can be added to 131 authorized patients. Surprisingly, it is noticed that the standard deviations of ages of death of 94 patients born in Meiji era (1880-1912) and 59 in Taisho and Showa eras (1912-1940) are 63.16 +/- 11.68, and 34.32 +/- 11.87, respectively. It means that both old and young people might be infected simultaneously but for the long period. There was no difference between the susceptibility of young and old men to E. multilocularis. The numbers of male
The UK has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in Western Europe. A retrospective record-based study was conducted in an East Devon general practice to gain greater understanding of the outcome of first teenage pregnancy and subsequent reproductive history. The comparison group was women who had first conceived between the ages of 25 and 29 years.
Shameem, Koormath Mohammed; Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Nasser, Mannankadiyan; Chaboo, Caroline Simmrita
Abstract Members of the Old World hispine tribe, Coelaenomenoderini, are documented on host plants of Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, and Zingiberales. A few species are renowned pests of oil palm, especially in Africa. The host plants and natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858, the only Indian species of the tribe, is reported for the first time. These beetles can densely infest indigenous wild date palms, Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. (Arecaceae), and also use the introduced date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., which is an expanding crop in India. Javeta females lay single eggs and cover each with an ootheca. All larval stages mine the leaves and pupation occurs within the larval mine. Adults are exophagous, leaving linear feeding trenches. Natural and induced infestations of Javeta pallida on these two palms were observed and the potential of Javeta pallida as a pest of date palm in India is discussed. Javeta pallida completed development on Phoenix palms in 52–88 days (mean 66.38 days) with egg period 11–15 days (mean 12.8 days), larval period 21–54 days (mean 33.02 days) and pupal period 17–23 days (mean 20.52 days). Elasmus longiventris Verma and Hayat and Pediobius imbreus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitize the larva and pupa of Javeta pallida. PMID:27408585
Fjóla Huld Sigurðardóttir 1989
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the leading cause of death among Europeans and Americans. While many risk factors for CVD have been identified, their role in the etiology of CVD is not fully understood. One such risk factor is a family history of CVD. In addition to a positive family history, Type D personality has been established as an independent risk factor for CVD. The purpose of this study was to examine the hemodynamic reactivity to laboratory stress in young adults with a po...
Park, Hongzoo; Kim, Choung-Soo
Purpose To carry out long-term follow-up of patients diagnosed with asymptomatic simple renal cysts (SRCs). Materials and Methods One hundred fifty-eight adult patients in whom SRCs were incidentally diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography or abdominopelvic computed tomography between August 1994 and June 2004 were followed up for over 10 years. The retrospective analysis investigated sequential changes in the size, shape, and Bosniak classification of the renal cyst and analyzed risk factors ...
Smith, D.; Pearce, L.; Pringle, M.; Caplan, R.
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate a pilot service offering therapy specifically to adults with a history of child sexual abuse. DESIGN--Questionnaire survey. SETTING--Specialised therapy unit, Breakfree, which offers care, therapy, and support. SUBJECTS--116 clients presenting to the service who were offered therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Scores from three psychological questionnaires--the social activities and distress scale, the general health questionnaire, and the delusions, symptoms, and states in...
Gayman, Mathew D.; Lloyd, Donald A.; Ueno, Koji
Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The three main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood; (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and young adult self-esteem; and (3) help rule out the alternative interpretation that the relationship between major depression and self-esteem is due to state depe...
Çibik, Ayse Sert
The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers' views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science…
Kelly, John C
Cervical spondylosis is a broad term which describes the age related chronic disc degeneration, which can also affect the cervical vertebrae, the facet and other joints and their associated soft tissue supports. Evidence of spondylitic change is frequently found in many asymptomatic adults. Radiculopathy is a result of intervertebral foramina narrowing. Narrowing of the spinal canal can result in spinal cord compression, ultimately resulting in cervical spondylosis myelopathy. This review article examines the current literature in relation to the cervical spondylosis and describes the three clinical syndromes of axial neck pain, cervical radiculopathy and cervical myelopathy.
The clinical and morphologic features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 20 patients recognized as having cardiac disease in the first year of life are described. Fourteen of these 20 infants were initially suspected of having heart disease solely because a heart murmur was identified. However, the infants showed a variety of clinical findings, including signs of marked congestive heart failure (in the presence of nondilated ventricular cavities and normal or increased left ventricular contractility) and substantial cardiac enlargement on chest radiograph. Other findings were markedly different from those usually present in older children and adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (e.g., right ventricular hypertrophy on the ECG and cyanosis). Consequently, in 14 infants, the initial clinical diagnosis was congenital cardiac malformation other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The clinical course was variable in these patients, but the onset of marked congestive heart failure in the first year of life appeared to be an unfavorable prognostic sign; nine of the 11 infants with congestive heart failure died within the first year of life. In infants with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, unlike older children and adults with this condition, sudden death was less common (two patients) than death due to progressive congestive heart failure
Wei, Bing; Li, Yue; Chen, Bo
This study aimed to examine the representations of nature of science (NOS) in the eight histories of science selected from three series of integrated science textbooks used in junior high school in China. Ten aspects of NOS were adopted in the analytical framework. It was found that NOS had not been well treated in the selected histories of…
... Sound, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, has completed an inventory of human remains in...
Gans, Joshua S.; Fiona Murray
This paper considers the role of the allocation of scientific credit in determining the organization of science. We examine changes in that organization and the nature of credit allocation in the past half century. Our contribution is a formal model of that organizational choice that considers scientist decisions to integrate, collaborate or publish and how credit should be allocated to foster efficient outcomes.
Hoffman, Andrew J.; Georg, Susse
project its future directions. The field of Business and the Natural Environment (B&NE) has now reached that stage. After expanding in the early 1990s as a distinct field of empirical inquiry, it has grown to include contributions from the full gamut of business disciplines. This introductory chapter is...
The development of effective disease prevention and treatment programs depends on an understanding of the natural history of disease. A conceptual framework is presented for disease natural history and consists of an asymptomatic period of disease followed by a period of symptomatic disease. The focus is on epidemiologic studies for identifying risk factors of the onset of asymptomatic disease, for identifying cofactors of progression to symptomatic disease, and for estimating the duration of...
Hall, J. G.
The study of the natural history of genetic disorders and syndromes with congenital anomalies and dysmorphic features is a challenging and often neglected area. There are many reasons to pursue this type of research but it requires special clinical skills and a considerable amount of hard work. Setting up protocols and collecting data is complex and time consuming. Frequently, helpful clues for a particular disorder come from the study of the natural history of other disorders. Older affected...
Komotar, Ricardo J.; Kellner, Christopher P.; Raper, Daniel M; Strozyk, Dorothea; Higashida, Randall T.; Meyers, Philip M.
Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) contributes to a significant number of ischemic strokes. There is debate in the recent literature concerning the impact of the location of stenosis in ICAD on outcome. Some reports have suggested that disease processes and outcomes vary by vessel location, potentially altering the natural history and indications for intervention. Here we have performed a comprehensive, critical review of the natural history of ICAD by vessel in an attempt to assess ...
Morris, Colleen A; Mervis, Carolyn B; Paciorkowski, Alex P; Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Dugan, Sarah L; Rope, Alan F; Bader, Patricia; Hendon, Laura G; Velleman, Shelley L; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P; Osborne, Lucy R
In order to describe the physical characteristics, medical complications, and natural history of classic 7q11.23 duplication syndrome [hereafter Dup7 (MIM 609757)], reciprocal duplication of the region deleted in Williams syndrome [hereafter WS (MIM 194050)], we systematically evaluated 53 individuals aged 1.25-21.25 years and 11 affected adult relatives identified in cascade testing. In this series, 27% of probands with Dup7 had an affected parent. Seven of the 26 de novo duplications that were examined for inversions were inverted; in all seven cases one of the parents had the common inversion polymorphism of the WS region. We documented the craniofacial features of Dup7: brachycephaly, broad forehead, straight eyebrows, broad nasal tip, low insertion of the columella, short philtrum, thin upper lip, minor ear anomalies, and facial asymmetry. Approximately 30% of newborns and 50% of older children and adults had macrocephaly. Abnormalities were noted on neurological examination in 88.7% of children, while 81.6% of MRI studies showed structural abnormalities such as decreased cerebral white matter volume, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, and ventriculomegaly. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction were found in 62.3%, hypotonia in 58.5%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 74.2%, and Speech Sound Disorder in 82.6%. Behavior problems included anxiety disorders, ADHD, and oppositional disorders. Medical problems included seizures, 19%; growth hormone deficiency, 9.4%; patent ductus arteriosus, 15%; aortic dilation, 46.2%; chronic constipation, 66%; and structural renal anomalies, 18%. We compare these results to the WS phenotype and offer initial recommendations for medical evaluation and surveillance of individuals who have Dup7. PMID:26333794
Steiner, R. V.
The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) offers a suite of courses, workshops and special events in climate change education for audiences ranging from young children to adults and utilizing both online and in-person formats. These offerings are supported by rich digital resources including video, animations and data visualizations. These efforts have the potential to raise awareness of climate change, deepen understandings and improve public discourse and decision-making on this critical issue. For adult audiences, Our Earth's Future offers participants a five-week course at AMNH that focuses on climate change science, impacts and communication, taking advantage of both AMNH expertise and exhibitry. Online versions of this course include both a ten-week course as well as three different three-week thematic courses. (The longer course is now available as a MOOC in Coursera.) These activities have been supported by a grant from IMLS. The results of independent evaluation provide insight into participant needs and how they might be addressed. For K-12 educators, the Museum's Seminars on Science program of online teacher professional development offers, in collaboration with its higher education partners, a graduate course in climate change that is authored by both an AMNH curator and leading NASA scientists. Developed with support from both NASA and NSF, the course provides a semester-equivalent introduction to climate change science for educators, including digital resources, assignments and discussions for classroom use. The results of independent evaluation will be presented. For younger audiences, the presentation will highlight resources from the AMNH Ology site; television programming conducted in partnership with HBO; Science Bulletinsvideos that include current climate change research; resources related to the GRACE mission for tracking water from space; and special event programming at the Museum on climate change. This presentation will address the
Maya GuglinUniversity of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: The natural course of heart failure with decreased and preserved systolic function is almost identical. The current concept of heart failure where decreased cardiac output plays the major role does not explain this similarity. We suggest a revised concept of heart failure where congestion plays the leading role. While congestion is almost invariably present in heart failure with normal and with reduced systolic function, the low ...
Milestones in the subject of radioactivity, which were important to the unraveling of natural decay series, have been identified and described. The interplay between all these issues is very complex, and some aspects of the development of the uranium series is discussed as an example, the thorium and actinium series evolved in a similar way from research by many of the same people. All three series as understood in 1913 are compared with their present-day representation. (orig.)
Milestones in the subject of radioactivity, which were important to the unraveling of natural decay series, have been identified and described. The interplay between all these issues is very complex, and some aspects of the development of the uranium series is discussed as an example, the thorium and actinium series evolved in a similar way from research by many of the same people. All three series as understood in 1913 are compared with their present-day representation. (author)
Full Text Available Light is both the ultimate energy source for most organisms and a rich information source. Vitamin A-based chromophore was initially used in harvesting light energy, but has become the most widely used light sensor throughout evolution from unicellular to multicellular organisms. Vitamin A-based photoreceptor proteins are called opsins and have been used for billions of years for sensing light for vision or the equivalent of vision. All vitamin A-based light sensors for vision in the animal kingdom are G-protein coupled receptors, while those in unicellular organisms are light-gated channels. This first major switch in evolution was followed by two other major changes: the switch from bistable to monostable pigments for vision and the expansion of vitamin A’s biological functions. Vitamin A’s new functions such as regulating cell growth and differentiation from embryogenesis to adult are associated with increased toxicity with its random diffusion. In contrast to bistable pigments which can be regenerated by light, monostable pigments depend on complex enzymatic cycles for regeneration after every photoisomerization event. Here we discuss vitamin A functions and transport in the context of the natural history of vitamin A-based light sensors and propose that the expanding functions of vitamin A and the choice of monostable pigments are the likely evolutionary driving forces for precise, efficient, and sustained vitamin A transport.
East Jeffrey M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgeons usually witness only the limb-threatening stages of infected, closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Given that this catastrophic outcome often represents failure of conservative management of pre-infected wounds, some suggest consideration of invasive intervention (coring or laying-open for pre-infected wounds in hope of preventing contamination from evolving into infection, there being no evidence based guidelines. However, an invasive pre-emptive approach is only justifiable if the probability of progression to catastrophic infection is very high. Literature search revealed no prior studies on the natural history of closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Methods A survey was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire on 198 adult diabetics resident in the parish of St. James, Jamaica. The sample was selected using a purposive technique designed to mirror the social gradient and residential distribution of the target population and is twice the number needed to detect a prevalence of puncture wounds of 14% with a range of 7-21% in a random sample of the estimated adult diabetic population. Results The prevalence of a history of at least one closed pedal puncture wound since diagnosis of diabetes was 25.8% (CI; 19.6-31.9%. The only modifiable variable associated at the 5% level of significance with risk of pedal puncture wound, after adjustment by multivariable logistic regression, was site of interview/paying status, a variable substantially reflective of income more so than quality-of-care. Of 77 reported episodes of closed pedal puncture wound among 51 participants, 45.4% healed without medical intervention, 27.3% healed after non-surgical treatment by a doctor and 27.3% required surgical intervention ranging from debridement to below-knee amputation. Anesthetic foot (failure to feel the puncture and sole of the forefoot as site of puncture were the variables significantly associated with
The U.S. Department of Energy is targeting natural flushing as the compliance strategy to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards (40 CFR 192, subpart B) for many of the sites in the uranium mill tailings remedial action (UMTRA) ground water project. Most of these former uranium-processing sites retain residual ground-water contamination in their uppermost aquifers as a result of past milling activities and uncontrolled tailings seepage. To qualify for natural flushing candidacy, a project site must meet certain criteria. These criteria are that the uppermost aquifer is a potential drinking water resource, the affected resource is not currently or projected to be a source of drinking water to local municipalities, institutional control(s) can be implemented to prevent inappropriate uses of the contaminated ground water during the flushing period, and the contaminants of concern are predicted to attenuate to EPA maximum concentration limits or background within a 100-year time frame. Computer-based analytical and numerical methods are being used to model groundwater flow conditions at two Rifle, Colorado, sites to assess and predict the flushing process. (orig.)
In a series of papers read to the Cambridge Philosophical Society through the 1820s, the Cambridge mathematician George Peacock laid the foundation for a natural history of arithmetic that would tell a story of human progress from counting to modern arithmetic. The trajectory of that history, Peacock argued, established algebraic analysis as a form of universal reasoning that used empirically warranted operations of mind to think with symbols on paper. The science of counting would suggest arithmetic, arithmetic would suggest arithmetical algebra, and, finally, arithmetical algebra would suggest symbolic algebra. This philosophy of suggestion provided the foundation for Peacock's "principle of equivalent forms," which justified the practice of nineteenth-century English symbolic algebra. Peacock's philosophy of suggestion owed a considerable debt to the early Cambridge Philosophical Society culture of natural history. The aim of this essay is to show how that culture of natural history was constitutively significant to the practice of nineteenth-century English algebra. PMID:23961689
Kendler, K S
This essay traces the history of concepts of genetic variation and schizophrenia from Darwin and Mendel to the present. For Darwin, the important form of genetic variation for evolution is continuous in nature and small in effect. Biometricians led by Pearson agreed and developed statistical genetic approaches utilizing trait correlations in relatives. Mendel studied discontinuous traits and subsequent Mendelians, led by Bateson, assumed that important genetic variation was large in effect producing discontinuous phenotypes. Although biometricians studied 'insanity', schizophrenia genetics under Kraepelin and Rüdin utilized Mendelian approaches congruent with their anatomical-clinical disease model of dementia praecox. Fisher showed, assuming many genes of small effect, Mendelian and Biometrical models were consilient. Echoing prior conflicts, psychiatric genetics since then has utilized both biometrical models, largely in twins, and Mendelian models, based on advancing molecular techniques. In 1968, Gottesman proposed a polygenic model for schizophrenia based on a threshold version of Fisher's theory. Since then, rigorous studies of the schizophrenia spectrum suggest that genetic risk for schizophrenia is more likely continuous than categorical. The last 5 years has seen increasingly convincing evidence from genome-wide association study (GWAS) and sequencing that genetic risk for schizophrenia is largely polygenic, and congruent with Fisher's and Gottesman's models. The gap between biometrical and molecular Mendelian models for schizophrenia has largely closed. The efforts to ground a categorical biomedical model of schizophrenia in Mendelian genetics have failed. The genetic risk for schizophrenia is widely distributed in human populations so that we all carry some degree of risk. PMID:25134695
We have analyzed the course of papillary thyroid carcinoma in 269 patients managed at the University of Chicago, with an average follow-up period of 12 yr from the time of diagnosis. Patients were categorized by clinical class; I, with intrathyroidal disease; II, with cervical nodal metastases; III, with extrathyroidal invasion; and IV, with distant metastases. Half of the patients had a history of thyroid enlargement known, on the average, for over 3 yr. In 15% of patients given thyroid hormone, the mass decreased in size. The peak incidence of cancer was when subjects were between 20-40 yr of age. Tumors averaged 2.4 cm in size; 21.6% had tumor capsule invasion, and 46% of patients had multifocal tumors. Sixty-six percent of the patients had near-total or total thyroidectomy. The overall incidence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism was 8.4%, but the incidence was zero in 83 near-total or total thyroidectomies carried out by 1 surgeon. Twenty-five percent of the patients had continuing or recurrent disease, and 8.2% died from cancer. Deaths occurred largely in patients with class III or IV disease. Cervical lymph nodes were associated with increased recurrences, but not increased deaths. Extrathyroidal invasion carried an increased risk of 5.8-fold for death, and distant metastases increased this risk 47-fold. Age over 45 yr at diagnosis increased the risk of death 32-fold. Tumor size over 3 cm increased the risk of death 5.8-fold. Surgical treatment combining lobectomy plus at least contralateral subtotal thyroidectomy was associated, by Cox proportional hazard analysis, with decreased risk of death in patients with tumors larger than 1 cm and decreased risk of recurrence among all patients, including patients in classes I and II, compared to patients who underwent unilateral thyroid surgery or bilateral subtotal resections
Tinkler, Abigail; Collins, Sally
The Natural History Museum's new Darwin Centre fulfils three main roles. It is a state-of-the-art scientific research and collections facility, but it is also an awe-inspiring new public space that allows visitors to explore the natural world in an exciting and innovative way. With its opening, students can experience the relevance of the science…
Talkowski, Jaime B; Brach, Jennifer S.; Studenski, Stephanie; Newman, Anne B
Background and Purpose: Disagreement currently exists regarding the contributions of various factors to physical activity in older adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the simultaneous impact of psychological (health perception and balance perception) and physiological (gait speed, fall history, and balance performance) factors on walking activity in older adults.
Kurdek, Lawrence A.
Examined relations between reported well-being, divorce history, availability of proximate adult, and gender in 6,573 respondents. Three main effects were significant: those with history of no divorce reported greater happiness than those with divorce; married persons reported greater happiness and less depression than those cohabiting; and men…
Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael
Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389621
This report reviews the natural courses of misery perfusion in 5 patients with atherosclerotic cerebrovascular occlusion diseases. Cases 1 showed partial improvement and Case 2 showed deterioration of misery perfusion on positron emission tomography (PET). These 2 patients did not show any clinical changes during the follow-up periods. Case 3 showed remarkable improvement of misery perfusion during the 2-year follow-ups, but his neurological condition worsened. The EC-IC bypass improved both in PET and clinical symptoms. Case 4 had a stroke at the region of misery perfusion in PET. Case 5 had a lacunar infarction 2 years after the EC-IC bypass on the opposite side. PET taken one month before the stroke did not show any signs of hypoperfusion in the area of the lacunar infarction. Misery perfusion seems not to be a static but a dynamic condition that can develop into cerebral infarction by some hemodynamic stresses. Cerebral cortical or lobar infarction may occur in the region of severe misery perfusion. EC-IC bypass may prevent impending infarction of the cerebral cortex by improving the regional cerebral blood flow. However, EC-CI bypass will not prevent the lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia or internal capsule. (author)
Full text: From the discovery of fission and the divergence of the Chicago Pile, the evolution of the genus nuclear reactor can be viewed from a 'palaeontology' perspective. It started with the unbelievably ebullient creativeness of the pioneer age, where almost every possible combination of reactor ingredients was dreamed of and often designed, built and operated, be it for a short period of time. The pioneer era was followed by a stringent selection process. Factors involved in the selection have been numerous and diverse: technology, safety, geopolitics, and finally economics. The weight of this factor was not identical from country to country, nor was it constant over the period. This 'natural selection' resulted in the survival of a handful of the 'fittest' reactor species, dominated by the two subspecies of Light Water Reactors. But the reactor genus is still very young, and evolution does not stop. The changing environment may, and probably will, favour the emergence or re-emergence of other species better adapted to the new selection criteria, like those identified by INPRO and Gen-4 (competitiveness, sustainability, safety, resistance to proliferation, waste management, etc.). These new fission reactors and their evolving successors will for a long time cohabit with the early fusion reactors in a future where rarefied and expensive hydrocarbons shall be reserved for more valuable uses than mere combustion in power plants... but this is another story. (author)
Walter R. Tschinkel
Full Text Available The arboreal ant, Crematogaster ashmeadi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is the most dominant arboreal ant in the pine forests of the coastal plain of northern Florida. The majority of pine trees harbor a colony of these ants. The colonies inhabit multiple chambers abandoned by bark-mining caterpillars, especially those of the family Cossidae, in the outer bark of living pines. They also inhabit ground level termite galleries in the bark, often locating the queen in galleries. The density of chambers and ants is highest in the base of the tree and drops sharply with height on the trunk. Because chambers are formed in the inner layer of bark, they gradually move outward as more bark layers are laid down, eventually sloughing off the tree's outer surface. Chambers have a mean lifetime of about 25 yr. The abundant chambers in pine bark are excavated by a small population of caterpillars and accumulate over decades. Ant colonies also inhabit abandoned galleries of woodboring beetles in dead branches in the crowns of pines. Because newly mated queens found colonies in abandoned woodboring beetle galleries in the first dead branches that form on pine saplings, C. ashmeadi is dependent on cavities made by other insects throughout its life cycle, and does little if any excavation of its own. Mature colonies nest preferentially in chambers greater than 10 cm2 in area, a relatively rare chamber size. In natural pine forests, this does not seem to limit the ant's populations.
Harris, Latonya S; Block, Stephanie D; Ogle, Christin M; Goodman, Gail S; Augusti, Else-Marie; Larson, Rakel P; Culver, Michelle A; Pineda, Annarheen R; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony
Individuals with histories of childhood trauma may adopt a nonspecific memory retrieval strategy to avoid unpleasant and intrusive memories. In a sample of 93 adolescents and adults with or without histories of child sexual abuse (CSA), we tested the hypothesis that nonspecific memory retrieval is related to an individual's general tendency to use avoidant (i.e., distancing) coping as a personal problem-solving or coping strategy, especially in victims of CSA. We also examined age differences and other individual differences (e.g., trauma-related psychopathology) as predictors of nonspecific memories. Distancing coping was significantly associated with less specific autobiographical memory. Younger age, lower vocabulary scores, and non-CSA childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical and emotional abuse) also uniquely predicted less autobiographical memory specificity, whereas trauma-related psychopathology was associated with more specific memory. Implications for the development of autobiographical memory retrieval in the context of coping with childhood maltreatment are discussed. PMID:26241375
Wang, Yan; Chen, Elizabeth S; Leppik, Ilo; Pakhomov, Serguei; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Melton, Genevieve B
Epilepsy is a prevalent chronic neurological disorder afflicting about 50 million people worldwide. There is evidence of a strong relationship between familial risk factors and epilepsy, as well as associations with substance use. The goal of this study was to explore the interactions between familial risk factors and substance use based on structured data from the family and social history modules of an electronic health record system for adult epilepsy patients. A total of 8,957patients with 38,802 family history entries and 8,822 substance use entries were gathered and mined for associations at different levels of granularity for three age groupings (>18, 18-64, and ≥65 years old). Our results demonstrate the value of an association rule mining approach to validate knowledge of familial risk factors. The preliminary findings also suggest that substance use does not demonstrate significant association between social and familial risk factors for epilepsy. PMID:27570679
Johnson, Angela J; Tottenham, Nim
Individuals with a history of foster care (FC) are at elevated risk for emotion regulation-related mental illness. The purpose of the current study was to characterize regulatory function in a group of adults with a history of FC (N = 26) relative to those without a history of FC (N = 27) and how regulatory function moderates adverse caregiving-related outcomes (daily cortisol production and trait anxiety). Self-report items (anxiety, emotion regulation strategies, inhibitory control, caregiv...
Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights
Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Welch, Meghan M.
This naturalistic, qualitative study examines the nature of child- and adult-led interactions in a children's museum. Using dialogic learning as a theoretical framework, the study examines how children and adults engage in interactions while learning at a museum. Findings suggest that children and adults are almost equally likely to lead…
Schmid, Volker S; Morales, Mírian N; Marinoni, Luciane; Kamke, Rafael; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne
The syrphid subfamily Microdontinae is characterized by myrmecophily of their immature stages, i.e., they develop in ant nests. Data on natural history of microdontines are scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Based on fieldwork in southern Brazil, this study provided new data on development and ecology of the hoverfly Pseudomicrodon biluminiferus (Hull) (Diptera: Syrphidae) as well as the first morphological descriptions of male genitalia, larvae, and pupa. Immature specimens were specifically found in colonies of the ant species Crematogaster limata Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) found in rosettes of the bromeliad species Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren) Baker (Poales: Bromeliaceae) and A. nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach. Third instar larvae were observed preying on ant larvae, revealing the parasitic nature of P. biluminiferus. In this and several other aspects, the natural history of P. biluminiferus is similar to that of Holarctic microdontine species. Exceptions include: (i) indications that adults of P. biluminiferus outlast the winter months (in contrast to 3(rd)instar larvae in Holarctic species) and (ii) P. biluminiferus' relationship with bromeliads. The importance of bromeliads for this host-parasite system is evaluated in this paper. The single occurrence of another, unidentified microdontine species' pupae in a nest of the ant species Camponotus melanoticus Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is reported. PMID:25373185
Friedlin, Jeff; McDonald, Clement J.
We developed a rule-based natural language processing (NLP) system for extracting and coding clinical data from free text reports. We studied the systems ability to accurately extract and code family history data from hospital admission notes. The system searches the family history for 12 diseases (and relative degree). It achieved a sensitivity of .96 and a PPV of .97 for disease extraction, and .96 and .93 respectively for relative categorization.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG among Omani adults with no family history (FH of diabetes and to investigate the factors behind the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D, while excluding a FH of diabetes. Methods: A total of 1,182 Omani adults, aged ≥40 years, visited the Family Medicine & Community Health Clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, on days other than the Diabetes Clinic days, from July 2010 to July 2011. The subjects were interviewed and asked if they had T2D or a FH of T2D. Results: Only 191 (16% reported no personal history of T2D or FH of the disease. Of these, anthropometric and biochemical data was complete in 159 subjects. Of these a total of 42 (26% had IFG according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Body mass index, fasting insulin, haemoglobin A1C and blood pressure (BP, were significantly higher among individuals with IFG (P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.01 and P <0.01, respectively. In addition, fasting insulin, BP and serum lipid profile were correlated with obesity indices (P <0.05. Obesity indices were strongly associated with the risk of IFG among Omanis, with waist circumference being the strongest predictor. Conclusion: Despite claiming no FH of diabetes, a large number of Omani adults in this study had a high risk of developing diabetes. This is possibly due to environmental factors and endogamy. The high prevalence of obesity combined with genetically susceptible individuals is a warning that diabetes could be a future epidemic in Oman.
Jia, Wei; Song, Liu-Wei; Fang, Yu-Qing; Xiao-feng WU; Liu, Dan-Yang; Xu, Chun; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Wen; Lv, Dong-Xia; Li, Jun; Deng, Yong-Qiong; Wang, Yan; Huo, Na; Yu, Min; Xi, Hong-Li
Abstract Previous studies have revealed antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) levels as a predictor of treatment response in hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in both interferon and nucleos(t)ide analog therapy cohorts. However, there is no information about anti-HBc levels in the natural history of CHB. This study aimed to define anti-HBc levels of different phases in the natural history of CHB. Two hundred eleven treatment-naive CHB pati...
O'Sullivan, Eoin P
Transsphenoidal surgery is indicated for patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) causing compressive symptoms. Previous studies attempting to define the rate of recurrence\\/regrowth of surgically treated but radiation-naïve NFPAs were somewhat limited by selection bias and\\/or small numbers and\\/or lack of consistency of findings between studies. A better understanding of the natural history of this condition could allow stratification of recurrence risk and inform future management. We aimed to define the natural history of a large, mainly unselected cohort with surgically treated, radiotherapy (RT)-naïve NFPAs and to try to identify predictors of recurrence\\/regrowth.
Eddy, M D
In 1779 Revd Dr John Walker was appointed to be the University of Edinburgh’s Professor of Natural History. Because of the institutional structure of the university, he took care to keep detailed class lists from 1782 to 1800. These are extant in the University of Edinburgh’s Special Collections Department. As many of the students on the lists would go on to have a profound impact on the practice of nineteenth century natural history, I have compiled them into a table so that they can be used...
Novčić Ivana D.
Full Text Available During re-inventory of the order Strigiformes in the ornithological collection of the Belgrade Natural History Museum, we recorded a total of 134 specimens, collected at over 40 localities throughout Serbia. Of these 71 are in the study collection, 59 in the exhibition collection, and four in the historical collection of birds. In view of the number of specimens diversity of species, and the geographical representatives, the collection of owls in the Natural History Museum represents an extremely important source of information for the taxon Strigiformes.
Pfirman, S.; Turrin, M.; Macphee, R.
The American Museum of Natural History, in partnership with Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the Earth Institute of Columbia University and Barnard College, is featuring the International Polar Year through a New York City International Polar Weekend (NYC-IPW) in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The event showcases current polar research, polar environmental changes, history and culture during two days of family programs and activities, performances, and lectures. The goal of the NYC-IPW is to engage diverse audiences and enhance the public understanding of polar science, in particular IPY research, through close interactions with polar experts. Activities for the public include many disciplines, ranging from the physical sciences and cultural anthropology to music and art, and are presented in many forms, from lectures, panels and films to posters and play. Highlights of the NYC-IPW include: 1) A polar fair for youth and adults, showcasing scientists, artists, and educators who have worked at one or both poles and including many interactive exhibits featuring such topics as life in New York at the end of the last Ice Age, how Arctic sea ice is changing, and life on and under the ice. 2) Performances and presentations oriented towards children and families, including Inuit Throat Singers, Central Park Zoo Theater Group, and a northern lights show. 3) Lectures showcasing current IPY research and addressing such issues as the possible effects of climate change on the poles and the rest of the world, as well as polar poetry, art and film. 4) A partnership with New York City Urban Advantage program for Middle School students in the city to meet with scientists, teachers and students who had participated in polar research and travel. 5) Norwegian Consulate sponsorship of science presenters and Sami performers. The March 2007 event involved 85 presenters and volunteers from 22 institutions, and attracted ca. 3,500 visitors. Approximately 5,000 visitors attended the February 2008
Steelhead Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers: To evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. 1993 Annual report
The Steelhead Supplementation Study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. To evaluate supplementation, the authors focused their experimental design on post-release survival, reproductive success, long-term fitness, and ecological interactions. They began field experiments in 1993 by outplanting hatchery adults and fingerlings to assess reproductive fitness and long-term survival. They snorkeled eight streams to estimate juvenile steelhead densities, recorded temperatures in 17 streams, and tagged natural steelhead in six streams with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags
Warchal, Judith R.; Graham, Louise B.
This article integrates the guidelines of American Red Cross and the "Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide" (Brymer et al., 2006) with adult development theories to demonstrate the promotion of adaptive functioning in adults after a disaster. Case examples and recommendations for counselors working in disaster situations are included.
Snowden, N; Dietch, D M; Teh, L.S.; Hilton, R C; Haeney, M. R.
OBJECTIVE: To perform a clinical and immunological study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who develop subnormal serum immunoglobulins on gold treatment; to clarify the nature of the defect in antibody production and determine the natural history of this adverse reaction; to use this information to suggest guidelines for the detection, investigation, and management of this complication. METHODS: 22 patients who developed subnormal levels of one or more immunoglobulin isotypes while receiv...
"Natural history of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.Findings from a population survey" The aim of this doctoral thesis is to increase understanding of the natural historyof different types of dementia in a very old population. Five studies were performedusing data from the Kungsholmen Project, a population-based study on aging and dementiain Stockholm that includes subjects aged 75+. Both prevalent and incident dementiacases, as well as cross-sectional and longit...
During the 19th and early 20th century zoological gardens ranged among the most prominent places of popular natural history While aristocratic owners of earlier menageries installed animal collections mostly to symbolize their power over nature as well as to display their extensive diplomatic relations, the zoological gardens founded from the 1830s onwards all over Europe by members of the local bourgeois elites were supposed to mediate their social and political values by "enjoyably educating" a broader public. The new zoos were introduced as places at the antipodes of the frenzy, noise and motion of modern urban life, as spaces of pure, authentic nature whose observation would teach people a reasonable and responsible way of life in a civilised bourgeois community. Taking the Berlin Zoo as an example this paper questions these programmatic imaginations by showing how popular Naturkunde (natural history) was informed by cultures of urban entertainment and spectacle. It discusses the numerous relations and productive tensions that evolved out of the establishment of a "realm of nature" in the middle of the ever growing modern metropolis and investigates the consequences the zoo's rise as "the city's most important attraction" around the turn of the century had for the public perception of natural history as well as for the institution's scientific program. PMID:19227705
Adams, Jennifer D.
In this article I critically examine the historical context of science education in a natural history museum and its relevance to using museum resources to teach science today. I begin with a discussion of the historical display of race and its relevance to my practice of using the Museum's resources to teach science. I continue with a critical review of the history of the education department in a natural history museum to demonstrate the historical constitution of current practices of the education department. Using sociocultural constructs around identity formation and transformation, I move to the present with a case study of a teacher who transforms the structure of science education in her classroom and school as a result of her identity transformation and association with a museum-based professional education program.
... with the appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is no cultural affiliation between... cultural affiliation with the human remain should contact the Slater Museum of Natural History, University... and a straight mandibular border. These characteristics indicate that the individual is likely...
Breur, Johannes M. P. J.; Kapusta, Livia; Stoutenbeek, Philip; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Van Den Berg, Paul; Meijboom, Erik-Jan
Background. Isolated congenital atrioventricular block (CAVB) diagnosed in utero is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Prognosis is especially poor when heart rate drops below 55 beats per minute (bpm) and when fetal hydrops develops. We describe the natural history and outcome of 24 in
Full Text Available The male of Latonigena auricomis Simon, 1893 is described for the first time and the female is redescribed. New records are provided for Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Notes on the natural history and a potential distribution model of the species are presented in the Neotropical Region.
This essay argues that Charles Darwin's distinctive approach to studying distribution and diversity was shaped by his face-to-face interactions with maritime surveyors during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836). Introducing their hydrographic surveying methods into natural history enabled him to compare fossil and living marine organisms, to compare sedimentary rocks to present-day marine sediments, and to compare landscapes to submarine topology, thereby realizing Charles Lyell's fanciful ambition for a superior form of geology that might be practiced by an "amphibious being." Darwin's theories of continental uplift, coral reef formation, and the origin of species all depended on his amphibious natural history. This essay contributes to our understanding of theorizing in nineteenth-century natural history by illustrating that specific techniques of observing and collecting could themselves help to generate a particular theoretical orientation and, indeed, that such practical experiences were a more proximate source of Darwin's "Humboldtian" interest in distribution and diversity than Alexander von Humboldt's writings themselves. Darwin's debt to the hydrographers became obscured in two ways: through the "funneling" of credit produced by single-authorship publication in natural history and the "telescoping" of memory by which Darwin's new theories made him recall his former researches as though he had originally undertaken them for the very purpose of producing the later theory. PMID:27439285
Considers the different analogies used by James Rettie, Teilhard de Chardin, Robert Ardrey, Jacob Bronowski, Richard Leakey, Steven Weinberg, Heinz Pagels, and Carl Sagan to make concepts related to time and natural history accessible to the layperson. Suggests that these analogies be used at the undergraduate level in both humanities and science…
Reumer, J.W.F.; Post, K.
As a result of increasing budget constraints and decreasing interest in classical natural history, the work effort of volunteer researchers and the need for private funding are of growing importance. A brief historical background is provided, showing the decreasing interest in the subject shown by g
The following stray descriptions and records refer to species from New Guinea, Kei Island, Sumatra and Java. The material is chiefly in the collection of the British Museum (Natural History), London (BM) and also in the Leiden Museum (LM). Four genera and 11 species are discribed on the following pa
Wolfensberger, Balz; Canella, Claudia
This paper reports a predominantly qualitative classroom study on cooperative learning about nature of science (NOS) using a case from the history of science. The purpose of the research was to gain insight into how students worked with the historical case study during cooperative group work, how students and teachers assessed the teaching unit,…
Gasso Miracle, M.E.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Arntzen, J.W.
The amphibian type specimens held in the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden are listed. A total of 775 type specimens representing 143 taxon names were encountered. The list provides the original name, the original publication date, pagination and illustrations, current name, type locality
Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus
secondary prevention through the use of inhaled corticosteroids can effectively halt the long-term disease progression in childhood. In conclusion, the natural history of asthma and the associated airway changes is still poorly understood, and we have not managed to translate findings from long-term studies...
Fairbanks, Joseph H. Jr.
Provides a classroom exercise, known as Synergistic Convergence (SYNCON), in which students are divided into small groups, and then into successively larger groups, until the entire class is involved in one problem. Asks students to develop a list of five heroes and five villains in history. Generates insights into the nature of historical…
Nature Live is a programme of daily events which take place at the Natural History Museum, London. Nature Live brings together scientists and visitors to explore, discover and discuss the natural world and our place within it. In each event visitors get the chance to meet our scientists, see the specimens they study and ask lots of questions. Today Nature Live will feature a live link to the LHC control room at CERN. This will give visitors the amazing opportunity to ask questions to the physicists involved about the Large Hadron Collider experiments, Higgs particles and antimatter. As well as to discover how scientists at the Museum and at CERN are all looking back through deep time to answer those big questions on the origins of life, the universe and everything. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/London_NatureLive-2012.html
Goodman, Gail S.; Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, Latonya S.; Larson, Rakel P.; Augusti, Else-Marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony
The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive DRM lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the ...
Koenen, Karestan C.; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Gregory, Alice; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie
Clinical and epidemiologic studies have established that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly comorbid with other mental disorders. However, such studies have largely relied on adults' retrospective reports to ascertain comorbidity. The authors examined the developmental mental health histories of adults with PTSD using data on mental disorders assessed across the first 3 decades of life among members of the longitudinal Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study; 100% o...
The works of physician and naturalist Emílio Joaquim da Silva Maia (1808-59) can be viewed as a scientific project that discovers Brazil and its inhabitants. Maia's nationalism and his romantic view of nature formed the underpinnings of his scientific theories, especially his studies on zoological geography. He subordinated the issue of the biological specificity of different regions of the world to his era's debates on the construction of Brazil as an independent nation. In his interpretations of European natural history, Maia endeavored to understand Brazilian nature as a specific achievement of the Cosmos, in keeping with Alexander von Humboldt's approach. PMID:16676427
their parents on a one-for-one basis in the long run. Otherwise the population would either increase exponentially or become extinct. Combining data on growth and specific fecundity in a size-based fish community model of the North Sea and using the requirement of a one-for-one replacement provides......For fish much of the life history is determined by body size. Body size and asymptotic size significantly influences important life history processes such as growth, maturity, egg production, and natural mortality. Futhermore, for a population to persist, offspring must be able to replace......, and with estimates from a comprehensive compilation of empirical data on the natural mortality of marine fishes. The comparisons are all in aggreement with the predictions from the model. We conclude that natural mortality scales with body length raised to a power around -1.6, with the asymptotic length...
Bajraktari, Gani; Emini, Merita; Berisha, Venera; Gashi, Fitnete; Beqiri, Arton; Zahiti, Bedri; Selmani, Hamza; Shatri, Faik; Manaj, Rexhep
We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with a 7-year history of a giant left atrial myxoma. The myxoma was attached to the atrial septum and occupied almost the entire left atrial cavity. The patient was hospitalized 4 times because of dyspnea on exertion, palpitations, fatigue, general asthenia, and weight loss. During prior hospitalizations, the patient had refused cardiac surgery. She developed several complications, including atrial fibrillation, mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, mesenteric embolism, pulmonary edema, and thrombotic stroke. We herein describe the natural history of left atrial myxoma in an elderly patient over a 7-year period. PMID:17024671
Kempermann, Gerd [Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Williams, Robert [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Gage, Fred [Salk Institute for Biological Studies, The, San Diego, CA
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly variable and heritable among laboratory strains of mice. Adult neurogenesis is also remarkably plastic and can be modulated by environment and activity. Here, we provide a systematic quantitative analysis of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in two large genetic reference panels of recombinant inbred strains (BXD and AXB?BXA, n ? 52 strains). We combined data on variation in neurogenesis with a new transcriptome database to extract a set of 190 genes with expression patterns that are also highly variable and that covary with rates of (i) cell proliferation, (ii) cell survival, or the numbers of surviving (iii) new neurons, and (iv) astrocytes. Expression of a subset of these neurogenesis-associated transcripts was controlled in cis across the BXD set. These self-modulating genes are particularly interesting candidates to control neurogenesis. Among these were musashi (Msi1h) and prominin1?CD133 (Prom1), both of which are linked to stem-cell maintenance and division. Twelve neurogenesis-associated transcripts had significant cis-acting quantitative trait loci, and, of these, six had plausible biological association with adult neurogenesis (Prom1, Ssbp2, Kcnq2, Ndufs2, Camk4, and Kcnj9). Only one cis- cting candidate was linked to both neurogenesis and gliogenesis, Rapgef6, a downstream target of ras signaling. The use of genetic reference panels coupled with phenotyping and global transcriptome profiling thus allowed insight into the complexity of the genetic control of adult neurogenesis.
Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Zhao, Kai-cun; Brand, Eric
On-site field investigation was conducted to authenticate a batch of ancient Chinese medicinal decoction pieces that have been preserved in a rare collection at the Natural History Museum in London. These treasured artifacts comprise a portion of the Sloane Collection, and the nearly one hundred Chinese medicinal specimens examined within provide an objective record of the real situation regarding the Chinese medicinal materials in commercial circulation three hundred years ago. The precious data from this collection pro-vides an extremely valuable reference for the research into the history of medicinal exchange between China and the West during the Age of Exploration, shedding light on the evolution and historical changes in the species used in Chinese medicine, as well as the history of medicinal processing and decoction pieces. PMID:27245044
LeBlanc, Linda A.; Geiger, Kaneen B.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Sidener, Tina M.
The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated…
Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Watt, Helen J.; Line, Elizabeth A.
Rates of diagnosis of autism have risen since 1980, raising the question of whether some children who previously had other diagnoses are now being diagnosed with autism. We applied contemporary diagnostic criteria for autism to adults with a history of developmental language disorder, to discover whether diagnostic substitution has taken place. A…
Neuheimer, Anna; Hartvig, Martin; Heuschele, Jan;
is observed along with variability in physical and biological forcing factors in space and time. We compiled adult and offspring size for 407 pelagic marine species covering more than 17 orders of magnitude in body mass including Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Crustaceans, Ctenophora, Elasmobranchii, Mammalia...... history strategies and possible group-specific responses to changing environmental conditions (e.g., production and distribution)....
Ferrannini, E; Natali, A; Muscelli, E;
The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area.......The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area....
... museum, institution or Federal agency that has control of the Native American cultural items. The... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... Natural History, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that cultural...
..., institution, or Federal agency that has control of the cultural items. The National Park Service is not... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History... to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Field Museum of Natural History (Field...
..., institution, or Federal agency that has control of the cultural items. The National Park Service is not... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History... to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Field Museum of Natural History (Field...
Full Text Available Digitarium is a joint initiative of the Finnish Museum of Natural History and the University of Eastern Finland. It was established in 2010 as a dedicated shop for the large-scale digitisation of natural history collections. Digitarium offers service packages based on the digitisation process, including tagging, imaging, data entry, georeferencing, filtering, and validation. During the process, all specimens are imaged, and distance workers take care of the data entry from the images. The customer receives the data in Darwin Core Archive format, as well as images of the specimens and their labels. Digitarium also offers the option of publishing images through Morphbank, sharing data through GBIF, and archiving data for long-term storage. Service packages can also be designed on demand to respond to the specific needs of the customer. The paper also discusses logistics, costs, and intellectual property rights (IPR issues related to the work that Digitarium undertakes.
Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L.; Calhoun, Susan L.; KARATARAKI, MARIA; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Liao, Duanping
Study Objectives: Approximately 8-10% of the general population suffers from chronic insomnia, whereas another 20-30% of the population has insomnia symptoms at any given time (i.e., poor sleep). However, few longitudinal studies have examined risk factors of the natural history of poor sleep, and none have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables. Design: Representative longitudinal study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: From a random, general population ...
El-Chemaly, Souheil; Ziegler, Shira G.; Calado, Rodrigo T.; Wilson, Kirkland A.; Wu, Hai Ping; Haughey, Mary; Peterson, Nathan R.; Young, Neal S; William A Gahl; Moss, Joel; Gochuico, Bernadette R.
Previous studies have identified subclinical lung disease in family members of probands with familial pulmonary fibrosis, but the natural history of preclinical pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals with preclinical lung disease will develop pulmonary fibrosis. After a 27-year interval, two subjects with manifestations of preclinical familial pulmonary fibrosis, including asymptomatic alveolar inflammation and alveolar macrophage activ...
Ginzburg, Vitalii L.
The first edition of Newton's "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" was published in 1687. The present paper is dedicated to the tricentenary of this event, which is important not just in the history of physics, but of science generally. After the Introduction, the paper continues with the following Sections: Before Newton, Principia, Principia and the method of principles, The nature of gravitation, Critique of Newtonian mechanics and its subsequent development, On Newton, Concluding remarks.
Chapman, LA; Dyson, L.; Courtenay, O; Chowdhury, R.; Bern, C.; Medley, GF; Hollingsworth, TD
Background Visceral leishmaniasis has been targeted for elimination as a public health problem (less than 1 case per 10,000 people per year) in the Indian sub-continent by 2017. However, there is still a high degree of uncertainty about the natural history of the disease, in particular about the duration of asymptomatic infection and the proportion of asymptomatically infected individuals that develop clinical visceral leishmaniasis. Quantifying these aspects of the disease is key for guiding...
Information on the natural history of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN) is currently inadequate due to a lack of carefully orchestrated long-term follow-up on a large cohort of patients with asymptomatic disease. Based on the available data, one can draw the conclusions that main duct IPMN is commonly associated with malignancy and an aggressive operative stance should be taken with resection being offered to most patients who are suitable operative candidates. In contrast, the ...
Degos, Bertrand; Nadjar, Yann; Del Mar Amador, Maria; Lamari, Foudil; Sedel, Frédéric; Roze, Emmanuel; Couvert, Philippe; Mochel, Fanny
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is among the few inherited neurometabolic disorders amenable to specific treatment. It is easily diagnosed using plasma cholestanol. We wished to delineate the natural history of the most common neurological and non-neurological symptoms in thirteen patients with CTX. Diarrhea almost always developed within the first year of life. Cataract and school difficulties usually occurred between 5 and 15 years of age preceding by years the onset of motor or psychi...
Golovics, Petra A; Mandel, Michael D; Lovasz, Barbara D; Lakatos, Peter L
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a multifactorial potentially debilitating disease. It has a variable disease course, but the majority of patients eventually develop penetrating or stricturing complications leading to repeated surgeries and disability. Studies on the natural history of CD provide invaluable data on its course and clinical predictors, and may help to identify patient subsets based on clinical phenotype. Most data are available from referral centers, however these outcomes may be differ...
Depression is one of the most common and persistent nonmotor syndromes occurring in 35% of patients diagnosed with PD. However, little information is known about the longitudinal study of its natural history of depression in PD. In this study, we identified 110 patients who are diagnosed with idiopathic PD and recruited them for assessing information about their PD related motor and nonmotor symptoms and rating scales. A follow-up evaluation was performed in 103 patients 30 months later. Abou...
Simmons, Kimber; Michels, Aaron W
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disorder resulting from immune mediated destruction of insulin producing beta cells within the pancreatic islets. The natural history of T1D is well defined with distinct stages in disease development. Genetics and environmental factors contribute to disease susceptibility, followed by autoimmune targeting of proteins within beta cells. Preclinical T1D is marked by the presence of islet autoantibodies and normal blood glucose levels. Prediction of...
Wenning, G; Litvan, I; Jankovic, J; Granata, R.; Mangone, C; McKee, A.; Poewe, W; Jellinger, K.; Chaudhuri, K; D'Olhaberriague, L; Pearce, R
OBJECTIVE—To analyse the natural history and survival of corticobasal degeneration by investigating the clinical features of 14 cases confirmed by postmortem examination. METHODS—Patients with definite corticobasal degeneration were selected from the research and clinical files of seven tertiary medical centres in Austria, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Clinical features were analysed in detail. RESULTS—The sample consisted of eight female and six male patients; ...
David Sunderlin; Lijuan Xu
An intellectual treatment of islands and isolation lends itself to a foundation in a liberal arts education. The introductory undergraduate course on island studies can serve as a topical platform on which to develop critical thinking, research, analytical, and creative thinking skills for beginning college students. The paper analyzes the natural history perspective in island studies and its methods of inquiry as pedagogical strategies that enhance the development of academic curiosity. The ...
Albert SharInformation Technology, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey, USAAbstract: The inability to precisely measure the area of a lesion can impair the study of its natural history and response to therapy. This is especially true in case of gastrointestinal lesions, where a standard imaging technique is endoscopy and an unaided visual interpretation of the size of the lesion is difficult. This study presents a novel technique that provides precise measurement of 2-dimens...
Yee, Steven B.; Hatkin, Joshua M; Dyer, David N; Orr, Steven A.; Pitt, M. Louise M.
The natural history for inhalational Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) exposure in New Zealand white rabbits was investigated to better identify potential, early biomarkers of anthrax. Twelve SPF Bordetella-free rabbits were exposed to 150 LD50 aerosolized B. anthracis spores, and clinical signs, body temperature, complete blood count, bacteremia, and presence of protective antigen in the blood (that is, antigenemia) were examined. The development of antigenemia and bacteremia coincided and pr...
JULIO A LEMOS-ESPINAL; Smith, Geoffrey R.
We made observations on the natural history of a population of the lizard Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon from Oaxaca, Mexico. Females were larger than males (SVL). Most lizards were found completely inside rock crevices. Mean body temperature was 20.3°C. Body temperature wasrelated primarily to substrate temperature. Body temperature was not influenced by any crevice characteristic. Based on abdominal palpation, the size at maturity for females appears to be 117-119 mm SVL. Sex ratio did not dif...
Valentini, Laura Grazia; Selvaggio, Giorgio; Visintini, Sergio; Erbetta, Alessandra; Scaioli, Vidmer; Solero, Carlo Lazzaro
The surgical results of this series of occult spina bifida seem better than the natural history registered in the long pre-operative period in terms of neurological deterioration. The major contribution to this result is attributed to neurophysiological monitoring that lowers the risks of permanent damage and increases the percentage of effective detethering. The present series of TCS, due to conus and filar lipoma, documents that CM1 is a really rare association occurring in less than 6% of ...
Koscielny, S; Tubiana, M; Valleron, A J
In order to assess the time at which the distant metastases were initiated, a model has been developed to simulate the natural history of human breast cancer. The metastasis appearance curves were fitted to those observed for tumours of various sizes among the 2648 patients treated at the Institut Gustave Roussy from 1954 to 1972. The model assumes that metastases are initiated when the tumour reaches a threshold volume (distribution of this volume was estimated in a previous article). Two pa...
There is a long-standing distinction in Western thought between scientific and historical modes of explanation. According to Aristotle's influential account of scientific knowledge there cannot be an explanatory science of what is contingent and accidental, such things being the purview of a descriptive history. This distinction between scientia and historia continued to inform assumptions about scientific explanation into the nineteenth century and is particularly significant when considering the emergence of biology and its displacement of the more traditional discipline of natural history. One of the consequences of this nineteenth-century transition was that while modern evolutionary theory retained significant, if often implicit, historical components, these were often overlooked as evolutionary biology sought to accommodate itself to a model of scientific explanation that involved appeals to laws of nature. These scientific aspirations of evolutionary biology sometimes sit uncomfortably with its historical dimension. This tension lies beneath recent philosophical critiques of evolutionary theory and its modes of explanation. Such critiques, however, overlook the fact that there are legitimate modes of historical explanation that do not require recourse to laws of nature. But responding to these criticisms calls for a more explicit recognition of the affinities between evolutionary biology and history. PMID:26795077
Turnhout, Esther; Lawrence, Anna; Turnhout, Sander
Biodiversity data are in increasing demand to inform policy and management. A substantial portion of these data is generated in citizen science networks. To ensure the quality of biodiversity data, standards and criteria for validation have been put in place. We used interviews and document analysis from the United Kingdom and The Netherlands to examine how data validation serves as a point of connection between the diverse people and practices in natural history citizen science networks. We found that rather than a unidirectional imposition of standards, validation was performed collectively. Specifically, it was enacted in ongoing circulations of biodiversity records between recorders and validators as they jointly negotiated the biodiversity that was observed and the validity of the records. These collective validation practices contributed to the citizen science character or natural history networks and tied these networks together. However, when biodiversity records were included in biodiversity-information initiatives on different policy levels and scales, the circulation of records diminished. These initiatives took on a more extractive mode of data use. Validation ceased to be collective with important consequences for the natural history networks involved and citizen science more generally. PMID:27111818
Duarte, Regina Horta
This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history. PMID:24783494
Neuheimer, A B; Hartvig, M; Heuschele, J; Hylander, S; Kiørboe, T; Olsson, K H; Sainmont, J; Andersen, K H
Explaining variability in offspring vs. adult size among groups is a necessary step to determine the evolutionary and environmental constraints shaping variability in life history strategies. This is of particular interest for life in the ocean where a diversity of offspring development strategies is observed along with variability in physical and biological forcing factors in space and time. We compiled adult and offspring size for 407 pelagic marine species covering more than 17 orders of magnitude in body mass including Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Crustaceans, Ctenophora, Elasmobranchii, Mammalia, Sagittoidea, and Teleost. We find marine life following one of two distinct strategies, with offspring size being either proportional to adult size (e.g., Crustaceans, Elasmobranchii, and Mammalia) or invariant with adult size (e.g., Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Sagittoidea, Teleosts, and possibly Ctenophora). We discuss where these two strategies occur and how these patterns (along with the relative size of the offspring) may be shaped by physical and biological constraints in the organism's environment. This adaptive environment along with the evolutionary history of the different groups shape observed life history strategies and possible group-specific responses to changing environmental conditions (e.g., production and distribution). PMID:26909435
Septer, Seth; Lawson, Caitlin E; Anant, Shrikant; Attard, Thomas
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary condition with a near 100 % lifetime risk of colorectal cancer without prophylactic colectomy. Most patients with FAP have a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene on chromosome 5q22. This condition frequently presents in children with polyps developing most frequently in the second decade of life and surveillance colonoscopy is required starting at age ten. Polyps are found not only in the colon, but in the stomach and duodenum. Knowledge of the natural history of FAP is important as there are several extra-colonic sequelae which also require surveillance. In infants and toddlers, there is an increased risk of hepatoblastoma, while in teenagers and adults duodenal carcinomas, desmoid tumors, thyroid cancer and medulloblastoma are more common in FAP than in the general population. Current chemopreventive strategies include several medications and natural products, although to this point there is no consensus on the most efficacious and safe agent. Genetic counseling is an important part of the diagnostic process for FAP. Appropriate use and interpretation of genetic testing is best accomplished with genetic counselor involvement as many families also have concerns regarding future insurability or discrimination when faced with genetic testing. PMID:27056662
Laird, Shelby Gull; McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Allen, Sydnye
Outdoor environmental education and provision of unstructured exploration of nature are often forgotten aspects of the early childhood experience. The aim of this study was to understand how adults' early experiences in nature relate to their attitudes and practices in providing such experiences for young children. This study surveyed 33 parents…
Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the axial skeleton and evolves in stiffnes followed by ankylosis and disability. However, it may be difficult to exactly establish the natural history of the disease and the influence of risk factors of progression, since most patients are treated with various pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic agents, which may potentially influence the natural progression of the disease. In this context, we report here a very interesting case of a 40 year old man, presented to our outpatient clinic, 28 years after the onset of AS. Previously for personal reasons, did not choose not to undergo any treatment. This case allows us to evaluate the natural radiological progression of the disease and the influence of predictive risk factors.
Some basic concepts for the creation of the Swiss National Park were derived from observations made in Sri Lanka, Indonesia and New Caledonia. European researchers feared that the study of "virgin nature" would no longer be possible, as various species would soon become extinct under the combined influences of colonial practices and profit-oriented capitalism. While the motives for protecting nature originated from experiences made in the southern hemisphere, their scientific concept of conservation was based on European natural history and the related theories of evolution. In the light of this approach, endangered zoological and botanical species as well as "primitive" varieties of man were appreciated as "documents" to be preserved within their original environment for future scientific reference and research. Museum collections and reservations (parks) were two types of repositories connected to each other by the same objective. PMID:25233677
Full Text Available A research was done to obtain basic data about influence of natural twin birth history on reproduction of Ongole crossbred (PO cow, as a basic consideration in utilizing twin genetic potency to increase beef production. The research was done for three estrus cycles respectively, and consists of two activities. The first activity was done in Beef Cattle Research Station (BCReS at Grati sub-district, Pasuruan district – East Java, to observe number and development of follicle of ten cows with natural twin birth history (TP and ten cows with single birth history (SP. In this activit ultra sonography (USG equipment was used. The second activity was done in BCReS and in the Faculty of Veterinary Airlangga University at Surabaya, to observe concentration and profile of FSH using Bovine Blood Serum kit and IRMA method of five cows with TP and five PO cows with SP. Data obtained were analyzed using Chi-square test, t-test and descriptive presentation. Result shows that 23.33% of cows with TP produced two dominant (de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and significantly (P < 0.01 higher FSH secretion concentration (1.26 – 3.13 times than that of cows with SP. It is concluded that PO cows with TP can produces more than one de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and it has very high secretion concentration level of FSH.