A very significant problem in society is adolescent rape victimization and the growing number of adolescent perpetrators. This paper examines adolescent attitudes about rape in order to develop curricular materials. It is found that adolescents exhibit conservative attitudes about gender roles, general rape myths, and victim issues. (Author)
Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Delfabbro, Paul; Myrseth, Helga; Pallesen, Ståle
It is well documented that attitudes toward gambling are a good predictor of problem gambling during adolescence. However, so far, little is known about what factors are associated with adolescents' gambling attitudes. This study used cross-sectional data (N = 2055, response rate 70.4%) from a representative sample of 17-year-olds in Norway to investigate the relationship between demographic, personality, motivational and social variables and gambling attitudes. Overall, adolescents' attitude...
Stefani, D; Rodríguez Feijoo, N; Shufer de Paikin, M L; Calvo de Couget, L
The purpose of this paper is to measure attitudes towards loud music and to evaluate the influence of some variables on such attitudes. The scale of attitudes towards loud music was administered to a sample of 173 sixteen-year old subjects. The majority of the adolescents show neutral or favorable attitudes towards loud music. The sex and environmental noise variables have a non significant influence on this attitude. The majority of the sampled group attend dancing places (clubs, discotheques, etc.) once or twice a month and sometimes listen to loud music at home or at friends' home. Finally, adolescents showing favorable attitudes attend dancing places or listen to loud music more often than those showing unfavorable attitudes. This paper is a first approach to a deeper research to evaluate the possibility of modifying experimentally the attitude towards loud music by means of a message displaying both physical and psychological damage this fashion has caused. PMID:3425358
This empirical study investigates the environmental awareness of school children in Bavaria and Asturias. The analysis was based on a data-set (Bavaria, 900 students; Asturias, 182 students) that was collected in spring 2007. Students aged between 14 and 15 years responded to a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. The theoretical concept follows the…
Szagun, Gisela; Pavlov, Vladimir I.
German (n=610) and Russian (n=610) adolescents in 3 age groups, 12, 15, and 18 years, were given a questionnaire assessing their feelings towards environmental destruction, their readiness for pro-environmental action, and their ethical attitude toward nature. In both nationalities anxiety, sadness, and anger about environmental destruction were…
Full Text Available Introduction. Having a relatively high suicide rate of 19.5 per 100.000 inhabitants, the Republic of Serbia is in the first half on the list of the European countries concerning the number of suicides. However, the situation is particularly alarming in Vojvodina, which has been one of the areas with a very high population mortality rate caused by suicide for a long period of time not only in Serbia of nowadays, but also in former Yugoslavia. The number of suicides has increased by almost 50% over the last five and a half decades, and every eighth suicide was committed by a young person. The aim of this paper was to explore adolescents’ attitudes towards suicide and to find out whether the difference in age affects changes in attitudes regarding suicide. Material and Methods. The George Domino’s Suicide Opinion Questionnaire was completed by 254 adolescents divided into two age groups - 124 respondents were in the age group 13 to 15 and 130 of them in the age group 18 to 19. Results. The results of this study suggest that the attitudes of younger and older group of adolescents towards suicide mostly coincide and there is no statistically significant difference in the answers according to the analyzed clusters. Conclusion. This research shows that the attitudes of respondents of both age groups indicate a lack of awareness about suicide, its causes and dynamics of development of this public health problem. This leaves space for more intensive educational work in the mental health of the population, especially young people and for further research of the suicide problem as a basis for developing strategies.
Tishby, Orya; Turel, Miriam; Gumpel, Omer; Pinus, Uri; Lavy, Shlomit Ben; Winokour, Miriam; Sznajderman, Semi
Study investigated the willingness of Israeli adolescents to seek help for emotional and health problems, and their preference for various helping agents. Gender and age were identified as factors associated with help seeking attitudes. In general, adolescents preferred seeking help from family and peers, rather than professionals, for emotional…
Marciniak, L M
Adolescents have high rates of rape victimization and offending compared to other age groups, yet few studies have examined predictors of rape-supportive attitudes among adolescents. Drawing from Burt's (1980) study of rape myth acceptance among adults, this study tests a path analytic model of adolescent attitudes about victim precipitation of rape, using a sample of 1393 cases from the National Youth Survey (NYS) (Elliott, Ageton, Huizinga, Knowles, & Cantor, 1983). LISREL (Jöreskeg & Sörbom, 1988) estimation procedures are applied. Results show direct effects of sociocultural influences on an individual's level of rape myth acceptance, but demonstrate some interesting gender differences. Findings also reveal indirect effects of age, race, and socioeconomic status on attitudes toward rape, which operate through traditional gender role stereo-typing. Educating young adolescents about the nature of rape and the rights and roles of women are logical points of intervention to decrease acceptance of rape myths that target the victim. PMID:9836415
Christensen, Roger B.
This study was designed to determine; (1) if adolescent self esteem is related to premarital sexual attitudes and intercourse behavior; (2) if religious affiliation and church attendance affect the relationship between adolescent self esteem and premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Approximately 2400 adolescents residing in California, New Mexico, and Utah comprised the sample. Adolescents who attended church services more often reported less sexually permissive attitudes and behavior...
Evans, Gary W.; Brauchle, Gernot; Haq, Aliya; Stecker, Rachel; Wong, Kimberly; Shapiro, Elan
Two reliable and valid instruments to assess first- and second-grade children's (N = 100, M = 6.8 years) environmental attitudes and behaviors are presented. A series of games derived primarily from dimensions of the new ecological paradigm theory of environmental attitudes are described for the assessment of environmental attitudes. The games…
Full Text Available Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism destination increases, consumer attitudes change, influencing perceptions of the environmental policies of a wine region. In this consumer-driven economy, it is therefore important to search for effective ways to market destinations, and one approach is selective marketing. By focusing on consumers in this manner, it is possible to understand better their concerns and motivations, which should aid in marketing and advertising efforts. This study investigated wine consumers environmental concerns and attitudes about wine regions. Results suggest environmental attitudes differed by demographics regarding the impact of wine tourism, providing ideas on further marketing efforts for those involved in wine tourism.Keywords: sustainable wine tourism, green products, wine marketing, consumers
Collier, Kate L.; Horn, Stacey S.; Bos, Henny M.W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.
Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the U.S. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and American heterosexual adolescents, utilizing survey data from 1,080 American adolescents (mean age = 15.86 years) attending two schools and from 1,391 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 16.27 years) attending eight sch...
Hall, Judy E.; Morris, Helen L.
Sixty-one noninstitutionalized and 61 institutionalized educable mentally retarded adolescents were psychometrically assessed on three measures: sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and self-concept. (Author)
Lam, SF; Chiu, CY; Lau, IYM; Chan, WM; Yim, Ps
Previous research has shown a widespread bias among Hong Kong adolescents against Chinese Mainlanders. Based on social identity and social cognitive theories, we examined the effects of identity frame switching (situational induction of social category inclusiveness) and time pressure (environmental constraints on social information processing) on Hong Kong adolescents' attitudes toward Chinese Mainlanders. Results indicated that Hong Kong adolescents had acquired a habitual tendency to make ...
Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan
Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…
Bowen, Erica; Holdsworth, Emma; Leen, Eline; Sorbring, Emma; Helsing, Bo; Jaans, Sebastian; Awouters, Valère
A focus group methodology was used to examine attitudes toward dating violence among 86 adolescents (aged 12-17) from four northern European countries (England, Sweden, Germany, and Belgium). Four superordinate themes were identified from thematic analyses: gender identities, television as the educator, perceived acceptability of dating violence, and the decision to seek help/tell someone. Although violence in relationships was generally not condoned, when violence was used by females, was unintended (despite its consequences), or was in retaliation for infidelity, violence was perceived as acceptable. Adolescents indicated that their views were stereotypical and based solely on stereotypical television portrayals of violence in relationships. Stereotypical beliefs and portrayals generate barriers for victimized males to seek help because of fear of embarrassment. PMID:24047043
Martin, Paige D.; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie
Study examined attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While about one third expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage or had engaged in sex. The adolescents…
The members of affluent Western societies have become increasingly aware of environmental issues. The increases in environmental awareness have created new environmentally conscious markets, such as organic foods and products, and organizations. This article looks at whether socio-demographic variables can predict environmental attitudes and whether there is a connection between environmental attitudes and the realization of behaviours that promote environmental protection (organic food purch...
Full Text Available There are often racial, ethnic intolerance among adolescents, which, in our opinion, caused by the presence of xenophobic attitudes, some combination of personality structures and situational factors. We hypothesized that there is a specificity of the relationship of xenophobic attitudes and personality characteristics in the structure of the person of adolescents with deviating (including illegal behavior and normative behavior. The study involved 254 female and a teenage male aged 14 - 18 years. The study used a questionnaire to identify the severity of xenophobic attitudes, as well as the methodology and questionnaires to identify the personality characteristics of adolescents and semantic constructs of personality. As a result, significant differences were found in the personal features (criterion U-Mann-Whitney test with p <0,01 and semantic structures in adolescents with regulations and illegal behavior of offenders with a nationalist orientation and without it. The results can be used in the framework of the prevention of hate crimes among adolescents.
There are often racial, ethnic intolerance among adolescents, which, in our opinion, caused by the presence of xenophobic attitudes, some combination of personality structures and situational factors. We hypothesized that there is a specificity of the relationship of xenophobic attitudes and personality characteristics in the structure of the person of adolescents with deviating (including illegal) behavior and normative behavior. The study involved 254 female and a teenage male aged 14 - 18 ...
Richmond, James M.; Baumgart, Neil
Reported is a reanalysis of responses of a survey of environmental attitudes of English high school students. The purpose of the analysis was to try to determine if there was a hierarchical relationship among the items. Relationships were identified. (RH)
Beutler, Ivan F.; Gudmunson, Clinton G.
The development of two new money-attitude scales measuring entitlement and conscientiousness in adolescents are described. The scales were developed through student and focus group input and from a review of literature on entitlement and conscientiousness as a new adolescent financial education curriculum was being developed. The findings from 265…
Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee
Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…
Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja
This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("c
Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.
This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music
Bas, Murat; Asci, F. Hulya; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gul
This study examined the eating attitudes and psychological characteristics of Turkish late adolescents. Seven hundred eighty-three university students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Physique Anxiety Scale. More than one in ten (9.2% of the males and 13.1% of the…
Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja
This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online survey was created and published on several popular websites for youngsters. Attitudes were assessed by means of the CATCH questionnair...
Since the last three decades or so, we have witnessed the growing concern of human beings, all over the world, to adopt measures to conserve and preserve environment of the planet earth, because the same has been threatened by human activity and by way of our unparalleled intervention in the otherwise balanced environment. This awareness and concern has emerged as a need of incorporating environmental Issues into the normal curricula, so that we can educate the young generation to become informed decision-makers of the future. UNESCO and UNEP have advocated (since the last three decades) to teach environmentalised science to students. In Pakistan, there have been attempts to change curricula in accordance with the need of the time. Teachers need new kinds of skills, attitudes and commitment to teach science in an environmentalised fashion. This article discusses the impact of a semester-course on change in environmental attitudes of prospective science-teachers. A pre-test, post-test method was used to ascertain any change in environmental attitude of prospective science-teachers, after studying the environmental education course. It has been shown that there was a change in the environmental attitude of science-teachers as a result of the one-semester course, but the change or the level of attitude was not substantial or satisfactory. There seems to be a need of adopting a comprehensive approach to environmental education, and introducing teaching of environmental concepts at a very early age. (author)
Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja
This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online survey was created and published on several popular websites for youngsters. Attitudes were assessed by means of the CATCH questionnaire among 167 adolescents between 11 and 20 years old. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Belgian adolescents had fairly tolerant attitudes towards peers with disabilities. Factors associated with more positive attitudes were being female, and viewing a video introduction of a peer with a disability before assessing attitudes. Factors such as having a parent, sibling or good friend with a disability and frequent contact with persons with disabilities did not remain significant in the overall model. The way in which students with disabilities are presented to their peers is very important. Further research is needed among larger samples, including more diverse variables, concerning the former mentioned categories, and also concerning the source (the "who") and message (the "what"). PMID:21257288
Gigliotti, Larry M.
A trend analysis compares attitudes of randomly selected Cornell University students (n=1500) toward 35 specific items utilizing the New Environmental Paradigm growth and technology scale to test the hypothesis that people who see benefits of economic growth or have faith in technological solutions are less willing to make personal sacrifices. (33…
Rubin, Roger H.
Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…
Christopher Taylor; Nelson Barber; Cynthia Deale
Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism desti...
Titzmann, Peter F; Sonnenberg, Katharina
Recent research demonstrates that intergenerational differences in immigrant families' adaptation can be detrimental for family functioning. However, most of the findings originate from immigrant groups in North America who face different situations compared with European Diaspora returnees. This comparative study investigated whether ethnic German Diaspora immigrant adolescents' and mothers' disagreement about the desirability of adolescents' intercultural contact with native peers relates to more conflict in the family domain. In addition, we accounted for general developmental factors predicting family conflict by considering adolescents' background in terms of prosocial behaviour and hyperactivity. Participants comprised 185 Diaspora immigrant mother-adolescent dyads from the former Soviet Union living in Germany (adolescents: mean age 15.7 years, 60% female) and 197 native German mother-adolescent dyads (adolescents: mean age 14.7 years, 53% female). Results indicated a similar level of family conflict in immigrant and native families. However, conflict was elevated in those immigrant families disagreeing on intercultural contact attitudes, independent of the significant effects of adolescents' background of prosocial behaviour or hyperactivity. Our study highlights potential side effects in the family domain, if immigrant adolescents and parents disagree in their attitude regarding adaptation to the host culture's life domains, such as contact with native peers. PMID:26010007
Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana
The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age = 14.6, SD = 0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23744567
Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.
Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…
Binngießer, Janine; Randler, Christoph
The relevance of environmental attitudes is obvious and attitudes towards farm and companion animals and animal welfare in medical research are an important aspect of education. However, both have rarely been linked with each other, and animal attitudes are only sparsely represented within environmental education assessment instruments. Linking…
Trotter, John Rhodes
In order to identify the relationships between the attitudes and perceptions of peer pressure and the academic achievement of academically able male adolescents, this study compares the school attitudes of high achieving and low achieving Black male youth. (EF)
Vasilenko, Sara A.; Kreager, Derek A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.
Although sexual risk behavior occurs in a dyadic context, most studies of adolescent sexual behavior focus on individuals. This study uses couple data (N = 488 couples) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine how partners’ contraceptive attitudes correlate over time and whether male or female partners’ attitudes are better predictors of condom use. Net of their own prior attitudes, partners’ prior attitudes predicted both male and female adolescents’ Wave 2 attitu...
Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras
To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents.......To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents....
van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge
Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000
Ana Flavia Granville-Garcia
Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to assess the attitudes and behaviors regarding alcohol use and analyze associated factors among schoolchildren in public schools of Campina Grande in the state of Paraíba. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 574 adolescents, with the application of a semi-structured questionnaire. The chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used (5% level of significance. Among the adolescents 54.5% had drunk alcohol and 6.7% of them were heavy drinkers. The majority of them drank alcohol between 11 and 14 years of age (42.8%; 26.3% of the adolescents purchased alcoholic beverages; and beer was the most drink most consumed (43.8%. The risk of alcohol drinking was higher between 16 and 19 years of age (OR = 4.44; p < 0.001, among those without religious affiliation (OR = 4.36; p = 0.002, among those who worked (OR = 2.13; p = 0.012 and among those who had a fair to poor relationship with their father (OR = 2.18; p = 0.010. The results of this study underscore the complexity of this issue and the need to pay particular attention to the adolescent population. Public policies alone are not sufficient. Support from family, school and society is essential to curtail early alcohol use and its consequences.
Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce G
Parenting behaviors such as monitoring and communications are known correlates of abusive outcomes in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study draws on separate parent (58 % female; 61 % White non-Hispanic, 12 % Black non-Hispanic, 7 % other non-Hispanic, and 20 % Hispanic) and youth (ages 12-18 years; 48 % female) surveys from the nationally representative Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence. Latent class analyses were applied to investigate whether there are distinguishable parenting profiles based on six measures of parent-youth relationship and interactions, with youth's attitudes about abusive dating behavior and both perpetration and victimization examined in a follow-up survey as distal outcomes (n = 1117 parent-youth dyads). A three-class model-a "Positive Parenting" class, a "Strict/Harsh Parenting" class, and a "Disengaged/Harsh Parenting" class-was selected to best represent the data. The selected latent class model was conditioned on parents' (anger trait, relationship quality, attitudes about domestic violence) and youth's (prior victimization and perpetration) covariates, controlling for parent's gender, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and youth's age and gender. Youth in the "Positive Parenting" class were significantly less likely 1 year later to be tolerant of violence against boyfriends under any conditions as well as less likely to perpetrate adolescent relationship abuse or to be a victim of adolescent relationship abuse. Parents' anger and relationship quality and youth's prior perpetration of adolescent relationship abuse as well as gender, age, and race/ethnicity predicted class membership, informing universal prevention program and message design, as well as indicated efforts to target communications and services for parents as well as for youth. PMID:26906058
Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John
household practices: purchasing environmentally friendly products, curtailing electricity use, and handling waste responsibly. Significant, but weak correlations between parents and adolescents were found across all of Schwartz's ten value domains, which suggests a clear, albeit not necessarily strong......, parental influence on values. The IG influence was found to be much stronger as regards specific environmental attitudes and behaviours. Mothers seem to influence their offspring more than fathers, and some indications of sex-typed gender socialization are found. On average, the younger generation is...... significantly less environmentally conscious than their parents' generation. Still, family socialization exerts a significant influence on young consumers' proenvironmental orientation....
Teichman, Meir; Kefir, Ester
Examines how adolescents perceive the role of parents influencing their decision to use psychoactive substances. Perceived parental rejection, acceptance, and attitudes significantly differentiated between adolescents who reported favorable attitudes toward and high intent to use substances, and those who expressed less favorable attitudes. The…
Martin, Scott B.; Rhea, Deborah J.; Greenleaf, Christy A.; Judd, Doryce E.; Chambliss, Heather O.
Background: Relatively little is known about how perceived weight controllability influences important psychological health factors among adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore adolescents' weight controllability beliefs and how those beliefs influence weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Methods: Adolescents (N = 369, mean…
Weisel, Amatzia; Zaidman, Anat
This study examined the attitudes of 83 religious and 51 secular Israeli adolescents using Siller's Disability Factor Scale General, as well as level of dogmatism. Secular participants expressed more positive attitudes than religious participants on two attitude subscales, Generalized Rejection and Authoritarian Virtuousness, scales which express…
Epps, K J; Haworth, R; Swaffer, T
Adolescence is an important period in the development of adult sexual offending against women, yet it has received little attention in research on attitudes toward women and rape. The present study used the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and Burt's (1980) Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (BRMAS) to compare the attitudes of 31 male adolescents convicted of sexual assaults on women (rape, attempted rape, indecent assault) with the attitudes of 27 male adolescents convicted of nonsexual violent crimes. The results showed no significant difference between the two groups on either measure. Furthermore, a more traditional, conservative attitude toward women, as measured on the AWS, did not significantly correlate with the endorsement of rape myths as measured on the BRMAS. The findings are discussed with reference to the validity and reliability of these measures when used with adolescents. PMID:8271228
Man-Yee Emmy Wong; Tak-Ming Lawrence Lam
Internal migration in China has introduced critical challenges to the education and health of migrant adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in sexual knowledge and attitudes among migrate and local adolescents. Survey research with a total of 616 adolescents in grades equivalent to US 10th and 11th grades including 113 migrants completed a selfadministered questionnaire. Misconceptions of adolescent physical development, sexual activity, marriage, birth contro...
Tang, Sandra; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Hallman, Samantha K
A significant gap remains in our understanding of the conditions under which parents' racial socialization has consequences for adolescents' functioning. The present study used longitudinal data to examine whether the frequency of communication between African American parents and adolescents (N = 504; 49 % female) moderates the association between parent reports of racial socialization (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) at 8th grade and adolescent reports of racial identity (perceived structural discrimination, negative public regard, success-oriented centrality) at 11th grade, and in turn, academic attitudes and perceptions. Parents' racial socialization practices were significant predictors of multiple aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with high levels of communication, but they did not predict any aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with low levels of communication. Results highlight the importance of including family processes when examining the relations between parents' racial socialization and adolescents' racial identity and academic attitudes and perceptions. PMID:26369349
Macklin, A. D.
This study explores the relationship between art object preferences and aesthetic attitudes of high school students. A corollary variable was socioeconomic status as determined by the National Opinion Research Center scale. A sample of 443 students, grades 8-12, in a Virginia high school, were studied. The 5-point Aesthetic Attitude Scale was used…
Halkos, George; Matsiori, Steriani
This study explores people’s environmental attitudes and motives for putting economic values to marine biodiversity and its protection. Primary data were collected from a sample of 359 people living in two important Greek coastal port cities: Thessaloniki and Volos. Respondents’ environmental attitude was measured with the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale, and economic values were derived from a referendum, contingent valuation method (CVM) survey for protecting marine biodiversity. Use of...
Jamilah Ahmad; Shuhaida Md. Noor; Nurzali Ismail
This study investigated the relationship between students’ knowledge, attitude and practice of the environment and effective communication of environmental messages. For this purpose, a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey was conducted, involving 895 students from 16 higher learning institutions in Malaysia. The findings revealed that students in general, have a good level of environmental knowledge. However, knowledge does not necessarily lead to practice. There was a weak relation...
Warenius, Linnéa U; Faxelid, Elisabeth A; Chishimba, Petronella N; Musandu, Joyce O; Ong'any, Antony A; Nissen, Eva B-M
Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services. PMID:16713886
Full Text Available The present article challenges the prevailing perception in the field of environmental education that acquisition of environmental behavior is an ultimate goal of the educational process, in comparison to acquisition of environmental attitudes, which is perceived as a minor goal. The article presents a compilation of results obtained from two studies that shed new light on the relationship between influences on environmental attitudes and influences on environmental behavior. The results suggest that: (a among adults, the strategies required for influencing attitudes are different from those required for influencing behaviors; (b the mechanisms for achieving influence among children are different from those among adults; and (c conventional educational approaches, such as behavior modification, can influence behavior more easily than they can influence attitudes. The results provide grounds for questioning the prevailing belief that individual acquisition of responsible environmental behavior can drive changes on the global political scale. We suggest increasing the focus of environmental education on construction of attitudes.
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer
The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the 2010–2011 academic year suggests that the relationship between ethnic identity and attitude toward school is a complex interaction among individual char...
Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues
Patton, Mary Chandler
This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.
Neiderhiser, J M; Pike, A; Hetherington, E M; Reiss, D
Explaining how genetic factors contribute to associations between parenting and adolescent adjustment is an important next step in developmental research. This study examined the mediating effect of adolescent perceptions on these associations and the genetic and environmental influences underpinning the mediated relationship. Parent, adolescent, and observer ratings of parenting and adolescent adjustment were used in a genetically informative sample of 720 same-sex sibling pairs from 10 to 18 years old. Adolescent perceptions of parenting did significantly mediate a composite measure of parental conflict-negativity and adolescent antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. The most substantial genetic contributions to the association between parenting and adolescent maladjustment were those mediated by adolescent perceptions. Once genetic and environmental contributions to adolescent perceptions of parenting were removed, shared environmental factors became more important for the remaining direct association. PMID:9823525
Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B
Using longitudinal data collected at four time points from 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures, we examined changes in and socialization of traditional gender role attitudes across the transition to parenthood using latent growth curve modeling and actor-partner interdependence modeling. Longitudinal growth models indicated that, regardless of nativity status, adolescent mothers' and their foreign-born mother figures' gender role attitudes became more egalitarian across adolescents' transition to parenthood, spanning from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. Furthermore, actor-partner interdependence modeling suggested that adolescents' and their mother figures' gender role attitudes during adolescents' third trimester of pregnancy equally contributed to subsequent increases in one another's gender role attitudes at 10 months postpartum. Importantly, this reciprocal socialization process was not moderated by adolescent mothers' nor by their mother figures' nativity status. Findings suggest that it is important to understand the cultural and intergenerational family processes that contribute to the development of gender role attitudes during the transition to parenthood for adolescent mothers and their mother figures in Mexican-origin families. PMID:25615441
Horn, Stacey S.
Reports on the school climate for gay and lesbian students in the United States suggest that negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian individuals are quite common in adolescence. Very little research, however, has investigated adolescents' sexual prejudice from a developmental perspective. In this study, 10th- (N = 119) and 12th- (N = 145) grade…
Kirana, Paraskevi-Sofia; Nakopoulou, Evangelia; Akrita, Ioanna; Papaharitou, Stamatis
The aim of the study was to explore the attitudes and views of Greek parents concerning the provision of sex education to adolescents, as well as the opinion and the involvement of school health promoters in sex education. A questionnaire containing 20 items was constructed and administered to 93 parents of adolescents who participated in parents'…
Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compare
Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…
Maes, Marlies; Vanhalst, Janne; Spithoven, Annette W M; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc
In adolescence, feeling lonely and dealing with time spent alone become particularly salient. The present study examined the co-occurrence of parent- and peer-related loneliness, and positive and negative attitudes toward aloneness, using cluster analysis. In three independent samples, covering about 1800 adolescents (61 % female), six meaningful groups were identified. These groups showed different associations with adolescents' self-esteem and personality, parental responsiveness and psychological control, and peer group functioning and friendships. An adaptive pattern of correlates was found for adolescents in three of the six groups, that is, the Indifference group (with rather low scores on the four constructs), the Moderate group (with moderate scores on the four constructs), and the Negative Attitude Toward Aloneness group. A rather maladaptive pattern of correlates was found for adolescents in the three other groups, that is, the Peer-Related Loneliness group, the Positive Attitude Toward Aloneness group, and the Parent-Related Loneliness group. More specifically, adolescents in the Peer-Related Loneliness and Positive Attitude Toward Aloneness groups may need assistance regarding their relations with their peers, whereas adolescents in the Parent-Related Loneliness group may need assistance regarding their relations with their parents. Implications of these findings for current understanding and optimal measurement of adolescents' loneliness and aloneness are discussed. PMID:26369350
Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.
This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…
Barnett, Larry D.
Analysis of Gallup Poll data of Junuary 1969 reveals weak association between concern about environmental deterioration and the recognition of need for eventual limitation of human population. Suggests that to increase favorable attitudes to population control, role of overpopulation in causing environmental deterioration needs to be presented to…
Lee, E. Bun
The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…
Howlett Sarah A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how adolescents and their parents interact and talk about some of the key lifestyle behaviors that are associated with overweight and obesity, such as screen time (ST and sugary drink (SD consumption. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescents' and parents' perceptions, attitudes, and interactions in regards to these topics. Methods Using an exploratory approach, semi-structured focus groups were conducted separately with adolescents and (unrelated parents. Participants were recruited from low and middle socio-economic areas in the Sydney metropolitan area and a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis for each of the four content areas (adolescent-ST, adolescent-SD consumption, parents' views on adolescents' ST and parents' views on adolescents' SD consumption. Results Nine focus groups, with a total of 63 participants, were conducted. Broad themes spanned all groups: patterns of behavior; attitudes and concerns; adolescent-parent interactions; strategies for behavior change; and awareness of ST guidelines. While parents and adolescents described similar patterns of behaviour in relation to adolescents' SD consumption and ST, there were marked differences in their attitudes to these two behaviours which were also evident in the adolescent-parent interactions in the home that they described. Parents felt able to limit adolescents' access to SDs, but felt unable to control their adolescents' screen time. Conclusion This study offers unique insights regarding topics rarely explored with parents or adolescents, yet which are part of everyday family life, are known to be linked to risk of weight gain, and are potentially amenable to change.
Howlett Sarah A; King Lesley A; Shrewsbury Vanessa A; Hattersley Libby A; Hardy Louise L; Baur Louise A
Abstract Background Little is known about how adolescents and their parents interact and talk about some of the key lifestyle behaviors that are associated with overweight and obesity, such as screen time (ST) and sugary drink (SD) consumption. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescents' and parents' perceptions, attitudes, and interactions in regards to these topics. Methods Using an exploratory approach, semi-structured focus groups were conducted separately with adolescents and (u...
THE ATTITUDE OF ADOLESCENTS TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN SPORTS AND THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SUCH BEHAVIOR Keywords: aggression, sports, children. Scientists, psychologists, teachers, and students nowadays pay a lot of attention to the increasing wave of aggression among adolescents. This problem is broadly studied in different journals; in manuals the whole chapters are dedicated to it but it has not been studied a lot in Lithuanian context. In sports, namely among adolescents, diffe...
Farideh K Abadi Farahani; Siamak Alikhani; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Alireza Bahonar
Objective: Parents are believed to be among the most influential adults who have a deterministic role in the success of interventional programs on adolescents' reproductive health. The aim of this study is to describe parents' perceptions and attitudes towards adolescent reproductive needs, experiences and associated factors. Method: A population-based study of 539 parents of adolescent boys, aged 15-18 in Tehran was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. bivariate and m...
Cotton, C R; Range, L M
To see if hopelessness and four attitudes (attraction to life and death and repulsion by life and death) account for the development of suicidality in children, 15 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and 84 middle and high school students, average age 15.2 years, took a four-item version of the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire, the Hopelessness Scale for Children (HSC), and the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale for Adolescents (MAST-A). Profiles on the four attitudes differentiated adolescents at risk for suicide from those not at risk. Suicidality was negatively related to Attraction to Death and positively related to Repulsion by Life, Attraction to Death, Repulsion by Death, and hopelessness. Hopelessness was negatively related to Attraction to Life, and positively related to Repulsion by Life and Repulsion by Death. The best predictors of suicidality were hopelessness and Repulsion by Life. Results imply that reducing feelings of rejection by their families might lessen suicidality in adolescents. PMID:10169709
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Melkonian, Michael; Welch, Anita G; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed; Rashad, Fatimah F
Drawing on data from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing multilevel modeling as an analytic strategy, this study examined the relations of adolescent children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards mathematics to their own attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among a sample of 5116 adolescents from 384 schools in the United Arab Emirates. The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children not only to study but also for their career tended to report higher levels of intrinsic and instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, and mathematics work ethic. Moreover, adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report positive intentions and behaviors toward mathematics. However, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report higher levels of mathematics anxiety. Finally, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children to study performed significantly better on the mathematics assessment than did their peers whose parents disregarded the importance of learning mathematics. PMID:26189150
Full Text Available Early adolescence (ages 10-14 is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes.To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally.A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes.Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age. Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents.The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different
Full Text Available The available literature suggests that there has been a rise in green consumerism not only among general consumers but tourists. This has provided the impetus for the ‘greening’ of hotels as hotel guests have indicated their preference for hotels that ‘take care of the environment’. Ironically, the environmental impacts of hotels especially with regards to the consumption of energy and water are more likely to be exacerbated by their guests. In spite of this, most studies on environmental management in hotels have centred on programmes and initiatives undertaken by management with little focus on the attitudes and behaviour of guests. This study sought to assess international tourists’ environmental attitude towards hotels in Accra and the implications for environmental management by hotels. A sample of 343 international tourists was surveyed at major tourist attraction sites in Accra. The results of the study indicate that a majority of respondents generally held the view that hotels do not destroy the environment but contribute to the global environmental problems. Most of them (83% were therefore willing to pay more to stay in a hotel with a responsible environmental attitude. There was also a significant positive relationship between some socio-demographic characteristics of tourist such age and sex and their environmental behaviour. The results of this study have implications for environmental education of guests and the marketing of hotels.
Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio
Full Text Available Introduction: cervical cancer (CC is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV. TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about HumanPapillomavirus (HPV in adolescent students of secondary.Methods: an analytical, observational and cross sectional study was performed withthe application of a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP, to studentsof secondary of two schools of the city of Cartagena, Colombia, between July andDecember of 2011.Results: 10.8% of the polled adolescents replied that they knew the condilomatosis,infectious disease of sexual transmission caused by HPV and 20,1% have knowledgeabout the connection between cervical cancer and HPV infection.Conclusion: there is low knowledge about HPV infection and its association with CC,just like good attitudes with respect to the use of prevention methods of HPV infectionand early detection methods of CC and inadequate practices, mainly in the vaccinationprogramming against HPV. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281RESUMEN:frecuente en mujeres en el mundo, América Latina y Colombia. Representa la cuartacausa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo, la tercera en America del Sur y la primera enColombia. El factor de riesgo principal es la infección persistente con el Virus del PapilomaHumano (VPH. El CACU puede prevenirse y curarse si se detecta tempranamente.Objetivo: establecer conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas acerca del VPH enadolescentes estudiantes de secundaria.Metodología: estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal realizado con laaplicación de una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP, a
Elena N. UNTARU
Full Text Available The present paper aims to determine the influence of EU member countries’ economic development on their citizens’ pro-environmental attitudes, using a Cluster Analysis, a Principal Components Analysis and a series of multiple regressions. In this sense, we have used the results of the 2012 survey on the „Attitudes of Europeans towards building the single market for green products”, as well as the 2012 statistical information referring to EU member countries’ economic development, provided by Eurostat. Using multiple regression analyses, we have outlined a significant influence of macroeconomic variables, such as: the employment rate, tertiary educational attainment, GDP per capita, human development index value, unemployment rate, share of gross value added in services and share of employment in services on European citizens’ pro-environmental attitudes.
Farideh K Abadi Farahani
Full Text Available Objective: Parents are believed to be among the most influential adults who have a deterministic role in the success of interventional programs on adolescents' reproductive health. The aim of this study is to describe parents' perceptions and attitudes towards adolescent reproductive needs, experiences and associated factors. Method: A population-based study of 539 parents of adolescent boys, aged 15-18 in Tehran was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with parents' attitudes and their reports of adolescent heterosexual relationships. Results: Higher education, higher income, access to satellite programs and internet were associated with a liberal attitude among parents. Some demographic factors including adolescents' age, lack of adolescents' endorsement to religion, access to satellite programs, parents' drinking, and various family factors such as poor parent-adolescent relationship, conflict, parental low valuation on education, parents' low endorsement to morals, difficult parent-adolescent communication on important issues and finally easy communication about sex, were all among the factors associated with more frequent reports of having a girlfriend over the last year for the adolescent males. Parents' reports on their adolescents' sexual relationships with the opposite sex highlighted a significant gap with the figure reported for the adolescents aged 15-18 in a preceding study in 2002(3% vs. 28%. Conclusion: Parents should be advised to build a good relationship with teens, to maintain a close parent-teen communication, and to discuss morals and values with teens .
Man-Yee Emmy Wong
Full Text Available Internal migration in China has introduced critical challenges to the education and health of migrant adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in sexual knowledge and attitudes among migrate and local adolescents. Survey research with a total of 616 adolescents in grades equivalent to US 10th and 11th grades including 113 migrants completed a selfadministered questionnaire. Misconceptions of adolescent physical development, sexual activity, marriage, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases and the probability of pregnancy were found in most of the migrant adolescents. Significantly lower attitudinal scores were found for the sub-scales of clarity of personal sexual values, understanding of emotional needs, social behavior, sexual responses; attitudes towards gender role, birth control, premarital intercourse, use of force in sexual activity, the importance of family and satisfaction with social relationship in migrant adolescents. Migrant adolescents have a low level of knowledge of sexual activities. The content of education programs should include engagement in sexual behavior to equip adolescents with unbiased and factual knowledge. The adolescents have a high demand for family support. School based sex education programs should involve the participation of parents to address these issues.
Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni
Background Early adolescence (ages 10–14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents’ personal gender attitudes. Objectives To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. Methods A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984–2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Results Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents’ construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. Conclusions The findings from this
Full Text Available AIMS - The purpose of this population-based study was to explore the relationship between gambling and violent behaviour and attitudes towards violence among 14- and 16-year-old adolescents. DESIGN - A national survey was conducted in Finland in 2011. The main measures in our study were gambling frequency and number of reported gambling-related harms. Their associations with violent behaviours and attitudes towards violence were studied using multinomial logistic regression and negative binomial regression. RESULTS - 47.1% of adolescents had gambled during the past six months and 13.2% of them had experienced gambling-related harms. Both gambling frequency and the number of gambling-related harms were linked to violent behaviour as well as to positive attitudes towards violence. Adolescents who engaged in gambling on a daily basis and/ or experienced gambling harms had the highest risk. CONCLUSIONS - Health promotion efforts among gamblers should take into account their increased risk for violent behaviour.
K.L. Collier; S.S. Horn; H.M.W. Bos; T.G.M. Sandfort
Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the United States. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and Americ
UĞULU, İlker; ERKOL, Sevilay
Studying individuals and students' attitudes towards environment and factors affecting students to be responsible individuals towards their environment may provide help towards the solution of environmental problems. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate environmental attitudes of biology teacher candidates in terms of some variables. As a means of data collection, Environmental Attitude Scale and the personal information form have been used. Environmental Attitude Scale which has 35 items i...
We investigated the significance of risk assessment studies in the public discussion on CO2 emissions. Politicians and representatives from the public were interviewed by using the social-science technique of qualitative in-depth interviews. Three different types of attitudes towards natural science were found among politicians. Depending on which attitude a politician holds, risk assessment studies can have an impact on his/her readiness to support environmental policy measures. Regarding lay people, key factors affecting the acceptance of environmental policy measures are knowledge of environmental problems, their impacts on ecosystems or human health as well as direct personal perception of those impacts. Since direct perception is not always possible in everyday life, natural science experiments might be a means for successfully mediating this lacking perception. (author)
Full Text Available Aim of this research is to establish correlations between different attitudes towards behavioural styles in social conflicts and the levels of adolescents' behavioural disorders.The subjects of the stratified group sample of adolescents (N=1125 were the students of eight vocational schools in Rijeka. Their form tutors were mostly educated in social sciences and humanities and had 10 to 25 years of professional experience. They assessed the overall behaviour of their students using the Form Tutors Questionnaire, a modified form of the Form Tutors/Youth Counsellors Questionnaire (Mirolović Vlah, 2004. Student's attitudes were measured by Scale of attitudes towards behavioural styles in social conflicts (Vlah, 2010a. The data were collected in the school year 2009./2010. in accordance with the Code of Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Children (2003. In the data analysis there was carried out two discriminant analyses. According to the results obtained adolescents placed at the zero level of behavioural disorders reject the winning style and accept the collaboration style in social conflicts. Adolescents classified at the first and second/third level (i.e. one-fourth of all adolescents in vocational schools reject the collaboration style and accept the winning style. The autor hopes that this thesis provides the basis for more systematic and more successful universal and selective prevention of behavioural disorders since its focus is on a population that is in need for a more systematic implementation of attitudes towards desirable behavioural styles in social conflicts.
The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P
Frančišković, T.; MoroI. Torić, Lj.; Urlić, I.; Rončević-Gr'eta, I.; Tić-Bačić, T.
Traumatic experience has overall far reaching consequences on personality. In particular, it has significant impact on teenagers that are just approaching the phase of solving their identity problems. This research examines the relation of traumatic experience and attitude towards the future in two groups of adolescents. The first group consists of 20 adolescents-refugees from the East Slavonia that were settled in Rijeka area with their parents during the last six years. The s...
Berman, Robert; Samuel C. Lefever 1954; Anna Katarzyna Wozniczka 1983
This preliminary study examines the attitudes to Icelandic, Polish and English languages and cultures of four young Polish adolescents in Iceland. Its aim was to establish their motivation to learn Icelandic as well as to maintain their heritage language and culture. Also investigated was whether English was an impediment to their acquisition of Icelandic. Interviews, in Polish and Icelandic, were undertaken. It was found that the adolescents were motivated to learn Icelandic, to integrate in...
Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group of 90 boys. Results demonstrated substantial similarity between the groups in terms of sexual behaviours. The only significant difference was that ...
Angela Whittaker; Francesca Adler-Baeder; Chelsea Garneau
This study examined change in adolescents’ traditional gender role attitudes and dating violence acceptance following completion of a relationship education program. Using data from a larger study evaluating the effects of relationship education for adolescents, beliefs and attitudes were assessed among a diverse sample of 627 youth. Gender differences in changes from pre- to post-test were also examined. Results of repeated measures MANCOVAs revealed a time X gender interaction effect for...
Willoughby, Brian J.
Using a sample of 982 late adolescents and tracking them throughout young adulthood, this study investigated if marital attitudes held during the last year of high school were predictive of union transitions to both cohabitation and marriage during young adulthood. Results using both logistic regression and discrete event history models found that marital attitudes did not have significant associations with the transition to cohabitation but did significantly predict the probability of transi...
Figueiredo, Bárbara; Tendais, Iva; Dias, Cláudia Castro
Study Objective: This study analyzes differences between adolescent and adult pregnant women and the contribution of maternal age to maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A sample of 398 Portuguese pregnant women (111 younger than 19 years) was recruited in a Portuguese Maternity Hospital and completed the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire between the 24th and 36th weeks of gestation. Main Outcome Measures: Mater...
Spitz Elisabeth; Baumann Michèle
Abstract Background There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial pr...
Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, E
Background: There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives: This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial pro...
Daniels, Elizabeth A.; Sherman, Aurora M.
Using an experimental methodology, the present study investigated adolescents' attitudes toward media images of women in non-appearance-focused (CEO and military pilot) and appearance-focused occupations (model and actor). One hundred adolescent girls and 76 adolescent boys provided ratings of likability, competence, and similarity to self after…
This study deals with birth order and its impact on intergenerational transmission of parental attitudes to adolescent sons in Israeli society. The sample included 294 participants (including 98 mothers, 98 fathers, and 98 sons). The attitudes chosen were key issues of concern in Israeli society: gender role attitudes, ethnic stereotypes, and…
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Nada A Abahussain
The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Saudi Arabian adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 736 adolescents (358 males, 378 females) aged 15–19 years from secondary schools. The study was carried out in Al-Khobar city, Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The findings revealed that the use of CAM by adolescents in their lifetime ranged from 1.6% for acupuncture to 58.6% for honey treatmen...
Busra TUNCAY; Ozgul YILMAZ-TUZUN; TUNCER-TEKSOZ, Gaye
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between environmental moral reasoning patterns and environmental attitudes of 120 pre-service science teachers. Content analysis was carried out on participants’ written statements regarding their concerns about the presented environmental problems and the statements were labeled as ecocentric, anthropocentric, and non-environmental according to their meanings. Then, descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted on t...
DeJong, Cara; van Lenthe, Frank; Horst-Nachtegaal, Klazine; Oenema, Anke
textabstractOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify cognitive and environmental correlates of daily adolescent breakfast consumption. METHODS: Adolescents (n=1089) aged 12-15 years in schools in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, completed a questionnaire measuring daily breakfast consumption, individual cognitions, and home environmental factors during the 2005-2006 school year. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between the environmental variables, c...
Willoughby, Brian J.
Using a sample of 982 late adolescents and tracking them throughout young adulthood, this study investigated whether marital attitudes held during the last year of high school were predictive of union transitions to both cohabitation and marriage during young adulthood. Results using both logistic regression and discrete event history models found…
Pownall, Jaycee Dawn; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard Patrick
Few studies have considered families' views about adolescents' sexual development. The authors compared attitudes and behaviors of mothers of young people with (n = 30) and without intellectual disability (n = 30). Both groups placed similar importance on dealing with their children's developing sexuality and were similarly confident in doing so.…
Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas
In a quantitative survey of religious attitudes and practices in a multi-religious sample of 369 school pupils aged between 13 and 15 in London, the practice of bowing to parents was found widespread in 22% of adolescents spanning several religious affiliations and ethnicities--especially Buddhists, Hindus and those of Indian, African and "Other…
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0.…
Turnquist, Bruce Eric
This document reviews research concerning the factors affecting premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. Trends in the literature prior to 1980 are discussed briefly together with summaries of literature reviews from the decades of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Studies from 1980 to the present are reviewed in some…
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.
The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…
Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.
Besides cognitive learning effects, short-term environmental education (EE) is often regarded as ineffective in intervening with participants' environmental attitudes and behaviour. However, in Germany, school classes often participate in such 1-day EE programmes because they better match the school curriculum in contrast to longer…
Crouter, Ann C.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Osgood, D. Wayne
The development of gender attitudes in 402 youth (201 firstborn and 201 secondborn siblings) in 201 European American families was examined using data collected on seven occasions across 9 years. Pooling across siblings and using multilevel modeling, we examined gender attitude development from ages 7 to 19. Consistent with an ecological…
Ezihe Loretta Ahanonu
Full Text Available This study sought to assess the attitude of Healthcare Providers towards providing contraceptives for unmarried adolescents in four Local Government Areas in Ibadan, Nigeria.A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 490 Healthcare Providers in 24 randomly selected healthcare facilities using self-administered, pre-tested questionnaires.More than half (57.5% of the respondents perceived the provision of contraceptives for unmarried adolescents as promoting sexual promiscuity. The attitude of 42.7% of them was informed by the Nigerian culture which does not support premarital sex. About half (51.7%, reported that unmarried adolescents should be asked to abstain from sex rather than providing them with contraceptives. Over a third (44.2% reported that providers should not provide services for both married and unmarried adolescents.Many healthcare providers have unfavourable attitudes towards the provision of contraceptives for unmarried adolescents. There is a need for further training of Healthcare Providers to address this situation.
Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone
Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms). PMID:11902388
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0. Adolescent attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sexual behavior comprise the following three dimensions: (1) external incentives, (2) the developmental process, and (3) internal control. External incentives include the normalization of sexual behavior between peers, the desire to feel included in a group, parental influence, and media influence. The developmental process includes imagining the sexual experience and onset of sexual activity. Internal control includes the fear of pregnancy, the fear of parental rejection, and the fear of being judged. These findings can provide a reference for designing future sex education curricula and counseling programs for adolescents. PMID:24502972
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Abahussain, Nada A
The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Saudi Arabian adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 736 adolescents (358 males, 378 females) aged 15-19 years from secondary schools. The study was carried out in Al-Khobar city, Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The findings revealed that the use of CAM by adolescents in their lifetime ranged from 1.6% for acupuncture to 58.6% for honey treatment, with significant differences between genders, except in the use of dietary supplements, black cumin, and acupuncture therapies. Females were more likely to use CAM for treating abdominal pains, cold and flu, and cough than males (P < 0.000). Family members and friends (67.7%) were the main source of CAM usage, followed by television (10%), and Internet (8%). Religious and medicinal herb healers were the CAM healers most commonly visited by adolescents. Nearly 21-43% of adolescents had positive attitudes toward CAM, with some significant differences between males and females. It can be concluded that CAM is widely used by Saudi adolescents, but caution should be exercised for the safe usage of some CAM treatments. CAM should not be ignored; however there is an urgent need to establish regulations for CAM usage. PMID:25560362
Holstein, Fredrik; Gren, Ing-Marie
This paper tests the explanatory power of traditional enforcement instruments, environmental attitudes and abundance of social capital for violation of environmental regulations in Sweden. A count data model is used on a panel data set obtained from a survey to inspectors at the local and regional jurisdictions in Sweden. Regressions analyses are carried out for all firms but also for different firm categories depending on environmental impacts. The results indicate that traditional enforceme...
With a heightened focus on the concept of sustainability in the past few decades, government, business and individuals have become increasingly aware of the need to reduce our environmental footprint. Consequently there has been much research on consumer environmental behaviour, and the beliefs, norms and attitudes that influence this behaviour. In this article we develop a conceptual framework of consumer environmental behaviour and its antecedents, and test hypotheses within the framework by means of a survey of green consumers. The results show that general environmental beliefs do influence norms on environmental actions and prices, but only norms on price are correlated with environmental attitudes; both intrinsic and extrinsic environmental drivers together with social norms and community influence are associated with environmental attitudes, but cost barriers may have a negative influence. It was also found that there was a strong association between environmental attitudes and energy saving behaviours but the latter was not in any way influenced by government policies or subsidies. - Highlights: ► We model consumer environmental behaviour and its antecedents. ► Environmental beliefs influence environmental norms on actions and prices. ► Environmental price norms are correlated with environmental attitudes. ► Environmental drivers, social norms and community influence are associated with attitudes. ► Strong association found between environmental attitudes and behaviour.
Full Text Available Throughout history, the social convictions and norms have influenced the recognition and presence of suicidal behaviour in different ways. However, previous research findings regarding the connection between suicidal behaviour and attitudes towards suicide have not arrived at a clear conclusion. The present research explores adolescents' attitudes toward suicide. The aim was to examine the relation between the permissive attitude toward suicide on one side and certain suicide risk factors and satisfaction in different domains of psychical functioning on the other side. Data was collected on 423high school students in three Slovenian cities, chosen on the basis of different regional suicide rates, with an Attitudes towards Suicide Questionnaire ATTS, Psychological Well-Being Scales PWBS, and questions about suicidal behaviour of adolescents and their surroundings. The results showed that the acceptance of suicide is proportional to the suicide rates of different regions. We concluded that permissive attitudes towards suicide could potentially lead to the increased risk of suicidal behaviour. Furthermore, the acceptance of suicide was, inter alia, significantly positively related to the self-reported probability of committing suicide, the presence of suicidal behaviour of the adolescent and his/her friends or other people he/she knows, while the connection with the subjective life satisfaction was negative. Considering the fact that there has been a trend of growing permissiveness towards suicide in society in the last few decades, the findings raise a question regarding the positive effects of such tolerance on suicide rates and support the justification of restrictive attitudes towards suicide as a protective factor of suicidal behaviour.
The main area of the dissertation is eating and attitude towards food, in elementary children and the integration between food and self-respect. In the theoretical introduction I present the period of adolescence, based on contemporary knowledge in the field of eating. I present the guidelines for healthy nutrition and the eating habits of adolescents, which in some cases can lead to eating disorders. In the next chapter I define self-respect as an aspect of the perception of ones self, focus...
Group psychotherapy was used with socio-economically deprived adolescents whose capacity for self-expression was promising. Non-psychotic acting out characters and passive inadequate personalities participated, and discussion, role playing, and psychodrama were the techniques utilized. After one year the following changes were seen: (1) increased…
Funk, Jeanne B.; Elliott, Robert; Urman, Michelle L.; Flores, Geysa T.; Mock, Rose M.
The Attitudes Toward Violence Scale was designed to assess the impact of violence prevention programs. The scale demonstrates good internal reliability and a meaningful two-factor solution: reactive violence and culture of violence. Being male, of a non-European American ethnicity, or being a victim of violence predicted endorsement of proviolence…
Full Text Available Introduction. Over the past few years, the results of numerous studies have emphasized the importance of adolescents' insufficient knowledge about reproductive health (RH, which implies an increasing trend of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of adolescents about RH in the population of Belgrade. Method. The study comprised 292 students from three secondary schools in Belgrade involved in the research February 1-15, 2008. The semistructured questionnaire about adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour about RH was filled in by themselves in presence of a student-investigator who provided assistance when necessary. Statistical analysis included χ2 test and correlation analysis. Results. Most adolescents (70.5% showed the medium level of knowledge about RH. In our study, 33.6% of adolescents were sexually active. Sexually active students achieved a better score on the test about RH compared with the students who have not had sexual intercourse yet (χ2-test=34.003; p<0.01. The average age of the first sexual intercourse was 16.5 years for females, and 15.7 years for males. The students with a lower average grade in school education experienced the first sexual intercourse earlier compared to the adolescents with a higher average grade during the school education (ρ=0.485; p<0.01. The most common (73.4% source of information about RH is mass media. Conclusion. The results of our study indicate the need for more intensive and comprenhensive educational programmes in the area of RH for adolescents in our country.
Christie, Grant; Black, Stella; Dunbar, Lucy; Pulford, Justin; Wheeler, Amanda
Adolescent mental health workers are generally poor at identifying and treating co-existing alcohol and other drug (AOD) disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the utility and acceptability of an AOD screening and brief intervention (BI) training package delivered to child and adolescent mental health workers and its impact on relevant attitudes,…
Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.
Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…
Collier, Kate L.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.
This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12-15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8…
This paper presents some empirical findings from the part of the International Socialization Project (an effort to collect more information about the socialization of sport involvement) which dealt with the attitudes of Swedish adolescents toward Olympic games. Attitudes towards the games are regarded here as indicators of affective involvement in…
Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim
This three-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study (N = 1302) examined the development of two core political attitudes, economic egalitarianism and ethnocentrism, among Dutch youths between age 12 and 31. Longitudinal regression analyses revealed a curvilinear mean level development for both attitudes, reflecting an increased disagreement with economic redistribution and multiculturalism around late adolescence. Furthermore, attitudes became decreasingly polarized (i.e., less extreme) and increasingly stable with age. Finally, several effects of attitudes' correlates gradually changed: The effect of educational level on ethnocentrism increased with age, whereas the effect of gender diminished. Regional effects on ethnocentrism developed as youths resided in a new area. No age-related change was found in the effect of parental SES. Overall, these findings support the idea that attitudes mature during the formative phase of adolescence and that this process slows down during emerging adulthood. Furthermore, these results support developmental explanations for the association between attitudes and their correlates. PMID:25880889
Horsley, A. Doyne
Change-agent role playing was shown to have a positive effect on college geography students' attitudes toward environmental conservation issues and activities. A Likert attitude instrument and an item behavior frequency report, used as a pretest, posttest and delayed posttest, showed an increase in positive attitudes of the experimental group. (AJ)
The child understands the role of parent and reacts differently to each parent. The present study aims to investigate the attitude of adolescents’ towards the way they treated by their parents and how they perceive the dichotomous modes of parenting. The term Parenting includes mothering, fathering and overall parenting. The Parenting Scale was administered on 82 adolescent boys and girls. It is assumed that girls and boys differ in understanding the role of parenting. The null hypothesis set...
Ward, Alyson C.
Adolescents are labeled as sensitive to caffeine, though despite this predisposition, consumption is high among this population. Energy drinks are a current trend in soft-drink-like beverages and are marketed to 11-35 year olds. However, unlike soft drinks, energy drinks are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, and therefore do not have to limit their caffeine content. This cross-sectional, correlational study sought to identify the role that knowledge, attitudes, and peers pla...
Nørnberg, Trine; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Houlby, Louise;
This study addressed attitudes of using nudging-like measures in community schools to promote healthy food choices among Danish adolescents. Data were successfully collected for 408 respondents. The next step was to prepare descriptive statistics and conduct factor analysis and structural equatio...... it to be acceptable for the school to attempt to intervene with their health-related behavior, but respondents saw it as neither the school's obligation nor responsibility. School-based health promotion could benefit from these findings....
Kim, Bryan S. K.; Omizo, Michael M.
The study examined behavioral enculturation to Asian culture and behavioral acculturation to the dominant European American culture and their possible relations to positive psychological functioning among Asian American adolescents. Positive psychological functioning was operationalized using measures of general self-efficacy, cognitive flexibility, collective self-esteem, and attitudes toward seeking help. Based on data from 112 Asian American high school students in Hawaii, the results did ...
Nørnberg, Trine; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Houlby, Louise;
This study addressed attitudes of using nudging-like measures in community schools to promote healthy food choices among Danish adolescents. Data were successfully collected for 408 respondents. The next step was to prepare descriptive statistics and conduct factor analysis and structural equatio...... be acceptable for the school to attempt to intervene with their health-related behavior, but respondents saw it as neither the school's obligation nor responsibility. School-based health promotion could benefit from these findings....
Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; PETTIFOR, John M; Norris, Shane A.
Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years...
Tabither M Gitau; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John. M.; Norris, Shane A
Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years...
Ferrara Mauro; Terrinoni Arianna; Williams Riccardo
Abstract Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common concern among hospitalized adolescents, and can have significant implications for short and long-term prognosis. Little research has been devoted on how personality features in severely ill adolescents interact with NSSI and "attitude toward life and death" as a dimension of suicidality. Developing more specific assessment methodologies for adolescents who engage in self-harm without suicidal intent is relevant given the recent p...
García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa
This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences. PMID:24117437
McIntyre James A
Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore adolescent HIV risk perception, HIV vaccine knowledge, willingness to participate in future HIV vaccine clinical trials, and the factors that influence willingness to participate among high school students in Soweto, South Africa, we recruited school-going youth through randomly selected local high schools. All pupils within the selected schools from whom parental consent and child assent could be obtained were eligible for participation. A self-administered, facilitated questionnaire was completed by all participants. Findings Perception of adolescent HIV risk was high. Some misconceptions regarding vaccine research were common, particularly regarding placebo and potential eligibility criteria for prophylactic vaccine trials. Of 240 responses to the willingness item, 84 (35% indicated they were "probably willing" and 126 (52.5% that they were "definitely willing to participate". There were no significant differences in willingness by gender, age, school grade, or institution. Factors that were rated as "very important" in determining willingness included receiving current information about HIV research [n = 201 (88.9%], doing something to honour people who have HIV or have died of AIDS [n = 168 (70.9%], getting free counselling and testing [n = 167 (70.5], that participants may receive some protection against HIV infection from the vaccine [n = 160 (70.2%], and improving motivation to avoid risky behaviour [n = 134 (59%]. Conclusion Soweto school-going youth report high degrees of willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. This may be related to the high levels of adolescent HIV risk perception. Whether hypothetical willingness translates to participation will await data from adolescent HIV vaccine trials.
Wilson, Christopher David
setting in environmental education. It was found that students in both program types significantly increased their environmental knowledge as a result of the program, but only students in the school-based programs significantly improved their attitudes towards the environment. Analyzing by grade, seventh grade students scored significantly lower on all aspects of the test than the younger students, suggesting a detrimental effect of novel settings on learning in adolescents. Teacher survey data suggests that teachers place great importance on how the education program would fit in with their school-based curriculum, but did little to integrate the program into their classroom teaching. Observations of the programs revealed some logistical issues, and some concerns regarding the zoo instructors' use of curriculum materials. Analyzing the test data from a constructivist perspective revealed that students with high incoming environmental attitudes had significant increases in environmental knowledge. That is, students with positive attitudes towards the environment are predisposed to engage in learning about the environment. Some gender-specific findings are also discussed.
Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.
This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all pbody dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (pbody size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420
Hindin, Michelle J
Preventing unwanted adolescent pregnancy is key for keeping girls in school, leading to a more productive and healthier workforce in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender norms are an important indicator of the status of women and more conservative gender norms are associated with experiencing domestic violence, and poorer maternal and reproductive health care. This paper examines the association between adolescent childbearing and norms towards wife beating in sub-Saharan Africa, and the role of education in moderating this association. Data come from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys-nationally representative cross-sectional surveys conducted every 5 years. Country-by-country multivariable logistic regressions were conducted in 25 countries, and country and regional estimates were obtained using meta-analytical techniques. More than half of sub-Saharan African adolescents have a child, with levels ranging from 23% in Rwanda to 69% in Niger. Between 12 and 87% of women believed wife beating is acceptable. In 20 of the 25 countries, women with a birth during adolescence were significantly more likely to believe wife beating is justified [OR = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 130-1.39]. After multivariate adjustment, the overall finding remains statistically significant [AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 105-1:13]. Education attenuates the observed association. Overall, the effects are strongest and most consistent in West Africa. Results suggest that women who have an adolescent birth more likely to hold more conservative attitudes. Working with adolescents to improve their attitudes on relationship expectations and the importance of furthering their education even after a pregnancy could be integrated into life skills and sexual education curricula. PMID:24158508
Juarascio, Adrienne S; Felton, Julia W; Borges, Allison M; Manasse, Stephanie M; Murray, Helen B; Lejuez, Carl W
The current study examined internalizing symptoms, affect reactivity, and distress intolerance as prospective predictors of increases in eating disorder (ED)-attitudes during adolescence. Adolescents (n = 206) took part in a six-year longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology. Latent growth curve analysis was used to examine associations between predictors and later ED-attitudes. Distress intolerance and internalizing symptoms were associated with ED-attitudes at baseline, but did not predict increases over time. Affect reactivity, however, was significantly associated with increases in ED-attitudes over time. Baseline affect reactivity did not interact with baseline distress intolerance to predict increases in ED-attitudes; however higher baseline internalizing symptoms interacted with distress intolerance to predict increases in ED-attitudes across adolescence. These results are among the first to document that affect reactivity alone and the combined effect of high internalizing symptoms and high distress intolerance early in adolescence are risk factors for the later development of ED-attitudes. PMID:27018749
Titzmann, P F; Sonnenberg, K.
Recent research demonstrates that intergenerational differences in immigrant families' adaptation can be detrimental for family functioning. However, most of the findings originate from immigrant groups in North America who face different situations compared with European Diaspora returnees. This comparative study investigated whether ethnic German Diaspora immigrant adolescents' and mothers' disagreement about the desirability of adolescents' intercultural contact with native peers relates t...
Koruoglu, Nergiz; Ugulu, Ilker; Yorek, Nurettin
Studying individuals and students' attitudes towards environment and factors affecting students to be responsible individuals towards their environment may provide help towards the solution of environmental problems. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate environmental attitudes of high school students in terms of some variables. The sample of the…
Kuo, Shih-Yun; Jackson, Nancy L.
Studies suggest that at engineering universities, where the percentage of males and engineering majors is high, pro-environmental attitudes are likely to be weak and may not change. The 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale was used to measure differences in student attitudes before and after an environmental studies course. Results revealed…
Polonijo, Andrea N; Carpiano, Richard M; Reiter, Paul L; Brewer, Noel T
Research on prosocial attitudes, social networks, social capital, and social stratification suggest that lower-socioeconomic status (SES), Hispanic, and nonwhite individuals will be more likely than their higher-SES and non-Hispanic white counterparts to engage in health behaviors that serve a social good. Analyzing data from the University of North Carolina Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunization in Sons Study, we test whether SES and race-ethnicity are associated with willingness to vaccinate via prosocial attitudes toward HPV vaccination among adolescent males (n = 401) and parents (n = 518). Analyses revealed that (a) parents with lower education and (b) black and Hispanic parents and adolescent males reported higher prosocial vaccination attitudes, but only some attitudes were associated with higher willingness to vaccinate. We discuss these findings in terms of how prosocial attitudes may motivate certain health behaviors and serve as countervailing mechanisms in the (re)production of health disparities and promising targets of future public health interventions. PMID:27601412
Erika Gonçalves Santos Queiroga de Deus; Bruno Pellizzaro Dias Afonso; Tarcisio Afonso
There is an increasing discussion regarding consumer participation in environmental preservation through the formation of environmentally conscious behaviour. However, little is known about the influence of awareness, attitudes and behaving intention that direct personal choices, when it comes to environmental issues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship regarding the constructs of environmental awareness; attitude towards non-recyclable plastic bags; and the intentio...
Full Text Available Background: Is knowledge regarding the consequences of substance use among adolescents enough to prevent them from initiating and continuing its use, is a question that needs to be clarified further? Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding harm of use and to obtain information about attitudes among high school students. Also, to discover the opinion of substance use held by users. Materials and Methods: This was a population based cross-sectional study conducted in two high schools of West Bengal, India, among 416 students, in classes VIII, IX, and X, with no interventions. Primary outcome measurements were substance use: knowledge regarding harm, attitude, and opinion. Following this proportions and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 416 students, 52 (12.5% used or abused any one of the substances irrespective of time and frequency in lifetime; 26 (15.1 % were among the urban students and 26 (10.7 % were among their rural counterparts. More than two-thirds (73.07% of the respondents expressed a desire to quit substance use and 57.69% had tried to stop. ′Easy availability′ and ′relief from tension′ were the most frequent reasons for continuation of substance use. Level of knowledge on harmfulness of substance use among students was very high (urban - -84.6% and rural - 61.5% and they stated media as the most frequent source of information. Users were successful in influencing their peers into taking up this habit (urban - 15.4% and rural - 26.9%. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware of the harmful effects of substance use, adolescents take up this habit. This requires comprehensive prevention and control programs in schools and the community, targeted toward adolescents and their parents and other family members. Effective measures are required to encourage shaping the attitude of school children toward self-confidence and adequacy, as also to prevent risk behavior among adolescents.
Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E
Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach. PMID:25831994
This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.
Full Text Available The world today is confronted with the great problem of environmental degradation and pollution. Environmental pollution means making the environment unclean, impure by throwing all sorts of contaminated materials and perished on the roads and dumping garbage in the residential areas where people are living. The natural environment is normally clean and pure and it is man who always destroys the purity and cleanliness of the environment by his aggressive attitude towards the environment. Teachers are the backbone of the society. They play a crucial role in forming, changing and establishing attitudes and values that are important for environmentally responsible behaviour. The present study has been designed to know the attitude of High School Teachers towards Environmental Pollution. The study has been confined to a sample of 100 High School Teachers of Rampur Development Block of Kamrup District, Assam. The stratified random sampling technique has been used to select the sample of the present study. To collect data ‘Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale (EPAS developed by Dr. M. Rajamanickam has been used. The major findings of the study are: (i In case of favourable attitude towards environmental pollution the percentage of respondents is not satisfactory. (ii There is no significant difference between male and female teachers in the attitude towards environmental pollution. (iii There is no significant difference between arts and science teachers in the attitude towards environmental pollution.
Background: Several factors have been identified as related to mental health in adolescence, such as competences, behavioural/emotional problems, self-esteem, and sense of coherence. Studies also emphasise the importance of family func-tioning and cultural factors. Objectives: This study investigates and compares the mental health of adoles-cents in relation to family functioning and socio-cultural variables in Sweden and Greece. Furthermore, Swedish and Greek adolescents’ attitudes about lif...
An untraditional method of data construction - written essays - was used to study consumer socialisation processes related to 'green' consumerism. The study primarily aimed at exploring how adolescents perceive of environmental issues and learn about these issues in a family context. Results show...
Chib, Arul; Chiew, Han Joo; Kumar, Chitraveni; Choon, Lim Geok; Ale, Komathi
Plastics have much to offer as a modern convenience, but lack of responsible plastic waste management habits can lead to potentially harmful environmental effects. Past environmental initiatives revealed a lack of understanding about youth attitudes towards pro-environmental issues. [minus]plastic, an online public environmental promotional…
Sadegh Salehi; Zahra Pazokinejad
Introduction Recent developments in theory and research give hope for building the understanding needed to effectively alter human behaviors that contribute to environmental problems. Behavior change strategies that are consistent with people’s knowledge and awareness of global environmental changes are therefore necessary in order for a sustainable policy to be developed. Environmental attitudes are conceptualized in terms of attitude theory as being composed of beliefs and affects toward...
Full Text Available BackgroundMeasurement scales seeking to quantify latent traits likeattitudes, are often developed using traditionalpsychometric approaches. Application of the Raschunidimensional measurement model may complement orreplace these techniques, as the model can be used toconstruct scales and check their psychometric properties. Ifdata fit the model, then a scale with invariant measurementproperties, including interval-level scores, will have beendeveloped.AimsThis paper highlights the unique properties of the Raschmodel. Items developed to measure adolescent attitudestowards abortion are used to exemplify the process.MethodTen attitude and intention items relating to abortion wereanswered by 406 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years, as part ofthe “Teen Relationships Study”. The sampling frameworkcaptured a range of sexual and pregnancy experiences.Items were assessed for fit to the Rasch model includingchecks for Differential Item Functioning (DIF by gender,sexual experience or pregnancy experience.ResultsRasch analysis of the original dataset initially demonstratedthat some items did not fit the model. Rescoring of one item(B5 and removal of another (L31 resulted in fit, as shownby a non-significant item-trait interaction total chi-squareand a mean log residual fit statistic for items of -0.05(SD=1.43. No DIF existed for the revised scale. However,items did not distinguish as well amongst persons with themost intense attitudes as they did for other persons. Aperson separation index of 0.82 indicated good reliability.ConclusionApplication of the Rasch model produced a valid andreliable scale measuring adolescent attitudes towardsabortion, with stable measurement properties. The Raschprocess provided an extensive range of diagnosticinformation concerning item and person fit, enablingchanges to be made to scale items. This example shows thevalue of the Rasch model in developing scales for bothsocial science and health disciplines.
Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between environmental awareness, environmental attitude, curiosity and exploration in highly gifted students with structural equation modelling. The secondary aim was to compare highly gifted and non-gifted students’ environmental awareness, environmental attitude, curiosity and exploration levels. Participants were 311 (154 highly gifted, 157 non-gifted secondary school students in Turkey who volunteered to take part in this study. All of the participants were either 13 or 14 years old, with a mean age of 13.77 years. For gathering data, Environmental Awareness Scale, Environmental Attitude Scale, Curiosity and Exploration-II were used. While analyzing the data, Pearson correlation analysis, independent samples t test, and structural equation model were used. According to the findings, highly gifted students’ environmental awareness, environmental attitude, curiosity and exploration scores were higher than non-gifted students’. Indices of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM indicated that the increase in the curiosity and exploration scores of the highly gifted children increased the environmental awareness; in this case, the environmental attitudes were affected positively.
Titilola M Pedro
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS. Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2. Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5% of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter. The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001. There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.
Pedro, Titilola M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all poverweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420
Verweij, K J H; Shekar, S.N.; Zietsch, B.P.; Eaves, L. J.; Bailey, J. M.; Boomsma, D I; Martin, N G
Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward homophobia, we analysed data from 4,688 twins who completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour and attitudes...
Untaru E. N.
Full Text Available The paper carries out an analysis of the literature that takes into account consumers’ pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours, with emphasis on the particular situation of the consumption of tourist services. The study of the bibliographic materials reveals the existence of significant differences between the consumers’ pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours at home and on vacation, as well as the increase in their preference for "green" hotels. Among the methods of studying the interrelationship between pro-environmental attitude and behaviour, the present paper describes the Theory of Planned Behaviour as the most commonly used one.
Liefländer, Anne Kristin; Bogner, Franz Xaver
Environmental education programs aiming to enhance children's environmental attitudes in a pro-environmental direction require background information, such as age and sex differences, to ensure appropriate design. We used the 2-MEV model with its domains "preservation" and "utilization" of nature to assess a four-day…
Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.
This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =350; 6th–10th graders) completed self-report measures of attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and symptoms of depression and anxiety in ...
Maria Fernanda Laus; Michele Ghidini Souza; Rita de Cássia Margarido Moreira; Telma Maria Braga-Costa
The study investigated the relationship between body image dissatisfaction, nutritional status, and eating attitudes in adolescents from a small town of the interior of São Paulo State. A total of 278 adolescents (106 boys and 172 girls) aged between 15 and 18 years had completed measures of body image dissatisfaction through the Figure Rating Scale and eating attitudes by the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and had their weight and height measured. Girls related more dissatisfaction and abno...
Singletary, Joanna Lynn Bush
This study evaluated the relationship of environmental service-learning on environmental literacy in undergraduates. The subjects were 36 undergraduates at a small liberal arts university enrolled in an environmental biology course. To determine the role of environmental service-learning on college students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and environmental literacy, this study utilized concurrent mixed methods approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis. A quasi-experimental repeated measures approach was the design of the quantitative component of the study. Data were collected on attitude, behavior, and content knowledge aspects of environmental literacy as measured by the Environmental Literacy Survey (Kibert, 2000). Hypotheses were tested by independent samples ttests and repeated measures ANOVA. Repeated measures ANOVA conducted on participants' three subscales scores for the Environmental Literacy Survey (attitude, behavior, and knowledge) indicated that students who participated in environmental service-learning scored statistically significantly higher than those that did not initially participate in service-learning. Qualitative data collected in the form of journal reflections and portfolios were evaluated for themes of environmental attitudes or affective statements, environmentally positive behaviors and skills, and ecological content. Quantitative and qualitative data support the positive role of environmental service-learning in the development of environmental literacy in undergraduate students.
The results of this research showed that 53 percent of the surveyed students used public media as the main source of environmental information. Urban student’ attitudes were more favorable to the environment. Environmental attitudes and behaviors of the sample students were not different in terms of gender. There was a weak relationship between environmental attitudes and behavior. Also, environmental attitudes and behaviors were different by the family ‘environmental performance, and informational resources related with environmental attitude and behavior. In conclusion, it can be said that based on the descriptive and inferential findings while students attitudes toward the environment seem to be positive, their environmental performance is not and should be changed, if we want to achieve to a sustainable development. Therefore, in any major decision and national policy aiming at sustainable development, we should consider the factors that reinforce environmental responsible behavior. By helping students to recognize the importance of environment, we can boost the spirit of protection of the environment and increase a sense of responsibility among them.
Hülya ASLAN EFE
Full Text Available Environmental problems continue to increase environmental education has become more and more important. The goal of environmental education is to train environmentally literate individuals who are aware of and sensitive to environmental problems and try to solve these problems. The present study aims at examining the influence of the Animation-Supported Instruction Method on environmental literacy compared to the traditional method. The research process of the present study started with 2nd grade teacher candidates attending the Department of Elementary School Teaching in the Education Faculty of Dicle University. The research process will continue for 8 weeks in the Fall Term of the 2010-2011 academic year. In this experimental study, the post-test model with experimental and a control group is applied. The control and experimental groups were chosen on random basis among equivalent groups. Students control group were taught through the traditional method, while the animation-supported instruction method was used in the experimental group. The environmental education attitude scale and successful test were used as the data collection tool in the study.
Mairesse, Olivier; Macharis, Cathy; Lebeau, Kenneth; Turcksin, Laurence
This study aims at understanding how a general positive attitude toward the environment results in a limited purchase of environmentally friendlier cars, often referred to as the attitude-action gap. In a first experiment 27 volunteers performed a judgment task on car purchase intention. Participants were asked to evaluate the probability of…
Jessica L. CROWE
Full Text Available Incorporating spirituality and religious themes in environmental education is a way to link learners to their meaning systems. Research has shown that incorporation of a spiritual element in educationprovides a way for students to have authentic learning experiences and make meaning of the knowledge they acquire in the classroom. This mixed methods study examined the environmental attitudes, knowledge and actions of students in an introductory environmental science course with a spiritually infused curriculum at a community college. The quantitative data was collected from students in a survey of environmental attitudes, knowledge, and actions. Qualitative studies were conducted using a focus group to complement the quantitative data. Environmental education increases knowledge and awareness about earth’s environment and teaches skills that lead toaction that will ensure stewardship of all aspects of earth’s environment. Integration of spirituality and religious traditions in environmental education offers an alternative approach in curriculumdesign that encourages learners’ environmental attitudes and behaviors to be transformed.
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents are an important resource of any country. Adolescent girls need adequate information about the physical, psychological changes that take place during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy and child birth. This study aims to assess knowledge and attitude of adolescent girls of the age group 17-19 years on family formation and reproductive health issues in an urban area of Pondicherry. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among adolescent girls (aged 17 to 19 years residing in an urban ward of Puducherry. Data collection was through house to house survey using a structured questionnaire. Results: 120 girls were approached and response rate was 100%. One fifth (21% and one third (31% of the study subjects knew the legal age for marriage for boys and girls respectively. 90% of girls were aware of small family norm, and perceived ideal family size as two. Awareness on contraception was poor (9%. Around 78% subjects considered fruits and vegetables as essential in the diet of pregnant women. Nearly 73% subjects were aware of Janani Suraksha Yojana and 89% were aware that immunization is essential for infants. Though 98% of the girls were aware that breast milk was the ideal food for babies, only 34.2% of the girls were aware of exclusive breast feeding. Conclusion: In this study, adolescent girls were aware regarding legal age at marriage, small family norm and dietary care during pregnancy. However, knowledge levels on contraceptive measures, exclusive breast feeding and supplementary feeding is less than satisfactory. These gaps in knowledge on reproductive health and family formation need to be addressed through innovative ways of health education in a non-threatening environment at the school and community levels.
Kitchener Henry C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The first vaccine to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer has been licensed, and in future, vaccination may be routinely offered to 10–14 year old girls. HPV is a sexually transmitted virus and some parents may refuse consent for vaccination. Under-16s in the UK have a right to confidential sexual health care without parental consent. We investigated parents' views on making available HPV vaccination to adolescent minors at sexual health clinics without parental consent. Methods This was a semi-qualitative analysis of views of parents of 11–12 year old school children collected as part of a population-based survey of parental attitudes to HPV vaccination in Manchester. Parents were firstly asked if they agreed that a well-informed child should be able to request vaccination at a sexual health clinic without parental consent, and secondly, to provide a reason for this answer. Ethical perspectives on adolescent autonomy provided the framework for descriptive analysis. Results 307 parents answered the question, and of these, 244 (80% explained their views. Parents with views consistent with support for adolescent autonomy (n = 99 wanted to encourage responsible behaviour, protect children from ill-informed or bigoted parents, and respected confidentiality and individual rights. In contrast, 97 parents insisted on being involved in decision-making. They emphasised adult responsibility for a child's health and guidance, erosion of parental rights, and respect for cultural and moral values. Other parents (n = 48 wanted clearer legal definitions governing parental rights and responsibilities or hoped for joint decision-making. Parents resistant to adolescent autonomy would be less likely to consent to future HPV vaccination, (67% than parents supporting this principle (89%; p Conclusion In the UK, the principle of adolescent autonomy is recognised and logically should include the right to HPV vaccination, but
Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia
While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.
Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti; Hautala, Lea; Kaleva, Olli; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Saarijärvi, Simo
The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of perceived social support and parental attitude with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent population sample. Of the initial sample of 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) answered the questionnaire and formed the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for assessment of alexithymia. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant other people was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Perceived parental care and overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and separately for mother and father. After controlling for the sociodemographic factors, alexithymia was significantly associated with a lower degree of experienced social support and higher parental overprotection both in females and males. Maternal overprotection was associated (poverprotective parental attitudes as a possible risk factor for development of alexithymia. However, to assess causality, we need longitudinal studies. The results also emphasize the need for further studies to establish the significance of peer relationships in the development of alexithymia. PMID:21185086
Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre
Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. PMID:25974271
Norms are here viewed as attitudes with particular characteristics, and it is assumed that an individual may -- simultaneously -- hold several attitudes about an attitude object. The way norms influence decision-making depends on the person's moti to deliberate. Three studies of environmentally...... decision-making is of a more spontaneous nature and the definition of the event is framed -- and behaviour guided -- by the attitudinal constr that is most accessible in memory. In the studied cases in this category, the personal norm is more accessible than a summary attitude measuring overall...
Papagiannakis, Giorgos; Lioukas, Spyros
We examine whether managers' values, attitudes, and perceptions influence the greening of organizations. To that purpose, we specify and test a model of corporate environmental responsiveness (CER), drawing upon a modified version of the theory of planned behavior and the value-belief-norm theory. Based on survey data from 142 Greek companies, we find that top managers' personal values influence responses indirectly, through shaping their environmental attitudes, while direct relationship is not significant. Subjective norms, expressing stakeholder expectations, do affect CER, with their effect being stronger than that of attitudes. Managers' perceived ability to handle environmental issues also appears to influence responses. Results have theoretical implications, indicating the significant role of managers' values, attitudes and perceptions in a firm's environmental response. Practical implications are discussed in relation to selection of managers and training. PMID:22361109
Gürbüzoğlu Yalmancı, Sibel
The purpose of this study is to develop a environmental ethics’ attitude scale which is valid and reliable about to determine students’ attitudes towards environmental ethics. The working group of the research has been comprised of 406 Science and Anatolia high school students living in Kars province in the academic year of 2013-2014. These students were determined by the convenience sampling method.. An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the data. As a result of th...
Design techniques are presented which exploit environmental torques for attitude control and determination of spin stabilized satellites. The techniques are applicable to satellite missions where the dominant environmental torques are well understood and lend themselves to accurate analytical modeling. The techniques were applied to the Particles and Fields subsatellites of the Apollo 15 and 16 spacecraft and the flight results show good agreement with the attitude determination estimates obtained.
Untaru E. N.; Epuran Gh.; Ispas A.
The paper carries out an analysis of the literature that takes into account consumers’ pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours, with emphasis on the particular situation of the consumption of tourist services. The study of the bibliographic materials reveals the existence of significant differences between the consumers’ pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours at home and on vacation, as well as the increase in their preference for "green" hotels. Among the methods of studying the...
Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective: To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and six in Cuenca (Ecuador as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results: The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD, equality dimension (ED and behavioural dimension (BD. ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions: This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to
Kim, Jun-Su; Lee, Kayoung
The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between weight-related attitudes and suicidal behavior after consideration of depressive mood in Korean adolescents. The study population consisted of a nationally representative sample of 74,698 adolescents (n = 39,466 boys, 35,232 girls) in middle and high school who completed the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) in 2007. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships between measures of weight-related and self-reported suicidal behavior, controlling for demographics, depressive mood, stress perception, level of school achievement, and substance use. Suicide attempts were surveyed among those reported to have suicidal ideation (n = 7,579 boys, 10,204 girls). Significantly more girls than boys reported suicidal ideation (29 vs. 19%) and suicide attempts (7.7 vs. 4.5%). Factors significantly associated with suicidal ideation were overestimation of weight (vs. correct estimation) and behaviors to lose or gain weight (vs. no weight control) among boys and overestimation of weight and attempting to lose weight among girls. In contrast, the odds of suicide attempts were significantly higher among boys who tried to lose, gain, or maintain their weight (vs. no weight control) and girls who underestimated their weight (vs. correct estimation) and tried to lose weight (vs. no weight control). Boys and girls classified as overweight or at risk for overweight were significantly less likely to report suicide attempts compared to those classified as underweight. Weight-related attitudes, such as incorrect weight perception and weight control behaviors, seem to be useful indicators for identifying Korean adolescents who are at risk for suicidal behaviors. PMID:20339366
Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John
How is young people's pro-environmental orientation related to their parents' pro-environmental values, attitudes, and behaviours? To answer this question, we examine parent-child similarities of general values as well as specific attitudes and behaviours related to three common household practices......: purchasing environmentally friendly products, curtailing electricity use, and handling waste responsibly in a sample of 601 Danish families. Significant and positive, but weak correlations between parents' and children's values are found across all of Schwartz's ten value domains. The parent-child...... correlations are stronger for specific pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. The positive correlations suggest that family socialization exert a significant influence on young consumers' pro-environmental orientation. Still, the young generation is, on average, significantly less environmentally...
Using data from a representative sample of adolescents in grade ten in Uppsala, the fourth largest city in Sweden, attitudes toward a number of (criminal) sexual acts are studied. These data are contrasted with those from a sample of patients at a school gynecological clinic. It is found that for both samples, only a very limited number of the eight discussed acts are considered to be criminal by the adolescents. Although at least seven or eight acts are criminal in Swedish law, only two acts are considered criminal by about half of the respondents. These acts are pedophilia and rape after petting. The same questions were used by Kutchinsky in 1969 when on behalf of the U.S. Congress Commission on Obscenity and Pornography he studied inhabitants in Copenhagen, Denmark. When comparing data from Uppsala Sweden 1978 with data from Copenhagen, Denmark 1969 we find that Swedish adolescents in the late seventies, on the whole are much less likely to call the discussed acts criminal. The only exception is rape after petting, which in Copenhagen in the late sixties was the act least often seen as criminal but in the Uppsala study in the late seventies it was one of the two acts most often claimed to be criminal. Finally, the effects of coital experience and the effect of sexual knowledge on the percieved criminality of the acts are considered. PMID:6858741
Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Martens, Thomas
Agent-based computer simulation was used to create artificial communities in which each individual was constructed according to the principles of the elaboration likelihood model of Petty and Cacioppo [1986. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In: Berkowitz, L. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Academic Press, New York, NY, pp. 123-205]. Campaigning strategies and community characteristics were varied systematically to understand and test their impact on attitudes towards environmental protection. The results show that strong arguments influence a green (environmentally concerned) population with many contacts most effectively, while peripheral cues have the greatest impact on a non-green population with fewer contacts. Overall, deeper information scrutiny increases the impact of strong arguments but is especially important for convincing green populations. Campaigns involving person-to-person communication are superior to mass-media campaigns because they can be adapted to recipients' characteristics. PMID:17548145
Zhao, Fei; French, David; Manchaiah, Vinaya K.C.; Liang, Maojin; Price, Sharon M.
Introduction: Adolescents and young adults have been shown to be the age group most at risk of music-induced hearing loss (MIHL), which is already evident and increasing among this group. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide further insight into the effectiveness of education programmes on attitude and behaviour towards loud music…
Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.
Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling,…
Structured interviews were used to explore 10th grade teachers' understanding of students' attitudes and values toward physical education and physical activity as a variable in students' probability of dropping physical education and adolescent obesity. When asked how school-based physical education could help combat the problem of students…
East, Patricia L.
Reports on study conducted to understand the consequences of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing on the family. Study reveals changes in attitudes of the mothers of pregnant teens could create prime context for younger siblings to engage in delinquent or sexual behavior. Suggests the whole family participate in an intervention treatment to…
Acun-Kapikiran, Necla; Körükçü, Özlem; Kapikiran, Sahin
The purpose of this study is to determine whether self-esteem in adolescence has a mediator role in the relationship between parental attitude and life satisfaction and depression. Data was collected from 360 secondary school students ages ranging from 11 to 14 (M = 12.67, SD= 0.97) out of which 216 of them were female and 144 male. The…
Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.
This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =…
Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie
This study examined gender differences in cross-gender violence perpetration and victimization (ranging from mild, e.g., push, to severe, e.g., assault with a knife or gun) and attitudes toward dating conflict, among an urban sample of 601 early adolescents (78% African-American). Comparisons across gender groups for cross-gender (e.g.,…
Omizo, Michael M.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Abel, Nicholas R.
The authors examined the extent to which Asian American adolescents who were living in Hawaii adhered to Asian and European American cultural values in relation to mental health variables including collective self-esteem (membership, private, public, importance to identity), cognitive flexibility, general self-efficacy, and attitudes toward…
José Cazuza de Farias Júnior
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between levels of physical activity, psychosocial and perceived environmental factors in adolescents from Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted with 2,859 adolescents enrolled in secondary schools (57.8% females; mean = 16.5 years; SD = 1.2 in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil. The following physical activity correlates were measured: attitude, self-efficacy, social support from friends and parents, and perceived environmental characteristics. Physical activity was measured using a questionnaire. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression with proportional odds model analysis showed that the following factors are positively related to physical activity levels in adolescents: attitude, self-efficacy, as well as social support from parents and friends. Physical activity intervention programs should increase self-efficacy and social support from parents and friends, as well as a positive attitude toward physical activity.Este estudo analisou a associação do nível de atividade física com fatores psicossociais e ambientais em adolescentes do Nordeste do Brasil. Estudo epidemiológico transversal desenvolvido com 2.859 adolescentes (57,8% do sexo feminino, média de idade: 16,5 anos; DP = 1,2 no Município de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil. Os seguintes fatores associados à atividade física foram mensurados: atitude, autoeficácia, apoio social dos pais e amigos e características do ambiente percebido. O nível de atividade física foi mensurado por questionário. Os resultados da análise multivariável por regressão logística ordinal, com modelo de odds proporcionais, identificaram os seguintes fatores positivamente associados ao nível de atividade física dos adolescentes: atitude, percepção de autoeficácia, apoio social dos pais e amigos. Programas de promoção da atividade física devem desenvolver ações para aumentar a autoefic
This model of material development for teaching writing is based on the genre approach. The aim of teaching, in addition to improving the ability of writing, is also to improve the students’ awareness attitude toward the environment. Learning Arabic through the genre approach gives the emphasis on the language use in accordance with the functions of language. The model of teaching material development integrates the knowledge of writing, written material and caring attitude. The techniques us...
Manfready, Gary Martin
A key objective in environmental curricula should be to instill responsible and concerned attitudes toward environmental issues. This can be accomplished through the application of innovative programs which emphasize the development of the affective domain of learning. The development of personal attitudes is one form of evidence that the affective domain is being addressed. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) on the attitudes of students toward environmental issues. Three hundred and five middle and high school level students from four states were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward selected environmental statements. Results demonstrated that attitudes toward environmental issues of GLOBE students were significantly greater than non-GLOBE students. Additional analysis demonstrated that regardless of grade levels, gender, racial and ethnicity backgrounds, depth of GLOBE involvement, and degree of teachers' GLOBE experiences, GLOBE students display similar levels of attitudes toward environmental issues. Establishment of a reliable Likert scale measurement instrument was accomplished. Permission to use an existing survey was obtained. Additional items were added to increase validity. Establishment of reliability was accomplished through a Guttman split half analysis of the piloted instrument. Through the use of factor analysis, four categories or sub-groupings of attitudes were determined to exist. Reliability was established for the factors. These sub-groupings were identified as personal commitment to environmental protection, awareness of avenues for action, loci of control, and students' perception of teachers' abilities to present environmental topics. These categories were a part of the analysis of four hypotheses.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Statistics show that 30% to 40 % of opium addicted fathers’ children are prone to substance abuse in the future. The present study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of cognitive therapy approach to attitude changing of adolescents with substance dependent fathers. Materials and Methods: In this controlled. field-trail randomized study. .data collection tool was “attitude to addiction questionnaire”. The study population was all male students in the first grade of high school in Maneh - Samalghan city. . Six sessions of group cognitive therapy based on the effectiveness of drug side-effects in drug-addicted fathers’ adolescent children’s attitude were held. The above-mentioned questionnaire was filled out before and after intervention. The obtained data was fed into SPSS software (V: 16 using. Independent t-test .and paired t-test were used for analysis and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in pre-test regarding their attitude about drug abuse (P=.20%. Mean score variance from pre-test to post-test in the intervention group decreased, but in the control group, it showed a slight increase. This means that the intervention reduced the positive attitude towards drugs, but the changes were not statistically significant (p=0.57. Besides, among ten factors decisive in an individual’s attitude about addiction, only group cognitive therapy was able to decrease mean points of an individual’s attitude about drug abuse .. Significantly (P = 0.04. Conclusion: It was found that group cognitive therapy education about opium addict complicationsdidn`t have a significant effect on the attitude of the students with addicted fathers. Thus, a change of adolescents’ attitude requires more research.
Highlights: → Independently, altruism and locus of control contributed significantly toward attitude towards littering. → Altruism and locus of control jointly contributed significantly to attitude towards littering. → The results further show a significant joint influence of altruism and locus of control on REB. → The independent contributions reveal that altruism and locus of control contribute significantly to REB. → Attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between locus of control and REB. - Abstract: The study tested whether attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between personality attributes (altruism and locus of control) and responsible environmental behavior (REB) among some residents of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique, measures of each construct were administered to 1360 participants. Results reveal significant independent and joint influence of personality attributes on attitude towards littering and responsible environmental behavior, respectively. Attitude towards littering also mediates the relationship between personality characteristics and REB. These findings imply that individuals who possess certain desirable personality characteristics and who have unfavorable attitude towards littering have more tendencies to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Therefore, stakeholders who have waste management as their priority should incorporate this information when guidelines for public education and litter prevention programs are being developed. It is suggested that psychologists should be involved in designing of litter prevention strategies. This will ensure the inclusion of behavioral issues in such strategies. An integrated approach to litter prevention that combines empowerment, cognitive, social, and technical solutions is recommended as the most effective tool of tackling the litter problem among residents of Ibadan metropolis.
Erika Gonçalves Santos Queiroga de Deus
Full Text Available There is an increasing discussion regarding consumer participation in environmental preservation through the formation of environmentally conscious behaviour. However, little is known about the influence of awareness, attitudes and behaving intention that direct personal choices, when it comes to environmental issues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship regarding the constructs of environmental awareness; attitude towards non-recyclable plastic bags; and the intention for using this product. For this purpose, a descriptive conclusive, survey type research was carried out, collecting a sampling of 279 students from a Business Administration College in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data were collected through questionnaires,using the Likert scale with five points, in order to evaluate the degree of agreementin relation to statements thatmake upthe constructs surveyed. By way of modelling of structural equation, it has been possible to investigate the relationships between the three constructs: awareness, attitude and intention.Among the models tested, the one that showed the best fit reveals the positive impact of environmental awareness on the attitude towards non-recyclable plastic bags, as well as positive impact of attitude on the intended use of this product. The research did not confirm any direct influence of environmental awareness on the behavioural intention.
Power, Yuri; Power, Lorena; Canadas, Maria Beatriz
The objective of this study was to study the proportion of Ecuadorian students fulfilling criteria on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) in relation to socioeconomic status. Seven hundred and twenty three female adolescent participants recruited from Quito, Ecuador were administered a brief questionnaire consisting of the EAT-40 as well as lifestyle questions. Mean EAT-40 score was 17.12, with 14% fulfilling criteria. Lower socioeconomic status and watching more television predicted higher scores; however BMI, age, and positive smoking status failed to correlate. The presently unvalidated Spanish version of the EAT-26 highly correlated with the validated EAT-40 (R=0.94). A higher than expected proportion of Ecuadorians are at risk for eating disorders, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. The EAT-26 should be considered for validation as a primary screening tool in Latin America. PMID:18307113
Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo
This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…
Chan, Kara K. W.
Describes an investigation into the environmental attitudes of students in Hong Kong and their readiness to engage in pro-environmental behavior that could involve change in personal lifestyle. Students' over-optimism towards technological development and the perceived importance of the benefits of modern consumer goods were major factors that…
Sunseri, A J; Alberti, J M; Kent, N D; Schoenberger, J A; Sunseri, J K; Amuwo, S; Vickers, P
The purpose of this study was to examine reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes. The school-home humanistic education program was implemented in a large, urban public school system. It stressed responsible decision-making, increased self-esteem and the inter-relationships among the acquisition of knowledge of the consequences of smoking, personal feelings, family relationships and behavior. The results showed that family involvement was necessary to affect smoking attitudes and behaviors. Of all the variables studied, reading had a most pervasive relationship. Peer influence and self-esteem also were related to smoking knowledge, smoking attitude, future smoking intentions and the "purchase" of cigarettes. Two of several conclusions drawn from the results are: 1. Family involvement is necessary to affect attitudes and behaviors. 2. Health education research that does not investigate the relationship between program outcomes and reading achievement may be misleading. PMID:6552341
Håkon Sælen; Hege Westskog; Einar Strumse
We ask how the strength of the link from values and attitudes and to pro-environmental behaviour varies across different consumption domains. We base our analysis on a survey of the Norwegian population, focusing on values, attitudes, and pro-environmental behaviour relating to waste, food, transport and domestic energy. We show that that both values and environmental attitudes are most strongly correlated with the behaviours relating to waste and food and lesser so with behaviours related to...
Carlos Mª Tejero-González
Full Text Available AbstractTraditionally, japanesse martial arts had, as well as technical and tactical lessons, discourses of peace and non-violence. Therefore, this study wants to prove whether the practitioners of these martial arts declare lower levels of attitude toward violence than non-practitioners. To this end, we administered he Brief Scale of Violence in Adolescents (Tejero-González, Balsalobre-Fernández and Ibanez-Cano, in press to two groups of boys and girls from 12 to 17 years of age: one group of judo, karate or jiujitsu (n = 57, and a control one (n = 57. Statistical analysis confirmed that martial arts practitioners declare significantly lower leves than the control group, both in general violence as gratuitous violence, but were not in violence linked to self-protection. Finally, we discuss the influence that factors such as years of practice or competitive orientation may have on the ability of the japanese martial arts to reduce levels of violence.Keywords: martial arts, judo, karate, jiujitsu, violence, adolescents.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial problems about the use of psychotropic medication. Methods Two groups of healthcare students were recruited from universities in Eastern France. 41 fourth-year medical students (MS who had completed their psychiatry course, and 76 third-year psychology students (PS in the faculty of human sciences. Respondents completed a self-administered instrument (20 brief case studies, and a personality inventory at the end of a lecture. Participation was voluntary and unpaid. Results MS would recommend psychotropic drugs in 40% of the 20 cases, PS in 27%. MS who would prescribe psychotropic medication differed in personality profile from PS. MS with a tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration, and who did not see fulfilling moral obligations as important were more likely to prescribe psychotropic drugs. Also more likely to recommend psychotropic drugs, but for different reasons, were PS who were susceptible to stress but not shy or socially anxious, who showed friendliness but little interest in others, and who lacked distance in their decision-making. Conclusion Health promotion is not simply a matter of educating those young people who take psychotropic drugs – health professionals must also question the criteria that inform their decisions. It is as important to investigate the attitudes of the future health professionals (advisers or prescribers as it is to focus on consumer-related issues.
Krantz, Patrick Douglas
From November 2001 to April 2002, data were collected with the purpose of assessing the effect a PLT, WILD, or combined PLT/WILD workshop on a participants' efficacy and attitude toward teaching EE. A pretest consisting of 49 statements was administered prior to the treatment (workshop). Twenty-six of the pretest statements related to attitude toward teaching environmental concepts, the remaining 23 statements were related to feelings of efficacy toward teaching EE. Approximately 30 days after completing the workshop, participants were mailed the posttest. The posttest is comprised of 26 statements relating to attitude toward. Data collected pertaining to efficacy were analyzed as a two factor ANOVA between workshop type and previous workshop experience for mean outcome efficacy and mean self-efficacy scores. Data collected pertaining to attitude toward teaching environmental concepts were analyzed as a three factor ANOVA between workshop type and previous workshop experience for total pretest and total posttest attitude scores. Findings suggest that attitudes and efficacy toward teaching environmental concepts are directly related to participants' previous workshop experiences. Participants without previous workshop experience scored statistically significant higher (alpha = .05) than those participants with previous workshop experience. Participants with previous workshop experience were also found to have a statistically significant higher (alpha = .05) level of self-efficacy toward teaching EE. Reliability and validity analyses are reported.
van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E
Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior. PMID:23435271
Full Text Available Abstract Background Elite adolescent female figure skaters compete in an aesthetic-based sport that values thin builds and lithe figures. To conform to the sport’s physical requirements, skaters may alter their eating patterns in unhealthful directions. This study assesses the eating attitudes and dietary intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters to assess the potential nutritional risks among them. Methods Thirty-six elite competitive adolescent female figure skaters (mean age 16 ± 2.5 SD years completed self-administered three-day records of dietary intake and simultaneous physical activity records during training season. Two months later, they attended a national training camp during which they completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40, provided fasting blood samples, and had heights and weights measured. Results Participants’ mean body mass index (BMI was 19.8 ± 2.1 SD. Their BMIs were within the normal range, and the majority (70% did not report a history of recent weight loss. The mean EAT-40 score was normal (19.5 ± 13.5 SD and below the cut-off score of 30 that indicates clinically significant eating pathology. However, one-quarter of the skaters had EAT-40 scores above 30. The skaters reported a mean energy intake of 1491 ± 471 SD kcal/day (31 ± 10 SD kcal/kg, with 61.6% of calories from carbohydrate, 14.6% from protein, and 23.7% from fat. Their reported dietary intakes were high in carbohydrates but low in total energy, fat, and bone-building nutrients. Conclusions Although these highly active young women compete in a sport that prizes leanness, they had appropriate weights. The athletes reported dietary intakes that were far below estimated energy needs and were at moderate risk of disordered eating. Anticipatory guidance is warranted to improve their dietary intakes, particularly of bone-building nutrients.
Hadley, Wendy; Brown, L K; Barker, D; Warren, J; Weddington, P; Fortune, T; Juzang, I
The purpose of the current study was to test an interactive DVD and workbook specifically designed for African-American parents and adolescents (ages 13-18), based on an efficacious face-to-face intervention, to address key factors associated with risk. A total of 170 parent-adolescent dyads were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either the "Work It Out Together" DVD or a General Health Promotion DVD (HP). Parents and adolescents completed measures of HIV knowledge, self-efficacy, and parenting behaviors. Immediately after receiving the Work It Out Together intervention, parents and adolescents demonstrated higher HIV knowledge and greater HIV prevention self-efficacy. Three months after receiving the Work It Out Together intervention, parents and adolescents reported higher levels of parental monitoring and sexually active adolescents reported higher levels of condom use self-efficacy and a lower rate of recent sex. These outcomes provide preliminary evidence that the "Work It Out Together" DVD impacted individual attitudes and protective parenting behaviors. PMID:27155880
Kilpatrick, Nikki; Frumkin, Howard; Trowbridge, Jane; Escoffery, Cam; Geller, Robert; Rubin, Leslie; Teague, Gerald; Nodvin, Janice
We conducted a mail survey of practicing pediatricians in Georgia to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding recording patients' environmental histories. Of 477 eligible pediatricians, 266 (55.8%) responded. Fewer than one in five reported having received training in environmental history-taking. Pediatricians reported that they strongly believe in the importance of environmental exposures in children's health, and 53.5% of respondents reported experience with a patient who...
Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of overweight and adiposity among children and adolescents aged three to 17 years is 15%, 6.3% (800,000 of these are obese. Scientific background: Obese children and adolescents have an increased body fat ratio. The reasons for overweight are – among others – sociocultural factors, and a low social status as determined by income and educational level of the parents. The consequences of adiposity during childhood are a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality in adulthood. Possible approaches to primary prevention in children and adolescents are measures taken in schools and kindergarten, as well as education and involvement of parents. Furthermore, preventive measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions are of particular importance. Research questions: What is the effectiveness and efficiency of different measures and programs (geared towards changing behaviour and environmental and living conditions for primary prevention of adiposity in children and adolescents, with particular consideration of social aspects? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,649 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 31 publications were included in the assessment. Results: The majority of interventions evaluated in primary studies take place in schools. As the measures are mostly multi-disciplinary and the interventions are often not described in detail, no criteria of success for the various interventions can be extrapolated from the reviews assessed. An economic model calculation for Australia, which compares the efficiency of different interventions (although on the basis of low evidence comes to the conclusion that the intervention with the greatest impact on society is the reduction of TV-ads geared towards children for foods and drinks rich in fat and sugar. There is a significant correlation between
Willis, Rachelle M; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Williams, Philip R; Hollingsworth, Anna L
Within the research field of urban water demand management, understanding the link between environmental and water conservation attitudes and observed end use water consumption has been limited. Through a mixed method research design incorporating field-based smart metering technology and questionnaire surveys, this paper reveals the relationship between environmental and water conservation attitudes and a domestic water end use break down for 132 detached households located in Gold Coast city, Australia. Using confirmatory factor analysis, attitudinal factors were developed and refined; households were then categorised based on these factors through cluster analysis technique. Results indicated that residents with very positive environmental and water conservation attitudes consumed significantly less water in total and across the behaviourally influenced end uses of shower, clothes washer, irrigation and tap, than those with moderately positive attitudinal concern. The paper concluded with implications for urban water demand management planning, policy and practice. PMID:21486685
Martha Patricia Sánchez; Arturo de la Garza González; María Isolde Hedlefs
The present investigation aims to inquire about the capacity of three implicit instruments to measure the attitude toward natural and urban environments. One hundred and three students from a Mexican public university participated in the investigation. The implicit instruments used were the affective priming technique, the implicit association test, and the affect misattribution procedure. Further, an explicit scale was used for comparison. The results showed that all instruments conver...
Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh
The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.
Tabither M Gitau
Full Text Available Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26, body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001 and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa.
Susanne Börner; Juan Carlos Torrico Albino; Luz María Nieto Caraveo; Ana Cristina Cubillas Tejeda
The objective of this study was to explore Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks in contaminated urban areas, and to test the environmental photography technique as a research tool for engaging adolescents in community-based health research. The study was conducted with 74 adolescents from two communities in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Participants were provided with disposable cameras and asked to take photographs of elements and situations which they believ...
Sohn, Sang-Hee; Joo, So-Hyun; Grable, John E.; Lee, Seonglim; Kim, Minjeung
The purpose of this study was to test the relationships between financial socialization agents, financial experiences, money attitudes, demographic characteristics, and the financial literacy of Korean adolescents. Using the 2006 Korean National Financial Literacy Test Survey for Adolescents (N = 1185), a series of regression analyses were…
South Africa has one of the highest rates of HIV/AIDS in the world. Much blame for this has been laid on the apathy of the South African government and the cultural traits of South Africans. AIDS prevention research calls for early childhood education to raise awareness of the causes, dangers, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This study involved surveys among a select sample of South African adolescents to determine their sexual attitudes before and after a cognitive-behavioral intervention. Overall, the results did not make a significant difference in their attitudes, suggesting pre-adolescent sex education might prove to be a more useful tool in anti-HIV/AIDS education. Risky sexual behavior, under the influence of alcohol, also serves as a warning to educate young consumers of alcohol. PMID:22192941
Krömker, D.; Stolberg, A.; Müller, C.;
Parents play a crucial role in the development of childhood overweight and also in controling overweight. This study investigated a broad set of parental factors, including general attitudes towards food (price, identity, cooking, ecology, mood, dieting, convenience, functionality), social...... cognitions concerning overweight (risk perception, self-efficacy for exercising and healthy eating, response efficacy for exercising and healthy eating) and characteristics of the home environment (restriction of snacks, regular family meals, parents involved in sports) and their association...... with their children’s zBMI, i.e. adolescents between 12-19 years old. In a non-clinical sample of 842 parent-adolescent dyads we found that the zBMI is most strongly and positively associated with parental dieting attitudes and negatively with parents’ self-efficacy to motivate their children to exercise. The z...
The present study explores the environmental attitudes (EA) of senior high school students in Turkey, explains which determinant factors affect these EAs, and concludes with some suggestions for curricular reform. This study includes over nine hundred students from different school types, neighbourhoods, geographical regions, and socioeconomic…
Yager, Zali; O’Dea, Jennifer A
Background Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Methods Participants were 1148 male adolescen...
Kalolo, Albino; Kibusi, Stephen Matthew
Background Despite the declining trends of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), unsafe sexual behaviours among adolescents still represent a public health challenge. It is important to understand factors acting at different levels to influence sexual behaviour among adolescents. This study examined the influence of perceived behaviour control, subjective norms, attitudes and empowerment on intention to use condoms and reported use of condoms among adolesce...
Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm
Danish manufacturing companies. Some of the general results of this survey are presented below. They point to a situation where the major driving factor is legislation and where only few companies have formulated a general environmental policy and written internal environmental guidelines. However, many...... companies have established practical steps in improving their environmental situation but mainly because of the cost saving effect. Only a limited number of companies have introduced techniques which can help them to monitor and control the environmental situation and development....
Full Text Available Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls. Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant changes in knowledge on sexuality and reproductive physiology, attitudes regarding citizenship, and current use of modern contraceptives; Rio de Janeiro's program succeeded in improving students' knowledge of reproductive physiology and attitudes towards sexuality; Belo Horizonte's participants showed greater knowledge of reproductive physiology and STI/HIV prevention but had less positive attitudes towards gender issues, while reporting greater sexual activity. The main difference between Salvador's program and the others was the focus on creative and cultural activities; Belo Horizonte's main difference was its lack of interaction with health services and professionals. However, after the evaluation Belo Horizonte reframed its educational strategies and launched a scaling-up process in a joint effort with the health and school systems.
Campbell, Todd; Medina-Jerez, William; Erdogan, Ibrahim; Zhang, Danhui
This study examined the similarities and differences among 171 Grade 7-12 science teachers from three different countries (54 U.S, 63 Bolivian, and 54 Turkish) with respect to their attitudes toward environmental education (EE) and instructional practices. The instrument employed explored how teachers' knowledge, instructional practices,…
Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge
The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…
This paper presents the results of a study of Danish consumers' attitudes to packaging and the importance of the environmental and functional characteristics of packaging for their purchasing decisions. The aim is to evaluate whether and how purch behaviour can be influenced in such a way as to...
The present study was carried out on students of the standard XI pursuing different disciplines of education in schools of Jabalpur city affiliated to Central and Madhya Pradesh Boards of Secondary Education. The sample comprised of 663 and 722 students, respectively, belonging to Central and M.P. boards. The standardized tests were used to measure environmental awareness, attitude and behaviour of students.
Chan, Ricky Yee-kwong
Examined the attitudes and behavior of Hong Kong customers (n=300) toward the environmental movement. When comparing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of "green" customers with those of "non-green" customers, only education was found to be significant in differentiating the groups. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/MDH)
Full Text Available Although sex difference in the mean level of depressive symptoms has been well established, the sex difference in genetic and environmental influences on adolescent depressive symptoms is unclear. The current study conducted a meta-analysis of twin studies on sex differences in self- and parent-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. For self-reports, genetic factors influenced adolescent depressive symptoms equally for boys and girls, accounting for 46% of variation, but shared environmental factors had stronger impacts on adolescent girls’ versus boys’ depressive symptoms (13% versus 1% of the variance. For parent-reports, genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors influenced adolescent depressive symptoms equally, with separate estimates of 34%, 35%, and 31%. The implications of sex difference in genetic and environmental etiologies of depressive symptoms are discussed.
Farley, T A; Pomputius, P F; Sabella, W; Helgerson, S D; Hadler, J L
To measure the effect of school-based education on adolescents' AIDS knowledge and attitudes, we conducted surveys in two high schools and compared them to a baseline survey conducted in the same schools the previous year. One month before the follow-up survey, students in one of the two schools (the intervention school) had received a two-day education program about AIDS; students in the other (control) school had received no specific AIDS education. Students in both schools showed increases in AIDS knowledge between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Students in the intervention school were more likely than students in the control school to answer questions correctly about the safety of blood donation (82% vs 73%) and the possibility of HIV transmission from a former intravenous drug user (85% vs 67%); they were also less likely than students in the control school to believe persons with AIDS should have certain restriction on their activities. We conclude that while students' level of knowledge about AIDS and HIV has been improving over time even without intervention, specific education programs can still transmit important information, including information that is necessary to prevent or change risky behaviors. PMID:2049936
Joseph, Corina; Nichol, Esmie Obrin; Janggu, Tamoi; Madi, Nero
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of environmental literacy among business lecturers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A survey, which involved a combination of newly developed items and items adopted from past studies, was used to collect data from 35 respondents (out of 70). Findings: The overall mean score for…
Executive summary The purpose of the studies presented in the paper is to research different aspects of Danish consumers' views about the functional and environmental consequences of packaging, as well as to study cognitive barriers that can prevent consumer attitudes to environmental consequences...... of food packaging to influence the buying of food products. The results of these studies will be employed to consider whether and how to influence Danish consumers to buy products with environmental sustainable packaging. As the project concerns both consumers' attitudes to packaging on the abstract...... personal interviews with customers in selected supermarkets in Aarhus, Odense and Copenhagen. The data consists of 351 interviews distributed on four different food-products (cheese spread, butter products, orange juice and ketchup). The results indicate, not surprisingly, that packaging influences the...
Fielding, Kelly S; Hornsey, Matthew J
Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions. PMID:26903924
Fielding, Kelly S.; Hornsey, Matthew J.
Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions. PMID:26903924
The study focused on the effects of the Malaysian Department of Wildlife and National Park's (DWNP) environmental education program on the environmental knowledge and attitudes of the secondary school students. Conducted between May 11, 1998 and August 11, 1998, this study was designed to reflect three objectives: (1) to determine the effect of participation in the DWNP's environmental education program on environmental knowledge and attitudes of 13--17 year old Malaysian students, (2) to identify demographic factors that contribute to the change of environmental knowledge and attitudes, and (3) to establish base line data for future evaluation of the effectiveness of DWNP's environmental education program. The sample was comprised of 806 randomly selected students from 10 different schools, with 402 randomly assigned to the experimental grouped and 404 to the control group. Pretest and post-tests were administered at the schools. The experimental group was exposed to the Environmental Education Program (EEP) at the Environmental Education Center (EEC) at Bukit Rengit, Lanchang, Pahang, Malaysia sometime between May 14, 1998 and August 8, 1998. At the EEC, the experimental group was again divided, with half receiving the pretest and post-test, while the other half were given only the post-test. The instrument used in this study was a modification of the Children's Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge Scale (CHEAKS) developed by Leeming, et al. (1995). This instrument had sound psychometric properties suitable for this research setting, and allowed comparisons of results with previous studies. T-tests, ANOVA, and ANCOVA were used to determine group differences. Overall, secondary school students in the experimental group showed a significantly greater change in environmental knowledge than did students in the control group. Significant differences were also found on the Attitude sub-scale, with the control group exhibiting negative change in attitude, and slightly
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a common concern among hospitalized adolescents, and can have significant implications for short and long-term prognosis. Little research has been devoted on how personality features in severely ill adolescents interact with NSSI and "attitude toward life and death" as a dimension of suicidality. Developing more specific assessment methodologies for adolescents who engage in self-harm without suicidal intent is relevant given the recent proposal of a non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI disorder and may be useful in predicting risk in psychiatrically impaired subjects. Methods Consecutively hospitalized adolescents in a psychiatric unit (N = 52; 71% females; age 12-19 years, reporting at least one recent episode of self-harm according to the Deliberate Self-harm Inventory, were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Mental Disorders and Personality Disorders (SCID I and II, the Children's Depression Inventory and the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale (MAST. Results Mean age onset of NSSI in the sample was 12.3 years. All patients showed "repetitive" NSSI (high frequency of self-harm, covering different modalities. Results revealed that 63.5% of adolescents met criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and that the rest of the sample also met criteria for personality disorders with dysregulated traits. History of suicide attempts was present in 46.1% of cases. Elevated depressive traits were found in 53.8%. Results show a statistically significant negative correlation between the score on the "Attraction to Life" subscale of the MAST and the frequency and diversification of self-harming behaviors. Conclusions Most adolescent inpatients with NSSI met criteria for emotionally dysregulated personality disorders, and showed a reduced "attraction to life" disposition and significant depressive symptoms. This peculiar psychopathological configuration must be addressed in the
Darlow, Susan D; Heckman, Carolyn J; Munshi, Teja
Tanning during adolescence increases skin cancer risk. Relatively few studies have examined the association between thinness attitudes and tanning attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to examine psychosocial predictors of sunbathing and tanning bed use, specifically thin ideal internalization (TII) and motives for tanning among high school girls. Adolescent girls (N = 229) completed a 10-minute questionnaire designed to assess sunbathing and indoor tanning, TII and motives to tan (appearance, social and well-being). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that TII, β = .05, p motives, β = .11, p motives, β = .11, p motives were negatively associated with sunbathing, β = -.07, p motives on indoor tanning, in that appearance and well-being motives interacted to increase indoor tanning levels, especially among those who strongly endorsed social motives for tanning, β = .22, p Motives for tanning, specifically those associated with appearance and well-being, can interact to increase tanning bed use. When designing tailored interventions for skin cancer prevention in young people, researchers should consider tailoring based on motivation. Researchers and healthcare professionals who work with adolescents should attend to tanners who are motivated for both appearance and mood-related reasons, as they may be most at risk for tanning dependence and skin cancer. PMID:26448364
The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of Multiple Intelligences strategy and traditional methods of instruction on elementary students’ environmental awareness knowledge levels and their attitudes towards the environment. The pre/post-test control group research model was used in this study. The research was carried out in 2009 – 2010 education-instruction year in Karatli Sehit Sahin Yilmaz Elementary School, Nigde, Turkey. Totally 60 students in two different cla...
Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra
Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…
Reyes Rodríguez, Juan Felipe; Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning
performed regularly since 1999. The purpose has been to track and analyse the development of the strategic responses of SMEs in Denmark. Furthermore, identification of potential shifts in the influence of motivators and the impact on competitive advantage has also been focused. In so doing, evidence will be......To stay at the competitive forefront successful firms have for quite a while addressed environmental issues as part of their strategy. The competitive 'imperative' is however not restricted to large enterprises entirely. This paper reports empirical findings from a series of identical surveys...
Rebecca C Richmond
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Few studies have prospectively investigated associations of child cognitive ability and behavioural difficulties with later eating attitudes. We investigated associations of intelligence quotient (IQ, academic performance and behavioural difficulties at 6.5 years with eating attitudes five years later. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, Belarus. Of 17,046 infants enrolled at birth, 13,751 (80.7% completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT at 11.5 years, most with information on IQ (n = 12,667, academic performance (n = 9,954 and behavioural difficulties (n = 11,098 at 6.5 years. The main outcome was a ChEAT score ≥ 85th percentile, indicative of problematic eating attitudes. RESULTS: Boys with higher IQ at 6.5 years reported fewer problematic eating attitudes, as assessed by ChEAT scores ≥ 85th percentile, at 11.5 years (OR per SD increase in full-scale IQ = 0.87; 0.79, 0.94. No such association was observed in girls (1.01; 0.93, 1.10 (p for sex-interaction = 0.016. In both boys and girls, teacher-assessed academic performance in non-verbal subjects was inversely associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per unit increase in mathematics ability = 0.88; 0.82, 0.94; and OR per unit increase in ability for other non-verbal subjects = 0.86; 0.79, 0.94. Behavioural difficulties were positively associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per SD increase in teacher-assessed rating = 1.13; 1.07, 1.19. CONCLUSION: Lower IQ, worse non-verbal academic performance and behavioural problems at early school age are positively associated with risk of problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence.
Ogorchukwu, Judith Miti; Sekaran, Varalakshmi Chandra; Nair, Sreekumaran; Ashok, Lena
Background: Early recognition of mental health problems gives an individual the opportunity for better long-term outcomes if intervention is initiated early. Mental health literacy is a related concept which is increasingly seen as an important measure of the awareness and knowledge of mental health disorders. Aim and Objectives: This study aimed at assessing the mental health literacy, help-seeking behavior and beliefs and attitudes related to mental illnesses among adolescents attending preuniversity colleges. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected preuniversity college students (n = 916). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Data were computed using STATA. Analysis and interpretation were carried out using descriptives and Chi-square test. Results: Of the 916 respondents, 54.15% were male while 45.85% were female. The majority (78.60%) of the respondents ascribed to the Hindu religion, hailed largely from rural areas (57.21%) and were mostly studying in the 11th standard (72.49%). The percentage of mental health literacy among the respondents was very low, i.e., depression was identified by 29.04% and schizophrenia/psychosis was recognized by 1.31%. The study findings indicate that adolescents preferred reaching out more to informal sources including family members such as mothers than formal sources for self than for others indicating deeply prevalent stigmatizing attitudes toward mental health conditions. Conclusions: There is a need for immediate improvement in the knowledge of adolescents on mental health literacy which suggests that programs need to be developed such that adolescents can seek help from valid resources if the need were to arise and have appropriate knowledge on whom to approach for help.
Judith Miti Ogorchukwu
Full Text Available Background: Early recognition of mental health problems gives an individual the opportunity for better long-term outcomes if intervention is initiated early. Mental health literacy is a related concept which is increasingly seen as an important measure of the awareness and knowledge of mental health disorders. Aim and Objectives: This study aimed at assessing the mental health literacy, help-seeking behavior and beliefs and attitudes related to mental illnesses among adolescents attending preuniversity colleges. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected preuniversity college students (n = 916. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Data were computed using STATA. Analysis and interpretation were carried out using descriptives and Chi-square test. Results: Of the 916 respondents, 54.15% were male while 45.85% were female. The majority (78.60% of the respondents ascribed to the Hindu religion, hailed largely from rural areas (57.21% and were mostly studying in the 11th standard (72.49%. The percentage of mental health literacy among the respondents was very low, i.e., depression was identified by 29.04% and schizophrenia/psychosis was recognized by 1.31%. The study findings indicate that adolescents preferred reaching out more to informal sources including family members such as mothers than formal sources for self than for others indicating deeply prevalent stigmatizing attitudes toward mental health conditions. Conclusions: There is a need for immediate improvement in the knowledge of adolescents on mental health literacy which suggests that programs need to be developed such that adolescents can seek help from valid resources if the need were to arise and have appropriate knowledge on whom to approach for help.
Maria Fernanda Laus
Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between body image dissatisfaction, nutritional status, and eating attitudes in adolescents from a small town of the interior of São Paulo State. A total of 278 adolescents (106 boys and 172 girls aged between 15 and 18 years had completed measures of body image dissatisfaction through the Figure Rating Scale and eating attitudes by the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and had their weight and height measured. Girls related more dissatisfaction and abnormal eating behavior than boys and, in both genders the abnormal eating attitudes tend to increase with increasing dissatisfaction. Moreover, dissatisfaction was higher between those individuals classified as overweight and obesity. These results demonstrated that body image dissatisfaction and inappropriate eating behaviors afflict boys and girls even from small cities in developing countries, highlighting the need to undertake epidemiological studies to early recognition of populations at risk of developing eating disorders.
Kasia Mazur; Jeff Bennett
The survey was designed to estimate environmental values suitable for integration into MOSAIC, a bio-economic model for catchment and farm level planning. Local residents, as well as distant rural and distant urban communities, were surveyed in three NSW catchments (Lachlan, Namoi and Hawkesbury-Nepean) using choice modelling (CM). The survey aimed to find out respondents’ attitudes about, and preferences for, potential natural resource management (NRM) improvements. In total, 3,997 responses...
This study aims to discuss the experience model for visitors participating in Dark Tourism. The Hsiaolin Village relics, which were destroyed by the 2009 typhoon in Taiwan, are selected as the research subject. A total of 341 visitors to Hsiaolin Village Memorial Park were interviewed through a survey questionnaire. Structural equation models (SEMs) were utilized to verify the causal relationship among the visitors ’Dark Tourism motivation, environmental attitudes, and benefits of experience ...
Fordham, Maureen Helen
This research examines the importance of environmental factors in the choice, promotion and implementation of flood defence schemes in England and Wales. It focuses on the attitudes of National Rivers Authority (NRA) engineers and floodplain residents to low-frequency flood events and investigates the role of NRA engineers in influencing, the choices of floodplain residents. The theoretical focus includes an examination of the appropriateness of the dominant (North American) hazards res...
Gregory-Smith, D.; Wells, V.K.; Manika, D.; Graham, S
The paper examines the impact of individual and organisational factors on two simultaneous environmental social marketing interventions (SmartPrint and heating/cooling) and types of behaviours (recycling, printing and heating/cooling), among employees of a British City Council. Using a quantitative methodology, in the form of a situated experiment, self-reported attitudes, perceptions of organisational support, self-reported behaviours and actual behaviours were measured before and after the ...
Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir Bin
Climate change generally and global warming specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that child-centred, 5E learning cycle-based climate change activities would have over more traditional teacher-centred activities on Malaysian Year 5 primary students (11 years). A quasi-experimental design involving a treatment (n = 55) and a group representing typical teaching method (n = 60) was used to measure the effectiveness of these activities on (a) increasing children's knowledge about global warming; (b) changing their attitudes to be more favourable towards the environment and (c) identify the relationship between knowledge and attitude that exist in this study. Statistically significant differences in favour of the treatment group were detected for both knowledge and environmental attitudes. Non-significant relationship was identified between knowledge and attitude in this study. Interviews with randomly selected students from treatment and comparison groups further underscore these findings. Implications are discussed.
Full Text Available There is growing evidence that children in the UK are suffering from a lack of engagement with nature and the outdoor environment. This paper investigates the attitudes of children towards the natural environment and focuses on Forest School programmes as a mechanism to promote a “pro-environmental” attitude. The study identified that there was a statistically significant difference in environmental attitude between groups of children that had participated in a Forest Schools programme and those that had not participated, with children who have taken part in Forest Schools demonstrating a more pro-environmental attitude. Whilst it is recognised that Forest Schools may not be the only factor influencing these attitudes, this is still an important finding that adds to the overall benefits of participation in Forest Schools programmes.
Slavin, Melissa; Pilver, Corey E.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.
Background and aims: Physical fighting and gambling are common risk behaviors among adolescents. Prior studies have found associations among these behaviors in adolescents but have not examined systematically the health and gambling correlates of problem-gambling severity amongst youth stratified by fight involvement. Methods: Survey data were used from 2,276 Connecticut high school adolescents regarding their physical fight involvement, gambling behaviors and perceptions, and health and func...
Smith, Kelley Alison; Harrison, Abigail
This study investigated the attitudes of 43 teachers and school administrators towards sex education, young people’s sexuality and their communities in 19 secondary schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and how these attitudes affect school-based HIV prevention and sex education. In interviews, teachers expressed judgemental attitudes towards young people’s sexuality and pregnant students, and focused on girls’ perceived irresponsible behaviour instead of strategies to minimise HIV ri...
Full Text Available Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China.
Toledano Garrdio, N.; Gessa Perera, A.
In todays context, it is clear the need of integrating the environmental factor in the business management. In this paper, after a bibliographical review, we will analyse the environmental attitude and behaviour of small and medium sized businesses (SME) in the Spanish province of Huelva. First, we will study the level of perception of the impacts of their activity in the environmental and then, we will focus in analysing the features and major factors that define the environmental respectful behaviour in this kind of business, comparing them to those that define this attitude in bigger organizations, usually more concerned and aware. (Author) 47 refs.