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Sample records for adjuvanted swine origin

  1. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    ... Past Newsletters Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Background Reporting Additional Information Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses (Swine Origin Influenza Viruses ...

  2. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    ... fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source of the pandemic influenza ... in pigs in a small region of central Mexico, a new study reports. Researchers used genetic analysis ...

  3. α-Galactosylceramide protects swine against influenza infection when administered as a vaccine adjuvant

    Bianca L. Artiaga; Guan Yang; Hackmann, Timothy J.; Qinfang Liu; Richt, Jürgen A.; Shahram Salek-Ardakani; Castleman, William L.; Lednicky, John A.; Driver, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) -cells activated with the glycolipid ligand α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) stimulate a wide array of immune responses with many promising immunotherapeutic applications, including the enhancement of vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. In the current study, we evaluated whether α-GalCer generates protective immunity against a swine influenza (SI) virus infection when applied as an intramuscular vaccine adjuvant. Immunization of newly weaned piglets with UV-...

  4. Characterization of a novel oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant for swine influenza virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines.

    Galliher-Beckley, A; Pappan, L K; Madera, Rachel; Burakova, Y; Waters, A; Nickles, M; Li, X; Nietfeld, J; Schlup, J R; Zhong, Q; McVey, S; Dritz, S S; Shi, J

    2015-06-01

    Vaccines consisting of subunit or inactivated bacteria/virus and potent adjuvants are widely used to control and prevent infectious diseases. Because inactivated and subunit antigens are often less antigenic than live microbes, a growing need exists for the development of new and improved vaccine adjuvants that can elicit rapid and long-lasting immunity. Here we describe the development and characterization of a novel oil-in-water emulsion, OW-14. OW-14 contains low-cost plant-based emulsifiers and was added to antigen at a ratio of 1:3 with simple hand mixing. OW-14 was stable for prolonged periods of time at temperatures ranging from 4 to 40°C and could be sterilized by autoclaving. Our results showed that OW-14 adjuvanted inactivated swine influenza viruses (SIV; H3N2 and H1N1) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) vaccines could be safely administered to piglets in two doses, three weeks apart. Injection sites were monitored and no adverse reactions were observed. Vaccinated pigs developed high and prolonged antibody titers to both SIV and M. hyo. Interestingly, antibody titers were either comparable or greater than those produced by commercially available FluSure (SIV) or RespiSure (M. hyo) vaccines. We also found that OW-14 can induce high antibody responses in pigs that were vaccinated with a decreased antigen dose. This study provides direct evidence that we have developed an easy-to-use and low-cost emulsion that can act as a powerful adjuvant in two common types of swine vaccines. PMID:25936722

  5. The resurgence of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1).

    Mossad, Sherif Beniameen

    2009-06-01

    Unexpectedly, swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV, informally known as swine flu) appeared in North America at the very end of the 2008-2009 influenza season and began to spread internationally. As the world mobilizes for a potential pandemic, this article summarizes the developments in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:19487554

  6. Immunogenicity in Swine of Orally Administered Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Expressing Classical Swine Fever Virus E2 Protein in Conjunction with Thymosin α-1 as an Adjuvant.

    Xu, Yi-Gang; Guan, Xue-Ting; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Tian, Chang-Yong; Cui, Li-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Classical swine fever, caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious disease that results in enormous economic losses in pig industries. The E2 protein is one of the main structural proteins of CSFV and is capable of inducing CSFV-neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activities in vivo. Thymosin α-1 (Tα1), an immune-modifier peptide, plays a very important role in the cellular immune response. In this study, genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria expressing CSFV E2 protein alone (L. plantarum/pYG-E2) and in combination with Tα1 (L. plantarum/pYG-E2-Tα1) were developed, and the immunogenicity of each as an oral vaccine to induce protective immunity against CSFV in pigs was evaluated. The results showed that recombinant L. plantarum/pYG-E2 and L. plantarum/pYG-E2-Tα1 were both able to effectively induce protective immune responses in pigs against CSFV infection by eliciting immunoglobulin A (IgA)-based mucosal, immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based humoral, and CTL-based cellular immune responses via oral vaccination. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the levels of immune responses were observed between L. plantarum/pYG-E2-Tα1 and L. plantarum/pYG-E2, suggesting a better immunogenicity of L. plantarum/pYG-E2-Tα1 as a result of the Tα1 molecular adjuvant that can enhance immune responsiveness and augment specific lymphocyte functions. Our data suggest that the recombinant Lactobacillus microecological agent expressing CSFV E2 protein combined with Tα1 as an adjuvant provides a promising strategy for vaccine development against CSFV. PMID:25819954

  7. It is not just AIV: From avian to swine-origin influenza virus

    GAO George F; SUN YePing

    2010-01-01

    @@ In March and early April 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) emerged in Mexico and the United States.The virus spreads worldwide by human-to-human transmission.Within a few weeks, it reached a pandemic level.The virus is a novel reassorment virus.It contains gene fragments of influenza virus of swine, avian and human emerged from a triple reassortant virus circulating in North American swine.The source triple-reassortant itself comprised genes derived from avian (PB2 and PA), human H3N2 (PB1) and classical swine (HA, NP and NS) lineages.In contrast, the NA and M gene segments have their origin in the Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 lineage (Figure 1).

  8. Origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in swine in Mexico

    Mena, Ignacio; Nelson, Martha I; Quezada-Monroy, Francisco; Dutta, Jayeeta; Cortes-Fernández, Refugio; Lara-Puente, J Horacio; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Cunha, Luis F; Trovão, Nídia S; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Rambaut, Andrew; van Bakel, Harm; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Asia is considered an important source of influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics, owing to large, diverse viral reservoirs in poultry and swine. However, the zoonotic origins of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) remain unclear, due to conflicting evidence from swine and humans. There is strong evidence that the first human outbreak of pdmH1N1 occurred in Mexico in early 2009. However, no related swine viruses have been detected in Mexico or any part of the Americas, and to date the most closely related ancestor viruses were identified in Asian swine. Here, we use 58 new whole-genome sequences from IAVs collected in Mexican swine to establish that the swine virus responsible for the 2009 pandemic evolved in central Mexico. This finding highlights how the 2009 pandemic arose from a region not considered a pandemic risk, owing to an expansion of IAV diversity in swine resulting from long-distance live swine trade. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16777.001 PMID:27350259

  9. A Set of Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine-Origin Pandemic H1N1 Differentiate Swine H1N1 and Human Seasonal H1N1

    In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) emerged in North America and caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The new pandemic strain is a triple reassortant influenza virus of swine origin containing genes from avian, swine and human influenza viruses. It is genetically ...

  10. Viral meningitis epidemics and a single, recent, recombinant and anthroponotic origin of swine vesicular disease virus

    Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo; Wadsworth, Jemma; Knowles, Nick J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a close relative of the human Enterovirus B serotype, coxsackievirus B5. As the etiological agent of a significant emergent veterinary disease, several studies have attempted to explain its origin. However, several key questions r...

  11. Quantification of classical swine fever virus in aerosols originating from pigs infected with strains of high, moderate or low virulence

    Weesendorp, Eefke; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of classical swine fever virus in aerosols originating from pigs infected with strains of high, moderate or low virulence NETHERLANDS (Weesendorp, Eefke) NETHERLANDS Received: 2008-07-15 Revised: 2008-08-27 Accepted: 2008-09-15

  12. Adjuvant effects of invariant NKT cell ligand potentiates the innate and adaptive immunity to an inactivated H1N1 swine influenza virus vaccine in pigs.

    Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Dhakal, Santosh; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Ouyang, Kang; Hiremath, Jagadish; Khatri, Mahesh; Hague, Jacquelyn Gervay; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-04-15

    Pigs are considered as the source of some of the emerging human flu viruses. Inactivated swine influenza virus (SwIV) vaccine has been in use in the US swine herds, but it failed to control the flu outbreaks. The main reason has been attributed to lack of induction of strong local mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell is a unique T cell subset, and activation of iNKT cell using its ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) has been shown to potentiate the cross-protective immunity to inactivated influenza virus vaccine candidates in mice. Recently, we discovered iNKT cell in pig and demonstrated its activation using α-GalCer. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated H1N1 SwIV coadministered with α-GalCer intranasally against a homologous viral challenge. Our results demonstrated the potent adjuvant effects of α-GalCer in potentiating both innate and adaptive immune responses to SwIV Ags in the lungs of pigs, which resulted in reduction in the lung viral load by 3 logs compared to without adjuvant. Immunologically, in the lungs of pigs vaccinated with α-GalCer an increased virus specific IgA response, IFN-α secretion and NK cell-cytotoxicity was observed. In addition, iNKT cell-stimulation enhanced the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and reduced the production of immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) in the lungs of pigs⋅ In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time iNKT cell adjuvant effects in pigs to SwIV Ags through augmenting the innate and adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract. PMID:27016770

  13. Swine-origin influenza-virus-induced acute lung injury:Novel or classical pathogenesis?

    Naoyoshi; Maeda; Toshimitsu; Uede

    2010-01-01

    Influenza viruses are common respiratory pathogens in humans and can cause serious infection that leads to the development of pneumonia.Due to their hostrange diversity,genetic and antigenic diversity,and potential to reassort genetically in vivo,influenza A viruses are continual sources of novel influenza strains that lead to the emergence of periodic epidemics and outbreaks in humans.Thus,newly emerging viral diseases are always major threats to public health.In March 2009,a novel influenza virus suddenly emerged and caused a worldwide pandemic.The novel pandemic influenza virus was genetically and antigenically distinct from previous seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 viruses;it was identified to have originated from pigs,and further genetic analysis revealed it as a subtype of A/H1N1,thus later called a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1.Since the novel virus emerged,epidemiological surveys and research on experimental animal models have been conducted,and characteristics of the novel influenza virus have been determined but the exact mechanisms of pulmonary pathogenesis remain to be elucidated.In this editorial,we summa-rize and discuss the recent pandemic caused by the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 with a focus on the mechanism of pathogenesis to obtain an insight into potential therapeutic strategies.

  14. Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) H1N1 virus in humans

    Peiris, JS Malik; Poon, Leo LM; Guan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    A recently emerged novel influenza A H1N1 virus continues to spread globally. The virus contains a novel constellation of gene segments, the nearest known precursors being viruses found in swine and it likely arose through reassortment of two or more viruses of swine origin. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtype swine influenza viruses have occasionally infected humans before but such zoonotic transmission-events did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission in the manner this swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) has done. Its transmission among humans appears to be higher than that observed with seasonal influenza. Children and young adults appear to those most affected and also those who appear to maintain transmission. Clinical disease generally appears mild but complications leading to hospitalization can occur, especially in those with underlying lung or cardiac disease, diabetes or those on immunosuppresive therapies. There are concerns that the virus may reassort with existing human influenza virus giving rise to more transmissible or more pathogenic viruses. The virus appears to retain the potential to transmit back to swine and thus continued reassortment with swine viruses is a cause for concern. PMID:19540800

  15. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the...

  16. CT manifestations of patients with swine-origin influenza A H1N1

    Objective: To explore the manifestations of chest multi-slice spiral CT in patients with initial infection of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV). Methods: The chest multi-slices spirals CT images of 19 firstly diagnosed patients with swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) in our institution were retrospectively studied. CT manifestations were evaluated by three experienced radiologists. Location, appearance of lung abnormalities, abnormal distribution, pleural effusion and others (pericadiaum, lymphadenopathy and pleural thickening) were observed and quantitatively analyzed. The correlation of ground-glass and consolidation CT scores with the fever time was studied. Results: The abnormal CT findings were observed bilaterally in 18 of 19 subjects including ground-glass (n=3), consolidation (n=3), consolidation accompanied with ground-glass (n=12). Most of these lesions were distributed diffusively (n=14) while the others located in the middle and low lobes (n=4). Unilateral (n=3) or bilateral (n=2) pleural effusion were observed. Lymphadenopathy (n=2), effusion of pericadium (n=1), pleural thickening (n=1) and cardiac enlargement (n=2) were also found in patients with H1N1. CT scores of ground-glass were 4.25 (n=2), 3.75 (n=1), 2.25 (n=1), 1.75 (n=1), 1.00 (n=6), 0.75 (n=2), 0.50 (n=2), 0 (n=4). CT scores of consolidation were 4.25 (n=1), 4.00 (n=1), 3.75 (n=1), 2.75 (n=1), 1.25 (n=3), 1.00 (n=2), 0.75 (n=2), 0.50 (n=1), 0.25 (n=3), 0 (n=4). CT scores of ground-glass were significantly correlated with the fever time (r=0.776, P0.01). Conclusions: The most common CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are diffuse distribution of bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. The increasing of ground-glass's range could be the marker of progression of H1N1 pulmonary infection at initial stage. (authors)

  17. Human vs. animal outbreaks of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic.

    Scotch, Matthew; Brownstein, John S; Vegso, Sally; Galusha, Deron; Rabinowitz, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The majority of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin, including recently emerging influenza viruses such as the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic. The epidemic that year affected both human and animal populations as it spread globally. In fact, before the end of 2009, 14 different countries reported H1N1 infected swine. In order to better understand the zoonotic nature of the epidemic and the relationship between human and animal disease surveillance data streams, we compared 2009 reports of H1N1 infection to define the temporal relationship between reported cases in animals and humans. Generally, human cases preceded animal cases at a country-level, supporting the potential of H1N1 infection to be a "reverse zoonosis", and the value of integrating human and animal disease report data. PMID:21912985

  18. Pre-existing immunity against swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses in the general human population

    Greenbaum, Jason A.; Kotturi, Maya F; Kim, Yohan; Oseroff, Carla; Vaughan, Kerrie; Salimi, Nima; Vita, Randi; Ponomarenko, Julia; Richard H. Scheuermann; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2009-01-01

    A major concern about the ongoing swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) outbreak is that the virus may be so different from seasonal H1N1 that little immune protection exists in the human population. In this study, we examined the molecular basis for pre-existing immunity against S-OIV, namely the recognition of viral immune epitopes by T cells or B cells/antibodies that have been previously primed by circulating influenza strains. Using data from the Immune Epitope Database, we found tha...

  19. Enhanced protective immunity of the chimeric vector-based vaccine rAdV-SFV-E2 against classical swine fever in pigs by a Salmonella bacterial ghost adjuvant.

    Xia, Shui-Li; Lei, Jian-Lin; Du, Mingliang; Wang, Yimin; Cong, Xin; Xiang, Guang-Tao; Li, Lian-Feng; Yu, Shenye; Du, Enqi; Liu, Siguo; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious swine disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Previously, we demonstrated that rAdV-SFV-E2, an adenovirus-delivered, Semliki Forest virus replicon-vectored marker vaccine against CSF, is able to protect pigs against lethal CSFV challenge. From an economical point of view, it will be beneficial to reduce the minimum effective dose of the vaccine. This study was designed to test the adjuvant effects of Salmonella enteritidis-derived bacterial ghosts (BG) to enhance the protective immunity of rAdV-SFV-E2 in pigs. Groups of 5-week-old pigs (n = 4) were immunized intramuscularly twice with 10(5) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) rAdV-SFV-E2 combined with 10(10) colony forming units (CFU) BG, 10(6) or 10(5) TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 alone or 10(10) CFU BG alone at an interval of 3 weeks, and challenged with the highly virulent CSFV Shimen strain at 1 week post-booster immunization. The results show that the pigs inoculated with 10(5) TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 plus BG or 10(6) TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 alone were completely protected from lethal CSFV challenge, in contrast with the pigs vaccinated with 10(5) TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 or BG alone, which displayed partial or no protection following virulent challenge. The data indicate that BG are a promising adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of rAdV-SFV-E2 and possibly other vaccines. PMID:27301745

  20. The avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus that recently emerged in the United States has limited replication in swine.

    Abente, Eugenio J; Anderson, Tavis K; Rajao, Daniela S; Swenson, Sabrina; Gauger, Phillip C; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    Equine-origin H3N8 has circulated in dogs in the United States since 1999. A genetically and antigenically distinct avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza was detected in March of 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. Subsequent outbreaks were reported with over 1000 dogs in the Midwest affected followed by 23 additional states with detections within 5 months. The potential for canine-to-swine transmission was unknown. Experimental infection in pigs showed this virus does not replicate efficiently in swine. PMID:27110913

  1. Molecular epidemiology of novel swine origin influenza virus (S-OIV from Gwalior, India, 2009

    Shukla Jyoti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The H1N1pandemic virus is a newly emergent human influenza A virus that is closely related to a number of currently circulating pig viruses in the 'classic North American' and 'Eurasian' swine influenza virus lineages and thus referred as S-OIV. Since the first reports of the virus in humans in April 2009, H1N1 virus has spread to 168 countries and overseas territories. India also witnessed severe H1N1 pandemic virus epidemic with considerable morbidity and mortality in different parts starting from May 2009. Findings The suspected swine flu outbreak from Gwalior India during October- December 2009 was confirmed through S-OIV HA gene specific RT-LAMP and real time RT-PCR. Positive samples through CDC real time and Lamp assay were further processed for isolation of the virus. Full HA gene sequencing of the H1N1 isolates of Gwalior, India revealed 99% homology with California and other circulating novel swine flu viruses. Three major changes were observed at nucleotide level, while two major amino acid shifts were observed at the position C9W and I30M corresponding to the ORF with prototype strain. The HA gene sequence phylogeny revealed the circulation of two genetically distinct lineages belonging to Clade VII and Clade I of S-OIV. Conclusions Our findings also supported the earlier report about circulation of mixed genogroups of S-OIV in India. Therefore continuous monitoring of the genetic makeup of this newly emergent virus is essential to understand its evolution within the country.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance, toxinotype, and genotypic profiling of Clostridium difficile isolates of swine origin.

    Fry, Pamela R; Thakur, Siddhartha; Abley, Melanie; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2012-07-01

    The occurrence of Clostridium difficile infections in patients that do not fulfill the classical risk factors prompted us to investigate new risk factors of disease. The goal of this study was to characterize strains and associated antimicrobial resistance determinants of C. difficile isolated from swine raised in Ohio and North Carolina. Genotypic approaches used include PCR detection, toxinotyping, DNA sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) DNA fingerprinting. Thirty-one percent (37/119) of isolates carried both tetM and tetW genes. The ermB gene was found in 91% of isolates that were resistant to erythromycin (68/75). Eighty-five percent (521/609) of isolates were toxin gene tcdB and tcdA positive. A total of 81% (494/609) of isolates were positive for cdtB and carry a tcdC gene (a toxin gene negative regulator) with a 39-bp deletion. Overall, 88% (196/223) of pigs carry a single C. difficile strain, while 12% (27/223) of pigs carried multiple strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of individual pigs found to carry more than one strain type of C. difficile. A significant difference in toxinotype profiles in the two geographic locations was noted, with a significantly (P difficile in swine are toxigenic and often are associated with antimicrobial resistance genes, although they are not resistant to drugs that are used to treat C. difficile infections. PMID:22518873

  3. Passive immunity evaluation in piglets originating from sows vaccinated with China strain of classical swine fever virus

    Prodanov Jasna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the course of classical swine fever (CSF infection in piglets originating from sows vaccinated with China strain vaccine. The experiment was carried out on 24 piglets (age 28, 35, 44 and 54 days from vaccinated sows and on 11 non vaccinated piglets, originated from non CSF vaccinated sows. Two piglets from the each age group originating from vaccinated sows were challenged by intramuscular injection with CSF virus. Four piglets of the same age from vaccinated sows, and two piglets derived from unvaccinated sows were added to the challenged group to determine contact (horizontal infection. After challenge, clinical examination and blood sampling from every animal was carried out on day 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27 and 29. Blood samples were examined for CSF virus specific antibodies by ELISA test, and for viral antigen i. e. viral RNA by RT-PCR technique. After death or sacrifice pathomorphological changes, presence and distribution of CSF virus antigen were detected in piglet tissue samples by ELISA test. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that not all piglets born to vaccinated sows have maternal antibodies at a detectable level, and the issue of the efficiency of passive immunization needs to be evaluated in the future.

  4. Coupling sensitive in vitro and in silico techniques to assess cross-reactive CD4+ T cells against the swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus

    Schanen, Brian C.; De Groot, Anne S.; Moise, L; Ardito, Matt; McClaine, Elizabeth; Martin, William; Wittman, Vaughan; Warren, William L.; Drake, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    The outbreak of the novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza in the spring of 2009 took epidemiologists, immunologists, and vaccinologists by surprise and galvanized a massive worldwide effort to produce millions of vaccine doses to protect against this single virus strain. Of particular concern was the apparent lack of pre-existing antibody capable of eliciting cross-protective immunity against this novel virus, which fueled fears this strain would trigger a particularly far-reaching and lethal pan...

  5. Pneumonia induced by swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) infection. Chest computed tomography findings in children

    The purpose of this study was to determine the features of chest computed tomography (CT) in children with swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV). The study population consisted of 16 children with laboratory-confirmed S-OIV infection (12 boys, 4 girls), with an age range of 5-10 years (mean 6.3 years). Pneumonia was suspected in these patients based on clinical features or confirmed by radiography. All subjects underwent CT for close evaluation of pneumonia, including characteristics, distribution, extent, and other findings such as pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum. The predominant CT finding was consolidation plus ground-grass opacity (GGO) (11/16, 69%). The consolidation-dominant pattern was found in 10 of 16 (66%) patients, and 1 (6%) was GGO-dominant. One (6%) had only GGO. In all, 7 of the 16 patients had segmental or lobar consolidation. Abnormal opacities were primarily distributed in the central lung zone (8/16, 50%) and were multifocal (15/16, 94%). Four showed atelectasis (4/16, 25%). Pneumomediastinum was observed in 4 of 16 (25%). One patient had negative radiographic findings but was positive on CT. Multifocal consolidation with central distribution is a common CT finding in children with S-OIV, but there are few GGO-dominant cases. Widespread consolidation (segmental or lobar) is also common. (author)

  6. Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children

    Bae, So Young; Hong, Eun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Seong Jin; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (<2 years old, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-18 years old). The initial radiographs were evaluated for radiographic findings and the anatomic distribution of abnormalities. The initial radiographs were abnormal in 154 (41.39%) patients. The predominant radiographic findings were peribronchial wall opacity found in 85 (22.84%) patients and hyperinflation observed in 69 (18.54%) patients. Further, 75 (71.42%) patients exhibited central predominance and the right lower lung zone was also commonly involved. There were statistically significant differences in the radiological findings between in-patient and out-patient groups. However, there were no significant differences in the radiographic findings between in-patients and the co-infection group with respect the presence of underlying disease and age. Initial radiographs of children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 virus were abnormal in 41.39% of cases. The common radiographic findings included peribronchial opacities, hyperinflation, lower lung zonal distribution, and central predominance

  7. Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children

    To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (<2 years old, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-18 years old). The initial radiographs were evaluated for radiographic findings and the anatomic distribution of abnormalities. The initial radiographs were abnormal in 154 (41.39%) patients. The predominant radiographic findings were peribronchial wall opacity found in 85 (22.84%) patients and hyperinflation observed in 69 (18.54%) patients. Further, 75 (71.42%) patients exhibited central predominance and the right lower lung zone was also commonly involved. There were statistically significant differences in the radiological findings between in-patient and out-patient groups. However, there were no significant differences in the radiographic findings between in-patients and the co-infection group with respect the presence of underlying disease and age. Initial radiographs of children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 virus were abnormal in 41.39% of cases. The common radiographic findings included peribronchial opacities, hyperinflation, lower lung zonal distribution, and central predominance

  8. Swine-origin influenza A viral (H1N1) infection in children. Chest computed tomography findings

    The aim of this study was to review the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in children with swine-origin influenza (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. The radiologists retrospectively reviewed chest CT findings in 12 children with S-OIV infection and recorded the following findings: ground-glass opacities (GGO), consolidation, nodules, reticular opacities, peribronchial cuffing, and air trapping; distribution; affected lobes. The presence of pleural effusions, pneumomediastinum, pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE), and lymphadenopathy was also recorded. Chest CT revealed GGO (67%), consolidation (67%), nodules (25%), peribronchial cuffing (42%), and air trapping (33%). The distribution of the lesions was random (75%), peribronchial (17%), or subpleural (8%). The lobes affected were the lower (92%), upper (58%), and middle (17%) lobes. There were associated pleural effusions (42%), PIE (42%), pneumomediastinum (33%), and lymphadenopathy (75%). Among five patients with air-leak complications, three had a history of allergies and three required the intensive care unit. Chest CT findings in children with S-OIV infection were peribronchial thickening and a mixture of airspace consolidation and GGO with random distribution and lower lobe predominance. Pleural effusion, lymphadenopathy, PIE, and pneumomediastinum may be associated findings. (author)

  9. Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p 2 test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S-OIV (H1N1).

  10. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in swine: implications for animal production and biomedical research.

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Astiz, S; Ovilo, C; Lopez-Bote, C J; Torres-Rovira, L; Barbero, A; Ayuso, M; Garcia-Contreras, C; Vazquez-Gomez, M

    2016-07-01

    The concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) addresses, from a large set of epidemiological evidences in human beings and translational studies in animal models, both the importance of genetic predisposition and the determinant role of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on adult morphomics and homeostasis. Compelling evidences suggest that both overnutrition and undernutrition may modify the intrauterine environment of the conceptus and may alter the expression of its genome and therefore its phenotype during prenatal and postnatal life. In fact, the DOHaD concept is an extreme shift in the vision of the factors conditioning adult phenotype and supposes a drastic change from a gene-centric perspective, only modified by lifestyle and nutritional strategies during juvenile development and adulthood, to a more holistic approach in which environmental, parental, and prenatal conditions are strongly determining postnatal development and homeostasis. The implications of DOHaD are profound in all the mammalian species and the present review summarizes current knowledge on causes and consequences of DOHaD in pigs, both for meat production and as a well-recognized model for biomedicine research. PMID:27238437

  11. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. One hypothesis to explain the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. To invest...

  12. Immunity to Pre-1950 H1N1 Influenza Viruses Confers Cross-Protection against the Pandemic Swine-Origin 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza Virus

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios G.; Kim, Jin Hyang; Powers, Ryan; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Masseoud, Feda; Weldon, William C.; Martin, Maria del Pilar; Mittler, Robert S.; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus outbreak is the first pandemic of the twenty-first century. Epidemiological data reveal that of all the people afflicted with H1N1 virus, 60 y old have pre-existing neutralizing Abs against the 2009 H1N1 virus. This finding suggests that influenza strains that circulated 50–60 y ago might provide cross-protection against the swine-origin 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. To test this, we determined the ability of representative H1N1 influenza viruses that circulated in ...

  13. Rapid Semiautomated Subtyping of Influenza Virus Species during the 2009 Swine Origin Influenza A H1N1 Virus Epidemic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin▿

    Bose, Michael E; Beck, Eric T.; Ledeboer, Nate; Kehl, Sue C.; Jurgens, Lisa A.; Patitucci, Teresa; Witt, Lorraine; LaGue, Elizabeth; Darga, Patrick; He, Jie; Fan, Jiang; Kumar, Swati; Kelly J. Henrickson

    2009-01-01

    In the spring of 2009, a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus (swine origin influenza virus [S-OIV]) emerged and began causing a large outbreak of illness in Milwaukee, WI. Our group at the Midwest Respiratory Virus Program laboratory developed a semiautomated real-time multiplex reverse transcription-PCR assay (Seasonal), employing the NucliSENS easyMAG system (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) and a Raider thermocycler (HandyLab Inc., Ann Arbor, MI), that typed influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and res...

  14. Introduction of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 Virus into Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 2009

    Swati Kumar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available On 17 April 2009, novel swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV cases appeared within the United States. Most influenza A diagnostic assays currently utilized in local clinical laboratories do not allow definitive subtype determination. Detailed subtype analysis of influenza A positive samples in our laboratory allowed early confirmation of a large outbreak of S-OIV in southeastern Wisconsin (SEW. The initial case of S-OIV in SEW was detected on 28 April 2009. All influenza A samples obtained during the 16 week period prior to 28 April 2009, and the first four weeks of the subsequent epidemic were sub typed. Four different multiplex assays were employed, utilizing real time PCR and end point PCR to fully subtype human and animal influenza viral components. Specific detection of S-OIV was developed within days. Data regarding patient demographics and other concurrently circulating viruses were analyzed. During the first four weeks of the epidemic, 679 of 3726 (18.2% adults and children tested for influenza A were identified with S-OIV infection. Thirteen patients (0.34% tested positive for seasonal human subtypes of influenza A during the first two weeks and none in the subsequent 2 weeks of the epidemic. Parainfluenza viruses were the most prevalent seasonal viral agents circulating during the epidemic (of those tested, with detection rates of 12% followed by influenza B and RSV at 1.9% and 0.9% respectively. S-OIV was confirmed on day 2 of instituting subtype testing and within 4 days of report of national cases of S-OIV. Novel surge capacity diagnostic infrastructure exists in many specialty and research laboratories around the world. The capacity for broader influenza A sub typing at the local laboratory level allows timely and accurate detection of novel strains as they emerge in the community, despite the presence of other circulating viruses producing identical illness. This is likely to become increasingly important given the need for

  15. Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings

    Li Ping, E-mail: pinglee_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Su Dongju, E-mail: hyd_sdj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Respiratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhang Jifeng, E-mail: zjf2005520@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Xia Xudong, E-mail: xiaxd888@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Sui Hong, E-mail: suisuihong@126.com [Department of Statistics, Harbin Medical University, 240 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhao Donghui, E-mail: yhwoooooo@yahoo.com.cn [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Heilongjiang, 187 Xiang An Street, Harbin 150036 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S

  16. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine. PMID:22129866

  17. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1)

    James Holland Jones; Marcel Salathé

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1), generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced...

  18. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    ... Documents (General) Workers Employed at Commercial Swine Farms Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Questions & Answers Language: English ...

  19. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1.

    James Holland Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1, generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced by behavioral changes (e.g., social distancing during the early phase of an epidemic, but data on risk perception and behavioral response to a novel virus is usually collected with a substantial delay or after an epidemic has run its course. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the results from an online survey that gathered data (n = 6,249 about risk perception of the Influenza A(H1N1 outbreak during the first few days of widespread media coverage (April 28-May 5, 2009. We find that after an initially high level of concern, levels of anxiety waned along with the perception of the virus as an immediate threat. Overall, our data provide evidence that emotional status mediates behavioral response. Intriguingly, principal component analysis revealed strong clustering of anxiety about swine flu, bird flu and terrorism. All three of these threats receive a great deal of media attention and their fundamental uncertainty is likely to generate an inordinate amount of fear vis-a-vis their actual threat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that respondents' behavior varies in predictable ways. Of particular interest, we find that affective variables, such as self-reported anxiety over the epidemic, mediate the likelihood that respondents will engage in protective behavior. Understanding how protective behavior such as social distancing varies and the specific factors that mediate it may help with the design of epidemic control strategies.

  20. In silico characterization of the functional and structural modules of the hemagglutinin protein from the swine-origin influenza virus A (H1N1)-2009

    Christopher; VAVRICKA; GAO; George; F

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV,H1N1 subtype) has developed into a new pandemic influenza as announced by the World Health Organization.In order to uncover clues about the determinants for virulence and pathogenicity of the virus,we characterized the functional modules of the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA),the most important protein in molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis of influenza viruses.We analyzed receptor binding sites,basic patch,neutralization antibody epitopes and T cell epitopes in the HA protein of the current S-OIV according to the corresponding functional and structural modules previously characterized in other H1 HA molecules or HA molecules of other subtypes.We compared their differences and similarities systematically.Based on the amino acids defined as the functional and structural modules,the HA protein of 2009 S-OIV should specifically bind to the human 2,6-receptor.The D225G/E mutation in HA,which is found in some isolates,may confer dual binding specificity to the 2,3and 2,6-receptor based on previously reported work.This HA variant contains two basic patches,one of which results in increased basicity,suggesting enhanced membrane fusion function.The 2009 S-OIV HA also has an extra glycosylation site at position 276.Four of the five antibody neutralization epitopes identified in A/RP/8/34(H1N1) were exposed,but the other was hidden by a glycosylation site.The previously identified cytotoxic T cell epitopes in various HA molecules were summarized and their corresponding sequences in 2009 S-OIV HA were defined.These results are critical for understanding the pathogenicity of the virus and host immune response against the virus.

  1. Origin of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from swine affected by PCV2-associated diseases in Croatia.

    Novosel, D; Tuboly, T; Csagola, A; Lorincz, M; Cubric-Curik, V; Jungic, A; Curik, I; Segalés, J; Cortey, M; Lipej, Z

    2014-04-26

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes some of the most significant economic losses in pig production. Several multisystemic syndromes have been attributed to PCV2 infection, which are known as PCV2-associated diseases (PCVDs). This study investigated the origin and evolution of PCV2 sequences in domestic pigs and wild boars affected by PCVDs in Croatia. Viral sequences were recovered from three wild boars diagnosed with PCV2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD), 63 fetuses positive for PCV2 DNA as determined by PCR, 14 domestic pigs affected with PCV2-SD (displaying severe interstitial nephritis) and five domestic pigs with proliferative and necrotising pneumonia. Seventeen complete PCV2 genomes were recovered. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on median-joining phylogenetic networks, amino acid alignments and principal coordinate analysis were performed using complete genomes, as well as complete and partial ORF sequences for ORF1 and ORF2. Two of the 17 PCV2 sequences belonged to PCV2a, 14 to PCV2b and one was unclustered. PCV2b was the predominant genotype in Croatia and has been linked to international trade as a route of introduction. Correlation between particular viral strains with PCVDs is lacking. PMID:24591478

  2. Use of inactivated E.Coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine

    In order to augment responses to respiratory vaccines in swine, various adjuvants were intranasally co-administered with an antigen to pigs. Detoxified E. coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced mucosal and systemic immunity to the model peptide, exhibiting their efficacy as mucosal adjuvants for...

  3. High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus

    Jo, Bang Sil; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwanseop [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ijlee2003@medimail.co.kr; Im, Hyoung June [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could

  4. High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus

    Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could

  5. Rapid semiautomated subtyping of influenza virus species during the 2009 swine origin influenza A H1N1 virus epidemic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    Bose, Michael E; Beck, Eric T; Ledeboer, Nate; Kehl, Sue C; Jurgens, Lisa A; Patitucci, Teresa; Witt, Lorraine; LaGue, Elizabeth; Darga, Patrick; He, Jie; Fan, Jiang; Kumar, Swati; Henrickson, Kelly J

    2009-09-01

    In the spring of 2009, a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus (swine origin influenza virus [S-OIV]) emerged and began causing a large outbreak of illness in Milwaukee, WI. Our group at the Midwest Respiratory Virus Program laboratory developed a semiautomated real-time multiplex reverse transcription-PCR assay (Seasonal), employing the NucliSENS easyMAG system (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) and a Raider thermocycler (HandyLab Inc., Ann Arbor, MI), that typed influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and subtyped influenza A virus into the currently circulating H1 and H3 subtypes, as well as a similar assay that identified H1 of S-OIV. The Seasonal and H1 S-OIV assays demonstrated analytical limits of detection of tissue culture infective doses/ml and 3 to 30 input copies, respectively. Testing of the analytical specificities revealed no cross-reactivity with 41 and 26 different common organisms and demonstrated outstanding reproducibility of results. Clinical testing showed 95% sensitivity for influenza A virus and influenza B virus and 95 and 97% specificity compared to tissue culture. Comparisons of results from other molecular tests showed levels of positive agreement with the Seasonal and H1 S-OIV assay results of 99 and 100% and levels of negative agreement of 98 and 100%. This study has demonstrated the use of a semiautomated system for sensitive, specific, and rapid detection of influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and RSV and subtyping of influenza A virus into human H1 and H3 and S-OIV strains. This assay/system performed well in clinical testing of regular seasonal influenza virus subtypes and was outstanding during the 2009 Milwaukee S-OIV infection outbreak. This recent outbreak of infection with a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus also demonstrates the importance of quickly distributing information on new agents and of having rapid influenza virus subtyping assays widely available for clinical and public health decisions. PMID

  6. Feed quality in swine diet

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  7. Swine mycoplasmoses

    Kobisch, M.; Friis, N.F.

    1996-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. The lung lesions, generally observed in young pigs, are characterised by a hyperplasia of the epithelial cells and an increased perivascular and peribronchiolar accumulation of mononuclear cells. Following M. hyopneumoniae...... acute and subacute phase lesions and serum antibodies are detectable. M. hyosynoviae has a special affinity for joint tissue and may cause arthritic disease, leading to economic losses. This mycoplasma is generally located in the tonsils. Piglets are infected by sows after four to six weeks of life....../tonsillar samples and can induce antibodies in blood and joint fluid. Predisposing factors play an important role. M. flocculare is widely distributed in swine, in normal and pneumonic lungs and in nasal cavities, but no pathogenic capability has been described. There is great interest in this mycoplasma because of...

  8. Characterization of an Artificial Swine-Origin Influenza Virus with the Same Gene Combination as H1N1/2009 Virus: A Genesis Clue of Pandemic Strain

    Zhao, Xueli; Sun, Yipeng; Pu, Juan; Fan, Lihong; Shi, Weimin; Hu, Yanxin; Yang, Jun; Xu, Qi; Wang, Jingjing; Hou, Dongjun; Ma, Guangpeng; Liu, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus, derived from a reassortment of avian, human, and swine influenza viruses, possesses a unique gene segment combination that had not been detected previously in animal and human populations. Whether such a gene combination could result in the pathogenicity and transmission as H1N1/2009 virus remains unclear. In the present study, we used reverse genetics to construct a reassortant virus (rH1N1) with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus (NA and M genes...

  9. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    2010-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved interstate for insemination of swine or implantation into swine shall be accompanied by a document issued...

  10. Adjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer

    Paula Ghaneh; John Slavin; Robert Sutton; Mark Hartley; John P Neoptolemos

    2001-01-01

    The outlook for patients with pancreatic cancer has been grim. There have been major advances in the surgical treatment of pancreatic csncer, leading to a drsmatic reduction in post-operative mortality from the development of high volume specialized centres. This stimulated the study of adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatments in pancreatic cancer including chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy. Initial protocols have been based on the original but rather small GITSG study first reported in 1985. There have been two large European trials totalling over 600 patients (EORTC and ESPAC-1) that do not support the use of chemoradiation as adjuvant therapy. A second major finding from the ESPAC-1 trial (541 patients randomized) was some but not conclusive evidence for a survival benefit associated with chemotherapy. A third major finding from the ESPAC-1 trial was that the quality of life was not affected by the use of adjuvant treatments compared to surgery alone.The ESPAC-3 trial aims to assess the definitive use of adjuvant chemotherapy in a randomized controlled trial of 990 patients.

  11. Preparation and Comparison of Three Different Adjuvant Inactivated Vaccines of Japanese Encephalitis Virus from Swine%猪乙型脑炎病毒3种灭活疫苗的制备及免疫效果比较

    乔进平; 赵明秋; 张学涛; 李银光; 李姗姗; 刘薇; 陈金顶

    2011-01-01

    The oil-emulsion,propolis and 603 nanometer inactivated vaccines of Japanese encephalitis virus GZ0409-31 strain from swine were prepared and compared by sterility and safety test. Mice immunized with these inactivated vaccines displayed effective immune protection that testifies their safety. The groups of mice immunized with the oil-emulsion and 603 nanometer inactivated vaccines had higher antibody titer until 90 days post inoculation whereas the group of mice immunized with attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine had lower antibody titer. In addition the level of IFN-γwas higher in the group of mice immunized with attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine than those groups with inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines. The group of mice immunized with 603 nanometer inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines expressed higher level of IFN-γthan those other inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines. Mouse immunized with the oil-emulsion ,propolis and 603 nanometer inactivated vaccines could be protected from the infection of GZ0409-31 Japanese encephalitis virus with 100% protection rate in case of oil-emulsion and 603 nanometer inactivated vaccines immunized groups but remained 70% in propolis inactivated vaccines immunized groups. The attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine also provided 100% (10/10) protection rate. The oil propolis and 603 nanometer inactivated GZ0409-31 Japanese encephalitis vaccines were prepared and found to be safe and effective.%以GZ0409-31株乙脑强毒株作为抗原与白油佐剂、蜂胶佐剂、603纳米佐剂制备灭活疫苗,并对疫苗做了无菌检验和安全检验,灭活疫苗接种小鼠后均未出现不良反应,安全性良好.将制备的乙脑灭活疫苗免疫小鼠,并且与市售乙脑弱毒活苗作对比.结果显示,白油佐剂灭活苗组和603纳米佐剂灭活苗组在第90d抗体效价还维持在较高的水平,同期的弱毒活苗组抗体较低;弱毒活苗组IFN-γ含量较灭活苗

  12. Sinclair swine melanoma

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  13. Sucrose fatty acid sulphate esters as novel vaccine adjuvants: effect of the chemical composition

    Blom, A.G.; Hilgers, L.A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Adjuvant activity of novel, synthetic sucrose derivatives towards a recombinant glycoprotein was determined in large, non-rodent animal species. Compared to antigen alone, up to 3000-fold higher virus neutralizing antibody titres (VNTs) and 10-fold higher cellular responses against classical swine f

  14. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface

    Nelson, Martha I.; Vincent, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    The origins of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic of 2009 in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus ecology and evolution. Here we review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest ‘r...

  15. Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7 and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV

    Schoop Roland

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus (IV infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors such as Tamiflu® (oseltamivir is a potential problem. Therefore the prospects for the control of IV by existing anti-viral drugs are limited. As an alternative approach to the common anti-virals we studied in more detail a commercial standardized extract of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®, EF in order to elucidate the nature of its anti-IV activity. Results Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1, were all inactivated in cell culture assays by the EF preparation at concentrations ranging from the recommended dose for oral consumption to several orders of magnitude lower. Detailed studies with the H5N1 HPAIV strain indicated that direct contact between EF and virus was required, prior to infection, in order to obtain maximum inhibition in virus replication. Hemagglutination assays showed that the extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, suggesting that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged, in contrast to Tamiflu®, which produced resistant viruses upon passaging. Furthermore, the Tamiflu®-resistant virus was just as susceptible to EF as the wild type virus. Conclusion As a result of these investigations, we believe that this standard Echinacea preparation, used at the recommended dose for oral consumption, could be a useful, readily available and affordable addition to existing control options

  16. Emergence of European Avian Influenza Virus-Like H1N1 Swine Influenza A Viruses in China▿

    Liu, Jinhua; Bi, Yuhai; Qin, Kun; Fu, Guanghua; Yang, Jun; Peng, Jinshan; Ma, Guangpeng; Liu, Qinfang; Pu, Juan; Tian, Fulin

    2009-01-01

    During swine influenza surveillance from 2007 to 2008, 10 H1N1 viruses were isolated and analyzed for their antigenic and phylogenetic properties. Our study revealed the emergence of avian-origin European H1N1 swine influenza virus in China, which highlights the necessity of swine influenza surveillance for potential pandemic preparedness.

  17. Swine flu in Asia

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    Emerging swine flu (variant H1N1 influenza virus infection)is a new problem in medicine.The outbreaks in Mexico,USA and Canada bring attention to medical scientists that thing infection might finalize in the global pandemic situation.In this specific paper,the author hereby discusses on the situation of swine flu in Asia.

  18. ADJUVANTS IN MODERN VACCINOLOGY

    Belozersky V. I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A concept of adjuvants and their story of creation ischaracterized in the article. They’re presented thevarious types of non-specific stimulators of immunesysteme, thier excipients and classification. They’redescribed basic properties of adjuvant systems, their significant advantages and disadvantages. Particular attention is paid to the numerous antigen delivery systems, including alive vectors, nanoparticles, bacterial toxins, etc. They’re considered non-specific stimulators mechanisms of action on immune system and theirinteraction with antigens. They’re given examples of different adjuvants in licensed vaccines use.

  19. ADJUVANTS IN MODERN VACCINOLOGY

    Belozersky V. I; Zhdamarova L.A.; Yelyseyeva I. V; Babych Ye. M.; Isaenko Ye. Yu.; Kolpak S. A

    2013-01-01

    A concept of adjuvants and their story of creation ischaracterized in the article. They’re presented thevarious types of non-specific stimulators of immunesysteme, thier excipients and classification. They’redescribed basic properties of adjuvant systems, their significant advantages and disadvantages. Particular attention is paid to the numerous antigen delivery systems, including alive vectors, nanoparticles, bacterial toxins, etc. They’re considered non-specific stimulators mechanisms of a...

  20. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  1. Comparative activity of some veterinary pharmaceutical products in swine dysentery

    Cristina, T.Romeo; Villa, R.; Olimpia-Ines Lupu (Pauta),; Doma, A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the diseases that cause great damage in the pig breeding farms, Brachyspyra swine dysentery has a special importance because involve great losses both by growth failure and high mortality andsignificant costs to the prevention and control. The study was conducted in a swine farm in Timis County, where the disease was originally identified in autumn of year 2009. Cumulative adverse conditions have affected the rate of morbidity and mortality. Themost common clinical developments in the ...

  2. National Swine Brucellosis Survey

    Finlay, Ronald C.; Roe, Richard T.; Kellar, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A national survey was conducted in 1985 to investigate the brucellosis status of the Canadian swine herd. Serum samples were collected from cull sows slaughtered over a forty week period in 1985; 15,707 samples were suitable for brucellosis testing, and 48 (0.31%) gave some degree of reaction on the buffered plate agglutination screening test. All 48 samples were negative on the 2-mercaptoethanol and modified complement fixation test. We therefore conclude that the Canadian swine herd remains...

  3. Parvoviral Infections in Swine

    Došen Radoslav; Gagrčin Mladen; Prodanov Jasna; Orlić Dušan B.

    2002-01-01

    Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV) are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge o...

  4. The swine CD81 enhances E2-based DNA vaccination against classical swine fever.

    Li, Wenliang; Mao, Li; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Xia; Yang, Leilei; Zhang, Wenwen; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2015-07-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease that affects the pig industry worldwide. The glycoprotein E2 of CSFV can induce neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity, and is widely used for novel vaccine development. The objective of this study was to explore whether a tetraspanin molecule CD81 could improve the immune responses of an E2-based DNA vaccine. Plasmids pVAX-CD81, pVAX-E2 and pVAX-CD81-E2 were constructed and the expression of target proteins was confirmed in BHK-21 cells by indirect immunofluorescence assay. BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups and immunized with different plasmids (pVAX-E2, pVAX-CD81-E2, pVAX-E2+pVAX-CD81, pVAX-CD81 and PBS) three times with two weeks interval. The results showed that the introduction of CD81 promoted higher humoral and cellular immune responses than E2 expression alone (P<0.05). In addition, immunization with pVAX-CD81-E2 induced stronger immune responses than pVAX-E2+pVAX-CD81. Furthermore, four groups of pigs were immunized with pVAX-E2, pVAX-CD81-E2, pVAX-CD81 and PBS, respectively. Humoral and cellular immune responses detection showed similar results with those in mice. Compared to pVAX-E2, pVAX-CD81-E2 induced higher titers of neutralizing antibodies after viral challenge and conferred stronger protection. These results confirmed the capacity of swine CD81 enhancing the humoral and cellular responses with an adjuvant effect on CSFV DNA vaccine. This is the first report demonstrating the adjuvant effect of CD81 to enhance the DNA vaccination for swine pathogen. PMID:26051512

  5. Interaction between mycotoxins and causative agents of swine infective diseases

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can contaminate animal feeds at all stages of food production chain. Consumption of feed contaminated with mycotoxins may result in immunosuppression, which represents a predisposing factor for occurence of infectious diseases in livestock. The influence on immune system is of special interest in swine industry. The technology on swine farms demands frequent vaccinations, which may be a problem in the case of immunocompromised animals. The aim of this paper was evaluation of mycotoxin influence on swine farms, as secondary factors for destabilization of animals’ immunological system. Material for this research included the samples from five swine farms, where health disorders, i.e. clinical and patomorphological signs resembling the problem with infectious diseases in different swine categories, were detected. The applied research methods included: epidemiological and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, laboratory testing of bacteriological and virusological tissue originating from dead animals, and microbiological feed testing in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins. The obtained results indicated the existence of positive interaction between mycotoxins and causative agents of swine infective diseases. Despite continual pharmaco- and immunoprophylaxis in swine, the health problems of bacterial ethiology (colibacilosis, enteroxemia, dysentery, pneumonia, endometritis were detected. From an epidemiological point of view, the presence of mycotoxins in animal feed may induce a breakdown of active immunity and occurrence of disease even in properly vaccinated animals.

  6. ERM immersion vaccination and adjuvants

    Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.; Jaafar, R. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Two candidate adjuvants were tested with a commercial ERM dip vaccine (AquaVac™ Relera, MSD Animal Health) for rainbow trout in an experimental design compatible with common vaccination practices at farm level, i.e. immersion of fish in vaccine (±adjuvant) for 30 s. The adjuvants were the...

  7. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    J. Watson, Simon; Langat, Pinky; M. Reid, Scott;

    2015-01-01

    The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data...

  8. Parvoviral Infections in Swine

    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge on epizootiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and prophylaxis of this diseases.

  9. Swine Influenza Update

    On April 24, 2009, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) confirmed an influenza epidemic was occurring in people and the genetic lineage was most closely related to influenza viruses known to be circulating in swine. The outbreak epicenter appeared to be in central Mexico and the virus spread to th...

  10. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    ... Documents (General) Workers Employed at Commercial Swine Farms Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses Language: English Español Recommend ...

  11. Immunization Efficiency of Swine Fever Live Vaccine(Spleen and lymph tissue origin),Swine Foot and Mouth Disease (Type O) Inactivated Vaccine,Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome(PRRS) Inactivated Vaccine%3种疫苗单独和联合免疫对猪抗体水平的影响

    窦鹏勋; 张红梅; 雷祥前; 葛建强; 张勇; 杨增歧; 韩斌; 贾燕青; 冯磊; 南风; 白永平

    2009-01-01

    [目的]寻求有效结合注射的新型免疫程序,以有效控制猪瘟(CSF)、猪口蹄疫(FMD)和猪繁殖与呼吸综合征(PRRS)疫情的发生和流行.[方法]在陕西省横山和米脂两县将140头猪随机分为7组,每组20头,采用CSF活疫苗(脾淋源)、FMD灭活疫苗(0型Ⅱ)、PRRS灭活疫苗(NVDC-JXA1株)分别进行单独、2种及3种同时分点免疫注射试验,用正向间接血凝和ELISA法检测猪抗体水平.[结果]①3种疫苗都可以刺激猪产生特异性抗体,并且抗体在21、28和35 d呈规律性增长.②CSF疫苗与FMD、PRRS疫苗分开和三者同时使用时,虽然FMD、PRRS疫苗推迟CSF抗体的上升时间,但是对CSF的免疫效果产生的影响不明显.③PRRS与FMD疫苗同时注射后,所产生抗体效价在21、28和35 d均比单独注射PRRS疫苗阳性率高,说明FMD疫苗可对PRRS疫苗注射后有效抗体的产生达到积极协同作用,促进PRRS有效免疫抗体的产生,同时免疫CSF疫苗和PRRS疫苗的抗体水平低于单独注射PRRS疫苗,说明共同免疫CSF和PRRS疫苗时,2种疫苗会相互影响,使免疫效果不如单独免疫.④FMD和PRRS疫苗同时注射后,FMD疫苗所产生的抗体水平(OD值)最高,且一直呈上升趋势,优于FMD疫苗单独注射所产生的抗体水平,说明FMD和PRRS疫苗同时注射,更能促进FMD抗体的产生.[结论]3种疫苗同时分点注射和单注CSF产生抗体后再同时分点注射FMD和PRRS都是较好的防疫体系,具体应根据养殖规模及地域选择合适的防疫体系.%[Objective] The aim was to seek a new effective pattern of immune procedure in order to effectively control epidemic situation of classical swine fever (CSF),swine foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in Yulin district. [ Method] In Hengshan and Mizhi County of Shaanxi Province, 140 pigs were divided into 7 groups randomly ,20 pigs in each group. In immune experiment, we applied CSF live vaccine

  12. Excretion masses and environmental occurrence of antibiotics in typical swine and dairy cattle farms in China.

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Pan, Chang-Gui

    2013-02-01

    This paper evaluated the excretion masses and environmental occurrence of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics in six typical swine and dairy cattle farms in southern China. Animal feeds, wastewater and solid manure samples as well as environmental samples (soil, stream and well water) were collected in December 2010 from these farms. Twenty eight antibiotics, including tetracyclines, bacitracin, lincomycin, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, ceftiofur, trimethoprim, macrolides, and florfenicol, were detected in the feeds, animal wastes and receiving environments. The normalized daily excretion masses per swine and cattle were estimated to be 18.2mg/day/swine and 4.24 mg/day/cattle. Chlortetracycline (11.6 mg/day/swine), bacitracin (3.81 mg/day/swine), lincomycin (1.19 mg/day/swine) and tetracycline (1.04 mg/day/swine) were the main contributors to the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per swine, while chlortetracycline (3.66 mg/day/cattle) contributed 86% of the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per cattle. Based on the survey of feeds and animal wastes from the swine farms and interview with the farmers, antibiotics excreted by swine were mainly originated from the feeds, while antibiotics excreted by dairy cattle were mainly from the injection route. If we assume that the swine and cattle in China excrete the same masses of antibiotics as the selected livestock farms, the total excretion mass by swine and cattle per annum in China could reach 3,080,000 kg/year and 164,000 kg/year. Various antibiotics such as sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluroquinolones, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and florfenicol were detected in well water, stream and field soil, suggesting that livestock farms could be an important pollution source of various antibiotics to the receiving environments. PMID:23268145

  13. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    Watson, Adrienne L; Carlson, Daniel F.; Largaespada, David A; Hackett, Perry B; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs...

  14. Swine Flu: Prevention to Pandemic

    Preeti Padda

    2015-01-01

    Swine flu, also known as swine influenza, pig influenza, hog flu and pig flu, is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses) that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behaviour. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Mostly people who are closely associated with pigs (for example, pork processors and farmers) acquire the infection and similarly pigs ...

  15. Adjuvant Treatment for Ampullary Cancer

    Richard Kim; John Chabot; Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2011-01-01

    Ampullary cancer is an uncommon tumor and tends to have a better prognosis than pancreatic cancer. However, one half of patients will die from recurrent disease suggesting the need for effective adjuvant therapy. Currently, there is lack of randomized trials to guide the use of adjuvant therapy in ampullary cancer. At the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, the largest trial (Abstract #4006) evaluating adjuvant treatment of ampullary cancer was presented.

  16. Adjuvant Treatment for Ampullary Cancer

    Richard Kim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ampullary cancer is an uncommon tumor and tends to have a better prognosis than pancreatic cancer. However, one half of patients will die from recurrent disease suggesting the need for effective adjuvant therapy. Currently, there is lack of randomized trials to guide the use of adjuvant therapy in ampullary cancer. At the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Annual Meeting, the largest trial (Abstract #4006 evaluating adjuvant treatment of ampullary cancer was presented.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Avian-Like H3N2 Swine Influenza Virus Discovered in Southern China

    Su, Shuo; Chen, Ji-dang; Qi, Hai-tao; Zhu, Wan-jun; Xie, Jie-xiong; Huang, Zhen; Tan, Li-kai; Qi, Wen-bao; Zhang, Gui-hong

    2012-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel avian-like H3N2 swine influenza virus containing an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus segment that was obtained from swine in southern China. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this virus might originate from domestic aquatic birds. The sequence information provided herein suggests that continuing study is required to determine if this virus can be established in the swine population and pose potential threats to public health.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Classical Swine Fever Virus Genotype 2.2 Strain Bergen

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Lohse, Louise; Becher, Paul; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the genotype 2.2 classical swine fever virus strain Bergen has been determined; this strain was originally isolated from persistently infected domestic pigs in the Netherlands and is characterized to be of low virulence.

  19. Adjuvant Therapy Trials.

    Ursem, Carling; Van Loon, Katherine; Venook, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, ramucirumab and TAS-102 became the 10th and 11th drugs approved by the Food and Drug administration for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, not counting leucovorin, and yet only 3 agents, 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin, have proven benefit in adjuvant treatment. In fact, there have been no additions (and 1 subtraction levamisole) to our arsenal of therapies for patients with stages II and III colon cancer for more than a decade. How did we get here? Are we stuck? And how do we move forward? PMID:27341598

  20. [Poisoning in swine].

    Heinritzi, K

    1986-01-01

    For clinical interests it is advisable to subdivide cases of swine poisoning in such as caused by food, drugs and environmental poisonings. This division gives pointers to aetiologic connections and special measures necessary for the clearing of the processes. With food poisoning mycotoxicoses play an evermore important role, whereas poisonings by trace elements are on the decrease. Sodium chloride poisoning often results primarily from insufficient water supply. With environmental poisonings carbon monoxide and cyanamide intoxication are presented. Poisonings caused by drugs are mainly the result of an overdose, of segregation in food or of non-licensed drugs. A relatively unknown swine poisoning by a drug against coccidiosis--licensed for poultry--is described. PMID:2943054

  1. 猪源枯草芽孢杆菌的分离鉴定及其特性研究%Isolation,Identification and Characterization of a Swine-origin Bacillus subtilis

    温灿权; 陆黎明; 戴佳佳; 黄梅丹; 张立彬; 黄志坚

    2015-01-01

    To screen probiotic strains with high biological activities.Heat treatment was used to screen high resistance strains from healthy pigs’ intestinal contents,feces,and soil around the pig farms.The strains were i-dentified by morphological,physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.The characteristics of the strains were studied by testing their resistance to artificial gastric juice,artificial intestinal fluid,bile salts and high temperature.Enzyme production testing,susceptibility testing and antimicrobial testing were also conducted.A Swine-origin strain ZZS16-3 was comprehensively identified as Bacillus subtilis.Its sur-vival rate was up to 65.8%in the artificial gastric juice at pH 2.0,51.2%in the bile salt concentration of 0.3%,11.2%after the treatment at 100℃for 3 min.It produced protease,amylase,lipase and so on,and it was sensitive to the majority of antibiotics.It showed significant inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus.It was in-dicated that Bacillus subtilis ZZS16-3 had strong resistance to the environment and potential prebiotic proper-ties.Thus an excellent strain was provided to the development of prebiotics.%为筛选高生物活性的益生菌菌株,通过热处理从健康猪肠道内容物、粪便、土壤等来源筛选具有较高抗逆性的菌株,综合形态特征、生理生化特性及16S rDNA序列分析进行鉴定;通过耐人工胃液、耐人工肠液、耐胆盐、耐高温、产酶试验、药敏试验、抑菌试验来研究菌株的特性。综合鉴定菌株ZZS16-3为枯草芽孢杆菌( Ba-cillus subtilis),其在pH为2.0的人工胃液中,存活率可达到65.8%,在胆盐浓度为0.3%时存活率为51.2%,在100℃处理3 min后其存活率达到11.2%,可产生蛋白酶、淀粉酶、脂肪酶等,对于绝大多数的药物是敏感的,对金黄色葡萄球菌则有明显的抑菌效果。枯草芽孢杆菌ZZS16-3具有较强的抗

  2. Circoviral infections in swine

    Ivetić Vojin; Savić Božidar; Valter Dragoš; Milošević Bratislav

    2002-01-01

    Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic w...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Classical Swine Fever Virus Genotype 2.2 Strain Bergen

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Lohse, Louise; Becher, Paul;

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the genotype 2.2 classical swine fever virus strain Bergen has been determined; this strain was originally isolated from persistently infected domestic pigs in the Netherlands and is characterized to be of low virulence.......The complete genome sequence of the genotype 2.2 classical swine fever virus strain Bergen has been determined; this strain was originally isolated from persistently infected domestic pigs in the Netherlands and is characterized to be of low virulence....

  4. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    2010-01-01

    ... IMPORTATIONS § 94.10 Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. (a) Classical swine fever is known... swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL......

  5. Swine influenza test results from animal health laboratories in Canada

    Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir N; Alexandersen, Soren

    2013-01-01

    Due to its infrastructure and partnerships the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was able to rapidly collect test results from 9 Canadian laboratories that were conducting primary testing for influenza on swine-origin samples, in response to the threat posed by the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in 2009.

  6. Circoviral infections in swine

    Ivetić Vojin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS and porcine dermatitis nephropathy syndrome (PDNS. Current investigations indicate that there is a causal connection between these two syndromes. These two new diseases, which have recently spread all over the world, cause serious losses, great concern and confusion, especially when they occur simultaneously or in a sequence in the same herd, or in parallel with other pathogenes, primarily with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and the porcine parvovirus (PPV. PMWS was first described in Canada in 1991. It most often affect pigs aged 5-12 weeks. The main clinical expression, depending on the stage of progression is diarrhea, delayed development or depressed growth, stuntedness, dyspnea ictherus, eyelid swelling, and lymphadenopathy. More rarely, there are neurological symptoms. Prominent suppression of the immune system is the main characteristic of PMWS, and a wave of secondary bacterial infection is also observed. PDNS is a new disease of economic importance, which mostly affects older swine, from 5 weeks to 5 months of age. The most prominent clinical symptoms in seriously ill piglets is extensive dermatitis, mostly on the chest, abdomen, haunches and forelegs, with the appearance of purple-red swellings of different shape and size. The swine are depressive febrile, anorectic, all of which leads to stunted growth. They are inactive. Mortality is often about 15%. PDNS is a differentially diagnostically

  7. Adjuvant therapies for colorectal cancer

    2007-01-01

    The management of colon and rectal cancer has changed dramatically over the last 25 years. The use of adjuvant therapies has become standard practice in locally advanced (stage Ⅲ and selected stage Ⅱ) colorectal cancer. Improved surgical techniques, chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy are resulting in higher cure rates and the development of agents targeting proliferative and angiogenic pathways offer further promise. Here we explore risk factors for local and distant recurrence after resection of colon and rectal cancer, and the role of adjuvant treatments. Discussion will focus on the evidence base for adjuvant therapies utilised in colorectal cancer, and the treatment of sub-groups such as the elderly and stage Ⅱ disease. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer in reduction of recurrence will be explored and the role and optimal methods for surveillance post-curative resection with or without adjuvant therapy will also be addressed.

  8. External validation of Adjuvant! Online breast cancer prognosis tool. Prioritising recommendations for improvement.

    David Hajage

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjuvant! Online is a web-based application designed to provide 10 years survival probability of patients with breast cancer. Several predictors have not been assessed in the original Adjuvant! Online study. We provide the validation of Adjuvant! Online algorithm on two breast cancer datasets, and we determined whether the accuracy of Adjuvant! Online is improved with other well-known prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The French data set is composed of 456 women with early breast cancer. The Dutch data set is composed of 295 women less than 52 years of age. Agreement between observation and Adjuvant! Online prediction was checked, and logistic models were performed to estimate the prognostic information added by risk factors to Adjuvant! Online prediction. RESULTS: Adjuvant! Online prediction was overall well-calibrated in the French data set but failed in some subgroups of such high grade and HER2 positive patients. HER2 status, Mitotic Index and Ki67 added significant information to Adjuvant! Online prediction. In the Dutch data set, the overall 10-year survival was overestimated by Adjuvant! Online, particularly in patients less than 40 years old. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant! Online needs to be updated to adjust overoptimistic results in young and high grade patients, and should consider new predictors such as Ki67, HER2 and Mitotic Index.

  9. Dynamics of virus shedding and antibody responses in influenza A virus-infected feral swine.

    Sun, Hailiang; Cunningham, Fred L; Harris, Jillian; Xu, Yifei; Long, Li-Ping; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Baroch, John A; Fioranelli, Paul; Lutman, Mark W; Li, Tao; Pedersen, Kerri; Schmit, Brandon S; Cooley, Jim; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-09-01

    Given their free-ranging habits, feral swine could serve as reservoirs or spatially dynamic 'mixing vessels' for influenza A virus (IAV). To better understand virus shedding patterns and antibody response dynamics in the context of IAV surveillance amongst feral swine, we used IAV of feral swine origin to perform infection experiments. The virus was highly infectious and transmissible in feral swine, and virus shedding patterns and antibody response dynamics were similar to those in domestic swine. In the virus-inoculated and sentinel groups, virus shedding lasted ≤ 6 and ≤ 9 days, respectively. Antibody titres in inoculated swine peaked at 1 : 840 on day 11 post-inoculation (p.i.), remained there until 21 days p.i. and dropped to nucleoprotein position 473. Using data from cell culture as a benchmark, sensitivity and specificity of a matrix gene-based quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method using nasal swab samples for detection of IAV in feral swine were 78.9 and 78.1 %, respectively. Using data from haemagglutination inhibition assays as a benchmark, sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection of IAV-specific antibody were 95.4 and 95.0 %, respectively. Serological surveillance from 2009 to 2014 showed that ∼7.58 % of feral swine in the USA were positive for IAV. Our findings confirm the susceptibility of IAV infection and the high transmission ability of IAV amongst feral swine, and also suggest the need for continued surveillance of IAVs in feral swine populations. PMID:26297148

  10. Innate immunity and adjuvants.

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-10-12

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection. PMID:21893536

  11. Longitudinal Study of Salmonella Dispersion and the Role of Environmental Contamination in Commercial Swine Production Systems▿

    Dorr, Paul M.; Tadesse, Daniel A.; Zewde, Bayleyegn Molla; Fry, Pamela; Thakur, Siddhartha; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of various environmental sources, such as truck-washing systems, waste-processing lagoons, and other sources, as potential contributors to the exposure and dissemination of Salmonella in commercial swine production systems. Four cohorts of nursery age swine herds which originated from distinct farm flows were selected. In addition, cross-sectional sampling of four truck wash stations selected based on the types of disinfectants and sources of water used for s...

  12. SECONDARY INFECTIONS IN SWINE FLU

    Duthade Mangala; Damle Ajit; Bhakare Jayshree; Bajaj.Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Swine influenza is respiratory disease of pigs ca used by type A influenza virus that causes regular outbr eak in pigs. Human to human transmission occurs. Some people develop severe respiratory symptoms and need ventilator. Patients can get secondary bacterial infections in the form of pneumonia if vi ral infections persist. Death of swine flu occurs d ue to secondary bacterial infections leading to bacter ial pneumonia...

  13. Swine Flu Threatens the World

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic spreads from Mexico to other countries at an alarming rate How serious is the swine flu? It is so sensitive that the White House had to reassure reporters that U.S. President Barack Obama is still in good health after visiting Mexico in mid-April. Besides the United States and Canada, swine flu cases have appeared in Europe and Asia. The world now faces a "public health emergency of

  14. ECONOMICS OF VARIABLE SWINE GROWTH

    Parsons, Jay R.; Hoag, Dana L.; Koontz, Stephen R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the economic impacts of swine growth variability. Different economic penalties are determined to be associated with over-finishing versus under-finishing an animal. Marketing decisions based on the pen average are determined to be insignificantly less than optimal for a case study data set of 350 swine. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the impact of increased growth and price variability.

  15. Interspecies interactions and potential Influenza A virus risk in small swine farms in Peru

    McCune Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent avian influenza epidemic in Asia and the H1N1 pandemic demonstrated that influenza A viruses pose a threat to global public health. The animal origins of the viruses confirmed the potential for interspecies transmission. Swine are hypothesized to be prime "mixing vessels" due to the dual receptivity of their trachea to human and avian strains. Additionally, avian and human influenza viruses have previously been isolated in swine. Therefore, understanding interspecies contact on smallholder swine farms and its potential role in the transmission of pathogens such as influenza virus is very important. Methods This qualitative study aimed to determine swine-associated interspecies contacts in two coastal areas of Peru. Direct observations were conducted at both small-scale confined and low-investment swine farms (n = 36 and in open areas where swine freely range during the day (n = 4. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders in swine farming. Results In both locations, the intermingling of swine and domestic birds was common. An unexpected contact with avian species was that swine were fed poultry mortality in 6/20 of the farms in Chancay. Human-swine contacts were common, with a higher frequency on the confined farms. Mixed farming of swine with chickens or ducks was observed in 36% of all farms. Human-avian interactions were less frequent overall. Use of adequate biosecurity and hygiene practices by farmers was suboptimal at both locations. Conclusions Close human-animal interaction, frequent interspecies contacts and suboptimal biosecurity and hygiene practices pose significant risks of interspecies influenza virus transmission. Farmers in small-scale swine production systems constitute a high-risk population and need to be recognized as key in preventing interspecies pathogen transfer. A two-pronged prevention approach, which offers educational activities for swine farmers about sound hygiene and

  16. 甲型H1N1流感病毒在人群中传播及防治%Swine-Origin Influenza A Type H1N1 Virus Epidemic and Its Control

    王杨; 袁慧; 董战玲; 许闽广; 陈国斌; 樊守艳; 王晗; 符史干

    2009-01-01

    猪流感(Swine Flu)是猪群中传播的动物疾病,对人类无传染性[1]。猪群的A型流感病毒5个亚型(H1N1,H1N2,H3N1,H3N2及H2N3)中H1N1,H3N2及H1N2在世界范围内猪群间传播广泛。含猪源序列A/H1N1新型流感病毒在一定规模的生猪间传播,经过不断积累变异后传播给人类,人体感染变异病毒后可在人群内传播,而人类的常见季节性流感病毒是在人群内传播过程中逐渐变异,两者病毒变异宿主不同。

  17. UPDATE ON SWINE DISEASE AND GENOMICS RESEARCH

    This review will summarize advances in swine genomics and how it has altered approaches for swine disease and vaccination research. The swine has been a major biomedical model species, for transplantation, heart disease, allergies and asthma, as well as normal neonatal development and reproductive p...

  18. Adjuvant Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    Chakra P Chaulagain

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no clear consensus on what type of adjuvant therapy should be used for patients with pancreatic cancer. Chemoradiation is the favored treatment modality by many in the United States while gemcitabine based chemotherapy is favored in Europe. Both of these approaches have been shown by large prospective, randomized trials to improve disease free intervals and in some studies overall survival. This year at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancer Symposium, the randomized phase III study presented by Uesaka et al. from Japan (Abstract #145 represents a newer paradigm of oral adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy in place of the traditional standard of care intravenous gemcitabine in terms of prolonging patients’ survival. Another study by Fan et al. (Abstract #269 examined the value of targeted therapy using erlotinib with adjuvant chemoradiation and chemotherapy. We present the summary of these two studies and discuss the potential impact on our clinical practice on this highly lethal cancer.

  19. Adjuvant chemotherapy and cancer cure

    The use of chemotherapy as an adjuvant to surgery and/or radiotherapy is well founded in experimental tumor systems and appears to be effective in patients in some circumstances. It is clear from both clinical and experimental studies that (1) the dose is important, (2) the earlier chemotherapy is started after primary therapy the better, and (3) combination chemotherapy may be more effective than single-agent treatment. The better the estimation of risk of recurrence, the better the assessment of the risk-benefit ratio with adjuvant therapy. Salvage therapy as well as relative risk of recurrence are considerations in the choice of patients to be treated. Finally, some evidence is presented to indicate that alkylating agents may not be necessary in combination regimens for adjuvant therapy if effective antimetabolite combinations are available

  20. Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis

    Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy

  1. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  2. Muramyl dipeptide-induced adjuvant arthritis.

    Nagao, S.; Tanaka, A.

    1980-01-01

    Muramyl dipeptide, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, induced adjuvant arthritis in WKA rats when injected in a water-in-oil emulsion prepared with Freund incomplete adjuvant (Difco), but not when emulsified with Drackeol and Arlacel A.

  3. A Review and Prospect on Herbicide Adjuvants

    2005-01-01

    The history, present status and future prospects of adjuvants application in herbicides were briefly reviewed. Adjuvants can be separated into two groups, activator adjuvants and utility adjuvants. The former directly enhances the efficacy of a herbicide through increasement of herbicide absorption, spreading, cuticular penetration, rainfastness and retention enhancement, and photodegradation of the herbicide can also be decreased. And the latter is utilized for improving application characteristics, behaviors and physical properties of herbicides and reducing or minimizing unwanted side effects on application.

  4. The repeated introduction of the H3N2 virus from human to swine during 1979-1993 in China.

    Zhu, Wenfei; Yang, Shuai; Dong, Libo; Yang, Lei; Tang, Jing; Zou, Xiaohui; Chen, Tao; Yang, Jing; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-07-01

    Limited data are available regarding the swine influenza viruses (SIVs) that circulated in Mainland China prior to the 1990s. Eleven H3N2 virus strains were isolated from swine populations from 1979 to 1992. To determine the origin and tendency of these SIVs, the phylogenetic and antigenic properties of these viruses were analyzed based on the whole genome sequenced and the HI titrations with post-infection ferret antisera against influenza A (H3N2) virus isolates of swine and human origin. The results revealed that these 11 SIVs originated from humans and were not maintained in swine populations, indicating the interspecies transmission from humans to pigs occurred frequently and independently throughout these periods. However, human H3N2 viruses might not have the ability to circulate in pig herds. PMID:25858119

  5. Does Adjuvant Radiotherapy Suppress Liver Regeneration After Partial Hepatectomy?

    Purpose: To analyze the influence of the adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) on the liver regeneration and liver function after partial hepatectomy (PH). Methods and Materials: Thirty-four patients who underwent PH for biliary tract cancer between October 2003 and July 2005 were reviewed. Hemihepatectomy was performed in 14 patients and less extensive surgery in 20. Of the patients, 19 patients had no adjuvant therapy (non-RT group) and 15 underwent adjuvant RT by a three-dimensional conformal technique (RT group). Radiation dose range was 40 to 50 Gy (median, 40 Gy). Liver volume on computed tomography and the results of liver function tests at 1, 4, 12, 24, and 52 weeks after PH were compared between the RT and non-RT groups. Results: The preoperative characteristics were identical for both groups. During the interval between Weeks 4 and 12 when adjuvant RT was delivered in the RT group, the increase in liver volume was significantly smaller in the RT group than non-RT group (22.9 ± 38.3cm3 and 81.5 ± 75.6cm3, respectively, p = 0.007). However, the final liver volume measured at 1 year after PH did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.878). Liver function tests were comparable for both groups. The resection extent and original liver volume was independent factors for final liver volume measured at 1 year after PH. Conclusions: In this study, adjuvant RT delayed the liver regeneration process after PH, but the volume difference between the two study groups became nonsignificant after 1 year. Adjuvant RT had no additional adverse effect on liver function after PH.

  6. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer.

    Watson, Adrienne L; Carlson, Daniel F; Largaespada, David A; Hackett, Perry B; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications. PMID:27242889

  7. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    Watson, Adrienne L.; Carlson, Daniel F.; Largaespada, David A.; Hackett, Perry B.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications.

  8. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    Adrienne L. Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications.

  9. Role of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the swine production chain

    Laura Ercoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC can cause severe clinical diseases in humans, such as haemorrhagic colitis (HC and haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS. Although ruminants, primarily cattle, have been suggested as typical reservoirs of STEC, many food products of other origins, including pork products, have been confirmed as vehicles for STEC transmission. Only in rare cases, pork consumption is associated with severe clinical symptoms caused by high pathogenic STEC strains. However, in these outbreaks, it is unknown whether the contamination of food products occurs during swine processing or via cross-contamination from foodstuffs of different sources. In swine, STEC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of oedema disease. In particular a Shiga toxin subtype, named stx2e, it is considered as a key factor involved in the damage of swine endothelial cells. On the contrary, stx2e-producing Escherichia coli has rarely been isolated in humans, and usually only from asymptomatic carriers or from patients with mild symptoms, such as uncomplicated diarrhoea. In fact, the presence of gene stx2e, encoding for stx2e, has rarely been reported in STEC strains that cause HUS. Moreover, stx2e-producing STEC isolated from humans and pigs were found to differ in serogroup, their virulence profile and interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. Because of the limited epidemiologic data of STEC in swine and the increasing role of non-O157 STEC in human illnesses, the relationship between swine STEC and human disease needs to be further investigated.

  10. Improving vaccine delivery using novel adjuvant systems.

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    Adjuvants have been common additions to vaccines to help facilitate vaccine delivery. With advancements in vaccine technology, several adjuvants which activate immune specific responses have emerged. Available data show these adjuvants elicit important immune responses in both healthy and immunocompromised populations, as well as the elderly. Guidelines for the use and licensure of vaccine adjuvants remain under discussion. However, there is a greater understanding of the innate and adaptive immune response, and the realization of the need for immune specific adjuvants appears to be growing. This is a focused review of four adjuvants currently in clinical trial development: ASO4, ASO2A, CPG 7907, and GM-CSF. The vaccines including these adjuvants are highly relevant today, and are expected to reduce the disease burden of cervical cancer, hepatitis B and malaria. PMID:18398303

  11. Controversies in the Adjuvant Treatment of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no universally accepted standard approach to treat patients with pancreatic cancer in the adjuvant setting. This controversy derives from several studies, each fraught with its own limitations. Standards of care also vary depending on which side of the Atlantic you are on: chemo-radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy is considered the optimal therapy in North America (GITSG, RTOG while chemotherapy alone is the current standard in Europe (ESPAC-1, CONKO. Whether gemcitabine is superior to 5-FU remains to be learnt from the ESPAC-3 study currently on-going in Europe. A number of important questions have yet to be fully addressed: • What is the absolute value of radiotherapy in this setting? • How should radiotherapy be delivered, if at all? • What should be the time to deliver of either or both therapeutic modalities in the adjuvant setting? • Are there any patients who can benefit from the combined modality? • What is the most appropriate chemotherapeutic agent(s to administer in the adjuvant setting? • Is there any role of integrating the novel/targeted agents, albeit the negative studies in the metastatic setting? • What are the new developments (such as vaccines, pancreas cancer stem cells, etc. in this area? The author summarizes the evolution of adjuvant therapy for resected pancreatic cancer and highlights the controversies that originate from several studies, each fraught with its own limitations.

  12. STATE OF THE ART: SWINE WASTE PRODUCTION AND PRETREATMENT PROCESSES

    A review of waste generation and pretreatment processes was compiled, expanded, and interpreted for the swine production industry. Typical swine units based upon waste management techniques were detailed as concrete slab facilities, slotted floorpit units, and swine drylot or pas...

  13. Epidemic Status of Swine Influenza Virus in China

    Kong, Weili; Ye, Jiahui; Guan, Shangsong; Liu, Jinhua; Pu, Juan

    2013-01-01

    As one of the most significant swine diseases, in recent years, swine influenza (SI) has had an immense impact on public health and has raised extensive public concerns in China. Swine are predisposed to both avian and human influenza virus infections, between that and/or swine influenza viruses, genetic reassortment could occur. This analysis aims at introducing the history of swine influenza virus, the serological epidemiology of swine influenza virus infection, the clinical details of swin...

  14. Adjuvant Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    Chakra P Chaulagain; Muhammad Wasif Saif; Goodman, Martin D.; John Ng

    2011-01-01

    There is no clear consensus on what type of adjuvant therapy should be used for patients with pancreatic cancer. Chemoradiation is the favored treatment modality by many in the United States while gemcitabine based chemotherapy is favored in Europe. Both of these approaches have been shown by large prospective, randomized trials to improve disease free intervals and in some studies overall survival. This year at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Gastrointestinal Cancer Symposiu...

  15. Detection of swine caliciviruses by indirect immunofluorescence.

    Wilder, F W

    1980-01-01

    The indirect immunofluorescence test is a rapid method for detecting the presence of vesicular exanthema of swine virus or San Miguel sea lion virus in cell culture. A serological relationship exists between vesicular exanthema of swine virus and San Miguel sea lion virus, as shown by the fluorescence-positive reactions between swine antisera to vesicular exanthema of swine virus A48 and San Miguel sea lion virus type 5 and cell cultures infected with San Miguel sea lion virus types 1, 2, 3, ...

  16. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma

    Sebastiano Buti; Melissa Bersanelli; Maddalena Donini; Andrea Ardizzoni

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to d...

  17. Swine Influenza in Sri Lanka

    Perera, Harsha K. K.; Wickramasinghe, Geethani; Cheung, Chung L; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Smith, David K.; Poon, Leo L M; Perera, Aluthgama K. C.; Ma, Siu K; Sunil-Chandra, Narapiti P.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. M.

    2013-01-01

    To study influenza viruses in pigs in Sri Lanka,we examined samples from pigs at slaughterhouses. Influenza (H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were prevalent during 2004–2005 and 2009–2012, respectively. Genetic and epidemiologic analyses of human and swine influenza viruses indicated 2 events of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus spillover from humans to pigs.

  18. Classical swine fever (CSF) marker vaccine - Trial I. Challenge studies in weaner pigs

    Uttenthal, Åse; Le Potier, M.F.; Romero, L.;

    2001-01-01

    , -10 or -7, and subsequently challenged at day 0. The challenge virus was CSFV 277, originating from a recent outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF) in Germany. In all groups, only 5 out of 10 pigs were challenged; the remaining 5 pigs served as vaccinated contact controls. Also, three control groups...

  19. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human–animal interface

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to sw...

  20. 9 CFR 93.506 - Declaration and other documents for swine.

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS... and address of the broker, the origin of the swine, the number, breed, species, and purpose of...

  1. Shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of dusts from swine confinement and grain facilities.

    Robert J Boissy

    Full Text Available Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance. The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70% at the phylum level, Clostridia (44% at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%. In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the

  2. A Promising Trigene Recombinant Human Adenovirus Vaccine Against Classical Swine Fever Virus.

    Li, Helin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Yanming

    2016-05-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) vaccine based on HAdV-5 had achieved an efficient protection in swine. Both classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E0 glycoprotein and E2 glycoprotein were the targets for neutralizing antibodies and related to immune protection against CSF. Interleukin-2 (IL2), as an adjuvant, also had been used in CSF vaccine research. In this study, coexpression of the CSFV E0, E2, and IL2 genes by HAdV-5 (rAdV-E0-E2-IL2) was constructed and immunized to evaluate its efficacy. Three expressed genes had been sequentially connected with foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (FMDV 2A). The vaccine was administered by intramuscular inoculation to CSFV-free pigs (10(8) TCID50) twice at triweekly intervals. No adverse clinical signs were observed in any of the pigs after vaccination. The vaccine induced strong humoral and cellular responses that led to complete protection against clinical signs of lethal CSFV infection, viremia, and shedding of challenge virus. The rAdV-E0-E2-IL2 is a promising, efficient, and safe marker vaccine candidate against CSFV. PMID:26918463

  3. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. PMID:25939913

  4. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  5. Advances in Swine biomedical Model Genomics

    This manuscript is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease pro...

  6. Advances in Swine Biomedical Model Genomics

    The swine has been a major biomedical model species, for transplantation, heart disease, allergies and asthma, as well as normal neonatal development and reproductive physiology. Swine have been used extensively for studies of infectious disease processes and analyses of preventative strategies, inc...

  7. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...

  8. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    2010-04-02

    ... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in the Federal Register on October 26, 2009 (74 FR 54928), inviting... and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 206 RIN 0580-AB06 Swine Contract Library AGENCY: Grain... (1999 Act) by establishing the Swine Contract Library (SCL). The statutory authority for the...

  9. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6 Section 166.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding...

  10. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... swine contract library will be made available to the public? GIPSA will summarize the information it...

  11. Novel Adjuvants and Immunomodulators for Veterinary Vaccines

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Fang, Yongxiang; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants are crucial for efficacy of vaccines, especially subunit and recombinant vaccines. Rational vaccine design, including knowledge-based and molecularly defined adjuvants tailored for directing and potentiating specific types of host immune responses towards the antigens included in the va...

  12. Additives in swine nutrition

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To attain better feed utilization, longer preservation, easier manipultion and higher production and better quality of food of animal orgin as the final goal, besides raw materials, feed mixes contain numerous pronutrients (additives, added to perform different effects, in a narrower sense, the term pronutrient implies heterogenous substances, which have no diverse effects and have to be efficient in the manner of use. Basically, all pronutrients have to reach the goal of keeping optimal animal health status and to increase production of food of animal origin without adverse and negative effects. The development of biotechnology had a great part in the appearance of natural alternatives which are able to fulfil and satisfy the high demands of highly productive animals, as well as those of the consumer lobby and environmental protection movements. Growth promoters based upon physiological mechanisms and production potential of the animal have an unquestionable adventage, not only because of the lack of residues in food of animal origin; but also because of their ecological safety and decrease of envirnomental pollution by undigested materials. Demand continues to grow for "all natural", non-pharmaceutical feed additives with growth enhancing effects in food animals. Special attention is paid to minerals (anorganic and organic sources, growth stimulators (antibiotics, probiotics prebiotics, substances for better feed utilization (enzymes, acidifers adsorbents.

  13. Adjuvants: Classification, Modus Operandi, and Licensing

    Apostólico, Juliana de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most efficient strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases. Although safer, subunit vaccines are poorly immunogenic and for this reason the use of adjuvants is strongly recommended. Since their discovery in the beginning of the 20th century, adjuvants have been used to improve immune responses that ultimately lead to protection against disease. The choice of the adjuvant is of utmost importance as it can stimulate protective immunity. Their mechanisms of action have now been revealed. Our increasing understanding of the immune system, and of correlates of protection, is helping in the development of new vaccine formulations for global infections. Nevertheless, few adjuvants are licensed for human vaccines and several formulations are now being evaluated in clinical trials. In this review, we briefly describe the most well known adjuvants used in experimental and clinical settings based on their main mechanisms of action and also highlight the requirements for licensing new vaccine formulations.

  14. Digestibilidade aparente e verdadeira do fósforo de alimentos de origem animal para suínos Apparent and true digestibility of phosphorus from animal origin feedstuffs for swines

    S. Bünzen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDAP e verdadeira (CDVP do fósforo de alimentos de origem animal. Foram utilizados 24 suínos, machos castrados, com média de peso de 25,0±3,0kg no período de crescimento e 24 suínos com média de peso de 60,0±5,0kg para o período de terminação. Os tratamentos foram resultantes de um fatorial de duas metodologias (coleta total de fezes e indicador fecal, duas fases (crescimento e terminação e oito dietas (seis alimentos de origem animal, uma ração referência e uma ração com baixo conteúdo de fósforo total para estimar as perdas de fósforo endógeno, com três repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre as metodologias ou entre as fases avaliadas (P>0,05. Os valores médios de CDAP e CDVP encontrados com suínos em crescimento e terminação foram, respectivamente, 61,7 e 62,0% para a farinha de carne e ossos com 35% de proteína bruta (PB; 62,3 e 62,9% para a farinha de carne e ossos com 41% de PB; 49,0 e 52,5% para a farinha de vísceras e penas; 72,3 e 90,8% para a farinha de penas; 85,5 e 88,5% para a farinha de peixe com 55% de PB; e 80,0 e 92,0% para o soro de leite em pó.The coefficients of apparent (CADP and true (CTDP digestibility of the phosphorus from animal origin feedstuffs were determined. Twenty-four barrows in growing phase with initial weight 25.0±3.0kg and the same barrows in finishing phase with initial weight 60.0±5.0kg were used. The treatments were made by a factorial of two methodologies (total collection of feces and fecal marker, two phases (growing and finishing, and eight diets (six animal origin feedstuffs, one reference diet, and one diet with low content of total phosphorus in order to estimate the losses of endogenous phosphorus, with three replicates by treatment. There was no difference between the methodologies or phases evaluated (P>0.05. The average of CADP and CTDP found in

  15. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: What is the concept?

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160Abstract: Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called “atypical infection”. These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.Keywords: swine flu, drug, vaccine, concept

  16. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Guo Huan-cheng; Shi Zi-xue; Sun Jin-fu; Li Su; Tu Chang-chun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inocula...

  17. The cholesterol system of the swine

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic system of adult female Large White swine. The content of this system and its relationships with both the external environment and between the different parts of the system were explained. The analysis of these results in terms of compared physiology showed that the structure of the cholesterol system was the same in man and in the swine. Consequently, the swine constitutes a good biological tool to study human cholesterol indirectly and to foresee the changes that might be induced in various physio-pathological cases. (author)

  18. Epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China

    Wang Z.Q.; Cui J

    2001-01-01

    Swine trichinellosis has been reported in 26 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities (P/A/M) of China. The prevalence rate in swine varied from 0.12 % to 34.2 % in five P/A/M, from 0.01 % to 0.0001 % in other P/A/M. The seroepidemiological survey of swine trichinellosis was carried out by ELISA in seven P/A/M, the seroprevalence varied from 0.09 % to 29.63 %. The prevalence of Thchinella infection in pork sold at the market was from 0.29 % to 5.6 % in four provinces. The transmission ...

  19. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  20. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    Nishtha Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition.

  1. Glucocorticosteroids: as Adjuvant Therapy for Bacterial Infections

    WONDIM MELKAM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs, synthetic analogues of the natural steroid hormones, are well known for their antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive properties in the periphery. They are widely and successfully used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and transplant rejection. Nowadays, GCs are claimed to have a beneficial role being as adjunct therapy in various infections. Different studies have been conducted to investigate their use as adjuvant therapy for different bacterial infection. This review, therefore, summarizes various bacterial infections for which glucocorticoids are reported to be used as adjuvant therapy, strategies for administration of glucocorticoids, and challenges of using glucocorticoids as adjuvant therapy.

  2. Endogenous oils derived from human adipocytes are potent adjuvants that promote IL-1 alpha-dependent inflammation.

    MOK, KENNETH; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by chronic inflammation associated with neutrophil and M1 macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. Based on the ability of oil-based adjuvants to induce immune responses, we hypothesized that endogenous oils derived from necrotic adipocytes may function as an immunological "danger signal." Here we show that endogenous oils of human origin are potent adjuvants, enhancing antibody response...

  3. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  4. Microscopy and image analysis based approaches for the species-specific identification of bovine and swine bone containing material

    Matteo Ottoboni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of image analysis measurements in combination with the official analytical method for the detection of constituents of animal origin in feedstuffs, in distinguishing between bovine and swine (bone containing material. Authentic samples of controlled origin containing bovine or swine meat and bone meals were analysed by the microscopic method, in accordance with the official analytical method. Sediment fractions of each sample were observed with a compound microscope at X40. A total of 362 bone fragment lacunae images were recorded and processed through image analysis software, deriving 30 geometric variables for each lacuna. Results indicated that not only were most variables significantly (P<0.001 different between bovine and swine samples, but also that two thirds of the same variables were bigger in bovine than in swine. This information, however, does not seem to be so effective in practice since bovine and swine features and measurements overlapped. It can be concluded that the microscopic method even when combined with image analysis does not fit all the requirements for accurately identifying prohibited ingredients of animal origin. A combined approach with other methods is therefore recommended.

  5. Characterization of nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria at a concentrated swine feeding operation in Wake County, North Carolina, 2009-2011

    Harden, Stephen L.; Rogers, Shane W.; Jahne, Michael A.; Shaffer, Carrie E.; Smith, Douglas G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected during October 2009–January 2011 to characterize nutrient and bacteria concentrations in stormwater runoff from agricultural fields that receive wastewater originating at a swine facility at North Carolina State University's Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory (LWRFL) in Wake County, North Carolina. The swine facility consists of six swine houses, two wastewater storage lagoons, and wastewater spray fields. The data-collection network consisted of 11 sampling sites, including 4 wastewater sites, 3 in-field runoff sites, and 4 stream sites. Continuous precipitation data were recorded with a raingage to document rainfall conditions during the study.

  6. Adjuvant Bisphosphonates for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    A summary of a meta-analysis of randomized trials of bisphosphonates as adjuvant therapy for women with early-stage breast cancer that shows the drugs can reduce the rate of disease recurrence in bone.

  7. Advances in Swine Biomedical Model Genomics

    Lunney, Joan K.

    2007-01-01

    This review is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease progression. The pig model allows for deliberately timed studies, imaging of internal vessels and organs using standard human technologies, and collection of repeated peripheral samples and, at kill, deta...

  8. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    Nishtha Singh; Sheetu Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Virendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric ...

  9. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  10. Adjuvant interferon treatment for melanoma.

    Agarwala, S S; Kirkwood, J M

    1998-08-01

    After decades of research, the adjuvant therapy of patients with melanoma has recently shown significant survival and relapse-free interval benefit for the intravenous and subcutaneous administration of maximally tolerable dosages of recombinant IFN alpha 2b in a trial conducted by the ECOG (E1684). Despite the toxicity of this therapy, retrospective analyses of its impact upon quality-of-life using Q-TWiST methods and cost-efficacy analyses all argue for the benefit and utility of this intervention, especially for node-positive patients with resectable melanoma at highest risk of relapse. A confirmatory trial has been completed and will mature in the spring of 1998. The impact of lower dosages of IFN, apparent transiently during and for a period of time following treatment has not been sustained with longer follow-up in a number of trials. Current approaches in Europe and North America focus upon refinement of dose and duration of treatment with IFN and their potential interactions with, and comparison with, active specific immunotherapy with vaccines. A recently emerging area of research is the patient with stage IIA melanoma and the potential role of an abbreviated high-dose regimen of IFN alpha in this patient subset. PMID:9759581

  11. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota. PMID:26414105

  12. Mutations in the classical swine fever virus NS4B protein affects virulence in swine

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of a severe, highly lethal disease of swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the NS4B protein of highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Inte...

  13. Mutations in classical swine fever virus NS4B affect virulence in swine

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a virus causing a severe disease in swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of NS4B in highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor like domain (TIR...

  14. Patterns of gene expression in swine macrophages infected with classical swine fever virus detected by microarray

    Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of swine that is characterized by fever, hemorrhage, leukopenia, abortion, and high mortality. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is classified as a Pestivirus, along with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Border Disease Virus...

  15. Vascularização arterial da região do nó sinoatrial em corações suínos: origem, distribuição e quantificação Arterial vascularization of the sinoatrial node in swine hearts: origin, distribution and quantification

    Ana P. Vidotti

    2008-02-01

    superfície de área (Sv foi de 182 e a superfície de área (S - mm² - foi de 64,3x10(6µm². A estimação da densidade numérica vascular (Nv(vasc, quantidade de vasos por unidade de volume (cm³, foi de 2,19 10-5 e o número total de vasos no órgão (N(vasc, estimado pelo método dissector físico em combinação com a estimativa do número de Euler (Xv, foi de 773,6832 x10-2. A elevada densidade vascular e do número total de vasos na região do nó sinoatrial de suínos sugere a existência de uma complexa e densa rede vascular perinodal, ratificando a importância deste marca-passo pelo seu suprimento sangüíneo.The sinoatrial node, for being topographically installed as the initial component of the conduction system, is responsible for the production of the nervous impulses, which determines the cardiac contraction. There have been made studies related to the node's morphology in order to know the origin, distribution and quantification of the vases in this tissue, however, in spite of the results and quantitative data of the nodal irrigation - arterial vascular conduct and arterial vascular density, at the nodal level - the literature is scarce. With this objective 27 SRD swine hearts, injected with colored resin for macroscopic analysis of the origin and distribution of ANSA (sinoatrial node artery, 3 others injected with watery solution of colloidal coal (dyed nanquim were used, to mark the route of the vases on the node level for stereological analysis. The atrial arteries originated as well from the right coronary artery as from the left one, with predominance of the first (66.66% and 33.33%, respectively. When originated from the right coronary artery, there existed the following branches: AADAM (right cranial medial atrial artery in 14 cases, AADAI (right cranial intermedial atrial artery in 2 cases, and AADAL (right cranial lateral atrial artery in 2 cases. In 9 cases (33.33% the following branches originated from the left coronary artery: 4 through

  16. Application of a radiometric ear assay for studies of adjuvant arthritis in rats

    A radioisotopic method, originally developed for measuring the cellular response in delayed hypersensitivity lesions in mice, has been evaluated in adjuvant arthritic rats. Focal accumulation of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-125I (125IUdR) at a site of antigen challenge (left pinna) was measured and expressed as increased radioactivity in the challenged (left) over the unchallenged (right) ear (L/R ear ratio). A significant negative correlation was observed between the 125IUdR ear ratios and subjective arthritic scores in established adjuvant disease. The results of this study support the utility of the 125IUdR ear assay to quantify cellular accumulation at a site of antigen challenge in adjuvant arthritic rats and possibly other antigenic systems in this species

  17. Review: Adjuvant effects of saponins on animal immune responses

    RAJPUT Zahid Iqbal; HU Song-hua; XIAO Chen-wen; ARIJO Abdullah G.

    2007-01-01

    Vaccines require optimal adjuvants including immunopotentiator and delivery systems to offer long term protection from infectious diseases in animals and man. Initially it was believed that adjuvants are responsible for promoting strong and sustainable antibody responses. Now it has been shown that adjuvants influence the isotype and avidity of antibody and also affect the properties of cell-mediated immunity. Mostly oil emulsions, lipopolysaccharides, polymers, saponins, liposomes, cytokines,ISCOMs (immunostimulating complexes), Freund's complete adjuvant, Freund's incomplete adjuvant, alums, bacterial toxins etc.,are common adjuvants under investigation. Saponin based adjuvants have the ability to stimulate the cell mediated immune system as well as to enhance antibody production and have the advantage that only a low dose is needed for adjuvant activity. In the present study the importance of adjuvants, their role and the effect of saponin in immune system is reviewed.

  18. Comparison of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by fusion proteins using the swine IgG heavy chain constant region or β-galactosidase as a carrier of immunogenic epitopes

    Previously, we demonstrated that a fusion protein (Gal-FMDV) consisting of β-galactosidase and an immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160), of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 protein induced protective immune responses in guinea pigs and swine. We now designed a new potential recombinant protein vaccine against FMDV in swine. The immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160) from the VP1 protein of serotype O FMDV, was fused to the carboxy terminus of a swine immunoglobulin G single heavy chain constant region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion protein (IgG-FMDV) was purified and emulsified with oil adjuvant. Vaccination twice at an interval of 3 weeks with the emulsified IgG-FMDV fusion protein induced an FMDV-specific spleen proliferative T-cell response in guinea pigs and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody in guinea pigs and swine. All of the immunized animals were efficiently protected against FMDV challenge. There was no significant difference between IgG-FMDV and Gal-FMDV in eliciting immunity after vaccination twice in swine. However, when evaluating the efficacy of a single inoculation of the fusion proteins, we found that IgG-FMDV could elicit a protective immune response in swine, while Gal-FMDV only elicited a weak neutralizing activity and could not protect the swine against FMDV challenge. Our results suggest that the IgG-FMDV fusion protein is a promising vaccine candidate for FMD in swine

  19. Novel Vaccine Against Mycoplasma Hyosynoviae: The Immunogenic Effect of Iscom-Based Vaccines in Swine

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Vinther Heydenreich, Annette; Riber, Ulla;

    Arthritis in swine is frequently caused by Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (Mhs). For the development of an effective vaccine we investigated the immunogenic effect of three vaccine preparations with the ISCOM adjuvant Posintro™ from Nordic Vaccine. A: formalin fixed whole-cells Mhs (300 µg/dose) mixed....... IFNγ in supernatants of whole-blood cultured with Mhs-antigen was used as a marker of cell-mediated immune response (CMI). All pigs secreted IFNγ after primary vaccination followed by an increased production after booster vaccination. The CMI response was highest with vaccine B when compared...... with Posintro, B: Deoxycholate extracted lipoproteins from Mhs organisms (DOC-antigen, 300 μg/dose) in Posintro and C: DOC-antigen (50 μg/dose) in Posintro. Each vaccine-group contained three pigs. Vaccinations (i.m.) were performed at 12 and 15 weeks of age. The development of specific IgG and secretion...

  20. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine....

  1. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine....

  2. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  3. Beyond antigens and adjuvants: formulating future vaccines.

    Moyer, Tyson J; Zmolek, Andrew C; Irvine, Darrell J

    2016-03-01

    The need to optimize vaccine potency while minimizing toxicity in healthy recipients has motivated studies of the formulation of vaccines to control how, when, and where antigens and adjuvants encounter immune cells and other cells/tissues following administration. An effective subunit vaccine must traffic to lymph nodes (LNs), activate both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, and persist for a sufficient time to promote a mature immune response. Here, we review approaches to tailor these three aspects of vaccine function through optimized formulations. Traditional vaccine adjuvants activate innate immune cells, promote cell-mediated transport of antigen to lymphoid tissues, and promote antigen retention in LNs. Recent studies using nanoparticles and other lymphatic-targeting strategies suggest that direct targeting of antigens and adjuvant compounds to LNs can also enhance vaccine potency without sacrificing safety. The use of formulations to regulate biodistribution and promote antigen and inflammatory cue co-uptake in immune cells may be important for next-generation molecular adjuvants. Finally, strategies to program vaccine kinetics through novel formulation and delivery strategies provide another means to enhance immune responses independent of the choice of adjuvant. These technologies offer the prospect of enhanced efficacy while maintaining high safety profiles necessary for successful vaccines. PMID:26928033

  4. Synthetic Self-Adjuvanting Glycopeptide Cancer Vaccines

    Payne, Richard; McDonald, David; Byrne, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Due to changes in glycosyltransferase expression during tumorigenesis, the glycoproteins of cancer cells often carry highly truncated carbohydrate chains compared to those on healthy cells. These glycans are known as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and are prime targets for use in vaccines for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Herein, we review the state-of-the-art in targeting the immune system towards tumor-associated glycopeptide antigens via synthetic self adjuvanting vaccines, in which the antigenic and adjuvanting moieties of the vaccines are present in the same molecule. The majority of the self-adjuvanting glycopeptide cancer vaccines reported to date employ antigens from mucin 1, a protein which is highly over-expressed and aberrantly glycosylated in many forms of cancer. The adjuvants used in these vaccines predominantly include lipopeptide- or lipoamino acid-based TLR2 agonists, although studies investigating stimulation of TLR9 and TLR4 are also discussed. Most of these adjuvants are highly lipophilic, and, upon conjugation to antigenic peptides, provide amphiphilic vaccine molecules. The amphiphilic nature of these vaccine constructs can lead to the formation of higher-order structures by vaccines in solution, which are likely to be important for their efficacy in vivo.

  5. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma.

    Buti, Sebastiano; Bersanelli, Melissa; Donini, Maddalena; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to describe the results of past and ongoing phase III clinical trials in this field. We explored all the systemic treatments, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted drugs while alternative approaches have also been described. Appropriate selection of patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapies remains a crucial dilemma. Although the international guidelines do not actually recommend any adjuvant treatment after radical surgery for RCC, no conclusions have yet been drawn pending the results of the promising ongoing clinical trials with the target therapies. The significant changes that these new drugs have made on advanced disease outcome could represent the key to innovation in terms of preventing recurrence, delaying relapse and prolonging survival after radical surgery for RCC. PMID:25992216

  6. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma

    Sebastiano Buti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to describe the results of past and ongoing phase III clinical trials in this field. We explored all the systemic treatments, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted drugs while alternative approaches have also been described. Appropriate selection of patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapies remains a crucial dilemma. Although the international guidelines do not actually recommend any adjuvant treatment after radical surgery for RCC, no conclusions have yet been drawn pending the results of the promising ongoing clinical trials with the target therapies. The significant changes that these new drugs have made on advanced disease outcome could represent the key to innovation in terms of preventing recurrence, delaying relapse and prolonging survival after radical surgery for RCC.

  7. Safety and efficacy of a novel live attenuated influenza vaccine against pandemic H1N1 in swine

    On June 11, 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the outbreaks caused by novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus had reached pandemic proportions. The pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) is the predominant influenza strain in the human population. It has also crossed the species barriers a...

  8. Completion of the swine genome will simplify the production of swine as a large animal biomedical model

    Walters Eric M; Wolf Eckhard; Whyte Jeffery J; Mao Jiude; Renner Simone; Nagashima Hiroshi; Kobayashi Eiji; Zhao Jianguo; Wells Kevin D; Critser John K; Riley Lela K; Prather Randall S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Anatomic and physiological similarities to the human make swine an excellent large animal model for human health and disease. Methods Cloning from a modified somatic cell, which can be determined in cells prior to making the animal, is the only method available for the production of targeted modifications in swine. Results Since some strains of swine are similar in size to humans, technologies that have been developed for swine can be readily adapted to humans and vice ver...

  9. Discovering up-regulated VEGF–C expression in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells by classical swine fever virus Shimen

    Ning, Pengbo; Zhang, Yanming; Guo, Kangkang; Chen, Ru; Liang, Wulong; Lin, Zhi; Li, Helin

    2014-01-01

    International audience Infection of domestic swine with the highly virulent Shimen strain of classical swine fever virus causes hemorrhagic lymphadenitis and diffuse hemorrhaging in infected swine. We analyzed patterns of gene expression for CSFV Shimen in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells (SUVECs). Transcription of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C gene (VEGF-C) and translation of the corresponding protein were significantly up-regulated in SUVECs. Our findings suggest ...

  10. Green propolis phenolic compounds act as vaccine adjuvants, improving humoral and cellular responses in mice inoculated with inactivated vaccines

    Geferson Fischer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants play an important role in vaccine formulations by increasing their immunogenicity. In this study, the phenolic compound-rich J fraction (JFR of a Brazilian green propolis methanolic extract stimulated cellular and humoral immune responses when co-administered with an inactivated vaccine against swine herpesvirus type 1 (SuHV-1. When compared to control vaccines that used aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, the use of 10 mg/dose of JFR significantly increased (p < 0.05 neutralizing antibody titres against SuHV-1, as well as the percentage of protected animals following SuHV-1 challenge (p < 0.01. Furthermore, addition of phenolic compounds potentiated the performance of the control vaccine, leading to increased cellular and humoral immune responses and enhanced protection of animals after SuHV-1 challenge (p < 0.05. Prenylated compounds such as Artepillin C that are found in large quantities in JFR are likely to be the substances that are responsible for the adjuvant activity.

  11. Ochratoxin A in swine blood used for evaluation of cereal handling procedures.

    Holmberg, T; Hagelberg, S; Lundeheim, N; Thafvelin, B; Hult, K

    1990-03-01

    In a survey during the years 1985, 1986 and 1987 the quality of Swedish feeding grain was followed by the analysis of ochratoxin A in blood collected from swine at slaughter. The swine herds sampled were selected on feed handling procedures used. From information about the feed used, risk parameters for ochratoxin A contamination were identified. The results showed annual variation in the content of ochratoxin A in the grain and that ochratoxin A increased during storage of grain, particularly in the harvest of 1985. Drying of the grain with forced ambient air was found to be inferior to the use of heated forced air. It was also noticed that more than 9% of the grain was contaminated with ochratoxin A regardless of handling. The pronounced difference between the samples studied was seen mainly as a function of geographical origin, with the island of Gotland having a much higher frequency of positive samples than the rest of Sweden. No correlation between ochratoxin A in swine feed and post mortem signs of infectious diseases in the swine herds was found. PMID:2363329

  12. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  13. Does lipophilicity per se induce adjuvant effects?

    Hansen, Jitka Stilund; Larsen, Søren Thor; Poulsen, Lars K.;

    2007-01-01

    ) or on lung function parameters. Thus, MP did not possess irritant or inflammatory properties, which may be a precursive stimulus for adjuvant effects. Second, mice were exposed to aerosols of MP, 6 or 323 mg/m3, for 1 h followed by a 20-min low-dose ovalbumin (OVA) inhalation. OVA only and OVA + Al......Anthopogenically introduced substances and pollutants are suspected to promote sensitization and development of allergic airway diseases, that is, acting as adjuvants. Lipophilicity may serve as an immunological warning signal, promoting adjuvant effects. Whether the lipophilicity of an inhaled...... compound induces immunomodulatory effects was investigated in a murine inhalation model with the highly lipophilic methyl palmitate (MP) as model substance. First, studies of acute effects following a 1-h exposure of up to 348 mg/m3 MP showed no effects on cell composition in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL...

  14. Mycophenolate mofetil as adjuvant in pemphigus vulgaris

    Sarma Nilendu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus vulgaris (PV is a life threatening autoimmune blistering disease of skin and mucous membranes. Advent of systemic steroids has greatly reduced the mortality rate. However, steroids and adjuvant immunosuppressive therapy are nowadays frequent contributory agents of morbidity and mortality of PV. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF has been reported to be an effective adjuvant to systemic steroids. It helps in increasing the immunosuppressive effect and minimizing the toxicities by steroid sparing effect. However, its efficacy in refractory cases of PV is not well documented. The lowest possible dose with satisfactory therapeutic efficacy and least side effects is known. We used MMF 1 g/day and systemic steroids in 3 Indian patients with pemphigus vulgaris who were resistant to systemic steroid monotherapy or combination treatment with azathioprine. In our experience, MMF offers an effective adjuvant with minimal side-effects in the treatment of resistant PV.

  15. [Adjuvant chemotherapy of adults soft tissue sarcomas].

    Bui-Nguyen, B; Italiano, A; Delva, F; Toulmond, M

    2010-06-01

    The main progress in the management of soft tissue sarcomas have been obtained in the field of local control. Although the main evolutive, vital, risk of these diseases is metastatic dissemination, efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy remains a controversial issue. Thus, adjuvant chemotherapy cannot be considered as a standard for any situation. The last results of clinical trials, meta-analysis and population studies are presented and discussed in this article. New therapeutic strategies are to be developed to prevent metastases in soft tissue sarcomas. This needs a better understanding of the biology of those tumors, of metastases risk factors and of the determinants of systemic therapies efficacy in these tumors. PMID:20547481

  16. History of ‘swine fever’ in Southern Africa

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2013-01-01

    The histories of the two swine fevers in southern Africa differ widely. Classical swine fever (hog cholera) has been known in the northern hemisphere since 1830 and it is probable that early cases of ‘swine fever’ in European settlers’ pigs in southern Africa were accepted to be that disease. It was only in 1921 that the first description of African swine fever as an entity different from classical swine fever was published after the disease had been studied in settlers’ pigs in Kenya. Shortl...

  17. Swine lagoon biogas utilization system

    Gettier, S.W.; Roberts, M. [Carroll`s Foods of Va., Inc., Waverly, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A project was conceived to design and build a system to recover methane from pig manure with covered anaerobic lagoon technology. Covered lagoon technology lends itself both to new lagoon construction and to retrofit designs on existing anaerobic lagoons. A two cell passive in-ground digester/lagoon system was designed for a 600 sow feeder pig farm. The digester was covered with a flexible fabric cover made of 30 mil XR-5. The biogas has 1,100 ppm hydrogen sulfide. For the first month of operation 473 cubic feet of biogas per hour has been recovered from the digester 24 hours per day. At this gas flow the engine turns an induction generator to produce 17.1 KW per hour. A little over 80% of the farm`s electrical needs are generated with methane from swine manure. On an annual basis there will be 150,000 KWh of electricity produced from 4.3 million cubic feet of biogas.

  18. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    2010-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  19. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    2010-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001 (c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  20. Effectiveness of spray adjuvants on reduction of spray drift

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Five new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  1. First comparison of adjuvant for trivalent inactivated Haemophilus parasuis serovars 4, 5 and 12 vaccines against Glässer's disease.

    Xue, Qiao; Zhao, Zhanqin; Liu, Huisheng; Chen, Kunpeng; Xue, Yun; Wang, Le

    2015-12-15

    Haemophilus parasuis has had a huge impact in the swine industry throughout the world. Inactivated bacterium for H. parasuis is a traditional vaccine that can elicit efficient protection against homologous challenges. The objective of this study was to screen for the adjuvant-enhanced immune effect of trivalent inactivated H. parasuis serovars 4, 5 and 12 (prevalent serovars in China) vaccines against Glässer's disease. The adjuvants of mineral oil, aluminum hydroxide, Montanide GEL 01 PR, Montanide IMS 1313N VG and Montanide ISA 760 VG were used to make emulsified inactivated H. parasuis serovars 4, 5 and 12, respectively. Safety, antibody titer and protective efficacy of these vaccines were examined separately in piglets, and the feasibility of microagglutination test for detecting antibody titer of H. parasuis was confirmed for the first time. Due to easy of injection, high safety, rapidly immune responses, high concentrations of antibody, and 100% of protective efficacy for piglets, Montanide GEL 01 PR adjuvant can provide more homologous serovar protection than other domestically developed inactivated vaccines and should be used as a candidate adjuvant. PMID:26672914

  2. Influenza exposure in United States feral swine populations

    Hall, J.S.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.; DeYoung, R.W.; Pabilonia, K.; Avery, M.L.; Sullivan, H.; Clark, L.; McLean, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Swine play an important role in the disease ecology of influenza. Having cellular receptors in common with birds and humans, swine provide opportunities for mixed infections and potential for genetic reassortment between avian, human, and porcine influenza. Feral swine populations are rapidly expanding in both numbers and range and are increasingly coming into contact with waterfowl, humans, and agricultural operations. In this study, over 875 feral swine were sampled from six states across the United States for serologic evidence of exposure to influenza. In Oklahoma, Florida, and Missouri, USA, no seropositive feral swine were detected. Seropositive swine were detected in California, Mississippi, and Texas, USA. Antibody prevalences in these states were 1% in Mississippi, 5% in California, and 14.4% in Texas. All seropositive swine were exposed to H3N2 subtype, the predominant subtype currently circulating in domestic swine. The only exceptions were in San Saba County, Texas, where of the 15 seropositive samples, four were positive for H1N1 and seven for both H1N1 and H3N2. In Texas, there was large geographical and temporal variation in antibody prevalence and no obvious connection to domestic swine operations. No evidence of exposure to avian influenza in feral swine was uncovered. From these results it is apparent that influenza in feral swine poses a risk primarily to swine production operations. However, because feral swine share habitat with waterfowl, prey on and scavenge dead and dying birds, are highly mobile, and are increasingly coming into contact with humans, the potential for these animals to become infected with avian or human influenza in addition to swine influenza is a distinct possibility. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  3. Advax-Adjuvanted Recombinant Protective Antigen Provides Protection against Inhalational Anthrax That Is Further Enhanced by Addition of Murabutide Adjuvant

    Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita; Tod J Merkel

    2014-01-01

    Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax a...

  4. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  5. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm man

  6. Analysis of denitrification in swine anaerobic lagoons

    Anaerobic lagoons are a common management practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very sophisticated. To get a better understanding of the processes which occur i...

  7. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Anaerobic lagoons are typically used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these anaerobic lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple in their physical, chemical, and biological processes, they are actually very sophisticated. Recent reports of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and h...

  8. Swine Influenza Viruses: a North American Perspective

    Influenza is a zoonotic viral disease that represents a health and economic threat to both humans and animals worldwide. Swine influenza was first recognized clinically in pigs in the Midwestern U.S. in 1918, coinciding with the human influenza pandemic known as the Spanish flu. Since that time swin...

  9. Swine MRSA isolates form robust biofilms

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Measures to prevent, control, or eliminate MRSA in swine is of considerable public health concern. Bacterial colonization ...

  10. New generation adjuvants--from empiricism to rational design.

    O'Hagan, Derek T; Fox, Christopher B

    2015-06-01

    Adjuvants are an essential component of modern vaccine development. Despite many decades of development, only a few types of adjuvants are currently included in vaccines approved for human use. In order to better understand the reasons that development of some adjuvants succeeded while many others failed, we discuss some of the common attributes of successful first generation adjuvants. Next, we evaluate current trends in the development of second generation adjuvants, including the potential advantages of rationally designed synthetic immune potentiators appropriately formulated. Finally, we discuss desirable attributes of next generation adjuvants. Throughout, we emphasize that the importance of formulation and analytical characterization in all aspects of vaccine adjuvant development is often underappreciated. We highlight the formulation factors that must be evaluated in order to optimize interactions between vaccine antigens, immune potentiators, and particulate formulations, and the resulting effects on safety, biological activity, manufacturability, and stability. PMID:26022561

  11. Spillback transmission of European H1N1 avian-like swine influenza viruses to turkeys: A strain-dependent possibility?

    Bonfante, Francesco; Fusaro, Alice; Tassoni, Luca; Patrono, Livia Victoria; Milani, Adelaide; Maniero, Silvia; Salviato, Annalisa; Terregino, Calogero

    2016-04-15

    In 1979, an avian influenza virus of the H1N1 subtype began to circulate in European swine herds, rapidly replacing classical swine H1N1 viruses. Spill-back transmissions to turkeys were recorded occasionally, but they might have been underreported due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection and the lack of specific surveillance. In our study, we evaluated the infectivity and transmissibility in turkeys of seven strains of H1N1 avian-like swine viruses isolated from 1979 to 2006, and compared them with their closest progenitor A/duck/Bavaria/1/77 (H1N1), to establish whether the adaptation to pigs has gradually decreased their fitness in turkeys. Our data indicate that the circulation of European H1N1 in pigs might have impaired the possibility of infecting turkeys. Nevertheless, the two swine-origin strains, which showed the ability to replicate and transmit in turkeys, possess typical swine-like genetic traits, not different from the rest of the tested isolates, suggesting replication of avian-like swine H1N1 viruses in turkeys as a strain-dependent polygenic feature. PMID:27016764

  12. Validation of a Real Time PCR for Classical Swine Fever Diagnosis

    Natanael Lamas Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The viral disease classical swine fever (CSF, caused by a Pestivirus, is one of the major causes of economic losses for pig farming. The aim of this work was to validate a RT-qPCR using Taqman for detection of CSF in swine tissues. The parameters for the validation followed the specifications of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE and the guide ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The analysis of the 5′NTR region of CSF virus was performed in 145 samples from 29 infected pigs and in 240 samples from 80 pigs originated in the Brazilian CSF-free zone. The tissues tested were spleen, kidney, blood, tonsils, and lymph nodes. Sequencing of the positive samples for 5′NTR region was performed to evaluate the specificity of the RT-qPCR. Tests performed for the RT-qPCR validation demonstrated that the PCR assay was efficient in detecting RNA from CSF virus in all materials from different tissues of infected animals. Furthermore, RNA from CSF virus was not detected in samples of swine originated from the Brazilian CSF-free zone. Hence, it is concluded that RT-qPCR can be used as a complementary diagnostic for CSF.

  13. Characterization of H1N1 Swine Influenza Viruses Circulating in Canadian Pigs in 2009▿

    Nfon, Charles K.; Berhane, Yohannes; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Zhang, Shunzhen; Handel, Katherine; Kehler, Helen; Labrecque, Olivia; Lewis, Nicola S.; Vincent, Amy L.; Copps, John; Alexandersen, Soren; Pasick, John

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1), of apparent swine origin, may have evolved in pigs unnoticed because of insufficient surveillance. Consequently, the need for surveillance of influenza viruses circulating in pigs has received added attention. In this study we characterized H1N1 viruses isolated from Canadian pigs in 2009. Isolates from May 2009 were comprised of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase (NA) genes of classical SIV origin in combination with the North American triple-reassortant internal...

  14. Source identification of airborne Escherichia coli of swine house surroundings using ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR.

    Duan, Huiyong; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Jianzhu; Zhang, Xingxiao; Qi, Chunhua; Gao, Jing; Wang, Yaling; Cai, Yumei; Miao, Zengmin; Yao, Meiling; Schlenker, Gerd

    2009-07-01

    Evidence is mounting that microorganisms originating from livestock impact the air quality of the animal houses themselves and the public in the surrounding neighborhoods. The aim of this study was to develop efficient bacterial source tracking capabilities to identify sources of Escherichia coli aerosol pollution caused by pigs. Airborne E. coli were isolated from indoor air, upwind air (10 and 50 m away) and downwind air samples (10, 50, 100, 200 and 400 m away) for five swine houses using six-stage Andersen microbial samplers and Reuter-Centrifugal samplers (RCS). E. coli strains from pig fecal samples were also collected simultaneously. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerize chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP-PCR) approaches were used to study the genetic variability and to determine the strain relationships among E. coli isolated from different sites in each swine house. Results showed that 35.1% (20/57) of the bacterial DNA fingerprints from the fecal isolates matched with the corresponding strains isolated from indoor and downwind air samples (similarity > or = 90%). E. coli strains from the indoor and downwind air samples were closely related to the E. coli strains isolated from feces, while those isolated from upwind air samples (swine house C) had low similarity (61-69%). Our results suggest that some strains isolated from downwind and indoor air originated in the swine feces. Effective hygienic measures should be taken in animal farms to prevent or minimize the downwind spread of microorganism aerosol. PMID:19349045

  15. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky;

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic...... potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds...

  16. The adjuvancy of silicones: dependency on compartmentalization.

    Klykken, P C; White, K L

    1996-01-01

    Studies have been conducted in mice (B6C3F1) and rats (Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344) to investigate the adjuvancy potential of silicone mammary gel and the low molecular weight silicone fluid, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4). Dependent on the experimental conditions employed, a divergent data profile emerges. If the antigen (bovine serum albumin, BSA) is emulsified with either the gel or the D4 prior to intramuscular immunization, an amplified anti-BSA IgG antibody response, as measured by multipoint ELISA methodology, is noted over the 8 week measurement period. In parallel studies, a variety of non-silicone personal care ingredients (lanolin, white mineral oil, isopropyl palmitate) were also capable of amplifying this humoral response relative to the non-adjuvant phosphate buffered saline control. These observations are consistent with the empirical knowledge that hydrophobic substances tend to augment immune responses. However, under conditions in which the antigen is not blended with the silicone prior to immunization, normal immune responses are noted. In short (10 day) and long (180 day) term gel implant studies, the optimal IgM and IgG antibody responses, as determined in the antibody forming cell assay, were equivalent between the gel implanted and control animals. Moreover, under similar exposure conditions, no adjuvancy was noted in the three Host Resistance models (B16F10 Melanoma, Listeria monocytogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) tested. Antibody forming cell studies conducted after 28 days of oral or inhalation exposure to D4 have also yielded responses similar to the non-silicone exposed vehicle controls. Collectively, these data suggest that in the absence of premixing the antigen with the silicone test material, there does not appear to be any silicone induced adjuvant response. PMID:8565549

  17. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    Lewis, Nicola S.; Russell, Colin A.; Langat, Pinky; Tavis K Anderson; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F.; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron AM; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigeni...

  18. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in pancreatic cancer

    Marta Herreros-Villanueva; Elizabeth Hijona; Angel Cosme; Luis Bujanda

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive human malignancies,ranking 4th among causes for cancer-related death in the Western world including the United States.Surgical resection offers the only chance of cure,but only 15 to 20 percent of cases are potentially resectable at presentation.Different studies demonstrate and confirm that advanced pancreatic cancer is among the most complex cancers to treat and that these tumors are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Currently there is no consensus around the world on what constitutes "standard"adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer.This controversy derives from several studies,each fraught with its own limitations.Standards of care also vary somewhat with regard to geography and economy,for instance chemo-radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy or vice versa is considered the optimal therapy in North America while chemotherapy alone is the current standard in Europe.Regardless of the efforts in adjuvant and neoadjuvant improved therapy,the major goal to combat pancreatic cancer is to find diagnostic markers,identifying the disease in a pre-metastatic stage and making a curative treatment accessible to more patients.In this review,authors examined the different therapy options for advanced pancreatic patients in recent years and the future directions in adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatments for these patients.

  19. Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy for gliomatosis cerebri

    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is characterized by a diffuse infiltration of tumor cells throughout CNS, however, few details are available about the chemotherapeutic effect on GC. The aim of this study was to investigate its clinical course and to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for GC. Between Jan. 1999 and Dec. 2004, 37 GC patients were diagnosed by biopsy and treated with radiotherapy in a single institution. To determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for GC, we retrospectively reviewed their clinical courses. The study cohort was divided into 2 groups, those with and without receiving post-radiotherapy adjuvant chemotherapy such as temozolomide or nitrosourea-based chemotherapy. Nineteen patients with adjuvant chemotherapy were assigned to the chemotreatment group and 18 with radiotherapy alone were assigned to the control group. Mean survival for chemotreatment group and control group were 24.2 and 13.1 months, respectively (p = 0.045). Time to progression for these groups were 16.0 and 6.0 months, respectively (p = 0.007). Overall review of the clinical course of patients with GC provided that early appearance of new contrast-enhancing lesions within 6 months from the initial diagnosis and higher histological grade were closely associated with poor survival (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008). Adjuvant chemotherapy following radiotherapy could prolong the survival in patients with GC. In addition, newly developed contrast-enhanced lesions on the follow-up MR images indicate the progression of GC

  20. Chitosan as an adjuvant for poliovaccine.

    Ghendon, Y; Markushin, S; Akopova, I; Koptiaeva, I; Krivtsov, G

    2011-05-01

    The use of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine is very important for eradicating poliomyelitis. However, this vaccine is not available readily in underdeveloped countries due to the high cost. Adjuvants can improve the immunogenicity of a vaccine and reduce the antigen dose required for vaccination, thus lowering the cost of the vaccine. Chitosan glutamate solution and a chitosan sulfate micro/nanoparticle suspension were tested as adjuvants for Imovax-inactivated poliovaccine and for inactivated monovalent poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 vaccines obtained by inactivation of the attenuated Sabin poliovirus strains. Inactivated vaccines admixed with either chitosan glutamate or chitosan sulfate micro/nanoparticles and administered to mice showed significantly enhanced immunogenicity to poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 strains compared to the respective vaccines administered without chitosan. Chitosan preparations increased the immunogenicity of 1:2 and 1:4 diluted inactivated Sabin strain preparations in mice 8- to 16-fold, so that the neutralizing antibody titers after vaccination with adjuvanted diluted vaccine were equal to those obtained after vaccination with undiluted vaccine administered without chitosan. Neutralizing antibodies could be detected in sera of rats vaccinated with undiluted, 1:10, and 1:100 diluted Imovax vaccine admixed with chitosan sulfate micro/nanoparticles, although in the control group, vaccination only with the undiluted vaccine resulted in antibody production. These results show that the chitosan glutamate solution and chitosan sulfate micro/nanoparticle suspension can significantly improve the immunogenicity of various poliovaccines, and reduce the effective antigen dose. PMID:21412793

  1. History of ‘swine fever’ in Southern Africa

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The histories of the two swine fevers in southern Africa differ widely. Classical swine fever (hog cholera has been known in the northern hemisphere since 1830 and it is probable that early cases of ‘swine fever’ in European settlers’ pigs in southern Africa were accepted to be that disease. It was only in 1921 that the first description of African swine fever as an entity different from classical swine fever was published after the disease had been studied in settlers’ pigs in Kenya. Shortly after that, reports of African swine fever in settlers’ pigs emerged from South Africa and Angola. In South Africa, the report related to pigs in the north-eastern part of the country. Previously (in 1905 or earlier a disease assumed to be classical swine fever caused high mortality among pigs in the Western Cape and was only eradicated in 1918. African swine fever was found over the following years to be endemic in most southern African countries. Classical swine fever, however, apart from an introduction with subsequent endemic establishment in Madagascar and a number of introductions into Mauritius, the last one in 2000, had apparently remained absent from the region until it was diagnosed in the Western and subsequently the Eastern Cape of South Africa in 2005. It was eradicated by 2007. The history of these diseases in the southern African region demonstrates their importance and their potential for spread over long distances, emphasising the need for improved management of both diseases wherever they occur.

  2. Expression of the classical swine fever E2 recombinant protein and examination of DNA-vaccine based on one subunit

    Full text: The aim of the work was to study the possibility of using the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) E2 (gp51-C55) recombinant protein expressed in E.coli in an immunologically active form and the creation of a DNA-vaccine model based on the gene. For minimizing the refolding problems of the recombinant protein one of two subunits of CSFV E2protein was chosen for production. This subunit has the domains A and D with the conservative epitopes some of which, in the domain A, induce synthesis of virus neutralizing antibodies. Viral RNA was isolated from the CSFV virulent strain Shi-Min, which was produced in a continuous swine kidney PK-15 cell culture (passage 37) Oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the Brescia (GeneBank, M31768) strain sequence Sn 2647-C2668 and Asn 3492-C3471. For additional RT-PCR controls the obtained fragment (846 n. p.) from isolates from CSF outbreak in Ukraine in 1994. It was shown that only the samples from the acute form of disease, wherever the amplicon sizes corresponded to the Shi-Min fragment, readily hybridized under this in stringency conditions. The subsequent sequence analysis of the fragment and the phylogenetic analyses with the use of sequences of various origin strains and isolates, placed the virus in group 1, subgroup 1.1, according to the classification suggested by D. Paton in 1995. For protein synthesis 3 constructions for plasmids expressing with the insert of CSFV E2 gene were created: CSFV-pET24a (+) -C as the individual form of the protein with the molecular mass (m.m.) 34 kD; CSFV-pGEX-2T - as fused with glutathion-S-tsansphesase, m.m. 59 kD and CSFV-pLY -C as fused with one subunit of γ-galactisidase, m.m. 107 kD. All 3 variants of the protein were synthesized as inclusion bodies with an expression level of 15-C20%. After optimizing the purification and refolding conditions, antigenic properties of the proteins were characterized in an indirect ELISA and immunoperoxidase test with homologous and

  3. A swine SINE (PRE-1 sequence) distribution in swine-related animal species and its phylogenetic analysis in swine genome.

    Yasue, H; Wada, Y

    1996-04-01

    The distribution of PRE-1 sequence (a swine SINE) among the animal species related to Sus scrofa, i.e. Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tayassu tajacu, was examined by dot-blot analysis using PRE-1 sequences as a probe. This revealed that Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tayassu tajacu contained PRE-1 sequences, amounts of which in their genomes are almost the same as that in the swine genome, indicating that these species separated after PRE-1 sequences proliferated to diversify in the genome. In order to estimate the time when the PRE-1 started to diversify in the swine genome, PRE-1 sequences were extracted from GenBank DNA database by homology analysis using the PRE-1 consensus sequence as a probe. The 22 PRE-1 sequences obtained were aligned and their phylogenetic relation was calculated by the neighbour-joining method. The result of the calculation combined with the mutation rate of the pseudogenes (r = 4.6 x 10(-9)) indicated that the PRE-1 sequence diversified at least 43.2 million years ago. Taken together, the period of time since the separation of the three species, Sus scrofa, Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tayassu tajacu, is currently estimated to be less than 43.2 million years. PMID:8856898

  4. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of swine with spontaneous influenza A infection in Brazil, 2009-2010

    Tatiane T.N. Watanabe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza (SI is caused by the type A swine influenza virus (SIV. It is a highly contagious disease with a rapid course and recovery. The major clinical signs and symptoms are cough, fever, anorexia and poor performance. The disease has been associated with other co-infections in many countries, but not in Brazil, where, however, the first outbreak has been reported in 2011. The main aim of this study was to characterize the histological features in association with the immunohistochemical (IHC results for influenza A (IA, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in lung samples from 60 pigs submitted to Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS, Brazil, during 2009-2010. All of these lung samples had changes characterized by interstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis, never observed previously in the evaluation of swine lungs in our laboratory routine. Pigs in this study had showed clinical signs of a respiratory infection. Swine samples originated from Rio Grande do Sul 31 (52%, Santa Catarina 14 (23%, Paraná 11 (18%, and Mato Grosso do Sul 4 (7%. Positive anti-IA IHC labelling was observed in 45% of the cases, which were associated with necrotizing bronchiolitis, atelectasis, purulent bronchopneumonia and hyperemia. Moreover, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar and bronchiolar polyp-like structures, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT hyperplasia and pleuritis were the significant features in negative anti-IA IHC, which were also associated with chronic lesions. There were only two cases with positive anti-PCV2 IHC and none to PRRSV. Therefore, SIV was the predominant infectious agent in the lung samples studied. The viral antigen is often absent due to the rapid progress of SI, which may explain the negative IHC results for IA (55%; therefore, IHC should be performed at the beginning of the disease. This study

  5. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm management and management information systems (MIS), (2) individual farm analysis, and (3) sow replacement optimization. As part of the study, a MIS on the personal computer named CHESS ( C omputerized H erd E valuati...

  6. Swine model of Haemophilus ducreyi infection.

    Hobbs, M M; San Mateo, L R; Orndorff, P E; Almond, G; Kawula, T H

    1995-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is a strict human pathogen that causes sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease. We infected domestic swine with H. ducreyi 35000, resulting in the development of cutaneous ulcers histologically resembling human chancroid lesions. Intraepidermal lesions progressed from pustules to ulcers containing polymorphonuclear leukocytes and were accompanied by a dermal inflammatory infiltrate containing T cells and macrophages. H. ducreyi was recovered from lesions up to 17 days a...

  7. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  8. Human Noroviruses in Swine and Cattle

    Mattison, Kirsten; Shukla, Anu; Cook, Angela; Pollari, Frank; Friendship, Robert; Kelton, David; Bidawid, Sabah; Farber, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the predominant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Strains of norovirus also exist that are uniquely associated with animals; their contribution to the incidence of human illness remains unclear. We tested animal fecal samples and identified GIII (bovine), GII.18 (swine), and GII.4 (human) norovirus sequences, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that GII.4-like strains can be present in livestock. In addition, we detected GII.4-like noroviral R...

  9. Adjuvant Therapy of Colon Cancer: Current Status and Future Developments

    Morse, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Options for the adjuvant therapy of resected stage III colon cancer have expanded beyond the previously well-accepted standard of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combined with leucovorin. The Xeloda in Adjuvant Colon Cancer Therapy (X-ACT) study confirmed that capecitabine (Xeloda) is at least as effective and is less toxic than a bolus 5-FU and leucovorin regimen for patients with stage III colon cancer. This study, in addition to National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) C-06, which...

  10. Establishment of swine interleukin-6 sandwich ELISA.

    Nuntaprasert, A; Mori, Y; Tsukiyama-Kohara, K; Kai, C

    2005-03-01

    We established a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for swine interleukin-6 (SwIL-6), which was applied for detection of SwIL-6 in vitro and in vivo. Anti-SwIL-6 rabbit- and goat-polyclonal antibodies, and monoclonal antibody (mAb) were prepared, conforming that all of the antibodies were reactive with recombinant SwIL-6 by Western blotting and indirect ELISA. A sandwich ELISA was developed using the mAb as a capture antibody and biotinylated goat-polyclonal antibody as a detection antibody. The detection limit of the sandwich ELISA for rSwIL-6 was 49pg/ml and did not show cross-reactivity with swine IL-1b, IL-4, IL-8, IL-18, IL-12, and IFN-g. Using the ELISA, SwIL-6 was detected in culture medium of the monocytes stimulated with PHA-P and PMA, and the plasma or the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. This ELISA for SwIL-6 may be useful for understanding the role of this cytokine in various swine diseases. PMID:15582688

  11. A Review on “Kapa Sura Kudineer”-A Siddha Formulary Prediction for Swine Flu

    Thillaivanan. S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Siddha medicine is one of the oldest medical systems in the world. This system is most commonly practicing in India especially in southern regions. Siddha medicines become popular nowadays because of various outbreaks of communicable and very infectious diseases like chikungunya, dengue, swine flu etc. These diseases of viral origin are very challenge to the modern world because of lack of ideal anti-viral therapy. Pandemic flu is different from ordinary flu because it’s a new flu virus that appears in humans and spreads very quickly from person to person worldwide. Because it’s a new virus, no one will have immunity to it and everyone could be at risk of catching it. This includes healthy adults as well as older people, young children and those with existing medical conditions. The polyherbal decoction Kapa Sura Kudineer (KSK is a well-known one in this series next to Nilavembu kudineer (NVK. This KSK is introduced for the prevention and the management of Swine flu. And the people of Tamil Nadu are very attentive about this Siddha drug KSK because to prevent and protect from the deadly life threatening disease, Swine flu. Here, an attempt has been made to review the explored ethno pharmacological activities of the ingredients of KSK to strengthen the scientific facts favoring this formulation.

  12. Use of Aeromonas as a process indicator during swine carcass dressing and cutting

    Palumbo, Samuel A.; Yu, Linda S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Using starch ampicillin agar, qualitative and quantitative determinations of Aeromonas spp. were made at several sites during swine carcass dressing and cutting. Aeromonas spp. were observed at all sites surveyed. Levels increased during shackling and passage through the first and middle polisher/washers, and significantly decreased during the singeing steps. Passage through the final polisher/washer caused a small increase in levels in Aeromonas spp. and these levels then remained constant during the rest of the carcass dressing operation. Aeromonas spp. were also isolated from the room where the carcasses were cut into wholesale cuts and cuts for further processing. Presumptive Aeromonas spp. cultures isolated from the different sites were confirmed as belonging to the genus Aeromonas and then speciated using the biochemical scheme of Joseph and Carnahan; 81% of the cultures were identified at A. hydrophila. Since most isolates were A. hydrophila, determination of the origin of isolates from different sites in the processing plant must await utilizing molecular biotyping techniques on the cultures. These results indicate the Aeromonas spp. occurs extensively in the swine dressing environment and thus represents a possible public health hazard and potential spoilage concern. Changes in cleaning and sanitizing of equipment may be necessary during swine carcass dressing and cutting to guard against this pathogen.

  13. [Recent advance in adjuvant therapy for breast cancer].

    Shimizu, Chikako; Watanabe, Toru

    2002-12-01

    Adjuvant systemic therapy has contributed to a significant improvement of disease-free and overall survival in addition to surgery and irradiation to the local disease. The adjuvant therapy to a patient is determined integrating the information on estimated risk of recurrence, benefit and harm of the therapy and the patient's value. In this review, the state of the art of adjuvant therapy is discussed from several aspects, such as interpretation and evaluation of risk, the best available evidences on adjuvant systemic therapy, the future direction of primary therapy for breast cancer, and patient-oriented decision making. PMID:12506467

  14. Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation Session 6: Vaccine & Adjuvant Formulation & Production 15-17 May 2013, Lausanne, Switzerland

    Fox, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    The Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation meeting aims to fill a critical gap in current vaccine development efforts by bringing together formulation scientists and immunologists to emphasize the importance of rational formulation design in order to optimize vaccine and adjuvant bioactivity, safety, and manufacturability. Session 6 on Vaccine and Adjuvant Formulation and Production provided three examples of this theme, with speakers emphasizing the need for extensive physicochemical characte...

  15. CpG ODN and ISCOMATRIX Adjuvant: A Synergistic Adjuvant Combination Inducing Strong T-Cell IFN-γ Responses

    Michael J. McCluskie; Weeratna, Risini D.; Evans, Dana M.; Shawn Makinen; Debbie Drane; Heather L. Davis

    2013-01-01

    For the induction of robust humoral and cellular immune responses, a strong rationale exists to use vaccine-adjuvant combinations possessing both immune modulatory and enhanced delivery capabilities. Herein, we evaluated the combination of 2 different adjuvants, a TLR9 agonist, composed of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG), and ISCOMATRIX adjuvant (ISCOMATRIX), composed of saponin, phospholipid, and cholesterol, which possesses both immunostim...

  16. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain ST398 is present in midwestern U.S. swine and swine workers.

    Tara C Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research has demonstrated that many swine and swine farmers in the Netherlands and Canada are colonized with MRSA. However, no studies to date have investigated carriage of MRSA among swine and swine farmers in the United States (U.S.. METHODS: We sampled the nares of 299 swine and 20 workers from two different production systems in Iowa and Illinois, comprising approximately 87,000 live animals. MRSA isolates were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using SmaI and EagI restriction enzymes, and by multi locus sequence typing (MLST. PCR was used to determine SCCmec type and presence of the pvl gene. RESULTS: In this pilot study, overall MRSA prevalence in swine was 49% (147/299 and 45% (9/20 in workers. The prevalence of MRSA carriage among production system A's swine varied by age, ranging from 36% (11/30 in adult swine to 100% (60/60 of animals aged 9 and 12 weeks. The prevalence among production system A's workers was 64% (9/14. MRSA was not isolated from production system B's swine or workers. Isolates examined were not typeable by PFGE when SmaI was used, but digestion with EagI revealed that the isolates were clonal and were not related to common human types in Iowa (USA100, USA300, and USA400. MLST documented that the isolates were ST398. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that colonization of swine by MRSA was very common on one swine production system in the midwestern U.S., suggesting that agricultural animals could become an important reservoir for this bacterium. MRSA strain ST398 was the only strain documented on this farm. Further studies are examining carriage rates on additional farms.

  17. Fertilizing cotton with recovered P from swine manure

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from liquid swine manure. Our objective was to compare P availability and leaching distribution in soils using the recovered P from swine wastewater (31% P2O5) compared with triple superphosphate (46% P2O5) and broiler litter (2.6% P...

  18. Effects of chemical amendments to swine manure on runoff quality

    Land-applied swine manure can be an environmental concern when runoff losses of manure constituents occur. The use of chemical amendments to mitigate these losses has been investigated for poultry litter, but materials such as swine manure have received less attention in this context, particularly ...

  19. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron AM; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, JS Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12217.001 PMID:27113719

  20. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine

    The emergence of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscores the importance of understanding how influenza A viruses evolve in swine on a global scale. To reveal the frequency, patterns and drivers of the spread of swine influenza virus globally, we conducted the largest phylogenetic analysis of swin...

  1. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam; Becher, Paul

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs.

  2. PREVALENCE OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE IN AN INTEGRATED SWINE OPERATION

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006 and to compare our isolates to other animal and human isolates. Isolation of C. difficile was performed u...

  3. Varied prevalence of Clostridium difficile in an integrated swine operation

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006 and to compare our isolates to other animal and human isolates. Preliminary results are based on 131 C. d...

  4. Classical Swine Fever Virus p7 protein is a viroporin involved in virulence in swine

    The non-structural protein p7 of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) is a hydrophobic polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 7 kDa. The protein contains two hydrophobic stretches of amino acids interrupted by a short charged segment that are predicted to form transmembrane helices and a cytos...

  5. Sumoylation of the Core Protein in Classical Swine Fever Virus is Essential for Virulence in swine

    The classical swine fever virus core protein makes up the nucleocapsid of the virus, and is serves both as a protective function for the viral RNA and a transcriptional regulator in the host cell. To identify host proteins that interact with the viral Core protein we utilized the yeast two-hybrid to...

  6. Patterns of Cellular Gene Expression in Swine Macrophages Infected with Highly Virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus Strain Brescia

    Experimental exposure of swine to highly virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) strain Brescia causes an invariably fatal disease of all infected animals by 8 to 14 days post-infection. Host mechanisms involved in this severe outcome of infection have not been clearly established. To understa...

  7. Adjuvant chemotherapy for soft tissue sarcoma.

    Casali, Paolo G

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is not standard treatment in soft tissue sarcoma (STS). However, when the risk of relapse is high, it is an option for shared decision making with the patient in conditions of uncertainty. This is because available evidence is conflicting, even if several randomized clinical trials have been performed for 4 decades and also have been pooled into meta-analyses. Indeed, available meta-analyses point to a benefit in the 5% to 10% range in terms of survival and distant relapse rate. Some local benefit also was suggested by some trials. Placing chemotherapy in the preoperative setting may help gain a local advantage in terms of the quality of surgical margins or decreased sequelae. This may be done within a personalized approach according to the clinical presentation. Attempts to personalize treatment on the basis of the variegated pathology and molecular biology of STS subgroups are ongoing as well, according to what is done in the medical treatment of advanced STS. Thus, decision making for adjuvant and neoadjuvant indications deserves personalization in clinical research and in clinical practice, taking profit from all multidisciplinary clinical skills available at a sarcoma reference center, though with a degree of subjectivity because of the limitations of available evidence. PMID:25993233

  8. Mucosal adjuvants to improve wildlife rabies vaccination.

    Fry, Tricia; Van Dalen, Kaci; Hurley, Jerome; Nash, Paul

    2012-10-01

    RABORAL V-RG(®)a is a recombinant vaccine used in oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs for wildlife in the United States. Vaccination rates for raccoons are substantially lower than vaccination rates for gray foxes and coyotes. Research suggests that the low viscosity of the oral vaccine may preclude animals from receiving an effective dose when biting into the vaccine bait delivery system. We evaluated the possibility of using two benign compounds, chitosan and N,N,N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC), to increase the viscosity of the vaccine and potentially act as adjuvants to improve the immune response in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Forty mildly sedated raccoons were orally vaccinated via needleless syringe with either RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), chitosan+RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), TMC+ RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), or no vaccine (n = 4), on day 0 and again on day 90. We collected sera every 2-4 wk for 4 mo and evaluated rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (rVNA). Raccoons were considered responders if rVNA titers were ≥ 0.1 IU/mL. Eleven of 12 raccoons vaccinated with TMC+RABORAL V-RG responded after one dose of vaccine, as did eight of 12 vaccinated with RABORAL V-RG, and three of 12 vaccinated with chitosan+ RABORAL V-RG. Our results suggest that the inclusion of an adjuvant, such as TMC, could increase vaccine efficacy to aid in controlling rabies virus spread in wildlife reservoirs. PMID:23060506

  9. Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Chemotherapy of Cervical Cancer.

    Mallmann, Peter; Mallmann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is indicated in patients who can tolerate the side effects of a chemotherapy and with preoperative presentation of one of the following clinical risk situations: bulky disease with a maximal tumor diameter of > 4 cm, suspicious lymph nodes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scan or endosonography, histopathologically confirmed lymph node metastasis, or histopathologically documented risk factors such as G3 and L1V1. A neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery should be performed with cisplatin at a dosage of > 25 mg/m2 per week and an application interval of < 14 days. The previously published data suggests an improved rate of complete resection and reduced incidences of positive lymph nodes and parametric infiltration. Accordingly, the percentage of patients in need for adjuvant radiochemotherapy after operation can be significantly reduced. Some studies demonstrated a prolongation of progression-free and overall survival. Following the previously published studies, adjuvant chemotherapy after operation or after radiochemotherapy has no significant effect on the overall survival and, following the current guidelines, should be avoided. PMID:27614740

  10. Adjuvant Bidirectional Chemotherapy Using an Intraperitoneal Port

    Paul H. Sugarbaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoreductive surgery (CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC have been established as treatment options for patients with peritoneal metastases or peritoneal mesothelioma. However, this novel treatment strategy remains associated with a large percentage of local-regional treatment failures. These treatment failures are attributed to the inadequacy of HIPEC to maintain a surgical complete response. Management strategies to supplement CRS and HIPEC are indicated. A simplified approach to the intraoperative placement of an intraperitoneal port for adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy (ABC was devised. Four different chemotherapy treatment plans were utilized depending upon the primary site of the malignancy. Thirty-one consecutive patients with an intraoperative placement of the intraperitoneal port were available for study. The incidence of adverse events that caused an early discontinuation of the bidirectional chemotherapy occurred in 75% of the 8 patients who had an incomplete cytoreduction and in 0% of patients who had a complete cytoreduction. All of the patients who had complete cytoreduction completed at least 5 of the scheduled 6 bidirectional chemotherapy treatments. Adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy is possible following a major cytoreductive surgical procedure using a simplified method of intraoperative intraperitoneal port placement.

  11. Vaxjo: A Web-Based Vaccine Adjuvant Database and Its Application for Analysis of Vaccine Adjuvants and Their Uses in Vaccine Development

    Samantha Sayers; Guerlain Ulysse; Zuoshuang Xiang; Yongqun He

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bi...

  12. Vaccine Adjuvants: from 1920 to 2015 and Beyond.

    Pasquale, Alberta Di; Preiss, Scott; Silva, Fernanda Tavares Da; Garçon, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The concept of stimulating the body's immune response is the basis underlying vaccination. Vaccines act by initiating the innate immune response and activating antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby inducing a protective adaptive immune response to a pathogen antigen. Adjuvants are substances added to vaccines to enhance the immunogenicity of highly purified antigens that have insufficient immunostimulatory capabilities, and have been used in human vaccines for more than 90 years. While early adjuvants (aluminum, oil-in-water emulsions) were used empirically, rapidly increasing knowledge on how the immune system interacts with pathogens means that there is increased understanding of the role of adjuvants and how the formulation of modern vaccines can be better tailored towards the desired clinical benefit. Continuing safety evaluation of licensed vaccines containing adjuvants/adjuvant systems suggests that their individual benefit-risk profile remains favorable. Adjuvants contribute to the initiation of the innate immune response induced by antigens; exemplified by inflammatory responses at the injection site, with mostly localized and short-lived effects. Activated effectors (such as APCs) then move to draining lymph nodes where they direct the type, magnitude and quality of the adaptive immune response. Thus, the right match of antigens and adjuvants can potentiate downstream adaptive immune responses, enabling the development of new efficacious vaccines. Many infectious diseases of worldwide significance are not currently preventable by vaccination. Adjuvants are the most advanced new technology in the search for new vaccines against challenging pathogens and for vulnerable populations that respond poorly to traditional vaccines. PMID:26343190

  13. Spray characteristics affected by physical properties of adjuvants

    Four drift adjuvants, Array, In-Place, Vector and Control, were tested and physical properties and spray spectrum parameters measured. Array had the highest conductivity, indicating a good potential for the electrostatic charging, and the highest shear viscosity. All adjuvants had very similar neut...

  14. Protein antigen adsorption to the DDA/TDB liposomal adjuvant

    Hamborg, Mette; Jorgensen, Lene; Bojsen, Anders Riber; Christensen, Dennis; Foged, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the nature of adjuvant-antigen interactions is important for the future design of efficient and safe subunit vaccines, but remains an analytical challenge. We studied the interactions between three model protein antigens and the clinically tested cationic liposomal adjuvant composed...

  15. In vitro interactions between macrophages and aluminum-containing adjuvants.

    Rimaniol, Anne-Cécile; Gras, Gabriel; Clayette, Pascal

    2007-09-17

    Intramuscular administration of aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines induces an infiltration of aluminum-containing macrophages between muscle fibers. In vitro stimulation of human monocyte-derived macrophages with aluminum hydroxide (AlOOH) induces similar intracellular crystalline inclusions as well as phenotypical and functional modifications. We compared in this study the ability of other adjuvants to exert similar changes in macrophages in vitro. All mineral salts, i.e. aluminic (AlOOH, AlPO(4)) and non-aluminic mineral adjuvants (CaPO(4), FePO(4)) but not emulsion were able to increase macrophages capacity to potentiate autologous memory T lymphocyte proliferation, while only aluminic adjuvants induced CD83 expression and increased CD86 on macrophages. All together, this suggests that aluminic and non-aluminic adjuvants exerted their immunoactivities by distinct mechanisms on macrophages. PMID:17689842

  16. Adjuvants in micro- to nanoscale: current state and future direction.

    Gupta, Ankur; Das, Soumen; Schanen, Brian; Seal, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants have been used in vaccines for over 70 years to promote long-lived and sterilizing immunity. Since then, various adjuvant systems were developed by combining nanotechnology with natural and/or synthetic immunomodulatory molecules. These systems are biocompatible, immunogenic, and possess higher antigen carrying capacity. This article showcases advancements made in the adjuvant systems formulations, their synthesis routes, and the improvement of these adjuvants have brought in response to combat against ongoing global health threats such as malaria, hepatitis C, universal influenza, and human immunodeficiency virus. This review also highlights the interaction of adjuvants with the delivery of antigens to cells and unfolds mechanism of actions. In addition, this review discusses the physicochemical factors responsible for the efficient interaction of nanoadjuvants with antigen receptors to develop more effective, less reactogenic, and multifunctional systems for the next generation vaccines. PMID:26053286

  17. Immune adjuvant activity of the olive, soybean and corn oils

    Ana Claudia Marinho da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, a large amount of substances has been used as immune adjuvant. The immune adjuvant effect of olive, soybean and corn oils in Swiss mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA plus aluminum hydroxide or emulsified in Marcol, soybean, olive or corn oils was evaluated through the OVA-specific antibodies determined by ELISA and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis. In this work the comparison of the intensity of the immune response was established by the Bayesian analysis. The adjuvant effect of the vegetable oils was shown to be more effective than aluminium hydroxide. Regarding to OVA-specific IgE synthesis, olive oil had the slowest adjuvant effect of the three vegetable oils. Accordingly, olive oil was the most convenient among the vegetable oils to be used as immune adjuvant, since it stimulated a higher production of OVA-specific Ig and lower levels of anti-OVA IgE.

  18. Vaxjo: A Web-Based Vaccine Adjuvant Database and Its Application for Analysis of Vaccine Adjuvants and Their Uses in Vaccine Development

    Samantha Sayers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bioinformatics scripts are developed and used to link vaccine adjuvants to different adjuvanted vaccines stored in the general VIOLIN vaccine database. Presently, 103 vaccine adjuvants have been curated in Vaxjo. Among these adjuvants, 98 have been used in 384 vaccines stored in VIOLIN against over 81 pathogens, cancers, or allergies. All these vaccine adjuvants are categorized and analyzed based on adjuvant types, pathogens used, and vaccine types. As a use case study of vaccine adjuvants in infectious disease vaccines, the adjuvants used in Brucella vaccines are specifically analyzed. A user-friendly web query and visualization interface is developed for interactive vaccine adjuvant search. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine adjuvants is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO in the Web Ontology Language (OWL format.

  19. The systemic nature of swine flu

    Takis Fotopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Today’s global crisis is not just a multidimensional crisis extending from the economic to the ecological fields and from the political to the social; it is also a serious biological crisis which is expressed with the dramatic worsening of the public health, as a result of its deadly embrace by the pharmaceutical TNCs and the planetary catastrophe brought about by the intensive agricultural system that accompanied the flourishing of neoliberal globalisation and the reproduction of consumer society all over the world. Factory animal farming in particular has delivered enormous growth in global meat production over the last three decades, with consumers persuaded to buy its cheap products with the same ease as they were getting the freely-offered loans of the financial boom, without asking any questions on how such consumption could be sustained or what the eventual consequences might be. It is, therefore, not surprising at all that the outbreak of swine flu in Mexico is linked to industrialised farming methods designed to provide cheap food for consumers.The multidimensional crisis and now the biological crisis provide ample evidence that what is good for the elites who control not only our way of living but our survival itself is far from good for us. Furthermore, the elites’ actions show why it is so imperative to build a massive movement for the establishment of a genuine democracy, an Inclusive Democracy, so that it is ourselves, rather than criminal elites interested only in making more money, who decide what our needs are and how best to meet them.; CHAPTERS: The record so far; Plot theories on the swine flu; Irrationalism in medical practice and research; The systemic character of the swine flu and of the measures taken against it; Conclusions

  20. Irreversible Electroporation in a Swine Lung Model

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and tissue effects of IRE in a swine lung model. Methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Nine anesthetized domestic swine underwent 15 percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion creations (6 with bipolar and 3 with 3–4 monopolar electrodes) under fluoroscopic guidance and with pancuronium neuromuscular blockade and EKG gating. IRE electrodes were placed into the central and middle third of the right mid and lower lobes in all animals. Postprocedure PA and lateral chest radiographs were obtained to evaluate for pneumothorax. Three animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks and six at 4 weeks. Animals underwent high-resolution CT scanning and PA and lateral radiographs 1 h before sacrifice. The treated lungs were removed en bloc, perfused with formalin, and sectioned. Gross pathologic and microscopic changes after standard hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed within the areas of IRE lesion creation. Results: No significant adverse events were identified. CT showed focal areas of spiculated high density ranging in greatest diameter from 1.1–2.2 cm. On gross inspection of the sectioned lung, focal areas of tan discoloration and increased density were palpated in the areas of IRE. Histological analysis revealed focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration that respected the boundaries of the interlobular septae. No pathological difference could be discerned between the 2- and 4-week time points. The bronchioles and blood vessels within the areas of IRE were intact and did not show signs of tissue injury. Conclusion: IRE creates focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage without creating damage to the bronchioles or blood vessels. Short-term safety in a swine model appears to be satisfactory.

  1. Advances in Swine Biomedical Model Genomics

    Joan K. Lunney

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease progression. The pig model allows for deliberately timed studies, imaging of internal vessels and organs using standard human technologies, and collection of repeated peripheral samples and, at kill, detailed mucosal tissues. The ability to use pigs from the same litter, or cloned or transgenic pigs, facilitates comparative analyses and genetic mapping. The availability of numerous well defined cell lines, representing a broad range of tissues, further facilitates testing of gene expression, drug susceptibility, etc. Thus the pig is an excellent biomedical model for humans. For genomic applications it is an asset that the pig genome has high sequence and chromosome structure homology with humans. With the swine genome sequence now well advanced there are improving genetic and proteomic tools for these comparative analyses. The review will discuss some of the genomic approaches used to probe these models. The review will highlight genomic studies of melanoma and of infectious disease resistance, discussing issues to consider in designing such studies. It will end with a short discussion of the potential for genomic approaches to develop new alternatives for control of the most economically important disease of pigs, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS, and the potential for applying knowledge gained with this virus for human viral infectious disease studies.

  2. Predicting the response of localised oesophageal cancer to neo-adjuvant chemoradiation

    Reynolds John

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete pathological response to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiation for oesophageal cancer is associated with favourable survival. However, such a benefit is seen in the minority. If one could identify, at diagnosis, those patients who were unlikely to respond unnecessary toxicity could be avoided and alternative treatment can be considered. The aim of this review was to highlight predictive markers currently assessed and evaluate their clinical utility. Methods A systematic search of Pubmed and Google Scholar was performed using the following keywords; "neo-adjuvant", "oesophageal", "trimodality", "chemotherapy", "radiotherapy", "chemoradiation" and "predict". The original manuscripts were sourced for further articles of relevance. Results Conventional indices including tumour stage and grade seem unable to predict histological response. Immuno-histochemical markers have been extensively studied, but none has made its way into routine clinical practice. Global gene expression from fresh pre-treatment tissue using cDNA microarray has only recently been assessed, but shows considerable promise. Molecular imaging using FDG-PET seems to be able to predict response after neo-adjuvant chemoradiation has finished, but there is a paucity of data when such imaging is performed earlier. Conclusion Currently there are no clinically useful predictors of response based on standard pathological assessment and immunohistochemistry. Genomics, proteomics and molecular imaging may hold promise.

  3. Histomorphometric comparison of the human, swine, and ovine collecting systems.

    Simões, Michele; de Souza, Diogo B; Gallo, Carla B M; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Costa, Waldemar S; Sampaio, Francisco J

    2016-07-01

    The ovine kidney has been recently determined to be a better model than the swine kidney for the study of collecting system healing after partial nephrectomy. However, there is no histological study comparing the collecting systems of these species. To compare human, swine, and ovine collecting systems using histomorphometry. The collecting systems of 10 kidneys from each species (human, swine, and ovine) were processed for histomorphometry. The thickness of the three layers (mucosal connective tissue, submucosal muscular, and adventitial connective tissue) were measured. The densities of smooth muscle fibers, elastic system fibers, and cells were also measured. Additionally, blood vessel density in the adventitial connective tissue was measured. Analysis of the collecting systems from the three species presented several differences. The adventitial connective tissue from the swine samples was thicker, with more blood vessels and smooth muscle fibers, compared with that from the human and ovine samples. Swine also had higher density of elastic fibers on the submucosal muscular layer. Ovine and human collecting systems shared several similar features, such as blood vessel and elastic fiber density in all layers and the density of cellular and muscular fibers in the submucosal muscular and adventitial connective tissue layers. The collecting system of the ovine kidney is more similar to that of the human kidney compared with that of the swine kidney. This may explain the differences between the healing mechanisms in swine and those in humans and sheep after partial nephrectomy. Anat Rec, 299:967-972, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27111677

  4. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  5. Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation Session 6: Vaccine &Adjuvant Formulation & Production 15-17 May 2013, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Fox, Christopher B

    2013-09-01

    The Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation meeting aims to fill a critical gap in current vaccine development efforts by bringing together formulation scientists and immunologists to emphasize the importance of rational formulation design in order to optimize vaccine and adjuvant bioactivity, safety, and manufacturability. Session 6 on Vaccine and Adjuvant Formulation and Production provided three examples of this theme, with speakers emphasizing the need for extensive physicochemical characterization of adjuvant-antigen interactions, the rational formulation design of a CD8+ T cell-inducing adjuvant based on immunological principles, and the development and production of a rabies vaccine by a developing country manufacturer. Throughout the session, the practical importance of sound formulation and manufacturing design accompanied by analytical characterization was highlighted. PMID:23787558

  6. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... by oral ranitidine 150 mg or placebo twice daily for 5 years. Adjuvant cytotoxic or radiation therapy was not given. An observer-blinded interim analysis performed after 40 months showed that there was no effect of ranitidine on overall survival, and the study was discontinued in accordance with the...... postoperative infectious complications (n = 170; HR 0.6 (95 per cent c.i. 0.4 to 0.9), P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis of patients who had a curative resection, including Dukes' stage, age, gender, tumour location, blood transfusion, postoperative infectious complications and treatment, ranitidine still had...

  7. Quadrantectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer

    The conservative treatment of early breast cancer always requires irradiation of residual mammary tissue. The preliminary results obtained in 45 early breast cancer patients, who received quadrantectomy plus axillary dissection, followed by radiation of residual breast are reported. Radiation was performed by the two opposed field technique. In some cases the residual breast tissue was compressed using a special accessory provided with the Theratron 780. In addition to the tumor dose of 50 GY, 10 GY boots was added to the surgical scar using 7 MeV electrons. The 6 patients with positive axillary nodes received 6 courses of adjuvant chemotherapy (CMF) after radiotherapy. All patients are currently alive and free of disease. The 64% (29 patients) were followed up for at least 5 years, and 36% (16 patients) for at least 3 years. Only 2 cases of local recurrence were encountered (4,4%). The esthetic result was satisfactory in all cases. No side effects due to treatment were noted

  8. Binding characteristics of swine erythrocyte insulin receptors

    Crossbred gilts had 8.8 +/- 1.1% maximum binding of [125I]insulin to insulin receptors on erythrocytes. The number of insulin-binding sites per cell was 137 +/- 19, with a binding affinity ranging from 7.4 X 10(7)M-1 to 11.2 X 10(7)M-1 and mean of 8.8 X 10(7)M-1. Pregnant sows had a significant increase in maximum binding due to an increase in number of receptor sites per cell. Lactating sows fed a high-fiber diet and a low-fiber diet did not develop a significant difference in maximum binding of insulin. Sows fed the low-fiber diet had a significantly higher number of binding sites and a significantly lower binding affinity than did sows fed a high-fiber diet. Receptor-binding affinity was lower in the low-fiber diet group than in cycling gilts, whereas data from sows fed the high-fiber diet did not differ from data for cycling gilts. Data from this study indicated that insulin receptors of swine erythrocytes have binding characteristics similar to those in other species. Pregnancy and diet will alter insulin receptor binding in swine

  9. A pig growth model for assessment of environmental footprint from swine operations: Effect of dietary energy and lysine

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Jørgensen, Henry; Kebreab, E

    In swine operations, greenhouse gas emissions are mostly from stored manure. Accurate prediction of manure composition is required to estimate environmental footprint from swine operations. Pig growth models are often used to optimize profitability of swine production facilities; however, their...

  10. Adjuvant radiation for vulvar carcinoma: improved local control

    Purpose: Local recurrence is a significant problem following primary surgery for advanced vulva carcinoma. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of adjuvant vulvar radiation on local control in high risk patients and the impact of local recurrence on overall survival. Methods and Materials: From 1980-1994, 62 patients with invasive vulva carcinoma and either positive or close (less 8 mm) margins of excision were retrospectively studied. Thirty-one patients were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy to the vulva and 31 patients were observed after surgery. Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to evaluate the effect of adjuvant radiation therapy on local recurrence and overall survival. Independent prognostic factors for local recurrence and survival were also assessed. Results: Local recurrence occurred in 58% of observed patients and 16% in patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy. Adjuvant radiation therapy significantly reduced local recurrence rates in both the close margin and positive margin groups (p = 0.036, p = 0.0048). On both univariate and multivariate analysis adjuvant radiation and margins of excision were significant prognostic predictors for local control. Significant determinants of actuarial survival included International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) stage, percentage of pathologically positive inguinal nodes and margins of excision. The positive margin observed group had a significantly poorer actuarial 5 year survival than the other groups (p = 0.0016) and adjuvant radiation significantly improved survival for this group. The 2 year actuarial survival after developing local recurrence was 25%. Local recurrence was a significant predictor for death from vulva carcinoma (risk ratio 3.54). Conclusion: Local recurrence is a common occurrence in high risk patients. In this study adjuvant radiation therapy significantly reduced local recurrence rates and

  11. Adjuvant Strategies for Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: Have We Made Progress?

    Suzanne Russo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Substantial controversy remains regarding the optimal adjuvant treatment for patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Despite improvements in radiation techniques, systemic therapies, and incorporation of targeted agents, the 5-year survival rates for early stage patients remains less than 25% and the optimal adjuvant treatment approach remains unclear. Here we summarize the data presented at the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium regarding controversial issues surrounding the role, timing, and selection of patients for adjuvant chemoradiation strategies following curative resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (Abstracts #301, #333, and #206.

  12. Presence of gastrointestinal parasites in swine and human of four swine production farms in Cundinamarca- Colombia

    Mendoza-Gómez, María F; Adriana Pulido-Villamarín; Angélica Barbosa-Buitrago; Moisés Aranda-Silva

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives. Determine the presence and the type of endoparasites with zoonotic potential in swine and human of two technified and two semi-technified farms in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materials and methods. Three serial samplings of feces were taken in a pen row within intervals of 15 days, in two technified and two semi-technified farms in different age groups distributed as follows: pregnant-sows, nursing-females, boars, weaners, suckling-piglets, and growing-pig....

  13. CpG ODN and ISCOMATRIX Adjuvant: A Synergistic Adjuvant Combination Inducing Strong T-Cell IFN-γ Responses

    Michael J. McCluskie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the induction of robust humoral and cellular immune responses, a strong rationale exists to use vaccine-adjuvant combinations possessing both immune modulatory and enhanced delivery capabilities. Herein, we evaluated the combination of 2 different adjuvants, a TLR9 agonist, composed of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG, and ISCOMATRIX adjuvant (ISCOMATRIX, composed of saponin, phospholipid, and cholesterol, which possesses both immunostimulatory and delivery properties. While both individual adjuvants have been shown effective in numerous preclinical and clinical studies, it is likely that for optimal adjuvant activity a combined adjuvant approach will be necessary. Herein, using three different antigens, namely, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, ovalbumin (OVA, and influenza A haemagglutinin antigen (HA, we show in mice that some adjuvant effects of CpG and ISCOMATRIX are further enhanced if they are used in combination. In particular, with all three antigens, IFN-γ levels were greatly increased with the CpG/ISCOMATRIX combination. The ability of the CpG/ISCOMATRIX combination to induce antitumor responses when administered with OVA following administration to mice of a highly metastatic OVA-secreting tumor cell line (B16-OVA melanoma was also demonstrated. Thus the CpG/ISCOMATRIX combination may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of novel or improved vaccines.

  14. 猪瘟活疫苗的品质提升研究%Study on Improving the Quality of Live Vaccines for Swine

    梁武; 何平有; 韩佳丽; 杨保收; 朱秀同

    2015-01-01

    Applied the modified stabliliser with rabbit origin swine fever virus or tissue culture origin swine fever virus on lyophilisation tests to improving the quality of the live vaccine for swine, 2 different swine fever live vaccines had been trial produced, all shape and properties and dissolution characters were passed the test. Placing these vaccine in room-temperature (RT) for 2 days, and then reconstitute it in RT for 4h, the titers were changed insignificantly and passed all procedure standards.%为了提高猪瘟活疫苗的产品质量,本研究采用改良保护剂分别与猪瘟组织毒和猪瘟细胞毒进行冻干试验,成功试制2种猪瘟活疫苗。试制的2种猪瘟活疫苗,性状和溶解情况良好,室温保存2d和溶解后室温放置4h对产品效价变化不明显,均达到规程标准要求。

  15. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer.

    Ejlertsen, Bent

    2016-05-01

    these CMF regimens has not been compared within the context of a randomised trial. Shifting from the 77B's classic CMF regimen to the 82B four-weekly IV regimen or the 89B three-weekly IV regimen was associated with a 30% increased risk of a DFS event in a multivariate analysis of a population-based cohort study. Furthermore, the four-weekly regimen used in 82B was associated with a 40% increase in mortality. The strengths of the design include identical selection criteria, uniform and prospective registration of treatment, tumour and patient characteristics. Caution is still required due to the non-experimental design of the comparison. Another finding was a substantial difference in the risk of amenorrhoea; and while 15% of patients aged 40 or younger in 77B had regular menses throughout chemotherapy, the corresponding percentage was 37 in 82B and 47 in 89B. The DBCG in collaboration with a Swedish and a Dutch centre participating in the DBCG trial 89B compared CMF with ovarian ablation in premenopausal high-risk breast cancer patients with ER-positive tumours. No significant differences were found in DFS or OS in the preplanned analysis, suggesting that the benefits of CMF may, at least in part, be explained by ovarian suppression in premenopausal patients with ER-positive tumours. However, these results are not clinically useful by themselves as other chemotherapy regimens have been more efficacious, and knowledge is still lacking regarding the benefits from adding ovarian suppression to chemotherapy plus tamoxifen. The results from the DBCG 77B and 82C are in accordance with other large adjuvant trials and the EBCTCG meta-analyses. The benefits obtained with any individual anticancer drug are largely determined by the cancer (somatic) genome; and by being a molecular target of anthracyclines, TOP2A aberrations could obviously be associated with cancer drug benefits. In the DBCG 89D, a significant heterogeneity was observed between a beneficial effect on DFS and OS

  17. Genetic determinants of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Sinclair swine.

    Blangero, J; Tissot, R. G.; Beattie, C W; Amoss, M S

    1996-01-01

    The role of genetic factors involved in the determination of risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in humans remains unclear owing to genetic heterogeneity and reliance on simplistic models of inheritance. Here, we report a statistical genetic analysis of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Sinclair swine (SSCM), a unique animal model for human CMM. Using complex segregation analysis a two-locus model involving an unknown major locus and a second locus that lies within or close to the swine ...

  18. SWINE MANURE SOLIDS SEPARATION AND THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO HEAVY OIL

    Shuangning Xiu; Yuanhui Zhang; Abolghasem Shahbazi

    2009-01-01

    Separation of solids from liquid swine manure and subsequent thermo-chemical conversion (TCC) of the solids fraction into oil is one way of reducing the waste strength and odor emission. Such processing also provides a potential means of producing renewable energy from animal wastes. Gravity settling and mechanical separation techniques, by means of a centrifuge and belt press, were used to remove the solids from liquid swine manure. The solid fractions from the above separation processes w...

  19. Interaction between mycotoxins and causative agents of swine infective diseases

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.; Došen Radoslav Đ.; Stojanov Igor M.; Pušić Ivan M.; Živkov-Baloš Milica M.; Ratajac Radomir D.

    2011-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can contaminate animal feeds at all stages of food production chain. Consumption of feed contaminated with mycotoxins may result in immunosuppression, which represents a predisposing factor for occurence of infectious diseases in livestock. The influence on immune system is of special interest in swine industry. The technology on swine farms demands frequent vaccinations, which may be a problem in the case of immunocompromised animals. ...

  20. Effect of mycotoxins on swine in immune responses

    Fornalés Pallàs, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Póster Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi, hazardous to human and animal health. Their effect has been mostly studied in medium or half doses. It has been stated that, at lower, subclinical doses, mycotoxins may alter immune response, thus predisposing the appearance of diseases. Swine are a good model for studying the effect of mycotoxins to extrapolate to humans. This review is focused on the effect of most common mycotoxins on Swine immune response.

  1. Alternative feedstuffs for swine in Colombia: what are our options?

    Jorge H Agudelo Trujillo

    2009-01-01

    Both the increasing demand of grains for food and the recent ethanol crisis have an economic impact on swine producers in many countries, including Colombia. The continuous increase in grain and corn prices push swine nutritionists everywhere to search for alternative energy feedstuffs in order to provide adequate feed to pigs. Colombia, where a variety of crops are grown, lacks effective alternative feedstuffs to replace corn, which is widely used as the main energy ingredient in common anim...

  2. What every Hepatologist should Know about Swine Flu?

    Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

    2009-01-01

    As world is witnessing ever fastest growing pandemic, physicians with various specialties should adopt themselves to the new situation (1). Global death toll of swine flu by November 15, 2009, has raised to 6750. Many of those who died or were hospitalized suffered from comorbid conditions which increased either the severity or the risk of acquiring the disease (2). Swine flu may change the course of many chronic diseases. Thus, all physicians in different disciplines should realize and consi...

  3. Cognitive function after adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer

    Debess, Jeanne; Riis, Jens Østergaard; Engebjerg, Malene Cramer;

    2010-01-01

    start of adjuvant treatment and after 6 months by neuropsychological tests and questionnaires to evaluate cognitive function, quality of life and psychological distress. Neuropsychological tests did not reveal any differences in cognitive function between breast cancer patients after chemotherapy and......The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive function in patients with early breast cancer before and after adjuvant chemotherapy or 6 months of tamoxifen. We performed a population-based study in the county of North Jutland, Denmark, including 120 women aged <60 years who received adjuvant...... chemotherapy with seven cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and fluoruracil or adjuvant tamoxifen for 6 months for early breast cancer from 2004 to 2006. They were compared with an aged-matched group of 208 women without previous cancer selected randomly from the same population. Data were collected before...

  4. Assay of florfenicol in swine feed: interlaboratory study.

    Hayes, John M; Gilewicz, Rosalia; Freehauf, Keith; Fetter, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Nuflor (florfenicol) Premix for Swine was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for control of swine respiratory disease (SRD). A simple method for the assay of florfenicol in Type C medicated swine feeds was recently evaluated as part of a 4-laboratory study. Florfenicol is extracted from ground feed with acetonitrile-water by shaking and sonication. An Envi-Carb solid-phase extraction cartridge is used to clean up the extract, retaining matrix interferences while allowing florfenicol to elute. The collected eluent is diluted and injected into a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic system. Samples are quantitated by external standard analysis versus multilevel calibration solutions. The procedure is suitable for the quantification of swine feeds in mash or pellet form medicated with 100-300 mg/kg florfenicol. The interlaboratory study was conducted according to Guidance 136 issued by the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine. The feeds used to evaluate method performance represented different feed compositions (starter and finisher) and manufacturers. The sponsor and 3 independent laboratories obtained mean recoveries (+/-SD) from fortified swine feeds of 100.7% (+/-2.0%), 99.6% (+/-2.8%), 98.8% (+/-1.4%), and 99.3% (+/-1.7%), respectively. Excellent agreement of the results of the assay of blind samples of commercial swine mash and pelleted feeds between laboratories demonstrates that the method is rugged and reproducible. PMID:19382592

  5. Advances in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research and its mechanism

    He, Peng; Zou, Yening; Hu, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, hundreds of materials have been tried as adjuvant; however, only aluminum-based adjuvants continue to be used widely in the world. Aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate and alum constitute the main forms of aluminum used as adjuvants. Among these, aluminum hydroxide is the most commonly used chemical as adjuvant. In spite of its wide spread use, surprisingly, the mechanism of how aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants exert their beneficial effects is still not fully und...

  6. Learning impairment in honey bees caused by agricultural spray adjuvants.

    Timothy J Ciarlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spray adjuvants are often applied to crops in conjunction with agricultural pesticides in order to boost the efficacy of the active ingredient(s. The adjuvants themselves are largely assumed to be biologically inert and are therefore subject to minimal scrutiny and toxicological testing by regulatory agencies. Honey bees are exposed to a wide array of pesticides as they conduct normal foraging operations, meaning that they are likely exposed to spray adjuvants as well. It was previously unknown whether these agrochemicals have any deleterious effects on honey bee behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An improved, automated version of the proboscis extension reflex (PER assay with a high degree of trial-to-trial reproducibility was used to measure the olfactory learning ability of honey bees treated orally with sublethal doses of the most widely used spray adjuvants on almonds in the Central Valley of California. Three different adjuvant classes (nonionic surfactants, crop oil concentrates, and organosilicone surfactants were investigated in this study. Learning was impaired after ingestion of 20 µg organosilicone surfactant, indicating harmful effects on honey bees caused by agrochemicals previously believed to be innocuous. Organosilicones were more active than the nonionic adjuvants, while the crop oil concentrates were inactive. Ingestion was required for the tested adjuvant to have an effect on learning, as exposure via antennal contact only induced no level of impairment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A decrease in percent conditioned response after ingestion of organosilicone surfactants has been demonstrated here for the first time. Olfactory learning is important for foraging honey bees because it allows them to exploit the most productive floral resources in an area at any given time. Impairment of this learning ability may have serious implications for foraging efficiency at the colony level, as well as potentially many

  7. Experimental study on Cervi Cornu on Adjuvant Arthritis in rats

    Ji-Won, Shin; Jai-Young, Park; Hee-Soo,Park

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of Cervi Cornu on Adjuvant Athritis in rats, the edema inhibit rate, the anaJgesic effects, the number of WBC, RA facter, Platelet, the quantity of CRP, total protein, albumin and globuline in the blood serum were measured in the arthritis part. Results: The results obtained as fonows ; 1. After arthritis of Sprague dawley(SD) rats was induced by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant for 2 weeks, any treatment was not for Control group, acupunctured for Tr...

  8. Second malignancies after breast cancer: The impact of adjuvant therapy

    Dong, Chunhui; Chen, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) are potentially life-threatening late sequelae of the adjuvant therapy for breast cancer (BC). The increased risk of SMNs is associated with adjuvant chemotherapy (development of secondary acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome) and hormonal therapy (risk of uterine cancer secondary to tamoxifen treatment). Previous studies have demonstrated an increased risk of SMNs associated with alkylating agents, topoisomerase-II inhibitors, granulocyte-stim...

  9. Engineering of an Inhalable DDA/TDB Liposomal Adjuvant

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Yang, Mingshi; Mulvad, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB).......The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB)....

  10. Patient adherence to aromatase inhibitor treatment in the adjuvant setting

    Verma, S.; Madarnas, Y.; Sehdev, S.; Martin, G; Bajcar, J.

    2011-01-01

    Improvements in adjuvant systemic therapy and detection of early disease have resulted in a decline of breast cancer death rates across all patient age groups in Canada. Non-adherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy in the setting of early breast cancer may significantly affect patient outcome. Factors associated with medication adherence are complex and may be patient-related, therapy-related, and health care provider–related. To date, there is a gap in the literature concerning a comprehensive...

  11. Survey of quality of swine feed mixes

    Mašić Zoran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analyses of the chemical composition of 455 samples, microbiological analysis of 412 samples, and mucotoxicological analyses of 212 samples of feed mixes for different categories of swine which arrived for control at authorized laboratories from the territory of the Republic of Serbia during the period from 2000 until 2001. The analyses of 455 swine feed mix samples showed that as many as 185 feed mixes do not meet the quality condition on protein content envisaged by legal regulations, and the highest discrepancy was determined in feed mixes for piglets. Analyses of Ca, P and NaCl contents showed that the mixes in a large number of cases contain insufficient quantities, and in a considerable number even quantities which are not permitted. Analyses of the contents of certain microelements showed that mixes contain insufficient quantities in a large number of cases, especially of copper, manganese and zinc. The number of saprophytic bacteria greatly varied depending on the type of feed mix but all examined samples contained a permitted number of saprophytic bacteria. These analyses most often isolated Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., coliform bacteries, and Micrococcus spp.. Most examined samples contained a permitted number of clostridia, and a smaller number of samples mostly for piglets, showed an impermissible number of clostridia. The quantity of mold fungi in mixes was significantly higher in mixes for young animals, and the determination of fungi most frequently resulted in the isolation of Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Mucor spp.. The mucotoxin analysis of 212 feed mixes showed that only 30.2% were within permitted levels, and the differences between the mixes for young and adult animals were not significant. The mucotoxins most often present were zearalenon and ochratoxin, and all mixes in which aflatoxin and trychotecenes were identified contained these toxins in quantities

  12. Adjuvant therapy for ampullary carcinomas: The Mayo Clinic experience

    Purpose: To determine the effects of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 125 patients who underwent definitive surgery for carcinomas involving the ampulla of Vater between April 1977 and February 2005 and who survived more than 50 days after surgery. Twenty-nine of the patients also received adjuvant radiotherapy (median dose, 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions) with concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Adverse prognostic factors were investigated, and overall survival (OS) and local and distant failure were estimated. Results: Adverse prognostic factors for decreased OS by univariate analysis included lymph node (LN) involvement, locally advanced tumors (T3/T4), and poor histologic grade. By multivariate analysis, positive LN status (p = 0.02) alone was associated with decreased OS. The addition of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy improved OS for patients with positive LN (p = 0.01). Median survival for positive LN patients receiving adjuvant therapy was 3.4 years, vs. 1.6 years for those with surgery alone. Conclusions: The addition of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy may improve OS in patients with LN involvement. The effect of adjuvant therapy on outcomes for patients with poor histologic grade or T3/T4 tumors without LN involvement could not be assessed

  13. Chitosan-based mucosal adjuvants: Sunrise on the ocean.

    Xia, Yufei; Fan, Qingze; Hao, Dongxia; Wu, Jie; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2015-11-01

    Mucosal vaccination, which is shown to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses, serves as a non-invasive and convenient alternative to parenteral administration, with stronger capability in combatting diseases at the site of entry. The exploration of potent mucosal adjuvants is emerging as a significant area, based on the continued necessity to amplify the immune responses to a wide array of antigens that are poorly immunogenic at the mucosal sites. As one of the inspirations from the ocean, chitosan-based mucosal adjuvants have been developed with unique advantages, such as, ability of mucosal adhesion, distinct trait of opening the junctions to allow the paracellular transport of antigen, good tolerability and biocompatibility, which guaranteed the great potential in capitalizing on their application in human clinical trials. In this review, the state of art of chitosan and its derivatives as mucosal adjuvants, including thermo-sensitive chitosan system as mucosal adjuvant that were newly developed by author's group, was described, as well as the clinical application perspective. After a brief introduction of mucosal adjuvants, chitosan and its derivatives as robust immune potentiator were discussed in detail and depth, in regard to the metabolism, safety profile, mode of actions and preclinical and clinical applications, which may shed light on the massive clinical application of chitosan as mucosal adjuvant. PMID:26271831

  14. Modeling the biomechanics of swine mastication--an inverse dynamics approach.

    Basafa, Ehsan; Murphy, Ryan J; Gordon, Chad R; Armand, Mehran

    2014-08-22

    A novel reconstructive alternative for patients with severe facial structural deformity is Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplantation (FJTT). To date, however, only ten surgeries have included underlying skeletal and jaw-teeth components, all yielding sub-optimal results and a need for a subsequent revision surgery, due to size mismatch and lack of precise planning. Numerous studies have proven swine to be appropriate candidates for translational studies including pre-operative planning of transplantation. An important aspect of planning FJTT is determining the optimal muscle attachment sites on the recipient's jaw, which requires a clear understanding of mastication and bite mechanics in relation to the new donated upper and/or lower jaw. A segmented CT scan coupled with data taken from literature defined a biomechanical model of mandible and jaw muscles of a swine. The model was driven using tracked motion and external force data of one cycle of chewing published earlier, and predicted the muscle activation patterns as well as temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reaction forces and condylar motions. Two methods, polynomial and min/max optimization, were used for solving the muscle recruitment problem. Similar performances were observed between the two methods. On average, there was a mean absolute error (MAE) of <0.08 between the predicted and measured activation levels of all muscles, and an MAE of <7 N for TMJ reaction forces. Simulated activations qualitatively followed the same patterns as the reference data and there was very good agreement for simulated TMJ forces. The polynomial optimization produced a smoother output, suggesting that it is more suitable for studying such motions. Average MAE for condylar motion was 1.2mm, which reduced to 0.37 mm when the input incisor motion was scaled to reflect the possible size mismatch between the current and original swine models. Results support the hypothesis that the model can be used for planning of facial

  15. Expression of Porcine Interleukin-2 and Porcine Interleukin-6 and Their Adjuvant Effects on Gene Deleted Vaccine of Pseudorabies Virus (TK-/gG-/LacZ+)

    YAN Lin; HE Qi-gai; CHEN Huan-chun; XIAO Shao-bo; WU Mei-zhou; LU Jian-qiang; HAN Li

    2003-01-01

    Porcine interleukin-2 and porcine interleukin-6 cDNA sequences were cloned into the expressing vectors pET-28a and pGEX-KG respectively. They were expressed in E.coli BL21 (DE3) with high-level production. The gene deleted vaccine of pseudorabies virus Ea strain (TK-/gG-/LacZ+) was mixed with the two different purified recombinant proteins each, or both, with the doses of 2, 5 or 10 μg ml-1. Ten groups of pseudorabies negative antibody swines were immuned twice with tested vaccines with different doses, or control vaccine, respectively. The antibody titers of the test groups were detected by neutralization test, and the daily weight gains of swines were calculated and analyzed statistically. In the study, all the neutralizing antibody titers in test groups were higher than the control group, and the recombinant proteins appeared a dose dependent adjuvant effect. The tested vaccines with 2 μg ml-1 pIL-2 and with 10 μg ml-1 pIL-2/pIL-6 got significant and extremely significant differences, compared with the vaccines without pILs. The difference of the daily weight gain indicated the potential positive influence of pIL-2 and pIL-6 on immune protection.

  16. Influence of Asian dust particles on immune adjuvant effects and airway inflammation in asthma model mice.

    Jun Kurai

    Full Text Available An Asian dust storm (ADS contains airborne particles that affect conditions such as asthma, but the mechanism of exacerbation is unclear. The objective of this study was to compare immune adjuvant effects and airway inflammation induced by airborne particles collected on ADS days and the original ADS soil (CJ-1 soil in asthma model mice.Airborne particles were collected on ADS days in western Japan. NC/Nga mice were co-sensitized by intranasal instillation with ADS airborne particles and/or Dermatophagoides farinae (Df, and with CJ-1 soil and/or Df for 5 consecutive days. Df-sensitized mice were stimulated with Df challenge intranasally at 7 days after the last Df sensitization. At 24 hours after challenge, serum allergen specific antibody, differential leukocyte count and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were measured, and airway inflammation was examined histopathologically.Co-sensitization with ADS airborne particles and Df increased the neutrophil and eosinophil counts in BALF. Augmentation of airway inflammation was also observed in peribronchiolar and perivascular lung areas. Df-specific serum IgE was significantly elevated by ADS airborne particles, but not by CJ-1 soil. Levels of interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 were higher in BALF in mice treated with ADS airborne particles.These results suggest that substances attached to ADS airborne particles that are not in the original ADS soil may play important roles in immune adjuvant effects and airway inflammation.

  17. Airborne Influenza A Is Detected in the Personal Breathing Zone of Swine Veterinarians

    O’Brien, Kate M.; Nonnenmann, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 pandemic emphasized a need to evaluate zoonotic transmission of influenza A in swine production. Airborne influenza A virus has been detected in swine facilities during an outbreak. However, the personal exposure of veterinarians treating infected swine has not been characterized. Two personal bioaerosol samplers, the NIOSH bioaerosol sampler and the personal high-flow inhalable sampler head (PHISH), were placed in the breathing zone of veterinarians treating swine infected with...

  18. Validation of Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography for Measuring Tidal Volume in Swine

    Su, Zhenbo; Oto, Jun; Wang, Jingwen; Kimball, William R; Chenelle, Christopher T; Kacmarek, Robert M.; King, David R.; Jiang, Yandong; Duggan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Measuring tidal volume (VT) in nonintubated swine or swine with leaking breathing circuits is challenging. The aim of this study was to validate respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) for measuring VT in swine that are comparable in size to adult humans. To determine calibration curves, VT and RIP readings were obtained from anesthetized swine (n = 8; weight, 46–50 kg) during positive-pressure (mechanical) ventilation and spontaneous breathing. For positive-pressure ventilation, 6 pigs ...

  19. Bait Preference of Free-Ranging Feral Swine for Delivery of a Novel Toxicant

    Snow, Nathan P.; Halseth, Joseph M.; Lavelle, Michael J.; Hanson, Thomas E.; Blass, Chad R.; Foster, Justin A.; Humphrys, Simon T.; Staples, Linton D.; Hewitt, David G; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive feral swine (Sus scrofa) cause extensive damage to agricultural and wildlife resources throughout the United States. Development of sodium nitrite as a new, orally delivered toxicant is underway to provide an additional tool to curtail growth and expansion of feral swine populations. A micro-encapsulation coating around sodium nitrite is used to minimize detection by feral swine and maximize stability for the reactive molecule. To maximize uptake of this toxicant by feral swine, deve...

  20. Determinants of adults' intention to vaccinate against pandemic swine flu

    Goodwin Robin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour provided the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Three hundred and sixty two adults from the UK, who were not in vaccination priority groups, completed either an online (n = 306 or pen and paper (n = 56 questionnaire. Data were collected from 30th October 2009, just after swine flu vaccination became available in the UK, and concluded on 31st December 2009. The main outcome of interest was future swine flu vaccination intentions. Results The extended Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted 60% of adults' intention to have a swine flu vaccination with attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, anticipating feelings of regret (the impact of missing a vaccination opportunity, intention to have a seasonal vaccine this year, one perceived barrier: "I cannot be bothered to get a swine flu vaccination" and two perceived benefits: "vaccination decreases my chance of getting swine flu or its complications" and "if I get vaccinated for swine flu, I will decrease the frequency of having to consult my doctor," being significant predictors of intention. Black British were less likely to intend to have a vaccination compared to Asian or White respondents. Conclusions Theoretical frameworks which identify determinants that influence decisions to have a pandemic influenza vaccination are useful. The implications of this research are discussed with a view to maximising any future pandemic influenza vaccination uptake using theoretically-driven applications.

  1. Arterial supply of the cervical thymus lobes in swine fetuses (Sus scrofa domesticus of the Camborough 25 lineage

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discover more about the arterial supply of cervical lobes of the thymus, in relation to its origins, distribution and ordination in swine (Sus scrofa domesticus of Camborough 25 lineage. Thus, 29 swine (17 males and 12 females were studied. The arterial system of the models was colored with aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex “450” (50% and after the models were fixed in 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution. Great individual variations in the length and size of the thymus vessel supply, and also in the layout, size and thickness of the cervical lobes of the thymus, were observed. The superficial cervical artery (96.55%, common carotid artery (54.54% and occipital artery (55.17% contribute to the blood supply of the cervical lobes on both sides. In addition, branches from the lingual artery (3.45% and internal carotid artery (3.45% on both sides, as well as the subclavian artery (6.90% on the left side, were observed. No significant differences in vascularization of lobes in relation to antimerals or sexes were evidenced. Considering the findings, it was conclued that each animal had its own characteristics and peculiarities, thus enabling the establishment of a particular arrangement of the swine strain.

  2. Choice and Design of Adjuvants for Parenteral and Mucosal Vaccines

    Huub F. J. Savelkoul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The existence of pathogens that escape recognition by specific vaccines, the need to improve existing vaccines and the increased availability of therapeutic (non-infectious disease vaccines necessitate the rational development of novel vaccine concepts based on the induction of protective cell-mediated immune responses. For naive T-cell activation, several signals resulting from innate and adaptive interactions need to be integrated, and adjuvants may interfere with some or all of these signals. Adjuvants, for example, are used to promote the immunogenicity of antigens in vaccines, by inducing a pro-inflammatory environment that enables the recruitment and promotion of the infiltration of phagocytic cells, particularly antigen-presenting cells (APC, to the injection site. Adjuvants can enhance antigen presentation, induce cytokine expression, activate APC and modulate more downstream adaptive immune reactions (vaccine delivery systems, facilitating immune Signal 1. In addition, adjuvants can act as immunopotentiators (facilitating Signals 2 and 3 exhibiting immune stimulatory effects during antigen presentation by inducing the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on APC. Together, these signals determine the strength of activation of specific T-cells, thereby also influencing the quality of the downstream T helper cytokine profiles and the differentiation of antigen-specific T helper populations (Signal 3. New adjuvants should also target specific (innate immune cells in order to facilitate proper activation of downstream adaptive immune responses and homing (Signal 4. It is desirable that these adjuvants should be able to exert such responses in the context of mucosal administered vaccines. This review focuses on the understanding of the potential working mechanisms of the most well-known classes of adjuvants to be used effectively in vaccines.

  3. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF THE SWINE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX, THE SLA COMPLEX

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span ~1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 Mb, respectively, making the swi...

  4. Comparison of aerated marsh-pond-marsh and continuous marsh constructed wetlands for treating swine wastewater

    Increased swine production in North Carolina has resulted in greater waste generation and is demanding some emerging new innovative technologies to effectively treat swine wastewater. One of the cost-effective and passive methods to treat swine wastewater is using constructed wetlands. The objective...

  5. Enhanced Pneumonia With Pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Introduction. Swine influenza A viruses (SIV) in the major swine producing regions of North America consist of multiple subtypes of endemic H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation (1). Genetic drift and r...

  6. Farming styles and cooperatives disputes of swine farmers under economic pressure in southern France

    Commandeur, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In Southern France, the regression of swine farms and swine is ongoing. It involves reorientation of socio-professional networks, especially the farmers’ cooperatives. For understanding the various ways of maintaining swine production under the regressive circumstances, we focus on the farmers’ init

  7. 9 CFR 166.3 - Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. 166.3 Section 166.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... § 149.5 Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. Certified swine moved from...

  9. Development of a live attenuated antigenic marker classical swine fever vaccine

    Classical Swine Fever, caused by Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious disease affecting swine worldwide. The two main strategies for disease control are prophylactic vaccination and non-vaccination “stamping out” policies. In a vaccination-to-live strategy, marker vaccines coul...

  10. Tetracycline residues and tetracycline resistance genes in groundwater impacted by swine production facilities

    Mackie, R.I.; Koike, S.; Krapac, I.; Chee-Sanford, J.; Maxwell, Susan; Aminov, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to treat disease; at slightly lower levels as prophylactics; and at low, subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. Over 88% of swine producers in the United States gave antimicrobials to grower/finisher pigs in feed as a growth promoter in 2000. It is estimated that ca. 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in urine and feces. The extensive use of antibiotics in swine production has resulted in antibiotic resistance in many intestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in swine feces, resulting in dissemination of resistance genes into the environment.To assess the impact of manure management on groundwater quality, groundwater samples have been collected near two swine confinement facilities that use lagoons for manure storage and treatment. Several key contaminant indicators-including inorganic ions, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance genes-were analyzed in groundwater collected from the monitoring wells. Chloride, ammonium, potassium, and sodium were predominant inorganic constituents in the manure samples and served as indicators of groundwater contamination. Based on these analyses, shallow groundwater has been impacted by lagoon seepage at both sites. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) was used to measure the dissolved concentrations of tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in groundwater and manure. Although tetracyclines were regularly used at both facilities, they were infrequently detected in manure samples and then at relatively trace concentrations. Concentrations of all tetracyclines and their breakdown products in the groundwater sampled were generally less than 0.5 ??g/L.Bacterial tetracycline resistance genes served as distinct genotypic markers to indicate the dissemination and mobility of antibiotic resistance genes that originated from the lagoons. Applying PCR to genomic DNA extracted from the lagoon and

  11. Reasoned opinion on the setting of new MRLs for tembotrione in kidney and liver of bovine and swine

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Austria, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer Austria GmbH to set MRLs for the active substance tembotrione in bovine kidney, bovine liver and swine liver. In order to accommodate the intended use of tembotrione on maize in Austria and as a result of using maize products as livestock feed, the EMS proposed to set the MRLs of 0.05 mg/kg in bovine kidney, 0.1 mg/kg in bovine liver and 0.02 mg/kg in swine liver. The EMS drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. The calculated dietary burdens and the results of livestock feeding studies indicate that from the intake of maize silage and grain no residues above the LOQ are expected in milk, fat, muscle of bovine and swine. Residues above the LOQ are expected in bovine liver and kidney and, swine kidney and liver and MRLs for these commodities are therefore proposed. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes thatthe intended use of tembotrione on maize and the proposed MRLs for the commodities of animal origin will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern. Since the peer review according to Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011 is not yet finalised, the conclusions reported in this reasoned opinion should be taken as provisional and might need to be reconsidered in the light of the outcome of the peer review.

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in commercial swine herds is associated with disinfectant and zinc usage.

    Slifierz, Mackenzie Jonathan; Friendship, Robert M; Weese, J Scott

    2015-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originating from swine is concerning for public health, but an understanding of the emergence and persistence of MRSA in nursery herds is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine whether MRSA in nursery pigs is associated with particular herd-level parameters, including the use of antimicrobials, disinfectants, and heavy metals, which may be driving the selection and persistence of antimicrobial resistance. Nasal cultures for MRSA were completed for 390 pigs from 26 farms at the end of the suckling phase and again at 3 weeks postweaning. Herd-level information was collected, and a random subset of MRSA isolates was screened for resistance to zinc and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Multivariate analysis revealed that in-feed concentrations of zinc (P commercial QAC exposure in the presence of organic matter. Overall, these findings indicate that high levels of in-feed zinc and QAC-based disinfectants are important drivers in the selection and persistence of MRSA in commercial swine herds, and these agents may be coselecting for other antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:25662976

  13. Detection and characterisation of hepatitis E virus in naturally infected swine in Croatia.

    Lipej, Zoran; Novosel, Dinko; Vojta, Lea; Roić, Besi; Simpraga, Miljenko; Vojta, Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis E is a viral zoonotic disease infecting swine worldwide. Since pigs represent a likely animal reservoir for the hepatitis E virus, the epidemiology of naturally occurring hepatitis E was investigated in Croatian swine herds. Nearly all tested animals were seropositive for antibodies against the hepatitis E virus (55/60, 91.7%). Active infection was detected in all age groups by RT-PCR of viral RNA in serum (8/60, 13.3%) and bile samples (3/37, 8.1%), which was further confirmed by histopathological findings of characteristic lesions in the livers of the infected animals. Three new strains of hepatitis E virus were isolated from Croatian pig herds. Phylogenetic analysis using median-joining networks clustered those Croatian strains with isolates from various parts of the world, indicating their likely origin in international trade. Similarity to human isolates implies a zoonotic potential of Croatian strains, which raises a public health concern, especially in the light of the high prevalence of hepatitis E in the herds studied. PMID:23974940

  14. Deteksi Virus Classical Swine Fever di Bali dengan RT-PCR

    I Wayan Wirata

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Classical Swine Fever (CSF virus has been confirmed for the first time in pig in Bali. The object of thisstudy was suspected CSF cases diagnosed at the diagnostic laboratory assistantship of the Faculty ofVeterinary Medicine, Udayana University, in 2007-2008. Total number of cases was 12. Case recordsincluded the signalment of case (breed, age, body weight, and the origin of respective case, clinical signs,post-mortem lesions, and histological pictures. CSF virus was confirmed using the standardized reversetranscriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for CSF from European Union. One RT-PCR productwas sequenced. CSF virus was confirmed in seven out of 12 cases (58%. The cDNA sequence wasconfirmed to be specific of CSF E2 protein coding region with 98% homology to one isolate from China thatwas available in GeneBank. Further works are recommended to elucidate the sensitivity of RT-PCR, toclarify some differential diagnose, and to find out the genetic variation of CSF virus in Bali.Key words: classical swine fever virus, Bali, RT-PCR

  15. An analysis of water samples surrounding swine farms in Timis County – A practical guide

    Valentin L. Ordodi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important role in biological soil pollution is allocated to the untreated waste water used to ground’s fertirigation from livestock farms, and in particular of swine units. Applying of arbitrary measures, and national and European legislation’s non-compliance are main factors that often makes from this issue a public health problem by the great impact it can generate and create in large agglomerations and animals. The diluted manures are able to affect the quality of the environment mainly by: nitrous oxide, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulphide, volatile organic compounds, etc. and they, being administered in soils, may cause epizootic and epidemiological aspects and also those relating to environmental protection. In this respect it rise the need for all livestock farms to apply appropriate measures for certain manure treatment, different to species of animals and depending on the collection and discharge systems used. This paper is an original research work and it intends to be also a practical guide to follow for those interested in field research of environmental pollution. There are presented current investigation methodologies of water’s quality from swine farms vicinity in Timis County. In four chapters are presented: primary water analysis methodology, the determination of chlorides, nitrates and phosphates for each substance being presented methodology, kits and reagents necessary specific results and their interpretation and conclusions for each study. The last chapter was allocated to the description of the potentially polluting compounds determination by GC-MS technique.

  16. Pandemic swine influenza virus (H1N1): A threatening evolution.

    Khanna, Madhu; Kumar, Binod; Gupta, Neha; Kumar, Prashant; Gupta, Ankit; Vijayan, V K; Kaur, Harpreet

    2009-12-01

    "Survival of the fittest" is an old axiom laid down by the great evolutionist Charles Darwin and microorganisms seem to have exploited this statement to a great extent. The ability of viruses to adapt themselves to the changing environment has made it possible to inhabit itself in this vast world for the past millions of years. Experts are well versed with the fact that influenza viruses have the capability to trade genetic components from one to the other within animal and human population. In mid April 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization had recognized a dramatic increase in number of influenza cases. These current 2009 infections were found to be caused by a new strain of influenza type A H1N1 virus which is a re-assortment of several strains of influenza viruses commonly infecting human, avian, and swine population. This evolution is quite dependent on swine population which acts as a main reservoir for the reassortment event in virus. With the current rate of progress and the efforts of heath authorities worldwide, we have still not lost the race against fighting this virus. This article gives an insight to the probable source of origin and the evolutionary progress it has gone through that makes it a potential threat in the future, the current scenario and the possible measures that may be explored to further strengthen the war against pandemic. PMID:23100799

  17. Using wastewater from swine farm on cultivation of Moina macrocopa

    The experimentation on cultivation of Moina macrocopa by using waste water from swine farm compared with general formula feed was conducted by using the circular concrete tank with the area of 1.13 m2. and 35 cm. height. The results showed that the waste water from swine farm with concentration of 10-20% could grow green algae and produce Moina production. It was found that the production of Moina by using the waste water from swine farm was not different from general formula feed, waste water from UCAT swine farm (with the concentration 20%) and from Mitrthai swine farm (concentration of 20% and 10%) and general formula feed. The production of Moina were 233.33, 191.33, 189.00 and 198.00 grams per concrete tank respectively. The water quality analysis was performed by monitoring the BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand). The result showed the BOD were reduced 81-96% (3.6-24 mg./litre) after cultivating the Moina. The result of this experiment had shown that the waste water from swine farm could cultivate the Moina, reduce the waste water problem and pollution to the environment. More ever, the Moina produced by using waste water from swine farm to feed the STR (Sec Reversal Tilapia) fingerling and hybrid catfish compared with the Moina Produced by using general formula feed. The result showed the growth performance and survival rate of STR and hybrid catfish fingerling were not significantly different. The gain in weight of STR fingerling fed with the Moina produced from waste water from swine farm were 1.40 grams and the survival rate was 79.5%, while the gain in length of hybrid catfish fingerling were 2.50 cm. and the survival rate was 56%. The gain in weight of STR fingerling fed with the Moina produced from general formula feed were 1.26 grams and the survival rate was 81.3%, while the gain in length of hybrid catfish fingerling were 2.61cm. and the survival rate was 58% respectively. Moreover, when using the waste water from swine farm to nurse the STR fingerling

  18. Odorous VOC emission following land application of swine manure slurry

    Parker, David B.; Gilley, John; Woodbury, Bryan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Galvin, Geordie; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Li, Xu; Snow, Daniel D.

    2013-02-01

    Swine manure is often applied to crop land as a fertilizer source. Odor emissions from land-applied swine manure may pose a nuisance to downwind populations if manure is not applied with sufficient forethought. A research project was conducted to assess the time decay of odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions following land application of swine manure. Three land application methods were compared: surface application, incorporation 24 h after surface application, and injection. Emission rates were measured in field plots using a small wind tunnel and sorbent tubes. VOCs including eight volatile fatty acids, five aromatics, and two sulfur-containing compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In most cases, a first order exponential decay model adequately described the flux versus time relationship for the 24 h period following land application, but the model sometimes overestimated flux in the 6-24 h range. The same model but with the time term squared adequately predicted flux over the entire 24 h period. Three compounds (4-methylphenol, skatole, and 4-ethylphenol) accounted for 93 percent of the summed odor activity value. First order decay constants (k) for these three compounds ranged from 0.157 to 0.996 h-1. When compared to surface application, injection of swine manure resulted in 80-95 percent lower flux for the most odorous aromatic compounds. These results show that VOC flux decreases rapidly following land application of swine manure, declining below levels of detection and near background levels after 4 to 8 h.

  19. Molecular diagnostics of swine infection caused by Mycoplasma suis

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .

  20. Novel reassortant swine influenza viruses are circulating in Danish pigs

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona;

    The Danish surveillance program for influenza A virus in pigs has revealed that two novel reassortant swine influenza viruses may now be circulating in the Danish swine population, since they each have been detected in at least two submissions from different herds in 2011 as well as in 2012. One of...... the reassortant viruses comprised a HA gene similar to H1 of H1N1 avian-like swine influenza virus (SIV) and a NA gene most closely related to N2 gene of human H3N2 influenza virus that circulated in humans in the mid 1990s. The internal genes of this reassortant virus with the subtype H1avN2hu all...... pandemic H1N1pdm09 influenza virus lineage. Swine influenza virus with a similar subtype to H1pdm09N2sw has previously been found in pigs in Italy and Germany. Detailed analyses of viral genes will further elucidate the relationship between these new swine influenza viruses found in the different countries...

  1. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    2010-01-01

    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine... fever (CSF) in §§ 94.9(a) and 94.10(a) but either supplement their pork supplies with fresh (chilled...

  2. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    2010-01-01

    ...) and 94.10(a) of this chapter as one in which classical swine fever is known to exist, except for the... because of the detection of classical swine fever in domestic swine, from the time of detection until the... classical swine fever in wild boar, from the time of detection until the designation of the zone as...

  3. Role of Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Resected Extrahepatic Biliary Tract Cancer

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) for patients with extrahepatic biliary tract cancer treated with curative resection. Methods and Materials: The study involved 168 patients with extrahepatic biliary tract cancer undergoing curative resection between August 2001 and April 2009. Of the 168 patients, 115 received adjuvant CRT (CRT group) and 53 did not (no-CRT group). Gender, age, tumor size, histologic differentiation, pre- and postoperative carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level, resection margin, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, T stage, N stage, overall stage, and the use of adjuvant CRT were analyzed to identify the prognostic factors associated with LRC, DFS, and OS. Results: For all patients, the 5-year LRC, DFS, and OS rate was 54.8%, 30.6%, and 33.9%, respectively. On univariate analysis, the 5-year LRC, DFS, and OS rates in the CRT group were significantly better than those in the no-CRT group (58.5% vs. 44.4%, p = .007; 32.1% vs. 26.1%, p = .041; 36.5% vs. 28.2%, p = .049, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that adjuvant CRT was a significant independent prognostic factor for LRC, DFS, and OS (p < .05). Conclusion: Our results have suggested that adjuvant CRT helps achieve LRC and, consequently, improves DFS and OS in patients with extrahepatic biliary tract cancer.

  4. Novel adjuvants & delivery vehicles for vaccines development: a road ahead.

    Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Rao, D Nageswara

    2013-11-01

    The pure recombinant and synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines are generally less immunogenic than older style live/attenuated and killed whole organism vaccines. One can improve the quality of vaccine production by incorporating immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles viz. liposomes, immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), micro/nanospheres apart from alum, being used as gold standard. Adjuvants are used to augment the effect of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine, more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionary conserved molecules which include lipopolysaccharides (LPS), components of bacterial cell wall, endocytosed nucleic acids such as dsRNA, ssDNA and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide containing DNA. This review provides information on various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed to date. From literature, it seems that the humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while viral-vector, ISCOMs and Montanides have shown cytotoxic T-cell response in the clinical trials. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles (VLPs), non-degradable nanoparticle and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical success reported for intranasal delivery of viral-vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of VLP vaccines. PMID:24434331

  5. Who benefits most from adjuvant interferon treatment for melanoma?

    Gogas, Helen; Abali, Huseyin; Ascierto, Paolo A; Demidov, Lev; Pehamberger, Hubert; Robert, Caroline; Schachter, Jacob; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Hauschild, Axel; Espinosa, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma has a poor prognosis; the median survival for patients with stage IV melanoma ranges from 8 to 18 months after diagnosis. Interferon-α provides significant improvement in disease-free survival at the cost of poor tolerability. Identifying patients who benefit the most may improve the cost:benefit ratio. In addition, no data exist for the role of adjuvant therapy in noncutaneous melanoma. Molecular profiles may help to identify patients who benefit the most from adjuvant interferon therapy. In this review, the American Joint Commission on Cancer 2009 staging criteria and emerging biomarker data to guide adjuvant treatment decisions will be discussed. Several criteria to guide selection of patients are discussed in detail. These include Breslow thickness, number of positive lymph nodes, whether or not the primary lesion has ulcerated, immunologic markers, and cytokine profiles. Substantial progress has been made in deciding which patients benefit from interferon-α adjuvant therapy. Interferon-α is the only agent currently approved for the adjuvant treatment of this deadly disease, despite its side effect profile. More effective drugs with better tolerability are needed. PMID:24176884

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Isolate of Classical Swine Fever Virus Belonging to Subgenotype 2.1b from Hunan Province, China

    Shao, Weixing; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Faxing; Zhang, Zhi; Dong, Yaqin; Li, Xiaocheng

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Hunan 23/2013, belonging to the predominant subgenotype 2.1b. This strain was originally isolated from diseased pigs in Hunan Province, China. This report will help in understanding the molecular diversity of CSFV stains circulating in China and in selecting and developing a suitable vaccine candidate for CSF control.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Isolate of Classical Swine Fever Virus Belonging to Subgenotype 2.1b from Hunan Province, China.

    Shao, Weixing; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Faxing; Zhang, Zhi; Dong, Yaqin; Li, Xiaocheng

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Hunan 23/2013, belonging to the predominant subgenotype 2.1b. This strain was originally isolated from diseased pigs in Hunan Province, China. This report will help in understanding the molecular diversity of CSFV stains circulating in China and in selecting and developing a suitable vaccine candidate for CSF control. PMID:26205876

  8. Complete genome sequence of a classical Swine Fever virus isolate belonging to a new subgenotype, 2.1c, from guangxi province, china.

    Shao, Weixing; Huang, Yaohua; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Faxing; Zhang, Zhi; Dong, Yaqin; Li, Xiaocheng

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a field isolate of classical swine fever strain (CSFV), GXF29/2013, was determined in this study. This strain was originally isolated from infected pigs in Guangxi Province, China. The most significant difference in the amino acid sequence of the polyprotein from subgenotypes 2.1a and 2.1b is an SPA→APV amino acid substitution at positions 88 and 90 in the E2 protein. PMID:26044412

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Classical Swine Fever Virus Strain JSZL, Belonging to a New Subgenotype, 2.1d, Isolated in China in 2014.

    Zhang, Hongliang; Feng, Liping; Liu, Chunxiao; Chen, Jiazeng; Leng, Chaoliang; Bai, Yun; Peng, Jinmei; An, Tongqing; Cai, Xuehui; Yang, Xufu; Tian, Zhijun; Tong, Guangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of classic swine fever virus (CSFV) strain JSZL was determined in this study. JSZL was originally isolated from an immune pig farm in Jiangsu Province, China. JSZL is more closely related to subgenotype 2.1b than to 2.1a and 2.1c. Importantly, JSZL was classified into a new subgenotype, 2.1d. PMID:26294620

  10. Fate of tetracyclines in swine manure of three selected swine farms in China

    Min Qiao; Wangda Chen; Jianqiang Su; Bing Zhang; Cai Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary antibiotics can enter the environment due to the common practice of land application of manure from treated animals.The environmental fate of tetracyclines in swine manure after composting and field application remains largely unknown.This study analyzed the concentrations of tetracyclines in manure,manure-based compost and compost amended soil in selected swine farms from Beijing,Jiaxing and Putian,China to determine the dilution effects of antibiotics when released into the soil environment.The results demonstrate that residues of antibiotics were detected in all samples and chlortetracycline as well as its degradation products should be regarded critically concerning their potential ecotoxicity.Application of manure-based compost to soil could reduce the possible risk posed by antibiotic contamination,but the trigger value of 100 μg/kg was still exceeded in soil samples (776.1 μg/kg dw) from Putian City after application of compost.Field studies such as the present one can help to improve the routine administration of antibiotic-containing composted manure.

  11. Metabolism of lysophosphatidylcholine by swine platelets

    Incubation of intact platelets from Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine with 32P-labeled lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso PC) indicated the presence of an active lysophospholipase with a pH optimum of 8.0 for hydrolysis of the substrate. However, lyso PC was incorporated into the membrane phosphatidylcholines by the acyltransferase pathway upon addition of ATP, Mg++ and CoA to the platelet suspension. These results suggest that intact platelets are able to resist the cytotoxic effects of lyso PC in plasma, and the phospholipids in platelet membranes are not readily affected by the lipid environment of the plasma. The acyltransfer reaction apparently is saturated with endogenous free fatty acids since arachidonic acid added exogenously did not further enhance the incorporation activity. Neither the acyltransferase nor the lysophospholipase activity was affected by Ca++, but divalent metal ions such as Zn++ inhibited the lysophospholipase activity. Cholesterol but not cholesteryl esters elicited a biphasic effect on both enzymes, stimulating at low concentration but inhibiting at a cholesterol to lyso PC ratio greater than 1. Serum albumin inhibited the lysophospholipase but gave a small biphasic effect to the acyltransferase

  12. Microbial Community and Chemical Characteristics of Swine Manure during Maturation.

    Trabue, Steven L; Kerr, Brian J; Bearson, Bradley L; Hur, Manhoi; Parkin, Timothy; Wurtele, Eve S; Ziemer, Cherrie J

    2016-07-01

    Swine diet formulations have the potential to lower animal emissions, including odor and ammonia (NH). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of manure storage duration on manure chemical and microbial properties in swine feeding trials. Three groups of 12 pigs were fed a standard corn-soybean meal diet over a 13-wk period. Urine and feces were collected at each feeding and transferred to 12 manure storage tanks. Manure chemical characteristics and headspace gas concentrations were monitored for NH, hydrogen sulfide (HS), volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles. Microbial analysis of the stored manure included plate counts, community structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), and metabolic function (Biolog). All odorants in manure and headspace gas concentrations were significantly ( effect of swine diet formulations on manure emissions for odor need to be conducted for a minimum of 5 wk. Efforts to determine the impact of diets on greenhouse gas emissions will require longer periods of study (>13 wk). PMID:27380061

  13. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer operated for cure

    Petersen, Sune Høirup; Harling, Henrik; Kirkeby, Lene Tschemerinsky;

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the Western world. Apart from surgery - which remains the mainstay of treatment for resectable primary tumours - postoperative (i.e., adjuvant) chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based regimens is now the standard treatment...... in Dukes´ C (TNM stage III) colon tumours i.e. tumours with metastases in the regional lymph nodes but no distant metastases. In contrast, the evidence for recommendations of adjuvant therapy in rectal cancer is sparse. In Europe it is generally acknowledged that locally advanced rectal tumours receive...... preoperative (i.e., neoadjuvant) downstaging by radiotherapy (or chemoradiotion), whereas in the US postoperative chemoradiotion is considered the treatment of choice in all Dukes´ C rectal cancers. Overall, no universal consensus exists on the adjuvant treatment of surgically resectable rectal carcinoma...

  14. Old and new adjuvants for hepatitis B vaccines.

    Leroux-Roels, Geert

    2015-02-01

    The safety and immunogenicity profiles of currently available recombinant hepatitis B vaccines are excellent. However, it remains a real challenge to induce protective immunity in the target groups that respond poorly or not at all to conventional vaccines. Ideally, a hepatitis B vaccine can be developed that conveys lifelong protection against infection rapidly after the injection of a single dose. Although this goal is far from being reached, important improvements have been made. Novel vaccine adjuvants have been developed that enhance the immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B vaccines while maintaining a good safety profile. The different adjuvants and adjuvant systems that are discussed herein have all been thoroughly evaluated in clinical trials and some have reached or are close to reach the market. PMID:25523196

  15. The Safety of Adjuvanted Vaccines Revisited: Vaccine-Induced Narcolepsy.

    Ahmed, S Sohail; Montomoli, Emanuele; Pasini, Franco Laghi; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Despite the very high benefit-to-risk ratio of vaccines, the fear of negative side effects has discouraged many people from getting vaccinated, resulting in the reemergence of previously controlled diseases such as measles, pertussis and diphtheria. This fear has been amplified more recently by multiple epidemiologic studies that confirmed the link of an AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine (Pandemrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Germany) used in Europe during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic [A(H1N1) pdm09] with the development of narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder, in children and adolescents. However, public misperceptions of what adjuvants are and why they are used in vaccines has created in some individuals a closed "black box" attitude towards all vaccines. The focus of this review article is to revisit this "black box" using the example of narcolepsy associated with the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. PMID:27228647

  16. Development of CpG ODN Based Vaccine Adjuvant Formulations.

    Gursel, Mayda; Gursel, Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    Development of effective vaccine mediated immune responses relies on the use of vaccine adjuvants capable of enhancing and directing the adaptive immune response to the antigen. When used as vaccine adjuvants, type I interferon inducing agents can elicit potent effector/memory T cell responses and humoral immunity. Distinct sequences of single stranded synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide motifs (CpG ODN) can generate type I interferon production via a TLR9-MyD88-IRF7-mediated signaling pathway. Here, we describe two different methods of preparing CpG ODN-based vaccine adjuvant formulations that can induce a robust IFNα response from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:27076306

  17. Adjuvant treatment and outcomes of stage III endometrial carcinoma

    Surgery with staging using FIGO (1988) classification is accepted management for stage III endometrial carcinoma. The delivery of adjuvant therapy is controversial and tends to be individualised. Retrospective review of stage III endometrial carcinoma patients who underwent radical surgery at the Royal Adelaide and Queen Elizabeth Hospitals from 1984 to 2003 was carried out. Medical records were reviewed for details of patient characteristics, surgery, histopathology, adjuvant therapy and recurrence/survival. Sixty-six patients with a median age of 69 (37-97), had a median follow-up of 26 months (1-188 ). For all stage III patients, the actuarial 5-year disease-free and overall survivals were 50 and 43% respectively. Thirty-five patients received pelvic +/- paraaortic radiotherapy, 5 whole abdominal radiotherapy, 14 vaginal brachytherapy boost, 10 chemotherapy and 13 adjuvant hormones. Forty-six percent of patients recurred in a median time of 13 months (0-95). For these patients, the sites of first recurrence were pelvis in 27%, pelvis and abdomen in 23%, abdomen alone in 13%, distant alone in 27%, distant and abdominal in 7% and all three sites in 3%. On univariate analysis disease-free survival was impacted by; age, grade, parametrial involvement, number of extrauterine sites, lymphovascular invasion, adjuvant radiotherapy to the pelvis alone and postoperative macroscopic residual disease. Lymphovascular invasion, post-operative residual disease and adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy remained significant on multivariate analysis. These outcomes for stage III endometrial carcinoma are comparable to the current literature. Ongoing research is required to establish the most appropriate adjuvant therapy in these high risk patients

  18. Generation and efficacy evaluation of recombinant classical swine fever virus E2 glycoprotein expressed in stable transgenic mammalian cell line.

    Rong-Hong Hua

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever virus (CSFV is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF, which is a highly contagious swine disease that causes significant economic loses to the pig industry worldwide. The envelope E2 glycoprotein of CSFV is the most important viral antigen in inducing protective immune response against CSF. In this study, we generated a mammalian cell clone (BCSFV-E2 that could stably produce a secreted form of CSFV E2 protein (mE2. The mE2 protein was shown to be N-linked glycosylated and formed a homodimer. The vaccine efficacy of mE2 was evaluated by immunizing pigs. Twenty-five 6-week-old Landrace piglets were randomly divided into five groups. Four groups were intramuscularly immunized with mE2 emulsified in different adjuvants twice at four-week intervals. One group was used as the control group. All mE2-vaccinated pigs developed CSFV-neutralizing antibodies two weeks after the first vaccination with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:40 to 1:320. Two weeks after the booster vaccination, the neutralizing antibody titers increased greatly and ranged from 1:10,240 to 1:81,920. At 28 weeks after the booster vaccine was administered, the neutralizing antibody titers ranged from 1:80 to 1:10240. At 32 weeks after the first vaccination, pigs in all the groups were challenged with a virulent CSFV strain at a dose of 1 × 10(5 TCID50. At two weeks after the challenge, all the mE2-immunized pigs survived and exhibited no obvious symptoms of CSF. The neutralizing antibody titer at this time was 20,480. Unvaccinated pigs in the control group exhibited symptoms of CSF 3-4 days after challenge and were euthanized from 7-9 days after challenge when the pigs became moribund. These results indicate that the mE2 is a good candidate for the development of a safe and effective CSFV subunit vaccine.

  19. Prostaglandin A1 Inhibits Replication of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Tânia Rosária Pereira Freitas; Lucio Ayres Caldas; Moacyr Alcoforado Rebello

    1998-01-01

    Prostaglandins (Pgs) have been shown to inhibit the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses. Here we report the effect of prostaglandin (PgA1) on the multiplication of a positive strand RNA virus, Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) in PK15 cells. PgA1 was found to inhibit the multiplication of CSFV. At a concentration of 5 µg/ml, which was nontoxic to the cells, PgA1 inhibitis virus production in 99%. In PgA1 treated cells the size and number of characteristic Classical Swine Fever focus d...

  20. Prostaglandin A1 Inhibits Replication of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Tânia Rosária Pereira Freitas

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (Pgs have been shown to inhibit the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses. Here we report the effect of prostaglandin (PgA1 on the multiplication of a positive strand RNA virus, Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV in PK15 cells. PgA1 was found to inhibit the multiplication of CSFV. At a concentration of 5 µg/ml, which was nontoxic to the cells, PgA1 inhibitis virus production in 99%. In PgA1 treated cells the size and number of characteristic Classical Swine Fever focus decreased in amount.

  1. Lumbricidae as transitory hosts in Metastrongylus infection in swine

    Pavlović Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastrongylidosis or lungworm disease in swine is a disease caused by several types of nematodes of the genus Metastrongylus. Metastrongylidae are biohelminths whose causes use transitory hosts for their development and maintaining their biological cycle, and in this case they are numerous species of Lumbricidae (earthworms. Depending on the geographic environment, numerous representatives of Lumbricidae persist as transitory hosts. In our environment, these are dominant earthworm species of the genus Eisenia spp, Dandreobena spp, Allopbophora spp, Lubricus spp, Octoiasium spp, Bimastus spp, and rarely those from the genus Heledrillus spp. Swine are infected perorally with Metastrongylidae when they ingest infected earthworms.

  2. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    2010-01-01

    ... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER... § 94.17 Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African......

  3. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease. PMID:23360036

  4. Original pedagogues

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    professional autonomy in exercising judgment concerning pedagogical situations. To understand how pedagogues can struggle the distention between being competent and being original the project draws on both Michel Foucault and Charles Taylor as two incompatible theories on modern identity. The study is......Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... pedagogues and in everyday life in daycare facilities. The competence term includes at least two discourses of interest; a pedagogical competence discourse and a political jurisdiction discourse which forms a distention between authenticity and competence. In order that pedagogues may regain their autonomy I...

  5. The importance of adjuvant formulation in the development of a TB vaccine

    Baldwin, Susan L.; Bertholet, Sylvie; Reese, Valerie A.; Ching, Lance K; Reed, Steven G.; Coler, Rhea N.

    2012-01-01

    An effective protein based vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) will require a safe and effective adjuvant. There are few adjuvants in approved human vaccines, including Alum and the oil-in-water (o/w) based emulsions MF59 (Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics), AS03 and AS04 (GlaxoSmith Kline Biologics, GSK) AF03 (Sanofi), and liposomes (Crucell). When used with pure, defined proteins, both Alum and emulsion adjuvants are effective at inducing primarily humoral responses. One of the newest adjuvants i...

  6. A new rabies vaccine with an experimental adjuvant for domestic animals

    Süli Judit; Beníšek Z.; Ondrejková Ana; Ondrejka R.; Prokeš M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors had developed a new experimental adjuvant based on squalene and its efficacy was tested on target domestic animals - cats and dogs by means of different rabies vaccines. In this experiment the authors compared the immune response on the rabies vaccine without adjuvant and with aluminium adjuvant or experimental squalene adjuvant, respectively. The level of rabies antibodies was determined by rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test on days 14, 3...

  7. CO(2) stunning may compromise swine welfare compared with electrical stunning.

    Becerril-Herrera, M; Alonso-Spilsbury, M; Lemus-Flores, C; Guerrero-Legarreta, I; Olmos-Hernández, A; Ramírez-Necoechea, R; Mota-Rojas, D

    2009-01-01

    The effects of two different stunning methods on critical blood values in fattening pigs at a federal inspection slaughtering plant were monitored. A total of 658 pigs from the same genetic line and origin, were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: reference baseline levels (resting pigs; T1), stunning with CO(2) (T2) and stunned electrically (T3). Energetic profile, acid imbalance and blood gas levels, were monitored. Significant differences (p⩽0.05) between treatments for all variables were found, CO(2) stunned pigs showed hypercapnia, hypercalcemia, hyperglucemia, lactic acidemia, and an increase in haematocrit, coupled with reduced pH, [Formula: see text] , and Na; electrically stunned pigs had reduced blood pH, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] . The remaining indicators were increased in relation to the resting swine. Thus CO(2) stunning leads to a major imbalance because of mineral and acid base gaseous interchange, compared to electric stunning, thus possibly compromising animal welfare. PMID:22063988

  8. A swine dysentery model for evaluation of drug prophylaxis: efficacy of various drugs in the control of swine dysentery.

    Raynaud, J P; Brunault, G; Patterson, E B

    1981-01-01

    A swine dysentery (SD) model that produces consistent, homogeneous, and severe SD was used in 2 experiments to compare the prophylactic effectiveness of 5 commercially available swine feed additive products. Under the conditions of these studies, carbadox and carbadox + sulfamethazine proved to be the most effective agents in preventing SD during the infection + medication and postmedication periods. Olaquindox was effective in preventing SD in the infection + medication period; however, SD recurrence was high during the postmedication period. Nithiamide and chlortetracycline + sulfamethazine + penicillin were least effective in preventing SD during the infection + medication and postmedication periods. PMID:7224318

  9. Adjuvants and delivery systems in veterinary vaccinology: current state and future developments

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Dedieu, Laurence; Johnson, Nicholas;

    2011-01-01

    Modern adjuvants should induce strong and balanced immune responses, and it is often desirable to induce specific types of immunity. As an example, efficient Th1-immunity-inducing adjuvants are highly in demand. Such adjuvants promote good cell-mediated immunity against subunit vaccines that have...

  10. Comparative activity of some veterinary pharmaceutical products in swine dysentery

    Cristina, T. Romeo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the diseases that cause great damage in the pig breeding farms, Brachyspyra swine dysentery has a special importance because involve great losses both by growth failure and high mortality andsignificant costs to the prevention and control. The study was conducted in a swine farm in Timis County, where the disease was originally identified in autumn of year 2009. Cumulative adverse conditions have affected the rate of morbidity and mortality. Themost common clinical developments in the unit were usually acute and subacute. Research included: a comparative study of the effectiveness of tiamulin fumarate, hydrogenated and dimetridazole powder in sick acute and subacute forms in piglets, at the weaning period; the comparative study of efficiency in therapy of soluble tiamulin (the tiamulin fumarate-hydrogenated and of the injection of piglets effective and the study of growth indicators: average daily gain.Experiment IGroup I consisted in 15 piglets with an average weight per lot of 7.60 kg/head (batch weight: 114kg received p.o. dimetridazole insoluble powder (Romvac Bucharest, mixed in feed, for 5 days dose of 25 mg/kg.bw. During the observation, two mortalities were recorded, representing 13.33% of the treated lot. Other animals from the group were clinically cured, the signs of the disease gradually disappeared, and the temperature returned to normal enteric symptoms. The observation period after the 21 days of experiment, the batchweight was 114.2 kg, corresponding to growth registered 95.5 g/head/day.Group II, of 15 pigs with enteritis clinical signs, have had an average weight per lot of 7.48 kg/head, and he has undergone treatment with tiamulin product (Novartis Animal Health soluble granules, in drinking water. Treatments were performed for 5 consecutive days at a dose of 60 mg/liter of drinking water. In this group, diarrhea symptoms decreased and general status of the animals gradually improved, no mortality was recorded five days

  11. Taxanes in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer

    S. V. Limareva

    2010-01-01

    Taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) are currently considered to be basic cytostatics in the treatment of all breast cancer (BC) stages. The results of conducted and ongoing clinical trials suggest that incorporation of taxanes into adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens enhances the efficiency of treatment for operable BC and show it necessary to apply an individual approach depending on prognostic and predictive factors.

  12. Organic weed control with vinegar: Application volumes and adjuvants

    Preliminary results have indicated that vinegar has potential as an organic herbicide, but further research is needed to increase our understanding of the relationship between acetic acid concentrations, application volumes, adjuvants, weed species, and weed maturity on effectiveness of vinegar to c...

  13. Adjuvant chemotherapy compliance is not superior after thoracoscopic lobectomy

    Licht, Peter B; Schytte, Tine; Jakobsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single-institution, ......BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single...... histopathology. A clinical oncologist, who was blinded to the surgical approach, reviewed all medical oncology charts for types of adjuvant chemotherapy, reasons for not initiating or stopping treatment, number of cycles delivered, and time interval from surgery to initial chemotherapy. RESULTS: During a 6-year...... adjuvant chemotherapy and 121 (38.7%) completed all four cycles. Ordinal logistic regression revealed that chemotherapy compliance (none, partial, and full chemotherapy) was significantly reduced by the patient's age (p<0.001) and comorbidity index (p=0.003) but increased with N2 status (p=0.02). No...

  14. Evaluation of adjuvant effects of fucoidan for improving vaccine efficacy.

    Kim, Su-Yeon; Joo, Hong-Gu

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed, including Fucus vesiculosus. This compound is known to have immunostimulatory effects on various types of immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells. A recent study described the application of fucoidan as a vaccine adjuvant. Vaccination is regarded as the most efficient prophylactic method for preventing harmful or epidemic diseases. To increase vaccine efficacy, effective adjuvants are needed. In the present study, we determined whether fucoidan can function as an adjuvant using vaccine antigens. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that fucoidan increases the expression of the activation markers major histocompatibility complex class II, cluster of differentiation (CD)25, and CD69 in spleen cells. In combination with Bordetella bronchiseptica antigen, fucoidan increased the viability and tumor necrosis factor-α production of spleen cells. Furthermore, fucoidan increased the in vivo production of antigen-specific antibodies in mice inoculated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigen. Overall, this study has provided valuable information about the use of fucoidan as a vaccine adjuvant. PMID:25549218

  15. Liposomal preparations of muramyl glycopeptides as immunomodulators and adjuvants

    Turánek, J.; Ledvina, Miroslav; Kašná, A.; Vacek, A.; Hříbalová, V.; Krejčí, J.; Miller, A. D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 24, S2 (2006), S90-S91. ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : liposoma * adjuvant * muramyl glycopeptides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.159, year: 2006

  16. Tailorable Trimethyl chitosans as adjuvant for intranasal immunization

    Verheul, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tailorable Trimethyl Chitosans as Adjuvant for Intranasal Immunization Active vaccination has proven to be the most (cost) effective tool in the fight against infectious diseases. Nowadays, most vaccines are administered via parenteral injection. However, the risk of contaminated needles and need fo

  17. Presence of gastrointestinal parasites in swine and human of four swine production farms in Cundinamarca- Colombia

    María F Mendoza-Gómez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the presence and the type of endoparasites with zoonotic potential in swine and human of two technified and two semi-technified farms in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materials and methods. Three serial samplings of feces were taken in a pen row within intervals of 15 days, in two technified and two semi-technified farms in different age groups distributed as follows: pregnant-sows, nursing-females, boars, weaners, suckling-piglets, and growing-pig. By means of informed consent thirty-three people agreed to enter the study. Thirty-three samples from men and women of different ages were received. The pool and individual samples of fecal were evaluated by direct analysis, qualitative flotation and sedimentation techniques and modified ZiehlNeelsen stain. Results. For the porcine population, on the average, the results obtained from both technified farms showed that Balantidium coli (42%, Endolimax nana (21.9% and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.8% were the most common parasites. In semi-technified farms they were: Entamoeba coli (40%, Endolimax nana (35%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (25% and Balantidium coli (5%. By means of the test chi2 it is possible to conclude that there is a significant difference between the parasites species and the type of farm. The results obtained in human showed the presence of parasites as: E. coli (42.2%, Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (12.1%, E. nana (9.1%, B. coli (9.1%, I. bütschlii (3.0% and Blastocystis hominis (3.0%. Conclusions. The presence of parasites such as Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Entamoeba coli in swine and human suggests a possible rotation of parasitic species between hosts.

  18. Fertilizing cotton with P recovered from swine wastewater

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from waste on swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) farms. Our objective was to compare this recovered P to triple superphosphate and broiler litter for soil availability, leaching, and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant P concentration. A...

  19. Anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Inhibition by ammonia

    Hansen, Kaare Hvid; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1998-01-01

    A stable anaerobic degradation of swine manure with ammonia concentration of 6 g-N/litre was obtained in continuously stirred tank reactors with a hydraulic retention time of 15 days, at Four different temperatures. Methane yields of 188, 141, 67 and 22 ml-CH4/g-VS were obtained at 37, 45, 55...

  20. Solids and nutrient removal from flushed swine manure using polyacrylamide

    Most of the organic nutrient elements (nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon compounds (COD) in liquid swine manure are contained in fine suspended particles. Flocculation treatment with polyacrylamide (PAM) followed by screening if on the best methods to separate the liquid fraction

  1. Lessons learned from influenza in swine and poultry

    Influenza is naturally carried by wild birds, however it does occasionally transmit to domestic animal populations. Poultry and swine are the two major food animal populations which may be infected by influenza A. This report reviews the historic impact of these disease incursions. The actions taken...

  2. Traversing the Swine Gastrointestinal Tract: Salmonella Survival and Pathogenesis

    As the most consumed meat in the world, pork has been attributed to an estimated 14.6% of known causes of foodborne illnesses. The presence of the foodborne pathogen Salmonella in swine is both a food safety issue and animal health concern, costing pork producers over 100 million dollars annually. ...

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE RATES IN CAMPYLOBACTER ISOLATES DERIVED FROM SWINE

    Campylobacter, a microaerophilic gram-negative rod, is a major foodborne pathogen and commonly present in swine intestinal tract without causing any clinical disease. In this project, we investigated the antimicrobial resistance profiles of fecal Campylobacter isolates (n= 194) obtained from a swin...

  4. Odor control in swine buildings: recycle flush vs. automated scraper

    A research project was conducted to compare odor concentrations in exhaust of traditional flush barns and barns equipped with automated scrapers. The study was conducted at commercial tunnel-ventilated swine barns in northwest Missouri. Odor samples were collected from the barn exhaust in polyvinyl ...

  5. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  6. Genome wide association study of age at puberty in swine

    Age at puberty (AP) is an economically important trait in swine production. Reducing AP provides opportunities to lower the cost of gilt development, reduce age at first farrowing, increase litter size, and improve sow longevity. This analysis was designed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL)...

  7. Persistent Classical Swine Fever infection in newborn piglets

    Uttenthal, Åse; Lohse, Louise; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun;

    Pestiviruses are unique in their ability to cause persistent infection (PI) in pigs infected in utero. In cattle, PI calves play an important role in maintenance of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in the herd. In pigs, the occurence of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) PI piglets is...

  8. Influenza Virus Surveillance in Coordinated Swine Production Systems, United States.

    Kaplan, Bryan S; DeBeauchamp, Jennifer; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Franks, John; Crumpton, Jeri Carol; Turner, Jasmine; Darnell, Daniel; Jeevan, Trushar; Kayali, Ghazi; Harding, Abbey; Webby, Richard J; Lowe, James F

    2015-10-01

    To clarify the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in coordinated swine production systems to which no animals from outside the system are introduced, we conducted virologic surveillance during September 2012-September 2013. Animal age, geographic location, and farm type were found to affect the prevalence of these viruses. PMID:26402228

  9. Influenza A virus pathogenesis and vaccination in swine

    Swine influenza is an acute respiratory disease of pigs that is characterized by fever followed by lethargy, anorexia, and serous nasal discharge. The disease progresses rapidly and may be complicated when associated with other respiratory pathogens. Influenza A virus (IAV) is one of the most preval...

  10. Comparative prevalence of immune evasion complex genes associated with beta-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates from swine, swine facilities, humans with swine contact, and humans with no swine contact

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genet...

  11. Role of Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Ampulla of Vater Cancer

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for ampulla of Vater cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1991 and December 2002, 118 patients with ampulla of Vater cancer underwent en bloc resection. Forty-one patients received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy [RT(+) group], and 77 did not [RT(-) group]. Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered to the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes, for a total dose of up to 40 Gy delivered in 2-Gy fractions, with a planned 2-week rest period halfway through the treatment period. Intravenous 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m2/day) was given on Days 1 to 3 of each split course. The median follow-up was 65 months. Results: The 5-year overall survival rate in the RT(-) and RT(+) groups was 66.9% and 52.8%, respectively (p = 0.2225). The 5-year locoregional relapse-free survival rate in the RT(-) and RT(+) groups was 79.9% and 80.2%, respectively (p = 0.9582). When age, type of operation, T stage, N stage, histologic differentiation, and the use of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy were incorporated into the Cox proportional hazard model, there was an improvement in the locoregional relapse-free survival rate (p = 0.0050) and a trend toward a longer overall survival (p = 0.0762) associated with the use of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Improved overall survival (p = 0.0235) and locoregional relapse-free survival (p = 0.0095) were also evident in patients with nodal metastasis. In contrast, enhanced locoregional control (p = 0.0319) did not result in longer survival in patients with locally advanced disease (p = 0.4544). Conclusions: Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy may enhance locoregional control and overall survival in patients with ampulla of Vater cancer after curative resection, especially in those with nodal involvement.

  12. Adjuvant and salvage irradiation following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer

    Purpose: We performed a retrospective analysis to assess the durability of benefit derived from irradiation after prostatectomy for pT3N0 disease, and the possibility of cure. Methods and Materials: We studied 88 patients who were irradiated after prostatectomy and had available prostate specific antigen (PSA) data, no known nodal or metastatic disease, no hormonal treatment, and follow-up of at least 12 months from surgery. Forty patients received adjuvant therapy for a high risk of local failure with undetectable PSA. Forty-eight patients received salvage therapy for elevated PSA levels. Mean follow up was 44 months from date of surgery and 31 months from irradiation. Biochemical failure was strictly defined as a confirmed rise in PSA of > 10%, or as the ability to detect a previously undetectable PSA value. Results: After salvage irradiation, 69% of patients attained an undetectable PSA. Eighty-eight percent of adjuvant patients were biochemically and clinically free of disease (bNED) at 3 years from prostatectomy. Sixty-eight percent of those receiving salvage irradiation were bNED 3 years after surgery. On univariate analysis, treatment group (adjuvant or salvage), pre-operative PSA, and the status of seminal vesicles were significant prognostic factors. The extent of PSA elevation in the salvage group was also significant. We did not demonstrate a significant difference between those salvage patients referred for persistently elevated PSA as compared to those with a late rise in PSA. On multivariate analysis, the only significant predictor of outcome was treatment group, with adjuvant irradiation having better outcome than salvage. Conclusion: More than two-thirds of this group of patients remain biochemically disease free at 3 years following irradiation, attesting to a number of potential cures. For patients with stage pT3N0 prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy, our data support the use of either routine postoperative adjuvant irradiation or

  13. Gradual development of the interferon-γ response of swine to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection or vaccination

    Infection of swine with virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus induced a rapid, robust antibody response that comprised predominantly nonneutralizing antibodies and waned after approximately 3 months. In contrast, the initial onset of virus-specific interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting cells (SC) in the pig lymphocyte population remained at a fairly low level during this period and then increased gradually in frequency, plateauing at 6 months postinfection. A similar polarization of the host humoral and cellular immune responses was also observed in pigs immunized with a PRRS-modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. Even coadministration of an adjuvant that enhanced the immune response to a pseudorabies (PR) MLV vaccine failed to alter the induction of PRRS virus-specific IFN-γ SC (comprising predominately CD4/CD8α double positive memory T cells with a minority being typical CD4-/CD8αβ+ T cells) and the generation of neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, unlike inactivated PR virus, nonviable PRRS virus did not elicit virus-neutralizing antibody production. Presumably, an intrinsic property of this pathogen delays the development of the host IFN-γ response and preferentially stimulates the synthesis of antibodies incapable of neutralization

  14. Nitrogen availability of anaerobic swine lagoon sludge: sludge source effects.

    Moore, Amber D; Israel, Daniel W; Mikkelsen, Robert L

    2005-02-01

    Increased numbers of swine producers will be removing sludge from their anaerobic waste treatment lagoons in the next few years, due to sludge exceeding designed storage capacity. Information on availability of nitrogen (N) in the sludge is needed to improve application recommendations for crops. The objective of this study was to investigate possible effects of different companies and types of swine operations on the availability of N in sludge from their associated lagoons. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to quantify the availability of N (i.e. initial inorganic N plus the potentially mineralizable organic N) in the sludge. Nine sludge sources from lagoons of sow, nursery and finishing operations of three different swine companies were mixed with a loamy sand soil (200 mg total Kjeldahl N kg(-1) soil) and incubated at a water content of 0.19 g. water g(-1) dry soil and 25+/-2 degrees C for 12 weeks. Samples were taken at eight times over the 12-week period and analyzed for inorganic N (i.e. NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) to determine mineralization of organic N in the sludge. Company and type of swine operation had no significant effects (P incubation. While plant N availability coefficients were not measured in this study, the lack of significant company or type of swine operation effects on sludge N mineralization suggests that use of the same plant N availability coefficient for sludge from different types of lagoons is justifiable. The validity of this interpretation depends on the assumption that variation in other components of different sludge sources such as Cu and Zn does not differentially alter N uptake by the receiver crops. PMID:15474933

  15. Evaluation of preventive homeopathic treatment against Colibacillosis in swine production

    Flávia Carolina Souza Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is the most important etiologic agent implied in neonatal diarrhea in swine; colibacillosis is the disease with highest impact in production of swine. The demands of consumers for meat without chemical residues and the ban on the use of antibiotics and chemotherapics in production of swine compelled to find alternative therapeutic and preventive treatments. Aims: to assess homeopathic treatment as preventive against colibacillosis in swine. Methods: the study was conducted in a farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil; stools of 4 piglets with diarrhea were collected to establish the presence of E. coli; concomitantly it was performed a clinical exam to identify the symptoms leading to the choice of a homeopathy remedy. Newborn piglets were divided into 4 groups (n= 11 or 12: 1 control, subjected to antibiotic treatment against diarrhea; 2 homeopathic treatment, performed with Phosphorus 30cH according to the symptoms collected; 3 biotherapic treatment, performed with Escherichia coli 30cH prepared from the locally obtained bacteria; 4 homeopathic + biotherapics treatment. Results: all 3 groups treated with homeopathy/isotherapy presented a significant reduction of diarrhea compared to the control group (p=0.02; the group treated with Phosphorus 30cH + Escherichia coli 30cH presented the highest weight gain which was significant by comparison to all other groups (p=0.001. Conclusion: homeopathic and biotherapics treatment were more effective than antibiotics in the control of diarrhea in newborn piglets; combination of homeopathic and isopathic treatment resulted in the highest weight gain. These results suggest that homeopathy and isopathy are effective alternatives for the treatment of diarrhea by E. coli in newborn swine.

  16. Effects of the interactions of classical swine fever virus core protein with proteins of SUMOylation pathway on virulence in swine

    The classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nucleocapsid or Core protein serves a protective function for the viral RNA, and acts as a transcriptional regulator. However studies involving the CSFV Core protein have been limited. To gain insight into other functions of the Core protein, particularly into ...

  17. Quantitative assessment of the likelihood of the introduction of classical swine fever virus into the Danish swine population

    Bronsvoort, BMD; Alban, L.; Greiner, M.

    2008-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a major infectious-disease agent of livestock and causes production losses through increased morbidity and mortality, particularly of young pigs. We identified the pathways for introduction of CSFV into Denmark and assessed the annual probability of...

  18. Interaction between core protein of classical swine fever virus with cellular IQGAP1 proetin appears essential for virulence in swine

    Here we show that IQGAP1, a cellular protein that plays a pivotal role as a regulator of the cytoskeleton affecting cell adhesion, polarization and migration, interacts with Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) Core protein. Sequence analyses identified a defined set of residues within CSFV Core prote...

  19. A phase II study evaluating neo-/adjuvant EIA chemotherapy, surgical resection and radiotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma

    The role of chemotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma is controversial. Though many patients undergo initial curative resection, distant metastasis is a frequent event, resulting in 5-year overall survival rates of only 50-60%. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX) has been applied to achieve pre-operative cytoreduction, assess chemosensitivity, and to eliminate occult metastasis. Here we report on the results of our non-randomized phase II study on neo-adjuvant treatment for high-risk STS. Patients with potentially curative high-risk STS (size ≥ 5 cm, deep/extracompartimental localization, tumor grades II-III [FNCLCC]) were included. The protocol comprised 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (EIA, etoposide 125 mg/m2 iv days 1 and 4, ifosfamide 1500 mg/m2 iv days 1 - 4, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 day 1, pegfilgrastim 6 mg sc day 5), definitive surgery with intra-operative radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and 4 adjuvant cycles of EIA. Between 06/2005 and 03/2010 a total of 50 subjects (male = 33, female = 17, median age 50.1 years) were enrolled. Median follow-up was 30.5 months. The majority of primary tumors were located in the extremities or trunk (92%), 6% originated in the abdomen/retroperitoneum. Response by RECIST criteria to neo-adjuvant CTX was 6% CR (n = 3), 24% PR (n = 12), 62% SD (n = 31) and 8% PD (n = 4). Local recurrence occurred in 3 subjects (6%). Distant metastasis was observed in 12 patients (24%). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 2 years was 83% and 68%, respectively. Multivariate analysis failed to prove influence of resection status or grade of histological necrosis on OS or DFS. Severe toxicities included neutropenic fever (4/50), cardiac toxicity (2/50), and CNS toxicity (4/50) leading to CTX dose reductions in 4 subjects. No cases of secondary leukemias were observed so far. The current protocol is feasible for achieving local control rates, as well as OS and DFS comparable to previously published data on

  20. A phase II study evaluating neo-/adjuvant EIA chemotherapy, surgical resection and radiotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma

    Schmitt Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of chemotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma is controversial. Though many patients undergo initial curative resection, distant metastasis is a frequent event, resulting in 5-year overall survival rates of only 50-60%. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX has been applied to achieve pre-operative cytoreduction, assess chemosensitivity, and to eliminate occult metastasis. Here we report on the results of our non-randomized phase II study on neo-adjuvant treatment for high-risk STS. Method Patients with potentially curative high-risk STS (size ≥ 5 cm, deep/extracompartimental localization, tumor grades II-III [FNCLCC] were included. The protocol comprised 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (EIA, etoposide 125 mg/m2 iv days 1 and 4, ifosfamide 1500 mg/m2 iv days 1 - 4, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 day 1, pegfilgrastim 6 mg sc day 5, definitive surgery with intra-operative radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and 4 adjuvant cycles of EIA. Result Between 06/2005 and 03/2010 a total of 50 subjects (male = 33, female = 17, median age 50.1 years were enrolled. Median follow-up was 30.5 months. The majority of primary tumors were located in the extremities or trunk (92%, 6% originated in the abdomen/retroperitoneum. Response by RECIST criteria to neo-adjuvant CTX was 6% CR (n = 3, 24% PR (n = 12, 62% SD (n = 31 and 8% PD (n = 4. Local recurrence occurred in 3 subjects (6%. Distant metastasis was observed in 12 patients (24%. Overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS at 2 years was 83% and 68%, respectively. Multivariate analysis failed to prove influence of resection status or grade of histological necrosis on OS or DFS. Severe toxicities included neutropenic fever (4/50, cardiac toxicity (2/50, and CNS toxicity (4/50 leading to CTX dose reductions in 4 subjects. No cases of secondary leukemias were observed so far. Conclusion The current protocol is feasible for achieving local control rates, as well as OS

  1. Tumor tissue levels of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and outcome following adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive breast cancer patients: A retrospective study

    We have previously demonstrated that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 are associated with no or limited clinical benefit from chemotherapy with CMF and anthracyclines in metastatic breast cancer patients. Here, we extend our investigations to the adjuvant setting studying outcome after adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive patients. We hypothesize that TIMP-1 high tumors are less sensitive to chemotherapy and accordingly that high tumor tissue levels are associated with shorter survival. From our original retrospectively collected tumor samples we selected a group of 525 pre-menopausal lymph node-positive patients (adjuvant treatment: CMF, 324 patients; anthracycline-based, 99 patients; no adjuvant chemotherapy, 102 patients). TIMP-1 levels were measured using ELISA in cytosolic extracts of frozen primary tumors. TIMP-1 was analyzed as a continuous variable and as a dichotomized one using the median TIMP-1 concentration as a cut point between high and low TIMP-1 groups. We analyzed the benefit of adjuvant CMF and anthracyclines in univariate and multivariable survival models; endpoints were disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In this selected cohort of high-risk patients, and in the subgroup of patients receiving no adjuvant therapy, TIMP-1 was not associated with prognosis. In the subgroup of patients treated with anthracyclines, when analyzed as a continuous variable we observed a tendency for increasing TIMP-1 levels to be associated with shorter DFS (multivariable analysis, HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.00-3.07, P = 0.05) and a significant association between increasing TIMP-1 and shorter OS in both univariate (HR 3.52, 95% CI 1.54-8.06, P = 0.003) and multivariable analyses (HR 4.19, 95% CI 1.67-10.51, P = 0.002). No statistically significant association between TIMP-1 and DFS was observed in the CMF-treated patients although high TIMP-1 was associated with shorter OS when analyzed as a dichotomized variable (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.02-2.65, P

  2. Evaluation of several adjuvants in avian influenza vaccine to chickens and ducks

    Li Hong T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of three different adjuvants, mineral oil, Montanide™ ISA 70M VG, and Montanide™ ISA 206 VG, were evaluated on reverse genetics H5N3 avian influenza virus cell cultured vaccine. The immune results of SPF chickens after challenging with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus demonstrated that mineral oil adjuvant group and 70M adjuvant group provided 100% protection efficiency, but 206 adjuvant group provided only 40%. Statistical analysis indicated that the protection effects of mineral oil adjuvant group and the 70M adjuvant showed no significant difference to each other, but with significant difference to 206 adjuvant group. All three groups could induce high titres of antibody after immunizing SPF ducks, but there was no significant difference among them. The immunization effect of 70M adjuvant group on SPF chickens were the best and showed significant difference compared with optimized 70Mi Montanide™ eight series adjuvants groups. These results suggest that 70M adjuvant could be a novel adjuvant for preparing avian influenza vaccine.

  3. Surface markers of swine lymphocyte: application to the study of local immune system of mammary and transplanted gut

    Swine lymphocytes are subdivided into four subsets by means of surface markers: T cells by sheep red blood cell receptors, B cells by C3b receptors, L cells by Fc γ receptors and null cells without receptors. Their distribution, development, function and tissue origin were studied in mammary gland and gut as components of the local immune system from 80 to 113 days of pregnancy. There was a colonization of mammary epithelium by T, B and L lymphocytes with few null cells; during lactation, null cells reappeared and the four lymphocyte subsets were similar in proportion to those seen in blood. Dual origin of mammary lymphocytes from mesenteric (MLN) and inguinal lymph nodes (ILN) was shown after labelling each node by fluorescein or rhodamine, respectively, suggesting that local immune response may not depend solely on oral immunization. Swine treated with cyclosporin A were able to tolerate total gut graft transplantation from semihistocompatible pigs. Labelling of recipient MLN or SLA typing showed that gut grafts were colonized by lymphocytes from the recipient. In addition, there were no detectable changes in lymphocyte subset distribution and function, ie, ability to respond to mitogenic stimulation and to synthetize IL-2

  4. Effect of different adjuvant formulations on the immunogenicity and protective effect of a live Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine after intramuscular inoculation.

    Xiong, Qiyan; Wei, Yanna; Xie, Haidong; Feng, Zhixin; Gan, Yuan; Wang, Chunlai; Liu, Maojun; Bai, Fangfang; Xie, Fang; Shao, Guoqing

    2014-06-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) vaccine strain 168 is an intrapulmonically injected attenuated live vaccine that is available in the Chinese market. The aim of this study was to develop suitable adjuvants for this live vaccine to provide effective protection after intramuscular inoculation. Several adjuvant components were screened to assess their toxicity for the live vaccine, and various adjuvant formulations were then designed and prepared. Vaccines supplemented with these adjuvants were used to immunize mice intramuscularly to assess the capacity of the adjuvants to induce a specific immune response. The screened formulations were then evaluated in pigs. Seven of the eight adjuvant components did not affect the viability of the live vaccine, and seven different adjuvant formulations were then designed. In mice, the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant and the levamisole-chitosan mixture adjuvant significantly enhanced serum IgG responses against M. hyopneumoniae, while lymphocyte proliferation was enhanced by the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant, the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant and an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant. These four adjuvants were evaluated in pigs. Enhancement of specific lymphocyte proliferation responses was observed in the groups vaccinated with the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant and the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant. Significant enhancement of serum IgG antibody production was observed before challenge in pigs vaccinated with the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant and the levamisole-chitosan mixture adjuvant, while after challenge, all of the animals that received vaccines containing adjuvants had higher antibody concentrations against M. hyopneumoniae than unvaccinated animals. Animals inoculated with a vaccine containing the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant (median score 3.57) or the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant (median score 5.28) had reduced lesion scores compared to unvaccinated animals

  5. Type I strain of Toxoplasma gondii from chicken induced different immune responses with that from human, cat and swine in chicken

    Zhao Guang-wei; Xu Li-xin; LI Xiang-rui; WanG Shuai; WanG Wang; ZhanG Zhen-chao; XIe Qing; ZhanG Meng; I a hassan; Yan Ruo-feng; SonG Xiao-kai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, four strains of Toxoplasma gondi with the same genetic type (Type I) originated from chicken, human, cat and swine were used to compare the immune responses in resistant chicken host to investigate the relationships between the parasite origins and the pathogenicity in certain host. A total of 300, 10-day-old chickens were al ocated randomly into ifve groups which named JS (from chicken), CAT (from cat), CN (from swine), RH (from human) and a negative control group (–Ve) with 60 birds in each group. Tachyzoites of four different T. gondi strains (JS, CAT, CN and RH) were inocu-lated intraperitoneal y with the dose of 1×107 in the four designed groups, respectively. The negative control (–Ve) group was mockly inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) alone. Blood and spleen samples were obtained on the day of inoculation (day 0) and at days 4, 11, 25, 39 and 53 post-infection to screen the immunopathological changes. The results demonstrated some different immune characters of T. gondi infected chickens with that of mice or swine previous reported. These differences included up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules in the early stage of infection, early peak expressions of interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12) and-10 (IL-10) and long keep of IL-17. These might partial y contribute to the resistance of chicken to T. gondi infection. Comparisons to chickens infected with strains from human, cat and swine, chickens infected with strain from chicken showed signiifcant high levels of CD4+and CD8+T cel s, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), IL-12 and IL-10. It suggested that the strain from chicken had different ability to stimulate cel ular immunity in chicken.

  6. Original Thinking

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  7. Swine plasma immunoglobulins for prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea: Safety and Preliminary results

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Bendix Hansen, Marie;

    industry. We aim at developing a sustainable product for protection against PWD based on natural antibodies (immunoglobulins) derived directly from inexpensive raw materials. The availability of such an inexpensive and highly active immunogloulin product would allow swine producers to reduce expenses...... and minimize the on antibiotics and zinc usage. Swine immunoglobulins were isolated directly from slaughterhouse swine plasma-waste by expanded bed chromatography. It was shown that the isolated Immunoglobulin fraction bound enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Salmonella ssp. and inhibited...

  8. Genetic and experimental evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis E virus.

    Meng, X J; Halbur, P G; Shapiro, M S; Govindarajan, S; Bruna, J D; Mushahwar, I K; Purcell, R H; Emerson, S U

    1998-12-01

    Prior to the recent discovery of the swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV) in pigs from the midwestern United States, HEV was not considered endemic to this country. Since swine HEV is antigenically and genetically related to human strains of HEV, it was important to characterize this new virus further. The infectivity titer of a pool of swine HEV in pigs was determined in order to prepare a standardized reagent and to evaluate the dose response in pigs. Although the sequence of swine HEV varied extensively from those of most human strains of HEV, it was very closely related to the two strains of human HEV (US-1 and US-2) isolated in the United States. The U.S. strains which were recently recovered from two patients with clinical hepatitis E in the United States shared >/=97% amino acid identity with swine HEV in open reading frames 1 and 2. Phylogenetic analyses of different regions of the genome revealed that swine HEV and the U.S. strains grouped together and formed a distinct branch. These results suggested that swine HEV may infect humans. When we inoculated rhesus monkeys and a chimpanzee, experimental surrogates of humans, with swine HEV, the primates became infected. Furthermore, in a reciprocal experiment, specific-pathogen-free pigs were experimentally infected with the US-2 strain of human HEV that is genetically similar to swine HEV. These results provided experimental evidence for cross-species infection by the swine virus. Thus, humans appear to be at risk of infection with swine HEV or closely related viruses. PMID:9811705

  9. Integrin β3 Is Required in Infection and Proliferation of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Weiwei Li; Gang Wang; Wulong Liang; Kai Kang; Kangkang Guo; Yanming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly infectious fatal pig disease, resulting in huge economic loss to the swine industry. Integrins are membrane-bound signal mediators, expressed on a variety of cell surfaces and are known as receptors or co-receptors for many viruses. However, the role of integrin β3 in CSFV infection is unknown. Here, through quantitive PCR, immunofluorescence (IFC) and immunocytohistochemistry (ICC), we revealed that ST (swine testicles epithelial) cells have a prominen...

  10. Development and standardization of an indirect ELISA for the serological diagnosis of classical swine fever

    Paredes Julio Cesar Muñoz; Oliveira Liliane Guimarães; Braga Alexandre de Carvalho; Trevisol Iara Maria; Roehe Paulo Michel

    1999-01-01

    An indirect enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA-I) was developed and standardized for the serological diagnosis of classical swine fever (CSF). For the comparison, nine hundred and thirty-seven swine serum samples were tested by serum neutralization followed by immunoperoxidase staining (NPLA), considered as the standard. Of these, 223 were positive and 714 negative for neutralizing antibodies to classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In relation to the NPLA, the ELISA-I presented a 98.2% sensitivi...

  11. Infectivity of Canadian isolates of Trichinella spiralis nativa for swine, rats and carnivores.

    Smith, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The infectivity of Trichinella spiralis nativa isolates from widely separated geographic areas of Canada was determined by feeding infected musculature to swine, laboratory rats and carnivores (cats, foxes, ferrets). Low infectivity for swine and rats and high infectivity for carnivores were observed. Light infections were established in four of 16 swine examined between 25 and 53 days postinfection. Feeding of infected porcine musculature to ferrets demonstrated that Trichinella spiralis nat...

  12. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    Sheng Zhou; Jining Zhang; Guoyan Zou; Shohei Riya; Masaaki Hosomi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  13. A seroepidemiologic study of Reston ebolavirus in swine in the Philippines

    Sayama Yusuke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ebola viruses cause viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates and are endemic in Africa. Reston ebolavirus (REBOV has caused several epizootics in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis but is not associated with any human disease. In late 2008, REBOV infections were identified in swine for the first time in the Philippines. Methods A total of 215 swine sera collected at two REBOV-affected farms in 2008, in Pangasinan and Bulacan, were tested for the presence of REBOV-specific antibodies using multiple serodiagnosis systems. A total of 98 swine sera collected in a non-epizootic region, Tarlac, were also tested to clarify the prevalence of REBOV infection in the general swine population in the Philippines. Results Some 70 % of swine sera at the affected farms were positive for REBOV antibodies in the multiple serodiagnosis systems. On the other hand, none of the swine sera collected in Tarlac showed positive reactions in any of the diagnosis systems. Conclusions The high prevalence of REBOV infection in swine in the affected farms in 2008 suggests that swine is susceptible for REBOV infection. The multiple serological assays used in the study are thought to be useful for future surveillance of REOBV infection in swine in the Philippines.

  14. CpG DNA as a vaccine adjuvant.

    Bode, Christian; Zhao, Gan; Steinhagen, Folkert; Kinjo, Takeshi; Klinman, Dennis M

    2011-04-01

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG motifs trigger cells that express Toll-like receptor 9 (including human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells) to mount an innate immune response characterized by the production of Th1 and proinflammatory cytokines. When used as vaccine adjuvants, CpG ODNs improve the function of professional antigen-presenting cells and boost the generation of humoral and cellular vaccine-specific immune responses. These effects are optimized by maintaining ODNs and vaccine in close proximity. The adjuvant properties of CpG ODNs are observed when administered either systemically or mucosally, and persist in immunocompromised hosts. Preclinical studies indicate that CpG ODNs improve the activity of vaccines targeting infectious diseases and cancer. Clinical trials demonstrate that CpG ODNs have a good safety profile and increase the immunogenicity of coadministered vaccines. PMID:21506647

  15. CpG Oligonucleotides as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants

    Hidekazu Shirota

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants improve host responsiveness to co-delivered vaccines through a variety of mechanisms. Agents that trigger cells expressing Toll-like receptors (TLR activate an innate immune response that enhances the induction of vaccine-specific immunity. When administered in combination with vaccines designed to prevent or slow tumor growth, TLR agonists have significantly improved the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Unfortunately, vaccines containing TLR agonists have rarely been able to eliminate large established tumors when administered systemically. To improve efficacy, attention has focused on delivering TLR agonists intra-tumorally with the intent of altering the tumor microenvironment. Agonists targeting TLRs 7/8 or 9 can reduce the frequency of Tregs while causing immunosuppressive MDSC in the tumor bed to differentiate into tumoricidal macrophages thereby enhancing tumor elimination. This work reviews pre-clinical and clinical studies concerning the utility of TLR 7/8/9 agonists as adjuvants for tumor vaccines.

  16. Adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy for gastric carcinoma with poor prognostic signs

    Fifty-seven patients with poor prognostic factors following resection with curative intent for gastric adenocarcinoma T3 or T4, positive lymph nodes, positive resection line) received adjuvant radiotherapy. A dose of 30.0-50.0 Gy was given in 10-25 fraction in one course or with a split of 2 weeks after 15 fractions. This was combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (375 mg/m2) given i.v. as a bolus during the first 4 days of radiation (n = 49). The 5-year survival was 26%; this rate is higher than the figures mentioned in the literature after surgery alone. The only way to prove the role of adjuvant radiotherapy for gastric carcinoma is a prospective randomized trial. (author). 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 6 tabs

  17. INTRASITE VANCOMYCIN POWDER AS A PROPHYLACTIC ADJUVANT IN LUMBAR FUSION

    Jorge Álvaro González Ross; Alfredo Javier Moheno Gallardo; Eulalio Elizalde Martínez; José Manuel Pérez Atanasio; Ruth Martínez Martínez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify whether the use of prophylactic intrasite vancomycin as an adjuvant is a protective factor against deep tissue infection of the surgical site. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive, case-control study evaluating 210 patients, of whom 70 received intrasite vancomycin (case group) and 140 were controls. It was made a follow up for at least one year, reviewing the physical and electronic records. Data were tabulated in spreadsheets (Excel) including all variable...

  18. Tocotrienols are good adjuvants for developing cancer vaccines

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have the potential for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to process and present antigens to T-cells and also in stimulating immune responses. However, DC-based vaccines have only exhibited minimal effectiveness against established tumours in mice and humans. The use of appropriate adjuvant enhances the efficacy of DC based cancer vaccines in treating tumours. In this study we have used tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), a non-toxic natural compound, as an adjuvant to enhance the effectiveness of DC vaccines in treating mouse mammary cancers. In the mouse model, six-week-old female BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with DC and supplemented with oral TRF daily (DC+TRF) and DC pulsed with tumour lysate from 4T1 cells (DC+TL). Experimental mice were also injected with DC pulsed with tumour lysate and supplemented daily with oral TRF (DC+TL+TRF) while two groups of animal which were supplemented daily with carrier oil (control) and with TRF (TRF). After three times vaccination, mice were inoculated with 4T1 cells in the mammary breast pad to induce tumour. Our study showed that TRF in combination with DC pulsed with tumour lysate (DC+TL+TRF) injected subcutaneously significantly inhibited the growth of 4T1 mammary tumour cells as compared to control group. Analysis of cytokines production from murine splenocytes showed significant increased productions of IFN-γ and IL-12 in experimental mice (DC+TL+TRF) compared to control, mice injected with DC without TRF, mice injected with DC pulsed with tumour lysate and mice supplemented with TRF alone. Higher numbers of cytotoxic T cells (CD8) and natural killer cells (NK) were observed in the peripheral blood of TRF adjuvanted DC pulsed tumour lysate mice. Our study show that TRF has the potential to be an adjuvant to augment DC based immunotherapy

  19. Carbonation of adjuvant concretes based on local Algerian resources

    Dakhmouche Chabil, Fatima-Zohra,

    2009-01-01

    The carbonation is a pathology which affects cement-based materials such as concretes and mortars.The carbonated skin of material becomes brittle and losses the protection of inner steels againstcorrosion. The corrosion products generate a degradation of the concrete which may lead to thecollapse of the structure.Six types of adjuvant concretes and two cement pastes have been designed by a rheological study inorder to study the effect of accelerated and natural carbonation on the sustainabili...

  20. Tocotrienols are good adjuvants for developing cancer vaccines

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs have the potential for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to process and present antigens to T-cells and also in stimulating immune responses. However, DC-based vaccines have only exhibited minimal effectiveness against established tumours in mice and humans. The use of appropriate adjuvant enhances the efficacy of DC based cancer vaccines in treating tumours. Methods In this study we have used tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF, a non-toxic natural compound, as an adjuvant to enhance the effectiveness of DC vaccines in treating mouse mammary cancers. In the mouse model, six-week-old female BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with DC and supplemented with oral TRF daily (DC+TRF and DC pulsed with tumour lysate from 4T1 cells (DC+TL. Experimental mice were also injected with DC pulsed with tumour lysate and supplemented daily with oral TRF (DC+TL+TRF while two groups of animal which were supplemented daily with carrier oil (control and with TRF (TRF. After three times vaccination, mice were inoculated with 4T1 cells in the mammary breast pad to induce tumour. Results Our study showed that TRF in combination with DC pulsed with tumour lysate (DC+TL+TRF injected subcutaneously significantly inhibited the growth of 4T1 mammary tumour cells as compared to control group. Analysis of cytokines production from murine splenocytes showed significant increased productions of IFN-γ and IL-12 in experimental mice (DC+TL+TRF compared to control, mice injected with DC without TRF, mice injected with DC pulsed with tumour lysate and mice supplemented with TRF alone. Higher numbers of cytotoxic T cells (CD8 and natural killer cells (NK were observed in the peripheral blood of TRF adjuvanted DC pulsed tumour lysate mice. Conclusion Our study show that TRF has the potential to be an adjuvant to augment DC based immunotherapy.

  1. Recombinant human migration inhibitory factor has adjuvant activity.

    Weiser, W Y; Pozzi, L M; Titus, R G; David, J R

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human migration inhibitory factor (MIF), isolated through functional expression cloning in COS-1 cells, up-regulates expression of genes encoding HLA-DR and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and elaboration of IL-1 beta by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Administration of soluble bovine serum albumin or human immunodeficiency virus 120-kDa glycoprotein (HIV gp120) to mice in the presence of recombinant MIF together with incomplete Freund's adjuvant induced a strong T-cell prolife...

  2. Adjuvant immunotherapy with BCG in squamous cell bronchial carcinoma.

    Jansen, H.M.; The, T H; Orie, N G

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four patients with evidence of locally advanced primary squamous cell bronchial carcinoma (SCC), and three patients with adenocarcinoma (AC) had lung resection to remove all the visible tumour. After operation an randomly chosen group of 20 SCC patients received adjuvant BCG immunostimulation by scarifications (BCG-A). An additional group of 14 SCC patients, and three AC patients received initially intrapleural BCG treatment and subsequently scarifications (BCG-B). A control group of 20...

  3. Adjuvant Radio-chemotherapy for extrahepatic biliary tract cancers

    Mentha Gilles; Roth Arnaud D; Bonet Beltrán Marta; Allal Abdelkarim S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Extrahepatic biliary duct cancers (EBDC) are uncommon malignancies characterized by a poor prognosis with high rate of loco-regional recurrence. The purpose of the present study is to assess the feasibility and the potential impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in a series of patients treated in one institution. Methods Twenty three patients with non-metastatic bile duct cancer treated surgically with curative intent (4 gallbladder, 7 ampullary and 12 cholangiocarcinoma) r...

  4. Early adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of atypical meningioma.

    Jenkinson, Michael D; Waqar, Mueez; Farah, Jibril Osman; Farrell, Michael; Barbagallo, Giuseppe M V; McManus, Robin; Looby, Seamus; Hussey, Deirdre; Fitzpatrick, David; Certo, Francesco; Javadpour, Mohsen

    2016-06-01

    Atypical meningiomas have a greater propensity to recur than benign meningiomas and the benefits of early adjuvant radiotherapy are unclear. Existing studies report conflicting results. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the role of early adjuvant radiotherapy following surgical resection of atypical meningioma. A triple center case-note review of adults with newly-diagnosed atypical meningiomas between 2001 and 2010 was performed. Pathology diagnosis was made according to the World Health Organization classification in use at the time of surgery. Patients with multiple meningiomas, neurofibromatosis type 2 and radiation-induced meningiomas were excluded. Extent of resection was defined as gross total resection (GTR; Simpson Grade I-III) or subtotal resection (STR; Simpson Grade IV-V). Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. One hundred thirty-three patients were identified with a median age of 62years (range 22-86years) and median follow-up of 57.4months (range 0.1-152.2months). Tumors were mostly located in the convexity (50.4%) or falcine/parasagittal regions (27.1%). GTR (achieved in 85%) was associated with longer progression free survival (PFS) (5year PFS 81.2% versus 40.08%, log-rank=11.117, p=0.001) but not overall survival (OS) (5year OS 76.6% versus 39.7%, log-rank=3.652, p=0.056). Following GTR, early adjuvant radiotherapy was administered to 28.3% of patients and did not influence OS (5year OS 77.0% versus 75.7%, log-rank=0.075, p=0.784) or PFS (5year PFS 82.0% versus 79.3%, log-rank=0.059, p=0.808). Although extent of resection emerged as an important prognostic variable, early adjuvant radiotherapy did not influence outcome following GTR of atypical meningiomas. Prospective randomized controlled trials are planned. PMID:26775147

  5. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma

    Joshi, P.; V Patil; Joshi, A; V Norohna; Chaturvedi, P.; Chaukar, D.; P Pai; D Nair; Juvekar, S; Agarwal, J. P.; A K D′cruz; Prabhash, K

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to find out the role of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in changing the management and outcome of advanced hypopharyngeal cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 59 treatment naïve, advanced hypopharyngeal cancer patients presenting to our tertiary care center from April 2010 to October 2011. NACT was given as two (platinum with taxane) or three drug with (platinum, taxane with 5-flurouracil [5 FU]) as 3 w...

  6. Targeted vaccine adjuvants based on modified cholera toxin.

    Lycke, Nils

    2005-09-01

    The present review describes immunomodulation with targeted adjuvants that will allow for the development of efficacious mucosal vaccines. We have studied cholera toxin (CT) and derivatives thereof, to rationally design vaccine adjuvant vectors that are both highly efficacious as well as safe and non-toxic. Two strategies were exploited; the first using CT or the enzymatically inactive receptor-binding B-subunit of CT (CTB) and the second, using CTA1 or an enzymatically inactive mutant CTA1R7K., that was linked, in a fusion protein, to the B-cell targeting moiety, DD, from Staphylococcus areus proteinA. Our studies provide compelling evidence that delivery of Ag in the absence of ADP-ribosylation can promote tolerance, whereas, ADP-ribosyltransferase-active conjugates, prevent tolerance but induce IgA immunity. Our analysis revealed unique subsets of mucosal and systemic DC that appeared to be responsible for the ADP-ribosyltransferase sensitive dichotomy between tolerance and IgA immunity. Whether targeting of B cells suffice for tolerance-induction or requires participation of DCs, is at present an unresolved issue. Nevertheless, enzymatic modulation differentiates and matures the DC to promote CD4 T cell help for IgA B cell development. Ag-presentation in the absence of enzyme, as seen with CTA1R7K-DD, expands specific T cells to a similar extent as enzymatically active CTA1-DD, but fails to recruit help for germinal center expansion of activated B cells. We have given special attention to the genes that adjuvants turn on using Affymetrix technology. In particular, modulation of the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on the targeted APC; CD80, CD86, CD83 and B7RP-1, play important roles for the effect of the ADP-ribosylating CTA1-based adjuvants for the development of tolerance or active IgA immunity. PMID:16178769

  7. Effect of polyphenols on neutrophil activation in adjuvant arthritis

    Nosáľ, R.; Bauerová, K.; Drábiková, K.; Harmatha, Juraj; Jančinová, V.; Perečko, T.; Poništ, S.

    Bratislava : Institute of Experimental Pharmacology & Toxicology SAS, 2012 - (Bauer, V.; Mach, M.; Navarová, J.; Sotníková, R.), s. 84-92 ISBN 978-80-971042-0-7. [Drugs: Their Action in Pharmacology and Toxicology. Bratislava (SK), 31.05.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adjuvant arthritis * stilbenes * curcumin Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  8. Post-prostatectomy radiotherapy in the adjuvant or relapse setting

    Although screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to a greater proportion of patients being diagnosed with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer, pathologic extension outside of the prostate (pathologic Stage C) is still found in 25% of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. In the pre-PSA era, the pathologic findings at surgery were used to select patients for adjuvant therapy for pathologic Stage C prostate cancer. The presence of positive surgical margins, perforation of the prostate capsule, and/or poorly differentiated histology (Gleason score > 7) all independently predicted for an increased risk of local relapse after radical prostatectomy. Seminal vesicle involvement, while also a risk factor for local relapse, was found to be more predictive of distant metastases. Adjuvant radiotherapy was often recommended for patients with these adverse risk factors. While numerous retrospective studies have found that post-prostatectomy pelvic irradiation significantly improves local control, there are no prospective randomized trial demonstrating a survival advantage for this type of treatment. The widespread availability of PSA has enabled the clinician to detect early recurrences after radical prostatectomy. Following radical prostatectomy, the PSA should drop to undetectable levels; patients with measurable PSA in the serum after this operation almost certainly have residual cancer present. Without adjuvant therapy, 50%-75% of patients with pathologic Stage C prostate cancer will develop a rising PSA within 4 years after surgery. The addition of adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy (i.e., prior to the development of a rising PSA) can reduce this failure rate by 50%, particularly in the group of patients without seminal vesicle involvement. In contrast, if one waits to deliver pelvic radiotherapy until the PSA begins to rise, the success rate is considerably lower (< 50% disease-free survival in most series). In summary, the time to institute pelvic

  9. Cocoa intake attenuates oxidative stress associated with rat adjuvant arthritis

    Ramos Romero, Sara; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Ramiro Puig, Emma; Franch i Masferrer, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Cocoa contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of cocoa intake on oxidative stress associated with a model of chronic inflammation such as adjuvant arthritis. Female Wistar rats were fed with a 5 or 10% cocoa enriched diet or were given p.o. a quercetin suspension every other day for 10 days. Arthritis was induced by a heat killed Mycobacterium butyricum suspension. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by macrophages, and splenic sup...

  10. Controversies in the Adjuvant Therapy of Endometrial Cancer

    Sheng-Mou Hsiao; Lin-Hung Wei

    2011-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract. Surgical treatment includes hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and an appropriate staging procedure. Relapse of endometrial cancer may occur in patients with high risk factors, such as old age, grade 3 cancer, deep myometrial invasion, and papillary serous and clear cell types. In recent years, several randomized trials reported the results of adjuvant therapy for patients with high risk factors. Nonethe...

  11. CpG DNA as a vaccine adjuvant

    Bode, Christian; Zhao, Gan; Steinhagen, Folkert; Kinjo, Takeshi; Klinman, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG motifs trigger cells that express Toll-like receptor 9 (including human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells) to mount an innate immune response characterized by the production of Th1 and proinflammatory cytokines. When used as vaccine adjuvants, CpG ODNs improve the function of professional antigen-presenting cells and boost the generation of humoral and cellular vaccine-specific immune responses. These effects are optimi...

  12. Towards real-time cardiovascular magnetic resonance guided transarterial CoreValve implantation: in vivo evaluation in swine

    Kahlert Philipp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time cardiovascular magnetic resonance (rtCMR is considered attractive for guiding TAVI. Owing to an unlimited scan plane orientation and an unsurpassed soft-tissue contrast with simultaneous device visualization, rtCMR is presumed to allow safe device navigation and to offer optimal orientation for precise axial positioning. We sought to evaluate the preclinical feasibility of rtCMR-guided transarterial aortic valve implatation (TAVI using the nitinol-based Medtronic CoreValve bioprosthesis. Methods rtCMR-guided transfemoral (n = 2 and transsubclavian (n = 6 TAVI was performed in 8 swine using the original CoreValve prosthesis and a modified, CMR-compatible delivery catheter without ferromagnetic components. Results rtCMR using TrueFISP sequences provided reliable imaging guidance during TAVI, which was successful in 6 swine. One transfemoral attempt failed due to unsuccessful aortic arch passage and one pericardial tamponade with subsequent death occurred as a result of ventricular perforation by the device tip due to an operating error, this complication being detected without delay by rtCMR. rtCMR allowed for a detailed, simultaneous visualization of the delivery system with the mounted stent-valve and the surrounding anatomy, resulting in improved visualization during navigation through the vasculature, passage of the aortic valve, and during placement and deployment of the stent-valve. Post-interventional success could be confirmed using ECG-triggered time-resolved cine-TrueFISP and flow-sensitive phase-contrast sequences. Intended valve position was confirmed by ex-vivo histology. Conclusions Our study shows that rtCMR-guided TAVI using the commercial CoreValve prosthesis in conjunction with a modified delivery system is feasible in swine, allowing improved procedural guidance including immediate detection of complications and direct functional assessment with reduction of radiation and omission of contrast media.

  13. [Adjuvant treatment of colon cancer MOSAIC study's main results].

    André, Thierry; Tournigand, Christophe; Achille, Emmanuel; Tubiana-Mathieu, Nicole; Lledo, Gérard; Raoul, Yves; Carola, Elisabeth; Flesch, Michel; Muron, Thierry; Boutan-Laroze, Arnaud; Guérin Meyer, Véronique; Boaziz, Catherine; Maigre, Michel; Ganem, Gérard; Mousseau, Mireille; Mounedji-Boudiaf, Lamia; de Gramont, Aimery

    2006-02-01

    Oxaliplatin in combination with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (LV5FU) improves the response rate and survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The objective of the Mosaic study was to evaluate the efficacy of this association in the adjuvant treatment of stage II and III colon cancer. This international study, including 2,246 patients, compared the efficacy of standard treatment with LV5FU2 alone to that of oxaliplatin-LV5FU (Folfox4 regimen) following R0 resection of the primary tumour. Both treatments were administered every two weeks for six months. At 3-year follow-up, the risk of relapse was decreased by 23% in the Folfox4 group (p = 0.002). The protocol was well tolerated, with an identical overall mortality during treatment (0.5%) in both groups. The main specific complication, peripheral sensory neuropathy was reversible in the great majority of cases. A new analysis at 4-year follow-up (median 48.6 months) confirmed the superior efficacy of the Folfox4 regimen compared to the standard treatment, the reduction in relapse risk being 24% (p = 0.0008). On the strength of these results, oxaliplatin was granted a marketing authorization for the indication adjuvant treatment of stage III colon cancer. Based on the data currently available, physicians should consider adjuvant treatment for stage II patients, making each individual decision for treatment on a case-by-case basis. PMID:16483940

  14. Immune responses to Mycoplasma bovis proteins formulated with different adjuvants.

    Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2016-06-01

    Most vaccines for protection against Mycoplasma bovis disease are made of bacterins, and they offer varying degrees of protection. Our focus is on the development of a subunit-based protective vaccine, and to that end, we have identified 10 novel vaccine candidates. After formulation of these candidates with TriAdj, an experimental tri-component novel vaccine adjuvant developed at VIDO-InterVac, we measured humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in vaccinated animals. In addition, we compared the immune responses after formulation with TriAdj with the responses measured in animals vaccinated with a mix of a commercial adjuvant (Emulsigen™) and 2 of the components of the TriAdj, namely polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and the cationic innate defense regulator (IDR) peptide 1002 (VQRWLIVWRIRK). In this latter trial, we detected significant IgG1 humoral immune responses to 8 out of 10 M. bovis proteins, and IgG2 responses to 7 out of 10 proteins. Thus, we concluded that the commercial adjuvant formulated with poly I:C and the IDR peptide 1002 is the best formulation for the experimental vaccine. PMID:27105454

  15. Attenuation of antigenic immunogenicity by kynurenine, a novel suppressive adjuvant.

    Duan, Zhiqing; Duan, Yunqing; Lei, Huangui; Hu, Ningzhu; Shi, Jiandong; Shen, Dong; Wang, Xi; Hu, Yunzhang

    2014-01-01

    A novel therapeutic strategy is required for autoimmune diseases characterized by the production of autoantibody, because current clinical strategies have limitations. Vaccination against autoimmune diseases is a feasible strategy because vaccines induce immune response memory and the antigen specificity. However, no suitable adjuvant is available to direct the immune response toward tolerance or suppression. In the current study, we evaluated whether kynurenine (Kyn) could serve as a novel suppressive adjuvant to decrease the humoral immune responses against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the ICR mouse model in vivo and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in B cells in vitro. The underlying mechanisms of Kyn-mediated suppression of LPS-induced IgM responses were explored. The results showed that Kyn significantly decreased HAV immunogenicity when co-administered with HAV, and that Kyn (100 μM/1000 μM) impaired IgM generation compared with that induced by LPS alone. We also demonstrated that microRNA30b (miR30b) played a critical role in the process of Kyn-mediated suppression of IgM responses induced by LPS, and that Bach2, a transcriptional repressor of B cell terminal differentiation, was a novel target of miR30b. These findings suggest that Kyn can serve as a novel and effective suppressive adjuvant for vaccines. PMID:24583631

  16. Analysis of adjuvant treatment with chemoradiation in gastric cancer

    The Hospital San Juan de Dios has analyzed the benefit of patients with gastric cancer who undergo surgery after receiving adjuvant chemoradiation. A retrospective study was performed reviewing records of patients during the period 1 January 2001 to December 31, 2005. These patients have been discharged with a diagnosis of gastric cancer and have received a complete resection with curative gastric malignancy and adjuvant chemoradiation according to the protocol established by Dr. MacDonald. In the study 0116. 743 patients were discharged to Hospital San Juan de Dios, 1 in 20 has been possible to diagnose gastric cancer at early stages for a total of 28 patients. The results obtained were compared at the Hospital San Juan de Dios with those published by Dr. MacDonald. The over-life of 3 years in the chemoradiation group in Hospital San Juan de Dios has been of 42.9% and 50% in the study MacDonald. The group that has not received adjuvant the over-life in the same period has been of 20 % in HSJD and 41% in the study MacDonald, being lower percentage of patients with this over-life, but greater range of difference.

  17. [Development of Nucleic Acid-Based Adjuvant for Cancer Immunotherapy].

    Kobiyama, Kouji; Ishii, Ken J

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery of the human T cell-defined tumor antigen, the cancer immunotherapy field has rapidly progressed, with the research and development of cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, being conducted actively. However, the disadvantages of most cancer vaccines include relatively weak immunogenicity and immune escape or exhaustion. Adjuvants with innate immunostimulatory activities have been used to overcome these issues, and these agents have been shown to enhance the immunogenicity of cancer vaccines and to act as mono-therapeutic anti-tumor agents. CpG ODN, an agonist for TLR9, is one of the promising nucleic acid-based adjuvants, and it is a potent inducer of innate immune effector functions. CpG ODN suppresses tumor growth in the absence of tumor antigens and peptide administration. Therefore, CpG ODN is expected to be useful as a cancer vaccine adjuvant as well as a cancer immunotherapy agent. In this review, we discuss the potential therapeutic applications and mechanisms of CpG ODN for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26469159

  18. Al adjuvants can be tracked in viable cells by lumogallion staining.

    Mile, Irene; Svensson, Andreas; Darabi, Anna; Mold, Matthew; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2015-07-01

    The mechanism behind the adjuvant effect of aluminum salts is poorly understood notwithstanding that aluminum salts have been used for decades in clinical vaccines. In an aqueous environment and at a nearly neutral pH, the aluminum salts form particulate aggregates, and one plausible explanation of the lack of information regarding the mechanisms could be the absence of an efficient method of tracking phagocytosed aluminum adjuvants and thereby the intracellular location of the adjuvant. In this paper, we want to report upon the use of lumogallion staining enabling the detection of phagocytosed aluminum adjuvants inside viable cells. Including micromolar concentrations of lumogallion in the culture medium resulted in a strong fluorescence signal from cells that had phagocytosed the aluminum adjuvant. The fluorescence appeared as spots in the cytoplasm and by confocal microscopy and co-staining with probes presenting fluorescence in the far-red region of the spectrum, aluminum adjuvants could to a certain extent be identified as localized in acidic vesicles, i.e., lysosomes. Staining and detection of intracellular aluminum adjuvants was achieved not only by diffusion of lumogallion into the cytoplasm, thereby highlighting the presence of the adjuvant, but also by pre-staining the aluminum adjuvant prior to incubation with cells. Pre-staining of aluminum adjuvants resulted in bright fluorescent particulate aggregates that remained fluorescent for weeks and with only a minor reduction of fluorescence upon extensive washing or incubation with cells. Both aluminum oxyhydroxide and aluminum hydroxyphosphate, two of the most commonly used aluminum adjuvants in clinical vaccines, could be pre-stained with lumogallion and were easily tracked intracellularly after incubation with phagocytosing cells. Staining of viable cells using lumogallion will be a useful method in investigations of the mechanisms behind aluminum adjuvants' differentiation of antigen-presenting cells

  19. Swine Influenza Viruses – Evolution and Zoonotic Potential

    Fobian, Kristina

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important respiratory pathogen with a broad host range. The natural reservoir for IAV is waterfowls, but both human and swine are considered natural hosts. During the past century IAV has caused severe pandemics as well as seasonal epidemics in the human population. In...... mixing vessels of new IAVs. Furthermore, transmission of IAVs from swine to human and vice versa has been documented on several occasions and further classifies this virus as a highly important zoonosis. This aspect enhances the possibility of the formation and establishment of new and potentially more...... virulent viruses with the capacity to cause severe pandemics. Therefore, it is important to gain a deeper understanding of the evolution of SIVs, their zoonotic potential as well as host-range characteristics and this PhD project aimed at elucidating parts of these important points. The PhD thesis begins...

  20. Genetic variability and distribution of Classical swine fever virus.

    Beer, Martin; Goller, Katja V; Staubach, Christoph; Blome, Sandra

    2015-06-01

    Classical swine fever is a highly contagious disease that affects domestic and wild pigs worldwide. The causative agent of the disease is Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. On the genome level, CSFV can be divided into three genotypes with three to four sub-genotypes. Those genotypes can be assigned to distinct geographical regions. Knowledge about CSFV diversity and distribution is important for the understanding of disease dynamics and evolution, and can thus help to design optimized control strategies. For this reason, the geographical pattern of CSFV diversity and distribution are outlined in the presented review. Moreover, current knowledge with regard to genetic virulence markers or determinants and the role of the quasispecies composition is discussed. PMID:26050570

  1. Origin and future distribution of the new A (H1N1) influenza virus emerging in North America in 2009

    CHEN JiMing; SUN YingXue; LIU Shuo; JIANG WenMing; CHEN Jie; HOU GuangYu; LI JinPing

    2009-01-01

    The origin of the new A (H1N1) influenza virus recently emerging in North America is a hot controversial topic of significance in disease control and risk assessment.Some experts claimed that it was an unusually mongrelized mix of human,avian and swine influenza viruses,while some others concluded that it was totally a simple re-assortment hybrid of two lineages of swine influenza viruses.Here the phylogenetic diversity of the viral PB1,PA and PB2 gene sequences using online web servers,and the results suggest that all the 8 genetic segments of the new virus were possibly from two lineages of swine influenza viruses,and one of the lineage was a mongrelized mix of human,avian and swine influenza viruses emerging in the world approximately 10 years ago.Considering the recent epidemiological trends of the new virus,we believe it will spread more widely in the world and persist long in human populations.It also could spread among swine populations.The future wide spreading of the new virus may coincide the disappearance of a subtype of previous human influenza A virus.

  2. Residue depletion of colistin in swine after intramuscular administration

    S. S. Tang; Gong, L. J.; J.K. He; Jin, X; X.L. Xiao

    2009-01-01

    A newly formulated colistin sulphate solution was prepared in a previous study as a potential agent for intramuscular injection and its effectiveness, toxicity and pharmacokinetics were investigated. In order to provide more information to establish scientific guidance for safe use of this preparation, its residue depletion in swine tissues following intramuscular administration was investigated in this experiment. Fifty healthy cross-bred piglets (13.3 ± 0.9 kg) were used in this study. Five...

  3. Investigations of eugenol efficacy in treatment of mange in swine

    Jezdimirović Milanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricide efficacy, tolerability and safety of the active ingredient of the etheric oil of cloves eugenol was investigated in the treatment of mange in swine, and the obtained results were compared with the results of acaricide efficacy of the synthetic acaricide permethrin, which has been in use for quite a some time. A single application of permethrin in the form of a 1% solution showed maximum efficacy of 62.5%, and after three applications of 75.0% in the treatment of sarcoptes in swine mange. A single application of eugenol in the form of a 10% solution had maximum efficacy of 75.0%, and applied three times an efficacy of 100% in curbing Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. A single administration of 20% eugenol solution showed maximum efficacy of 87.5%, and applied three times it was 100% efficient in curbing Sarcoptes scabeiei var. suis. The best efficacy in the treatment of sarcoptes mange in swine was achieved with three applications of eugenol in a concentration of 20%. This maximum effect (100% was obtained already after the second treatment. Eugenol in a concentration of 10% was safe for local application on skin because it does not cause any undesired reactions, while a 20% concentration caused irritation followed by a passing redness and disquiet in a smaller number of treated animals. The results of comparative investigations of acaricide efficacy of permethrin and eugenol demonstrate that there is resistence in Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis to permethrin. The biocide eugenol can safely be recommended for the treatment of sarcoptes mange in swine.

  4. Trial analysis of swine's periodontal ligament with Bragg grating sensors

    Menegotto, G. F.; Grabarski, L.; Kalinowski, H. J.; Simões, J. A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work it is reported the measurement of the differential strain between the dental and bone tissues under effect of an applied load. Slices of swine mandible, containing the premolar tooth, are cut and measured in fresh condition. The strain is measured using fibre Bragg grating sensors glued to both tissues. In the measured range the results show a linear behaviour and confirm the importance of the periodontal ligament in the load transfer mechanism.

  5. Myocardial infarction and intramyocardial injection models in swine

    McCall, Frederic C; Telukuntla, Kartik S; Karantalis, Vasileios; Suncion, Viky Y.; Heldman, Alan W.; Mushtaq, Muzammil; Williams, Adam R.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable and reproducible large animal models that closely replicate the clinical sequelae of myocardial infarction (MI) are important for the translation of basic science research into bedside medicine. Swine are well accepted by the scientific community for cardiovascular research, and they represent an established animal model for preclinical trials for US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of novel therapies. Here we present a protocol for using porcine models of MI created wi...

  6. Social versus independent interest in 'bird flu' and 'swine flu'

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The explosion of interest in H1N1, more popularly called ‘swine flu’, across the world, from late April to early May 2009, exemplified how information transmission in modern online society can affect the spread of the disease itself. A simple but effective model based on cultural evolutionary theory can characterise in such data the effective degree of social transmission versus independent decision. In a novel approach that applies this model to Google Trends search data, we find significant...

  7. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

    Moennig, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV) are members of the family Suidae, i.e., Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent...

  8. The Role of Local Cooperatives in the Emerging Swine Industry

    Hogeland, Julie A.

    1995-01-01

    At least 12 reasons could propel cooperatives into a greater role in the swine industry; among them, protecting their market share in feed and offering a cooperative alternative to existing marketing channels. Yet, the industry offers a special challenge during the mid-l 990s because structural upheaval is completely redefining traditional methods of production and marketing. As a foundation for future efforts, the Cooperative Services program of USDA’s Rural Business and Cooperative Developm...

  9. Electroporation-Mediated Gene Transfer Directly to the Swine Heart

    Hargrave, Barbara; Downey, Harre; Strange, Robert; Murray, Len; Cinnamond, Cade; Lundberg, Cathryn; Israel, Annelise; Chen, Yeong-Jer; Marshall, William; Heller, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In vivo gene transfer to the ischemic heart via electroporation holds promise as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of heart disease. In the current study, we investigated the use of in vivo electroporation for gene transfer using 3 different penetrating electrodes and one non-penetrating electrode. The hearts of adult male swine were exposed through a sternotomy. Eight electric pulses synchronized to the rising phase of the R wave of the ECG were administered at varying pulse...

  10. In vitro cytokine induction by TLR-activating vaccine adjuvants in human blood varies by age and adjuvant.

    van Haren, Simon D; Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Bergelson, Ilana; Dowling, David J; Banks, Michaela; Samuels, Ronald C; Reed, Steven G; Marshall, Jason D; Levy, Ofer

    2016-07-01

    Most infections occur in early life, prompting development of novel adjuvanted vaccines to protect newborns and infants. Several Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (TLRAs) are components of licensed vaccine formulations or are in development as candidate adjuvants. However, the type and magnitude of immune responses to TLRAs may vary with the TLR activated as well as age and geographic location. Most notably, in newborns, as compared to adults, the immune response to TLRAs is polarized with lower Th1 cytokine production and robust Th2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. The ontogeny of TLR-mediated cytokine responses in international cohorts has been reported, but no study has compared cytokine responses to TLRAs between U.S. neonates and infants at the age of 6months. Both are critical age groups for the currently pediatric vaccine schedule. In this study, we report quantitative differences in the production of a panel of 14 cytokines and chemokines after in vitro stimulation of newborn cord blood and infant and adult peripheral blood with agonists of TLR4, including monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and glucopyranosyl lipid Adjuvant aqueous formulation (GLA-AF), as well as agonists of TLR7/8 (R848) and TLR9 (CpG). Both TLR4 agonists, MPLA and GLA-AF, induced greater concentrations of Th1 cytokines CXCL10, TNF and Interleukin (IL)-12p70 in infant and adult blood compared to newborn blood. All the tested TLRAs induced greater infant IFN-α2 production compared to newborn and adult blood. In contrast, CpG induced greater IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-12p40, IL-10 and CXCL8 in newborn than in infant and adult blood. Overall, to the extent that these in vitro studies mirror responses in vivo, our study demonstrates distinct age-specific effects of TLRAs that may inform their development as candidate adjuvants for early life vaccines. PMID:27081760

  11. Failure of protection and enhanced pneumonia with a US H1N2 swine influenza virus in pigs vaccinated with an inactivated classical swine H1N1 vaccine

    We evaluated two US swine influenza virus (SIV) isolates, A/Swine/Iowa/15/1930 H1N1 (IA30) and A/Swine/Minnesota/00194/2003 H1N2 (MN03), with substantial genetic variation in the HA gene and failure to cross-react in the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, in an in vivo vaccination and challenge...

  12. Race, Poverty, and Potential Exposure of Middle-School Students to Air Emissions from Confined Swine Feeding Operations

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen W.; Wilcosky, Timothy C

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that airborne effluent from swine confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) may affect the health and quality of life of adults and the prevalence of asthma symptoms among children. To investigate the extent to which public school students may be exposed to airborne effluent from swine CAFOs and to evaluate the association between schools’ demographic characteristics and swine CAFO exposures, we assessed the proximity of 226 schools to the nearest swine CAFO and cond...

  13. Development of a Swine-Specific Fecal Pollution Marker Based on Host Differences in Methanogen mcrA Genes▿

    Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Ufnar, David F.; Wang, Shiao Y.; Ellender, R D

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate methanogen diversity in animal hosts to develop a swine-specific archaeal molecular marker for fecal source tracking in surface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of swine mcrA sequences compared to mcrA sequences from the feces of five animals (cow, deer, sheep, horse, and chicken) and sewage showed four distinct swine clusters, with three swine-specific clades. From this analysis, six sequences were chosen for molecular marker development and initial testin...

  14. Varied prevalence of Clostridium difficile in an integrated swine operation.

    Norman, K N; Harvey, R B; Scott, H M; Hume, M E; Andrews, K; Brawley, A D

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile (Cd) among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006 and to compare our isolates to other animal and human isolates. Results are based on 131 Cd isolates from 1008 swine fecal samples and pork trim samples (overall prevalence of 13%). The prevalence (number positive/number tested in production type) of Cd was different between the groups (Pgenes, 129 isolates harbored a 39 base pair deletion in the tcdC gene, 120 isolates were toxinotype V, and all 131 of the isolates were positive for the binary toxin gene cdtB. All isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem, whereas all were sensitive to metronidazole, piperacillin/tazobactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and vancomycin. The majority of isolates were resistant to clindamycin; resistant or intermediate to ampicillin; and sensitive to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. There was an increased (P

  15. Pork and Carcasses Quality in Swine Exploited in Family Farms

    Loredana Heber

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Maximum values of dry matter and fat (% of the carcass weight is achieved in swine exploited on small private family farms at 137 kg of dry matter and 115 kg of protein. Slaughtering swine at higher weight results in an increase of the dry matter and of the caloric value because of the increase of the amount of fat in the muscular fibber; thus, pork is of low quality because of the massive accumulation fat substance and the economic efficiency of producing pork is improper, with supplementary expenses on feed. Fattening swine on small family exploitations up to over 11 kg results in changes of the meat /fat ratio, detrimental to pork meat because of both thickening of lard on the animals' back and of fat depositions in the muscular fibber; though this improves pork quality, it is done with high expenses of energy, resulting in inefficient exploitation on private family farms that in most cases only supply for their families and rarely sell extra production.

  16. Liquid chromatographic determination of oxfendazole in swine feeds.

    Shah, G; Bradley, D; Shek, E

    1984-01-01

    A relatively simple analytical method is presented for determination of oxfendazole (2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-5-phenylsulfinyl-benzimidazole) at levels as low as 0.012% in swine feeds, using cation exchange liquid chromatography (LC). The sample was extracted with a solvent mixture of methanol-glacial acetic acid (90 + 10) at 45 degrees C, using a gyrorotory shaker. Plant pigments and other feed excipients were removed using zinc acetate treatment and pH-controlled extraction. Oxfendazole was further separated from the remaining interferences and quantitatively determined by LC on a Partisil SCX column with acetonitrile-0.01M phosphate buffer as mobile phase. The method is stability-specific, linear, precise, and accurate at 80-120% labeled strength (relative standard deviation 0.9-1.7 with mean recovery of 98-99%). Supporting data at a level of 0.0135% oxfendazole in swine feed indicated that this method is capable of complete recovery of oxfendazole from medicated swine feeds. PMID:6469900

  17. An improved animal model of orthotopic liver transplantation in swine

    ZHENG Shu-guo; DONG Jia-hong; LENG Jian-jun; FENG Xiao-bin; MA Zheng-wei; YAN Yi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish a swine model of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) which has high standardization, superior reproducibility and stability. Methods: The rate of success, reproducibility and stability were investigated on the modification of OLTs in closed miniature swine with series of improvements. Results: 20 OLTs were performed on the basis of improvements in experimental animals,surgical procedures and operative monitorings. The mean operation time and anhepatic phase was (181±25.8) and (28.43.2) min respectively, which were significantly shorter than those of the previous re ports. Liver function of the animals recovered shortly after operation. One-week survival rate was 90%,and 15 animals survived more than 1 month. The incidence of vascular and biliary complications was lower in animals with long-term survival. Conclusion: The improved animal model of OLTs in swine is easy to operate with high standardization and rate of success, superior reproducibility and stability. It is an ideal model for series studies related to liver transplantation in big animals.

  18. Management strategy impacts on ammonia volatilization from swine manure.

    Panetta, Diane M; Powers, Wendy J; Lorimor, Jeffery C

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia emitted from manure can have detrimental effects on health, environmental quality, and fertilizer value. The objective of this study was to measure the potential for reduction in ammonia volatilization from swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure by temperature control, stirring, addition of nitrogen binder (Mohave yucca, Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies) or urease inhibitor [N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT)], segregation of urine from feces, and pH modification. Swine manure [total solids (TS) = 7.6-11.2%, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) = 3.3-6.2 g/L, ammonium nitrogen NH(+)(4)-N = 1.0-3.3 g/L] was stored for 24, 48, 72, or 96 h in 2-L polyvinyl chloride vessels. The manure was analyzed to determine pre- and post-storage concentrations of TS and volatile solids (VS), TKN, and NH(+)(4)-N. The concentration of accumulated ammonia N in the vessel headspace (HSAN), post-storage, was measured using grab sample tubes. Headspace NH(3) concentrations were reduced 99.3% by segregation of urine from feces (P acidification to pH 5.3 (9.4%), and increased with stirring (4.8%) and increasing temperature (0.06 g/L per 1 degree C increase in temperature over 35 degrees C). Temperature control, urine-feces segregation, and acidification of swine manure are strategies with potential to reduce or slow NH(+)(4)-N formation and NH(3) volatilization. PMID:15888898

  19. Cost-utility analysis of adjuvant goserelin (Zoladex and adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women with breast cancer

    Cheng Tsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased health care costs have made it incumbent on health-care facilities and physicians to demonstrate both clinical and cost efficacy when recommending treatments. Though studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant goserelin with radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer, few have compared the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant goserelin to adjuvant chemotherapy alone in premenopausal breast cancer. Methods In this retrospective study at one hospital, the records of 152 patients with stage Ia to IIIa ER + breast cancer who received goserelin or chemotherapy were reviewed. Survival analysis was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients were interviewed to evaluate their quality of life using the European Organization for Research and Treatment Quality of Life questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30, version 4.0, and to obtain the utility value by the standard gamble (SG and visual scale (VS methods. Total medical cost was assessed from the (National Health Insurance NHI payer's perspective. Results Survival at 11 years was significantly better in the groserelin group (P Conclusions Goserelin therapy results in better survival and higher utility-weighted life-years, and is more cost-effective than TC or TEC chemotherapy.

  20. Adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy for early breast cancer

    Objective: Present the results of the 1995 World Overview which will be held in Oxford England two weeks before ASTRO. Discuss the interpretation and application of these results. Review current research topics on the use of adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy for early breast cancer. The survival benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women and adjuvant tamoxifen in postmenopausal women are well established. Each will reduce the annual odds of death by about 25% resulting in a 10 year survival difference of 8-10%. By the time of this presentation, the results of the 1995 Adjuvant Therapy Overview should be with 10+ years of follow-up, and if possible these will be summarized. Current efforts to improve on previous results are focused on the following areas: Optimal chemotherapy dose. Decreasing dose will compromise patient survival. It is not as certain that increasing dose will have as much impact in improving survival. The NSABP was unable to demonstrate an improvement in survival by modestly increasing the dose of cyclophosphamide alone. However, recent results of a Canadian study of CEF (cyclophosphamide, epidoxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil) and an Intergroup trial of an intense 16 week polychemotherapy program keep alive the possibility that dose escalation is still a very important question. An NSABP trial evaluating even greater cyclophosphamide dose escalation, an Intergroup evaluation of different doxorubicin doses, and two Intergroup trials evaluating very high dose chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation should provide definitive evidence regarding the importance of dose. Drug sequence. A study from Milan suggests that initial treatment with single agent doxorubicin followed by CMF will be superior to alternating doxorubicin and CMF. This has not been confirmed yet, and the reason for increased benefit from such a sequence is not entirely clear. This concept is being explored further in an Intergroup trial comparing four cycles of

  1. Review on adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer - why do treatment guidelines differ so much?

    Poulsen, Laurids Ø; Qvortrup, Camilla; Pfeiffer, Per;

    2015-01-01

    ) radiotherapy, four randomized studies were found where use of adjuvant chemotherapy showed no benefit in survival. Three trials were found in which a subset of patients received preoperative (chemo) radiotherapy. Two of these trials showed a statistically significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. Twenty......BACKGROUND: The use of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial for rectal adenocarcinoma. Both international and national guidelines display a great span varying from recommending no adjuvant chemotherapy at all, over single drug 5-fluororuacil (5-FU), to combinations of 5-FU...... trials were identified in which the patients did not receive preoperative (chemo) radiotherapy, including five Asian studies in which a statistically significant benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the data found did not support the use of postoperative adjuvant...

  2. Development of a minimal saponin vaccine adjuvant based on QS-21

    Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Chea, Eric K.; George, Constantine; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Gardner, Jeffrey R.; Livingston, Philip O.; Ragupathi, Govind; Lewis, Jason S.; Tan, Derek S.; Gin, David Y.

    2014-07-01

    Adjuvants are materials added to vaccines to enhance the immunological response to an antigen. QS-21 is a natural product adjuvant under investigation in numerous vaccine clinical trials, but its use is constrained by scarcity, toxicity, instability and an enigmatic molecular mechanism of action. Herein we describe the development of a minimal QS-21 analogue that decouples adjuvant activity from toxicity and provides a powerful platform for mechanistic investigations. We found that the entire branched trisaccharide domain of QS-21 is dispensable for adjuvant activity and that the C4-aldehyde substituent, previously proposed to bind covalently to an unknown cellular target, is also not required. Biodistribution studies revealed that active adjuvants were retained preferentially at the injection site and the nearest draining lymph nodes compared with the attenuated variants. Overall, these studies have yielded critical insights into saponin structure-function relationships, provided practical synthetic access to non-toxic adjuvants, and established a platform for detailed mechanistic studies.

  3. Three-phase foam analysis and development of a lab-scale foaming capacity and stability test for swine manure

    Foam accumulation on the manure slurry at deep pit swine facilities has been linked to flash fire incidents, making it a serious safety concern for pork producers. In order to investigate this phenomenon, samples of swine manure were collected from over 50 swine production facilities in Iowa with va...

  4. VIRUS VACCINE RESEARCH AT THE NATIONAL ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER: LESSONS FROM SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS AND BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS

    The continuing emergence of novel subtypes and genetic variants of swine influenza viruses (SIV) causing swine flu challenges our ability to effectively manage this high morbidity disease among swine. New strategic approaches for vaccine development must be considered to keep up with the ever-evolv...

  5. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Gang–Jin [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bioprocess Control AB, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Deng, Liang–Wei, E-mail: dengliangwei@caas.cn [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Southwest Collaborative Innovation Center of Swine for Quality & Safety, Chengdu 611130 (China); Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  6. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d)−1 and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g−1VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L−1. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L−1. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d)−1 and biogas yield of 0.649 L g−1VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s−1 when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield

  7. Occurrence and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Underlying Two Swine Production Facilities

    Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Krapac, I.J.; Garrigues-Jeanjean, N.; Mackie, R.I.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR typing methods to assess the presence of tetracycline resistance determinants conferring ribosomal protection in waste lagoons and in groundwater underlying two swine farms. All eight classes of genes encoding this mechanism of resistance [tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tetB(P), tet(S), tet(T), and otrA] were found in total DNA extracted from water of two lagoons. These determinants were found to be seeping into the underlying groundwater and could be detected as far as 250 m downstream from the lagoons. The identities and origin of these genes in groundwater were confirmed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analyses. Tetracycline-resistant bacterial isolates from groundwater harbored the tet(M) gene, which was not predominant in the environmental samples and was identical to tet(M) from the lagoons. The presence of this gene in some typical soil inhabitants suggests that the vector of antibiotic resistance gene dissemination is not limited to strains of gastrointestinal origin carrying the gene but can be mobilized into the indigenous soil microbiota. This study demonstrated that tet genes occur in the environment as a direct result of agriculture and suggested that groundwater may be a potential source of antibiotic resistance in the food chain.

  8. GLA-AF, an Emulsion-Free Vaccine Adjuvant for Pandemic Influenza

    Clegg, Christopher H.; Roque, Richard; Perrone, Lucy A.; Rininger, Joseph A.; Bowen, Richard; Reed, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing threat from Influenza necessitates the development of new vaccine and adjuvant technologies that can maximize vaccine immunogenicity, shorten production cycles, and increase global vaccine supply. Currently, the most successful adjuvants for Influenza vaccines are squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions. These adjuvants enhance seroprotective antibody titers to homologous and heterologous strains of virus, and augment a significant dose sparing activity that could improve vaccine ma...

  9. Chitin, Chitosan, and Glycated Chitosan Regulate Immune Responses: The Novel Adjuvants for Cancer Vaccine

    Xiaosong Li; Min Min; Nan Du; Ying Gu; Tomas Hode; Mark Naylor; Dianjun Chen; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of cancer immunotherapy, cancer vaccine has become a novel modality for cancer treatment, and the important role of adjuvant has been realized recently. Chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives have shown their advantages as adjuvants for cancer vaccine. In this paper, the adjuvant properties of chitin and chitosan were discussed, and some detailed information about glycated chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles was also presented to illustrate the trend for future development.

  10. Adjuvant radiotherapy for melanoma metastatic to axillary and inguinal nodes: Regional tumor control and late effects

    Ahmed SK; Kottschade LA; Markovic SN; Garces YI; Foote RL

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adjuvant radiotherapy reduces nodal recurrence in metastatic melanoma. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adjuvant radiotherapy on in-field nodal control of melanoma metastatic to axillary and inguinal lymph nodes. Methods: The medical records of patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2011, at Mayo Clinic were reviewed. Results: In the 20 patients identified, the rates of 2-year overall survival, nodal control, a...

  11. Vaccination of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) against atypical furunculosis using different adjuvants

    Hamid, Lemia M.O

    2003-01-01

    In recent years increased attention has been focussed on fish vaccines and vaccination against diseases in farmed fish. In this study, efficacy and side effects of vaccination against atypical furunculosis in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) were studied in an experimental trial by using different adjuvants. The different adjuvanted vaccines were administered by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) to Atlantic cod. The adjuvants used were CpG DNA, Aluminium hydroxide (Alhydrogel), an...

  12. EVALUATION OF N-RATIO IN SELECTING PATIENTS FOR ADJUVANT CHEMORADIOTHERAPY AFTER D2-GASTRECTOMY

    Wilson Luiz da COSTA JUNIOR; Felipe Jose Fernandez COIMBRA; Batista, Thales Paulo; RIBEIRO, Heber Salvador de Castro; DINIZ, Alessandro Landskron

    2013-01-01

    Context Whether adjuvant chemoradiotherapy may contribute to improve survival outcomes after D2-gastrectomy remains controvertial. Objective To explore the clinical utility of N-Ratio in selecting gastric cancer patients for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after D2-gastrectomy. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out on gastric cancer patients who underwent D2-gastrectomy alone or D2-gastrectomy plus adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (INT-0116 protocol) at the Hospital A. C. Camargo from...

  13. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations

    Mold, M; Shardlow, E; Exley, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al3+ in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, pote...

  14. Development of a minimal saponin vaccine adjuvant based on QS-21

    Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Chea, Eric K.; George, Constantine; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Gardner, Jeffrey R.; LIVINGSTON, PHILIP O.; Ragupathi, Govind; Lewis, Jason S.; Tan, Derek S.; Gin, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Adjuvants are materials added to vaccines to enhance the immunological response to an antigen. QS-21 is a natural product adjuvant under investigation in numerous vaccine clinical trials, but its use is constrained by scarcity, toxicity, instability, and an enigmatic molecular mechanism of action. Herein, we describe the development of a minimal QS-21 analogue that decouples adjuvant activity from toxicity and provides a powerful platform for mechanistic investigations. We found that the enti...

  15. Evaluation of the efficiency of a tubular digester in the reduction of organic load of biogas from swine wastes; Avaliacao da eficiencia de um biodigestor tubular na reducao da carga organica de biogas a partir de dejetos de suinos

    Angonese, Andre Ricardo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil)], Email: aangonese@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil)], Email: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Moreno Palacio, Soraya [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil); Szymanski, Nayara [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil). Curso de Quimica

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the anaerobic biological treatment systems in the reduction and stabilization of biodegradable organic matter of swine waste. The experiment was carried out at Vale dos Ipes Farm, located in the city of Ouro Verde do Oeste, in the Western of Parana State. One finishing phase swine unity containing 600 animals was monitored from January to June 2005. The system is composed by one steel digester with capacity for 50 m{sup 3}. The swine barn cleaning is performed by dry scratching on a daily basis. The generated residues flow by gravitation through ducts towards the digester. The duration of the hydraulic retention period was 12 days. The residues analysis was performed by means of sampling at the entrance and way out of the digester. The following parameters were analyzed: pH, DBO{sub 5}, DQO, total solids, total volatile solids, total fixed solids, total nitrogen e ammonia, potassium, total phosphate, average of biogas production. The results suggested that the anaerobic biological treatment system was efficient for reducing and stabilizing the organic matter resulted from the swine wastes. Expressive reductions of DBO, DQO, ST and SVT of 76, 77, 43 and 59% respectively, were obtained for the effluent originated by the digester. The average daily production of biogas during the analyzed period was 31, 5 m{sup 3}. (author)

  16. Immunologic mechanisms in the adaptation of swine farm workers to their work environment

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Cormier, Yvon; Veillette, Marc; Radu, Arnold; Mériaux, Anne; Duchaine, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Swine building exposure causes inflammatory reactions that appear to be attenuated with prolonged periods of contact. The mechanisms behind this adaptation to a dusty and endotoxin-rich environment are poorly understood. Our aim was to compare levels of selected inflammatory mediators in swine fa...

  17. Early Induction of Cytokines in Pigs Coinfected with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Respiratory disease is one of the most important health issues for the swine industry, and coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are important and common respiratory pathogens of pigs. The effect of coinfection of S...

  18. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    2013-04-22

    ... Register (78 FR 9028-9029, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0086) a notice that made a proposed action plan describing... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. This action will...

  19. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    2011-05-19

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis-free States. We have determined that Texas...

  20. New influenza A virus reassortments have been found in Danish swine in 2011

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona;

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a passive surveillance for influenza A virus was conducted in Danish swine. Tested samples were clinical samples from affected pigs submitted to the Danish National Veterinary Institute for swine influenza virus detection. In total 713 samples from 276 herds were analysed and about 24% of...... genes from the pandemic H1N1 virus. This study contribute significantly to our knowledge of the epidemiology of swine influenza A virus circulating in Danish swine and the potential role of swine in the emergence of novel reassortant viruses.......In 2011 a passive surveillance for influenza A virus was conducted in Danish swine. Tested samples were clinical samples from affected pigs submitted to the Danish National Veterinary Institute for swine influenza virus detection. In total 713 samples from 276 herds were analysed and about 24% of...... the samples were positive for swine influenza virus. All influenza positive samples were tested for the H1N1pdm09 virus by a real time RT-PCR assay specific for the pandemic HA gene and 26% of the samples were positive. Subtyping of 90 samples by sequencing revealed the presence of; i) H1N1 “avian...

  1. Nitrification and Denitrification Communities Associated with a Semi-Permeable Swine Waste Lagoon Biocover

    Ammonia emission from swine waste lagoons presents a serious environmental challenge to pork producers. Semi-permeable swine waste lagoon biocovers have been developed to serve as a physical barrier and as an attachment site for biofilm development, but microbial analysis of the biocover technology...

  2. Phosphorus in Soil and Runoff Following Swine Manure Injection with a Low-Disturbance Applicator

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil, making it susceptible to erosion. Runoff from treated lands can transport nutrients and pathogens to surface waters. Our objective in this field study was to determine the effect of two swine manure application methods on phosphorus (P) fate an...

  3. Corn response to long-term applications of cattle manure, swine effluent, and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    Cattle (Bos taurus) manure and swine (Sus scrofa) effluent are applied to cropland to recycle nutrients, build soil quality, and increase crop productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of land application of cattle manure and swine effluent using the Kansas Nut...

  4. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Zúquete, S.T.; Wijnveld, M.; Weesendorp, E.; Jongejan, F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in Europe

  5. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    2010-01-01

    ... commerce, except at the time of slaughter as provided in 9 CFR 309.16(e). (g) Swine moving interstate... commerce. 71.19 Section 71.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.19 Identification of swine in interstate commerce. (a)(1) Except as provided...

  6. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with raw and carbonized swine solids

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solids and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture o...

  7. Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe;

    2010-01-01

    Objective-To evaluate changes in antimicrobial consumption and productivity by Danish swine farms during 1992 to 2008. Sample Population-All Danish swine farms for antimicrobial consumption data and a representative sample of Danish swine herds for productivity data. Procedures-Antimicrobial cons......Objective-To evaluate changes in antimicrobial consumption and productivity by Danish swine farms during 1992 to 2008. Sample Population-All Danish swine farms for antimicrobial consumption data and a representative sample of Danish swine herds for productivity data. Procedures......-Antimicrobial consumption by Danish swine farms from 1992 to 2008 was determined and evaluated in light of policies to regulate antimicrobial consumption, changes in disease patterns, and productivity data. Trend analyses of productivity data were conducted before and after a ban on use of antimicrobial growth promoters...... (AGPs). Results-Antimicrobial consumption peaked at 100 mg/kg of swine produced in 1992, decreased to 31 mg/kg in 1999, and increased to 49 mg/kg in 2008. Key factors for changes were regulations banning subtherapeutic use of antimicrobials and veterinary profits from the prescription and sale of...

  8. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) URL of this page: https:// ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages To use the ...

  9. Swine flu-have we learnt any lesson from the past?

    Yadav, Sankalp; Rawal, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The world has suffered the pandemics due to swine flu in the past. The present epidemic in India has claimed many lives. Even, after the first outbreak of swine flu in 2009 no concrete efforts are done to prevent this infection. There is an urgent need to take radical steps to prevent such epidemics. PMID:26848365

  10. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    2010-09-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended...

  11. Monitoring the determinants of efficient viral replication using Classical Swine Fever Virus-reporter replicons

    Risager, Peter Christian; Everett, Helen; Crooke, Helen;

    2012-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiological agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining improved knowledge of the pathogenic features of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence...

  12. Identification of an NTPase motif in classical swine fever virus NS4B protein

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease of swine caused by CSF virus (CSFV), a positive sense single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family. Here, we have identified, within CSFV non-structural (NS) protein NS4B, conserved sequence el...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Classical Swine Fever Virus Subgenogroup 2.1 from Assam, India

    Ahuja, Anuj; Bhattacharjee, Uttaran; Chakraborty, Amit Kumar; Karam, Amarjit; Ghatak, Sandeep; Puro, Kekungu; Das, Samir; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Srivastava, Nidhi; Ngachan, S.V.; Sen, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a classical swine fever virus (genogroup 2.1), isolated from an outbreak in Assam, India. This particular isolate showed a high degree of genetic variation within the subgenogroup 2.1 and may serve as a potential reference strain of the 2.1 genogroup of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in the Indian subcontinent.

  14. Microbiological Water Quality Assessment of Watershed Associated with Swine Production in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Santa Catarina State has the largest pig producers in Brazil and its West region has the highest concentration of swine production. Diagnostic assessment conducted by Embrapa Swine and Poultry Scientists in 2003 reported that more than 90% of 3,821 pig farms didn't have the required environmental li...

  15. Treatment with interferon-alpha delays disease in swine infected with a highly virulent CSFV strain

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically significant, highly contagious swine disease. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is an enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, classified as a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae (Becher et al.,...

  16. Efficacy of intranasal administration of a truncated NS1 modified live influenza virus vaccine in swine

    In the U.S., despite available swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccines, multiple influenza subtypes as well as antigenic and genetic variants within subtypes continue to circulate in the swine population. One of the challenges to control and eliminate SIV is that the currently used inactivated influenz...

  17. Improved survival with early adjuvant chemotherapy after colonic resection for stage III colonic cancer

    Klein, Mads; Azaquoun, Najah; Jensen, Benny Vittrup;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In stage III colonic cancer, time from surgery to start of adjuvant chemotherapy may influence survival. In this study, we evaluated the effect of timing of adjuvant therapy on survival. METHODS: Database study from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's national database....... RESULTS: The final population included 1,827 patients scheduled for adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant therapy started within 4 and 8 weeks improved survival when compared to start later than 8 weeks (HR [95%CI]: 1.7 [1.1-2.6]; P = 0.024 and 1.4 [1.07-1.8]; P = 0.013, respectively), whereas there was no...

  18. Bait Preference of Free-Ranging Feral Swine for Delivery of a Novel Toxicant.

    Nathan P Snow

    Full Text Available Invasive feral swine (Sus scrofa cause extensive damage to agricultural and wildlife resources throughout the United States. Development of sodium nitrite as a new, orally delivered toxicant is underway to provide an additional tool to curtail growth and expansion of feral swine populations. A micro-encapsulation coating around sodium nitrite is used to minimize detection by feral swine and maximize stability for the reactive molecule. To maximize uptake of this toxicant by feral swine, development a bait matrix is needed to 1 protect the micro-encapsulation coating so that sodium nitrite remains undetectable to feral swine, 2 achieve a high degree of acceptance by feral swine, and 3 be minimally appealing to non-target species. With these purposes, a field evaluation at 88 sites in south-central Texas was conducted using remote cameras to evaluate preferences by feral swine for several oil-based bait matrices including uncolored peanut paste, black-colored peanut paste, and peanut-based slurry mixed onto whole-kernel corn. These placebo baits were compared to a reference food, whole-kernel corn, known to be readily taken by feral swine (i.e., control. The amount of bait consumed by feral swine was also estimated using remote cameras and grid boards at 5 additional sites. On initial exposure, feral swine showed reduced visitations to the uncolored peanut paste and peanut slurry treatments. This reduced visitation subsided by the end of the treatment period, suggesting that feral swine needed time to accept these bait types. The black-colored peanut paste was visited equally to the control throughout the study, and enough of this matrix was consumed to deliver lethal doses of micro-encapsulated sodium nitrite to most feral swine during 1-2 feeding events. None of the treatment matrices reduced visitations by nontarget species, but feral swine dominated visitations for all matrices. It was concluded that black-colored peanut paste achieved

  19. Bait Preference of Free-Ranging Feral Swine for Delivery of a Novel Toxicant.

    Snow, Nathan P; Halseth, Joseph M; Lavelle, Michael J; Hanson, Thomas E; Blass, Chad R; Foster, Justin A; Humphrys, Simon T; Staples, Linton D; Hewitt, David G; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2016-01-01

    Invasive feral swine (Sus scrofa) cause extensive damage to agricultural and wildlife resources throughout the United States. Development of sodium nitrite as a new, orally delivered toxicant is underway to provide an additional tool to curtail growth and expansion of feral swine populations. A micro-encapsulation coating around sodium nitrite is used to minimize detection by feral swine and maximize stability for the reactive molecule. To maximize uptake of this toxicant by feral swine, development a bait matrix is needed to 1) protect the micro-encapsulation coating so that sodium nitrite remains undetectable to feral swine, 2) achieve a high degree of acceptance by feral swine, and 3) be minimally appealing to non-target species. With these purposes, a field evaluation at 88 sites in south-central Texas was conducted using remote cameras to evaluate preferences by feral swine for several oil-based bait matrices including uncolored peanut paste, black-colored peanut paste, and peanut-based slurry mixed onto whole-kernel corn. These placebo baits were compared to a reference food, whole-kernel corn, known to be readily taken by feral swine (i.e., control). The amount of bait consumed by feral swine was also estimated using remote cameras and grid boards at 5 additional sites. On initial exposure, feral swine showed reduced visitations to the uncolored peanut paste and peanut slurry treatments. This reduced visitation subsided by the end of the treatment period, suggesting that feral swine needed time to accept these bait types. The black-colored peanut paste was visited equally to the control throughout the study, and enough of this matrix was consumed to deliver lethal doses of micro-encapsulated sodium nitrite to most feral swine during 1-2 feeding events. None of the treatment matrices reduced visitations by nontarget species, but feral swine dominated visitations for all matrices. It was concluded that black-colored peanut paste achieved satisfactory

  20. An instantaneous approach for determining the infrared emissivity of swine surface and the influencing factors.

    Zhang, Kun; Jiao, Leizi; Zhao, Xiande; Dong, Daming

    2016-04-01

    Infrared thermal imaging technology has been widely employed in temperature measurements of human and animals and its accuracy relies on the determination process of the emissivity of the target to a large extent. However, common used methods were unable to determine the emissivity of the surface of living animals and thus lower the accuracy. In this paper, we suggested a new approach to acquire the infrared emissivity of living swine in real time. In the approach, the surface temperature of swine and reference body were measured to compute the emissivity and the measurement process was completed in a non-contact and non-invasive manner. We changed the surface reflection energy of animals and reference body by changing the ambient radiant energy and obtain the surface emissivity in real time without confirming the actual temperature of animal surface. In this way, the infrared emissivity of the animal surface can be determined instantaneously and without knowing the real temperature. Both swine specimen and a living swine were used in this study. Using this method, we measured the emissivity of different body sites of the swine. The results showed that the emissivity values at different body sites show the significant differences. The emissivity values at trotter and eye were respectively 0.895 and 0.930 and the emissivity on swine surface varied from 0.945 to 0.978. More important, the distribution of the infrared emissivity on a living swine was explored and the detailed differences of the emissivity on a swine surface can be cleanly seen. Furthermore, we studied the influencing factors on the emissivity of animal surface, through measuring the emissivity distribution on swine surface when pig specimens were sprayed with water on the surface or heated using this method. This study is of great significance for the accurate measurement of swine surface temperature. PMID:27033042

  1. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  2. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years. In the absence of distant metastases, patients receive loco-regional therapy with or without adjuvant systemic therapy. Loco-regional therapy consists of either a modified radical mastectomy, in so...

  3. Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric adenocarcinoma: an institutional experience

    Studies have shown that surgery alone is less than satisfactory in the management of early gastric cancer, with cure rates approaching 40%. The role of adjuvant therapy was indefinite until three large, randomized controlled trials showed the survival benefit of adjuvant therapy over surgery alone. Chemoradiation therapy has been criticized for its high toxicity. 24 patients diagnosed between September 2001 and July 2007 were treated with adjuvant chemoradiation. 18 patients had the classical MacDonald regimen of 4500 cGy of XRT and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and leucovorin, while chemotherapy consisted of 5FU/Cisplatin for 6 patients. This series consisted of non-metastatic patients, 17 females and 7 males with a median age of 62.5 years. 23 patients (96%) had a performance status of 0 or 1. The full course of radiation therapy (4500 cGy) was completed by 22 patients (91.7%). Only 7 patients (36.8%) completed the total planned courses of chemotherapy. 2 local relapses (10%), 2 regional relapses (10%) and 2 distant relapses (10%) were recorded. Time to progression has not been reached. 9 patients (37.5%) died during follow-up with a median overall survival of 75 months. Patients lost a mean of 4 Kgs during radiation therapy. We recorded 6 episodes of febrile neutropenia and the most frequent toxicity was gastro-intestinal in 17 patients (70.8%) with 9 (36%) patients suffering grade 3 or 4 toxicity and 5 patients (20%) suffering from grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. 4 (17%) patients required total parenteral nutrition for a mean duration of 20 days. 4 patients suffered septic shock (17%) and 1 patient developed a deep venous thrombosis and a pulmonary embolus. Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric cancer is a standard at our institution and has resulted in few relapses and an interesting median survival. Toxicity rates were serious and this remains a harsh regimen with only 36.8% of patients completing the full planned courses of chemotherapy. This is due to

  4. Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric adenocarcinoma: an institutional experience

    Ghosn Marwan G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that surgery alone is less than satisfactory in the management of early gastric cancer, with cure rates approaching 40%. The role of adjuvant therapy was indefinite until three large, randomized controlled trials showed the survival benefit of adjuvant therapy over surgery alone. Chemoradiation therapy has been criticized for its high toxicity. Methods 24 patients diagnosed between September 2001 and July 2007 were treated with adjuvant chemoradiation. 18 patients had the classical MacDonald regimen of 4500 cGy of XRT and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5FU and leucovorin, while chemotherapy consisted of 5FU/Cisplatin for 6 patients. Results This series consisted of non-metastatic patients, 17 females and 7 males with a median age of 62.5 years. 23 patients (96% had a performance status of 0 or 1. The full course of radiation therapy (4500 cGy was completed by 22 patients (91.7%. Only 7 patients (36.8% completed the total planned courses of chemotherapy. 2 local relapses (10%, 2 regional relapses (10% and 2 distant relapses (10% were recorded. Time to progression has not been reached. 9 patients (37.5% died during follow-up with a median overall survival of 75 months. Patients lost a mean of 4 Kgs during radiation therapy. We recorded 6 episodes of febrile neutropenia and the most frequent toxicity was gastro-intestinal in 17 patients (70.8% with 9 (36% patients suffering grade 3 or 4 toxicity and 5 patients (20% suffering from grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. 4 (17% patients required total parenteral nutrition for a mean duration of 20 days. 4 patients suffered septic shock (17% and 1 patient developed a deep venous thrombosis and a pulmonary embolus. Conclusions Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric cancer is a standard at our institution and has resulted in few relapses and an interesting median survival. Toxicity rates were serious and this remains a harsh regimen with only 36.8% of patients completing the

  5. Role of adjuvant radiation in the management of central neurocytoma: Experience from a tertiary cancer care center of India

    S Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Neurocytoma (NC is a rare benign neuronal tumor. A complete excision remains curative for most of these tumors, but atypical histology and extra-ventricular location often necessitates adjuvant therapy. We intended to explore the clinico-pathological features and treatment outcome in patients of NC in our institute. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records were reviewed and data collected on NC over a 6-year period (2006-2012 from the departmental archives. Disease free survival (DFS was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients met the study criteria. Fourteen patients had intra-ventricular neurocytoma (IVNC, right lateral ventricle being the most common site of origin. Gross total resection and near total resection were achieved in eight cases each whereas tumor decompression and biopsy could be done in two cases. On post-operative histopathological examination, eight patients were found to have atypical NC while 10 patients had typical NC. All patients underwent adjuvant radiation. The median dose of post-operative radiation was 56 Gy. All patients were alive at their final follow-up. One patient had both clinical and radiological evidence of local relapse. In the evaluable patients (n = 18, after a median follow-up of 35 months the DFS rate at 2 years and 3 years are 100% and 83% respectively. CONCLUSION: Use of adjuvant radiation to a total dose of 56 Gy enhances the local control and achieves superior survival in patients of NC. Use of 3D conformal planning techniques may help us to achieve better therapeutic ratio in patients with NC.

  6. Development of Novel Protocol for Preclinical Monitoring the Release of Adjuvants Encapsulated Mucosal Delivery Carriers

    Mohamed Ibrahim-Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work contributes in vaccines down-stream process by introducing a novel platform for in-vitro monitoring of vaccine-adjuvant delivery profile as a crucial preclinical optimizing step in mucosal vaccines. Nano and micro particles of Calcium phosphate (Cap vaccine-adjuvant were encapsulated in Chitosan and Alginate polymeric carriers. Adjuvants release profiles monitored in a permeable bag at 37°C, pH 2, incubated in isotonic buffer for 96 hours. The released Calcium in the outer buffer was monitored and compared in-addition to the carrier’s swelling and biophysical properties. The adjuvants and carriers did not interfere with the proliferation of cultured hepatocytes an indicator of their safe use; Chitosan’s viscosity and swelling were higher than Alginate. Chitosan’s Zeta-potential was significantly high positive, while Cap and Alginate were negative. The prepared CaP and Chitosan particles were in nano-size, while the ready-made CaP adjuvant and Alginate were in micro-size using zeta-seizer and scanning electron-micrograph. The release of nano-size particle was in ascending, extended and controlled manner compared to micro-size adjuvant. Moreover, nano-adjuvant release profile from Chitosan was superior compared to Alginate. The core controlling factors in vaccine-adjuvant sustained release includes; smaller adjuvant particles (nano-size, carrier’s low swelling, high viscosity and importantly carrier-adjuvant entrapment reversibility. Chitosan offers sustained ascending superior capacity in releasing Nano-Cap adjuvant. This novel in-vitro pre-clinical study answer a crucial downstream preparative step for optimizing mucosal vaccines before their direct routine in-vivo trial on animal regardless of adjuvant’s particle size or delivery kinetics.

  7. Nested RT-PCR method for the detection of European avian-like H1 swine inlfuenza A virus

    WEI Yan-di; PEI Xing-yao; ZHANG Yuan; YU Chen-fang; SUN Hong-lei; LIU Jin-hua; PU Juan

    2016-01-01

    Swine inlfuenza A virus (swine IAV) circulates worldwide in pigs and poses a serious public health threat, as evidenced by the 2009 H1N1 inlfuenza pandemic. Among multiple subtypes/lineages of swine inlfuenza A viruses, European avian-like (EA) H1N1 swine IAV has been dominant since 2005 in China and caused infections in humans in 2010. Highly sensitive and speciifc methods of detection are required to differentiate EA H1N1 swine IAVs from viruses belonging to other lineages and subtypes. In this study, a nested reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay was developed to detect EA H1 swine IAVs. Two primer sets (outer and inner) were designed speciifcaly to target the viral hemagglutinin genes. Speciifc PCR products were obtained from al tested EA H1N1 swine IAV isolates, but not from other lineages of H1 swine IAVs, other subtypes of swine IAVs, or other infectious swine viruses. The sensitivity of the nested RT-PCR was improved to 1 plaque forming unit (PFU) mL–1which was over 104 PFU mL–1 for a previously established multiplex RT-PCR method. The nested RT-PCR results obtained from screening 365 clinical samples were consistent with those obtained using conventional virus isolation methods combined with sequencing. Thus, the nested RT-PCR assay reported herein is more sensitive and suitable for the diagnosis of clinical infections and surveilance of EA H1 swine IAVs in pigs and humans.

  8. Adjuvant radiation therapy in metastatic lymph nodes from melanoma

    To analyze the outcome after adjuvant radiation therapy with standard fractionation regimen in metastatic lymph nodes (LN) from cutaneous melanoma. 86 successive patients (57 men) were treated for locally advanced melanoma in our institution. 60 patients (69%) underwent LN dissection followed by radiation therapy (RT), while 26 patients (31%) had no radiotherapy. The median number of resected LN was 12 (1 to 36) with 2 metastases (1 to 28). Median survival after the first relapse was 31.8 months. Extracapsular extension was a significant prognostic factor for regional control (p = 0.019). Median total dose was 50 Gy (30 to 70 Gy). A standard fractionation regimen was used (2 Gy/fraction). Median number of fractions was 25 (10 to 44 fractions). Patients were treated with five fractions/week. Patients with extracapsular extension treated with surgery followed by RT (total dose ≥50 Gy) had a better regional control than patients treated by surgery followed by RT with a total dose <50 Gy (80% vs. 35% at 5-year follow-up; p = 0.004). Adjuvant radiotherapy was able to increase regional control in targeted sub-population (LN with extracapsular extension)

  9. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended. (Author) 42 refs.

  10. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the stomach. A new progress?

    Frequency of local and distant failures after gastrectomy has led to extended lymph nodes dissection to obtain a better locoregional control. However, five year survival rates were not significantly different between patients undergoing D2 and D1 lymphadenectomy, and higher morbidity and post operative deaths were reported in large randomized trials (respectively 25% vs 48% and 4 vs 13%). Additionally, several met-analysis failed to demonstrate a significant survival advantage with adjuvant chemotherapy. The results of the first trial demonstrating one advantage to adjuvant post-operative chemoradiotherapy should modify the standard care. Disease free and overall survival after surgery alone and after surgery and concurrent chemoradiotherapy were respectively 31% vs 48% and 41% vs 50%. The inter-group trial demonstrate that better local control improve survival if radiation fields include stamps, tumour bed, proximal nodal chains and nodes corresponding to D2 extended lymph nodes dissection. Treatment was feasible with few severe toxic effects (1%). Of the 281 patients, 17% stopped treatment because toxic effects. Technical modalities of radiotherapy and post-operative nutrition support which are critical points of interest for this treatment, are also discussed. (authors)

  11. Alginate Nanoparticles as a Promising Adjuvant and Vaccine Delivery System

    F Sarei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During last decades, diphtheria has remained as a serious disease that still outbreaks and can occur worldwide. Recently, new vaccine delivery systems have been developed by using the biodegradable and biocompatible polymers such as alginate. Alginate nanoparticles as a carrier with adjuvant and prolong release properties that enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study diphtheria toxoid loaded nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation technique and characterized with respect to size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, release profile, and immunogenicity. Appropriate parameters (calcium chloride and sodium alginate concentration, homogenization rate and homogenization time redounded to the formation of suitable nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 70±0.5 nm. The loading studies of the nanoparticles resulted in high loading capacities (>90% and subsequent release studies showed prolong profile. The stability and antigenicity of toxoid were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ouchterlony test and proved that the encapsulation process did not affect the antigenic integrity and activity. Guinea pigs immunized with the diphtheria toxoid-loaded alginate nanoparticles showed highest humoral immune response than conventional vaccine. It is concluded that, with regard to the desirable properties of nanoparticles and high immunogenicity, alginate nanoparticles could be considered as a new promising vaccine delivery and adjuvant system.

  12. Exercise as an Adjuvant Therapy for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization

    Emmons, Russell; Niemiro, Grace M.; De Lisio, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) using mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells (HSPCs) is the only curative strategy for many patients suffering from hematological malignancies. HSPC collection protocols rely on pharmacological agents to mobilize HSPCs to peripheral blood. Limitations including variable donor responses and long dosing protocols merit further investigations into adjuvant therapies to enhance the efficiency of HSPCs collection. Exercise, a safe and feasible intervention in patients undergoing HSCT, has been previously shown to robustly stimulate HSPC mobilization from the bone marrow. Exercise-induced HSPC mobilization is transient limiting its current clinical potential. Thus, a deeper investigation of the mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced HSPC mobilization and the factors responsible for removal of HSPCs from circulation following exercise is warranted. The present review will describe current research on exercise and HSPC mobilization, outline the potential mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced HSPC mobilization, and highlight potential sites for HSPC homing following exercise. We also outline current barriers to the implementation of exercise as an adjuvant therapy for HSPC mobilization and suggest potential strategies to overcome these barriers. PMID:27123008

  13. Repair of swine infarcted myocardium with 5-azacytidine intramyocardial injection

    Objective: To study swine infarcted myocardium repairment after 5-azacytidine intramyocardial injection. Methods: Twenty young swines were divided into the treatment and control group randomly. The acute myocardial infarction (AMI)models were made by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) as previously described. After 3 weeks, 1 ml 5-azacytidine in 1 mg/ml concentration was intramyocardium injected into infarcted and border regions in the treatment group (n=10). In the control group (n=10), the same volume of cell culture medium was injected into infarcted myocardial tissue through intramyocardium. Positron emission tomography (PET) was examined at 3rd weeks and 7th weeks. After 7 weeks, the animals were killed, the specimens were harvested for triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and HE staining, electron microscopical studies and immunohistochemical examination for β muscle heavy chain (β-MHC), cardiac troponin I (cTn I) and connexin43 (Cx43). Results: PET demonstrated that radioactivity in the left ventricular free wall and apex became thick in the animals in the treatment group at 7th week compared with the animals in the control group. The infarcted area stained with TTC method and its percentage had significant difference between the treatment and the control group[(4.06 ± 0.29) cm2 vs (5.41 ± 0.28) cm2; (16.34 ± 0.89)% vs(21.23 ± 1.02)%, P<0.001]. New island and striated muscles were found in the treatment group at the site of injection. Actin were filaments with transmission electron microscopy found but not intercalated discs in the new muscle cells; these cells were positive with cellular immunohistochemical stain on β-MHC, cTnI and Cx43. There were symmetrical fibrous scar tissue with negative immunohistochemical result in the infarcted area in the control group. Conclusion: 5-azacytidine intramyocardial injection could repair swine myocardium injury. (authors)

  14. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic variability within a swine operation.

    Pantoja, Lucina Galina; Pettit, Kalie; Dos Santos, Lucas F; Tubbs, Rick; Pieters, Maria

    2016-03-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic diversity within a swine operation comingling weaned pigs. Bronchial swabs and tracheal aspirates were collected from 3 nursery-to-finish farms. During the finishing production stages, samples were obtained from mortalities and from live coughing pigs in rooms where mortality was not observed. A total of 105 samples were examined by a M. hyopneumoniae real-time polymerase chain reaction and subjected to genetic typing using a multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) assay. The MLVA was used to identify genetic variants based on the number of repeats in 2 variable number tandem repeats loci, namely P97 and P146, thought to mediate adherence of M. hyopneumoniae to swine cilia. Four distinguishable M. hyopneumoniae variants were identified: MVLA variants 9-15, 11-21, 9-21, and 7-15. Variant 9-15 was the most prevalent, observed in 79% of rooms, and detected on all 3 farms. Variant 11-21 was present in 37% of the rooms on 2 of the 3 farms. Only one 9-21 variant was identified in 1 farm, and all samples of variant 7-15 were recovered from another farm. Based on the low prevalence and limited geographic distribution of the last 2 variants, it is hypothesized that they might be the result of in-situ recombination. All variants detected in this investigation appeared to belong to 3 clusters. Overall, a limited number of variants and clusters were identified in a system that comingles pigs from different sources, suggesting limited M. hyopneumoniae genetic variation within commercial swine production environments. PMID:26965239

  15. EXPOSURE TO SWINE HOUSING DUST MODULATES MACROPHAGE MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION

    Ruth J. Pender

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine Confinement Facility (SCF dust consists of a complex mixture of feed grain particles, bacterial components, organic particulates and gases. When these particles are inhaled they deposit along the respiratory tract and mediate respiratory symptoms and disease in swine farmers and facility workers. Macrophages ingest and eliminate microbes and debris under chronic conditions; however, the role of macrophages in agricultural-related respiratory disease has not been fully elucidated. The goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that chronic exposure to SCF dust causes inflammation by modulating pulmonary protein levels and macrophage function. Balb/c mice were exposed to 5, 12.5 and 25% SCF Dust Extract (DE via nebulization 30 min/day five days a week, for eight weeks with weekends excluded. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF was collected and analyzed for protein concentration, leukocyte distribution and macrophage morphology. For comparison, THP-1 monocytic cells were exposed to 0.1-10% DE overnight and evaluated for phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species production. Repeated exposure to DE via nebulizer caused a significant increase in protein concentration and inflammatory cell number, namely macrophages, in a dose-dependent manner within the lung as compared to controls. Macrophages with pseudopods and vacuoles were the most abundant leukocytes within BALF of mice exposed to DE. Similarly, in vitro studies with 10% DE treated THP-1 cells revealed enhanced phagocytosis (p<0.05, pseudopodia and vacuolization following exposure to compared to control cells. In addition, there were time- and dose-dependent increases of intracellular ROS production by THP-1 cells exposed to 5 and 10% DE compared to control (p<0.01. These findings indicate repeated, long-term inhalation of swine confinement facility dust may mediate chronic airway and lung inflammation through modulation of protein concentration and macrophage function. The aerosolized dust

  16. Dynamics of antigen delivery and the functional roles of L121-adjuvant.

    Shen, Shan-Shan; Yang, Ya-Wun

    2015-08-20

    This study investigates the intracellular transport of protein antigens facilitated by L121-adjuvants and examines the associated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effect. EL4 mouse thymoma cells were treated with L121-adjuvant and stained with AnnexinV-propidium iodide (PI) followed by flow cytometric analysis. The intracellular trafficking dynamics of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-FITC in the J774.A.1 macrophages, influenced by the L121-adjuvant, was visualized by confocal microscopy. The antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effect induced by the L121-adjuvant was determined by the cleavage-specific fluorogenic caspase substrate. The trafficking of BSA-FITC in the J774A.1 cells by confocal microscopy illustrated that the L121-adjuvant facilitated the intracellular transport of proteins to the subcellular compartments, including the lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the cis-Golgi apparatus. The L121-adjuvant also facilitated antigen delivery to the dendritic cells in the lymph nodes. Immunization of mice with the L121-adjuvant resulted in cell-mediated cytotoxic responses in the target cells, as detected by PhiPhiLux, a fluorogenic caspase substrate. Taken together, the L121-adjuvant improved the dynamics of protein delivery to antigen presenting cells, and also induced caspase activation, thereby illustrating the mechanism of antigen-specific CTL effects. PMID:25917678

  17. Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant differentially activates the three complement pathways with major involvement of the alternative pathway

    Güven, Esin; Duus, Karen; Laursen, Inga;

    2013-01-01

    Al(OH)3 is the most common adjuvant in human vaccines, but its mode of action remains poorly understood. Complement involvement in the adjuvant properties of Al(OH)3 has been suggested in several reports together with a depot effect. It is here confirmed that Al(OH)3 treatment of serum depletes c...

  18. Unraveling molecular signatures of immunostimulatory adjuvants in the female genital tract through systems biology.

    Madelene Lindqvist

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs unequivocally represent a major public health concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Previous efforts to develop vaccines for systemic immunization against a large number of STIs in humans have been unsuccessful. There is currently a drive to develop mucosal vaccines and adjuvants for delivery through the genital tract to confer protective immunity against STIs. Identification of molecular signatures that can be used as biomarkers for adjuvant potency can inform rational development of potent mucosal adjuvants. Here, we used systems biology to study global gene expression and signature molecules and pathways in the mouse vagina after treatment with two classes of experimental adjuvants. The Toll-like receptor 9 agonist CpG ODN and the invariant natural killer T cell agonist alpha-galactosylceramide, which we previously identified as equally potent vaginal adjuvants, were selected for this study. Our integrated analysis of genome-wide transcriptome data determined which signature pathways, processes and networks are shared by or otherwise exclusive to these 2 classes of experimental vaginal adjuvants in the mouse vagina. To our knowledge, this is the first integrated genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the effects of immunomodulatory adjuvants on the female genital tract of a mammal. These results could inform rational development of effective mucosal adjuvants for vaccination against STIs.

  19. Antibody response in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) immunized with a model antigen associated with different adjuvants.

    Pavan, T R; Di Domenico, J; Kirsten, K S; Nied, C O; Frandoloso, R; Kreutz, L C

    2016-07-25

    Adjuvants are essential to boost the immune response to inoculated antigen and play a central role in vaccine development. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of several adjuvants in the production of anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies in silver catfish. Two hundred and seventy juvenile silver catfish (60-80 g) of both sexes were intraperitoneally vaccinated with BSA (200 µg/fish) alone or mixed to the following adjuvants: Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), aluminum hydroxide (AlOH), Montanide, four types of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and three concentrations of β-glucan, and the immune enhancing property was evaluated by measuring anti-BSA antibodies in blood samples at biweekly intervals. Our results demonstrated that CpGs ODNs and β-glucan were as effective as classical adjuvants (FCA, FIA, AlOH and Montanide) in promoting anti-BSA antibodies and that the kinetics of antibody production induced by all adjuvants used in our study had a similar trend to that observed in other fish species, with a peak at 28 days post-vaccination. These results may be useful for the selection of adjuvants for vaccine formulation intended for silver catfish and for the development of vaccine and vaccination strategies to other fish species. PMID:27464022

  20. Current adjuvant treatment modalities for gastric cancer: From history to the future.

    Kilic, Leyla; Ordu, Cetin; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Sen, Fatma; Keskin, Serkan; Ciftci, Rumeysa; Pilanci, Kezban Nur

    2016-05-15

    The discrepancy between the surgical technique and the type of adjuvant chemotherapy used in clinical trials and patient outcomes in terms of overall survival rates has led to the generation of different adjuvant treatment protocols in distinct parts of the world. The adjuvant treatment recommendation is generally chemoradiotherapy in the United States, perioperative chemotherapy in the United Kingdom and parts of Europe, and chemotherapy in Asia. These options mainly rely on the United States Intergroup-0116, United Kingdom British Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy, and the Asian Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer and Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin Adjuvant Study in Stomach Cancer trials. However, the benefits were evident for only certain patients, which were not very homogeneous regarding the type of surgery, chemotherapy regimens, and stage of disease. Whether the dissimilarities in survival are attributable to surgical technique or intrinsic biological differences is a subject of debate. Regardless of the extent of surgery, multimodal therapy may offer modest survival advantage at least for diseases with lymph node involvement. Moreover, in the era of individualized treatment for most of the other cancer types, identification of special subgroups comprising those who will derive more or no benefit from adjuvant therapy merits further investigation. The aim of this review is to reveal the historical evolution and future reflections of adjuvant treatment modalities for resected gastric cancer patients. PMID:27190583

  1. Investigations of eugenol efficacy in treatment of mange in swine

    Jezdimirović Milanka; Kulišić Zoran; Aleksić Nevenka; Bjelić Nebojša; Ivanović Saša

    2006-01-01

    The acaricide efficacy, tolerability and safety of the active ingredient of the etheric oil of cloves eugenol was investigated in the treatment of mange in swine, and the obtained results were compared with the results of acaricide efficacy of the synthetic acaricide permethrin, which has been in use for quite a some time. A single application of permethrin in the form of a 1% solution showed maximum efficacy of 62.5%, and after three applications of 75.0% in the treatment of sarcoptes in swi...

  2. Two-wave propagation in in vitro swine distal ulna

    Mano, Isao; Horii, Kaoru; Matsukawa, Mami; Otani, Takahiko

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic transmitted waves were obtained in an in vitro swine distal ulna specimen, which mimics a human distal radius, that consists of interconnected cortical bone and cancellous bone. The transmitted waveforms appeared similar to the fast waves, slow waves, and overlapping fast and slow waves measured in the specimen after removing the surface cortical bone (only cancellous bone). In addition, the circumferential waves in the cortical bone and water did not affect the fast and slow waves. This suggests that the fast-and-slow-wave phenomenon can be observed in an in vivo human distal radius.

  3. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.;

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion...... process was evaluated based on (a) the sugars release and (b) the methane potential of the pretreated wheat straw compared to that of the raw biomass. It was found that, although a high release of soluble sugars was observed after wet explosion, the methane obtained from the wet-exploded wheat straw was...

  4. Serum acute phase proteins and swine health status

    Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lin, Jyh-Hung; Fung, Hang-Pong; Ho, Lin-Lin; Yang, Ping-Chin; Lee, Wen-Chuan; Lee, Yan-Pai; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between swine health status and the concentration of the serum acute phase proteins, haptoglobin (HP), and C-reactive protein (CRP). A total of 378 clinically healthy pigs from farms A and B, plus 20 pigs culled from farm A due to poor growth, were used in this experiment. Each pig was examined and blood samples were collected during slaughter. The HP concentration was measured by using an HP-hemoglobin binding assay. The CRP conce...

  5. SWINE FLU”: THE RETURN OF PANDEMIC

    Phalke VD; Phalke DB; Deshpande JD

    2009-01-01

    Influenza – A (H1N1) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. First detected in Mexico in April, 2009, it has spread to many countries in the World. WHO declared the outbreak of swine flu had become a pandemic. The current WHO phase of pandemic alert is Phase 6. Influenza A virus strains caused three major global epidemics during the 20th century: the Spanish flu in 1918, Asian flu in 1957 and Hong Kong flu in 1968–69. These pandemics were caused by strains of Influenza A virus tha...

  6. Effects of chronic 90Sr ingestion in miniature swine

    Daily 90Sr feeding of greater than 125 μCi/day resulted in pancytopenia with death usually due to hemorrhage. At 125 μCi, pancytopenia and myelolymphoproliferative disorders appeared. At less than 125 μCi/day a dose-related neutropenia was evident. There is an apparent increased incidence of both benign and malignant tumors of soft tissue in animals fed 25 μCi/day for their lifetime. Benign uterine tumors, dental defects and marked arthritis continued to be the major diseases necessitating euthanasia in aged animals from all groups, including control swine. (U.S.)

  7. Enhanced Protection against Bovine Tuberculosis after Coadministration of Mycobacterium bovis BCG with a Mycobacterial Protein Vaccine-Adjuvant Combination but Not after Coadministration of Adjuvant Alone▿

    Wedlock, D. Neil; Denis, Michel; Painter, Gavin F; Ainge, Gary D.; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Hewinson, R Glyn; Buddle, Bryce M.

    2008-01-01

    Current efforts are aimed at optimizing the protective efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG by the use of vaccine combinations. We have recently demonstrated that the protection afforded by BCG alone is enhanced by vaccinating cattle with a combination of vaccines comprising BCG and a protein tuberculosis vaccine, namely, culture filtrate proteins (CFPs) from M. bovis plus an adjuvant. In the current study, three different adjuvant systems were compared. The CFP was formulated with a depot adj...

  8. Cell Recruitment and Cytokines in Skin Mice Sensitized with the Vaccine Adjuvants: Saponin, Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant, and Monophosphoryl Lipid A

    Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Siqueira, Fernando Augusto Mathias; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Moura, Sandra Aparecida de Lima; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Melo, Maria Norma; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are substances associated with antigens that are fundamental to the formation of an intense, durable, and fast immune response. In this context, the use of vaccine adjuvants to generate an effective cellular immune response is crucial for the design and development of vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate innate inflammatory response induced by the vaccine adjuvants saponin (SAP), incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA), and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). After a single dose of adjuvant was injected into the skin of mice, we analyzed inflammatory reaction, selective cell migration, and cytokine production at the injection site, and inflammatory cell influx in the peripheral blood. We found that all vaccine adjuvants were able to promote cell recruitment to the site without tissue damage. In addition, they induced selective migration of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The influx of neutrophils was notable at 12 h in all groups, but at other time points it was most evident after inoculation with SAP. With regard to cytokines, the SAP led to production of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-4. IFA promoted production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-6, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-10. We also observed that MPL induced high production of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, in addition to IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10. In peripheral blood, values of certain cell populations in the local response changed after stimulation. Our data demonstrate that the three vaccine adjuvants stimulate the early events of innate immune response at the injection site, suggesting their ability to increase the immunogenicity of co-administered antigens. Moreover, this work provides relevant information about elements of innate and acquired immune response induced by vaccine adjuvants administered alone. PMID:22829882

  9. Antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates enable co-delivery of antigen and adjuvant to dendritic cells in cis but only have partial targeting specificity.

    Martin Kreutz

    Full Text Available Antibody-antigen conjugates, which promote antigen-presentation by dendritic cells (DC by means of targeted delivery of antigen to particular DC subsets, represent a powerful vaccination approach. To ensure immunity rather than tolerance induction the co-administration of a suitable adjuvant is paramount. However, co-administration of unlinked adjuvant cannot ensure that all cells targeted by the antibody conjugates are appropriately activated. Furthermore, antigen-presenting cells (APC that do not present the desired antigen are equally strongly activated and could prime undesired responses against self-antigens. We, therefore, were interested in exploring targeted co-delivery of antigen and adjuvant in cis in form of antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates for the induction of anti-tumour immunity. In this study, we report on the assembly and characterization of conjugates consisting of DEC205-specific antibody, the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN. We show that such conjugates are more potent at inducing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses than control conjugates mixed with soluble CpG. However, our study also reveals that the nucleic acid moiety of such antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates alters their binding and uptake and allows delivery of the antigen and the adjuvant to cells partially independently of DEC205. Nevertheless, antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates are superior to antibody-free antigen-adjuvant conjugates in priming CTL responses and efficiently induce anti-tumour immunity in the murine B16 pseudo-metastasis model. A better understanding of the role of the antibody moiety is required to inform future conjugate vaccination strategies for efficient induction of anti-tumour responses.

  10. Immunoglobulins in pigs vaccinated with a subunit E2 and an attenuated c strain vaccine against classical swine fever

    Terzić Svjetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect changes in the concentration of serum immunoglobulins following vaccination against classical swine fever (CSF with an attenuated C strain and a subunit E2 vaccine. Furthermore, the adjuvanticity of an attenuated parapoxvirus ORF virus for the subunit vaccine against CSF was evaluated. Peripheral blood samples were collected before the vaccination and at post-vaccination days 4, 10, 21 and 28. The samples were assessed by a colorimetric method for the detection of total proteins, as well as albumin, IgA and IgM levels and by radial immunodiffusion to record the IgG level. Our findings are in accordance with the normal concentrations of porcine IgG, IgA and IgM. However, a significant increase of some immunoglobulin classes was recorded. The increase of the IgM level in vaccinated pigs confirmed an early development of humoral immunity. Interestingly, the subunit E2 vaccine induced the increase of IgM earlier then did the attenuated C strain. Since the IgG concentration was not significantly increased we assumed that the period of 28 days following vaccination was too short to detect any changes in the IgG level, thus reflecting a late humoral immune response. Although, IgA antibodies are mostly responsible for humoral immunity at the mucosal surfaces, in our experiment the attenuated C strain induced a significantly higher production of this immunoglobulin class in the serum very early (on day 4 following vaccination. This could be ascribed to the affinity of IgA antibodies to neutralize or agglutinate virus particles. Early appearance (4 and 10 days after the vaccination of a significantly higher concentration of IgG and IgM could be induced by the ORF virus strain D1701 applied as an adjuvant.

  11. Quality of adjuvant CMF chemotherapy for node-positive primary breast cancer : a population-based study

    Schaapveld, M; de Vries, EGE; van der Graaf, WTA; Otter, R; Willemse, PHB

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant 'classical' oral cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) has long been the mainstay of adjuvant chemotherapy for premenopausal breast cancer patients. The Comprehensive Cancer Center North Netherlands (CCCN) breast cancer working group performed a retrospective aud

  12. Preliminary results of capecitabine metronomic chemotherapy in operable triple-negative breast cancer after standard adjuvant therapy – A single-arm phase II study

    Hanan Shawky

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: One year of capecitabine metronomic therapy preceded by standard adjuvant chemotherapy, is active and well-tolerated in TNBC patients previously treated with standard adjuvant chemotherapy.

  13. Effect of particulate adjuvant on the anthrax protective antigen dose required for effective nasal vaccination.

    Bento, Dulce; Staats, Herman F; Borges, Olga

    2015-07-17

    Successful vaccine development is dependent on the development of effective adjuvants since the poor immunogenicity of modern subunit vaccines typically requires the use of potent adjuvants and high antigen doses. In recent years, adjuvant formulations combining both immunopotentiators and delivery systems have emerged as a promising strategy to develop effective and improved vaccines. In this study we investigate if the association of the mast cell activating adjuvant compound 48/80 (C48/80) with chitosan nanoparticles would promote an antigen dose sparing effect when administered intranasally. Even though the induction of strong mucosal immunity required higher antigen doses, incorporation of C48/80 into nanoparticles provided significant dose sparing when compared to antigen and C48/80 in solution with no significant effect on serum neutralizing antibodies titers. These results suggest the potential of this novel adjuvant combination to improve the immunogenicity of a vaccine and decrease the antigen dose required for vaccination. PMID:26087299

  14. Pseudo-Mannosylated DC-SIGN Ligands as Potential Adjuvants for HIV Vaccines

    Angela Berzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new and effective adjuvants may play a fundamental role in improving HIV vaccine efficacy. New classes of vaccine adjuvants activate innate immunity receptors, notably toll like receptors (TLRs. Adjuvants targeting the C-Type lectin receptor DC-SIGN may be alternative or complementary to adjuvants based on TRL activation. Herein we evaluate the ability of the glycomimetic DC-SIGN ligand Polyman 19 (PM 19 to modulate innate immune responses. Results showed that PM 19 alone, or in combination with TLR agonists, induces the expression of cytokines, β chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules that may, in turn, modulate adaptive immunity and exert anti-viral effects. These results indicate that the suitability of this compound as a vaccine adjuvant should be further evaluated.

  15. Evaluation of adjuvants for a candidate conjugate vaccine against benzo[a]pyrene.

    Schellenberger, Mario T; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie; Muller, Claude P

    2011-01-01

    We have recently developed an experimental vaccine based on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) conjugated to tetanus toxoid as a carrier protein. In combination with Freund adjuvant, this vaccine induces high levels of B[a]P-specific antibodies to protect against detrimental effects of this carcinogen. Here we evaluate this conjugate vaccine by replacing Freund adjuvant by adjuvants that are potentially compatible with their use in humans. We showed that all adjuvants tested induced specific antibodies against B[a]P and 7,8-diol-B[a]P, its carcinogenic metabolite. The best antibody levels were obtained with Quil A, MF-59 and Alum. Biological activity in terms of enhanced retention of B[a]P was confirmed in mice immunised with Quil A, Montanide, Alum and MF-59. Our findings demonstrate that a vaccination against B[a]P is feasible in combination with adjuvants licensed in humans. PMID:21245662

  16. Adjuvant Whole Brain Radiotherapy: Strong Emotions Decide But Rational Studies Are Needed

    Brain metastases are common in cancer patients and cause considerable morbidity and mortality. For patients with limited disease and good performance status, treatment typically involves a combination of focal measures (e.g., surgical resection or radiosurgery) for the radiographically apparent disease, followed by adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to treat subclinical disease. Because of concerns regarding the toxicity of WBRT, especially neurocognitive deterioration, many have advocated withholding adjuvant WBRT. Recently published studies have shed more light on the efficacy of adjuvant WBRT and the neurocognitive effects of WBRT. However, the inclusion of neurocognitive and quality-of-life data in clinical trials are still required to better define the role of adjuvant WBRT. Currently, two Phase III trials are underway, one in Europe and one in North America, that will determine the effect of adjuvant WBRT on patients' quality of life, neurocognitive function, and survival

  17. One world, one health: the threat of emerging swine diseases. A North American perspective.

    Davies, P R

    2012-03-01

    The predicted expansion of global livestock populations to meet the food and fibre demands of the growing human population raises numerous concerns, including the implications for disease emergence. The evolution of animal production in developed countries has been marked by substantial reduction in farm numbers with correspondingly larger herd sizes, specialization of enterprises, concentration or ownership and vertical integration. Innovations in the structure and operations of swine production have been largely driven by efforts to improve swine health, and the impact of several important swine diseases has declined. Productivity in swine production and the safety of pork products have increased markedly. The most significant emerging infectious diseases of pigs over the last decades have been highly host-specific viruses rather than multihost pathogens. While some bacterial pathogens of pigs have increased in importance in modern systems, improved management systems and biosecurity have enabled herd sizes to increase without negative impact on swine health. The most vulnerable scenario for disease emergence in swine, particularly for zoonotic agents, may be rapid expansion and intensification of swine industries in developing countries without incorporating the stringent biosecurity measures and veterinary oversight that have helped maintain the health and productivity of large herds in North America. Factors that may influence disease emergence in the long term include regulatory measures (particularly related to antimicrobial use), genetics and feeding practices. PMID:25471242

  18. Effect of various husbandry conditions on the production parameters of swine herds in Poland.

    Dors, A; Czyzewska, E; Pomorska-Mól, M; Kolacz, R; Pejsak, Z

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to collect production data of Polish swine herds, with special emphasis on the production parameters in farrow to finish pig herds. Another goal was to determine differences in the production performance of swine herds with different sizes, various status with regard to biosecurity, and with different veterinary expenditure. For this purpose, questionnaire surveys were carried out in 96 polish farrow to finish pig herds. The data concerning production parameters (e.g. the number of pigs born per sow per year, litters per sow per year, pre- and post-weaning mortality), farm size (small, medium, large), management (all in-all out by room or building), veterinary expenditure (including medication) and the percentage of pigs under medical treatment, were collected. The data obtained in the present study indicate that in general, the efficiency of swine production in evaluated farms was relatively low. It was also found that in large swine farms the efficiency was better than that in small ones and that the proper biosecurity positively influenced the performance of the swine farms. However, only in 10.4% facilities, the biosecurity rules and methods, including the principle "all-in all-out", were implemented and kept. It seems that inefficient swine production on the majority of Polish farms results from poor basic knowledge on pig production and understanding of fundamental economic rules of swine breeding. PMID:24597306

  19. Formulation, High Throughput In Vitro Screening and In Vivo Functional Characterization of Nanoemulsion-Based Intranasal Vaccine Adjuvants

    Pamela T. Wong; Leroueil, Pascale R.; Smith, Douglas M.; Ciotti, Susan; Bielinska, Anna U.; Janczak, Katarzyna W.; Mullen, Catherine H.; Groom, Jeffrey V.; Taylor, Erin M; Passmore, Crystal; Makidon, Paul E.; O’Konek, Jessica J.; Myc, Andrzej; Hamouda, Tarek; Baker, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants have been reported to induce both mucosal and systemic immunity when applied to mucosal surfaces and this dual response appears important for protection against certain pathogens. Despite the potential advantages, however, no mucosal adjuvants are currently approved for human use. Evaluating compounds as mucosal adjuvants is a slow and costly process due to the need for lengthy animal immunogenicity studies. We have constructed a library of 112 intranasal adjuvant candidate ...

  20. Pilot scale production of the vaccine adjuvant Proteoliposome derived Cochleates (AFCo1) from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B

    2013-01-01

    The use of new adjuvants in vaccine formulations is a subject of current research. Only few parenteral adjuvants have been licensed. We have developed a mucosal and parenteral adjuvant known as AFCo1 (Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1, derived from proteoliposomes of N. meningitidis B) using a dialysis procedure to produce them on lab scale. The immunogenicity of the AFCo1 produced by dialysis has been already evaluated, but it was necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of a larger-scale manufact...