WorldWideScience

Sample records for adjusted ventilatory assist

  1. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist : from animal studies to clinical practice

    Campoccia Jalde, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) undergoing ventilator treatment may experience asynchrony with the ventilator, which has been associated with increased need of sedation, sleep disruption, prolonged mechanical ventilation and unsuccessful weaning from the ventilator. The search for new strategies to improve patient-ventilator interaction is ongoing. Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) is a recently developed ventilator support that uses the Electrical Activity of the diaphrag...

  2. Non-invasive ventilation with neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in newborns.

    Stein, Howard; Beck, Jennifer; Dunn, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a mode of ventilation in which both the timing and degree of ventilatory assist are controlled by the patient. Since NAVA uses the diaphragm electrical activity (Edi) as the controller signal, it is possible to deliver synchronized non-invasive NAVA (NIV-NAVA) regardless of leaks and to monitor continuously patient respiratory pattern and drive. Advantages of NIV-NAVA over conventional modes include improved patient-ventilator interaction, reliable respiratory monitoring and self-regulation of respiratory support. In theory, these characteristics make NIV-NAVA an ideal mode to provide effective, appropriate non-invasive support to newborns with respiratory insufficiency. NIV-NAVA has been successfully used clinically in neonates as a mode of ventilation to prevent intubation, to allow early extubation, and as a novel way to deliver nasal continuous positive airway pressure. The use of NAVA in neonates is described with an emphasis on studies and clinical experience with NIV-NAVA. PMID:26899957

  3. A prospective crossover comparison of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and pressure-support ventilation in a pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit population.

    Breatnach, Cormac

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation with pressure-support ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective, crossover comparison study. SETTING: Tertiary care pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Sixteen ventilated infants and children: mean age = 9.7 months (range = 2 days-4 yrs) and mean weight = 6.2 kg (range = 2.4-13.7kg). INTERVENTIONS: A modified nasogastric tube was inserted and correct positioning was confirmed. Patients were ventilated in pressure-support mode with a pneumatic trigger for a 30-min period and then in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode for up to 4 hrs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data collected for comparison included activating trigger (neural vs. pneumatic), peak and mean airway pressures, expired minute and tidal volumes, heart rate, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry, end-tidal CO2 and arterial blood gases. Synchrony was improved in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode with 65% (+\\/-21%) of breaths triggered neurally vs. 35% pneumatically (p < .001) and 85% (+\\/-8%) of breaths cycled-off neurally vs. 15% pneumatically (p = .0001). The peak airway pressure in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode was significantly lower than in pressure-support mode with a 28% decrease in pressure after 30 mins (p = .003) and 32% decrease after 3 hrs (p < .001). Mean airway pressure was reduced by 11% at 30 mins (p = .13) and 9% at 3 hrs (p = .31) in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode although this did not reach statistical significance. Patient hemodynamics and gas exchange remained stable for the study period. No adverse patient events or device effects were noted. CONCLUSIONS: In a neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit population, ventilation in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode was associated with improved patient-ventilator synchrony and lower peak airway pressure when compared with pressure-support ventilation with a pneumatic trigger. Ventilating patients in this new mode

  4. Roles of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in improving gas exchange in a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome patient after weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a case report

    Goto, Yuya; Katayama, Shinshu; Shono, Atsuko; Mori, Yosuke; Miyazaki, Yuya; Sato, Yoko; Ozaki, Makoto; Kotani, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-ventilator asynchrony is a major cause of difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is reported useful to improve the synchrony in patients with sustained low lung compliance. However, the role of NAVA has not been fully investigated. Case presentation The patient was a 63-year-old Japanese man with acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to respiratory infection. He was treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ...

  5. A randomized clinical trial of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist versus conventional weaning mode in patients with COPD and prolonged mechanical ventilation

    Kuo NY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nai-Ying Kuo,1,2 Mei-Lien Tu,1,3 Tsai-Yi Hung,1 Shih-Feng Liu,4 Yu-Hsiu Chung,4 Meng-Chih Lin,4 Chao-Chien Wu41Department of Respiratory Therapy, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital; 2Kaohsiung Medical University; 3Respiratory Care, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chiayi, Taiwan; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, TaiwanBackground: Patient-ventilator asynchrony is a common problem in mechanically ventilated patients; the problem is especially obvious in COPD. Neutrally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA can improve patient-ventilator asynchrony; however, the effect in COPD patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation is still unknown. The goals of this study are to evaluate the effect of NAVA and conventional weaning mode in patients with COPD during prolonged mechanical ventilation.Methods: The study enrolled a total of 33 COPD patients with ventilator dependency for more than 21 days in the weaning center. A diaphragm electrical activity (Edi catheter was inserted in patients within 24 hours after admission to the respiratory care center, and patients were randomly allocated to NAVA or conventional group. A spontaneous breathing trial was performed every 24 hours. The results correlated with the clinical parameters.Results: There were significantly higher asynchrony incidence rates in the whole group after using Edi catheter (before vs post-Edi catheter insertion =60.6% vs 87.9%, P<0.001. Asynchrony index: before vs post-Edi catheter insertion =7.4%±8.5% vs 13.2%±13.5%, P<0.01. Asynchrony incidence: NAVA vs conventional =0% vs 84.2%, P<0.001. Asynchrony index: NAVA vs conventional =0 vs 11.9±11.2 (breath %, P<0.001. The most common asynchrony events were ineffective trigger and delayed trigger. Conclusion: Compared to conventional mode, NAVA mode can significantly enhance

  6. A randomized clinical trial of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist versus conventional weaning mode in patients with COPD and prolonged mechanical ventilation

    Kuo, Nai-Ying; Tu, Mei-Lien; Hung, Tsai-Yi; Liu, Shih-Feng; Chung, Yu-Hsiu; Lin, Meng-Chih; Wu, Chao-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-ventilator asynchrony is a common problem in mechanically ventilated patients; the problem is especially obvious in COPD. Neutrally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) can improve patient-ventilator asynchrony; however, the effect in COPD patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation is still unknown. The goals of this study are to evaluate the effect of NAVA and conventional weaning mode in patients with COPD during prolonged mechanical ventilation. Methods The study enrolled a total of 33 COPD patients with ventilator dependency for more than 21 days in the weaning center. A diaphragm electrical activity (Edi) catheter was inserted in patients within 24 hours after admission to the respiratory care center, and patients were randomly allocated to NAVA or conventional group. A spontaneous breathing trial was performed every 24 hours. The results correlated with the clinical parameters. Results There were significantly higher asynchrony incidence rates in the whole group after using Edi catheter (before vs post-Edi catheter insertion =60.6% vs 87.9%, PEdi catheter insertion =7.4%±8.5% vs 13.2%±13.5%, P<0.01. Asynchrony incidence: NAVA vs conventional =0% vs 84.2%, P<0.001. Asynchrony index: NAVA vs conventional =0 vs 11.9±11.2 (breath %), P<0.001. The most common asynchrony events were ineffective trigger and delayed trigger. Conclusion Compared to conventional mode, NAVA mode can significantly enhance respiratory monitoring and improve patient-ventilator interaction in COPD patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation in respiratory care center. PMID:27274216

  7. "Optimal" application of ventilatory assist in Cheyne-Stokes respiration: a simulation study.

    Khoo, M C; Benser, M E

    2005-01-01

    Although a variety of ventilator therapies have been employed to treat Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR), these modalities do not completely eliminate CSR. As well, most current strategies require that ventilatory assist be provided continuously. We used a computer model of the respiratory control system to determine whether a ventilatory assist strategy could be found that would substantially reduce the severity of CSR while minimizing the application of positive airway pressure. We assessed the effects of different levels of ventilatory assist applied during breaths that fell below selected hypopneic thresholds. These could be applied during the descending, ascending, or both phases of the CSR cycle. We found that ventilatory augmentation equal to 30-40% of eupneic drive, applied whenever ventilation fell below 70% of the eupneic level during the ascending or descending-and-ascending phases of CSR led to the greatest regularization of breathing with minimal ventilator intervention. Application of ventilatory assist during the descending phase produced little effect. PMID:17281585

  8. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... adjustment assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for...

  9. Trade Liberalization and Trade Adjustment Assistance

    Fung, K. C.; Staiger, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the relationship between trade adjustment subsidies and successful reciprocal trade liberalization. We consider economies that are faced with a periodic need to move resources out of a declining import-competing sector, and that are attempting to sustain cooperative but self-enforcing trade agreements in the face of these adjustment needs. If the limitations associated with enforcement of international trade agreements are sufficiently severe, trade adjustment assistance can facili...

  10. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist... adjustment assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for...

  11. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... for Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief... assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers...

  12. 75 FR 59685 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program...

  13. 75 FR 63437 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-10-15

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist... CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, Office of Trade Programs, FAS, USDA,...

  14. 75 FR 23667 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... site for the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is...

  15. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, Office of Trade Programs, FAS, USDA, or by phone at...

  16. 75 FR 43140 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-07-23

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff... ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 14, 2010....

  17. Ventilation-perfusion scans in neonatal regional pulmonary emphysema complicating ventilatory assistance

    Two cases of ventilator-related neonatal lobar overexpansion with similar radiographic appearance, but probably different pathogenesis, are presented. In one infant, persistent interstitial lobar emphysema was confirmed by markedly decreased perfusion shown on scintigraphy; this information was of great value in predicting the beneficial effect of lobectomy. In the other case, ventilation and perfusion scans indicated functional value of the emphysematous lobe and correctly suggested conservative management. Radioisotope lung scans may provide valuable information regarding lung function in regional pulmonary emphysema associated with assisted ventilation in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, and thus determine patient management

  18. 75 FR 49458 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-08-13

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by... TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: August 3, 2010. Suzanne...

  19. 75 FR 28780 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-05-24

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers petitions for Fiscal Year 2011. Petitioners must file the... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-5) reauthorized the TAA for Farmers Program as established by Subtitle...

  20. 75 FR 48931 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-08-12

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone... Farmers' Web site: www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 30, 2010. John D. Brewer, Administrator,...

  1. 75 FR 23227 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: April 27,...

  2. 75 FR 43485 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-07-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY...: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by e-mail: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site:...

  3. 75 FR 11513 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-03-11

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers petitions for fiscal year 2010 beginning March 11, 2010. Petitioners... in accordance with 7 CFR part 1580.201. The petition must be received by the TAA for Farmers Staff...

  4. 75 FR 48642 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-08-11

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638 or (202) 690- 0633; or by e-mail at: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site:...

  5. 75 FR 45092 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-08-02

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by... TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 21, 2010. John D....

  6. Feasibility of neurally adjusted positive end-expiratory pressure in rabbits with early experimental lung injury

    Liu, Ling; Takahashi, Daijiro; Qui, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S.; Sinderby, Christer; Beck, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background During conventional Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA), the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) is used for triggering and cycling-off inspiratory assist, with a fixed PEEP (so called “Triggered Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist” or “tNAVA”). However, significant post-inspiratory activity of the diaphragm can occur, believed to play a role in maintaining end-expiratory lung volume. Adjusting pressure continuously, in proportion to both inspiratory and expiratory...

  7. 75 FR 41432 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Farmers Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist, Farm... Farmers' Program Should Contact: USDA, Farm Service Agency (at your local service center). FOR...

  8. 75 FR 23225 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: April 27, 2010. John...

  9. 75 FR 42375 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by e-mail: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa ....

  10. 75 FR 42376 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by e-mail: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http:// www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa ....

  11. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: April 27, 2010. John...

  12. 75 FR 41430 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-07-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY... Economic Research Service and reviewed by the TAA for Farmers Review Committee, comprised of... Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by...

  13. 75 FR 51978 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-08-24

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638 or (202) 690- 0633: or by e-mail at: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa ....

  14. 75 FR 41431 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Economic Research Service and reviewed by the TAA for Farmers Review Committee, comprised of... Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by...

  15. 75 FR 41434 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Crawfish Farmers Association and accepted for review by USDA on May 3, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To... and reviewed by the TAA for Farmers Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's...

  16. 75 FR 61121 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-10-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Economic Research Service and reviewed by the TAA for Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of... program in order to be eligible for cash benefits. Producers Certified As Eligible For TAA For...

  17. 75 FR 41433 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-07-16

    ... petition (No. 2010003) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for asparagus that was filed by the National Asparagus Council and accepted for review by USDA on May 3, 2010. Individual producers, nationwide, will be... review, the Administrator determined that increased imports of asparagus during January-December...

  18. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-05-03

    ..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the National Asparagus Council on behalf of asparagus producers in California, Michigan, and Washington. The Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of asparagus contributed importantly to a greater...

  19. Neurally adjusted ventilator assist in very low birth weight infants: Current status.

    Narchi, Hassib; Chedid, Fares

    2015-06-26

    Continuous improvements in perinatal care have resulted in increased survival of premature infants. Their immature lungs are prone to injury with mechanical ventilation and this may develop into chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strategies to minimize the risk of lung injury have been developed and include improved antenatal management (education, regionalization, steroids, and antibiotics), exogenous surfactant administration and reduction of barotrauma by using exclusive or early noninvasive ventilatory support. The most frequently used mode of assisted ventilation is pressure support ventilation that may lead to patient-ventilator asynchrony that is associated with poor outcome. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction or disuse atrophy of diaphragm fibers may also occur. This has led to the development of new ventilation modes including neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). This ventilation mode is controlled by electrodes embedded within a nasogastric catheter which detect the electrical diaphragmatic activity (Edi) and transmit it to trigger the ventilator in synchrony with the patient's own respiratory efforts. This permits the patient to control peak inspiratory pressure, mean airway pressure and tidal volume. Back up pressure control (PC) is provided when there is no Edi signal and no pneumatic trigger. Compared with standard conventional ventilation, NAVA improves blood gas regulation with lower peak inspiratory pressure and oxygen requirements in preterm infants. NAVA is safe mode of ventilation. The majority of studies have shown no significant adverse events in neonates ventilated with NAVA nor a difference in the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, or necrotizing enterocolitis when compared to conventional ventilation. Future large size randomized controlled trials should be established to compare NAVA with volume targeted and pressure controlled ventilation in newborns with mature respiratory drive

  20. 76 FR 65213 - Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    2011-10-20

    ... Department's Notice was published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51433). Workers at... Adjustment Assistance and Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance; FLEXTRONICS International USA, INC...; FLEXTRONICS International USA, Inc., Infrastructure Division, Foothill Ranch, CA In accordance with...

  1. Assisting Older Persons With Adjusting to Hearing Aids.

    Lane, Kari R; Clark, M Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    This intervention study tested the feasibility and initial effect of Hearing Aid Reintroduction (HEAR) to assist persons aged 70 to 85 years adjust to hearing aids. Following this 30-day intervention, hearing aid use increased between 1 and 8 hr per day with 50% of participants able to wear them for at least 4 hr. Hearing aid satisfaction improved from not satisfied to satisfied overall. The study demonstrated that HEAR is feasible and could improve hearing aid use of a substantial number of older persons who had previously failed to adjust to their hearing aids and had given up. However, further testing among a larger and more diverse population is needed to better understand the effectiveness and sustainability of the intervention. PMID:25520326

  2. 78 FR 781 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-01-04

    ..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... the Director, Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, at the address shown below, not later than... of the investigations to the Director, Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, at the address...

  3. 13 CFR 307.6 - Economic Adjustment Assistance post-approval requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic Adjustment Assistance post-approval requirements. 307.6 Section 307.6 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE INVESTMENTS General § 307.6...

  4. 76 FR 4614 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms Program Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Report

    2011-01-26

    ... economy. In general, the program provides cost-sharing technical assistance to eligible businesses to... Economic Development Administration Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms Program Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Report AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This annual...

  5. 78 FR 25307 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-04-30

    ..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... investigations may request a public hearing, provided such request is filed in writing with the Director, Office... Director, Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, at the address shown below, not later than May 10,...

  6. 78 FR 31596 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-05-24

    ..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... investigations may request a public hearing, provided such request is filed in writing with the Director, Office... Director, Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, at the address shown below, not later than June 3,...

  7. 77 FR 51067 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-08-23

    ..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... investigations may request a public hearing, provided such request is filed in writing with the Director, Office... to the Director, Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, at the address shown below, not later...

  8. 77 FR 42338 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-07-18

    ..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... investigations may request a public hearing, provided such request is filed in writing with the Director, Office... Director, Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, at the address shown below, not later than July 30,...

  9. 77 FR 67406 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-11-09

    ..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... investigations may request a public hearing, provided such request is filed in writing with the Director, Office... to the Director, Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, at the address shown below, not later...

  10. 78 FR 2291 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-01-10

    ..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... investigations may request a public hearing, provided such request is filed in writing with the Director, Office... to the Director, Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, at the address shown below, not later...

  11. 77 FR 59014 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-09-25

    ..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... investigations may request a public hearing, provided such request is filed in writing with the Director, Office... to the Director, Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, at the address shown below, not later...

  12. 13 CFR 307.3 - Use of Economic Adjustment Assistance Investments.

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of Economic Adjustment Assistance Investments. 307.3 Section 307.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT... “Strategy Grant”), or to fund a Project implementing such a CEDS (an “Implementation Grant”). (a)...

  13. 13 CFR 307.2 - Criteria for Economic Adjustment Assistance Investments.

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for Economic Adjustment Assistance Investments. 307.2 Section 307.2 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT... the Project is consistent (except that this requirement shall not apply to Strategy Grants...

  14. 77 FR 28901 - Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance; Novartis...

    2012-05-16

    ... 24, 2012 (77 FR 3501). At the request of an Illinois State Workforce Official, the Department... Adjustment Assistance; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit (Sales) Division... of Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit (Sales) Division, East...

  15. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    2010-01-01

    ... National Office to fund loans to lamb processors for real estate purchases and improvements; working... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program... GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment...

  16. Psychological adjustment in adolescents conceived by assisted reproduction techniques: A systematic review

    Ilioi, Elena Cristiana; Golombok, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a transitional time for identity formation and relationships with parents. While people born through assisted reproduction techniques (ART) appear to be well adjusted in childhood, it is unclear whether these findings carry into adolescence, and whether diverse ART have different psychological outcomes. This review summarizes what is known about the psychological adjustment and family relationships of the growing number of children born through ART who are reaching ...

  17. Surviving Job Loss: Motivation among Second Year Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Students

    Karnes, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study investigated second year college students who participated in the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) program at a technical college in northeastern Pennsylvania. In order to understand how learners stayed motivated in a college setting, I selected participants who were in their second year of the TAA program. A total of…

  18. 77 FR 71637 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-12-03

    ...,989 Siemens Energy, Inc, Fort Madison, IA...... Renewables (Wind Power) Division. The investigation... Fremont, CA October 1, 2011. Design, Appsun, Delta General Corporation, etc. 82,043 Advantage.......... May 8, 2011. Advantage HR. Negative Determinations for Worker Adjustment Assistance In the...

  19. 77 FR 16070 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-03-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  20. 76 FR 43350 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    2011-07-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... a shift in production by such workers' firm or subdivision to a foreign country of articles like...

  1. 75 FR 49529 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  2. 75 FR 57980 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2010-09-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  3. 75 FR 67771 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2010-11-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  4. 78 FR 41955 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-07-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  5. 78 FR 61390 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-10-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  6. 78 FR 19531 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-04-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  7. 78 FR 15049 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-03-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  8. 75 FR 41524 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2010-07-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  9. 78 FR 47779 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-08-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  10. 77 FR 8279 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-02-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  11. 75 FR 63509 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2010-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  12. 78 FR 52978 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-08-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  13. 77 FR 59987 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-10-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  14. 77 FR 54931 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  15. 76 FR 37154 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    2011-06-24

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... a shift in production by such workers' firm or ] subdivision to a foreign country of articles...

  16. 78 FR 66780 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-11-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  17. 76 FR 59168 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    2011-09-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... a shift in production by such workers' firm or subdivision to a foreign country of articles like...

  18. 76 FR 51434 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    2011-08-18

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... a shift in production by such workers' firm or subdivision to a foreign country of articles like...

  19. 78 FR 39776 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-07-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  20. 77 FR 39265 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-07-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  1. 78 FR 25479 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-05-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  2. 78 FR 11227 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-02-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  3. 78 FR 61392 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-10-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  4. 76 FR 32229 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    2011-06-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... a shift in production by such workers' firm or subdivision to a foreign country of articles like...

  5. 78 FR 74164 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-12-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  6. 78 FR 63496 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-10-24

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  7. 78 FR 9941 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-02-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  8. 77 FR 61029 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-10-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  9. 78 FR 52976 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-08-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  10. 76 FR 51432 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    2011-08-18

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... a shift in production by such workers' firm or subdivision to a foreign country of articles like...

  11. 78 FR 54487 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-09-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  12. 78 FR 1253 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-01-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  13. 76 FR 37156 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2011-06-24

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  14. 76 FR 76184 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2011-12-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  15. 78 FR 39774 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-07-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  16. 76 FR 32228 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2011-06-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each of... foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like or directly competitive...

  17. 75 FR 57514 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2010-09-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  18. 76 FR 61742 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    2011-10-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... a shift in production by such workers' firm or subdivision to a foreign country of articles like...

  19. 75 FR 62425 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2010-10-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment assistance, each... the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply of services like...

  20. Examining Differences in Psychological Adjustment Problems among Children Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Boivin, Jacky; Hay, Dale; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Rice, Frances J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there was variation in levels of psychological adjustment among children conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technologies using the parents' gametes (homologous), sperm donation, egg donation, embryo donation and surrogacy. Information was provided by parents about the psychological functioning of…

  1. 76 FR 2720 - Trade Adjustment Assistance Program; Designation of Certifying Officers

    2011-01-14

    .... Directive Affected. Employment and Training Order No. 1-09, July 28, 2009, 74 FR 40613 (August 12, 2009... Secretary's Order No. 6-2010, October 20, 2010 (75 FR 66267, October 27, 2010), I designate or ] redesignate... certain types of foreign trade. The Trade and Globalization Adjustment Assistance Act of 2009 amended...

  2. 78 FR 766 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-01-04

    .... 82,132B Lattice Semiconductor Hillsboro, OR........ November 2, 2011. Corporation, Finance Department.... Subject firm Location Impact date 82,171 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, November 21, 2011. Pearson Imaging Center. NJ. Negative Determinations for Worker Adjustment Assistance In the...

  3. 75 FR 26795 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2010-05-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for... receipt of these petitions, the Director of the Division of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and... Beauty (State/One- Los Angeles, CA....... 04/13/10 04/10/10 Stop). 73907 Sherill Manufacturing...

  4. 75 FR 56145 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2010-09-15

    ... 08/23/10 08/17/10 (Workers). 74542 Reader's Digest Greendale, WI 08/23/10 08/18/10 (Workers). 74543..., to FOIA Disclosure Officer, Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance (ETA), U.S. Department of Labor..., DC this 2nd of September 2010. Elliott S. Kushner, Certifying Officer, Division of Trade...

  5. Psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception: A systematic review.

    Gourounti, Kleanthi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine studies describing the psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy after an assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. A systematic search of the electronic databases was performed. This review considered only quantitative, primary studies in the English language, published during the period 2000-2014 and relevant to the objective. The population of interest was previously infertile pregnant women. Outcome variables were general anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific anxiety, quality of life, self-esteem, pregnancy attitudes and adjustment, and maternal-fetal attachment. Twenty studies met the inclusion and methodological criteria and were included in the review. The review revealed that compared to women who conceive naturally or to general norms, women who conceive after an in vitro fertilization treatment had greater pregnancy-specific anxiety, poorer quality of life, either the same or less depressive symptomatology, the same level of self-esteem, more positive attitudes toward pregnancy demands, and higher levels of maternal-fetal attachment. However, the evidence regarding the general anxiety levels in pregnancy after an ART treatment was inconclusive. Methodological limitations and differences across studies may explain the inconsistencies in their findings regarding the impact of ART. This review provides an insight into psychological reactions and adjustment in pregnancy after an ART treatment. PMID:26212077

  6. Assisted Ventilation.

    Dries, David J

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Mechanical Ventilation may be essential in the setting of severe respiratory failure but consequences to the patient including increased use of sedation and neuromuscular blockade may contribute to delirium, atelectasis, and diaphragm dysfunction. Assisted ventilation allows spontaneous breathing activity to restore physiological displacement of the diaphragm and recruit better perfused lung regions. Pressure Support Ventilation is the most frequently used mode of assisted mechanical ventilation. However, this mode continues to provide a monotonous pattern of support for respiration which is normally a dynamic process. Noisy Pressure Support Ventilation where tidal volume is varied randomly by the ventilator may improve ventilation and perfusion matching but the degree of support is still determined by the ventilator. Two more recent modes of ventilation, Proportional Assist Ventilation and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA), allow patient determination of the pattern and depth of ventilation. Proposed advantages of Proportional Assist Ventilation and NAVA include decrease in patient ventilator asynchrony and improved adaptation of ventilator support to changing patient demand. Work of breathing can be normalized with these modes as well. To date, however, a clear pattern of clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. Existing challenges for both of the newer assist modes include monitoring patients with dynamic hyperinflation (auto-positive end expiratory pressure), obstructive lung disease, and air leaks in the ventilator system. NAVA is dependent on consistent transduction of diaphragm activity by an electrode system placed in the esophagus. Longevity of effective support with this technique is unclear. PMID:25501776

  7. Ventilatory failure due to improper capnography connector

    Prakash, Ravi; Kushwaha, Brij B.; Singh, Brijesh Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Ventilatory failure due to improper or loose breathing circuit connection can occur in anaesthetic practice and may lead to significant morbidity and mortility. We report here an unusual incidence of ventilatory failure due loose capnography connector which obstructed the outer tube of Bain's circuit and presented as airway obstruction.

  8. A Dynamic Localized Adjustable Force Field Method for Real-time Assistive Non-holonomic Mobile Robotics

    Gillham, Michael; Howells, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Providing an assistive navigation system that augments rather than usurps user control of a powered wheelchair represents a significant technical challenge. This paper evaluates an assistive collision avoidance method for a powered wheelchair that allows the user to navigate safely whilst maintaining their overall governance of the platform motion. The paper shows that by shaping, switching and adjusting localized potential fields we are able to negotiate different obs...

  9. Ventilatory strategies in trauma patients.

    Arora, Shubhangi; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Trikha, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Lung injury in trauma patients can occur because of direct injury to lung or due to secondary effects of injury elsewhere for example fat embolism from a long bone fracture, or due to response to a systemic insult such as; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to sepsis or transfusion related lung injury. There are certain special situations like head injury where the primary culprit is not the lung, but the brain and the ventilator strategy is aimed at preserving the brain tissue and the respiratory system takes a second place. The present article aims to delineate the strategies addressing practical problems and challenges faced by intensivists dealing with trauma patients with or without healthy lungs. The lung protective strategies along with newer trends in ventilation are discussed. Ventilatory management for specific organ system trauma are highlighted and their physiological base is presented. PMID:24550626

  10. Ventilatory strategies in trauma patients

    Shubhangi Arora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung injury in trauma patients can occur because of direct injury to lung or due to secondary effects of injury elsewhere for example fat embolism from a long bone fracture, or due to response to a systemic insult such as; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS secondary to sepsis or transfusion related lung injury. There are certain special situations like head injury where the primary culprit is not the lung, but the brain and the ventilator strategy is aimed at preserving the brain tissue and the respiratory system takes a second place. The present article aims to delineate the strategies addressing practical problems and challenges faced by intensivists dealing with trauma patients with or without healthy lungs. The lung protective strategies along with newer trends in ventilation are discussed. Ventilatory management for specific organ system trauma are highlighted and their physiological base is presented.

  11. [Mechanical ventilation in chronic ventilatory insufficiency].

    Schucher, B; Magnussen, H

    2007-10-01

    Mechanical ventilation has become an important treatment option in chronic ventilatory failure. There are different diseases which lead to ventilatory failure and to home mechanical ventilation (HMV). A primary loss of in- and expiratory muscle strength is the reason for respiratory deterioration in neuromuscular disease. In most of these diseases ventilatory failure develops because of the progressive character of muscular damage. Initially, ventilatory failure can be found during night-time. In the case of hypercapnia at daytime, life expectancy is strongly reduced, especially in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. HMV leads to a prolongation of life and to an increase in quality of life, if bulbar involvement is not severe. Impressive clinical improvements under HMV have been found in restrictive disorders of the rib cage like kyphoscoliosis or posttuberculosis sequelae, with an increase of quality of life, walking distance and a decrease in pulmonary hypertension. Only few data are published about long-term results of HMV in Obesity Hypoventilation. In terms of retrospective analyses of clinical data HMV seems to improve survival in this population. Some patients only need CPAP treatment, but most patients have to be treated with ventilatory support. The application of HMV in patients with chronic ventilatory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is growing, but there are controversial results in randomised clinical trials. Analysis of these data suggest better results of HMV in patients with severe hypercapnia, with the application of higher effective ventilatory pressure and a ventilator mode with a significant reduction in the work of breathing. Under such conditions HMV leads to a reduction of hypercapnia, an improvement in sleep quality, walking distance and quality of life, but until now there is no evidence in reduction of mortality in COPD. PMID:17620231

  12. 76 FR 14421 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Contract Rent Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs...

    2011-03-16

    ... rent for a comparable unassisted unit of similar quality, type and age in the market area. 42 U.S.C... the unassisted market. Since HUD pays the full amount of any rent increases for assisted tenants... discount.'' Turnover is lower in assisted properties than in the unassisted market, so the effect of...

  13. 75 FR 6685 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Contract Rent Annual Adjustment Factors, Fiscal...

    2010-02-10

    ... exceed the rent for a comparable unassisted unit of similar quality, type and age in the market area. 42... movers in unassisted market. Since HUD pays the full amount of any rent increases for assisted tenants... discount.' Turnover is lower in assisted properties than in the unassisted market, so the effect of...

  14. 75 FR 63147 - Solicitation of Applications for the Public Works, Economic Adjustment Assistance, and Global...

    2010-10-14

    ... and National Technical Assistance. This notice introduces the concept of funding cycles in the context... where substantial direct project-related benefits will occur, or the geographic area of poverty or...

  15. Home mechanical ventilatory support in patients with restrictive ventilatory disorders : A 48-year experience

    Duiverman, ML; Bladder, G; Meinesz, AF; Wijkstra, PJ

    2006-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis to the effects of negative pressure ventilation (NPV), tracheal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (TIPPV), and nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV, volume or pressure-controlled ventilatory mode), in 114 patients with restrictive ven

  16. 77 FR 63874 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-10-17

    ... secondary workers of a firm and a certification issued regarding eligibility to apply for worker adjustment.... 203 6th Avenue West, Neff Motivation, Inc. 81,540A Rock Creek Athletics, Inc., Grinnell, IA April 24, 2011. 727 6th Avenue West, Neff Motivation, Inc. The following certifications have been issued....

  17. 78 FR 8594 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-02-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... (Union) Detroit, MI 01/14/13 01/13/13 82341 Hostess Brands, Inc. (5 WV 01/14/13 01/11/13 Locations in WV... (Union)....... Cincinnati, OH 01/15/13 01/03/13 82345 Connextions, Inc. (Workers)... Concord, NC...

  18. 78 FR 18371 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-03-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... Peres, MO......... 02/25/13 02/22/13 LLC (Workers). 82496 NewPage Corporation (Union). Miamisburg, OH........ 02/25/13 02/22/13 82497 Trans Union (State/One-Stop) Chicago, IL 02/25/13 02/22/13 82498 Alorica,...

  19. 78 FR 28639 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... Corporation Youngstown, OH........ 04/17/13 04/11/13 (Union). 82651 Anthem Workers Compensation Costa Mesa,...

  20. 78 FR 54490 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... Braddock, PA 08/15/13 08/14/13 (Workers). 82995 King Brothers Woodworking Union Gap, WA 08/16/13...

  1. 78 FR 77169 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-12-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment.../13 11/25/13 (Union). 83245 IBM Corporation (State/One- Rochester, MN 11/26/13 11/25/13 Stop). 83246 Computershare (Workers)....... Edison, NJ 11/27/13 11/26/13 83247 AVX Corporation (Union)....... Conway &...

  2. 78 FR 12363 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... Corporation (3 Perryville, MO 02/05/13 02/04/13 Locations) (Union). 82411 FPL Food LLC (Workers)..... Augusta... Owens Brockway Inc. (Union) Brockport, PA 02/06/13 01/30/13 82421 Super Media LLC (Union).......

  3. 77 FR 58584 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-09-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... Corporation (Workers). Colorado Springs, CO.. 09/04/12 08/31/12 81937 Clearon Corporation (Union). South...). 81944 JMC Steel Group Wheatland Sharon, PA 09/06/12 09/05/12 Tube (Union). 81945 Pfizer, Inc....

  4. 77 FR 64358 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    2012-10-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment...-Aurora (Workers). Aurora, NC 10/01/12 09/25/12 82018 American Airlines (Union)... Fort Worth, TX... Angeles, CA....... 10/01/12 09/27/12 82022 R.G. Steel (Union) Allenport, PA......... 10/01/12...

  5. 75 FR 1345 - Solicitation of Applications for the Community Trade Adjustment Assistance Program

    2010-01-11

    ... assist communities in demonstrating trade impact significance, EDA has analyzed job-loss data in... severe economic distress such as the imminent threat of significant job loss associated with trade. For... there was a job loss of at least 413 workers in the community's CLF (413/ 50,000 = 0.00825 x 1,000 =...

  6. Unemployment Compensation and Adjustment Assistance for Displaced Workers: Policy Options for Canada

    Riddell, W. Craig

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role of EI in providing support to “displaced workers,†those who permanently lose their jobs because of changing circumstances. Adjusting to change benefits Canadians as a whole. However, some workers suffer much more from job loss than do others. Those who have held their jobs for an extended period experience substantial earnings losses, while those who have been employed for brief periods experience small losses. Like other job losers, long-tenure displaced work...

  7. Ventilatory decrements in former asbestos cement workers: a four year follow up

    Ohlson, C.G.; Bodin, L.; Rydman, T.; Hogstedt, C.

    1985-09-01

    A four year follow up of the ventilatory function in former asbestos cement workers has been performed to determine whether any further decrease occurred after cessation of exposure. Seventy five of 125 subjects were eligible for re-examination and were compared with local referents. None showed signs of asbestosis but 32% had pleural plaques at the renewed examination. Cumulative asbestos exposure calculated as fibre x years had been estimated individually in the original examination. After adjustment for age, height, tracheal area, and smoking category the FVC and FEV1 for all exposed subjects were on average 7% v 6% less than predicted from the referents and twice as much for the subjects with the highest exposure. The four year declines in FVC and FEV1 were larger than in the referents, significantly so for FEV1. There were no significant correlations between pleural plaque and ventilatory function after adjustment for exposure. Thus, the age adjusted reduction in ventilatory function had progressed during the follow up period despite the cessation of exposure and the lack of radiological signs of asbestosis.

  8. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment. PMID:26799410

  9. Gas exchange by intratracheal insufflation in a ventilatory failure dog model.

    Gavriely, N; Eckmann, D; Grotberg, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Respiratory insufficiency patients who need only partial ventilatory support are, nevertheless, intubated and connected to a respirator. In search of a partial respiratory assistance method we evaluated the gas exchange, mechanisms, and hemodynamic effects of intratracheal insufflation (ITI) via a narrow (0.2-cm) catheter. The effects of flow rate (0.05-0.2 liter/min per kg), catheter tip position (carina, bronchus, and trachea), and superimposed chest vibration at 22 Hz were studied in seven...

  10. A necklace sonar with adjustable scope range for assisting the visually impaired.

    Villamizar, Luz H; Gualdron, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Fabio; Aceros, Juan; Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V

    2013-01-01

    A sonar based device with tactile feedback was developed to improve the mobility and independence of visually impaired individuals. It features a transceiver/receiver, a potentiometer, a microcontroller, a rechargeable polymer lithium ion battery, and a Nokia Cell phone vibrator. All components are commercially available and housed in a custom acrylic package with 86 mm × 34 mm × 12 mm in dimension, and 120 grms in weight. Additionally, the device features an adjustable detection scheme for user customization of distance range, and a tactile feedback system that avoids interference with auditory sensory information. The device was tested for its navigational efficacy in an artificial indoor environment, and in a live outdoor setting. Ten subjects (9 males and 1 female), with a mean age of 35 years-old (range: 17 to 52) were presented with a series of navigational tasks resulting in considerable reduction of head, shoulder, chest, and arms collisions during their locomotion. We conclude that this device greatly improves the mobility and safety of visually impaired individuals. PMID:24109971

  11. Proportional assist ventilation as an aid to exercise training in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Hawkins, P.; Johnson, L.; Nikoletou, D; Hamnegard, C; Sherwood, R.; Polkey, M.; Moxham, J.

    2002-01-01

    Background: The effects of providing ventilatory assistance to patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during a high intensity outpatient cycle exercise programme were examined.

  12. Ventilator-associated lung injury during assisted mechanical ventilation.

    Saddy, Felipe; Sutherasan, Yuda; Rocco, Patricia R M; Pelosi, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Assisted mechanical ventilation (MV) may be a favorable alternative to controlled MV at the early phase of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), since it requires less sedation, no paralysis and is associated with less hemodynamic deterioration, better distal organ perfusion, and lung protection, thus reducing the risk of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI). In the present review, we discuss VALI in relation to assisted MV strategies, such as volume assist-control ventilation, pressure assist-control ventilation, pressure support ventilation (PSV), airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), APRV with PSV, proportional assist ventilation (PAV), noisy ventilation, and neurally adjusted ventilatory assistance (NAVA). In summary, we suggest that assisted MV can be used in ARDS patients in the following situations: (1) Pao(2)/Fio(2) >150 mm Hg and positive end-expiratory pressure ≥ 5 cm H(2)O and (2) with modalities of pressure-targeted and time-cycled breaths including more or less spontaneous or supported breaths (A-PCV [assisted pressure-controlled ventilation] or APRV). Furthermore, during assisted MV, the following parameters should be monitored: inspiratory drive, transpulmonary pressure, and tidal volume (6 mL/kg). Further studies are required to determine the impact of novel modalities of assisted ventilation such as PAV, noisy pressure support, and NAVA on VALI. PMID:25105820

  13. The relationship between ventilatory lung motion and pulmonary perfusion shown by ventilatory lung motion imaging

    Using ventilatory lung motion imaging, which was obtained from two perfusion lung scintigrams with 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin taken in maximal inspiration and maximal expiration, the lung motion (E-I/I) of the each unilateral lung was studied in various cardiopulmonary diseases. The sum of (E-I)/I(+) of the unilateral lung was decreased in the diseased lung for localized pleuropulmonary diseases, including primary lung cancer and pleural thickening, and in both lungs for heart diseases, and diffuse pulmonary diseases including diffuse interstitial pneumonia and diffuse panbronchiolitis. The sum of (E-I)/I(+) of the both lungs, which correlated with vital capacity and PaO2, was decreased in diffuse interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary emphysema, diffuse panbronchiolitis, primary lung cancer, pleural diseases and so on. (E-I)/I(+), correlated with pulmonary perfusion (n=49, r=0.51, p81mKr or 133Xe (n=49, r=0.61, p<0.001) than pulmonary perfusion. The ventilatory lung motion imaging, which demonstrates the motion of the intra-pulmonary areas and lung edges, appears useful for estimating pulmonary ventilation of the perfused area as well as pulmonary perfusion. (author)

  14. Defining obstructive ventilatory defect in 2015

    Zied Affes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is no clear consensus as to what constitutes an obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD: Is it FEV1/FVC

  15. Brain neuropeptides in central ventilatory and cardiovascular regulation in trout.

    Jean-Claude eLe Mével

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many neuropeptides and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are present within the brain area involved in ventilatory and cardiovascular regulation but only a few mammalian studies have focused on the integrative physiological actions of neuropeptides on these vital cardio-respiratory regulations. Because both the central neuroanatomical substrates that govern motor ventilatory and cardiovascular output and the primary sequence of regulatory peptides and their receptors have been mostly conserved through evolution, we have developed a trout model to study the central action of native neuropeptides on cardio-ventilatory regulation. In the present review, we summarize the most recent results obtained using this non-mammalian model with a focus on PACAP, VIP, tachykinins, CRF, urotensin-1, CGRP, angiotensin-related peptides, urotensin-II, NPY, and PYY. We propose hypotheses regarding the physiological relevance of the results obtained.

  16. 77 FR 77217 - Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Report to Congress on the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms Program

    2012-12-31

    ... sample of three TAACs--Western, New England, and New York State--focusing on the use of Federal funds... economically distressed U.S. businesses develop strategies to compete in the global economy. Through a... provides cost-sharing technical assistance to help eligible businesses create and implement...

  17. Factors affecting the decline of ventilatory function in chronic bronchitis.

    Campbell, A H; Barter, C. E.; O'Connell, J M; Huggins, R

    1985-01-01

    Ninety six middle aged male patients with chronic bronchitis with relatively well preserved ventilatory function who were resident in Queensland, New South Wales, or Victoria took part in a prospective study to determine the relationship of various factors to the rate of decline of the FEV1. Thirty of the subjects withdrew, leaving 66 to be followed for four to six years. The mean rate of decline of the FEV1 was 58.6 (SD 51.4) ml/year. The subjects' ventilatory responses to bronchodilator and...

  18. An Adjusted Likelihood Ratio Approach Analysing Distribution of Food Products to Assist the Investigation of Foodborne Outbreaks

    Madelaine Norström; Anja Bråthen Kristoffersen; Franziska Sophie Görlach; Karin Nygård; Petter Hopp

    2015-01-01

    In order to facilitate foodborne outbreak investigations there is a need to improve the methods for identifying the food products that should be sampled for laboratory analysis. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of a likelihood ratio approach previously developed on simulated data, to real outbreak data. We used human case and food product distribution data from the Norwegian enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli outbreak in 2006. The approach was adjusted to include time, ...

  19. Dislocated Workers. Trade Adjustment Assistance Program Flawed. Statement of Linda G. Morra, Director of Education and Employment Issues, Human Resources Division. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Employment, Housing and Aviation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives.

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) program is designed to help the more than 1 million workers per year who lose their jobs because of permanent layoffs or plant closures, due in part because of imports. Studies show, however, that the TAA program fails to meet the seven goals of a successful reemployment assistance program: (1) TAA benefits…

  20. Effects of hypercapnia and hypocapnia on ventilatory variability and the chaotic dynamics of ventilatory flow in humans.

    Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Straus, Christian; Thibault, Sylvain; Wysocki, Marc; Baconnier, Pierre; Similowski, Thomas

    2007-05-01

    In humans, lung ventilation exhibits breath-to-breath variability and dynamics that are nonlinear, complex, sensitive to initial conditions, unpredictable in the long-term, and chaotic. Hypercapnia, as produced by the inhalation of a CO(2)-enriched gas mixture, stimulates ventilation. Hypocapnia, as produced by mechanical hyperventilation, depresses ventilation in animals and in humans during sleep, but it does not induce apnea in awake humans. This emphasizes the suprapontine influences on ventilatory control. How cortical and subcortical commands interfere thus depend on the prevailing CO(2) levels. However, CO(2) also influences the variability and complexity of ventilation. This study was designed to describe how this occurs and to test the hypothesis that CO(2) chemoreceptors are important determinants of ventilatory dynamics. Spontaneous ventilatory flow was recorded in eight healthy subjects. Breath-by-breath variability was studied through the coefficient of variation of several ventilatory variables. Chaos was assessed with the noise titration method (noise limit) and characterized with numerical indexes [largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), sensitivity to initial conditions; Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy (KSE), unpredictability; and correlation dimension (CD), irregularity]. In all subjects, under all conditions, a positive noise limit confirmed chaos. Hypercapnia reduced breathing variability, increased LLE (P = 0.0338 vs. normocapnia; P = 0.0018 vs. hypocapnia), increased KSE, and slightly reduced CD. Hypocapnia increased variability, decreased LLE and KSE, and reduced CD. These results suggest that chemoreceptors exert a strong influence on ventilatory variability and complexity. However, complexity persists in the quasi-absence of automatic drive. Ventilatory variability and complexity could be determined by the interaction between the respiratory central pattern generator and suprapontine structures. PMID:17218438

  1. Outcomes of pharmacist-assisted management of antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection: A risk-adjusted analysis

    Nevo, Ofir Noah; Lesko, Catherine R.; Colwell, Bradford; Ballard, Craig; Cole, Stephen R.; Mathews, W. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The impact of pharmacist-assisted management (PAM) of pharmacotherapy for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was investigated. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted to evaluate antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes in treatment-naive patients initiated on ART at an HIV clinic. Eligible patients enrolled in the clinic during the period 1999–2013 were classified into two groups: those referred to a clinic-based HIV pharmacist for initiation of ART (the PAM group) and those managed by a primary care provider (the control group). The primary study objective was the median time to viral suppression; secondary objectives included the durability of response to the first ART regimen. Relative hazards for the events of interest were estimated using a marginal structural Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan–Meier curves, with inverse probability weights used to control for selection and confounding bias. Results Patients referred for PAM services (n = 819) typically had higher baseline viral loads and lower CD4+ cell counts than those in the control group (n = 436). The likelihood of viral suppression during the first two years after ART initiation was significantly higher in the PAM group versus the control group (hazard ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–1.59; p 0.05). Conclusion In treatment-naive patients, suppression of HIV viral load occurred earlier when pharmacists assisted with initiating ART than when ART was initiated without that assistance. PMID:26294239

  2. Comparative ventilatory strategies of acclimated rats and burrowing plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) in response to hypoxic-hypercapnia.

    Pichon, Aurélien; Voituron, Nicolas; Bai, Zhenzhong; Jeton, Florine; Tana, Wuren; Marchant, Dominique; Jin, Guoen; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Ge, Ri-Li

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the different ventilatory strategies that help in coping with hypoxic-hypercapnia environment among two species: use acclimated rats and plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) that live in Tibetan plateaus, and have been well adjusted to high altitude. Arterial blood samples taken at 4100 m of elevation in acclimatized rats and adapted pikas revealed inter-species differences with lower hemoglobin and hematocrit and higher blood pH in pikas. A linear and significant increase in minute ventilation was observed in pikas, which help them to cope with hypoxic-hypercapnia. Pikas also displayed a high inspiratory drive and an invariant respiratory timing regardless of the conditions. Biochemical analysis revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) receptor gene and nNOS gene are highly conserved between rats and pikas, however pikas have higher expression of NMDA receptors and nNOS compared to rats at the brainstem level. Taken together, these results suggest that pikas have developed a specific ventilatory pattern supported by a modification of the NMDA/NO ventilatory central pathways to survive in extreme conditions imposed on the Tibetan plateaus. These physiological adaptive strategies help in maintaining a better blood oxygenation despite high CO2 concentration in burrows at high altitude. PMID:25988712

  3. Data on respiratory variables in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+).

    Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Xirouchaki, Nectaria; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Younes, Magdy

    2016-09-01

    The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+) after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure), respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy "Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?" [1]. PMID:27358909

  4. Effects of body position on the ventilatory response to hypercapnia

    Donina Zh A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effect of posture on the hypercapnic ventilatory response was studied on the anaesthetized rats by using rebreathing techniques in the supine and head-down positions. There were no statistically significant alterations in tidal volume, frequency, minute ventilation, and PETCO2 between the head-down and supine positions during breathing at rest. However, the esophageal pressure inspiratory swings were significantly greater in the head-down compared with supine position. Moreover, we found that body position did not affect the hypercapnic ventilatory response, but did affect the relationship between inspiratory driving pressure and the increase of end tidal PCO2. Greater inspiratory pressure is required to maintain the same level of the ventilatory response to hypercapnia in the horizontal position with the head-down. We believe that the discrepancy between postural alterations in the hypercapnic ventilatory and pressure responses is presumably a result of decreased lung compliance and increased airflow impedance of respiratory system in the head-down position.

  5. Ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia occurs in serotonin-depleted rats.

    Olson, E B

    1987-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that serotonin mediated respiratory activity is involved in ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia, rats were treated with parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a potent, long-acting inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin. In normoxia, a single, intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg PCPA/kg body weight decreased the Paco2 from a control level at 39.1 +/- 0.6 Torr (mean +/- 95% confidence limits) to 34.0 +/- 0.6 Torr measured during a period from 1 to 48 h following PCPA treatment. This PCPA-produced hyperventilation corresponds to an increase of 3.7 +/- 0.5 in the VA (BTPS)/Vco2 (STPD) ratio. Hyperventilation during ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia (PIO2 approximately equal to 90 Torr) was superimposed in an additive fashion on the underlying hyperventilation due to PCPA pretreatment. Specifically, PCPA pretreatment caused an average 3.5 +/- 1.2 increase in the VA/VCO2 ratio determined in acute (1 h) hypoxia, chronic (24 h) hypoxia and acute return to normoxia following chronic hypoxia. Since ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia occurred in rats treated with PCPA, the prolonged, serotonin mediated respiratory activity described by Millhorn et al. (1980b) is probably not important in ventilatory acclimatization to - or deacclimatization from - hypoxia. PMID:2957766

  6. Increased ventilatory variability and complexity in patients with hyperventilation disorder.

    Bokov, Plamen; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Chevalier-Bidaud, Brigitte; Chenivesse, Cécile; Straus, Christian; Similowski, Thomas; Delclaux, Christophe

    2016-05-15

    It has been hypothesized that hyperventilation disorders could be characterized by an abnormal ventilatory control leading to enhanced variability of resting ventilation. The variability of tidal volume (VT) often depicts a nonnormal distribution that can be described by the negative slope characterizing augmented breaths formed by the relationship between the probability density distribution of VT and VT on a log-log scale. The objectives of this study were to describe the variability of resting ventilation [coefficient of variation (CV) of VT and slope], the stability in respiratory control (loop, controller and plant gains characterizing ventilatory-chemoresponsiveness interactions) and the chaotic-like dynamics (embedding dimension, Kappa values characterizing complexity) of resting ventilation in patients with a well-defined dysfunctional breathing pattern characterized by air hunger and constantly decreased PaCO2 during a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Compared with 14 healthy subjects with similar anthropometrics, 23 patients with hyperventilation were characterized by increased variability of resting tidal ventilation (CV of VT median [interquartile]: 26% [19-35] vs. 36% [28-48], P = 0.020; slope: -6.63 [-7.65; -5.36] vs. -3.88 [-5.91; -2.66], P = 0.004) that was not related to increased chemical drive (loop gain: 0.051 [0.039-0.221] vs. 0.044 [0.012-0.087], P = 0.149) but that was related to an increased ventilatory complexity (Kappa values, P ventilation due to increased ventilatory complexity with stable ventilatory-chemoresponsiveness interactions. PMID:26869707

  7. Accessing chemosensitivity and ventilatory stability from transient stimuli.

    Bruce, E N

    1996-12-01

    The degree of ventilatory stability of human subjects is inferred from the presence or absence of oscillations in ventilation in response to a brief CO2 disturbance using the method of pseudorandom stimulation. Simultaneously, chemosensitivity is measured. Stability and chemosensitivity are compared in hyperoxia between wakefulness and stage 2 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and between normoxia and hyperoxia awake. Stability is unchanged between wakefulness and sleep but chemosensitivity decreases in sleep. In contrast, stability is reduced in normoxia whereas chemosensitivity is larger than in hyperoxia. It is concluded that chemosensitivity and ventilatory stability may change independently, implying that chemosensitivity alone is not an adequate indicator of the likelihood of a subject to exhibit periodic breathing. PMID:9085498

  8. Tissue Functioning and Remodeling in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems

    Thiriet, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. Volume 5 is devoted to cells, tissues, and organs of the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems with an emphasis on mechanotransduction-based regulation of flow. The blood vessel wall is a living tissue that quickly reacts to loads applied on it by the flowing blood. In any segment of a blood vessel, the endothelial and smooth muscle cells can sense unusual time variations in small-magnitude wall shear stress and large-amplitude wall stretch generated by abnormal hemodynamic stresses. These cells respond with a short-time scale (from seconds to hours) to adapt the vessel caliber. Since such adaptive cell activities can be described using mathematical models, a key objective of this volume is to identify the mesoscopic agents and nanoscopic mediators required to derive adequate mathematical models...

  9. Ventilatory function test values of health adult Jordanians.

    Sliman, N A; Dajani, B M; Dajani, H M

    1981-01-01

    A sample of 144 male, and 117 female healthy adults was selected to determine the normal ventilatory functions for Jordanians. Forced vital capacity, FEV1, and FMF 25-75% were determined using a dry bellows spirometer. Linear regression curves and nomograms were constructed for predicted values. Jordanian values for FVC and FEV1 were similar to those of Caucasians living in the western hemisphere.

  10. Ventilatory support in critically ill hematology patients with respiratory failure

    Molina Lobo, Rosario; Bernal del Castillo, Teresa; Borges, Marcio; Zaragoza Crespo, Rafael; Bonastre Mora, Juan; Granada Vicente, Rosa María; Rodríguez-Borregán, Juan Carlos; Nuñez, Karla; Seijas Betolaza, Iratxe; Ayestaran, Ignacio; Muñiz Albaiceta, Guillermo; EMEHU Study Investigators

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hematology patients admitted to the ICU frequently experience respiratory failure and require mechanical ventilation. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) may decrease the risk of intubation, but NIMV failure poses its own risks. Methods To establish the impact of ventilatory management and NIMV failure on outcome, data from a prospective, multicenter, observational study were analyzed. All hematology patients admitted to one of the 34 participating ICUs in a 17-month period...

  11. Predictive value of ventilatory inflection points determined under field conditions.

    Heyde, Christian; Mahler, Hubert; Roecker, Kai; Gollhofer, Albert

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive potential provided by two ventilatory inflection points (VIP1 and VIP2) examined in field without using gas analysis systems and uncomfortable facemasks. A calibrated respiratory inductance plethysmograph (RIP) and a computerised routine were utilised, respectively, to derive ventilation and to detect VIP1 and VIP2 during a standardised field ramp test on a 400 m running track on 81 participants. In addition, average running speed of a competitive 1000 m run (S1k) was observed as criterion. The predictive value of running speed at VIP1 (SVIP1) and the speed range between VIP1 and VIP2 in relation to VIP2 (VIPSPAN) was analysed via regression analysis. VIPSPAN rather than running speed at VIP2 (SVIP2) was operationalised as a predictor to consider the covariance between SVIP1 and SVIP2. SVIP1 and VIPSPAN, respectively, provided 58.9% and 22.9% of explained variance in regard to S1k. Considering covariance, the timing of two ventilatory inflection points provides predictive value in regard to a competitive 1000 m run. This is the first study to apply computerised detection of ventilatory inflection points in a field setting independent on measurements of the respiratory gas exchange and without using any facemasks. PMID:26190229

  12. Ventilatory responses to dynamic exercise elicited by intramuscular sensors

    Smith, S. A.; Gallagher, K. M.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Raven, P. B.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eight subjects, aged 27.0+/-1.6 yr, performed incremental workload cycling to investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle mechano- and metaboreceptors to ventilatory control during dynamic exercise. METHODS: Each subject performed four bouts of exercise: exercise with no intervention (CON); exercise with bilateral thigh cuffs inflated to 90 mm Hg (CUFF); exercise with application of lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) to 45 torr (PP); and exercise with 90 mm Hg thigh cuff inflation and 45 torr LBPP (CUFF+PP). Ventilatory responses and pulmonary gas exchange variables were collected breath-by-breath with concomitant measurement of leg intramuscular pressure. RESULTS: Ventilation (VE) was significantly elevated from CON during PP and CUFF+PP at workloads corresponding to > or = 60% CON peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and during CUFF at workloads > or = 80% CON VO2peak, P perfusion pressure and decreases in venous outflow resulting from inflation of bilateral thigh cuffs may generate a metabolite sensitive intramuscular ventilatory stimulus.

  13. Ventilatory responses to dynamic exercise elicited by intramuscular sensors

    Smith, S. A.; Gallagher, K. M.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Raven, P. B.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eight subjects, aged 27.0+/-1.6 yr, performed incremental workload cycling to investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle mechano- and metaboreceptors to ventilatory control during dynamic exercise. METHODS: Each subject performed four bouts of exercise: exercise with no intervention (CON); exercise with bilateral thigh cuffs inflated to 90 mm Hg (CUFF); exercise with application of lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) to 45 torr (PP); and exercise with 90 mm Hg thigh cuff inflation and 45 torr LBPP (CUFF+PP). Ventilatory responses and pulmonary gas exchange variables were collected breath-by-breath with concomitant measurement of leg intramuscular pressure. RESULTS: Ventilation (VE) was significantly elevated from CON during PP and CUFF+PP at workloads corresponding to > or = 60% CON peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and during CUFF at workloads > or = 80% CON VO2peak, P relationship was increased from CON by approximately 22% during CUFF, 40% during PP, and 41% during CUFF+PP. CONCLUSIONS: As intramuscular pressure was significantly elevated immediately upon application of LBPP during PP and CUFF+PP without a concomitant increase in VE, it seems unlikely that LBPP-induced increases in VE can be attributed to activation of the mechanoreflex. These findings suggest that LBPP-induced reductions in perfusion pressure and decreases in venous outflow resulting from inflation of bilateral thigh cuffs may generate a metabolite sensitive intramuscular ventilatory stimulus.

  14. Ventilatory and arousal responses to hypoxia in sleeping humans.

    Berthon-Jones, M; Sullivan, C E

    1982-06-01

    We measured ventilatory and arousal responses to progressive eucapnic hypoxia during wakefulness, nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep using a progressive isocapnic rebreathing method. Nine healthy adults (4 female, 5 male) slept with a mask glued to the face with medical silicone rubber and breathed from a closed valveless biased flow circuit, including an in-line bag-in-box and a variable soda-lime absorber. Progressive hypoxia was induced by consumption of oxygen and by gradual replacement of circuit volume with nitrogen. Tidal volume was measured by electrical integration of the flow signal from a pneumotach on the box. Arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2) was measured with an ear oximeter and end-tidal CO2 tension (PetCO2) was measured continuously and kept constant by variable absorption. Sleep state was identified using standard criteria with 2 channels each of EEG, submental EMG, and EOG. There was marked variability in arousal level both in NREM and REM sleep, with subjects failing to awaken by 70% SaO2, our previously agreed safety limit, on 12 of 26 NREM tests, and 7 of 15 REM tests. During wakefulness, the mean slope +/- SEM of the ventilatory response to hypoxia was 0.68 +/- 0.07 L/min% SaO2 (n = 36, mean PetCO2 = 37.0 mmHg). In NREM sleep, this response decreased to a mean of 0.42 +/- 0.06 L/min/% SaO2 (n = 26, mean PetCO2 = 37.2 mmHg). In REM sleep, the average ventilatory response was further decreased to 0.33 +/- 0.06 L/min/% SaO2 (n = 15, mean PetCO2 = 37.8 mmHg). Analysis of variance showed a significant state-dependent effect on ventilatory response (p less than 0.01). The wake-NREM and wake-REM differences were significantly different (p less than 0.05), but the NREM-REM difference was not (p greater than 0.2). In REM sleep, breath-to-breath variability was marked, and in 2 cases, the response was not significantly different from zero. In all 3 states, the entire ventilatory response was due to

  15. P ET CO2 e SpO2 permitem ajuste ventilatório adequado em pacientes obesos mórbidos P ET CO2 y SpO2 permiten ajuste de ventilación adecuada en pacientes obesos mórbidos P ET CO2 and SpO2 allow adequate ventilatory adjustment in morbidly obese patients

    Fábio Ely Martins Benseñor

    2004-08-01

    O2 mayor que 95%. No se utilizó PEEP. A través de monitor respiratorio CO2SMO Plus, se midió espacios muertos fisiológico, alveolar y de vías aéreas (VD phy, VD alv y VD aw y el volumen corriente alveolar (VT alv. Muestras de sangre arterial y venoso central permitieron calcular PaO2/FIO2 y VD phy/VT. Los datos fueron comparados y analizados por ANOVA (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ventilation strategies for anesthesia in morbidly obese patients have been investigated, but an agreement has not been achieved yet. This study aimed at clinically evaluating ventilation adjustments based on oximetry and capnography readings in these patients during anesthesia. METHODS: Consent was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee and from patients. Smokers and respiratory or cardiac disease patients were excluded. Eleven patients with Body Mass Index (BMI of 59.2 ± 8.3 undergoing gastroplasty under general anesthesia were studied (Group O, with a control group (NO composed of 8 non-obese patients (BMI 20.2 ± 3.9 submitted to gastrectomy. Ventilator was adjusted to keep P ET CO2 below 40 mmHg and SpO2 above 95%. PEEP was not used. Through a CO2SMO Plus respiratory monitor, airway, alveolar and physiologic dead spaces (respectively VD aw, VD phy and VD alv, as well as alveolar tidal volume (TV alv were measured. Arterial and central venous blood samples were used to calculate PaO2/FIO2 and VD phy/TV relationships. Data were compared and evaluated by ANOVA (p < 0.05. RESULTS: Tidal volume was 4.2 ± 0.4 mL.kg-1 in Group O and 7.9 ± 2.3 mL.kg-1 in Group NO for measured weight, and 11.5 ± 1.8 mL.kg-1 in Group O and 6.6 ± 1.1 mL.kg-1 in Group NO for ideal weight. PaO2 was lower and TV alv was higher in Group O (p < 0.008 and 0.0001, respectively. No difference was found in PaCO2, VD phy, VD alv and VD aw. CONCLUSIONS: SpO2 and P ET CO2 seem to assure adequate ventilation, which can be achieved in morbidly obese patients with tidal volumes adjusted to ideal weight.

  16. Improvement of ventilatory function by spa therapy in patients with intractable asthma.

    Tanizaki,Yoshiro

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with intractable asthma had swimming training in a hot spring pool for 3 months. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their clinical symptoms and ages. Changes of ventilatory function during swimming training were observed in in each group. The ventilatory function test revealed that free swimming training in a hot spring pool for 30 min did not induce bronchoconstriction in any of the groups. The values of ventilatory parameters such as FEV 1.0%, %PEF...

  17. Failure of propranolol and metoprolol to alter ventilatory responses to carbon dioxide and exercise.

    Leitch, A. G.; Hopkin, J M; Ellis, D A; Clarkson, D M; Merchant, S; McHardy, G J

    1980-01-01

    Neither propranolol (80 mg) nor metoprolol (100 mg) give orally to eight normal subjects altered mean ventilatory responses to carbon dioxide or to moderate graded exercise. Incremental doses of the drugs to totals of 320 mg propranolol and 400 mg metoprolol also did not effect these ventilatory responses. Both drugs markedly decreased the heart rate response to exercise. Neither propranolol nor metoprolol are likely to cause CO2 retention by an effect on the ventilatory responses to inhaled ...

  18. Mechanisms of pentazocine-induced ventilatory depression and antinociception in anesthetized rats.

    Kimura, Satoko; Ohi, Yoshiaki; Haji, Akira

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to clarify mechanisms underlying pentazocine-induced ventilatory depression and antinociception. Spontaneous ventilation and hind leg withdrawal response against nociceptive thermal stimulation were simultaneously recorded in anesthetized rats. Pentazocine decreased minute volume resulting from depression of the ventilatory rate and tracheal airflow, and prolonged the latency of withdrawal response. Pre-treatment of β-funaltorexamine, but not nor-binaltorphimine, significantly attenuated pentazocine-induced ventilatory depression, while either antagonist weakened its analgesic potency. Comparing with effects of fentanyl and U50488, the present results suggest that ventilatory depression induced by pentazocine is mediated by mainly μ receptors and analgesia by both μ and κ receptors. PMID:27021234

  19. DETECTION OF VENTILATORY ABNORMALITIES IN VARIOUS RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Dumpa Vasudeva; Sundar Raj; Yugandhar; Satya Sri

    2015-01-01

    : The study involved 100 patients who presented at Department of pulmonary medicine, Alluri sitaramaraju academy of medical sciences, Eluru between December 2011 and December 2012. Also 100 normal persons were taken in to the study to compare the normal ventilatory function with the standards. There was a male preponderance in the study, about 75% of the study group were males. The mean height of males in the control group was 164.12±8.6 and 152±5.8 cm for females. The mean height...

  20. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the imple...

  1. Ventilatory pattern and associated episodic hypoxaemia in the late postoperative period in the general surgical ward

    Rosenberg, J; Rasmussen, G I; Wøjdemann, K R;

    1999-01-01

    , the median (range) respiratory disturbance index (apnoeas + hypopnoeas per h) was 12 (0-121), with the patients spending 6% (0-65%) of the night in some kind of ventilatory disturbance. It was not possible from pre-operative snoring habits to predict patients who developed postoperative ventilatory...

  2. IMPACT OF SMOKING ON ADULTS LUNG AGE AND VENTILATORY FUNCTION

    Omar Farouk Helal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a large body of evidence exists on the effect of smoking on lung age and pulmonary function, much less attention has been dedicated to using these effects as an effective strategy in smoking cessation. Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of smoking on lung age and ventilatory function in adult Saudi in order to use these effects in a future strategy for smoking cessation. Methods: Eighty one smoker students with their mean age 23.88 ± 2.7 years were enrolled in this study. Every student performed a ventilatory function tests in order to measure lung age, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume at the end of the first second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and peak expiratory flow rate PEFR. Results: The result showed significant deterioration in the mean value of FEV1, PEFR and the estimated lung age and a non-significant difference in the mean values of FVC. Conclusion: Smoking has a significant effect on ventilaroty function and deteriorating estimated lung age.

  3. Assessment of ventilatory neuromuscular drive in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    L.R.A. Bittencourt

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of abnormalities of the respiratory center in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients and their correlation with polysomnographic data are still a matter of controversy. Moderately obese, sleep-deprived OSA patients presenting daytime hypersomnolence, with normocapnia and no clinical or spirometric evidence of pulmonary disease, were selected. We assessed the ventilatory control and correlated it with polysomnographic data. Ventilatory neuromuscular drive was evaluated in these patients by measuring the ventilatory response (VE, the inspiratory occlusion pressure (P.1 and the ventilatory pattern (VT/TI, TI/TTOT at rest and during submaximal exercise, breathing room air. These analyses were also performed after inhalation of a hypercapnic mixture of CO2 (DP.1/DPETCO2, DVE/DPETCO2. Average rest and exercise ventilatory response (VE: 12.2 and 32.6 l/min, respectively, inspiratory occlusion pressure (P.1: 1.5 and 4.7 cmH2O, respectively, and ventilatory pattern (VT/TI: 0.42 and 1.09 l/s; TI/TTOT: 0.47 and 0.46 l/s, respectively were within the normal range. In response to hypercapnia, the values of ventilatory response (DVE/DPETCO2: 1.51 l min-1 mmHg-1 and inspiratory occlusion pressure (DP.1/DPETCO2: 0.22 cmH2O were normal or slightly reduced in the normocapnic OSA patients. No association or correlation between ventilatory neuromuscular drive and ventilatory pattern, hypersomnolence score and polysomnographic data was found; however a significant positive correlation was observed between P.1 and weight. Our results indicate the existence of a group of normocapnic OSA patients who have a normal awake neuromuscular ventilatory drive at rest or during exercise that is partially influenced by obesity

  4. ADJUSTMENT FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT STRUCTURE

    Tao Benzao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  5. Regional ventilatory evaluation using dynamic SPET imaging of xenon-133 washout in obstructive lung disease: an initial study

    Regional ventilatory abnormalities in obstructive lung disease were evaluated by dynamic single-photon emission tomography (SPET) of pulmonary washout of xenon-133 (133Xe) gas. The subjects included seven healthy volunteers. 17 patients with obstructive lung disease, and seven patients with restrictive lung disease. Following 6 min of inhalation of 133Xe gas (60-72 MBq/1), equilibrium and subsequent washout SPET images during spontaneous breathing were sequentially acquired every 30 s for 6-7 min, using a triple-head SPET system with the return mode of continuous repetitive rotating acquisition. A gravity-induced gradient of ventilation was demonstrated in the volunteers' lungs. Compared with the normal subjects, all the patients with obstructive disease showed abnormal 133Xe retention on the washout SPET images, with or without abnormalities on chest X-ray computed tomography, whereas the patients with restrictive disease did not show any significant delays in washout. This modality may assist in the evaluation of the three-dimensional dynamic process of ventilatory abnormalities in obstructive lung disease. (orig.)

  6. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  7. [Noninvasive ventilation: efficacy of a new ventilatory mode in patients with obesity-hypoventilation syndrome].

    Couillard, A; Pepin, J-L; Rabec, C; Cuvelier, A; Portmann, A; Muir, J-F

    2015-03-01

    Noninvasive ventilation is recommended to correct the nocturnal hypoventilation and relieve the symptoms of patients with the obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). The benefits of fixed pressure ventilation (S/T technology) are recognized but limited on account of the variability of nocturnal ventilatory requirements. The new technique AVAPS-AE (automatic EPAP) allows adjustment of the pressure according to the volume currently targeted. Its efficacy has not yet been evaluated. Our objectives are to evaluate firstly, whether AVAPS-AE optimizes the benefits of S/T technology on sleep architecture and quality, secondly, whether these benefits are associated with an improvement in gas exchange, symptoms, exercise tolerance, level of physical activity and quality of life of patients with OHS. In this multicenter trial, 60 newly diagnosed patients with OHS will be randomized to the control (S/T) and trial (AVAPS-AE) groups. A standardized titration procedure will be followed for the calibration of the ventilators. Functional evaluations (polysomnography, blood gases, impedance measurements and walking tests), questionnaires (physical activity, quality of life, quality of sleep and daytime somnolence) visual scales (fatigue, headaches) and a recording of activity will be undertaken after two months of ventilation. PMID:25847207

  8. Intracellular Signaling Mediators in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems

    Thiriet, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to phenomenological models of nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms when the vessel lumen caliber varies markedly. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning. Volume 4 is devoted to major sets of intracellular mediators that transmit signals upon stimulation of cell-surface receptors.  Activation of...

  9. Significant ventilatory findings on ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy

    Full text: Despite recent advances in CT technology, ventilation -perfusion scintigraphy continues to remain a cost-effective, sensitive and well-utilised method for the assessment of pulmonary thrombo-embolic disease. The ventilation findings are often also of benefit in that they may give a clue to underlying parenchymal lung disease. Occasionally the assessment of ventilation can lead to critical diagnoses which may otherwise have not been appreciated. We present 2 such cases where the ventilatory findings indicated significant pathology - in one case post-operative upper airway stenosis and in the other complete lower airway obstruction. The cases and the imaging findings are discussed. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  10. Control of Cell Fate in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems

    Thiriet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning. Volumes 1 and 2 are devoted to cell organization and fate, as well as activities that are autoregulated and/or controlled by the cell environment. Volume 1 examined cellular features that allow adaptation to env...

  11. Investigation of prevalence of ventilatory defects of textile mill workers in the Yazd province

    Salary M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of pulmonary problems, among a group of 1600 selected textile mill workers in the Yazd province. A standard questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was administered and forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 were determined for each worker. The results obtained were as follow: Obstructive ventilatory defect 15 cases (0.9 percent, restrictive ventilatory defect 16 cases (1 percent, combined obstructive and restrictive ventilatory defect (Mix 53 cases (3.3 percent and normal 1516 cases (94.8 percent.

  12. Convexity Adjustments

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations o...

  13. Improvement of ventilatory function by spa therapy in patients with intractable asthma.

    Tanizaki,Yoshiro

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five patients with intractable asthma had swimming training in a hot spring pool for 3 months. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their clinical symptoms and ages. Changes of ventilatory function during swimming training were observed in in each group. The ventilatory function test revealed that free swimming training in a hot spring pool for 30 min did not induce bronchoconstriction in any of the groups. The values of ventilatory parameters such as FEV 1.0%, %PEFR, %V50 and %V25 were improved after the 3-month swimming training. The improvement of ventilatory parameters, especially %MMF, %V50 and %V25, by the training was most remarkable in the type II asthma group. The percent increase in %MMF, %V50 and %V25 was highest in patients more than 61 years of age, and higher in patients aged 40 to 60 years than in younger patients.

  14. Possibilities of bronchography in diagnosis of ventilatory failure in chronic pulmonary diseases

    Ventilatory disorders have been studied in 187 patients by means of X-ray examination of the respiratory tract and its functional changes with the help of improved method of aspiration bronchography. The data obtained permit to distinguish the causes of ventilatory function disorders (obstructive and restrictive alterations) and the process spreading (diffuse or regional character). Timely detection of these lesions could help to avoid undesirable consequences in the treatment of patients

  15. Investigation of prevalence of ventilatory defects of textile mill workers in the Yazd province

    Salary M; Barkhordary A; Zahedpooranaraky M

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of pulmonary problems, among a group of 1600 selected textile mill workers in the Yazd province. A standard questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was administered and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker. The results obtained were as follow: Obstructive ventilatory defect 15 cases (0.9 percent), restrictive ventilatory defect 16 cases (1 percent), combined obstructiv...

  16. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the implementation of alveolar recruitment maneuvers in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery are described. PMID:24553513

  17. Occurrence of respiratory symptoms in persons with restrictive ventilatory impairment compared with persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The PLATINO study.

    Nonato, Nívia L; Nascimento, Oliver A; Padilla, Rogelio P; de Oca, Maria M; Tálamo, Carlos; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmen; López, Maria V; Celli, Bartolomé; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually complain of symptoms such as cough, sputum, wheezing, and dyspnea. Little is known about clinical symptoms in individuals with restrictive ventilatory impairment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and type of respiratory symptoms in patients with COPD to those reported by individuals with restrictive ventilatory impairment in the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigacion en Obstruccion Pulmonar study. Between 2002 and 2004, individuals ≥40 years of age from five cities in Latin America performed pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry and had their respiratory symptoms recorded in a standardized questionnaire. Among the 5315 individuals evaluated, 260 (5.1%) had a restrictive spirometric diagnosis (forced vital capacity (FVC) normal (LLN) with forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) ≥ LLN; American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) 2005) and 610 (11.9%) were diagnosed with an obstructive pattern (FEV1/FVC < LLN; ATS/ERS 2005). Patients with mild restriction wheezed more ((30.8%) vs. (17.8%); p < 0.028). No difference was seen in dyspnea, cough, and sputum between the two groups after adjusting for severity stage. The health status scores for the short form 12 questionnaire were similar in restricted and obstructed patients for both physical (48.4 ± 9.4 vs. 48.3 ± 9.8) and mental (50.8 ± 10.6 vs. 50.0 ± 11.5) domains. Overall, respiratory symptoms are not frequently reported by patients with restricted and obstructed patterns as defined by spirometry. Wheezing was more frequent in patients with restricted pattern compared with those with obstructive ventilatory defect. However, the prevalence of cough, sputum production, and dyspnea are not different between the two groups when adjusted by the same severity stage. PMID:26041119

  18. Gas inertia and ventilatory measurements under pressure: methodological considerations.

    Hickey, D D; Marky, D C; Smith, R J

    1983-12-01

    A bag-in-box apparatus with a spirometer was used to measure the ventilatory minute volume in subjects exercising at air pressures up to 6.8 atm. During rest there was good agreement between minute volumes derived from the expired gas in the bag and the sum of tidal volumes from the spirometer, whereas during exercise the bag volume exceeded the spirometer volume by up to 20%. This was found to be due to the inertia of high density gas in the breathing hoses. Given sufficient flow rate the gas would continue to flow from the box to the bag following end expiration and end inspiration. The spirometer would not record this because it only responds to changes in the sum of box and bag volumes, whereas emptying the bag through a gas meter records the volume of gas actually moved. A model was constructed to investigate the phenomenon. It was concluded that many different conventional setups for respiratory measurements may be subject to this type of error. Solutions to the problem include a collapsible tube section downstream from the subject, pneumotachometers, chest-mounted magnetometers, or inductive plethysmographs. PMID:6675225

  19. The influence of aerobic fitness status on ventilatory efficiency in patients with coronary artery disease

    Danilo M.L. Prado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1 coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness exhibit a lower ventilatory efficiency and 2 coronary artery disease patients with lower initial aerobic fitness exhibit greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency with aerobic exercise training. METHOD: A total of 123 patients (61.0±0.7 years with coronary artery disease were divided according to aerobic fitness status into 3 groups: group 1 (n = 34, peak VO217.5 and 24.5 ml/kg/min. All patients performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test on a treadmill. Ventilatory efficiency was determined by the lowest VE/VCO2 ratio observed. The exercise training program comprised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise performed 3 times per week for 3 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02106533 RESULTS: Before intervention, group 1 exhibited both lower peak VO2 and lower ventilatory efficiency compared with the other 2 groups (p<0.05. After the exercise training program, group 1 exhibited greater improvements in aerobic fitness and ventilatory efficiency compared with the 2 other groups (group 1: ▵ = -2.5±0.5 units; group 2: ▵ = -0.8±0.3 units; and group 3: ▵ = -1.4±0.6 units, respectively; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness status exhibited lower ventilatory efficiency during a graded exercise test. In addition, after 3 months of aerobic exercise training, only the patients with initially lower levels of aerobic fitness exhibited greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency.

  20. Increased ventilatory response to carbon dioxide in COPD patients following vitamin C administration

    Sara E. Hartmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have decreased ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses to hypercapnia. Antioxidants increase the ventilatory response to hypercapnia in healthy humans. Cerebral blood flow is an important determinant of carbon dioxide/hydrogen ion concentration at the central chemoreceptors and may be affected by antioxidants. It is unknown whether antioxidants can improve the ventilatory and cerebral blood flow response in individuals in whom these are diminished. Thus, we aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C administration on the ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses to hypercapnia during healthy ageing and in COPD. Using transcranial Doppler ultrasound, we measured the ventilatory and cerebral blood flow responses to hyperoxic hypercapnia before and after an intravenous vitamin C infusion in healthy young (Younger and older (Older subjects and in moderate COPD. Vitamin C increased the ventilatory response in COPD patients (mean (95% CI 1.1 (0.9–1.1 versus 1.5 (1.1–2.0 L·min−1·mmHg−1, p0.05 or Older (1.3 (1.0–1.7 versus 1.3 (1.0–1.7 L·min−1·mmHg−1, p>0.05 healthy subjects. Vitamin C did not affect the cerebral blood flow response in the young or older healthy subjects or COPD subjects (p>0.05. Vitamin C increases the ventilatory but not cerebrovascular response to hyperoxic hypercapnia in patients with moderate COPD.

  1. Effect of exercise training on ventilatory efficiency in patients with heart disease: a review.

    Prado, D M L; Rocco, E A; Silva, A G; Rocco, D F; Pacheco, M T; Furlan, V

    2016-06-20

    The analysis of ventilatory efficiency in cardiopulmonary exercise testing has proven useful for assessing the presence and severity of cardiorespiratory diseases. During exercise, efficient pulmonary gas exchange is characterized by uniform matching of lung ventilation with perfusion. By contrast, mismatching is marked by inefficient pulmonary gas exchange, requiring increased ventilation for a given CO2 production. The etiology of increased and inefficient ventilatory response to exercise in heart disease is multifactorial, involving both peripheral and central mechanisms. Exercise training has been recommended as non-pharmacological treatment for patients with different chronic cardiopulmonary diseases. In this respect, previous studies have reported improvements in ventilatory efficiency after aerobic exercise training in patients with heart disease. Against this background, the primary objective of the present review was to discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in abnormal ventilatory response to exercise, with an emphasis on both patients with heart failure syndrome and coronary artery disease. Secondly, special focus was dedicated to the role of aerobic exercise training in improving indices of ventilatory efficiency among these patients, as well as to the underlying mechanisms involved. PMID:27332771

  2. Effects of inspiratory loading on the chaotic dynamics of ventilatory flow in humans.

    Samara, Ziyad; Raux, Mathieu; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Gharbi, Alexandre; Gottfried, Stewart B; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Human ventilation at rest exhibits complexity and chaos. The aim of this study was to determine whether suprapontine interferences with the automatic breathing control could contribute to ventilatory chaos. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous study performed in awake volunteers exhibiting cortical pre-motor potentials during inspiratory loading. In eight subjects, flow was recorded at rest, while breathing against inspiratory threshold loads (median 21.5 cm H(2)O) and resistive loads (50 cm H(2)Ol(-1)s(-1)) loads, and while inhaling 7% CO(2)-93% O(2). Chaos was identified through noise titration (noise limit, NL) and the sensitivity to initial conditions was assessed through the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE). Breath-by-breath variability was evaluated using the coefficient of variation of several ventilatory variables. Chaos was consistently present in ventilatory flow recordings, but mechanical loading did not alter NL, LLE, or variability. In contrast, CO(2) altered chaos and reduced variability. In conclusion, inspiratory loading - and any resultant respiratory-related cortical activity - were not associated with changes in ventilatory chaos in this study, arguing against suprapontine contributions to ventilatory complexity. PMID:19013545

  3. Effect of exercise training on ventilatory efficiency in patients with heart disease: a review

    Prado, D.M.L.; Rocco, E.A.; Silva, A.G.; Rocco, D.F.; Pacheco, M.T.; Furlan, V.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ventilatory efficiency in cardiopulmonary exercise testing has proven useful for assessing the presence and severity of cardiorespiratory diseases. During exercise, efficient pulmonary gas exchange is characterized by uniform matching of lung ventilation with perfusion. By contrast, mismatching is marked by inefficient pulmonary gas exchange, requiring increased ventilation for a given CO2 production. The etiology of increased and inefficient ventilatory response to exercise in heart disease is multifactorial, involving both peripheral and central mechanisms. Exercise training has been recommended as non-pharmacological treatment for patients with different chronic cardiopulmonary diseases. In this respect, previous studies have reported improvements in ventilatory efficiency after aerobic exercise training in patients with heart disease. Against this background, the primary objective of the present review was to discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in abnormal ventilatory response to exercise, with an emphasis on both patients with heart failure syndrome and coronary artery disease. Secondly, special focus was dedicated to the role of aerobic exercise training in improving indices of ventilatory efficiency among these patients, as well as to the underlying mechanisms involved. PMID:27332771

  4. Hypoxic ventilatory drive in dogs during thiopental, ketamine, or pentobarbital anesthesia.

    Hirshman, C A; McCullough, R E; Cohen, P J; Weil, J V

    1975-12-01

    The ventilatory responses to isocapnic hypoxia and hypercapnia were studied in seven chronically tracheostomized dogs awake and during anesthesia with pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, iv), ketamine, or thiopental (10 and 15 mg/kg, respectively, followed by infusion). Isocapnic hypoxic ventilatory drive (HVD) was expressed as the parameter A such that the higher the A, the greater the hypoxic drive. HVD(A) was significantly reduced from 259 +/- 28 (mean +/- SEM) in awake dogs, to 96 +/- 14 after pentobarbital, 161 +/- 27 after thiopental, and 213 +/- 23 after ketamine. Hypercapnic ventilatory drive (HCVD) as measured by S (slope of the VE-PACO2 response curve) was significantly reduced from 1.3 +/- .32 in awake dogs to 0.4 +/- .13 after pentobarbital, 0.5 +/- .12 after thiopental, and 0.6 +/- .11 after ketamine. In addition, hypercapnia-induced augmentation of hypoxic drive was markedly diminished by the two barbiturates but was unaffected by ketamine. Therefore, ketamine at this dose level afforded greater protection during exposure to hypoxia than did barbiturates. (Key words: Ventilation, hypoxic response; Hypoxia, ventilation; Oxygen, ventilatory response; Carbon dioxide, ventilatory response; Anesthetics, intravenous, ketamine; Anesthetics, intravenous, thiopental; Hypnotics, barbiturates, pentobarbital.) PMID:1190538

  5. Adjustment disorder

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Fava ...

  6. Adjustment disorder

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  7. Ventilatory demand and dynamic hyperinflation induced during ADL-based tests in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients

    Karoliny dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Airflow limitation frequently leads to the interruption of activities of daily living (ADL in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. These patients commonly show absence of ventilatory reserve, reduced inspiratory reserve volume, and dynamic hyperinflation (DH. Objective To investigate ventilatory response and DH induced by three ADL-based protocols in COPD patients and compare them to healthy subjects. Method Cross-sectional study. COPD group: 23 patients (65±6 years, FEV1 37.2±15.4%pred; control group: 14 healthy subjects (64±4 years matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Both groups performed all three tests: Glittre-ADL test; an activity test that involved moving objects on a shelf (TSHELF; and a modified shelf protocol isolating activity with upper limbs (TSHELF-M. Ventilatory response and inspiratory capacity were evaluated. Results Baseline ventilatory variables were similar between groups (p>0.05. The ventilatory demand increased and the inspiratory capacity decreased significantly at the end of the tests in the COPD group. Ventilatory demand and DH were higher (p0.05 and ventilatory demand increased at the end of the tests (p<0.05 but to a lower extent than the COPD group. Conclusion The TSHELF induces similar ventilatory responses to the Glittre-ADL test in COPD patients with higher ventilatory demand and DH. In contrast, the ventilatory response was attenuated in the TSHELF-M, suggesting that squatting and bending down during the Glittre-ADL test could trigger significant ventilatory overload.

  8. Noninvasive Ventilatory Correction as an Adjunct to an Experimental Systemic Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Kristian Barlinn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in patients with acute ischemic stroke and associated with early clinical deterioration and poor functional outcome. However, noninvasive ventilatory correction is hardly considered as a complementary treatment option during the treatment phase of acute ischemic stroke. Summary of Case. A 55-year-old woman with an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA and enrolled into a thrombolytic research study. During tPA infusion, she became drowsy, developed apnea episodes, desaturated and neurologically deteriorated without recanalization, re-occlusion or intracerebral hemorrhage. Urgent noninvasive ventilatory correction with biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP reversed neurological fluctuation. Her MCA completely recanalized 24 hours later. Conclusions. Noninvasive ventilatory correction should be considered more aggressively as a complementary treatment option in selected acute stroke patients. Early initiation of BiPAP can stabilize cerebral hemodynamics and may unmask the true potential of other therapies.

  9. Oxygen diffusion limitation triggers ventilatory movements during spiracle closure when insects breathe discontinuously.

    Huang, Shu-Ping; Sender, Roi; Gefen, Eran

    2014-07-01

    During discontinuous gas exchange cycles in insects, spiracular opening follows a typical prolonged period of spiracle closure. Gas exchange with the environment occurs mostly during the period of full spiracular opening. In this study we tested the hypothesis that recently reported ventilatory movements during the spiracle closure period serve to mix the tracheal system gaseous contents, and support diffusive exchanges with the tissues. Using heliox (21% O2, 79% He), we found that by increasing oxygen diffusivity in the gas phase, ventilatory movements of Schistocerca gregaria were significantly delayed compared with normoxic conditions. Exposure to hyperoxic conditions (40% O2, 60% N2) resulted in a similar delay in forced ventilation. Together, these results indicate that limits to oxygen diffusion to the tissues during spiracle closure trigger ventilatory movements, which in turn support tissue demands. These findings contribute to our understanding of the mechanistic basis of respiratory gas exchange between insect tissues and the environment. PMID:24737753

  10. Chemosensitivity, Cardiovascular Risk, and the Ventilatory Response to Exercise in COPD.

    Michael K Stickland

    Full Text Available COPD is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk and a potentiated ventilatory response to exercise. Enhanced carotid chemoreceptor (CC activity/sensitivity is present in other clinical conditions, has been shown to contribute to sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow, and is predictive of mortality. CC activity/sensitivity, and the resulting functional significance, has not been well examined in COPD. We hypothesized that CC activity/sensitivity would be elevated in COPD, and related to increased pulse wave velocity (a marker of CV risk and the ventilatory response to exercise.30 COPD patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls were examined. Participants performed baseline cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function testing. CC activity was later evaluated by the drop in ventilation with breathing 100% O2, and CC sensitivity was then assessed by the ventilatory response to hypoxia (ΔVE/ΔSpO2. Peripheral arterial stiffness was subsequently evaluated by measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV using applanation tonometry while the subjects were breathing room air, and then following chemoreceptor inhibition by breathing 100% O2 for 2 minutes.CC activity, CC sensitivity, PWV and the ventilatory response to exercise were all increased in COPD relative to controls. CC sensitivity was related to PWV; however, neither CC activity nor CC sensitivity was related to the ventilatory response to exercise in COPD. CC inhibition by breathing 100% O2 normalized PWV in COPD, while no effect was observed in controls.CC activity and sensitivity are elevated in COPD, and appear related to cardiovascular risk; however, CC activity/sensitivity does not contribute to the potentiated ventilatory response to exercise.

  11. Gender differences in continuous-flow left ventricular assist device therapy as a bridge to transplantation: a risk-adjusted comparison using a propensity score-matching analysis.

    Weymann, Alexander; Patil, Nikhil Prakash; Sabashnikov, Anton; Mohite, Prashant N; García Sáez, Diana; Amrani, Mohamed; Bahrami, Toufan; De Robertis, Fabio; Wahlers, Thorsten; Banner, Nicholas R; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, André R

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender differences regarding outcome after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (cfLVAD) implantation. The study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Included were 24 consecutive female cfLVAD recipients and 24 male recipients (62.5% HeartMate II, 37.5% HeartWare) who received their devices between July 2007 and May 2013. Subjects were matched using propensity score analysis based on age, diagnosis, body surface area, preoperative mechanical circulatory support, heart failure severity score (INTERMACS class), and comorbidities. Female patients were significantly sicker before operation. After propensity score matching, there were no statistically significant differences in demographics or clinical baseline characteristics between male and female LVAD recipients. Also, there was a trend towards a longer postoperative intensive care unit stay in the female group (median 9 days [interquartile range 5-17] versus 15 days [interquartile range 8-33]; P < 0.061) and higher postoperative bilirubin values (median 14 mmol/L [interquartile range 10-17] versus 21 mmol/L [interquartile range 13-30]). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of outcome (P < 0.569). The overall survival was comparable between the two groups (log rank P < 0.389). Half (50%) of female patients required inotropic support for more than 7 days compared with 21.7% in the male group (P < 0.048). Half (50%) of female recipients required short-term postoperative right ventricular assist device implantation compared with 16.7% in the male group (P < 0.014). In conclusion, cfLVAD implantation as a bridge to transplantation is associated with longer duration of inotropic support and higher requirement for postoperative mechanical right ventricular support in women with similar survival rates. Further studies are required to identify additional demographic and clinical

  12. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the ventilatory response to rising body temperature during exercise.

    Hayashi, Keiji; Kawashima, Takayo; Suzuki, Yuichi

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of menstrual cycle on the ventilatory sensitivity to rising body temperature, ten healthy women exercised for ~60 min on a cycle ergometer at 50% of peak oxygen uptake during the follicular and luteal phases of their cycle. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, minute ventilation, and tidal volume were all significantly higher at baseline and during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. On the other hand, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide was significantly lower during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. Plotting ventilatory parameters against esophageal temperature revealed there to be no significant menstrual cycle-related differences in the slopes or intercepts of the regression lines, although minute ventilation and tidal volume did significantly differ during exercise with mild hyperthermia. To evaluate the cutaneous vasodilatory response, relative laser-Doppler flowmetry values were plotted against mean body temperature, which revealed that the mean body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly higher in the luteal phase than the follicular phase, but there were no significant differences in the sensitivity or peak values. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle phase influences the cutaneous vasodilatory response during exercise and the ventilatory response at rest and during exercise with mild hyperthermia, but it does not influence ventilatory responses during exercise with moderate hyperthermia. PMID:22604882

  13. An experimental randomized study of six different ventilatory modes in a piglet model with normal lungs

    Nielsen, J B; Sjöstrand, U H; Henneberg, S W

    1991-01-01

    -controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation; and SV-20P denotes pressure-controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. With all modes of ventilation a PEEP of 7.5 cm H2O was used. In the abbreviations used, the number denotes the ventilatory frequency in breaths per minute (bpm). HFV indicates that all...

  14. Ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern in world-class cyclists: A three-year observational study.

    Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Terrados, Nicolás; Burtscher, Martin; Santalla, Alfredo; Naranjo Orellana, José

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this three-year observational study was to analyze the ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern in world-class professional cyclists. Twelve athletes (22.61±3.8years; 177.38±5.5cm; 68.96±5.5kg and VO2max 75.51±3.3mLkg(-1)min(-1)) were analyzed retrospectively. For each subject, respiratory and performance variables were recorded during incremental spiroergometry: oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE), tidal volume (Vt), breathing frequency (fR), driving (Vt/Ti), timing (Ti/Ttot), peak power output (PPO) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) was calculated from the beginning of exercise testing to the second ventilatory threshold (VT2). The VE/VCO2 slope was unaffected during the study period (24.63±3.07; 23.61±2:79; 24:89±2:61) with a low effect size (ES=0.04). The PPO improved significantly in the third year (365±33.74; 386.36±32.33; 415.00±24.15) (pperformance in world-class professional cyclists do not modify breathing variables related to the control of ventilatory efficiency. PMID:27083403

  15. Salary adjustments

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  16. Salary adjustments

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  17. 24 CFR 886.312 - Rent adjustments.

    2010-04-01

    ... levels of such expenses in comparable assisted and unassisted housing in the area to ensure that... assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract rents may be adjusted upward or downward as may be...) Comparability between assisted and unassisted units. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this...

  18. Adjustable collimator

    In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam

  19. Assessing and Managing Medically Fragile Children: Tracheostomy and Ventilatory Support

    Woodnorth, Geralyn Harvey

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in premature births. Children born prematurely often present with complex medical conditions; some require a tracheostomy. Although many children with tracheostomies require assistance to achieve effective communication, speech-language pathologists may have limited information with respect to the…

  20. Oral beraprost sodium improves exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency in patients with primary or thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Nagaya, N; Shimizu, Y; Satoh, T.; Oya, H.; Uematsu, M.; Kyotani, S; Sakamaki, F; N. Sato; Nakanishi, N; Miyatake, K

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of beraprost sodium, an orally active prostacyclin analogue, on exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

  1. Selective antagonism of opioid-induced ventilatory depression by an ampakine molecule in humans without loss of opioid analgesia.

    Oertel, B G; Felden, L; Tran, P V; Bradshaw, M H; Angst, M S; Schmidt, H; Johnson, S; Greer, J J; Geisslinger, G; Varney, M A; Lötsch, J

    2010-02-01

    Ventilatory depression is a significant risk associated with the use of opioids. We assessed whether opioid-induced ventilatory depression can be selectively antagonized by an ampakine without reduction of analgesia. In 16 healthy men, after a single oral dose of 1,500 mg of the ampakine CX717, a target concentration of 100 ng/ml alfentanil decreased the respiratory frequency by only 2.9 +/- 33.4% as compared with 25.6 +/- 27.9% during placebo coadministration (P CX717 than with placebo. In contrast, CX717 did not affect alfentanil-induced analgesia in either electrical or heat-based experimental models of pain. Both ventilatory depression and analgesia were reversed with 1.6 mg of naloxone. These results support the use of ampakines as selective antidotes in humans to counter opioid-induced ventilatory depression without affecting opioid-mediated analgesia. PMID:19907420

  2. Acute and chronic effects of surgical thromboendarterectomy on exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Iwase, T.; Nagaya, N; Ando, M.; Satoh, T.; Sakamaki, F; Kyotani, S; Takaki, H; Goto, Y.; Ohkita, Y; Uematsu, M.; Nakanishi, N; Miyatake, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess acute and chronic effects of surgical thromboendarterectomy on exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
DESIGN—Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed in 20 patients with CTEPH before thromboendarterectomy (baseline), one month after (early phase), and four months after (late phase). Peak oxygen uptake (peak V̇O2) and the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide production (V̇E-V̇CO2 slope) we...

  3. Estimates of restrictive ventilatory defect in the mining industry. Considerations for epidemiological investigations: a cross-sectional study

    Odo, Nnaemeka U; Mandel, Jeffrey H.; Perlman, David M; Alexander, Bruce H.; Scanlon, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives (1) To assess the impact of American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) ‘acceptability’ and ‘usability’ criteria for spirometry on the estimates of restrictive ventilatory defect in a population of taconite miners. (2) To compare estimates of restrictive ventilatory defect with three different pulmonary function tests (spirometry, alveolar volume (VA) and diffusing capacity (DL,CO)). (3) To assess the role of population characteristics on these estimates. D...

  4. Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to electrically induced cycling with complete epidural anaesthesia in humans

    Kjaer, M; Perko, G; Secher, N H;

    1994-01-01

    Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to electrically induced dynamic exercise were investigated in eight healthy young males with afferent neural influence from the legs blocked by epidural anaesthesia (25 ml 2% lidocaine) at L3-L4. This caused cutaneous sensory anaesthesia below T8-T9 and.......1 vs. 17.3 +/- 0.91 min-1) were similar, and ventilation (54 +/- 5 vs. 45 +/- 41 min-1) was higher (P <0.05). In contrast, the rise in mean arterial blood pressure during voluntary exercise (93 +/- 4 (rest) to 119 +/- 4 mmHg (exercise)) was not manifest during electrically induced exercise with...... epidural anaesthesia [93 +/- 3 (rest) to 95 +/- 5 mmHg (exercise)]. As there is ample evidence for similar cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to electrically induced and voluntary exercise (Strange et al. 1993), the present results support the fact that the neural input from working muscle is crucial...

  5. Withdrawal of ventilatory support outside the intensive care unit: guidance for practice

    Laddie, J.; Craig, F; Brierley, J; Kelly, P; Bluebond-Langner, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the work of one tertiary paediatric palliative care service in facilitating planned withdrawal of ventilatory support outside the intensive care setting, with the purpose of developing local guidance for practice. Methods Retrospective 10-year (2003–2012) case note review of intensive care patients whose parents elected to withdraw ventilation in another setting. Demographic and clinical data revealed common themes and specific incidents relevant to local guideline develop...

  6. Unusual features in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: Good outcome after prolonged ventilatory support

    Sanjeev Jha; M K Ansari; K K Sonkar; Paliwal, V. K.

    2011-01-01

    Severe respiratory muscle paralysis and ventilatory failure is rare in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We report a 14 year child who presented with respiratory failure, bulbar and multiple cranial nerves involvement along with bilateral phrenic nerve paralysis. He was diagnosed with CIDP after electrophysiological evaluation. He required AMBU ventilation for about 4 months (including domiciliary use), after which he recovered significantly. Along with several unusual...

  7. Noninvasive Ventilatory Correction as an Adjunct to an Experimental Systemic Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    April Sisson; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Paola Palazzo; Kristian Barlinn; Limin Zhao; Clotilde Balucani

    2010-01-01

    Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition in patients with acute ischemic stroke and associated with early clinical deterioration and poor functional outcome. However, noninvasive ventilatory correction is hardly considered as a complementary treatment option during the treatment phase of acute ischemic stroke. Summary of Case. A 55-year-old woman with an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and enrolled int...

  8. Ventilatory decrements in former asbestos cement workers: a four year follow up.

    Ohlson, C G; Bodin, L; Rydman, T; Hogstedt, C

    1985-01-01

    A four year follow up of the ventilatory function in former asbestos cement workers has been performed to determine whether any further decrease occurred after cessation of exposure. Seventy five of 125 subjects were eligible for re-examination and were compared with local referents. None showed signs of asbestosis but 32% had pleural plaques at the renewed examination. Cumulative asbestos exposure calculated as fibre x years had been estimated individually in the original examination. After ...

  9. Ventilatory stability to transient CO2 disturbances in hyperoxia and normoxia in awake humans.

    Lai, J; Bruce, E N

    1997-08-01

    Modarreszadeh and Bruce (J. Appl. Physiol. 76: 2765-2775, 1994) proposed that continuous random disturbances in arterial PCO2 are more likely to elicit ventilatory oscillation patterns that mimic periodic breathing in normoxia than in hyperoxia. To test this hypothesis experimentally, in nine awake humans we applied pseudorandom binary inspired CO2 fraction stimulation in normoxia and hyperoxia to derive the closed-loop and open-loop ventilatory responses to a brief CO2 disturbance in terms of impulse responses and transfer functions. The closed-loop impulse response has a significantly higher peak value [0.143 +/- 0.071 vs. 0.079 +/- 0.034 (SD) l . min-1 . 0.01 l CO2-1, P = 0.014] and a significantly shorter 50% response duration (42.7 +/- 13.3 vs. 72.3 +/- 27.6 s, P = 0.020) in normoxia than in hyperoxia. Therefore, the ventilatory responses to transient CO2 disturbances are less damped (but generally not oscillatory) in normoxia than in hyperoxia. For the closed-loop transfer function, the gain in normoxia increased significantly (P < 0.0005), while phase delay decreased significantly (P < 0.0005). The gain increased by 108.5, 186.0, and 240.6%, while phase delay decreased by 26.0, 18.1, and 17.3%, at 0. 01, 0.03, and 0.05 Hz, respectively. Changes in the same direction were found for the open-loop system. Generally, an oscillatory ventilatory response to a small transient CO2 disturbance is unlikely during wakefulness. However, changes in parameters that lead to additional increases in chemoreflex loop gain are more likely to initiate oscillations in normoxia than in hyperoxia. PMID:9262442

  10. Ventilatory responses to exercise in adults after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.

    Clark, A. L.; M.A. Gatzoulis; Redington, A N

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Adult patients with total correction of tetralogy of Fallot may have poor exercise capacity associated with impaired right heart function and in particular pulmonary regurgitation. The ventilatory responses to exercise were studied in a group of such patients to assess relations between ventilation, exercise capacity, and right ventricular function. METHODS--30 patients (7 female) (aged 27.8 (6.0) years) and 30 (7 female) controls of a similar age range were studied prospectively....

  11. Prepubescents' ventilatory responses to exercise with reference to sex and body size

    McManus, AM; Armstrong, N; Kirby, BJ; Welsman, JR

    1997-01-01

    Study objectives: To examine the ventilatory responses of prepubescent children to submaximal and peak exercise using appropriate allometric modeling to control for differences in body size. Design: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of children. Setting: Middle schools (8 to 11 years) in Exeter, UK. Participants: We studied 101 boys and 76 girls aged 11.1 (0.4) years and classified Tanner stage 1 for pubic hair (no true pubic hair). Measurements: At rest: stature, mass, sum of ...

  12. Ventilatory compensation of the alkaline tide during digestion in the snake Boa constrictor.

    Andrade, Denis V; De Toledo, Luis Felipe; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias

    2004-03-01

    The increased metabolic rate during digestion is associated with changes in arterial acid-base parameters that are caused by gastric acid secretion (the 'alkaline tide'). Net transfer of HCl to the stomach lumen causes an increase in plasma HCO3- levels, but arterial pH does not change because of a ventilatory compensation that counters the metabolic alkalosis. It seems, therefore, that ventilation is controlled to preserve pH and not PCO2 during the postprandial period. To investigate this possibility, we determined arterial acid-base parameters and the metabolic response to digestion in the snake Boa constrictor, where gastric acid secretion was inhibited pharmacologically by oral administration of omeprazole. The increase in oxygen consumption of omeprazole-treated snakes after ingestion of 30% of their own body mass was quantitatively similar to the response in untreated snakes, although the peak of the metabolic response occurred later (36 h versus 24 h). Untreated control animals exhibited a large increase in arterial plasma HCO3- concentration of approximately 12 mmol l(-1), but arterial pH only increased by 0.12 pH units because of a simultaneous increase in arterial PCO2 by about 10 mmHg. Omeprazole virtually abolished the changes in arterial pH and plasma HCO3- concentration during digestion and there was no increase in arterial PCO2. The increased arterial PCO2 during digestion is not caused, therefore, by the increased metabolism during digestion or a lower ventilatory responsiveness to ventilatory stimuli during a presumably relaxed state in digestion. Furthermore, the constant arterial PCO2, in the absence of an alkaline tide, of omeprazole-treated snakes strongly suggests that pH rather than PCO2 normally affects chemoreceptor activity and ventilatory drive. PMID:15010489

  13. The ventilatory response to hypoxia: how much is good for a mountaineer?

    Milledge, J S

    1987-01-01

    Methods for measuring the ventilatory response to hypoxia (HVR) are reviewed. The criteria for success as a high altitude mountaineer are defined as freedom from acute mountain sickness (AMS) and ability to perform well at extreme altitude. The evidence for a brisk HVR being protective against AMS and associated with successful high altitude performance is reviewed. The contrary evidence of blunted HVR in high altitude residence and some elite climbers is discussed. The effect of a brisk HVR ...

  14. Short term variability in FEV1 and bronchodilator responsiveness in patients with obstructive ventilatory defects.

    Tweeddale, P M; Alexander, F.; McHardy, G J

    1987-01-01

    Short term variability in FEV1 and responsiveness to inhaled bronchodilator were measured in 150 patients with obstructive ventilatory defects. The range of initial FEV1 was 0.5-4.71 and the natural variability over a 20 minute period when expressed in absolute terms was similar over the entire range, and differed insignificantly from that found in normal subjects. The increase in FEV1 and vital capacity (VC) required to exclude natural variability with 95% confidence in these patients was 16...

  15. Comparison of mechanical ventilatory constraints between continuous and intermittent exercises in healthy prepubescent children.

    Borel, Benoit; Leclair, Erwan; Thevenet, Delphine; BEGHIN, Laurent; Gottrand, Frédéric; Fabre, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract BBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and severity of mechanical ventilatory constraints in healthy prepubescent children during continuous and intermittent exercise. Methods: Twelve prepubescent children (7 ? 11 years old) performed 7 exercises on a treadmill: one graded test for the determination of maximal aerobic speed (MAS), three continuous exercises (CE) at 60, 70 and 80% of MAS and three intermittent exercises (IE), alternating 15s of...

  16. Sleep state dependence of ventilatory long-term facilitation following acute intermittent hypoxia in Lewis rats

    Nakamura, A.; Olson, E B; Terada, J.; Wenninger, J. M.; Bisgard, G. E.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    Ventilatory long-term facilitation (vLTF) is a form of respiratory plasticity induced by acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH). Although vLTF has been reported in unanesthetized animals, little is known concerning the effects of vigilance state on vLTF expression. We hypothesized that AIH-induced vLTF is preferentially expressed in sleeping vs. awake male Lewis rats. Vigilance state was assessed in unanesthetized rats with chronically implanted EEG and nuchal EMG electrodes, while tidal volume, fr...

  17. Ventilatory and metabolic responses of burrowing owls, Athene cunicularia, to moderate and extreme hypoxia: analysis of the hypoxic ventilatory threshold vs. hemoglobin oxygen affinity relationship in birds.

    Kilgore, Delbert L; Boggs, Dona F; Kilgore, Trevor J; Colby, Conrad; Williams, Burl R; Bavis, Ryan W

    2008-06-01

    We measured ventilation, oxygen consumption and blood gases in burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breathing moderate and extreme hypoxic gas mixtures to determine their hypoxic ventilatory threshold (HVT) and to assess if they, like other birds and mammals, exhibit a relationship between HVT and hemoglobin O2 affinity (P(50)) of their blood. An earlier report of an attenuated ventilatory responsiveness of this species to hypoxia was enigmatic given the low O2 affinity (high P(50)) of burrowing owl hemoglobin. In the current study, burrowing owls breathing 11% and 9% O2 showed a significantly elevated total ventilation. The arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) at which ventilation is elevated above normoxic values in burrowing owls was 58 mm Hg. This threshold value conforms well to expectations based on the high P(50) of their hemoglobin and the HVT vs. P(50) relationship for birds developed in this study. Correcting for phylogenetic relatedness in the multi-species analysis had no effect on the HVT vs. P(50) relationship. Also, because burrowing owls in this study did not show a hypometabolic response at any level of hypoxia (even at 9% O2); HVT described in terms of percent change in oxygen convection requirement is identical to that based on ventilation alone. PMID:17561426

  18. Time Domains of the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response and Their Molecular Basis.

    Pamenter, Mathhew E; Powell, Frank L

    2016-01-01

    Ventilatory responses to hypoxia vary widely depending on the pattern and length of hypoxic exposure. Acute, prolonged, or intermittent hypoxic episodes can increase or decrease breathing for seconds to years, both during the hypoxic stimulus, and also after its removal. These myriad effects are the result of a complicated web of molecular interactions that underlie plasticity in the respiratory control reflex circuits and ultimately control the physiology of breathing in hypoxia. Since the time domains of the physiological hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) were identified, considerable research effort has gone toward elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate these varied responses. This research has begun to describe complicated and plastic interactions in the relay circuits between the peripheral chemoreceptors and the ventilatory control circuits within the central nervous system. Intriguingly, many of these molecular pathways seem to share key components between the different time domains, suggesting that varied physiological HVRs are the result of specific modifications to overlapping pathways. This review highlights what has been discovered regarding the cell and molecular level control of the time domains of the HVR, and highlights key areas where further research is required. Understanding the molecular control of ventilation in hypoxia has important implications for basic physiology and is emerging as an important component of several clinical fields. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1345-1385, 2016. PMID:27347896

  19. Ventilatory thresholds during wheelchair exercise in individuals with spinal cord injuries.

    Coutts, K D; McKenzie, D C

    1995-07-01

    The ventilatory thresholds of 30 male wheelchair athletes were determined from their respiratory and metabolic responses to a continuously progressive exercise protocol to peak oxygen uptake on a wheelchair ergometer. The peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2), ventilatory threshold in 1 min-1 (VTL), and ventilatory threshold expressed as a percentage of peak VO2 (VT%) were measured for all subjects. Statistical analyses of selected subsamples were used to note sport and functional ability level differences in these variables. Analysis of peak VO2 by functional classification (old International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation system; classes 1A-5, plus an amputee class) indicated that paraplegic (classes 2-5) and the amputee class athletes (2.48 1 min-1) were higher than tetraplegic (classes 1A-1C) athletes (0.95 1 min-1). The paraplegic and amputee classes were combined for a comparison of peak VO2 by sport which showed that track athletes (2.80 1 min-1) were higher than basketball players (2.41 1 min-1) who were higher than athletes from other sports (1.88 1 min-1). The VTL analyses demonstrated differences similar to the peak VO2 analyses. The VT% analyses, however, showed no sport differences, but the tetraplegic athletes had higher VT% values (87%) than the paraplegic plus amputee group (69%). PMID:7478733

  20. Adjustment Policies in the United States

    Blandford, David

    2003-01-01

    Principal adjustment programs are reviewed unemployment insurance (UI) and related long-term programs for displaced workers, and trade adjustment assistance (TAA). None of these programs has had wide application in agriculture, although the current trade act contains a new program specifically for farmers.

  1. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    2010-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  2. GABA representation in hypoxia sensing: a ventilatory study in the rat.

    Tarakanov, I; Tikhomirova, L; Tarasova, N; Safonov, V; Bialkowska, M; Pokorski, M

    2011-01-01

    Phenibut, a nonspecific GABA derivative, is clinically used as an anxiolytic and tranquilizer in psychosomatic conditions. A GABA-ergic inhibitory pathway is engaged in respiratory control at both central and peripheral levels. However, the potential of phenibut to affect the O2-related chemoreflexes has not yet been studied. In this study we seek to determine the ventilatory responses to changes in inspired O2 content in anesthetized, spontaneously-breathing rats. Steady-state 5-min responses to 10% O2 in N2 and 100% O2 were taken in each animal before and 1 h after phenibut administration in a dose 450 mg/kg, i.p. Minute ventilation and its frequency and tidal components were obtained from the respiratory flow signal. We found that after a period of irregular extension of the respiratory cycle, phenibut stabilized resting ventilation at a lower level [20.0±3.3 (SD) vs 31.1±5.2 ml/min before phenibut; Pphenibut was not reflected in the hypoxic response. In relative terms, this response was actually accentuated after phenibut; the peak hypoxic ventilation increased by 164% from baseline vs the 100% increase before phenibut. Regarding hyperoxia, its inhibitory effect on breathing was more expressed after phenibut. In conclusion, the GABA-mimetic phenibut did not curtail hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, despite the presence of GABA-ergic pathways in both central and peripheral, carotid body mechanisms mediating the hypoxic chemoreflex. Thus, GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition may be elaborated in a way to sustain the primarily defensive ventilatory chemoreflex. PMID:21880205

  3. Hypoxic ventilatory response after dopamine D2 receptor blockade in unilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Andrzejewski, K; Budzińska, K; Zaremba, M; Kaczyńska, K

    2016-03-01

    Modified non-motor brainstem ventilatory control might be involved in Parkinson's disease. Our study was designed to investigate the impact of degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway on resting breathing and hypoxic ventilatory response in conscious rats. The role of central and peripheral dopamine D2 receptors in the modulation of the hypoxic ventilatory response in conditions of dopamine shortage was examined. Adult Wistar rats received a unilateral double 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the right medial forebrain bundle. After surgery, animals were placed in whole-body plethysmographic chamber and exposed to hypoxia (8% O2). One group of animals received inraperitoneal injections of either haloperidol or domperidone before hypoxia. Levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the brainstem and striatum were assessed. Neurotoxin treatment evoked limb use asymmetry. No effect on the resting normoxic respiration was observed. An increase in tidal volume and a decrease in respiratory rate during respiratory response to hypoxia with short magnification of minute ventilation were predominant effects. Domperidone treatment in intact animals evoked a significant increase in normoxic tidal volume, while haloperidol potentiated tidal volume increase in response to hypoxia. After the lesion, the effects of both antagonists were absent. In rats with Parkinson's, the content of dopamine and its metabolite decreased substantially in the injured striatum. Augmentation of a tidal volume response to hypoxia, and the absence of stimulatory effect of intraperitoneal domperidone on normoxic and haloperidol on hypoxic tidal volume, in lesioned rats indicated altered control of breathing. This could be the result of a dopamine deficiency in the striatum and an increased turnover of DOPAC/DA in the brainstem. PMID:26705738

  4. EFFECT OF TIME OF DAY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LACTATE AND VENTILATORY THRESHOLDS: A BRIEF REPORT

    Fadil Ozyener

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of time of day on the relationship between lactate (LT and ventilatory thresholds (VT of pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2. Seven moderately active male volunteers (26.3±3.0 years, 1.74±0.08 m, 76±5 kg performed a maximal incremental test (increases of 30 W every 2 min on a cycle ergometer on consecutive days at 0900 h, 1400h and 1900 h in a randomized fashion. The anaerobic threshold was determined using both ventilatory gas analysis and blood lactate measures. Each of the following variables was recorded both at VT and the LT; heart rate (HR, beats.min-1, minute ventilation (VE, L.min-1, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, time to threshold (Time, sec, oxygen uptake (VO2, ml.kg-1.min-1 and VO2 as a percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max. The correlations between VT and LT variables analyzed by Pearson product moment correlations for each time of day. ANOVA was used to compare the data obtained at different times of the day. There were no significant differences for the data related to time of day either for ventilatory gas analysis or lactate measurements. The correlation coefficients between VT and LT variables were moderate to high (r=0.56-0.94 for time of day. However, the correlations for HR, VO2, and %VO2max (r=0.81-0.94 were slightly stronger compared with Time, VE and RER (r=0.56-0.88. It was concluded that, the data at VT and LT were not influenced by time of day

  5. The effects of acute L-carnitine administration on ventilatory breakpoint and exercise performanceduring incremental exercise

    Mojtaba Kaviani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 31 October, 2009 ; Accepted 10 March, 2010AbstractBackground and purpose: Many athletes adopt nutritional manipulations to improve their performance. Among the substances generally consumed is carnitine (L-trimethyl-3-hydroxy-ammoniobutanoate which has been used by athletes as an ergogenic aid, due to its role in the transport of long-chain fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of acute L-carnitine administration on ventilatory breakpoint, an exercise performance during incremental exercise.Materials and methods: This study was double-blind, randomized and crossover in design. The subjects were 12 randomly selected active male physical education students, 21.75±0.64 years old, with a mean body mass index (BMI of 23.7±0.94kg/m2, divided into 2 groups. They received orally either 2g of L-carnitine dissolved in 200 ml of water, plus 6 drops of lemon juice or a placebo (6 ml lemon juice dissolved in 200 ml of water 90 minutes before they began to exercise on a treadmill. They performed a modified protocol of Conconi test to exhaustion. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measurements was used for data analysis.Results: The results showed that exercise performance improved in LC group (2980±155 meter compared with placebo group (2331±51 meter. Furthermore, no significant difference was found in ventilatory breakpoint between the two groups.Conclusion: This finding indicates that administration of L- Carnitine, 90 minutes prior to exercise may improve performance; despite the ventilatory breakpoint as one of the anaerobic system indices that had no effect. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 43-50 (Persian.

  6. Sleep state dependence of ventilatory long-term facilitation following acute intermittent hypoxia in Lewis rats.

    Nakamura, A; Olson, E B; Terada, J; Wenninger, J M; Bisgard, G E; Mitchell, G S

    2010-08-01

    Ventilatory long-term facilitation (vLTF) is a form of respiratory plasticity induced by acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH). Although vLTF has been reported in unanesthetized animals, little is known concerning the effects of vigilance state on vLTF expression. We hypothesized that AIH-induced vLTF is preferentially expressed in sleeping vs. awake male Lewis rats. Vigilance state was assessed in unanesthetized rats with chronically implanted EEG and nuchal EMG electrodes, while tidal volume, frequency, minute ventilation (Ve), and CO(2) production were measured via plethysmography, before, during, and after AIH (five 5-min episodes of 10.5% O(2) separated by 5-min normoxic intervals), acute sustained hypoxia (25 min of 10.5% O(2)), or a sham protocol without hypoxia. Vigilance state was classified as quiet wakefulness (QW), light and deep non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (l-NREM and d-NREM sleep, respectively), or rapid eye movement sleep. Ventilatory variables were normalized to pretreatment baseline values in the same vigilance state. During d-NREM sleep, vLTF was observed as a progressive increase in Ve post-AIH (27 + or - 5% average, 30-60 min post-AIH). In association, Ve/Vco(2) (36 + or - 2%), tidal volume (14 + or - 2%), and frequency (7 + or - 2%) were increased 30-60 min post-AIH during d-NREM sleep. vLTF was significant but less robust during l-NREM sleep, was minimal during QW, and was not observed following acute sustained hypoxia or sham protocols in any vigilance state. Thus, vLTF is state-dependent and pattern-sensitive in unanesthetized Lewis rats, with the greatest effects during d-NREM sleep. Although the physiological significance of vLTF is not clear, its greatest significance to ventilatory control is most likely during sleep. PMID:20360430

  7. Unusual features in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: Good outcome after prolonged ventilatory support

    Sanjeev Jha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe respiratory muscle paralysis and ventilatory failure is rare in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP. We report a 14 year child who presented with respiratory failure, bulbar and multiple cranial nerves involvement along with bilateral phrenic nerve paralysis. He was diagnosed with CIDP after electrophysiological evaluation. He required AMBU ventilation for about 4 months (including domiciliary use, after which he recovered significantly. Along with several unusual features of CIDP, this report highlights good example of steady basic intensive care to save lives and rewarding outcome of prolonged respiratory support, provided by AMBU ventilation which is a rather primitive, but inexpensive device.

  8. Heart rate deflection point relates to second ventilatory threshold in a tennis test

    Baiget i Vidal, Ernest; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Iglesias i Reig, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between heart rate deflection point (HRDP) and the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) has been studied in continuous sports, but never in a tennis-specific test. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between HRDP and the VT2, and between themaximal test performance and the maximal oxygen uptake (V_ O2max) in an on-court specific endurance tennis test. Thirty-five high-level tennis players performed a progressive tennis-specific field test t...

  9. Aerosol contributions to the investigation of lung structure and ventilatory function

    The use of aerosols in the clinical investigations of lung structure and ventilatory function is reviewed. First, the use of inert, non-radioactive particles to study gas mixing and airspace dimensions in providing quantitative evidence of the contribution that bulk transfer makes to the mixing of gases within the lung is discussed. Secondly, the way in which radioaerosol deposition patterns relate to airways obstruction is described. Finally the pros and cons of radioaerosol ventilation imaging in clinical practice are considered. (U.K.)

  10. Potentiation of the hypoxic ventilatory response by one day of hyperoxia in neonatal rats

    Roeser, Jeffrey C.; Brackett, Diane G.; van Heerden, Eliza S.; Young, Kristen M.; Bavis, Ryan W.

    2011-01-01

    The O2 sensitivity of the neonatal rat carotid body is increased after one day in moderate hyperoxia (60% O2) (Donnelly et al., Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 168: 189–197, 2009). We investigated whether this enhanced peripheral chemosensitivity increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and tested the hypothesis that this plasticity is mediated by the superoxide anion. Neonatal rats (7 d old) were injected with saline or MnTMPyP, a superoxide scavenger, and placed into 60% O2 for 23–28 h....

  11. VALIDITY OF THE MODIFIED CONCONI TEST FOR DETERMINING VENTILATORY THRESHOLD DURING ON-WATER ROWING

    Jorge Villamil Cabo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to design a field test based on the Conconi protocol to determine the ventilatory threshold of rowers and to test its reliability and validity. A group of sixteen oarsmen completed a modified Conconi test for on-water rowing. The reliability of the detection of the heart rate threshold was evaluated using heart rate breaking point in the Conconi test and retest. Heart rate threshold was detected in 88.8% of cases in the test-retest. The validity of the modified Conconi test was evaluated by comparing the heart rate threshold data acquired with that obtained in a ventilatory threshold test (VT2. No significant differences were found for the values of different intensity parameters i.e. heart rate (HR, oxygen consumption (VO2, stroke rate (SR and speed (S between the heart rate threshold and the ventilatory threshold, (170.9 ± 6.8 vs. 169.3 ± 6.4 beats·min-1; 42.0 ± 8.6 vs. 43.5 ± 8.3 ml·kg-1·min-1; 25.8 ± 3.3 vs. 27.0 ± 3.2 strokes·min-1 and 14.4 ± 0.8 vs. 14.6 ± 0.8 km·h-1. The differences in averages obtained in the Conconi test-retest were small with a low standard error of the mean. The reliability data between the Conconi test-retest showed low coefficients of variations (CV and high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC. The total errors for the Conconi test-retest are low for the measured variables (1.31 HR, 0.87 VO2, 0.65 SR, and 0.1 S. The Bland- Altman's method for analysis validity showed a strong concordance according to the analyzed variables. We conclude that the modified Conconi test for on-water rowing is a valid and reliable method for the determination of the second ventilatory threshold (VT2.

  12. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ Page contents The ... the moment you are injured. Understanding adjustment and depression Adjustment to paralysis is a process of changing ...

  13. Role of central hydrogen sulfide on ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to hypoxia in spontaneous hypertensive rats.

    Sabino, João Paulo J; Traslaviña, Guillermo A Ariza; Branco, Luiz G S

    2016-09-01

    Central hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to act as a gaseous neuromodulator involved in the ventilatory and cardiovascular control of normotensive rats, whereas no information is available in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We recorded minute ventilation (VE), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) before and after blocking of enzyme Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) producing H2S in neural tissue by microinjection of aminooxyacetate (inhibitor of CBS) into the fourth ventricle of Wistar normotensive rats (WNR) and SHR followed by 30min of normoxia (21% inspired O2) or hypoxia (10% inspired O2) exposure. Microinjection of AOA or saline (1μL) did not change VE, MAP and HR during normoxia in both WNR and SHR. In WNR, hypoxia caused an increase in VE, HR and a decrease in MAP and these responses were unaltered by AOA. In SHR, hypoxia produced a higher increase of VE, and decrease in MAP and HR when compared to WNR, and these responses were all blunted by AOA. In conclusion, endogenous H2S plays important modulatory roles on hypoxia-induced ventilatory and cardiovascular responses, inhibiting the cardiovascular and stimulating the respiratory systems in SHR. PMID:27238370

  14. Inductive plethysmography potential as a surrogate for ventilatory measurements during rest and moderate physical exercise

    Ramona Cabiddu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Portable respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP systems have been validated for ventilatory assessment during resting conditions and during incremental treadmill exercise. However, in clinical settings and during field-based exercise, intensity is usually constant and submaximal. A demonstration of the ability of RIP to detect respiratory measurements accurately during constant intensity conditions would promote and validate the routine use of portable RIP devices as an alternative to ergospirometry (ES, the current gold standard technique for ventilatory measures. Objective: To investigate the agreement between respiratory variables recorded by a portable RIP device and by ES during rest and constant intensity exercise. Method: Tidal volume (VT, respiratory rate (RR and minute ventilation (VE were concurrently acquired by portable RIP and ES in seven healthy male volunteers during standing rest position and constant intensity treadmill exercise. Results: Significant agreement was found between RIP and ES acquisitions during the standing rest position and constant intensity treadmill exercise for RR and during the standing rest position for VE. Conclusion: Our results suggest that portable RIP devices might represent a suitable alternative to ES during rest and during constant submaximal exercise.

  15. Ventilatory dynamics during transient arousal from NREM sleep: implications for respiratory control stability.

    Khoo, M C; Koh, S S; Shin, J J; Westbrook, P R; Berry, R B

    1996-05-01

    The polysomnographic and ventilatory patterns of nine normal adults were measured during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) stage 2 sleep before and after repeated administrations of a tone (40-72 dB) lasting 5 s. The ventilatory response to arousal (VRA) was determined in data sections showing electrocortical arousal following the start of the tone. Mean inspiratory flow and tidal volume increased significantly above control levels in the first seven breaths after the start of arousal, with peak increases (64.2% > control) occurring on the second breath. Breath-to-breath occlusion pressure 100 ms after the start of inspiration showed significant increases only on the second and third postarousal breaths, whereas upper airway resistance declined immediately and remained below control for > or = 7 consecutive breaths. These results suggest that the first breath and latter portion of the VRA are determined more by upper airway dynamics than by changes in the neural drive to breathe. Computer model simulations comparing different VRA time courses show that sustained periodic apnea is more likely to occur when the fall in the postarousal increase in ventilation is more abrupt. PMID:8727529

  16. Cerebral and muscle deoxygenation, hypoxic ventilatory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular responsiveness during incremental exercise.

    Peltonen, Juha E; Paterson, Donald H; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Delorey, Darren S; Dumanoir, Gregory R; Petrella, Robert J; Kowalchuk, John M

    2009-10-31

    To examine if cerebral (frontal cortex) and skeletal muscle (m. vastus lateralis) deoxygenation and cerebral blood flow velocity (V(mean)) in the middle cerebral artery differentiated between normoxic and hypoxic (end-tidal P(O)(2) 71 mmHg) conditions, and if they were associated with hypoxic ventilatory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular responsiveness, 8 men performed incremental cycling trials (30W/min ramp) under normoxic (T1-N) and hypoxic (T1-H) conditions until volitional fatigue, or until arterial O2 saturation decreased below 80%. The tests were repeated (T2-N; T2-H) on another day with supplemental O2 (Sup-O2) at the end of exercise. The V(mean) response was similar in normoxia and hypoxia. In hypoxia compared to normoxia, cerebral deoxygenation ( upward arrow deoxyhemoglobin concentration (Delta[HHb]) and downward arrow tissue oxygenation index (TOI)) was greater at a given work rate. A strong hypoxic ventilatory chemosensitivity was associated with a rapid reduction of cerebral TOI (r=0.94, PMuscle deoxygenation was similar in normoxia and hypoxia suggesting greater muscle blood flow in hypoxia compared to normoxia and thus the existence of control features that match muscle perfusion and O2 delivery tightly with O2 demand during exercise. Sup-O2 reduced both cerebral and muscle deoxygenation, at least transiently. PMID:19729079

  17. Impaired ventilatory and thermoregulatory responses to hypoxic stress in newborn Phox2b heterozygous knockout mice

    Nelina eRamanantsoa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Phox2b gene is necessary for the development of the autonomic nervous system, and especially, of respiratory neuronal circuits. In the present study, we examined the role of Phox2b in ventilatory and thermoregulatory responses to hypoxic stress, which are closely related in the postnatal period. Hypoxic stress was generated by strong thermal stimulus, combined or not with reduced inspired O2. To this end, we exposed 6-day-old Phox2b+/- pups and their wild-type littermates (Phox2b+/+ to hypoxia (10% O2 or hypercapnia (8% CO2 under thermoneutral (33°C or cold (26°C conditions. We found that Phox2b+/- pups showed less normoxic ventilation (VE in the cold than Phox2b+/+ pups. Phox2b+/- pups also showed lower oxygen consumption (VO2 in the cold, reflecting reduced thermogenesis and a lower body temperature. Furthermore, while the cold depressed ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in both genotype groups, this effect was less pronounced in Phox2b+/- pups. Finally, because serotonin (5-HT neurons are pivotal to respiratory and thermoregulatory circuits and depend on Phox2b for their differentiation, we studied 5-HT metabolism using high-pressure liquid chromatography, and found that it was altered in Phox2b+/- pups. We conclude that Phox2b haploinsufficiency alters the ability of newborns to cope with metabolic challenges, possibly due to 5-HT signaling impairments.

  18. CESAR: conventional ventilatory support vs extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure

    Mugford Miranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 350 adults develop severe, but potentially reversible respiratory failure in the UK annually. Current management uses intermittent positive pressure ventilation, but barotrauma, volutrauma and oxygen toxicity can prevent lung recovery. An alternative treatment, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, uses cardio-pulmonary bypass technology to temporarily provide gas exchange, allowing ventilator settings to be reduced. While extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is proven to result in improved outcome when compared to conventional ventilation in neonates with severe respiratory failure, there is currently no good evidence from randomised controlled trials to compare these managements for important clinical outcomes in adults, although evidence from case series is promising. Methods/Design The aim of the randomised controlled trial of Conventional ventilatory support vs extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure (CESAR is to assess whether, for patients with severe, but potentially reversible, respiratory failure, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation will increase the rate of survival without severe disability ('confined to bed' and 'unable to wash or dress' by six months post-randomisation, and be cost effective from the viewpoints of the NHS and society, compared to conventional ventilatory support. Following assent from a relative, adults (18–65 years with severe, but potentially reversible, respiratory failure (Murray score ≥ 3.0 or hypercapnea with pH Discussion Analysis will be based on intention to treat. A concurrent economic evaluation will also be performed to compare the costs and outcomes of both treatments.

  19. 28 CFR 100.19 - Adjustments to agreement estimate.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adjustments to agreement estimate. 100.19..., COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.19 Adjustments to agreement estimate. (a... the adjustment results in an increase in the estimated reimbursement, the FBI will review...

  20. Effect of Same-day Sequential Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone on Cardiac and Ventilatory Function in Mice

    This study examines the cardiac and ventilatory effects of sequential exposure to nitrogen dioxide and then ozone. The data show that mice exposed to both gases have increased arrhythmia and breathing changes not observed in the other groups. Although the mechanisms underlying ai...

  1. Rh protein expression in branchial neuroepithelial cells, and the role of ammonia in ventilatory control in fish.

    Zhang, Li; Michele Nawata, C; De Boeck, Gudrun; Wood, Chris M

    2015-08-01

    Bill Milsom has made seminal contributions to our understanding of ventilatory control in a wide range of vertebrates. Teleosts are particularly interesting, because they produce a 3rd, potentially toxic respiratory gas (ammonia) in large amounts. Fish are well known to hyperventilate under high environmental ammonia (HEA), but only recently has the potential role of ammonia in normal ventilatory control been investigated. It is now clear that ammonia can act directly as a ventilatory stimulant in trout, independent of its effects on acid-base balance. Even in ureotelic dogfish sharks, acute elevations in ammonia cause increases in ventilation. Peripherally, the detection of elevated ammonia resides in gill arches I and II in trout, and in vitro, neuroepithelial cells (NECs) from these arches are sensitive to ammonia, responding with elevations in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i). Centrally, hyperventilatory responses to ammonia correlate more closely with concentrations of ammonia in the brain than in plasma or CSF. After chronic HEA exposure, ventilatory responsiveness to ammonia is lost, associated with both an attenuation of the [Ca(2+)]i response in NECs, and the absence of elevation in brain ammonia concentration. Chronic exposure to HEA also causes increases in the mRNA expression of several Rh proteins (ammonia-conductive channels) in both brain and gills. "Single cell" PCR techniques have been used to isolate the individual responses of NECs versus other gill cell types. We suggest several circumstances (post-feeding, post-exercise) where the role of ammonia as a ventilatory stimulant may have adaptive benefits for O2 uptake in fish. PMID:25465530

  2. Running velocity at the ventilatory threshold and at VO2max, before and after the eight-week cardiovascular endurance training

    Stojiljković Stanimir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The purpose of this research was to compare changes in running velocity at ventilatory threshold with the veliocity at VO2max, before and after the eight-week exercise program. Material and methods 32 male subjects (age: 22.3± 2.5 years, height: 179.8± 7.6 cm, body mass: 76.8± 9.0 kg performed a progressive test for ventilatory threshold (VT measurement and VO2max on treadmill. After 8 weeks of endurance training (3 times per week, 30 to 70 min, in different zones in respect to the ventilatory threshold the performed the same test. Results Running velocity at ventilatory threshold increased significantly (p=0.000I, between initial and final measurements (10.88±2.09, 12.94± 1.90 km/h, respectively: as well as at VO2max H4.63±1.86, 16.44±1.59 km/h, respectively. At the initial test, velocity at ventilatory threshold was 74.11% of VO2max. At the final test, velocity at ventilatory threshold was 78.43% of VO2max. Running velocity at ventilatory threshold has significantly increased at final test (p=0.001. Discussion Running velocity at ventilatory threshold has significantly increased after eight weeks of endurance training (p -0.001, when expressed in absolute values and percentage of velocity at vo2max. Conclusion Comparison between the initial and final test demonstrated a significant increase of observed variables, under experimental conditions: at final test running velocity has increased at ventilatory threshold, in respect to absolute values and expressed as percentage at VO2max. .

  3. Differences in Ventilatory Threshold for Exercise Prescription in Outpatient Diabetic and Sarcopenic Obese Subjects

    Gian Pietro Emerenziani; Maria Chiara Gallotta; Silvia Migliaccio; Greco, Emanuela A.; Chiara Marocco; Luca di Lazzaro; Rachele Fornari; Andrea Lenzi; Carlo Baldari; Laura Guidetti

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine cardiorespiratory parameters at individual ventilatory threshold (IVT) and peak exercise capacity ( V ˙ O 2 p e a k ) in outpatient diabetic and sarcopenic obese subjects. Seventeen obese subjects (BMI: 36.6 ± 4.1 kg·m−1) and sixteen SO subjects (BMI: 37.0 ± 7.3 kg·m−1) were compared with sixteen T2DM subjects (BMI: 37.7 ± 5.6 kg·m−1). All groups performed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill according to their physical ability. V ˙ O 2 p e a k , %HRmax,...

  4. Signaling at the cell surface in the circulatory and ventilatory systems

    Thiriet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms when the vessel lumen caliber varies markedly. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning. Volume 3 is devoted to the set of mediators of the cell surface, especially ion and molecular carriers and catalytic receptors that, once liganded and activated, initiat...

  5. Evaluation of imaging of the ventilatory lung motion in pulmonary diseases

    Using perfusion lung scintigram with 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin at maximal expiration (E) and inspiration (I), images of the motion of the regional pulmonary areas and lung margins during ventilation ((E-I)/I) was obtained in patients with various respiratory diseases. The image of (E-I)/I consisted of positive and negative components. The former component visualized the motion of the regional pulmonary areas that corresponded with the ventilatory amplitude of the videodensigram. The sum of the positive component of (E-I)/I in both lungs correlated with the vital capacity (n = 50, r = 0.62). It was 163.5 ± 52.5 in cases with a vital capacity of more than 3.01, 94.1 ± 61.5 in primary lung cancer, 89.2 ± 44.7 in chronic obstructive lung diseases and 69.0 ± 27.5 in diffuse interstitial pneumonia. The distribution pattern of pulmonary perfusion and the positive component of (E-I)/I matched fairly in many cases, but did not match in some cases. The negative component of (E-I)/I demonstrated the ventilatory motion of the lung margin and its decreased activity was shown in cases with hypoventilation of various causes including pleural diseases. The sum of the negative component of (E-I)/I in the both lungs correlated with the vital capacity (n = 50, r = 0.44). These results suggest that this technique is useful to estimate the regional pulmonary ventilatioin and motion of the lung margins. (author)

  6. The effect of ozone inhalation on metabolic functioning of vascular endothelium and on ventilatory function

    The primary purpose of this research was to determine the effect of ozone inhalation on pulmonary vascular endothelium. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed to 0.5 or 0.7 ppm ozone, 20 hr/day for 7 days. Lungs were excised and perfused with Krebs medium containing [14C]serotonin or [14C]hippurylhistidylleucine (HHL). When compared to controls, the animals exposed to the lower ozone concentration showed no statistically significant changes in serotonin removal. In contrast, the higher ozone concentration resulted in a 32% decrease (p less than 0.0001) in serotonin removal, but had no effect on HHL. Rats similarly exposed to 0.7 ppm ozone but allowed to recover for 14 days in clean air showed no decrease in serotonin removal compared to their controls. Animals exposed sequentially to 0.5 ppm ozone for 7 days and then to 0.7 ppm for 7 days showed no alteration in serotonin metabolism, suggesting the development of tolerance initiated by the lower dose. After 7 days exposure to 0.7 ppm ozone, lung ventilatory function measurements revealed small though significant decreases in several parameters. Electron microscopic evaluation of lung capillary endothelium from animals exposed to the 0.7 ppm ozone showed no changes. Positive control animals exposed to greater than 95% oxygen, 20 hr/day for 2 days showed a 23% decrease in serotonin removal (p less than 0.03) and a 12% decrease in HHL removal (p less than 0.017). These studies indicate that inhalation of ozone can induce functional alterations in the lung endothelium, and that this effect occurs at a dosage of ozone that produces minimal ventilatory changes and no observable endothelial ultrastructural changes

  7. Ventilatory function assessment in safety pharmacology: Optimization of rodent studies using normocapnic or hypercapnic conditions

    Although the whole body plethysmography for unrestrained animals is the most widely used method to assess the respiratory risk of new drugs in safety pharmacology, non-appropriate experimental conditions may mask deleterious side effects of some substances. If stimulant or bronchodilatory effects can be easily evidenced in rodents under standard experimental conditions, i.e. normal air breathing and diurnal phase, drug-induced respiratory depression remains more difficult to detect. This study was aimed at comparing the responsiveness of Wistar rats, Duncan Hartley guinea-pigs or BALB/c mice to the respiratory properties of theophylline (50 or 100 mg/kg p.o.) or morphine (30 mg/kg i.p.) under varying conditions (100% air versus 5% CO2-enriched air, light versus dark day phase), in order to select the most appropriate experimental conditions to each species for safety airway investigations. Our results showed that under normocapnia the ventilatory depressant effects of morphine can be easily evidenced in mice, slightly observed in guinea-pigs and not detected in rats in any day phase. Slight hypercapnic conditions enhanced the responsiveness of rats to morphine but not that of guinea-pigs and importantly they did not blunt the airway responsiveness of rats to the stimulation and bronchodilation evoked by theophylline, the most widely used reference agent in safety pharmacology studies. In conclusion, hypercapnic conditions associated with the non-invasive whole body plethysmography should be considered for optimizing the assessment of both the ventilatory depressant potential of morphine-like substances or the respiratory stimulant effects of new drugs in the rat, the most extensively used species in rodent safety and toxicological investigations.

  8. Ventilatory support and pharmacological treatment of patients with central apnoea or hypoventilation during sleep

    D. Pevernagie

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of central sleep apnoea or hypoventilation encompasses hypercapnic central hypoventilation, such as obesity hypoventilation syndrome and eucapnic or hypocapnic central sleep apnoea. Among subjects with eucapnic or hypocapnic central sleep apnoea, several therapeutic options are available for those with Cheyne–Stokes respiration (CSR. CSR is frequent in patients with New York Heart Association stage III and IV chronic heart failure, and in various neurological disorders. In these patients, treatment modalities include optimising cardiac condition and drugs, such as theophylline, acetazolamide and/or oxygen. Ventilatory support, such as nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, bi-level pressure support, or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, has been shown to improve CSR in patients with cardiac failure; however, convincing evidence that nasal CPAP improves life expectancy in these patients is lacking. Nevertheless, the treatment of associated obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is indicated per se, as it may improve cardiac function. There is currently no proof that bi-level ventilation is superior to nasal CPAP. The few available studies that have focused on ASV have shown satisfactory control of CSR in cardiac failure patients. While ASV is not a first-line treatment choice, it appears to be superior to oxygen, CPAP and bi-level pressure ventilation in controlling the apnoea/hypopnea index and probably sleep fragmentation. As yet there are no data on mortality and, as such, firm conclusions cannot be drawn as to the role of ASV in the management of cardiac failure patients suffering from CSR. Obesity-related hypoventilation has increased dramatically over recent decades due to the epidemic increase in obesity in the developed countries. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome predisposes to the development of pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale. Noninvasive home ventilation is increasingly applied in obese patients with

  9. Immediate effect of suryanadi pranayama on pulmonary function (ventilatory volumes and capacities in healthy volunteers

    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: we found only effects of at least a short term practice extended over a period of a few days to weeks of pranayama (alternate nostril breathing rather than acute effects of unilateral right nostril breathing (suryanadi pranayama. Keeping this in mind the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that 10 min. of right nostril breathing have any immediate effect on ventilatory volumes and capacities in healthy volunteers. Methodology: Forced vital capacity (FVC, Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, Forced expiratory volume percent (FEV1/FVC%, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, Forced expiratory flow25-75% (FEF25-75%, Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV, Slow vital capacity (SVC, Expiratory reserve volume (ERV, Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV and Tidal volume (TV were recorded before and after Surya Nadi Pranayama. Results & Conclusion: There was a significant increase in FVC (p<0.0001, FEV1 (p<0.0007, PEFR (p<0.0001, FEF25-75% (p<0.0001, MVV (p<0.0001, SVC (p<0.0001, ERV (0.0006, IRV (p<0.0001 and TV (0.0055 after suryanadi pranayama. The immediate effect of suryanadi pranayama practice showed alleviation of ventilatory capacities and volumes. Any practice that increases PEFR and FEF25–75% is expected to retard the development of COPD’s. The increase in PEFR, vital capacities and flow rates by suryanadi pranayama practice obviously offers an increment in respiratory efficiency and it can be advocated to the patients of early bronchitis and as a preventive measure for COPD.

  10. Ventilatory steady state measurement of regional pulmonary function with 133Xe, 2

    The ventilatory steady state measurement with 133Xe, using a xenon lung function unit and a large area scintillation camera combined with a computer analysing technique has been employed to evaluate the regional pulmonary functions of 7 normal subjects and 6 patients with emphysema, chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, lung cancer and progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). Regional ventilation indices, perfusion indices and clearance half-times were calculated for each lung field divided into 24 zones. Comparing these data with clinical courses, routine pulmonary function data and X-ray findings, the measurement of regional pulmonary function with 133Xe showed to be very useful in clinical application. In the patient with emphysema, clearance half-times were markedly prolonged in all lung fields and ventilation indices balanced comparatively. In contrast to these findings, in chronic bronchitis, ventilation indices were reduced and clearance half-times were slightly prolonged in areas showing inflammation detected by bronchography. Regional ventilatory impairment was found in the patient with bronchial asthma in remission, however, indices in perfusion remained almost normal. In view of reproducibility, the clearance half-time seemed to be a better parameter than the ventilation index by the single breath method for the estimation of regional ventilation. Comparing such parameters in a patient with lung cancer before and after treatment by 60Co irradiation, the blood flow was restored remarkably even in impaired lung fields. As clearance half times were prolonged and perfusion indices were reduced in limited lower lung zones of the patient with PSS, it was considered that interstitial fibrosis and local emphysematous changes have been progressive in these regions. (auth.)

  11. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... adjustment and depression Adjustment to paralysis is a process of changing one's thoughts and feelings and is ... stem cell research? What is the clinical trials process? Get support Ask us anything Get a peer ...

  12. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... depression and adjustment to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ ... following an SCI? What are the secondary conditions? I have no health insurance, what are my options? ...

  13. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  14. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... course an adjustment period as you navigate your new normal. The most important point to remember is ... to rebuild one's identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can ...

  15. Prevalence of Spirometrically-defined Restrictive Ventilatory Defect in Korea: The Fourth-2, 3, and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2012

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Hwang, Yong Il; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Ki Uk; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Yoon, Ho Il; Sheen, Sueng Su; Lee, Sang Yeub; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Heung Bum; Lim, Sung Chul; Jung, Sung Soo; Oh, Kyungwon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of restrictive ventilatory defect and to determine the risk factors in subjects with spirometrically-defined restrictive ventilatory defect. We used the population-based, fourth-2, 3 (2008, 2009) and fifth (2010-2012) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to analyze 15,073 subjects, aged ≥40 yr who underwent spirometry. Chest radiographs were also analyzed to identify restrictive lung disease. Spirometrically-defin...

  16. The effect of combined glutamate receptor blockade in the NTS on the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats differs from the effect of individual glutamate receptor blockade

    Pamenter, Matthew E.; Nguyen, Jetson; Carr, John A.; Powell, Frank L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and causes persistent hyperventilation when normoxia is restored, which is consistent with the occurrence of synaptic plasticity in acclimatized animals. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonism of individual glutamate receptor types (GluRs) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) modifies this plasticity and VAH (J. Physiol. 592(8):1839–1856); however, the effects of combined GluR antag...

  17. Pulmonary compliance and lung volume varies with ecomorphology in anuran amphibians: implications for ventilatory-assisted lymph flux.

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2011-10-01

    Vertical movement of lymph from ventral regions to the dorsally located lymph hearts in anurans is accomplished by specialized skeletal muscles working in concert with lung ventilation. We hypothesize that more terrestrial species with greater lymph mobilization capacities and higher lymph flux rates will have larger lung volumes and higher pulmonary compliance than more semi-aquatic or aquatic species. We measured in situ mean and maximal compliance (Δvolume/Δpressure), distensibility (%Δvolume/Δpressure) and lung volume over a range of physiological pressures (1.0 to 4.0 cmH(2)O) for nine species of anurans representing three families (Bufonide, Ranidae and Pipidae) that span a range of body masses and habitats from terrestrial to aquatic. We further examined the relationship between these pulmonary variables and lymph flux for a semi-terrestrial bufonid (Rhinella marina), a semi-aquatic ranid (Lithobates catesbeianus) and an aquatic pipid (Xenopus laevis). Allometric scaling of pulmonary compliance and lung volume with body mass showed significant differences at the family level, with scaling exponents ranging from ∼0.75 in Bufonidae to ∼1.3 in Pipidae. Consistent with our hypothesis, the terrestrial Bufonidae species had significantly greater pulmonary compliance and greater lung volumes compared with semi-aquatic Ranidae and aquatic Pipidae species. Pulmonary distensibility ranged from ∼20 to 35% cmH(2)O(-1) for the three families but did not correlate with ecomorphology. For the three species for which lymph flux data are available, R. marina had a significantly higher (P<0.001) maximal compliance (84.9±2.7 ml cmH(2)O(-1) kg(-1)) and lung volume (242.1±5.5 ml kg(-1)) compared with L. catesbeianus (54.5±0.12 ml cmH(2)O(-1) kg(-1) and 139.3±0.5 ml kg(-1)) and X. laevis (30.8±0.7 ml cmH(2)O(-1) kg(-1) and 61.3±2.5 ml kg(-1)). Lymph flux rates were also highest for R. marina, lowest for X. laevis and intermediate in L. catesbeianus. Thus, there is a strong correlation between pulmonary compliance, lung volume and lymph flux rates, which suggests that lymph mobilization capacity may explain some of the variation in pulmonary compliance and lung volume in anurans. PMID:21900475

  18. Description of Peripheral Muscle Strength Measurement and Correlates of Muscle Weakness in Patients Receiving Prolonged Mechanical Ventilatory Support

    Chlan, Linda L.; Tracy, Mary Fran; Guttormson, Jill; Savik, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive Care Unit Acquired Weakness (ICUAW) is a frequent complication of critical illness due to immobility and prolonged mechanical ventilatory support. Objectives To describe daily peripheral muscle strength measurement in ventilated patients and explore relationships among factors that influence ICUAW. Methods Peripheral muscle strength of 120 ventilated ICU patients (mean age 59.8 ± 15.1; 51% female; APACHE III 61.3 ± 20.7; ICU stay 10.6 ± 8.6 days) was measured daily using a standardized hand grip dynamometry protocol. Three grip measurements for each hand were recorded in pounds-force; the mean of these three assessments was used in the analysis. Correlates of ICUAW were analyzed with mixed models to explore their relationship to grip strength (age, gender, illness severity, length of ventilatory support, medications). Results Median baseline grip strength was variable yet diminished (7.7; 0-102) with either a pattern of diminishing grip strength or maintenance of the baseline low grip strength over time. Controlling for days on protocol, female gender [β = −10.4(2.5); p = <.001], age [= −.24(.08); p = .004], and days receiving ventilatory support [= −.34(.12); p = .005] explained a significant amount of variance in grip strength over time. Conclusions Patients receiving prolonged periods of mechanical ventilatory support in this sample show marked decrements in grip strength measured by hand dynamometry, a marker for peripheral muscle strength. Hand dynamometry is a reliable method to measure muscle strength in cooperative ICU patients and can be used in future research to ultimately develop interventions to prevent ICUAW. PMID:26523017

  19. Effect of cigarette smoking on evolution of ventilatory lung function in young adults: an eight year longitudinal study.

    Jaakkola, M S; Ernst, P.; Jaakkola, J J; N'gan'ga, L W; Becklake, M R

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few data on the quantitative effects of cigarette smoking on lung function in young adults. These effects are important in the understanding of the early stages of chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: A longitudinal study over eight years was carried out to estimate quantitatively the effect of cigarette smoking on ventilatory lung function in young adults and to examine the possibility that the effect is modified by other factors. The study population were 15 to 40 yea...

  20. The breathing pattern and the ventilatory response to aquatic and aerial hypoxia and hypercarbia in the frog Pipa carvalhoi.

    Fonseca, Elisa M; da Silva, Glauber S F; Fernandes, Marcelo; Giusti, Humberto; Noronha-de-Souza, Carolina R; Glass, Mogens L; Bícego, Kênia C; Gargaglioni, Luciane H

    2012-07-01

    Anuran amphibians are known to exhibit an intermittent pattern of pulmonary ventilation and to exhibit an increased ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercarbia. However, only a few species have been studied to date. The aquatic frog Pipa carvalhoi inhabits lakes, ponds and marshes that are rich in nutrients but low in O(2). There are no studies of the respiratory pattern of this species and its ventilation during hypoxia or hypercarbia. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to characterize the breathing pattern and the ventilatory response to aquatic and aerial hypoxia and hypercarbia in this species. With this purpose, pulmonary ventilation (V(I)) was directly measured by the pneumotachograph method during normocapnic normoxia to determine the basal respiratory pattern and during aerial and aquatic hypercarbia (5% CO(2)) and hypoxia (5% O(2)). Our data demonstrate that P. carvalhoi exhibits a periodic breathing pattern composed of single events (single breaths) of pulmonary ventilation separated by periods of apnea. The animals had an enhanced V(I) during aerial hypoxia, but not during aquatic hypoxia. This increase was strictly the result of an increase in the breathing frequency. A pronounced increase in V(I) was observed if the animals were simultaneously exposed to aerial and aquatic hypercarbia, whereas small or no ventilatory responses were observed during separately administered aerial or aquatic hypercarbia. P. carvalhoi primarily inhabits an aquatic environment. Nevertheless, it does not respond to low O(2) levels in water, although it does so in air. The observed ventilatory responses to hypercarbia may indicate that this species is similar to other anurans in possessing central chemoreceptors. PMID:22503869

  1. Ventilatory response to moderate incremental exercise performed 24 h after resistance exercise with concentric and eccentric contractions

    Yunoki, Takahiro; Arimitsu, Takuma; Yamanaka, Ryo; Lian, Chang-Shun; Afroundeh, Roghhayye; Matsuura, Ryouta; Yano, Tokuo

    2011-01-01

    In order to test our hypothesis that muscle condition has an effect on the cognition of self-motion and consequently on the ventilatory response during exercise, six healthy subjects performed a moderate incremental exercise test (IET) on a cycle ergometer under two conditions [resistance exercise condition (REC) and control condition (CC)]. In the REC, resistance exercise (30 incline leg presses) was conducted during two sessions scheduled at 48 and then 24 h prior to the IET. For the CC, th...

  2. Formation and maintenance of ventilatory long-term facilitation require NMDA but not non-NMDA receptors in awake rats

    McGuire, Michelle; Liu, Chun; Cao, Ying; Ling, Liming

    2008-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism in the phrenic motonucleus area eliminates phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF; a persistent augmentation of phrenic nerve activity after episodic hypoxia) in anesthetized rats. However, whether NMDA antagonism can eliminate ventilatory LTF (vLTF) in awake rats is unclear. The role of non-NMDA receptors in LTF is also unknown. Serotonin receptor antagonism before, but not after, episodic hypoxia eliminates pLTF, suggesting that serotonin recept...

  3. Impact of training at ventilatory threshold on cardiopulmonary and functional capacity in overweight patients with chronic kidney disease

    Danilo Takashi Aoike; Flavia Baria; Mariana Leister Rocha; Maria Ayako Kamimura; Marco Túlio de Mello; Sergio Tufik; Adriano Ammirati; Lilian Cuppari

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and obesity are both associated with reduced physical capacity. The potential benefit of aerobic training on physical capacity has been recognized. The exercise intensity can be established using different methods mostly subjective or indirect. Ventilatory threshold (VT) is a direct and objective method that allows prescribing exercise intensity according to individual capacity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of aerobic training at VT intensity o...

  4. Ventilatory requirements of quadriceps resistance training in people with COPD and healthy controls

    Houchen-Wolloff L

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Linzy Houchen-Wolloff,1 Carolyn J Sandland,1 Samantha L Harrison,1 Manoj K Menon,1 Mike D Morgan,1 Michael C Steiner,1 Sally J Singh1,21Centre for Exercise and Rehabilitation Science, Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, UK; 2Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, UKBackground: It is proposed that resistance training (RT does not activate the cardiopulmonary system to the same extent as whole-body exercise. This is important for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who are ventilatory limited.Objective: The aim was to assess the ventilatory response to an isokinetic quadriceps RT program in people with COPD and healthy controls.Design: Observational.Registration number: ISRCTN22764439.Setting: Outpatient, university teaching hospital.Participants and outcome measures: People with COPD (n=14 and healthy controls (n=11 underwent breath-by-breath analysis of their ventilation during an RT session (five sets of 30 maximal knee extensions at 180°/sec. Subjects performed a maximal cycle ergometry test (CET at baseline. Peak ventilation (VE; L/min and oxygen consumption (VO2; mL/kg/min were collected. The same system measured VO2 and VE during the RT session. Parameters are presented as a percentage of the maximal CET. Isokinetic workload, symptom scores, heart rate (HR, and oxygen saturation were documented post-training.Results: People with COPD worked at higher percentages of their maximal capacity than controls (mean range between sets 1–5 for VO2 =49.1%–60.1% [COPD], 45.7%–51.43% [controls] and for VE =57.6%–72.2% [COPD], 49.8%–63.6% [controls], although this was not statistically significant (P>0.1 in all cases. In absolute terms, the difference between groups was only significant for actual VO2 on set 2 (P<0.05. Controls performed more isokinetic work than patients with COPD (P<0.05. Median Borg symptom scores after RT were the same in both groups (3

  5. Does Amifostine Reduce Metabolic Rate? Effect of the Drug on Gas Exchange and Acute Ventilatory Hypoxic Response in Humans

    Jaideep J. Pandit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange over 255 min in 6 healthy subjects, at two doses (500 mg and 1000 mg of amifostine infused over 15 min at the start of the protocol. We also assessed the ventilatory response to six 1 min exposures to isocapnic hypoxia mid-protocol. There was no change in metabolic rate with amifostine as measured by oxygen uptake (p = 0.113. However in carbon dioxide output and respiratory quotient, we detected a small decline over time in control and drug protocols, consistent with a gradual change from carbohydrate to fat metabolism over the course of the relatively long study protocol. A novel result was that amifostine (1000 mg increased the mean ± SD acute hypoxic ventilatory response from 12.4 ± 5.1 L/min to 20.3 ± 11.9 L/min (p = 0.045. In conclusion, any cellular protective effects of amifostine are unlikely due to metabolic effects. The stimulatory effect on hypoxic ventilatory responses may be due to increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor, either peripherally in the carotid body, or centrally in the brain.

  6. Does amifostine reduce metabolic rate? Effect of the drug on gas exchange and acute ventilatory hypoxic response in humans.

    Pandit, Jaideep J; Allen, Caroline; Little, Evelyn; Formenti, Federico; Harris, Adrian L; Robbins, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange) over 255 min in 6 healthy subjects, at two doses (500 mg and 1000 mg) of amifostine infused over 15 min at the start of the protocol. We also assessed the ventilatory response to six 1 min exposures to isocapnic hypoxia mid-protocol. There was no change in metabolic rate with amifostine as measured by oxygen uptake (p = 0.113). However in carbon dioxide output and respiratory quotient, we detected a small decline over time in control and drug protocols, consistent with a gradual change from carbohydrate to fat metabolism over the course of the relatively long study protocol. A novel result was that amifostine (1000 mg) increased the mean ± SD acute hypoxic ventilatory response from 12.4 ± 5.1 L/min to 20.3 ± 11.9 L/min (p = 0.045). In conclusion, any cellular protective effects of amifostine are unlikely due to metabolic effects. The stimulatory effect on hypoxic ventilatory responses may be due to increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor, either peripherally in the carotid body, or centrally in the brain. PMID:25894815

  7. Acute effects of different inspiratory efforts on ventilatory pattern and chest wall compartmental distribution in elderly women.

    Muniz de Souza, Helga; Rocha, Taciano; Campos, Shirley Lima; Brandão, Daniella Cunha; Fink, James B; Aliverti, Andrea; de Andrade, Armele Dornelas

    2016-06-15

    It is not completely described how aging affect ventilatory kinematics and what are the mechanisms adopted by the elderly population to overcome these structural modifications. Given this, the aim was to evaluate the acute effects of different inspiratory efforts on ventilatory pattern and chest wall compartmental distribution in elderly women. Variables assessed included: tidal volume (Vt), total chest wall volume (Vcw), pulmonary rib cage (Vrcp%), abdominal rib cage (Vrca%) and abdominal compartment (Vab%) relative contributions to tidal volume. These variables were assessed during quiet breathing, maximal inspiratory pressure maneuver (MIP), and moderate inspiratory resistance (MIR; i.e., 40% of MIP). 22 young women (age: 23.9±2.5 years) and 22 elderly women (age: 68.2±5.0 years) participated to this study. It was possible to show that during quiet breathing, Vab% was predominant in elderly (p<0.001), in young, however, Vab% was similar to Vrcp% (p=0.095). During MIR, Vrcp% was predominant in young (p<0.001) and comparable to Vab% in elderly (p=0.249). When MIP was imposed, both groups presented a predominance of Vrcp%. In conclusion, there are differences in abdominal kinematics between young and elderly women during different inspiratory efforts. In elderly, during moderate inspiratory resistance, the pattern is beneficial, deep, and slow. Although, during maximal inspiratory resistance, the ventilatory pattern seems to predict imminent muscle fatigue. PMID:26900004

  8. Ventilatory response to moderate incremental exercise performed 24 h after resistance exercise with concentric and eccentric contractions.

    Yunoki, Takahiro; Arimitsu, Takuma; Yamanaka, Ryo; Lian, Chang-Shun; Afroundeh, Roghhayye; Matsuura, Ryouta; Yano, Tokuo

    2011-08-01

    In order to test our hypothesis that muscle condition has an effect on the cognition of self-motion and consequently on the ventilatory response during exercise, six healthy subjects performed a moderate incremental exercise test (IET) on a cycle ergometer under two conditions [resistance exercise condition (REC) and control condition (CC)]. In the REC, resistance exercise (30 incline leg presses) was conducted during two sessions scheduled at 48 and then 24 h prior to the IET. For the CC, the subjects were instructed to refrain from participating in strenuous exercise for a period of 2 days prior to the IET. In the IET, the workload was increased from 78 to 118 watts in steps of 8 watts every 3 min. Although the ventilatory response during the IET was significantly higher in the REC than in the CC, there were no significant differences in cognitive indexes (RPE and awareness of change in workload) between the two conditions. In addition, the magnitude of muscle soreness was significantly higher in the REC than in the CC. However, the level of soreness in the REC was very low, and there were no significant differences in blood lactate concentration and integrated EMG between the two conditions. These results suggest that a change in peripheral neural reflex is the primary cause of increased ventilatory response to moderate exercise after resistance exercise, although the role of a cognitive element cannot be absolutely excluded. PMID:21221990

  9. The ventilatory responses of conscious dogs to isocapnic oxygen tests. a method of exploring the central component of respiratory drive and its dependence on O2 and CO2.

    Ungar, A; Bouverot, P

    1980-02-01

    Conscious unrestrained dogs trained to breathe through a respiratory mask or, after chronic tracheostomy, through a cuffed endotracheal tube were studied in an altitude chamber operated in such a way that end-tidal PO2 was maintained at 100, 75 or 60 Torr. Each hypoxic experiment was completed within 1 h of the onset of hypoxia. At all levels of oxygenation, resting pulmonary ventilation (V), obtained from the tidal volume (VT) and ventilatory period (T), and alveolar gas tensions (PAO2, PACO2) were measured cycle-by-cycle before and during isocapnic O2-tests (IOT) at various steady levels of alveolar PCO2 ranging from 30 to 48 Torr. For this, PCO2 in the inspired gas before and during IOT was adjusted so that PACO2 remained unchanged in the course of the first few breaths which followed the switch to hyperoxia. In analysing the transient changes of V in the course IOT, it was considered that an apnoea occurred when there was no measurable deflection on the integrated pneumotachogram past a duration twice the control T from the beginning of the last recorded ventilatory cycle. (1) Control V vs. PACO2 relationships showed classic positive interaction between hypercapnia and hypoxia; (2) during IOT at PAO2 of 100, 75 or 60 Torr, an apnoea occurred, V invariably falling to zero, provided that PACO2 was below 38-35 Torr according to the level of oxygenation; (3) above that threshold PACO2 value, the residual minimum ventilation (Vres) observed during IOT was linearly related to PACO2; (4) Vres vs. PACO2 relationships showed negative interaction between hypercapnia and hypoxia. It is concluded that (a) through isocapnic O2-tests, both the peripheral and central components of the ventilatory drive can be quantitatively estimated; (b) in conscious dogs, the pulmonary ventilation appears to be entirely driven by afferent activity from the arterial chemoreceptors, even in eucapnic normoxia; (c) the lower minimum ventilation seen in the course of O2-tests from a hypoxic

  10. Repatriation Adjustment: Literature Review

    Gamze Arman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Expatriation is a widely studied area of research in work and organizational psychology. After expatriates accomplish their missions in host countries, they return to their countries and this process is called repatriation. Adjustment constitutes a crucial part in repatriation research. In the present literature review, research about repatriation adjustment was reviewed with the aim of defining the whole picture in this phenomenon. Present research was classified on the basis of a theoretical model of repatriation adjustment. Basic frame consisted of antecedents, adjustment, outcomes as main variables and personal characteristics/coping strategies and organizational strategies as moderating variables.

  11. Theory of adaptive adjustment

    Weihong Huang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional adaptive expectation as a mechanism of stabilizing an unstable economic process is reexamined through a generalization to an adaptive adjustment framework. The generic structures of equilibria that can be stabilized through an adaptive adjustment mechanism are identified. The generalization can be applied to a broad class of discrete economic processes where the variables interested can be adjusted or controlled directly by economic agents such as in cobweb dynamics, Cournot games, Oligopoly markets, tatonnement price adjustment, tariff games, population control through immigration etc.

  12. Influence of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on ventilatory thresholds related to endurance performance.

    Pasqua, Leonardo A; Bueno, Salomão; Artioli, Guilherme G; Lancha, Antônio H; Matsuda, Monique; Marquezini, Mônica V; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Bertuzzi, Rômulo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the association between ACTN3 polymorphism and physiological parameters related to endurance performance. A total of 150 healthy male volunteers performed a maximal incremental running test to determine the speeds corresponding to ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Participants were genotyped and divided into terciles based on the analysed variables. Genotype frequencies were compared through χ(2) test between lower and higher terciles, with the lowest or highest values of each analysed variable. ACTN3 XX genotype was over-represented in higher tercile for VT and RCP. Odds ratio also showed significantly higher chances of XX individuals to be in higher tercile compared to RR (7.3) and RR + RX (3.5) for VT and compared to RR genotype (8.1) and RR + RX (3.4) for RCP. Thus, XX individuals could attain the VT and RCP at higher speeds, suggesting that they are able to sustain higher running speeds in lower exercise intensity domains. It could result in higher lipid acids oxidation, saving muscle glycogen and delaying the fatigue during prolonged exercises, which could be the advantage mechanism of this genotype to endurance performance. PMID:25939605

  13. Morphology and ventilatory function of gills in the carpet shark family Parascylliidae (Elasmobranchii, Orectolobiformes).

    Goto, Tomoaki; Shiba, Yojiro; Shibagaki, Kazuhiro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2013-06-01

    We examined gill morphology and ventilatory function in the carpet shark family Parascylliidae using 14 preserved specimens of Parascyllium ferrugineum, P. variolatum, P. collare and Cirrhoscyllium japonicum, and two live specimens of P. ferrugineum and P. variolatum. Morphological examinations revealed eight morphological characteristics related to the fifth gill, based on comparisons with other elasmobranchs, viz. large fifth gill slit without gill filaments, anatomical modifications in the fourth ceratobranchial cartilage and coraco-branchialis muscle, and the hypaxialis muscle associated with the fifth gill arch. Ventilation examinations using dyed seawater and prey items showed different water flows through the gill slits for respiration and prey-capture actions. For respiration, water sucked into the mouth was expelled equally through the first to fourth gill slits via a "double-pump" action, there being no involvement of the fifth gill slit. In prey-capture, however, water sucked into the mouth was discharged only via the widely opened fifth gill slit. This form of water flow is similar to that in other benthic suction-feeding sharks (e.g., Chiloscyllium plagiosum), except for the active water discharge by wide expansion and contraction of the fifth parabranchial cavity. The latter is dependent upon the morphological modifications of the fourth and fifth gill arches, derived phylogenetically as a mechanistic suction specialization in Parascylliidae. PMID:23721470

  14. Preliminary investigation into the ventilatory effects of midazolam in isoflurane-anaesthetised goats

    George F. Stegmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ventilatory effects of intravenous midazolam (MDZ were evaluated in isoflurane- anaesthetised goats. Eight female goats aged 2–3 years were fasted from food and water for 12 h. Anaesthesia was then induced using a face mask with isoflurane in oxygen, whilst the trachea was intubated with a cuffed tracheal tube and anaesthesia maintained with isoflurane at 1.5% end-tidal concentration. Ventilation was spontaneous. The goats were treated with either a saline placebo (PLC or MDZ intravenously at 0.2 mg/kg. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used for the analysis of data. Significance was taken at the 0.05 level. Differences between treatments were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for tidal volume, ventilation rate, tidal volume/kg (VT/kg and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure. Within treatments, VT and VT/kg differed 5 min after MDZ administration; this was statistically significant (p < 0.05. The occurrence of apnoea in the MDZ-treated goats was statistically significant (p = 0.04 compared with the PLC treated goats. Intravenous MDZ at 0.2 mg/kg administered to isoflurane-anaesthetised goats may result in transient apnoea and a mild decrease in VT and VT/kg.

  15. Associations between housing conditions, smoking habits and ventilatory lung function in men with clean jobs.

    Rasmussen, F V; Borchsenius, L; Winsløw, J B; Ostergaard, E R

    1978-10-01

    In 218 men, who had minimal occupational exposure to dusts, fumes, temperature variability, or physical exercise, the relation between housing conditions throughout life and lung function was analysed. The number of years spend in dwellings without central heating was significantly inversely associated with the level of FEV1 and MMEF, and significantly directly associated with closing capacity in per cent of TLC, CC%. Significant dose-response relationships between smoking habits and FEV1, MMEF, CC% and slope of the alveolar plateau (phase III) were found, whereas closing volume, CV%, was only correlated to age. The association between dwelling conditions and ventilatory capacity was independent of smoking habits. Tobacco smoking, however, moderated the association in as much as it was strengthened after standardisation for tobacco consumption. These data support the hypothesis that poor dwelling conditions during childhood and adolescence are associated with development of peripheral airways disease and expiratory airflow obstruction at middle age, and that comparisons of lung function between different occupational categories are incomplete and may be misleading if lifelong housing conditions or other factors reflecting socio-economic status are not taken into consideration. PMID:734386

  16. Differences in the effect of mediastinal radiotherapy on lung function and the ventilatory response to exercise

    A study was performed in patients having Hodgkin's disease, with no evidence of intrathoracic involvement, who received prophylactic mantle-field radiotherapy to the chest. X-irradiation of the chest caused a fall in vital capacity, total lung capacity and total carbon monoxide transfer. Coincident with this there was both a significant increase in ventilation and a change in the pattern of breathing during exercise. Stimulation of breathing was greatest in patients with minimal reduction in lung volumes and carbon monoxide transfer and least in those with the most loss of volume. It is postulated that lung damage both stimulated breathing, probably by a vagal reflex, and increased inspiratory work by reducing lung volumes and compliance. The change in ventilation would have been a balance between increased drive to the respiratory muscles and increased work necessary for ventilation. This would explain why, in the period after six months when healing by fibrosis occurs, ventilatory response to exercise returned to baseline, while lung volumes fell still further. (U.K.)

  17. Postoperative ventilatory and circulatory effects of heating after aortocoronary bypass surgery. Postoperative external heat supply.

    Joachimsson, P O; Nyström, S O; Tydén, H

    1987-08-01

    The effects of postoperative external heat supply on shivering, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, ventilatory requirements and haemodynamic variables were studied postoperatively after aortocoronary bypass surgery in 24 men with stable angina pectoris. After hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) at 25 degrees C, the patients were rewarmed to a nasopharyngeal temperature of at least 38 degrees C, resulting in a rectal temperature of about 34 degrees C before termination of CPB. Twelve patients, forming the control group, were given no other external heat supply. In another group (n = 12), the "radiant heat supply group", additional external heat was provided postoperatively, the main source of which was a thermal ceiling supplemented with heated, humidified respiratory gases. In this latter group the postoperative rewarming was accomplished earlier and was converted into a mainly passive process. Shivering, oxygen uptake, CO2 production and ventilation volumes were significantly reduced compared with the control group. Cardiac index and stroke index were higher and systemic oxygen extraction was lower in the radiant heat supply group. Postoperative hypertension and vasoconstriction were greatly decreased, suggesting that residual hypothermia is an important cause of the postoperative vasoconstriction. PMID:3115049

  18. Chronic intermittent hypoxia alters ventilatory and metabolic responses to acute hypoxia in rats.

    Morgan, Barbara J; Adrian, Russell; Wang, Zun-Yi; Bates, Melissa L; Dopp, John M

    2016-05-15

    We determined the effects of chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on chemoreflex control of ventilation in conscious animals. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIH [nadir oxygen saturation (SpO2), 75%; 15 events/h; 10 h/day] or normoxia (NORM) for 21 days. We assessed the following responses to acute, graded hypoxia before and after exposures: ventilation (V̇e, via barometric plethysmography), V̇o2 and V̇co2 (analysis of expired air), heart rate (HR), and SpO2 (pulse oximetry via neck collar). We quantified hypoxia-induced chemoreceptor sensitivity by calculating the stimulus-response relationship between SpO2 and the ventilatory equivalent for V̇co2 (linear regression). An additional aim was to determine whether CIH causes proliferation of carotid body glomus cells (using bromodeoxyuridine). CIH exposure increased the slope of the V̇e/V̇co2/SpO2 relationship and caused hyperventilation in normoxia. Bromodeoxyuridine staining was comparable in CIH and NORM. Thus our CIH paradigm augmented hypoxic chemosensitivity without causing glomus cell proliferation. PMID:26917692

  19. Differences in Ventilatory Threshold for Exercise Prescription in Outpatient Diabetic and Sarcopenic Obese Subjects.

    Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Migliaccio, Silvia; Greco, Emanuela A; Marocco, Chiara; di Lazzaro, Luca; Fornari, Rachele; Lenzi, Andrea; Baldari, Carlo; Guidetti, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine cardiorespiratory parameters at individual ventilatory threshold (IVT) and peak exercise capacity ([Formula: see text]) in outpatient diabetic and sarcopenic obese subjects. Seventeen obese subjects (BMI: 36.6 ± 4.1 kg·m(-1)) and sixteen SO subjects (BMI: 37.0 ± 7.3 kg·m(-1)) were compared with sixteen T2DM subjects (BMI: 37.7 ± 5.6 kg·m(-1)). All groups performed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill according to their physical ability. [Formula: see text], %HRmax, and maximal metabolic equivalent (METmax) were evaluated at maximal effort. Moreover, [Formula: see text], %[Formula: see text], %HRmax, %HRR, ΔHR, and METivt were assessed at IVT. No significant differences were found in any physiological parameters at maximal effort ([Formula: see text], %HRmax, and METmax) in all groups. On the contrary, [Formula: see text], %[Formula: see text], %HRmax, %HRR, ΔHR, and METivt were significantly lower in T2DM subjects as compared to OB and SO subjects at IVT (p exercise in obese with sarcopenia or diabetes mellitus conditions. PMID:26884760

  20. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...

  1. Idiopathic scoliosis. Mechanical properties of the respiratory system and the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide.

    Kafer, E R

    1975-06-01

    The aims were to examine the effects of scoliosis (angle), and age on lung volumes, elastic properties of the respiratory system, and the ventilatory response to CO2. The mean age of the 55 patients was 25.4 plus or minus SEM 2.5 yr, and the mean angle was 80 plus or minus SEM 4.2. The mean plus or minus SEM percent predicted lung volumes were vital capacity (VC), 60.5 plus or minus 2.7; total lung capacity (TLC), 70,2 plus or minus 2.6; functional residual capacity (frc), 79.3 plus or minus 3.2; and residual volume (RV), 99.7 plus or minus 5.2. The correlation coefficients between the angle of scoliosis and each of the following were significant: TLC (-0.548), percent predicted TLC (-0.547), VC (-0.485), percent predicted VC (-0.523), FRC (-0.533), percent predicted FRC (-0.338), RV (-0.438), and percent predicted RV (-0.318). The mean compliance of the total respiratory system (Crs) was 0.049 litter/cm H2O plus or minus SEM 0.004, and the mean compliance of the chest wall (Ccw) was 0.080 liter/cm H2O plus or minus SEM 0.012. The Crs and Ccw were inversely proportional to the angle (r-0.620 and -0.721) and directly proportional to the height and the weight. The mean deltaV/deltaPco2 was 1.32 liter/min per mm Hg (SEM 0.171), and the mean deltaVt/deltaPco2 was 28.9 ml/mm Hg (SEM 3.64). The correlation coefficients between deltaV/deltaPco2 and the following were height, 0.499; VC, 0.792; TLC, 0.632; AND Crs, 0.520; and between the deltaTt/deltaPco2 and the following were height, 0.500; VC, 0.878; TLC, 0.802; and Crs, 0.590. We conclude that body size and the deformity were the determinants of the lung volumes and the mechanical properties of the respiratory system, and that these variables were the major factors in both the magnitude and pattern of the ventilatory response to CO2. The correlations between age and the mechanical properties of the respiratory sytem, deltaV/deltaPco2, and deltaVt/deltaPco2, were not significant, but the correlation coefficients between

  2. Study of the ventilatory lung motion imaging in primary lung cancer

    Using perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99m macroaggregated alubumin at maximal inspiration (I) and expiration (E), images of the ventilatory lung motion, which was calculated and delineated by an expression as (E-I)/I, were obtained in 84 cases with primary lung cancer, and its clinical significance in the diagnosis of primary lung cancer was studied. The image of (E-I)/I consisted of positive and negative components. The former visualized the motion of the regional intrapulmonary areas and the latter showed the motion of the lung border. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in the lung with the primary lesion which was lower than that in the contralateral lung, was significantly low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion and TNM classification of T3+T4. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in both lungs and vital capacity was relatively low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion, TNM classification of T3+T4 and M1. The distribution pattern of pulmonary perfusion and positive (E-I)/I was fairly matched in 48 cases, but mismatch was observed in 36 cases. In the image of negative (E-I)/I, decreased motion of the lung border including the diaphragm was shown in cases with pleural adhesion and thickening, pleural effusion, phrenic nerve palsy and other conditions with hypoventilation. This technique seems to be useful for the estimation of regional pulmonary function of pulmonary perfusion and lung motion, the extent and pathophysiology of primary lung cancer. (author)

  3. Study of the ventilatory lung motion imaging in primary lung cancer

    Fujii, Tadashige [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Shool of Allied Medical Sciences; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yosikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Morie

    1996-12-01

    Using perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99m macroaggregated alubumin at maximal inspiration (I) and expiration (E), images of the ventilatory lung motion, which was calculated and delineated by an expression as (E-I)/I, were obtained in 84 cases with primary lung cancer, and its clinical significance in the diagnosis of primary lung cancer was studied. The image of (E-I)/I consisted of positive and negative components. The former visualized the motion of the regional intrapulmonary areas and the latter showed the motion of the lung border. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in the lung with the primary lesion which was lower than that in the contralateral lung, was significantly low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion and TNM classification of T3+T4. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in both lungs and vital capacity was relatively low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion, TNM classification of T3+T4 and M1. The distribution pattern of pulmonary perfusion and positive (E-I)/I was fairly matched in 48 cases, but mismatch was observed in 36 cases. In the image of negative (E-I)/I, decreased motion of the lung border including the diaphragm was shown in cases with pleural adhesion and thickening, pleural effusion, phrenic nerve palsy and other conditions with hypoventilation. This technique seems to be useful for the estimation of regional pulmonary function of pulmonary perfusion and lung motion, the extent and pathophysiology of primary lung cancer. (author)

  4. The Effects of a Duathlon Simulation on Ventilatory Threshold and Running Economy

    Nathaniel T. Berry, Laurie Wideman, Edgar W. Shields, Claudio L. Battaglini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multisport events continue to grow in popularity among recreational, amateur, and professional athletes around the world. This study aimed to determine the compounding effects of the initial run and cycling legs of an International Triathlon Union (ITU Duathlon simulation on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, ventilatory threshold (VT and running economy (RE within a thermoneutral, laboratory controlled setting. Seven highly trained multisport athletes completed three trials; Trial-1 consisted of a speed only VO2max treadmill protocol (SOVO2max to determine VO2max, VT, and RE during a single-bout run; Trial-2 consisted of a 10 km run at 98% of VT followed by an incremental VO2max test on the cycle ergometer; Trial-3 consisted of a 10 km run and 30 km cycling bout at 98% of VT followed by a speed only treadmill test to determine the compounding effects of the initial legs of a duathlon on VO2max, VT, and RE. A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to determine differences between variables across trials. No difference in VO2max, VT (%VO2max, maximal HR, or maximal RPE was observed across trials. Oxygen consumption at VT was significantly lower during Trial-3 compared to Trial-1 (p = 0.01. This decrease was coupled with a significant reduction in running speed at VT (p = 0.015. A significant interaction between trial and running speed indicate that RE was significantly altered during Trial-3 compared to Trial-1 (p < 0.001. The first two legs of a laboratory based duathlon simulation negatively impact VT and RE. Our findings may provide a useful method to evaluate multisport athletes since a single-bout incremental treadmill test fails to reveal important alterations in physiological thresholds.

  5. Differences in Ventilatory Threshold for Exercise Prescription in Outpatient Diabetic and Sarcopenic Obese Subjects

    Gian Pietro Emerenziani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to examine cardiorespiratory parameters at individual ventilatory threshold (IVT and peak exercise capacity (V˙O2peak in outpatient diabetic and sarcopenic obese subjects. Seventeen obese subjects (BMI: 36.6±4.1 kg·m−1 and sixteen SO subjects (BMI: 37.0±7.3 kg·m−1 were compared with sixteen T2DM subjects (BMI: 37.7±5.6 kg·m−1. All groups performed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill according to their physical ability. V˙O2peak, %HRmax, and maximal metabolic equivalent (METmax were evaluated at maximal effort. Moreover, V˙O2ivt, %V˙O2peak, %HRmax, %HRR, ΔHR, and METivt were assessed at IVT. No significant differences were found in any physiological parameters at maximal effort (V˙O2peak, %HRmax, and METmax in all groups. On the contrary, V˙O2ivt, %V˙O2peak, %HRmax, %HRR, ΔHR, and METivt were significantly lower in T2DM subjects as compared to OB and SO subjects at IVT (p<0.05. Our results show that while at maximal effort there are no differences among groups, at IVT the physiological parameters are lower in T2DM subjects than in OB and SO subjects. Therefore, due to the differences observed in the groups, we suggest usng the IVT as a useful parameter to prescribe aerobic exercise in obese with sarcopenia or diabetes mellitus conditions.

  6. Ventilatory threshold during incremental running can be estimated using EMG shorts

    The present study examined whether shorts with textile electromyographic (EMG) electrodes can be used to detect second ventilatory threshold (VT2) during incremental treadmill running. Thirteen recreationally active (REC) and eight endurance athletes were measured for EMG, heart rate, blood lactate and respiratory gases during VO2max test (3 min ramps, 1 km ⋅ h−1 increments). VT2, onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) and EMG threshold (EMGT) were determined. In athletes, OBLA occurred at 56 ± 6 mL ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1, VT2 occurred at 59 ± 6 mL ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1, and EMGT at 62 ± 6 mL ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1 without significant differences between methods (analysis of variance: ANOVA). In REC participants, OBLA occurred at 40 ± 10 mL ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1, VT2 occurred at 43 ± 7 mL ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1, and EMGT at 41 ± 9 mL ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1 without significant differences between methods (ANOVA). For the entire group, correlation between EMGT and VT2 was 0.86 (P < 0.001) and 0.84 (P < 0.001) between EMGT and OBLA. Limits of agreement between EMGT and VT2 were narrower in athletes than in REC participants. Thus, it is concluded that estimation of VT2 using EMGT in athletes is more valid than in REC participants. In practice, experienced runners could use online feedback from EMG garments to monitor whether their running intensity is near VT2. (paper)

  7. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  8. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can include grieving, taking ... treatment options. Related pages What is a complete vs incomplete injury? What emergency procedures occur following an ...

  9. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... thoughts and feelings and is something that takes time. The goal of adjusting is to rebuild one's ... updates about our impact > Get the Reeve newsletter International support > Pages in other languages Made with ♡ in ...

  10. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... rebuild one's identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can include ... a peer mentor Advocate for change Fundraise with Team Reeve Champions Committee Volunteering About Us Our story ...

  11. Occupational Adjustment of Immigrants

    Zorlu, Aslan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the speed of the occupational adjustment of immigrants using Labour Force Surveys 2004 and 2005 from Statistics Netherlands. The analysis provides new evidence that immigrants start with jobs at the lower levels of skill distribution. Their occupational achievement improves significantly with the duration of residence. The extent of this initial disadvantage and the rate of adjustment vary across immigrant groups according to the transferability of skills associated with t...

  12. KVA: Capital Valuation Adjustment

    Andrew Green; Chris Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Credit (CVA), Debit (DVA) and Funding Valuation Adjustments (FVA) are now familiar valuation adjustments made to the value of a portfolio of derivatives to account for credit risks and funding costs. However, recent changes in the regulatory regime and the increases in regulatory capital requirements has led many banks to include the cost of capital in derivative pricing. This paper formalises the addition of cost of capital by extending the Burgard-Kjaer (2013) semi-replication approach to C...

  13. Hemodynamic and ventilatory response to different levels of hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid body-denervated rats

    João Paulo J. Sabino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chemoreceptors play an important role in the autonomic modulation of circulatory and ventilatory responses to changes in arterial O2 and/or CO2. However, studies evaluating hemodynamic responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in rats have shown inconsistent results. Our aim was to evaluate hemodynamic and respiratory responses to different levels of hypoxia and hypercapnia in conscious intact or carotid body-denervated rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ligature of carotid body arteries (or sham-operation and received catheters into the left femoral artery and vein. After two days, each animal was placed into a plethysmographic chamber and, after baseline measurements of respiratory parameters and arterial pressure, each animal was subjected to three levels of hypoxia (15, 10 and 6% O2 and hypercapnia (10% CO2. RESULTS: The results indicated that 15% O2 decreased the mean arterial pressure and increased the heart rate (HR in both intact (n = 8 and carotid body-denervated (n = 7 rats. In contrast, 10% O2did not change the mean arterial pressure but still increased the HR in intact rats, and it decreased the mean arterial pressure and increased the heart rate in carotid body-denervated rats. Furthermore, 6% O2 increased the mean arterial pressure and decreased the HR in intact rats, but it decreased the mean arterial pressure and did not change the HR in carotid body-denervated rats. The 3 levels of hypoxia increased pulmonary ventilation in both groups, with attenuated responses in carotid body-denervated rats. Hypercapnia with 10% CO2 increased the mean arterial pressure and decreased HR similarly in both groups. Hypercapnia also increased pulmonary ventilation in both groups to the same extent. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the hemodynamic and ventilatory responses varied according to the level of hypoxia. Nevertheless, the hemodynamic and ventilatory responses to hypercapnia did not depend on the

  14. Partial ventilatory support modalities in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome-a systematic review.

    Sarah M McMullen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The efficacy of partial ventilatory support modes that allow spontaneous breathing in patients with acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is unclear. The objective of this scoping review was to assess the effects of partial ventilatory support on mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and both hospital and intensive care unit (ICU lengths of stay (LOS for patients with ALI and ARDS; the secondary objective was to describe physiologic effects on hemodynamics, respiratory system and other organ function. METHODS: MEDLINE (1966-2009, Cochrane, and EmBase (1980-2009 databases were searched using common ventilator modes as keywords and reference lists from retrieved manuscripts hand searched for additional studies. Two researchers independently reviewed and graded the studies using a modified Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine grading system. Studies in adult ALI/ARDS patients were included for primary objectives and pre-clinical studies for supporting evidence. RESULTS: Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs were identified, in addition to six prospective cohort studies, one retrospective cohort study, one case control study, 41 clinical physiologic studies and 28 pre-clinical studies. No study was powered to assess mortality, one RCT showed shorter ICU length of stay, and the other demonstrated more ventilator free days. Beneficial effects of preserved spontaneous breathing were mainly physiological effects demonstrated as improvement of gas exchange, hemodynamics and non-pulmonary organ perfusion and function. CONCLUSIONS: The use of partial ventilatory support modalities is often feasible in patients with ALI/ARDS, and may be associated with short-term physiological benefits without appreciable impact on clinically important outcomes.

  15. Regulation of the tidal volume and ventilatory responses to CO2 in normal man and in scoliosis.

    Kafer, E R

    1981-01-01

    The variation of the ventilatory response to CO2 and its pattern among normals and in the presence of pulmonary disease is wide. In normal subjects the relationship between the slopes of the ventilatory (delta V/delta PCO2), tidal volume (delta VT/delta PCO2) and the frequency (delta f/delta PCO2) responses and body size, metabolic rate, resting ventilation and pattern, lung volumes or mechanical properties of the respiratory system have only been demonstrated in a few studies. In idiopathic scoliosis there is a positive correlation between the delta V/delta PCO2 and delta VT/delta PCO2 and body size, resting ventilation and tidal volume, lung volumes and compliance of the respiratory system. Although there were significant correlations between the delta V/delta PCO2 and the delta VT/delta PCO2 and th delta f/delta PCO2 the correlation between the delta VT/delta PCO2 and delta f/delta PCO2 was not significant. Correlations between the delta f/delta PCO2 and lung volumes, compliance or body size were also not significant. Therefore variation in the frequency response to CO2 contribute to the variation between individuals of the delta V/delta PCO2 and this variation is unrelated to respiratory mechanics or body size. We conclude that in human studies any examination of possible relationships between ventilatory response to CO2 and body size, lung volumes and mechanics should examine separately the tidal volume and frequency response to CO2. We postulate that the tidal volume response is the most appropriate variable to normalize for lung volumes, e.g., vital capacity (delta VT/VC/delta/ PCO2). PMID:6781570

  16. Ventilatory-perfusory pulmonary scintigraphy as non invasive election procedure in patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary thrombo emboli

    30 patients were studied with suspicion of pulmonary thrombo emboli PTE, in a period of 9 months (January-September of 1992), 20 women and 10 men, with an age range of 26 to 88 years, average of 57.59 18.89. With respect to the clinical data, 24 presented breathing inadequacy (80%). 16 tachycardia (54%), 15 with thoracic pain (50%) and 4 with hemoptysis (13%). Of the cabinet studies, 12 presented electrocardiographic changes (IF, QIII, and TIII) (40%), 14 presented abnormalities in arterial gases. In the thorax tele, 8 presented abnormality; as spill, pneumonia, diaphragmatic elevation, etc. (26.6%) and of 14 the result was not reported (46 6%). They were carried out in all the patients, the ventilatory studies and perfusories in that order. A Siemens mark scintillation camera was used, with a collimator of low energy and of high resolution; the information was stored in a floppy disk, and later on they were printed in radiographic plaques of high resolution. The ventilatory study was carried out with 30 mCi of 99m Tc-DTPA, in radio aerosol form, emitted by a micro nebulizer, to which was applied a pressure of oxygen of 10 ml-min; during 10 to 15 minutes. They took projections antero, posterior, oblique antero left and right, oblique posterior left and right, each one with an acquisition of 150000 counts, or during 5 minutes. Later on and remaining the patient in supine position, was carried out the perfusory study, applying 3-4 mCi of 99 Tc-MAA for endo venous via; they took the same projections that the ventilatory study, but with a density of information greater (500 000 counts each one). Both studies are printed in a radiographic plaque of high resolution, with which is interpreted and the study is filed. (Author)

  17. Does Amifostine Reduce Metabolic Rate? Effect of the Drug on Gas Exchange and Acute Ventilatory Hypoxic Response in Humans

    Jaideep J. Pandit; Caroline Allen; Evelyn Little; Federico Formenti; Harris, Adrian L.; Robbins, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange) over 255 min in 6 healthy subjects, at two doses (500 mg and 1000 mg) of amifostine infused over 15 min at the start of the protocol. We also assessed the ventilatory response to six 1 min exposures to isocapnic hypoxia mid-protocol. ...

  18. The Effects of a Duathlon Simulation on Ventilatory Threshold and Running Economy.

    Berry, Nathaniel T; Wideman, Laurie; Shields, Edgar W; Battaglini, Claudio L

    2016-06-01

    Multisport events continue to grow in popularity among recreational, amateur, and professional athletes around the world. This study aimed to determine the compounding effects of the initial run and cycling legs of an International Triathlon Union (ITU) Duathlon simulation on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), ventilatory threshold (VT) and running economy (RE) within a thermoneutral, laboratory controlled setting. Seven highly trained multisport athletes completed three trials; Trial-1 consisted of a speed only VO2max treadmill protocol (SOVO2max) to determine VO2max, VT, and RE during a single-bout run; Trial-2 consisted of a 10 km run at 98% of VT followed by an incremental VO2max test on the cycle ergometer; Trial-3 consisted of a 10 km run and 30 km cycling bout at 98% of VT followed by a speed only treadmill test to determine the compounding effects of the initial legs of a duathlon on VO2max, VT, and RE. A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to determine differences between variables across trials. No difference in VO2max, VT (%VO2max), maximal HR, or maximal RPE was observed across trials. Oxygen consumption at VT was significantly lower during Trial-3 compared to Trial-1 (p = 0.01). This decrease was coupled with a significant reduction in running speed at VT (p = 0.015). A significant interaction between trial and running speed indicate that RE was significantly altered during Trial-3 compared to Trial-1 (p < 0.001). The first two legs of a laboratory based duathlon simulation negatively impact VT and RE. Our findings may provide a useful method to evaluate multisport athletes since a single-bout incremental treadmill test fails to reveal important alterations in physiological thresholds. Key pointsDecrease in relative oxygen uptake at VT (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) during the final leg of a duathlon simulation, compared to a single-bout maximal run.We observed a decrease in running speed at VT during the final leg of a duathlon simulation; resulting in an

  19. The Effects of a Duathlon Simulation on Ventilatory Threshold and Running Economy

    Berry, Nathaniel T.; Wideman, Laurie; Shields, Edgar W.; Battaglini, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Multisport events continue to grow in popularity among recreational, amateur, and professional athletes around the world. This study aimed to determine the compounding effects of the initial run and cycling legs of an International Triathlon Union (ITU) Duathlon simulation on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), ventilatory threshold (VT) and running economy (RE) within a thermoneutral, laboratory controlled setting. Seven highly trained multisport athletes completed three trials; Trial-1 consisted of a speed only VO2max treadmill protocol (SOVO2max) to determine VO2max, VT, and RE during a single-bout run; Trial-2 consisted of a 10 km run at 98% of VT followed by an incremental VO2max test on the cycle ergometer; Trial-3 consisted of a 10 km run and 30 km cycling bout at 98% of VT followed by a speed only treadmill test to determine the compounding effects of the initial legs of a duathlon on VO2max, VT, and RE. A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to determine differences between variables across trials. No difference in VO2max, VT (%VO2max), maximal HR, or maximal RPE was observed across trials. Oxygen consumption at VT was significantly lower during Trial-3 compared to Trial-1 (p = 0.01). This decrease was coupled with a significant reduction in running speed at VT (p = 0.015). A significant interaction between trial and running speed indicate that RE was significantly altered during Trial-3 compared to Trial-1 (p < 0.001). The first two legs of a laboratory based duathlon simulation negatively impact VT and RE. Our findings may provide a useful method to evaluate multisport athletes since a single-bout incremental treadmill test fails to reveal important alterations in physiological thresholds. Key points Decrease in relative oxygen uptake at VT (ml·kg-1·min-1) during the final leg of a duathlon simulation, compared to a single-bout maximal run. We observed a decrease in running speed at VT during the final leg of a duathlon simulation; resulting in an

  20. 気管支噴息患者のventilatory functionにおよぼす運動浴療法の影響

    周藤, 真康; 駒越, 春樹; 岡田, 千春; 中郷, 実雄; 谷崎, 勝朗; 森永, 寛

    1984-01-01

    Effect of free swimming training in the hot spring pool (30℃) on ventilatory function were observed in nine patients with intractable asthma by measuring FVC, FEV(1.0), PEFR, MMF, V(50), V(25). 1. Swimming in the hot spring pool for three months allowed the reduction of glucocorticoid used for their asthma attack. 2. Although FVC was not affected by swimming training, EEV(1.0), PEFR, MMF, V(50), V(25) which represent obstructive ventilatory function were gradually improved by swimming trainin...

  1. Mechanical ventilation with heated humidifiers: measurements of condensed water mass within the breathing circuit according to ventilatory settings

    Heated wire humidifiers (HWHs) are widely used to heat and humidify gases during mechanical ventilation. The control strategy implemented on commercial HWHs, based on maintaining constant gas temperature at the chamber outlet, shows weaknesses: humidifying performances depend on environmental temperature and ventilatory settings, and often condensation occurs. Herein, we analyzed in vitro HWH performances focusing on the condensation amount according to ventilatory settings. We used a physical model to define the parameters which mainly influence the HWH performances. In order to investigate the influence of minute volume (MV) and frequency rate (fr) on condensation, the other influencing parameters were kept constant during experiments, and we introduced a novel approach to estimate the condensation. The method, based on measuring the condensed vapor mass (Δm), provided more objective information than the visual-based scale used in previous studies. Thanks to both the control of other influencing factors and the accurate Δm measures, the investigation showed the Δm increase with MV and fr. Substantial condensation after 7 h of ventilation and the influence of MV and fr on Δm (i.e., Δm = 3 g at MV = 1.5 L min−1 and fr = 8 bpm and Δm = 9.4 g at MV = 8 L min−1 and fr = 20 bpm) confirm the weaknesses of 'single-point temperature' control strategies. (paper)

  2. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  3. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi; Prof. N. D. Dhoot

    2014-01-01

    Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  4. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... 7309 ☰ Living with Paralysis Get Support Get Involved Research Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Newly paralyzed > How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and ...

  5. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  6. Surgical Assisting

    ... specific training over and above a degree in science, nursing, physician assisting, or another health profession. Prerequisites . Recommended eligibility requirements for admission into a surgical assisting program are: Bachelor of Science degree (or higher) Associate degree in an allied ...

  7. Assistive Technology

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  8. Assisted Living

    ... overwhelming majority of residents are female. Assisted Living Philosophy The philosophy of assisted living is to provide personalized, resident ... loved ones to learn about the care provider philosophy . Freedom of Choice The most progressive state regulations ...

  9. Credit Valuation Adjustment

    Hoffman, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Credit risk has become a topical issue since the 2007 Credit Crisis, particularly for its impact on the valuation of OTC derivatives. This becomes critical when the credit risk of entities involved in a contract either as underlying or counterparty become highly correlated as is the case during macroeconomic shocks. It impacts the valuation of such contracts through an additional term, the credit valuation adjustment (CVA). This can become large with such correlation. This thesis outlines the...

  10. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  11. Physicians' adjustment to retirement.

    Virshup, B; Coombs, R H

    1993-01-01

    We address the questions, How do physicians adjust to and enjoy their retirement? What factors contribute to the well-being of retired physicians? A 60-item questionnaire mailed to 238 retired physicians in Los Angeles County with a 41.6% response rate assessed health, standard of living, relationships, activities, emotional difficulties, and general enjoyment. Health often improved after retirement, as did relationships with spouses and children. Standard of living was comfortable or better ...

  12. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  13. Hypercapnic ventilatory response in mice lacking the 65 kDa isoform of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD65

    Bissonnette John M

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have shown that there are developmental changes in theventilatory response to hypercapnia in the rat. These are characterizedby an initial large response to carbon dioxide immediately after birthfollowed by a decline with a trough at one week of age, followed by areturn in sensitivity. A second abnormality is seen at postnatal day 5(P5 rats in that they cannot maintain the increase in frequency for 5min of hypercapnia. In mice lacking GAD65 the release of GABA duringsustained synaptic activation is reduced. We hypothesized that thisdevelopmental pattern would be present in the mouse which is also lessmature at birth and that GABA mediates this relative respiratorydepression. Methods In awake C57BL/6J and GAD65-/- mice the ventilatory response to 5%carbon dioxide (CO2 was examined at P2, P4, P6, P7, P12.5, P14.5 andP21.5, using body plethysmography. Results Minute ventilation (VE relative to baseline during hypercapnia from P2through P7 was generally less than from P12.5 onwards, but there was notrough as in the rat. Breaking VE down into its two components showedthat tidal volume remained elevated for the 5 min of exposure to 5% CO2.At P6, but not at other ages, respiratory frequency declined with timeand at 5 min was less that at 2 and 3 min. GAD65-/- animals at P6 showeda sustained increase in respiratory rate for the five mins exposure toCO2. Conclusion These results show, that in contrast to the rat, mice do not show adecline in minute ventilatory response to CO2 at one week of age.Similiar to the rat at P5, mice at P6 are unable to sustain an increasein CO2 induced respiratory frequency and GAD65 contributes to this falloff.

  14. Clinical assessment of mean washout time and lung functional image by ventilatory steady state measurement with 133Xe

    Ventilatory steady state measurement with 133Xe, using Ventil-Con (Radx) and a large area scintillation camera (Searle, LFOV) combined with a mini-computer system (Shimadzu, Scintipac 230) was employed to evaluate regional pulmonary function of 94 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), fibrosis, carcinoma and other lung diseases. In the patients with COLD, mean washout times (anti t) were markedly prolonged in whole lung fields (anti m 130 +- 33 sec.) and ventilation indices (V*/V) (*: radical) and perfusion indices (Q*/V) (*: radical) were reduced in regional zones, especially in bilateral lower lung zones. For the patients with lung fibrosis, anti t values were short and the distribution of ventilation indices were uniform, and in contrast perfusion indices were reduced in the lower lung fields. In the area most affected by carcinoma, lung volumes (V) were reduced in parallel with the regional ventilation (V*) (*: radical) and perfusion (Q*) (*: radical). As the tumor approached the hilum, the relative ventilation and perfusion of cancerous side decreased remarkably in patients with obstructive findings on bronchoscopy. The mean washout times (anti t) for 133Xe, calculated by a modified height over area method without background subtraction, were significantly longer than indicated by the data yielded by the least squares curve fitting of initial washout curve after background subtraction. Although the accuracy of these data was limited, it appeared that the prolonged anti t is a good parameter of regional ventilatory disturbance because significant correlations were found between the whole lung anti t in patients with lung diseases and their FEV 1.0% r = -0.66, RV/TLC r = 0.64, % TLC r = 0.43, PaCO2 r = 0.41, PaO2 r = -0.35. (author)

  15. Association of toxic and essential metals with atopy markers and ventilatory lung function in women and men

    The association of age, smoking, alcohol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), blood lead (BPb) and cadmium (BCd) levels, and serum levels of copper (SCu), zinc (SZn) and selenium (SSe) with atopic status and ventilatory function was examined in the groups of 166 women and 50 men with no occupational exposure to metals or other xenobiotics. Markers of atopy included serum total IgE, skin prick test (SPT) to common inhalatory allergens, non-specific nasal reactivity (NNR) and non-specific bronchial reactivity (NBR). Parameters of ventilatory function included forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1). Significantly higher BPb, SZn, IgE and prevalence of positive SPT, and lower SCu and NNR was found in men than in women. Fifteen women taking female sex hormones (HT) had significantly higher SCu than women without HT. Regression models showed significant inverse associations between IgE and SCu (P = 0.021) and NNR and SCu (P = 0.044) in women. When excluding women with HT, the association of SCu and total IgE became of borderline significance (P = 0.051), association between SCu and NNR disappeared, and significant positive association between total IgE and BPb emerged (P = 0.046). In men, significant inverse association was found between positive SPT and SSe, and between NBR and SSe. A decrease in FVC% and FEV1% was associated with an increase in smoking intensity (P < 0.001) and a decrease in SZn (P = 0.043 and P = 0.053, respectively). These results were observed at the levels of the metals comparable to those in general populations worldwide. The observed differences between men and women may partly be explained by different levels of relevant toxic and essential metals, and their combination. The role of female HT in associations of atopy markers and SCu should be further investigated

  16. Formation and maintenance of ventilatory long-term facilitation require NMDA but not non-NMDA receptors in awake rats.

    McGuire, Michelle; Liu, Chun; Cao, Ying; Ling, Liming

    2008-09-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism in the phrenic motonucleus area eliminates phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF; a persistent augmentation of phrenic nerve activity after episodic hypoxia) in anesthetized rats. However, whether NMDA antagonism can eliminate ventilatory LTF (vLTF) in awake rats is unclear. The role of non-NMDA receptors in LTF is also unknown. Serotonin receptor antagonism before, but not after, episodic hypoxia eliminates pLTF, suggesting that serotonin receptors are required for induction, but not maintenance, of pLTF. However, because NMDA and non-NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors are directly involved in mediating the inspiratory drive to phrenic, hypoglossal, and intercostal motoneurons, we hypothesized that these receptors are required for both formation and maintenance of vLTF. vLTF, induced by five episodes of 5-min poikilocapnic hypoxia (10% O(2)) with 5-min normoxia intervals, was measured with plethysmography in conscious adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Either (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV; NMDA antagonist, 1.5 mg/kg) or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; non-NMDA antagonist, 10 mg/kg) was systemically (ip) injected approximately 30 min before hypoxia. APV was also injected immediately after or 20 min after episodic hypoxia in additional groups. As control, vehicle was similarly injected in each rat 1-2 days before. Regardless of being injected before or after episodic hypoxia, vehicle did not alter vLTF ( approximately 23%), whereas APV eliminated vLTF while having little effect on baseline ventilation or hypoxic ventilatory response. In contrast, CNQX enhanced vLTF ( approximately 34%) while decreasing baseline ventilation. Collectively, these results suggest that activation of NMDA but not non-NMDA receptors is necessary for formation and maintenance of vLTF in awake rats. PMID:18583381

  17. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  18. 75 FR 62760 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-10-13

    ... average annual price in 2009, compared to the previous 3-year average. This conforms to the eligibility... at: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: October 5, 2010. Suzanne Hale, Administrator,...

  19. 75 FR 62759 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-10-13

    ...- percent decline in at least one of the following factors: national average price, quantity of production..., because it showed a 4.2-percent increase in the average annual price for 2009, when compared to the...: October 5, 2010. Suzanne Hale, Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service. BILLING CODE 3410-10-P...

  20. 75 FR 49458 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-08-13

    ... greater than 15-percent decrease in the average annual price of blueberries compared to the average of the.... Suzanne Hale, Acting Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service. BILLING CODE 3410-10-P...

  1. 75 FR 49886 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-08-16

    ... price of multi-species fish compared to the average of the three preceding marketing years. If a...: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: August 3, 2010. Suzanne Hale, Acting Administrator,...

  2. 7 CFR 1580.201 - Petitions for trade adjustment assistance.

    2010-01-01

    ... include the following information. (1) Name, business address, phone number, and email address (if... within the impacted area. (4) The beginning and ending dates for the marketing year during which domestic prices were affected by imports. A petition may be filed for only the most recent marketing year...

  3. 75 FR 9087 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    2010-03-01

    ... print media, and transmittal through local USDA offices. (e) Whenever a group of agricultural producers... FR 42799, August 25, 2009) during the proposed rule comment period which ran from August 25,...

  4. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  5. The Design of Fiscal Adjustments

    Alesina, Alberto Francesco; Ardagna, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers three results. First, in line with the previous literature, we confirm that fiscal adjustments based mostly on the spending side are less likely to be reversed. Second, spending based fiscal adjustments have caused smaller recessions than tax based fiscal adjustments. Finally, certain combinations of policies have made it possible for spending based fiscal adjustments to be associated with growth in the economy even on impact rather than with a recession. Thus, expansionary ...

  6. Technical Document for Price Adjustment

    Zheng Tian; Mulugeta Kahsai; Randall Jackson

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the basis for the price adjustment mechanisms in a time series IO model. The essentials of the price adjustment and price change propagation algorithms are presented, along with a matrix permutation algorithm that facilitates the implementation of the price adjustment mechanism. The Matlab function is provided.

  7. Metric adjusted skew information

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state) that...... vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...

  8. Adjusting to the Emergent

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  9. Development of visual beam adjustment method for cyclotron

    We have developed a computer-based visual assistance system for JAERI AVF cyclotron operation. This system provides a CRT display about the cyclotron beam trajectories, feasible setting regions (FSRs), and search traces designed to improve beam parameter adjustment. As a result of the test in actual operation, it was realized that simulated beam trajectories and FSRs nearly agree with actual beam conditions. (author)

  10. 24 CFR 880.609 - Adjustment of contract rents.

    2010-04-01

    ... date of the contract in accordance with 24 CFR part 888. (b) Special additional adjustments. For all... CFR part 883 projects, by the Agency and HUD), to reflect increases in the actual and necessary... for assisted units and comparable unassisted units except to the extent that the differences...

  11. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities

    TAMURA, Taro; SUGANUMA, Narufumi; HERING, Kurt G.; Vehmas, Tapio; ITOH, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; TAKASHIMA, Yoshihiro; HIRANO, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT ...

  12. Assessment of two novel ventilatory surrogates for use in the delivery of gated/tracked radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Background: In selected patients with NSCLC the therapeutic index of radical radiotherapy can be improved with gating/tracking technology. Both techniques require real-time information on target location. This is often derived from a surrogate ventilatory signal. We assessed the correlation of two novel surrogate ventilatory signals with a spirometer-derived signal. The novel signals were obtained using the VisionRT stereoscopic camera system. The VisionRT-Tracked-Point (VRT-TP) signal was derived from tracking a point located midway between the umbilicus and xiphisternum. The VisionRT-Surface-Derived-Volume (VRT-SDV) signal was derived from 3D body surface imaging of the torso. Both have potential advantages over the current surrogate signals. Methods: Eleven subjects with NSCLC were recruited. Each was positioned as for radiotherapy treatment, and then instructed to breathe in five different modes: normal, abdominal, thoracic, deep and shallow breathing. Synchronous ventilatory signals were recorded for later analysis. The signals were analysed for correlation across all modes of breathing, and phase shifts. The VRT-SDV was also assessed for its ability to determine the mode of breathing. Results: Both novel respiratory signals showed good correlation (r > 0.80) with spirometry in 9 of 11 subjects. For all subjects the correlation with spirometry was better for the VRT-SDV signal than for the VRT-TP signal. Only one subject displayed a phase shift between the VisionRT-derived signals and spirometry. The VRT-SDV signal could also differentiate between different modes of breathing. Unlike the spirometer-derived signal, neither VisionRT-derived signal was subject to drift. Conclusion: Both the VRT-TP and VRT-SDV signals have potential applications in ventilatory-gated and tracked radiotherapy. They can also be used as a signal for sorting 4DCT images, and to drive 4DCT single- and multiple-parameter motion models.

  13. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  14. Comparison of Pulmonary Functions at Onset of Ventilatory Insufficiency in Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, and Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

    Cho, Han Eol; Lee, Jang Woo; Kang, Seong Woong; Choi, Won Ah; Oh, Hyeonjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate pulmonary functions of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) at the onset of ventilatory insufficiency. Methods This retrospective study included ALS, DMD, and MMD patients with regular outpatient clinic follow-up in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine at Gangnam Severance Hospital before the application of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). The patients were enrolled from August 2001 to March 2014. If patients experienced ventilatory insufficiency, they were treated with NIPPV, and their pulmonary functions were subsequently measured. Results Ninety-four DMD patients, 41 ALS patients, and 21 MMD patients were included in the study. The mean SpO2 was lower in the MMD group than in the other two groups. The mean forced vital capacity (FVC) in the supine position was approximately low to mid 20% on average in DMD and ALS patients, whereas it was 10% higher in MMD patients. ALS patients showed a significantly lower FVC in the supine position than in the sitting position. Maximal insufflation capacity, unassisted peak cough flow, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) were significantly higher in MMD group than in the other groups. MEP was significantly the lowest in DMD patients, followed by in ALS, and MMD patients, in order. Conclusion Disease-specific values of pulmonary function, including FVC, MEP, and MIP, can be accurately used to assess the onset of ventilatory insufficiency in patients with ALS, DMD, and MMD. PMID:26949672

  15. Metric-adjusted skew information

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states on a...... bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 < p = 2 of the WYD-information is a special case of...... (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  16. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    Ghilani, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  17. Variance Adjusted Actor Critic Algorithms

    Tamar, Aviv; Mannor, Shie

    2013-01-01

    We present an actor-critic framework for MDPs where the objective is the variance-adjusted expected return. Our critic uses linear function approximation, and we extend the concept of compatible features to the variance-adjusted setting. We present an episodic actor-critic algorithm and show that it converges almost surely to a locally optimal point of the objective function.

  18. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  19. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  20. Hearing Assistive Technology

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

  1. Efeito da obesidade na função ventilatória Impact of obesity on ventilatory function

    Perran Boran

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Embora a obesidade tenha sido associada ao comprometimento grave da ventilação, a maior parte da população estudada constitui-se de adultos com obesidade mórbida. Nosso objetivo foi investigar os efeitos da obesidade leve na função ventilatória de pacientes pediátricos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal controlado que analisou 80 pacientes (M/F: 35/45 avaliados em nosso ambulatório, com queixa de sobrepeso, sem histórico de asma ou de outras atopias, comparando-os a um grupo controle com 50 crianças de peso normal controladas para a idade e para o sexo. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 9,7±2,5 anos (7 a 15 anos. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a medições antropométricas e à espirometria. A capacidade vital forçada (CVF e o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 foram usados como medidas da função ventilatória. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significativas nas VEF1%, CVF% e VEF1%/CVF% por grupo de estudo (p > 0,05. Apenas três pacientes tiveram alterações obstrutivas relatadas em seus testes de função pulmonar (dois tiveram alterações moderadamente graves e um teve alterações obstrutivas leves. Não houve correlação entre os parâmetros da função pulmonar e as medidas antropométricas. CONCLUSÃO: Esses dados mostram que os parâmetros do teste da função pulmonar em crianças com obesidade leve foram semelhantes àqueles das crianças com peso normal. As medidas antropométricas não mostraram nenhum efeito significativo nas medições espirométricas das crianças, como ocorreu nos adultos.OBJECTIVE: Although obesity was found to be associated with severe impairment of ventilation, most of the study population has been morbidly obese adults. We aimed to explore the effects of mild obesity on ventilatory function in the pediatric age group. METHODS: In a cross-sectional controlled study, 80 patients (M/F: 35/45, who were evaluated in our outpatient clinic with the complaint

  2. Clinical study of regional ventilation and perfusion of pulmonary disease by ventilatory steady state measurement with Xe-133

    Ventilatory steady state measurement with Xe-133 were performed to evaluate regional ventilation (V radical) and perfusion (Q radical) in 60 cases of primary lung cancer and 39 cases of pulmonary diseases-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, mitral stenosis with pulmonary hypertension (PH), pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, bronchial adenoma and pulmonary embolism. Of 60 cases of lung cancer, 11 cases showed V radicalQ radical mismatch (18%). Even in the V radicalQ radical matched defect cases, a different grade of disorder was seen in V radical and Q radical and the grade of Q radical was severer than the grade of V radical. Of 38 cases irradiated by Linac X-ray, 3 cases whose V radical, Q radical were disordered a little before irradiation recovered completely to normal range after irradiadiation. Of 38 cases who performed the radiation therapy, radiation injury of lung was recognized in 22 cases. In the cases of recovered V radical, Q radical after irradiation, radiation injury of lung occurred, and then V radical, Q radical disordered and returned to pre-irradiation value. In the cases that recovered little in V radical, Q radical, radiation injury of lung occurred, and then V radical, Q radical could not return to pre-irradiation value. In 39 cases of pulmonary diseases, 7 cases of sarcoidosis showed normal V radical and Q radical value. 13 cases of COPD was available to evaluate the regional pulmonary function in MTT (Mean Transit Time). V radical, Q radical were slightly disordered and MTT proloned slightly in 10 cases of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis where a marked fibrosis lesion was remarkable. Six cases of PH showed significant correlation between the left ventricular mean pressure and the perfusion ratio of upper and lower lung field. (J.P.N.)

  3. Clinical study of regional ventilation and perfusion of pulmonary disease by ventilatory steady state measurement with Xe-133

    Nishi, Fumiaki

    1984-12-01

    Ventilatory steady state measurement with Xe-133 were performed to evaluate regional ventilation (V radical) and perfusion (Q radical) in 60 cases of primary lung cancer and 39 cases of pulmonary diseases-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, mitral stenosis with pulmonary hypertension (PH), pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, bronchial adenoma and pulmonary embolism. Of 60 cases of lung cancer, 11 cases showed V radicalQ radical mismatch (18%). Even in the V radicalQ radical matched defect cases, a different grade of disorder was seen in V radical and Q radical and the grade of Q radical was severer than the grade of V radical. Of 38 cases irradiated by Linac X-ray, 3 cases whose V radical, Q radical were disordered a little before irradiation recovered completely to normal range after irradiadiation. Of 38 cases subjected to radiation therapy, radiation injury of lung was recognized in 22 cases. In the cases of recovered V radical, Q radical after irradiation, radiation injury of lung occurred, and then V radical, Q radical disordered and returned to pre-irradiation value. In the cases that recovered little in V radical, Q radical, radiation injury of lung occurred, and then V radical, Q radical could not return to pre-irradiation value. In 39 cases of pulmonary diseases, 7 cases of sarcoidosis showed normal V radical and Q radical value. 13 cases of COPD was available to evaluate the regional pulmonary function in MTT (Mean Transit Time). V radical, Q radical were slightly disordered and MTT proloned slightly in 10 cases of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis where a marked fibrosis lesion was remarkable. Six cases of PH showed significant correlation between the left ventricular mean pressure and the perfusion ratio of upper and lower lung field. (J.P.N.).

  4. A study of clinico-demographic profile and ventilatory pulmonary function tests in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Dushyant B. Pawar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a non-communicable disease. DM produces damage in small blood vessels characterized by morphologic and biochemical alterations of the capillary basal lamina. These abnormalities have been observed in several organs including the lung. As the prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing, it would be important to study pulmonary functions in this sub group. Methods: The present observational study carried out at medicine department. It includes previously diagnosed type 2 DM patients between 31 to 50 years of age, non-smoker, non-pregnant with no major respiratory illness. Ventilatory Pulmonary Function Test (VPFT which includes FVC, FEV1 and FEV1% were studied in all selected participants. VPFT categorized as per American Thoracic Society (ATS. All collected data analysed using Microsoft Excel 2010. Results: The total of 55 previously diagnosed Type 2 DM cases was recruited. 26 (47.2 % and 29 (52.7 % were male and female respectively. 21 (38.2 % has duration of DM more than 5. 11 (20 % and 5 (9 % had neuropathy and retinopathy respectively. 29 (52.7 % had abnormal pulmonary function test. The Mean FVC (84.11 +/- 14.94, Mean FEV1 (84 +/- 13.72 and Mean FEV1% was (100.05 +/- 7.32 among the study participants. 29 (100.0 % were restrictive type of abnormality. Conclusion: The reduced lung function is likely being a complication of diabetes mellitus. Lung functions needs to be checked periodically. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1765-1768

  5. Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE): a physiological method of increasing apnoea time in patients with difficult airways.

    Patel, A; Nouraei, S A R

    2015-03-01

    Emergency and difficult tracheal intubations are hazardous undertakings where successive laryngoscopy-hypoxaemia-re-oxygenation cycles can escalate to airway loss and the 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. Between 2013 and 2014, we extended the apnoea times of 25 patients with difficult airways who were undergoing general anaesthesia for hypopharyngeal or laryngotracheal surgery. This was achieved through continuous delivery of transnasal high-flow humidified oxygen, initially to provide pre-oxygenation, and continuing as post-oxygenation during intravenous induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade until a definitive airway was secured. Apnoea time commenced at administration of neuromuscular blockade and ended with commencement of jet ventilation, positive-pressure ventilation or recommencement of spontaneous ventilation. During this time, upper airway patency was maintained with jaw-thrust. Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE) was used in 15 males and 10 females. Mean (SD [range]) age at treatment was 49 (15 [25-81]) years. The median (IQR [range]) Mallampati grade was 3 (2-3 [2-4]) and direct laryngoscopy grade was 3 (3-3 [2-4]). There were 12 obese patients and nine patients were stridulous. The median (IQR [range]) apnoea time was 14 (9-19 [5-65]) min. No patient experienced arterial desaturation gaseous exchange through flow-dependent deadspace flushing. It has the potential to transform the practice of anaesthesia by changing the nature of securing a definitive airway in emergency and difficult intubations from a pressured stop-start process to a smooth and unhurried undertaking. PMID:25388828

  6. LACTATE AND VENTILATORY THRESHOLDS REFLECT THE TRAINING STATUS OF PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS WHERE MAXIMUM AEROBIC POWER IS UNCHANGED

    N Clark

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate maximum aerobic power (VO2 max and anaerobic threshold (AT as determinants of training status among professional soccer players. Twelve professional 1st team British male soccer players (age: 26.2 ± 3.3 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 79.3 ± 9.4 kg agreed to participate in the study and provided informed consent. All subjects completed a combined test of anaerobic threshold (AT and maximum aerobic power on two occasions: Test 1 following 5 weeks of low level activity at the end of the off-season and Test 2 immediately following conclusion of the competitive season. AT was assessed as both lactate threshold (LT and ventilatory threshold (VT. There was no change in VO2 max between Test 1 and Test 2 (63.3 ± 5.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 vs. 62.1 ± 4.9 ml·kg-1·min-1 respectively, however, the duration of exercise tolerance (ET at VO2 max was significantly extended from Test 1 to Test 2 (204 ± 54 vs. 228 ± 68 s respectively (P<0.01. LT oxygen consumption was significantly improved in Test 2 versus Test 1 (P<0.01 VT was also improved (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in VO2 (ml·kg-1·min-1 corresponding to LT and VT. The results of this study show that VO2 max is a less sensitive indicator to changes in training status in professional soccer players than either LT or VT.

  7. Impact of training at ventilatory threshold on cardiopulmonary and functional capacity in overweight patients with chronic kidney disease

    Danilo Takashi Aoike

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD and obesity are both associated with reduced physical capacity. The potential benefit of aerobic training on physical capacity has been recognized. The exercise intensity can be established using different methods mostly subjective or indirect. Ventilatory threshold (VT is a direct and objective method that allows prescribing exercise intensity according to individual capacity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of aerobic training at VT intensity on cardiopulmonary and functional capacities in CKD patients with excess of body weight. METHODS: Ten CKD patients (eight men, 49.7 ± 10.1 years; BMI 30.4 ± 3.5 kg/m², creatinine clearance 39.4 ± 9.8 mL/min/1.73 m² underwent training on a treadmill three times per week during 12 weeks. Cardiopulmonary capacity (ergoespirometry, functional capacity and clinical parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: At the end of 12 weeks, VO2PEAK increased by 20%, and the speed at VO2PEAK increased by 16%. The training resulted in improvement in functional capacity tests, such as six-minute walk test (9.2%, two-minute step test (20.3%, arm curl test (16.3%, sit and stand test (35.7%, and time up and go test (15.3%. In addition, a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures was observed despite no change in body weight, sodium intake and antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise performed at VT intensity improved cardipulmonary and functional capacities of overweight CKD patients. Additional benefit on blood pressure was observed. These results suggest that VT can be effectively applied for prescribing exercise intensity in this particular group of patients.

  8. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  9. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury

    ... may need to work to help with family finances. All of the changes that they face can ... 2000). Goal instability and adjustment to physical disability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(2). 251-265. This ...

  10. Adjustment techniques for experimental data

    To carry through numerically the different adjustment of experimental data planned by National Institute of Nuclear Research investigators. It is presented the different adjustment techniques of experimental data which are fundamentally for: linear least squares, non linear with restrictions. Methodology: Lineal least squares - Orthogonal decomposition via Householder reflections. No lineal - Method of general lowering and quasi Newton; Levenberg-Marquardt modified - More version. No lineal with restrictions - Quadratic sequential programming method (In process). (Author)

  11. The effects of high intensity exercise during pulmonary rehabilitation on ventilatory parameters in people with moderate to severe stable COPD: a systematic review

    Osterling K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kristin Osterling,1 Kimbly MacFadyen,1 Robert Gilbert,2 Gail Dechman1 1School of Physiotherapy, 2School of Health Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether people with moderate to severe COPD who are participating in pulmonary rehabilitation and exercising at high intensity demonstrate the changes in ventilatory parameters that are associated with decreased dyspnea. Data sources: The authors searched EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases up to December 2013 for relevant randomized control trials, systematic reviews, and observational studies. References of identified studies were also screened. Study selection: Studies conducted in a pulmonary rehabilitation setting that included education and exercise were included. Symptom-limited, graded exercise testing that measured tidal volume, respiratory rate, minute ventilation, and inspiratory capacity was required. The studies that contained these keywords in the title or the abstract were selected for further evaluation of the text. Disagreements between reviewers were resolved by consensus. Four studies met these inclusion criteria. Data extraction: Quality assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Risk of bias and quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Data synthesis: Participants in three studies trained at high intensity (70%–80% maximum workload, demonstrating statistically significant changes in tidal volume and respiratory rate. One study did not demonstrate positive ventilatory benefits; however, participants may not have met the desired training intensity. Two studies reported improvement in dyspnea at submaximal exercise intensities. One study noted an increased maximum workload with no significant change in dyspnea at peak exercise. Conclusion: People with moderate to severe, stable COPD were able

  12. Reducing the Indication for Ventilatory Support in the Severely Burned Patient: Results of a New Protocol Approach at a Regional Burn Center.

    Gille, Jochen; Bauer, Nicole; Malcharek, Michael J; Dragu, Adrian; Sablotzki, Armin; Taha, Hischam; Czeslick, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Initial management of the severely injured routinely includes sedation and mechanical ventilatory support. However, nonjudiciously applied mechanical ventilatory support can itself lead to poorer patient outcomes. In an attempt to reduce this iatrogenic risk, a standardized, in-house, five-point protocol providing clinical guidance on the use and duration of ventilation was introduced and analyzed, and the impact on patient outcomes was assessed. In 2007, a protocol for early spontaneous breathing was introduced and established in clinical practice. This protocol included: 1) early extubation (≤6 hours after admission) in the absence of absolute ventilatory indication; 2) avoidance of "routine intubation" in spontaneously breathing patients; 3) early postoperative extubation, including patients requiring multiple surgical interventions; 4) intensive chest and respiratory physiotherapy with routine application of expectorants; and 5) early active mobilization. A retrospective clinical study compared patients (group A) over a 2-year period admitted under the new protocol with a historical patient group (group B). Patients in group A (n = 38) had fewer ventilator days over the time-course of treatment (3 [1; 5.8] vs 18.5 days [0.5; 20.5]; P = .0001) with a lower rate of tracheostomies (15.8 vs 54%; P = .0003). Patients on ventilation at admission in group A had shorter ventilation periods after admission (4.75 [4; 22.25] vs 378 hours [8.5; 681.5]; P = .0003), and 66.7% of these patients were extubated within 6 hours of admission (vs 9.1% in group B). No patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria required re- or emergency intubation. In the first 5 days of treatment, significantly lower Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were recorded in group A. There was also a trend for lower mortality rates (0 [0%] vs 6 [14%]), sepsis rates (24 [63.2%] vs 37 [88.1%]), and cumulative fluid balance on days 3 and 7 in group A. In contrast, group A demonstrated an elevated

  13. Ventilatory responses during and following exposure to a hypoxic challenge in conscious mice deficient or null in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase

    Palmer, Lisa A.; May, Walter J.; deRonde, Kimberly; Brown-Steinke, Kathleen; Bates, James N; Gaston, Benjamin; Lewis, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to a hypoxic challenge increases ventilation in wild-type (WT) mice that diminish during the challenge (roll-off) whereas return to room air causes an increase in ventilation (short-term facilitation, STF). Since plasma and tissue levels of ventilatory excitant S-nitrosothiols such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) increase during hypoxia, this study examined whether (1) the initial increase in ventilation is due to generation of GSNO, (2) roll-off is due to increased activity of the GS...

  14. Development of visual beam adjustment method for cyclotron

    We have developed a computer-based visual assistance system for JAERI AVF-cyclotron operation. This system provides a CRT display about the cyclotron beam trajectories, feasible setting regions (FSR's), and search traces designed to enhance beam parameter adjustment. As a result of the test in actual operation, it was realized that simulated beam trajectories and FSR's were nearly agreeable with actual beam condition in the axial injection block and the extraction block. (author)

  15. Radiology for dental assistants

    The book provides dental assistants with the knowledge they need to apply X-rays in a safe and economical manner. Starting from the theoretical fundamentals of radiophysics, the biologic effects of X-rays leading to the protective requirements of the new X-Ray Ordinance are explained. The main topics are the adjustment rules for dental film, panorama and cassette film images which are explained in detail and illustrated, the topics of materials and equipment, and processing up to the stage of a safe guarding. In chapters dealing with the practical points of view, the applications in paedodentistry and orthodontics, in endodonty, parodontology and in imaging the temporo-mandibular joints are described; these chapters also deal with recognizing and avoiding mistakes. An appendix with data worth knowing rounds up the contents. The book is based on numerous training seminars. (orig./MG)

  16. Foreign assistance

    This paper reports that providing energy assistance to developing countries remains a relatively low priority of the Agency for International Development. AID is helping some developing countries meet their energy needs, but this assistance varies substantially because of the agency's decentralized structure. Most AID energy funding has gone to a handful of countries-primarily Egypt and Pakistan. With limited funding in most other countries, AID concentrates on providing technical expertise and promoting energy policy reforms that will encourage both energy efficiency and leverage investment by the private sector and other donors. Although a 1989 congressional directive to pursue a global warming initiative has had a marginal impact on the agency's energy programming, many AID energy programs, including those directed at energy conservation, help address global warming concerns

  17. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  18. Adenosine receptors mediate the hypoxic ventilatory response but not the hypoxic metabolic response in the naked mole rat during acute hypoxia.

    Pamenter, Matthew E; Dzal, Yvonne A; Milsom, William K

    2015-02-01

    Naked mole rats are the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified; however, the mechanisms underlying this tolerance are poorly understood. Using whole-animal plethysmography and open-flow respirometry, we examined the hypoxic metabolic response (HMR), hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic thermal response in awake, freely behaving naked mole rats exposed to 7% O₂ for 1 h. Metabolic rate and ventilation each reversibly decreased 70% in hypoxia (from 39.6 ± 2.9 to 12.1 ± 0.3 ml O₂ min(-1) kg(-1), and 1412 ± 244 to 417 ± 62 ml min(-1) kg(-1), respectively; p tolerant to hypoxia, and in some cases hypoxia was lethal following AMP injection. We conclude that in naked mole rats (i) hypoxia tolerance is partially dependent on profound hypoxic metabolic and ventilatory responses, which are equal in magnitude but occur independently of thermal changes in hypoxia, and (ii) adenosine receptors mediate the HVR but not the HMR. PMID:25520355

  19. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  20. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  1. Perfil ventilatório dos pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio Ventilatory profile of patients undergoing CABG surgery

    Katiane Tremarin Morsch

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil ventilatório, radiológico e clínico dos pacientes submetidos a cirurgia eletiva de revascularização do miocárdio em hospital de referência em cardiologia no sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 108 indivíduos submetidos a cirurgia eletiva de revascularização do miocárdio no Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul (IC-FUC, no período de abril de 2006 a fevereiro de 2007. A abordagem cirúrgica realizada foi a da esternotomia mediana e os enxertos foram com ponte de safena e/ou artéria mamária interna. Os volumes e capacidades pulmonares, bem como a presença de distúrbios ventilatórios, foram avaliados por meio da espirometria e a força muscular ventilatória da manovacuometria. As avaliações foram realizadas no período pré-operatório e no sexto dia de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Observou-se redução significativa do VEF1 e da CVF quando comparados os valores pré-operatórios com os do sexto dia de pós-operatório (POBJECTIVE: To assess the ventilatory, radiological and clinical profile of patients undergoing elective CABG in a cardiology reference hospital in South Brazil. METHODS: This study included 108 patients undergoing elective CABG surgery, in the period between April 2006 and February 2007 at the Cardiology Institute of Rio Grande do Sul (IC-FUC. The surgical procedure involved median sternotomy, and the saphenous vein and/or internal mammary artery were used for grafting. Lung volume and capacity, as well as the possible existence of ventilatory changes, were assessed by spirometry, and the ventilatory muscle strength was assessed using a vaccum manometer. All evaluations were performed on the preoperative period and on the sixth postoperative day. RESULTS: Preoperative levels of FEV1 and FVC were significantly reduced on the 6th postoperative day (P<0.001 when compared to the preoperative levels. A significant decrease of ventilatory muscle strength, expressed

  2. 78 FR 77648 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... for Trade Adjustment Assistance AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce... -battery racks, and mobile feed troughs. Decker Manufacturing, Inc..... 312 Blondeau St, 12/17/2013...

  3. [Ventilatory strategy for ARDS].

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Takegawa, Ryousuke; Ogura, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Fifteen years have passed since lung protective strategy to the patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) established. Recently, the new Berlin Definition of ARDS has been developed and this classified ARDS into three stages (mild, moderate, and severe ARDS), depending on the PaO2/FiO2. After this new definition of ARDS, each treatment to the patients with ARDS should be considered, depending on the severity of lung injury, such as prone position to the patients with severe ARDS, muscle paralysis to the patients with severe ARDS. In this review article, we review the history of lung protective strategy and ARDS definition, discuss the novel physiological approaches to minimizing ventilator-induced lung injury, and highlight a numbers of experimental/clinical studies to support these concepts. PMID:26915253

  4. An adjustable contracted CI method

    王育彬; 甘正汀; 苏克和; 文振翼

    1999-01-01

    A new contracted CI scheme——adjustable contracted CI scheme——is presented and programed. The efficiency of this scheme is tested by some example calculations. The result shows that the application of the new scheme is flexible and the correlation energy loss is lower than that of the original externally contracted CI method.

  5. Self-Adjusting Stack Machines

    Hammer, Matthew A; Chen, Yan; Acar, Umut A

    2011-01-01

    Self-adjusting computation offers a language-based approach to writing programs that automatically respond to dynamically changing data. Recent work made significant progress in developing sound semantics and associated implementations of self-adjusting computation for high-level, functional languages. These techniques, however, do not address issues that arise for low-level languages, i.e., stack-based imperative languages that lack strong type systems and automatic memory management. In this paper, we describe techniques for self-adjusting computation which are suitable for low-level languages. Necessarily, we take a different approach than previous work: instead of starting with a high-level language with additional primitives to support self-adjusting computation, we start with a low-level intermediate language, whose semantics is given by a stack-based abstract machine. We prove that this semantics is sound: it always updates computations in a way that is consistent with full reevaluation. We give a comp...

  6. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  7. Adjustment or updating of models

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  8. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  9. Multi-toning Image Adjustment

    LIU Shi-guang; WANG Xiao-juan; PENG Qun-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Due to the different lighting environments or other reasons, the pixel colors may be quite different in one image which causes distinct visual discontinuities. It makes the analysis and processing of such an image more difficult and sometime impossible. In this paper, a unified multi-toning image adjustment method is proposed to solve this problem. First, a novel unsupervised clustering method was proposed to partition the source and the target image into a certain number of subsets with similar color statistics. By matching the texture characteristics and luminance distribution between the blocks, it can create optimized correspondence. Then, the color information was transferred from the matched pixels in the source blocks to the target ones. Graph cut method was used to optimize the seams between different subsets in the final step. This method can automatically perform color adjustment of a multi-toning image. It is simple and efficient. Various results show the validity of this method.

  10. 24 CFR 884.109 - Rent adjustments.

    2010-04-01

    ... assisted and comparable unassisted units, as determined by HUD: Provided, however, That this limitation shall not be construed to prohibit differences in rents between assisted and comparable unassisted...

  11. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Berno J.E. Misgeld; Kurt Gerlach-Hahn; Daniel Rüschen; Anake Pomprapa; Steffen Leonhardt

    2014-01-01

    Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity...

  12. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  13. Focal Adjustment for Star Tracker

    Liu Hai-bo; Jian-kun Yang; Ji-chun Tan; De-zhi Su; Wen-liang Wang; Xiu-jian Li; Hui Jia

    2010-01-01

    Technique of measuring intensity distribution and size of spot image developed has been discussed, which is especially suitable for defocus adjustment in ground test of star tracker. A novel approach for choosing a proper defocusing position has been proposed based on collimator, Gaussian surface fitting method, and other ordinary instruments. It proves to be practical and adequate in the development of distant object tracking such as star tracker.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6), pp.678-...

  14. Physician-assisted death.

    Senn, John S.

    1995-01-01

    Physician-assisted death includes both euthanasia and assistance in suicide. The CMA urges its members to adhere to the principles of palliative care. It does not support euthanasia and assisted suicide. The following policy summary includes definitions of euthanasia and assisted suicide, background information, basic ethical principles and physician concerns about legalization of physician-assisted death.

  15. Tritium-assisted fusion breeders

    This report undertakes a preliminary assessment of the prospects of tritium-assisted D-D fuel cycle fusion breeders. Two well documented fusion power reactor designs - the STARFIRE (D-T fuel cycle) and the WILDCAT (Cat-D fuel cycle) tokamaks - are converted into fusion breeders by replacing the fusion electric blankets with 233U producing fission suppressed blankets; changing the Cat-D fuel cycle mode of operation by one of the several tritium-assisted D-D-based modes of operation considered; adjusting the reactor power level; and modifying the resulting plant cost to account for the design changes. Three sources of tritium are considered for assisting the D-D fuel cycle: tritium produced in the blankets from lithium or from 3He and tritium produced in the client fission reactors. The D-D-based fusion breeders using tritium assistance are found to be the most promising economically, especially the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium mode of operation in which the 3He exhausted from the plasma is converted, by neutron capture in the blanket, into tritium which is in turn fed back to the plasma. The number of fission reactors of equal thermal power supported by Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium fusion breeders is about 50% higher than that of D-T fusion breeders, and the profitability is found to be slightly lower than that of the D-T fusion breeders

  16. Adjusting ability and sensibility for an accident

    Adjusting ability (technical competence) and sensibility (consciousness) are the two most important priorities any staff member of any organization should bear in mind while acting during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The discussion is aimed at the national authorities of states which do not have a major nuclear power reactor programme, and especially at the IAEA and WHO: although a decade has gone by, the lessons from the radiological accident in Goiania have not been fully learned. The events which unravelled in the fall of 1987 took the population of the city of Goiania completely by surprise: they did not comprehend what had happened and failed to grasp what measures needed to be taken, a situation which precipitated a very complex psychological reaction, coupled with discrimination. To ensure the safety of radiation sources and nuclear installations, national and international organizations should direct their efforts towards educating and training staff in developing countries who work with ionizing radiation and promoting organizational capacity. This should be done first, by improving safety qualitatively so as to better control the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industry and research, and secondly, by assisting countries without a major nuclear power reactor programme to develop an objective and realistic emergency response training programme. (author)

  17. Cell and Tissue Organization in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems Volume 1 Signaling in Cell Organization, Fate, and Activity, Part A Cell Structure and Environment

    Thiriet, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning.  The present volume is devoted to cellular events that allow adaptation to environmental conditions, particularly mechanotransduction. It begins with cell organization and a survey of cell types in the vasculatur...

  18. MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW AND THE VENTILATORY RESPONSE TO EXERCISE%运动状态下最大呼气流速和通气反应

    Tony.G.Babb

    2005-01-01

    目的本文探讨了最大呼气量对运动通气反应的影响.方法选择6名较高最大呼气量(FEV1>80%Pred;FEV1/FVC>72%)和5名较低最大呼气量(FEV1<80%Pred;FEV1/FVC<72%)者作为受试者.每名受试者尽最大力至疲劳,交替呼吸室内空气或含有3%CO2和76%N2的混合空气后用梯度循环测力仪进行测定.肺容量和流量环在每2min增加工作功率(20或30W)时进行测定,并对休息状态的数值进行分析.完成这两项测试后,分析通气阈(VTh)和最大运动值的最高等量工作率(HEWR).结果在休息或VTh状态下呼吸CO2时,高流量者和低流量者的通气均增加(P<0.001).呼吸CO2时,高流量者的HEWR增大(P<0.05).而呼吸CO2时,如其对运动时的通气反应高于通气阈则使低流量者与呼吸室内空气者相比,其运动时的通气反应减少(P<0.05).且吸入CO2运动时的通气反应高于通气闽者与FEV1(%Pred)(r=0.72,P<0.02)呈显著相关性.低流量者行最大运动的终末呼气肺容量和终末吸气肺容量在呼吸室内空气或CO2时较高,分别P<0.001、P<0.05.结论这些结果提示,低流量者吸入CO2来增强通气需求时,对较大或最大运动量的通气反应呈约束状态.这些结果可证实,高流量和低流量受试者在呼吸室内空气和3%CO2时的呼吸机制有显著性差别.%Objective To investigate the effect of maximal expiratory flow on the ventilatory response to exercise. Methods 6 subjects with higher maximal expiratory flow ( FEV1 > 80% Pred, FEV1 / FVC > 72% ) and 5subjects with lower maximal expiratory flow ( FEV1 < 80% Pred, FEV1 / FVC < 72% ) were studied. Each subject performed graded cycle ergometry to exhaustion, once while breathing room air and once while breathing a gas mixture of 3% CO2, 21% O2, and 76% N2. E, lung volumes, and flow - volume loops were measured during each 2 min increment in work rate (20 or 30 W) and analyzed at rest, ventilatory threshold ( VTh), and maximal

  19. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  20. Focal Adjustment for Star Tracker

    Liu Hai-bo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Technique of measuring intensity distribution and size of spot image developed has been discussed, which is especially suitable for defocus adjustment in ground test of star tracker. A novel approach for choosing a proper defocusing position has been proposed based on collimator, Gaussian surface fitting method, and other ordinary instruments. It proves to be practical and adequate in the development of distant object tracking such as star tracker.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6, pp.678-682, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.36

  1. A computerized adjustable brain atlas

    A computerized brain atlas, adjustable to the patients anatomy, has been developed. It is primarily intended for use in positron emission tomography, but may also be employed in other fields utilizing neuro imaging, such as sterotactic surgery, transmission computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The atlas is based on anatomical information obtained from digitized cryosectioned brains. It can be adjusted to fit a wide range of images from individual brains with normal anatomy. The corresponding transformation is chosen so that the modified atlas agrees with a set of CT or NMR images of the patient. The computerized atlas can be used to improve the quantification and evaluation of PET data by: Aiding and improving the selection of regions of interests. Facilitating comparisons of functional image data from different individuals or groups of individuals. Facilitating the comparison of different examinations of the same patient, thus reducing the need of reproducible fixation systems. Providing external a priori anatomical information to be used in the image reconstruction. Improving the attenuation and scatter corrections. Aiding in selecting a suitable patient orientation during the PET study. By applying the inverse atlas transformation to PET data set it is possible to relate the PET information to the anatomy of the reference atlas. Reformatted PET data from different patients can thus be averaged, and averages from different categories of patients can be compared. The method will facilitate the identification of statistically significant differences in the PET information from different groups of patients. (orig.)

  2. 48 CFR 1450.103 - Contract adjustments.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract adjustments. 1450.103 Section 1450.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT... Contract adjustments....

  3. Labour Adjustment Costs and British Footwear Protection

    Winters, L. Alan

    1990-01-01

    Import protection is frequently advocated as a means of preserving jobs and avoiding labour adjustment costs. Defining adjustment costs in terms of output forgone during the process of adjustment and ignoring any general equilibrium repercussions, we estimate that quantitative restrictions on British footwear imports during 1979 protected about 1,000 jobs and avoided once-and-for-all adjustment costs of only around 1 million pounds sterling. The result is based on new data which reveal high r...

  4. Anchoring Adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model

    Hammad, Siddiqi

    2015-01-01

    An anchoring adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model (ACAPM) is developed in which the payoff volatilities of well-established stocks are used as starting points that are adjusted to form volatility judgments about other stocks. Anchoring heuristic implies that such adjustments are typically insufficient. ACAPM converges to CAPM with correct adjustment, so CAPM is a special case of ACAPM. The model provides a unified explanation for the size, value, and momentum effects in the stock market. A ke...

  5. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  6. Dimensions of Adjustment among College Women.

    Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra

    1998-01-01

    Examines academic, social, and personal-emotional adjustment, as well as institutional attachment for women (N=198) attending a predominantly white coeducational research university. Significant main effects were found on academic achievement for year in college. Students differed on personal-emotional adjustment by race. Academic adjustment and…

  7. Ventilatory and ECMO treatment of H1N1-induced severe respiratory failure: results of an Italian referral ECMO center

    Giovannini Valtere

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the first outbreak of a respiratory illness caused by H1N1 virus in Mexico, several reports have described the need of intensive care or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO assistance in young and often healthy patients. Here we describe our experience in H1N1-induced ARDS using both ventilation strategy and ECMO assistance. Methods Following Italian Ministry of Health instructions, an Emergency Service was established at the Careggi Teaching Hospital (Florence, Italy for the novel pandemic influenza. From Sept 09 to Jan 10, all patients admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Emergency Department with ARDS due to H1N1 infection were studied. All ECMO treatments were veno-venous. H1N1 infection was confirmed by PCR assayed on pharyngeal swab, subglottic aspiration and bronchoalveolar lavage. Lung pathology was evaluated daily by lung ultrasound (LUS examination. Results A total of 12 patients were studied: 7 underwent ECMO treatment, and 5 responded to protective mechanical ventilation. Two patients had co-infection by Legionella Pneumophila. One woman was pregnant. In our series, PCR from bronchoalveolar lavage had a 100% sensitivity compared to 75% from pharyngeal swab samples. The routine use of LUS limited the number of chest X-ray examinations and decreased transportation to radiology for CT-scan, increasing patient safety and avoiding the transitory disconnection from ventilator. No major complications occurred during ECMO treatments. In three cases, bleeding from vascular access sites due to heparin infusion required blood transfusions. Overall mortality rate was 8.3%. Conclusions In our experience, early ECMO assistance resulted safe and feasible, considering the life threatening condition, in H1N1-induced ARDS. Lung ultrasound is an effective mean for daily assessment of ARDS patients.

  8. Neighborhood Assets and Adolescent Adjustment

    Alfredo Oliva Delgado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study analyzing the relationship between some dimensions or developmental assets in the neighborhood, as measured by the Scale for the Assessment of Developmental Assets in the Neighborhood, and adjustment and life satisfaction of adolescent boys and girls. The sample consisted of 2400 adolescents (1068 boys and 1332 girls between ages 12 and 17 who were secondary students in public and private schools in Western Andalusia. The results showed significant relationships between most dimensions of the scale (youth empowerment, attachment to neighbourhood safety and social control and internalizing and externalizing problems, substance use and life satisfaction of participants. Moreover, the data provide evidence about the external validity of the scale used in the study. From the results some suggestions for intervention in the community environment are extracted.

  9. Culture, emotion regulation, and adjustment.

    Matsumoto, David; Yoo, Seung Hee; Nakagawa, Sanae

    2008-06-01

    This article reports differences across 23 countries on 2 processes of emotion regulation--reappraisal and suppression. Cultural dimensions were correlated with country means on both and the relationship between them. Cultures that emphasized the maintenance of social order--that is, those that were long-term oriented and valued embeddedness and hierarchy--tended to have higher scores on suppression, and reappraisal and suppression tended to be positively correlated. In contrast, cultures that minimized the maintenance of social order and valued individual Affective Autonomy and Egalitarianism tended to have lower scores on Suppression, and Reappraisal and Suppression tended to be negatively correlated. Moreover, country-level emotion regulation was significantly correlated with country-level indices of both positive and negative adjustment. PMID:18505309

  10. 76 FR 21034 - Dex One, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment...

    2011-04-14

    ...-75,172E). The notice was published in the Federal Register on March 10, 2011 (76 FR 13228). At the... Employment and Training Administration Dex One, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance TA-W-75,172 Dex One, Formerly Known as RH Donnelly and/or Dex...

  11. 76 FR 51432 - The Boeing Company; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment...

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration The Boeing Company; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In The Matter of: TA-W-70,520; The Boeing Company, Commercial Aircraft Group; Including On-Site Leased...

  12. Template-assisted patterning of functional polymers

    Haberkorn, Niko

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, which provide well-aligned uniform mesoscopic pores with adjustable pore parameters, were fabricated and successfully utilized as templates for the fabrication of functional organic nanowires, nanorods and the respective well-ordered arrays. The template-assisted patterning technique was successfully applied for the realization of different objectives:rnHigh-density and well-ordered arrays of hole-conducting nanorods composed of cross-lin...

  13. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  14. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies.

    Doran, Carolina; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  15. Adaptation and adjustment in children of transsexual parents.

    White, Tonya; Ettner, Randi

    2007-06-01

    It is a relatively uncommon event that children find themselves in a situation with a parent who undergoes a transition from one sex to another. Unlike situations of divorce or a parent with a medical or major psychiatric disorder, it is unlikely that the children will know of other children who encounter similar situations. There is very little literature that describes the adjustment of these children and the nature of their relationships with their parents and peers. Such information would be beneficial for clinicians assisting children and families in this situation. To better delineate the adjustment of these children, we interviewed 27 parents of 55 children. The interview took place on average 6 years after the gender transition. The measures obtained included the parent and child relationships at present and also at the time of the transition. We also inquired about academic function, peer relationships and social stigma. The results found that children who were younger at the time of the parent's transition tended to have better relationships and less adjustment difficulties. In addition, parental conflict that continues after the transition period tends to reflect greater family conflict between the transitioned parent and their child. PMID:17136300

  16. 飞秒激光辅助Q值调整的非球面个性化LASIK与常规LASIK术后视觉质量对比研究%Postoperative visual quality research of femtosecond laser assisted the Q value adjustment of aspheric personalized LASIK compared with conventional LASIK

    于秋菊; 张海东; 张永红

    2016-01-01

    目的 通过对近视患者行Q值调整LASIK术和常规的LASIK术术后屈光度、裸眼视力、Q值、高阶像差、视觉对比敏感度的观察,对其视觉质量进行对比评估,同时也为屈光手术病人选择更好地手术方式提供理论依据.方法 临床病例对照研究.2014年1~6月在石家庄爱尔眼科医院接受LASIK手术治疗近视患者,分为二个组:Q值调整的非球面个性化LASIK组、常规LASIK组,术后随访6个月观察裸眼视力、Q值、屈光度、高阶像差、对比敏感度和患者术后主观视觉质量调查等情况.结果 两组病人术后屈光状态、术后裸眼视力、预测性均达到理想状态,两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组6个月Q值、高阶像差(球差)比P <0.05,有统计学意义.暗环境下对比敏感度:眩光条件下,第三、四等级标准组未通过例数增加更显著,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).主观视觉感受:Q值调整的非球面个体化LASIK组比常规LASIK组主观视觉感受度稍佳,具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 Q值调整的非球面个性化LASIK组与常规的LASIK术相比,术后球差的变化小于常规组,且提高了患者术后的视觉质量,减少了夜视力下降、眩光、对比敏感度异常的发生.%Objective To assess and compare the postoperative visual quality of the Q value adjusted LASIK and conventional LASIK surgery through uncorrected visual acuity,Q value,higher-order aberrations,visual contrast sensitivity for evaluation,and to provide a theoretical basis for myopic patients choose better refractive surgery.Methods Myopia patients from January 2014 to June in Shijiazhuang ophthalmic hospital were divided into two groups:Q value adjustment of comeal refractive surgery group,the conventional LASIK group received treatment of LASIK surgery,and were followed-up 6 months postoperatively.The naked eye sight,Q value,diopter,higher-order aberrations,contrast sensitivity,and patients with

  17. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  18. Asian immigrant settlement and adjustment in Australia.

    Khoo, S; Kee, P; Dang, T; Shu, J

    1994-01-01

    "This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency." PMID:12289777

  19. Attitude-adjusting table for neutron monochromator

    The neutron monochromator attitude-adjusting table is one of the mechanical components for most monochromatic neutron scattering spectrometer. It is mainly used for mounting crystal monochromator, and getting monochromatic neutron by adjusting the attitude of monochromator remotely. The table has a compact volume and five adjusting axes with high resolution. It combines optic mechanical electronic technique with computer control technique. This device will be applied to the neutron residual stress spectrometer on CARR firstly. (authors)

  20. Implementation of Risk Adjustment for Medicare

    Ingber, Melvin J.

    2000-01-01

    The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) implemented risk adjustment for Medicare capitated organizations January 2000. The risk adjustment system used, the Principal Inpatient Diagnostic Cost Group (PIPDCG) method, had to be incorporated into the payment structure mandated by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA). This article describes how risk adjustment was integrated into the payment system within the rules of the BBA, and how fee-for-service (FFS) and health maintenance organizat...

  1. An adjustment cost model of distributional dynamics.

    Getachew, Yoseph; Basu, Parantap

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the distributional e¤ects of adjustment cost in an environment with incomplete capital market. We find that a higher adjustment cost for human capital acquisition slows down the intergenerational mobility and results in a persistent inequality across generations. A low depreciation cost of human capital contributes to longer life of the capital which could elevate this adjustment cost and hence contribute to this inequality persistence. A lower total factor productivity could hurt...

  2. Postoperative ventilatory and circulatory effects of heating after aortocoronary bypass surgery. Extended rewarming during cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative radiant heat supply.

    Joachimsson, P O; Nyström, S O; Tydén, H

    1987-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with stable angina pectoris were studied after aortocoronary bypass surgery with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Twelve patients (radiant heat supply group) were rewarmed during CPB to a nasopharyngeal temperature of at least 38 degrees C and a mean rectal temperature of 34.4 degrees C. Postoperatively they received radiant heat supply from a thermal ceiling. In addition, a heating water mattress was used during the end of the operation and heated, humidified inspired gases were administered intra- and postoperatively. The other 12 patients (combination heat supply group) had the rewarming during CPB extended until the rectal temperature exceeded 36 degrees C, but otherwise received the same treatment as the radiant heat supply group. The combination of extended rewarming during CPB and postoperative radiant heat supply significantly reduced oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production and the required ventilation volumes during early recovery as compared with the values in the radiant heat supply group. The reduced metabolic demands were accompanied by lower cardiac index and oxygen delivery, which, however, were sufficient for adequate tissue perfusion as judged by the similarity in oxygen extraction and arterial base excess values in the two groups. The metabolic demands and ventilatory requirements were reduced to a level at which safe early extubation is possible. PMID:3498281

  3. Comparison between two different modes of non-invasive ventilatory support in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome mild to moderate: preliminary data

    F. Ciuffini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as a better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. HFNC may be effective in the treatment of some neonatal respiratory conditions while being more user-friendly for care-givers than conventional NCPAP. Limited evidence is available to support the specific role, efficacy and safety of HFNC in newborns and to demonstrate efficacy compared with NCPAP; some studies suggest a potential role for HFNC in respiratory care of the neonate as a distinct non invasive ventilatory support. We present the preliminary data of a randomized clinical trial; the aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of HFNC compared to NCPAP in preterm newborns with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.

  4. Assisted Living Community Profile

    ... for the Seniors Housing & Care Industry, reflects NCAL's philosophy of assisted living. 2 Data also from the ... Assisted Living Studies Clinical Practice Guidelines Health Information Technology In-Service Training Tools Periodicals State Regulatory Review ...

  5. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    ... having a repeat assisted vaginal delivery in a future pregnancy? If you have had one assisted vaginal ... Education Green Journal Practice Management Coding Health Info Technology Professional Liability Managing Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality ...

  6. ForeignAssistance.gov

    US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  7. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Skip sharing on social media links Share ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved June 11, 2012, ...

  8. VIDEO ASSISTED THYROIDECTOMY

    C. Bradea

    2009-01-01

    Video assisted techniques were documented by M.Gagner (1996 – video assisted parathyroidectomy), Henry (1999), Shimizu (1999), Ohgami (2000), Miccoli (2000 – video assisted parathyroidectomy and thyroidectomy). The advantage of this kind of surgery: aesthetics i.e. trying to make only small scars on the neck. Our first case of video assisted thyroidectomy was a female 50 years of age, with multinodular goiter, nodules of 2-3 cm in each lobe, admitted in our clinic in December 2008. History of...

  9. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  10. Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.

    Albrecht, G H; Gelvin, B R; Hartman, S E

    1993-08-01

    Simple ratios in which a measurement variable is divided by a size variable are commonly used but known to be inadequate for eliminating size correlations from morphometric data. Deficiencies in the simple ratio can be alleviated by incorporating regression coefficients describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables. Recommendations have included: 1) subtracting the regression intercept to force the bivariate relationship through the origin (intercept-adjusted ratios); 2) exponentiating either the measurement or the size variable using an allometry coefficient to achieve linearity (allometrically adjusted ratios); or 3) both subtracting the intercept and exponentiating (fully adjusted ratios). These three strategies for deriving size-adjusted ratios imply different data models for describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables (i.e., the linear, simple allometric, and full allometric models, respectively). Algebraic rearrangement of the equation associated with each data model leads to a correctly formulated adjusted ratio whose expected value is constant (i.e., size correlation is eliminated). Alternatively, simple algebra can be used to derive an expected value function for assessing whether any proposed ratio formula is effective in eliminating size correlations. Some published ratio adjustments were incorrectly formulated as indicated by expected values that remain a function of size after ratio transformation. Regression coefficients incorporated into adjusted ratios must be estimated using least-squares regression of the measurement variable on the size variable. Use of parameters estimated by any other regression technique (e.g., major axis or reduced major axis) results in residual correlations between size and the adjusted measurement variable. Correctly formulated adjusted ratios, whose parameters are estimated by least-squares methods, do control for size correlations. The size-adjusted

  11. Evaluation of an adjustable epidemiologic information system.

    Jiunn-Shyan Julian Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to facilitate public health response and to achieve early control of infectious disease epidemics, an adjustable epidemiologic information system (AEIS was established in the Taiwan public health network in February 2006. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The performance of AEIS for the period 2006 through 2008 was evaluated based on a number of response times (RT and the public health impact. After implementation of the system, the apparent overall shortened RT was mainly due to the shortening of personnel response time (PRT and the time needed to draft a new questionnaire that incurred as personnel-system interface (PSI; PRT dropped from a fluctuating range of 9.8 ∼28.8 days in the first four months to <10 days in the following months and remained low till 2008 (0.88±1.52 days. The PSIs for newly emerged infectious diseases were 2.6 and 3.4 person-hours for H5N1 in 2007 and chikungunya in 2008, respectively, a much improvement from 1142.5 person-hours for SARS in 2003. The duration of each rubella epidemic cluster was evaluated as public health impact and showed a shortening trend (p = 0.019 that concurred with the shortening of PRT from 64.8±47.3 to 25.2±38.2 hours per cluster (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first evaluation of the novel instrument AEIS that had been used to assist Taiwan's multi-level government for infectious diseases control demonstrated that it was well integrated into the existing public health infrastructure. It provided flexible tools and computer algorithms with friendly interface for timely data collection, integration, and analysis; as a result, it shortened RTs, filled in gaps of personnel lacking sufficient experiences, created a more efficient flow of response, and identified asymptomatic/mild cases early to minimize further spreading. With further development, AEIS is anticipated to be useful in the application of other acute public health events needing immediate

  12. Axion-Assisted Electroweak Baryogenesis

    Craig, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    We consider a hidden-valley gauge sector, G, with strong coupling scale Lambda~TeV and CP-violating topological parameter, theta, as well as a new axion degree of freedom which adjusts theta to near zero in the current universe. If the G-sector couples to the Standard Model via weak-scale states charged under both, then in the early universe it is possible for the CP-violation due to theta (which has not yet been adjusted to zero by the hidden axion) to feed in to the SM and drive efficient baryogenesis during the electroweak (EW) phase transition, independent of the effectively small amount of CP violation present in the SM itself. While current constraints on both the new axion and charged states are easily satisfied, we argue that the LHC can investigate the vast majority of parameter space where EW-baryogenesis is efficiently assisted, while the hidden axion should comprise a significant fraction of the dark matter density. In the supersymmetric version, the ``messenger'' matter communicating between the ...

  13. Adjustment of the Internal Tax Scale

    2013-01-01

    In application of Article R V 2.03 of the Staff Regulations, the internal tax scale has been adjusted with effect on 1 January 2012. The new scale may be consulted via the CERN Admin e-guide.  The notification of internal annual tax certificate for the financial year 2012 takes into account this adjustment. HR Department (Tel. 73907)

  14. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  15. A Digital Game for International Students' Adjustment

    Bisadi, Maryam; Chua, Alton Y. K; Keong, Lee Chu

    2013-01-01

    Although digital games have been developed for various subject areas, little attention has been focused on using digital games to address international students' adjustment issues. For this reason, this paper endeavors to explore the use of a digital game in facilitating international students acquire adjustment-related information. Specifically,…

  16. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  17. Psychological Separation and Adjustment to College.

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between psychological separation and adjustment to college in freshmen (N=130) and upperclassmen (N=123). Found freshmen showed more psychological dependencies on parents than upperclassmen; separation appeared more strongly related to personal/emotional adjustment, particularly functional and emotional independence from…

  18. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2... applicable) penalty amount 20 U.S.C. 1015(c)(5) Provides for a fine of up to $25,000 for failure by...

  19. Attachment for sucker rod depth adjustment

    Collins, N.D.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a surface unit of an oil well pumping system, having a walking beam, a suspended carrier bar and an interconnected sucker rod assembly for stroking a reciprocating down-hole pump. It comprises a cross bar having a centrally located passage therein for the sucker rod assembly and adapted to be transversely supported by the carrier bar; a depth adjusting bar, having a centrally located passage therein for the sucker rod assembly, positioned at a selected fixed dimension above and parallel to the cross bar and adapted to operatively support the sucker rod assembly; clamping means for fixing the sucker rod relative to the depth adjusting bar; and hydraulically extendable means supportively connecting the depth adjusting bar to the cross bar on at least each side of the carrier bar for adjusting the selected fixed dimension and maintaining the adjustment during operation.

  20. Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment

    Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded

    2007-01-01

    the assignment. Design/methodology/approach - Using a two-flow sample of US expatriates in Germany and German expatriates in the USA, we examine and compare the psychological and socio-cultural adjustment of each group of executives. Findings - Controlling for the length of assignment, we find that...... German expatriates in the USA were better adjusted, both socio-culturally and psychologically, than American expatriates in Germany. These results support the asymmetry hypothesis and call into question previous findings attesting to the relationship between CD and expatriate adjustment. Originality......Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurdle...

  1. Vocational and social adjustment after laryngectomy.

    Goldberg, R T

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the vocational and social adjustment of 62 persons with cancer of the larynx. Predisability data were obtained by interview on 14 measures which assessed the vocational, social, and home adjustment prior to cancer. Post-disability data were obtained after laryngectomy by interview on 21 measures of adjustment. Additional measures include severity of laryngeal cancer classified by clinival stages, total or partial laryngectomy, presence of radiation therapy, presence of speech, months since surgery, age, sex, education, and marital status. The best predictors of vocational and social adjustment after laryngectomy were: removation, realism, rehabiltation outlook, previous vocational plans, highest educational grade, educational plans, and acquisition of speech. There were no significant differences in adjustment among patients in different clinical stages. PMID:1135615

  2. 22 CFR 142.44 - Academic adjustments.

    2010-04-01

    ... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 142.44 Academic... recipient's education program or activity. (c) Course examinations. In its examinations or other...

  3. 22 CFR 217.44 - Academic adjustments.

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 217.44 Academic... recipient's education program or activity. (c) Course examinations. In its course examinations or...

  4. 45 CFR 84.44 - Academic adjustments.

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 84.44... recipient's education program or activity. (c) Course examinations. In its course examinations or...

  5. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Chinese Students in Japan: School Adjustment and Educational Support

    Li, Yuan Xiang; Sano, Hideki; Ahn, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates Chinese immigrant students' cross-cultural and school adjustment issues in Japanese schools. Using a quantitative method, a survey which collected students' demographic information, cross-cultural adjustment, and school adjustment questions was administered to 143 Chinese junior high and high school students in…

  6. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  7. A pair of diopter-adjustable eyeglasses for presbyopia correction

    Wang, Lihui; Cassinelli, Alvaro; Oku, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2014-09-01

    We describe and demonstrate a pair of diopter-adjustable eyeglasses aimed to correct presbyopia; the glasses provide a tunable optical power in the whole surface of the lens cell, eliminating the optical distortion typical of bifocal/trifocal or progressive glasses. The wearer can actively control the optical power by a simple sliding gesture on the bridge of the glasses, so that presbyopic vision can be interactively corrected. Results from a preliminary experiment showed that a presbyopia sufferer could clearly observe near and far objects under the assistant accommodation of the glasses. Designing a truly wearable system poses some challenges - none of them theoretical - so the system should be feasible in the near future.

  8. Experiment on performance of adjustable jet pump

    When the water level of upper or lower reaches of hydraulic power station changes, the adjustable jet pump which is different from traditional fixed jet pump can maintain stable pressure and flow rate for the system of technical water supply of hydraulic power plant. The model test indicates that the efficiency of the adjustable jet pump is slightly lower than fixed jet pump near rating operation point. With the decrease of opening degree, both efficiencies are more and more close to each other. The fundamental performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is better than II-type and the cavitation performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is worse than II-type. Test data also indicate that the performance of adjustable jet pump is very different from fixed jet pump, so the theory of fixed jet pump is not able to be copied to adjustable jet pump. It is necessary to farther study on the performance of the adjustable jet pump. This paper has reference value for analogous design of system of circulation water supply to turbine units in hydraulic power station.

  9. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  10. Experiment on performance of adjustable jet pump

    Zhu, J. M.; Long, X. P.; Zhang, S. B.; Lu, X.

    2012-11-01

    When the water level of upper or lower reaches of hydraulic power station changes, the adjustable jet pump which is different from traditional fixed jet pump can maintain stable pressure and flow rate for the system of technical water supply of hydraulic power plant. The model test indicates that the efficiency of the adjustable jet pump is slightly lower than fixed jet pump near rating operation point. With the decrease of opening degree, both efficiencies are more and more close to each other. The fundamental performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is better than II-type and the cavitation performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is worse than II-type. Test data also indicate that the performance of adjustable jet pump is very different from fixed jet pump, so the theory of fixed jet pump is not able to be copied to adjustable jet pump. It is necessary to farther study on the performance of the adjustable jet pump. This paper has reference value for analogous design of system of circulation water supply to turbine units in hydraulic power station.

  11. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Backer, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    Jäderberg I, Thomsen SF, Kyvik KO, Skytthe A, Backer V. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 140-145. We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted...... reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression and...... variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0...

  12. Adjustment as process and outcome: Measuring adjustment to HIV in Uganda.

    Martin, Faith; Russell, Steve; Seeley, Janet

    2016-05-01

    'Adjustment' in health refers to both processes and outcomes. Its measurement and conceptualisation in African cultures is limited. In total, 263 people living with HIV and receiving anti-retroviral therapy in clinics in Uganda completed a translated Mental Adjustment to HIV Scale, depression items from the Hopkins checklist and demographic questions. Factor analysis revealed four Mental Adjustment to HIV factors of active coping, cognitive-social adjustment, hopelessness and denial/avoidance. Correlations with depression supported the Mental Adjustment to HIV's validity and the importance of active adjustment, while the role of cognitive adjustment was unclear. Factors were process or outcome focussed, suggesting a need for theory-based measures in general. PMID:25030794

  13. Assistance Focus: Africa (Brochure)

    2014-12-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  14. “Like Playing With Fire Under a Hut” - You Will Get Burnt If You Do Not Adjust: Reflections of Social Work Students on Adjusting to University Life

    Nkosinathi Sibanyoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High dropout rates in first year and the enculturation into the academic literacies essential in promoting a successful academic adjustment are some of the challenges faced by many students when entering a higher education institution. The study aimed to understand some of the factors that contribute to student adjustment as social work students negotiate the higher education landscape from first to second year. The study explored the views of twelve first-year and seven second-year students utilising a qualitative research design where purposive sampling was used to recruit two focus groups. The results revealed that what both sets of students recognised as beneficial to their academic adjustment were the familiarisation of context, the use of effective time management skills, and positive attitudes. However, university-driven interventions aiming at assisting first year social work students with their academic life, such as the First Year Experience (FYE, were identified as too generic and not able to meet the unique needs of the participants. Recommendations emanating from the study included the development of discipline-specific academic development programmes that encourage social and academic adjustment. Additionally, collaboration between students within professional disciplines and the use of technology-enhanced learning could facilitate student adjustment.

  15. Turning assistive machines into assistive robots

    Argall, Brenna D.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, the potential for automation in particular, in the form of smart wheelchairs to aid those with motor, or cognitive, impairments has been recognized. It is a paradox that often the more severe a person's motor impairment, the more challenging it is for them to operate the very assistive machines which might enhance their quality of life. A primary aim of my lab is to address this confound by incorporating robotics autonomy and intelligence into assistive machines turning the machine into a kind of robot, and offloading some of the control burden from the user. Robots already synthetically sense, act in and reason about the world, and these technologies can be leveraged to help bridge the gap left by sensory, motor or cognitive impairments in the users of assistive machines. This paper overviews some of the ongoing projects in my lab, which strives to advance human ability through robotics autonomy.

  16. Price adjustments by a gasoline retail chain

    We use daily data to examine price responses in the Swedish gasoline market to changes in the Rotterdam spot price, exchange rates and taxes. The distribution of price adjustments by a leading retail chain, for the period January 1980 to December 1996, is symmetric with no small adjustments. An error correction model shows that, in the short run, prices gradually move towards the long-run equilibrium in response to cost shocks. There is some evidence that, also in the short run, prices are stickier downwards than upwards. Prices respond more rapidly to exchange rate movements than to the spot market price. Our analysis emphasizes that to fully understand price adjustments it is necessary to examine data sets where the sample frequency at least matches that of price adjustments

  17. Annual adjustments to 2015 financial benefits

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2014, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2015.

  18. Annual adjustments to 2016 financial benefits

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by the Council in December 2015, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2016.  

  19. A neutron collimator with adjustable radiation field

    An adjustable neutron collimator for neutron therapy purposes is described. The collimator is designed to give a very sharp radiation field and a high freedom of choice for the radiation geometrics. (L.E.)

  20. Overpaying morbidity adjusters in risk equalization models.

    van Kleef, R C; van Vliet, R C J A; van de Ven, W P M M

    2016-09-01

    Most competitive social health insurance markets include risk equalization to compensate insurers for predictable variation in healthcare expenses. Empirical literature shows that even the most sophisticated risk equalization models-with advanced morbidity adjusters-substantially undercompensate insurers for selected groups of high-risk individuals. In the presence of premium regulation, these undercompensations confront consumers and insurers with incentives for risk selection. An important reason for the undercompensations is that not all information with predictive value regarding healthcare expenses is appropriate for use as a morbidity adjuster. To reduce incentives for selection regarding specific groups we propose overpaying morbidity adjusters that are already included in the risk equalization model. This paper illustrates the idea of overpaying by merging data on morbidity adjusters and healthcare expenses with health survey information, and derives three preconditions for meaningful application. Given these preconditions, we think overpaying may be particularly useful for pharmacy-based cost groups. PMID:26420555

  1. Continuity Adjustment for Control Charts for Attributes

    L.K. Chan; T.K. Mak; B. Tao

    2003-01-01

    A unified approach is proposed for making a continuity adjustment on some control charts for attributes, e.g., np-chart and c-chart, through adding a uniform (0, 1) random observation to the conventional sample statistic (e.g., npi and ci). The adjusted sample statistic then has a continuous distribution. Consequently, given any Type I risk α (the probability that the sample statistic is on or beyond the control limits),control charts achieving the exact value of α can be readily constructed. Guidelines are given for when to use the continuity adjustment control chart, the conventional Shewhart control chart (with ±3 standard deviations control limits), and the control chart based on the exact distribution of the sample statistic before adjustment.

  2. Vietnamese Amerasians: Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychotherapy.

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on Amerasians and offers suggestions for directions in psychotherapy. Provides a brief chronology of Amerasian emigration and associated psychological issues, followed by a discussion of myths and generalizations about Amerasians, research findings, and adjustment issues. (RJM)

  3. Determinants of intercultural adjustment among expatriate spouses

    Ali, Anees; Van der Zee, K.I.; Sanders, G

    2003-01-01

    The adaptation of expatriate families to a host country seems crucial to successful fulfilment of international business assignments. The present study focused on personality, family characteristics and characteristics of expatriates' work life as determinants of the intercultural adjustment of expa

  4. 76 FR 67500 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    2011-11-01

    ... asserts that it expects this to improve the cost coverage for the parcels that remain in the market... product profitability. Id. The Postal Service characterizes the adjustment for Single-Piece Parcel Post...

  5. Annual adjustments to 2013 financial benefits

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2012, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2013. HR Department

  6. Annual adjustments to 2014 financial benefits

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2013, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2014. HR Department

  7. Speed of adjustment: Evidence from Borsa Istanbul

    Emrah Arioglu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the speed of adjustment for leverage ratios of firms listed on Borsa Istanbul, in order to investigate the prediction of the trade-off theory, regarding capital structure rebalancing. For this purpose, we estimate the speed of adjustment by using Generalized Method of Moments system estimation technique. The results of this estimation suggest the speed of adjustment as approximately 29%. This significant speed of adjustment is consistent with the prediction of trade-off theory, which suggests that firms follow target capital structures and when the firms' leverage ratios deviate from these targets; they make financial decisions with the goal of closing the gap between the previous year's leverage and target leverage of the current period.

  8. Consult your gods: the questionable economics of development assistance in Africa

    Asongu, Simplice A

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the aid-development nexus in 52 African countries using updated data (1996-2010) and a new indicator of human development (adjusted for inequality). The effects of Total Net Official Development Assistance (NODA), NODA from the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) and NODA from Multilateral donors on economic prosperity (at national and per capita levels) are also examined. The findings broadly indicate that development assistance is detrimental to GDP growth, GDP per ca...

  9. The questionable economics of development assistance in Africa: hot-fresh evidence, 1996-2010

    Asongu, Simplice

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the aid-development nexus in 52 African countries using updated data (1996-2010) and a new indicator of human development (adjusted for inequality). The effects of Total Net Official Development Assistance (NODA), NODA from the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) and NODA from Multilateral donors on economic prosperity (at national and per capita levels) are also examined. The findings broadly indicate that development assistance is detrimental to GDP growth, GDP per ca...

  10. Ventilatory-perfusory pulmonary scintigraphy as non invasive election procedure in patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary thrombo emboli; Centelleografia pulmonar ventilatoria-perfusoria, como procedimiento no invasivo de eleccion en pacientes con sospecha clinica de tromboembolia pulmonar

    Altamirano L, J

    2004-07-01

    30 patients were studied with suspicion of pulmonary thrombo emboli PTE, in a period of 9 months (January-September of 1992), 20 women and 10 men, with an age range of 26 to 88 years, average of 57.59 18.89. With respect to the clinical data, 24 presented breathing inadequacy (80%). 16 tachycardia (54%), 15 with thoracic pain (50%) and 4 with hemoptysis (13%). Of the cabinet studies, 12 presented electrocardiographic changes (IF, QIII, and TIII) (40%), 14 presented abnormalities in arterial gases. In the thorax tele, 8 presented abnormality; as spill, pneumonia, diaphragmatic elevation, etc. (26.6%) and of 14 the result was not reported (46 6%). They were carried out in all the patients, the ventilatory studies and perfusories in that order. A Siemens mark scintillation camera was used, with a collimator of low energy and of high resolution; the information was stored in a floppy disk, and later on they were printed in radiographic plaques of high resolution. The ventilatory study was carried out with 30 mCi of {sup 99m} Tc-DTPA, in radio aerosol form, emitted by a micro nebulizer, to which was applied a pressure of oxygen of 10 ml-min; during 10 to 15 minutes. They took projections antero, posterior, oblique antero left and right, oblique posterior left and right, each one with an acquisition of 150000 counts, or during 5 minutes. Later on and remaining the patient in supine position, was carried out the perfusory study, applying 3-4 mCi of {sup 99} Tc-MAA for endo venous via; they took the same projections that the ventilatory study, but with a density of information greater (500 000 counts each one). Both studies are printed in a radiographic plaque of high resolution, with which is interpreted and the study is filed. (Author)

  11. Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating: A Role for the Expert Patient?

    Harold David McIntyre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE programme of intensive insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes provides a structured educational intervention to improve glycemic control, reduce hypoglycemia and improve quality of life. Enhancement of self-management skills is a key element of DAFNE and patients acquire detailed skills in insulin dose adjustment. Following DAFNE training, patients report improved confidence in their ability to manage their own insulin dosing, but generally still seek and require the assistance of health professionals when making substantial changes to their insulin regimens. Some DAFNE trained patients may be able to assist their peers in aspects of diabetes management within a group environment, but widespread introduction of the expert patient/peer educator role in the self-management of type 1 diabetes, in particular related to insulin dose management, would require formal and detailed evaluation, preferably in randomized controlled clinical trials, before being introduced into routine clinical practice.

  12. Dinamika Personal Adjustment Pada Mantan PSK

    Ginting, Reza Yoga Pratama

    2014-01-01

    The research uses qualitative approach and aims to find the personal adjustment dynamic of former sexual worker. This research uses two respondents living in Medan and Pematang Siantar. The procedure of selecting the respondent was snowball method. The data were obtain by conducting interview. Theory that has been used in this research is personal adjustment theory by Weiten & Lyoid (2006) that consist of three aspects: stress and coping stress, interpersonal realm, and developmental transiti...

  13. Industrial Forecasts after Export Rebates Adjustment

    2007-01-01

    @@ On June 19, 2007, the Circular of the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation concerning Lowering the Export Rebate Rates for Some Commodities was published, which finally proved the early rumor of tax rebate adjustment to be true.According to the Circular, the export rebate rates for some commodities have been adjusted upon approval of the State Council and the new rates have become in force since July 1, 2007.

  14. Adjustable Fiber Optic Microwave Transversal Filters

    Shadaram, Mehdi; Lutes, George F.; Logan, Ronald T.; Maleki, Lutfollah

    1994-01-01

    Microwave transversal filters implemented as adjustable tapped fiber optic delay lines developed. Main advantages of these filters (in comparison with conventional microwave transversal filters) are small size, light weight, no need for matching of radio-frequency impedances, no need for shielding against electromagnetic radiation at suboptical frequencies, no need for mechanical tuning, high stability of amplitude and phase, and active control of transfer functions. Weights of taps in fiber optic delay lines adjusted.

  15. Risk adjusted equity valuation and accounting betas

    Pope, P F; Wang, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we develop a general equity valuation model where abnormal earnings, back value, the discount factor and interest rates evolve stochastically. Focusing on the dynamics of abnormal earnings, we demonstrate the back value, abnormal earnings, "other information" and two risk adjustment terms are sufficient for valuation when pricing kernel risk is attributable to a single market factor. The risk adjustment terms depend on accounting betas reflecting the covariances between abnormal...

  16. Adjustable Powder Injector For Vacuum Plasma Sprayer

    Burns, D. H.; Woodford, W. H.; Mckechnie, T. N.; Mcferrin, D. C.; Davis, W. M.; Beason, G. P., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Attachment for plasma spray gun provides four degrees of freedom for adjustment of position and orientation at which powder injected externally into plasma flame. Manipulator provides for adjustment of pitch angle of injection tube: set to inject powder at any angle ranging from perpendicular to parallel to cylindrical axis. Scribed lines on extension bar and manipulator indicate pitch angle of extension tube. Collar changed to adapt injector to different gun.

  17. An Adjustment Restriction on Fish Quota

    van Dijk; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Haijema, Rene; Groeneveld, R.A.; Ierland, van, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    Management objectives of the European Union for North Sea fish stocks are shifting towards considering both biological sustainability and economic benefits. As part of multiannual management plans, an adjustment restriction on fish quota has been introduced. Its objective is to obtain an efficient fish stock and to reduce overcapacity for the fishing industry. We develop and apply a bi-level stochastic dynamic programming model to study the effect of a quota adjustment restriction on the net ...

  18. Capital Asset Pricing Model Adjusted for Anchoring

    Hammad, Siddiqi

    2015-01-01

    I show that adjusting CAPM for anchoring provides a unified explanation for the size, value, and momentum effects. Anchoring adjusted CAPM (ACAPM) predicts that stock splits are associated with positive abnormal returns and an increase in return volatility, whereas the reverse stock-splits are associated with negative abnormal returns and a fall in return volatility. Existing empirical evidence strongly supports these predictions. Anchoring has the effect of pushing up the equity premium, a ...

  19. Maintained inspiratory activity during proportional assist ventilation in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation: phrenic nerve and pulmonary stretch receptor activity

    Schaller Peter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inspiratory activity is a prerequisite for successful application of patient triggered ventilation such as proportional assist ventilation (PAV. It has recently been reported that surfactant instillation increases the activity of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (PSRs followed by a shorter inspiratory time (Sindelar et al, J Appl Physiol, 2005 [Epub ahead of print]. Changes in lung mechanics, as observed in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome and after surfactant treatment, might therefore influence the inspiratory activity when applying PAV early after surfactant treatment. Objective To investigate the regulation of breathing and ventilatory response in surfactant-depleted young cats during PAV and during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP early after surfactant instillation in relation to phrenic nerve activity (PNA and the activity of PSRs. Methods Seven anesthetized, endotracheally intubated young cats were exposed to periods of CPAP and PAV with the same end-expiratory pressure (0.2–0.5 kPa before and after lung lavage and after surfactant instillation. PAV was set to compensate for 75% of the lung elastic recoil. Results Tidal volume and respiratory rate were higher with lower PaCO2 and higher PaO2 during PAV than during CPAP both before and after surfactant instillation (p Conclusion PSR activity and the control of breathing are maintained during PAV in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation, with a higher ventilatory response and a lower breathing effort than during CPAP.

  20. Personality traits as predictors of children's social adjustment to school entry

    Maja Zupančič; Tina Kavčič

    2008-01-01

    Contemporaneous and longitudinal predictive relations between three blocks of predictors and measures of children's social adjustment (social competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviour) after the school entry were investigated. The first block of predictors captures expressions of child personality dimensions as perceived by pre-school teachers/assistant school teachers, the second block contains parental education and self-evaluations of parenting in mothers and fathers of...

  1. A needs-driven approach to expatriate adjustment and career development: a multiple mentoring perspective

    John M Mezias; Terri A Scandura

    2005-01-01

    Although effective in improving socialization, development, and retention in the US domestic context, mentoring would likely benefit expatriates and their firms, but it remains theoretically underdeveloped in the international context. We develop a theory of international mentoring by integrating current perspectives on protean and boundaryless careers with the literature on mentoring and expatriates. Expatriates need multiple mentors to assist their adjustment and development during the pre-...

  2. Service water assistance program

    Munchausen, J.H. [EPRI Plant Support Engineering, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Service Water Assistance Program was developed to provide utility service water system engineers with a mechanism to quickly and efficiently address service water issues. Since its inception, its ability to assist utilities has resulted in a reduction in the operations and maintenance costs associated with service water systems and has provided a medium for EPRI awareness of industry service water issues.

  3. Service water assistance program

    The Service Water Assistance Program was developed to provide utility service water system engineers with a mechanism to quickly and efficiently address service water issues. Since its inception, its ability to assist utilities has resulted in a reduction in the operations and maintenance costs associated with service water systems and has provided a medium for EPRI awareness of industry service water issues

  4. Egress door opening assister

    Allison, Thomas L.

    2015-10-06

    A door opening spring assistance apparatus is set forth that will automatically apply a door opening assistance force using a combination of rods and coil springs. The release of the rods by the coil springs reduces the force required to set the door in motion.

  5. Congenital anomalies after assisted reproductive technology

    Pinborg, Anja; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Malchau, Sara Sofie;

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, more than 5 million children have been born after assisted reproductive technology (ART), and in many developed countries ART infants represent more than 1% of the birth cohorts. It is well known that ART children are at increased risk of congenital malformations even after adjustment...... literature on the association between ART and congenital anomalies with respect to subfertility, fertility treatment other than ART, and different ART methods including intracytoplasmic sperm injection, blastocyst culture, and cryotechniques. Trends over time in ART and congenital anomalies will also be...

  6. Predicting Eating Disorder Continuum Groups: Hardiness and College Adjustment.

    Simon-Boyd, Gail D.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

    This study examined relationships between hardiness, college adjustment (academic adjustment, social adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, institutional attachment) and eating disorder (ED) continuum categories in 122 female and 20 male college students. Students who exhibited a higher level of personal-emotional adjustment (PEA) to college…

  7. The Evocative Influence of Child Academic and Social-Emotional Adjustment on Parent Involvement in Inner-City Schools

    Hoglund, Wendy L. G.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Brown, Joshua L.; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines 3 alternative conceptual models of the directional associations between parent involvement in schooling (homework assistance, home-school conferencing, school-based support) and child adjustment (academic and social competence, aggressive behaviors). The parent socialization model tests the hypothesis that parent…

  8. 78 FR 23537 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... for Trade Adjustment Assistance AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce.... Kansas City, MO 64111. Irrigation Accessories Company...... 12410 NE 95th Street, 4/12/2013 The...

  9. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  10. Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow

    Juan, Fang; Rongsheng, Wu

    2002-09-01

    Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow is examined in detail with a linear shallow water model. The initial unbalanced flow considered first falls tinder two classes. The first is similar to that adopted by Gill and is here referred to as a mass imbalance model, for the flow is initially motionless but with a sea surface displacement. The other is the same as that considered by Rossby and is referred to as a momentum imbalance model since there is only a velocity perturbation in the initial field. The significant feature of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment for the above two extreme models is that although the energy conversion ratio has a large case-to-case variability for different initial conditions, its value is bounded below by 0 and above by 1 / 2. Based on the discussion of the above extreme models, the energetics of adjustment for an arbitrary initial condition is investigated. It is found that the characteristics of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment mentioned above are also applicable to adjustment of the general unbalanced flow under the condition that the energy conversion ratio is redefined as the conversion ratio between the change of kinetic energy and potential energy of the deviational fields.

  11. Weatherization Assistance Program Technical Assistance Center

    Robert Adams

    2009-01-07

    The following is a synopsis of the major achievements attributed to the operation of the Weatherization Assistance Program Technical Assistance Center (WAPTAC) by the National Association for State Community Services Programs (NASCSP). During the past five years, the WAPTAC has developed into the premier source for information related to operating the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) at the state and local levels. The services provide through WAPTAC include both virtual technical support as well as hands-on training and instruction in classroom and in the field. The WAPTAC achieved several important milestones during its operation including the establishment of a national Weatherization Day now celebrated in most states, the implementation of a comprehensive Public Information Campaign (PIC) to raise the awareness of the Program among policy makers and the public, the training of more than 150 new state managers and staff as they assume their duties in state offices around the country, and the creation and support of a major virtual information source on the Internet being accessed by thousands of staff each month. The Weatherization Assistance Program Technical Assistance Center serves the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program as a valuable training and technical assistance resource for the network of 54 direct state grantees (50 states, District of Columbia and three Native American tribes) and the network of 900 local subgrantees (comprised of community action agencies, units of local government, and other non-profit organizations). The services provided through WAPTAC focus on standardizing and improving the daily management of the WAP. Staff continually identify policies changes and best practices to help the network improve its effectiveness and enhance the benefits of the Program for the customers who receive service and the federal and private investors. The operations of WAPTAC are separated into

  12. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Data

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA)....

  13. 75 FR 16575 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    2010-04-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Adoption of a railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY... productivity adjustment, as measured by the average change in railroad productivity for the years 2004...

  14. 26 CFR 1.803-2 - Adjusted reserves.

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-2 Adjusted reserves. For the purpose of determining... insurance, no adjustment is to be made. The reserves are thus adjusted, and the rate of interest on...

  15. The variance of the adjusted Rand index.

    Steinley, Douglas; Brusco, Michael J; Hubert, Lawrence

    2016-06-01

    For 30 years, the adjusted Rand index has been the preferred method for comparing 2 partitions (e.g., clusterings) of a set of observations. Although the index is widely used, little is known about its variability. Herein, the variance of the adjusted Rand index (Hubert & Arabie, 1985) is provided and its properties are explored. It is shown that a normal approximation is appropriate across a wide range of sample sizes and varying numbers of clusters. Further, it is shown that confidence intervals based on the normal distribution have desirable levels of coverage and accuracy. Finally, the first power analysis evaluating the ability to detect differences between 2, different adjusted Rand indices is provided. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26881693

  16. Towards Adjustable Autonomy for the Real World

    Pynadath, D V; Tambe, M; 10.1613/jair.1037

    2011-01-01

    Adjustable autonomy refers to entities dynamically varying their own autonomy, transferring decision-making control to other entities (typically agents transferring control to human users) in key situations. Determining whether and when such transfers-of-control should occur is arguably the fundamental research problem in adjustable autonomy. Previous work has investigated various approaches to addressing this problem but has often focused on individual agent-human interactions. Unfortunately, domains requiring collaboration between teams of agents and humans reveal two key shortcomings of these previous approaches. First, these approaches use rigid one-shot transfers of control that can result in unacceptable coordination failures in multiagent settings. Second, they ignore costs (e.g., in terms of time delays or effects on actions) to an agent's team due to such transfers-of-control. To remedy these problems, this article presents a novel approach to adjustable autonomy, based on the notion of a transfer-of...

  17. Adjustments to financial and social benefits

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee in November 2009 and decisions taken by the Council in December 2009, certain financial benefits have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2010. An increase of 1.6% has been applied to the scale of basic salaries and to stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Rules and Regulations, respectively). The adjusted amounts are available from the HR Department intranet site or from departmental secretariats. As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, no adjustments have been made to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). The following social benefits also remain unchanged: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Tel. 70674 (Classification and Remuneration Service)

  18. Social and Human Service Assistants

    ... Similar Occupations More Info Summary Social and human service assistants help clients to identify and obtain benefits and services. Quick ... and Human Service Assistants Do Social and human service assistants provide client services, including support for families, in a wide ...

  19. Robotic assisted laparoscopic colectomy.

    Pandalai, S

    2010-06-01

    Robotic surgery has evolved over the last decade to compensate for limitations in human dexterity. It avoids the need for a trained assistant while decreasing error rates such as perforations. The nature of the robotic assistance varies from voice activated camera control to more elaborate telerobotic systems such as the Zeus and the Da Vinci where the surgeon controls the robotic arms using a console. Herein, we report the first series of robotic assisted colectomies in Ireland using a voice activated camera control system.

  20. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    Tamara eMatuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham 1999 has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients’ quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies during a period of two years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years.Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  1. Kinematic synthesis of adjustable robotic mechanisms

    Chuenchom, Thatchai

    1993-01-01

    Conventional hard automation, such as a linkage-based or a cam-driven system, provides high speed capability and repeatability but not the flexibility required in many industrial applications. The conventional mechanisms, that are typically single-degree-of-freedom systems, are being increasingly replaced by multi-degree-of-freedom multi-actuators driven by logic controllers. Although this new trend in sophistication provides greatly enhanced flexibility, there are many instances where the flexibility needs are exaggerated and the associated complexity is unnecessary. Traditional mechanism-based hard automation, on the other hand, neither can fulfill multi-task requirements nor are cost-effective mainly due to lack of methods and tools to design-in flexibility. This dissertation attempts to bridge this technological gap by developing Adjustable Robotic Mechanisms (ARM's) or 'programmable mechanisms' as a middle ground between high speed hard automation and expensive serial jointed-arm robots. This research introduces the concept of adjustable robotic mechanisms towards cost-effective manufacturing automation. A generalized analytical synthesis technique has been developed to support the computational design of ARM's that lays the theoretical foundation for synthesis of adjustable mechanisms. The synthesis method developed in this dissertation, called generalized adjustable dyad and triad synthesis, advances the well-known Burmester theory in kinematics to a new level. While this method provides planar solutions, a novel patented scheme is utilized for converting prescribed three-dimensional motion specifications into sets of planar projections. This provides an analytical and a computational tool for designing adjustable mechanisms that satisfy multiple sets of three-dimensional motion specifications. Several design issues were addressed, including adjustable parameter identification, branching defect, and mechanical errors. An efficient mathematical scheme for

  2. Risk Adjusted Deposit Insurance for Japanese Banks

    Ryuzo Sato; Rama V. Ramachandran; Bohyong Kang

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Japanese deposit insurance scheme by contrasting the flat insurance rate with a market-determined risk-adjusted rate. The model used to calculate the risk-adjusted rate is that of Ronn and Verrna (1986) . It utilizes the notion of Merton(1977) that the deposit insurance can be based on a one-to-one relation between it and the put option; this permits the application of Black and Scholes(1973) model for the calculation of the insurance rate. The ris...

  3. Host country language ability and expatriate adjustment

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that expatriates’ host country language ability is positively associated with their adjustment. But does the advantage of expatriates’ language ability depend on the difficulty of the host language? To examine this issue, data were collected from expatriates in two European...... countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language as...... opposed to the host country with an easy language....

  4. Simultaneous neutron and gamma spectrum adjustment

    The spectrum adjustment procedure was extended to simultaneous neutron and gamma spectrum adjustment, and the feasibility of this technique is demonstrated in the analysis of HFIR dosimetry experiments. Conditions in which gamma rays may contribute considerably to radiation damage in steels are discussed. Beryllium helium accumulation fluence monitors (HAFMs) were found to be good monitors in gamma fields of intensities high enough to contribute to steel embrittlement. Use of 237Np, 238U, and 9Be HAFM as gamma dosimeters is proposed for high-dose irradiations in high-energy, high-intensity gamma fields

  5. Adjustable Speed Drives - Future Challenges and Applications

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The main trends within Adjustable Drives in industrial and appliance applications for the next decade are discussed based on the newest developments seen on the market and a few historical trends. Different drive configurations are presented and the general demands to adjustable speed drives are...... specified. Further on power architectures and motor types are discussed in a short term and long-term view. Possible drivers of the future development are identified, and the concept of an ?Electronic Motor? is discussed. A number of applications are presented where variable speed is attractive....

  6. Early Environmental Support and Elementary School Adjustment as Predictors of School Adjustment in Middle Adolescence.

    Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Sroufe, L. Alan; Collins, W. Andres; Jimerson, Shane; Weinfield, Nancy; Henninghausen, Katherine; Egeland, Byron; Hyson, Daniel M.; Anderson, Fione; Meyer, Stephanie E.

    1999-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined socioemotional antecedents of adolescent school adjustment. Findings indicated that early and later parental problem-solving support accounted for 13 percent of variance in high school adjustment. Early and later parental problem-solving support, peer competence, externalizing behavior, and emotional…

  7. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Full Text Available ... this da Vinci assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Our scrub, which is Alex Santander, our nurse anesthetist back ... Okay, Dr. Pinon, you’re going to come scrub in? Yes, I will, yes. Dr. Pinon is ...

  8. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Full Text Available ... joysticks and his feet pressing on pedals to control these robotic instruments. There’s almost always an assistant ... Sure. To help divide the tissue and to control bleeding. Right now I’m going to clean ...

  9. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  10. Financial Assistance Information

    ... Other Sites: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Financial Assistance Information The National Institutes of Health (NIH) ... area call 900-638-0742. Top of page Financial Aid for Medical Treatments Information on financial aid ...

  11. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Full Text Available ... Robotic Surgery. My name is Dr. Andy Pinon. This is my partner, Dr. Darren Bruck. He’s going ... at the very beginning, helping us navigate through this da Vinci assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Our scrub, ...

  12. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Full Text Available Watch South Miami Hospital Surgeons Perform Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy South Miami Hospital Miami, FL January 19, 2010 Good afternoon. Welcome to the South Miami Hospital operating room, the Center ...

  13. Computer assisted radiology

    The proceedings of the CAR'93 symposium present the 126 oral papers and the 58 posters contributed to the four Technical Sessions entitled: (1) Image Management, (2) Medical Workstations, (3) Digital Image Generation - DIG, and (4) Application Systems - AS. Topics discussed in Session (1) are: picture archiving and communication systems, teleradiology, hospital information systems and radiological information systems, technology assessment and implications, standards, and data bases. Session (2) deals with computer vision, computer graphics, design and application, man computer interaction. Session (3) goes into the details of the diagnostic examination methods such as digital radiography, MRI, CT, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, digital angiography, and multimodality imaging. Session (4) is devoted to computer-assisted techniques, as there are: computer assisted radiological diagnosis, knowledge based systems, computer assisted radiation therapy and computer assisted surgical planning. (UWA). 266 figs

  14. Homelessness Assistance and Resources

    ... Performance Measure Resources View videos, programming specifications, an introductory guide, and more on how CoCs can measure ... a Program Affordable Housing Community Development Consolidated Planning Economic Development Environmental Review Financial Management Homelessness Assistance Rural ...

  15. Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is used to treat infertility. It includes fertility treatments that handle both a woman's egg ... back in the woman's body. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common and effective type of ...

  16. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Full Text Available ... prostatic fossa. Okay. This is where the prostate sat. If you look at the bottom of the ... as assistant, and I am waiting for the new instruments to be inserted so we can perform ...

  17. Ventilatory strategies in trauma patients

    Shubhangi Arora; Preet Mohinder Singh; Anjan Trikha

    2014-01-01

    Lung injury in trauma patients can occur because of direct injury to lung or due to secondary effects of injury elsewhere for example fat embolism from a long bone fracture, or due to response to a systemic insult such as; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to sepsis or transfusion related lung injury. There are certain special situations like head injury where the primary culprit is not the lung, but the brain and the ventilator strategy is aimed at preserving the brain tis...

  18. Ventilatory strategy during liver transplantation

    Sørensen, Henrik; Grocott, Hilary P; Niemann, Mads;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) may be reduced by hyperventilation in the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation surgery (LTx). Conversely, the brain may be subjected to hyperperfusion during reperfusion of the grafted liver. We...... liver, ScO2 increased by 5.5% (3.8-7.3%), EtCO2 by 0.7 kPa (0.5-0.8 kPa), and VE by 0.6 L/min (0.3-0.9 L/min; all P < 0.0001). Changes in ScO2 were correlated to those in EtCO2 (Pearson r = 0.74; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: During LTx, changes in ScO2 are closely correlated to those of EtCO2. Thus, this...

  19. Concepts in Assisted Circulation

    Lefemine, Armand A.; Dunbar, Jacob; DeLucia, Anthony

    1986-01-01

    Assisted circulation by extracorporeal and extracardiac bypass techniques must be based on the requirements of the heart and of the total body, though these may differ. The cardiac problem in cardiogenic shock is more likely to be a biventricular problem demanding decompression of both sides. Extra pulmonary oxygenation should be avoided because of complexity in long-term use. Principles of assisted circulation may be applied in an extra-thoracic temporary manner or as an intracorporeal long-...

  20. Heteronuclear proton assisted recoupling

    De Paëpe, Gaël; Lewandowski, Józef R.; Loquet, Antoine; Eddy, Matt; Megy, Simon; Böckmann, Anja; Griffin, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a theoretical framework for understanding the heteronuclear version of the third spin assisted recoupling polarization transfer mechanism and demonstrate its potential for detecting long-distance intramolecular and intermolecular 15N–13C contacts in biomolecular systems. The pulse sequence, proton assisted insensitive nuclei cross polarization (PAIN-CP) relies on a cross term between 1H–15N and 1H–13C dipolar couplings to mediate zero- and/or double-quantum 15N–13C recoupling. In ...