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Sample records for adipose-derived stromo-vascular fraction

  1. Gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon adipose-derived stromo-vascular fraction during differentiation into adipocytes

    Škugor Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive fat deposition is one of the largest problems faced by salmon aquaculture industries, leading to production losses due to high volume of adipose tissue offal. In addition, increased lipid accumulation may impose considerable stress on adipocytes leading to adipocyte activation and production and secretion of inflammatory mediators, as observed in mammals. Results Microarray and qPCR analyses were performed to follow transcriptome changes during adipogenesis in the primary culture of adipose stromo-vascular fraction (aSVF of Atlantic salmon. Cellular heterogeneity decreased by confluence as evidenced by the down-regulation of markers of osteo/chondrogenic, myogenic, immune and vasculature lineages. Transgelin (TAGLN, a marker of the multipotent pericyte, was prominently expressed around confluence while adipogenic PPARγ was up-regulated already in subconfluent cells. Proliferative activity and subsequent cell cycle arrest were reflected in the fluctuations of pro- and anti-mitotic regulators. Marked regulation of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism and pathways producing NADPH and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P was seen during the terminal differentiation, also characterised by diverse stress responses. Activation of the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems and changes in the iron metabolism suggested the need for protection against oxidative stress. Signs of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR occured in parallel with the increased lipid droplet (LD formation and production of secretory proteins (adipsin, visfatin. The UPR markers XBP1 and ATF6 were induced together with genes involved in ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal proteolysis. Concurrently, translation was suppressed as evidenced by the down-regulation of genes encoding elongation factors and components of the ribosomal machinery. Notably, expression changes of a panel of genes that belong to different

  2. Adipose derived stromal vascular fraction improves early tendon healing: an experimental study in rabbits

    Mehdi Behfar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendon never restores the complete biological and mechanical properties after healing. Bone marrow and recently adipose tissue have been used as the sources of mesenchymal stem cells, which have been proven to enhance tendon healing. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF, derived from adipose tissue by an enzymatic digestion, represents an alternative source of multipotent cells, which undergo differentiation into multiple lineages to be used in regenerative medicine. In the present study, we investigated potentials of this source on tendon healing. Twenty rabbits were divided into control and treatment groups. Five rabbits were used as donors of adipose tissue. The injury model was unilateral complete transection through the middle one third of deep digital flexor tendon. Immediately after suture repair, either fresh stromal vascular fraction from enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue or placebo was intratendinously injected into the suture site in treatments and controls, respectively. Cast immobilization was continued for two weeks after surgery. Animals were sacrificed at the third week and tendons underwent histological, immunohistochemical, and mechanical evaluations. By histology, improved fibrillar organization and remodeling of neotendon were observed in treatment group. Immunohistochemistry revealed an insignificant increase in collagen type III and I expression in treatments over controls. Mechanical testing showed significant increase in maximum load and energy absorption in SVF treated tendons. The present study showed that intratendinous injection of uncultured adipose derived stromal vascular fraction improved structural and mechanical properties of repaired tendon and it could be an effective modality for treating tendon laceration.

  3. Adipose-Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction Cell Effects on a Rodent Model of Thin Endometrium.

    Robert K Hunter

    Full Text Available Endometrial dysfunction affects approximately 1% of infertile women, and there is currently no standard therapy for improving fertility treatment outcomes in these patients. In our study, we utilized a rodent model of thin endometrium to test whether intrauterine application of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction cells (SVF could improve morphological and physiological markers of endometrial receptivity. Using anhydrous ethanol, endometrial area and gland density were significantly reduced in our model of thin endometrium. Application of SVF was associated with a 29% reduction in endometrial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and significant increases in uterine artery systolic/diastolic velocity ratios and resistance index values, suggesting reduced diastolic microvascular tone. However, no significant improvements in endometrial area or gland density were observed following SVF treatment. 3D confocal imaging demonstrated poor engraftment of SVF cells into recipient tissue, which likely contributed to the negative results of this study. We suspect modified treatment protocols utilizing adjuvant estrogen and/or tail vein cell delivery may improve SVF retention and therapeutic response in subsequent studies. SVF is an easily-obtainable cell product with regenerative capability that may have a future role in the treatment of infertile women with endometrial dysfunction.

  4. Acupoint Injection of Autologous Stromal Vascular Fraction and Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Treat Hip Dysplasia in Dogs

    Camila Marx

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue show great therapeutic potential in veterinary medicine, but some points such as the use of fresh or cultured cells and route of administration need better knowledge. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF, n=4 or allogeneic cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, n=5 injected into acupuncture points in dogs with hip dysplasia and weak response to drug therapy. Canine ASCs have proliferation and differentiation potential similar to ASCs from other species. After the first week of treatment, clinical evaluation showed marked improvement compared with baseline results in all patients treated with autologous SVF and three of the dogs treated with allogeneic ASCs. On days 15 and 30, all dogs showed improvement in range of motion, lameness at trot, and pain on manipulation of the joints, except for one ASC-treated patient. Positive results were more clearly seen in the SVF-treated group. These results show that autologous SVF or allogeneic ASCs can be safely used in acupoint injection for treating hip dysplasia in dogs and represent an important therapeutic alternative for this type of pathology. Further studies are necessary to assess a possible advantage of SVF cells in treating joint diseases.

  5. Acupoint injection of autologous stromal vascular fraction and allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells to treat hip dysplasia in dogs.

    Marx, Camila; Silveira, Maiele Dornelles; Selbach, Isabel; da Silva, Ariel Silveira; Braga, Luisa Maria Gomes de Macedo; Camassola, Melissa; Nardi, Nance Beyer

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue show great therapeutic potential in veterinary medicine, but some points such as the use of fresh or cultured cells and route of administration need better knowledge. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF, n = 4) or allogeneic cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, n = 5) injected into acupuncture points in dogs with hip dysplasia and weak response to drug therapy. Canine ASCs have proliferation and differentiation potential similar to ASCs from other species. After the first week of treatment, clinical evaluation showed marked improvement compared with baseline results in all patients treated with autologous SVF and three of the dogs treated with allogeneic ASCs. On days 15 and 30, all dogs showed improvement in range of motion, lameness at trot, and pain on manipulation of the joints, except for one ASC-treated patient. Positive results were more clearly seen in the SVF-treated group. These results show that autologous SVF or allogeneic ASCs can be safely used in acupoint injection for treating hip dysplasia in dogs and represent an important therapeutic alternative for this type of pathology. Further studies are necessary to assess a possible advantage of SVF cells in treating joint diseases. PMID:25180040

  6. Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma, Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, and Stromal Vascular Fraction on the Survival of Human Transplanted Adipose Tissue

    Kim, Deok-Yeol; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Kim, Deok-Woo; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Yoon, Eul-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Traditional adipose tissue transplantation has unpredictable viability and poor absorption rates. Recent studies have reported that treatment with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) are related to increased survival of grafted adipose tissue. This study was the first simultaneous comparison of graft survival in combination with PRP, ASCs, and SVF. Adipose tissues were mixed with each other, injected subcutaneously into the back o...

  7. Adipose-derived stem cells cooperate with fractional carbon dioxide laser in antagonizing photoaging: a potential role of Wnt and β-catenin signaling

    Xu, Xiao; Wang, Hong-yi; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Li, Yan-qi; Tao, Kai; Wu, Chu-Tse; Jin, Ji-De; Liu, Xiao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well established that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) produce and secrete cytokines/growth factors that antagonize UV-induced photoaging of skin. However, the exact molecular basis underlying the anti-photoaging effects exerted by ADSCs is not well understood, and whether ADSCs cooperate with fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser to facilitate photoaging skin healing process has not been explored. Here, we investigated the impacts of ADSCs on photoaging in a photoaging ani...

  8. Case Report: Industrial X-Ray Injury Treated With Non-Cultured Autologous Adipose-Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF).

    Iddins, C J; Cohen, S R; Goans, R E; Wanat, R; Jenkins, M; Christensen, D M; Dainiak, N

    2016-08-01

    Local cutaneous injuries induced by ionizing radiation (IR) are difficult to treat. Many have reported local injection of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF), often with additional therapies, as an effective treatment of IR-induced injury even after other local therapies have failed. The authors report a case of a locally recurrent, IR-induced wound that was treated with autologous, non-cultured SVF without other concurrent therapy. A nondestructive testing technician was exposed to 130 kVp x rays to his non-dominant right thumb on 5 October 2011. The wound healed 4 mo after initial conservative therapy with oral/topical α-tocopherol, oral pentoxifylline, naproxen sodium, low-dose oral steroids, topical steroids, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), oral antihistamines, and topical aloe vera. Remission lasted approximately 17 mo with one minor relapse in July 2012 after minimal trauma and subsequent healing. Aggressive wound breakdown during June 2013 required additional therapy with HBOT. An erythematous, annular papule developed over the following 12 mo (during which time the patient was not undergoing prescribed treatment). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) done more than 2 mo after exposure to IR revealed dose estimates of 14 ± 3 Gy and 19 ± 6 Gy from two centers using different EPR techniques. The patient underwent debridement of the 0.5 cm papular area, followed by SVF injection into and around the wound bed and throughout the thumb without complication. Eleven months post SVF injection, the patient has been essentially asymptomatic with an intact integument. These results raise the possibility of prolonged benefit from SVF therapy without the use of cytokines. Since there is currently no consensus on the use of isolated SVF therapy in chronic, local IR-induced injury, assessment of this approach in an appropriately powered, controlled trial in experimental animals with local radiation injury appears to be indicated. PMID:27356054

  9. The Effect of Conditioned Media of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Wound Healing after Ablative Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Resurfacing

    Bing-Rong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the benefits of conditioned medium of Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC-CM on wound healing after fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing (FxCR on human skin. Materials and Methods. Nineteen subjects were treated with FxCR on the bilateral inner arms. ADSC-CM was applied on FxCR site of one randomly selected arm. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL, skin color, and gross-elasticity of FxCR site on both arms were measured. Skin samples were taken by biopsy from three subjects 3 weeks after treatment for histopathological manifestations and mRNA expressions of procollagen types I and III, elastin genes were noted. Results. The index of erythema, melanin, and TEWL of the ADSC-CM-treated skin were significantly lower than those of the control side. The mRNA expression of type III procollagen in ADSC-CM-treated group at 3 weeks posttreatment was 2.6 times of that of the control group. Conclusion. Application of allograft ADSC-CM is an effective method for enhancing wound healing after FxCR, by reducing transient adverse effects such as erythema, hyperpigmentation, and increased TEWL.

  10. Effects of administration of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction and platelet-rich plasma to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints.

    Upchurch, David A; Renberg, Walter C; Roush, James K; Milliken, George A; Weiss, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of simultaneous intra-articular and IV injection of autologous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints. ANIMALS 22 client-owned dogs (12 placebo-treated [control] dogs and 10 treated dogs). PROCEDURES Dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints that caused signs of lameness or discomfort were characterized on the basis of results of orthopedic examination, goniometry, lameness score, the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), a visual analogue scale, and results obtained by use of a pressure-sensing walkway at week 0 (baseline). Dogs received a simultaneous intraarticular and IV injection of SVF and PRP or a placebo. Dogs were examined again 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after injection. RESULTS CBPI scores were significantly lower for the treatment group at week 24, compared with scores for the control group. Mean visual analogue scale score for the treatment group was significantly higher at week 0 than at weeks 4, 8, or 24. Dogs with baseline peak vertical force (PVF) in the lowest 25th percentile were compared, and the treatment group had a significantly higher PVF than did the control group. After the SVF-PRP injection, fewer dogs in the treated group than in the control group had lameness confirmed during examination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints treated with SVF and PRP, improvements in CBPI and PVF were evident at some time points, compared with results for the control group. PMID:27580105

  11. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan;

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  12. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Harry J. Mersmann; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. ...

  13. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Future Regenerative System Medicine

    Yani Lina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential use of stem cell-based therapies for repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of disease. Despite the advances, the availability of stem cells remaining a challenge for both scientist and clinicians in pursuing regenerative medicine. CONTENT: Subcutaneous human adipose tissue is an abundant and accessible cell source for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Routinely, the adipose issue is digested with collagenase or related lytic enzymes to release a heterogeneous population for stromal vascular fraction (SVF cells. The SVF cells can be used directly or can be cultured in plastic ware for selection and expansion of an adherent population known as adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs. Their potential in the ability to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic and other mesenchymal lineages, as well in their other clinically useful properties, includes stimulation of angiogenesis and suppression of inflammation. SUMMARY: Adipose tissue is now recognized as an accessible, abundant and reliable site for the isolation of adult stem cels suitable for the application of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of preclinical data relating to the isolation, characterization, cryopreservation, differentiation, and transplantation of freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction cells and adherent, culture-expanded, adipose-derived stromal/stem cells in vitro and in animal models. KEYWORDS: adipose tissue, adult stem cells, regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cells.

  14. Adipose derived stem cells and nerve regeneration

    Alessandro Faroni; Richard JP Smith; Adam J Reid

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves are common and cause life-changing problems for patients along-side high social and health care costs for society. Current clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries predominantly relies on sacriifcing a section of nerve from elsewhere in the body to pro-vide a graft at the injury site. Much work has been done to develop a bioengineered nerve graft, precluding sacriifce of a functional nerve. Stem cells are prime candidates as accelerators of re-generation in these nerve grafts. This review examines the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to improve nerve repair assisted by bioengineered nerve grafts.

  15. Hypoxia promotes adipose-derived stem cell proliferation via VEGF

    Phuc Van Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs are a promising mesenchymal stem cell source with therapeutic applications. Recent studies have shown that ADSCs could be expanded in vitro without phenotype changes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on ADSC proliferation in vitro and to determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in ADSC proliferation. ADSCs were selectively cultured from the stromal vascular fraction obtained from adipose tissue in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic. ADSCs were cultured under two conditions: hypoxia (5% O2 and normal oxygen (21% O2. The effects of the oxygen concentration on cell proliferation were examined by cell cycle and doubling time. The expression of VEGF was evaluated by the ELISA assay. The role of VEGF in ADSC proliferation was studied by neutralizing VEGF with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies. We found that the ADSC proliferation rate was significantly higher under hypoxia compared with normoxia. In hypoxia, ADSCs also triggered VEGF expression. However, neutralizing VEGF with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies significantly reduced the proliferation rate. These results suggest that hypoxia stimulated ADSC proliferation in association with VEGF production. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(1.000: 476-482

  16. Adipose-derived Stem Cells: Isolation, Expansion and Differentiation

    Bunnell, Bruce A; Flaat, Mette; Gagliardi, Christine; Patel, Bindiya; Ripoll, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The emerging field of regenerative medicine will require a reliable source of stem cells in addition to biomaterial scaffolds and cytokine growth factors. Adipose tissue has proven to serve as an abundant, accessible and rich source of adult stem cells with multipotent properties suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medical applications. There has been increased interest in Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering applications. Here, methods for the isolation, expa...

  17. Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    Tsuji, Wakako; Rubin, J. Peter; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs damaged by injury and dise...

  18. Cryopreservation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita,Masayuki; Noguchi,Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, myocytes, and chondrocytes. They possess an immunosuppressive effect, which makes them a viable cell population for the cell-based therapy of treatment-resistant immune diseases. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have been demonstrated to have the ability to acquire the properties of subcutaneous adipose tissue particularly easily, and cryopreservation...

  19. Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer for Cosmetic Breast Augmentation: Supportive Use of Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells

    Yoshimura, Kotaro; Sato, Katsujiro; Aoi, Noriyuki; Kurita, Masakazu; Hirohi, Toshitsugu; Harii, Kiyonori

    2007-01-01

    Background Lipoinjection is a promising treatment but has some problems, such as unpredictability and a low rate of graft survival due to partial necrosis. Methods To overcome the problems with lipoinjection, the authors developed a novel strategy known as cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL). In CAL, autologous adipose-derived stem (stromal) cells (ASCs) are used in combination with lipoinjection. A stromal vascular fraction (SVF) containing ASCs is freshly isolated from half of the aspirated fa...

  20. Induced Differentiation of Adipose-derived Stromal Cells into Myoblasts

    吴桂珠; 郑秀; 江忠清; 王金华; 宋岩峰

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to induce the differentiation of isolated and purified adipose-derived stromal cells(ADSCs) into myoblasts,which may provide a new strategy for tissue engineering in patients with stress urinary incontinence(SUI).ADSCs,isolated and cultured ex vivo,were identified by flow cytometry and induced to differentiate into myoblasts in the presence of an induction solution consisting of DMEM supplemented with 5-azacytidine(5-aza),5% FBS,and 5% horse serum.Cellular morphology was observed under an i...

  1. 0Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    Wakako; Tsuji; J; Peter; Rubin; Kacey; G; Marra

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells(ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differ-entiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs dam-aged by injury and diseases. This article reviews the implications of ASCs in tissue regeneration.

  2. Case Reports of Adipose-derived Stem Cell Therapy

    Min Su Jung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the gradual increase of cases using fillers, cases of patients treated by non-medicalprofessionals or inexperienced physicians resulting in complications are also increasing. Weherein report 2 patients who experienced acute complications after receiving filler injectionsand were successfully treated with adipose-derived stem cell (ADSCs therapy. Case 1 wasa 23-year-old female patient who received a filler (Restylane injection in her forehead,glabella, and nose by a non-medical professional. The day after her injection, inflammationwas observed with a 3×3 cm skin necrosis. Case 2 was a 30-year-old woman who receiveda filler injection of hyaluronic acid gel (Juvederm on her nasal dorsum and tip at a privateclinic. She developed erythema and swelling in the filler-injected area A solution containingADSCs harvested from each patient’s abdominal subcutaneous tissue was injected intothe lesion at the subcutaneous and dermis levels. The wounds healed without additionaltreatment. With continuous follow-up, both patients experienced only fine linear scars 6months postoperatively. By using adipose-derived stem cells, we successfully treated theacute complications of skin necrosis after the filler injection, resulting in much less scarring,and more satisfactory results were achieved not only in wound healing, but also in esthetics.

  3. Hair regeneration using adipose-derived stem cells.

    Jin, Su-Eon; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been used in tissue repair and regeneration. Recently, it was reported that ASC transplantation promotes hair growth in animal experiments, and a conditioned medium of ASCs (ASC-CM) induced the proliferation of hair-compositing cells in vitro. However, ASCs and their conditioned medium have shown limited effectiveness in clinical settings. ASC preconditioning is one strategy that can be used to enhance the efficacy of ASCs and ASC-CM. Therefore, we highlighted the functional role of ASCs in hair cycle progression and also the advantages and disadvantages of their application in hair regeneration. In addition, we introduced novel ASC preconditioning methods to enhance hair regeneration using ASC stimulators, such as vitamin C, platelet-derived growth factor, hypoxia, and ultraviolet B. PMID:26536569

  4. Carotid Repair Using Autologous Adipose-Derived Endothelial Cells

    Froehlich, Harald; Gulati, Rajiv; Boilson, Barry; Witt, Tyra; Harbuzariu, Adriana; Kleppe, Laurel; Dietz, Allan B.; Lerman, Amir; Simari, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Adipose tissue is an abundant source of endothelial cells as well as stem and progenitor cells which can develop an endothelial phenotype. It has been demonstrated that these cells have distinct angiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. However, whether these cells have the capacity to directly improve large vessel form and function following vascular injury remains unknown. To define whether delivery of adipose-derived endothelial cells (ADECs) would improve healing of injured carotid arteries, a rabbit model of acute arterial injury was employed. Methods Autologous rabbit ADECS were generated utilizing defined culture conditions. To test the ability of ADECs to enhance carotid artery repair, cells were delivered intra-arterially following acute balloon injury. Additional delivery studies were performed following functional selection of cells prior to delivery. Results Following rabbit omental fat harvest and digestion, a proliferative, homogenous, and distinctly endothelial population of ADECs was identified. Direct delivery of autologous ADECs resulted in marked re-endothelialization 48 hours following acute vascular injury as compared to saline controls (82.2 ±26.9% vs 4.2±3.0% pADECs that were selected for their ability to take up acetylated LDL significantly improved vasoreactivity and decreased intimal formation following vascular injury. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that ADECs represent an autologous source of proliferative endothelial cells which demonstrate the capacity to rapidly improve re-endothelialization, improve vascular reactivity, and decrease intimal formation in a carotid artery injury model. PMID:19286583

  5. Human adipose-derived stem cells stimulate neuroregeneration.

    Masgutov, Ruslan F; Masgutova, Galina A; Zhuravleva, Margarita N; Salafutdinov, Ilnur I; Mukhametshina, Regina T; Mukhamedshina, Yana O; Lima, Luciana M; Reis, Helton J; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Palotás, András; Rizvanov, Albert A

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic brain injuries and degenerative neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and many others are characterized by loss of brain cells and supporting structures. Restoring microanatomy and function using stem cells is a promising therapeutic approach. Among the many various sources, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are one of the most easily harvested alternatives, they multiply rapidly, and they demonstrate low immunogenicity with an ability to differentiate into several cell types. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xenotransplanted human ADSCs on post-traumatic regeneration of rat sciatic nerve. Peripheral reconstruction following complete sciatic transection and autonerve grafting was complemented by intra-operative injection of hADSCs into the proximal and distal stumps. The injury caused gliosis and apoptosis of sensory neurons in the lumbar 5 (L5) ganglia in the control rodents; however, animals treated with hADSCs demonstrated a smaller amount of cellular loss. Formation of amputation neuroma, which hinders axonal repair, was less prominent in the experimental group, and immunohistochemical analysis of myelin basic protein showed good myelination 65 days after surgery. At this point, control groups still exhibited high levels of microglia/macrophage-specific marker Iba-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, the mark of an ongoing inflammation and incomplete axonal growth 2 months after the injury. This report demonstrates that hADSCs promote neuronal survival in the spinal ganglion, fuel axonal repair and stimulate the regeneration of peripheral nerves. PMID:26047869

  6. Adipose-derived stem cells from the breast

    Jie Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adipose tissue is deemed as an ideal source of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs. Previous studies have reported that ADSCs can be isolated from several organs and locations; however, slight attention has been paid to the breast. We would like to report our experiences in isolating breast ADSCs (bADSCs. Materials and Methods: Adipose tissues were harvested from the breasts of seven hypertrophic breast patients. Collagenase I was used to isolate the primary ADSCs. Surface markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cellular morphologies were observed. Proliferations of different passages were compared. Viabilities after the cryopreservation were evaluated. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation was induced. Results: Primary cultured cells showed morphologies similar to fibroblasts, and expressed surface markers including CD13, CD44, CD90, and CD105. There was no statistical difference of proliferation between different passages (P > 0.05 and between with and without cryopreservation (P > 0.05. Additionally, isolated cells were differentiated into adipocytes and osteoblasts. Conclusion: bADSCs may represent an alternative candidate for tissue engineering. Further studies are needed to obtain more comprehensive understanding on bADSCs.

  7. Cryopreservation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Noguchi, Hirofumi

    2015-12-17

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, myocytes, and chondrocytes. They possess an immunosuppressive effect, which makes them a viable cell population for the cell-based therapy of treatment-resistant immune diseases. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have been demonstrated to have the ability to acquire the properties of subcutaneous adipose tissue particularly easily, and cryopreservation is currently performed as a routine method for preserving ASCs to safely acquire large numbers of cells. However, many studies have reported that cellular activity after freezing and thawing may be affected by the solutions used for cryopreservation. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a cryopreservation medium as it diffuses into the cell through the plasma membrane and protects the cells from the damage caused by freezing. As substitutes for DMSO or animal-derived serum, cell banker series, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), sericin and maltose, and methyl cellulose (MC) have been investigated for their clinical applications. It is critical to develop a reliable cell cryopreservation protocol for regenerative medicine using MSCs. PMID:26858903

  8. Transplanted adipose-derived stem cells delay D-galactose-induced aging in rats

    Chun Yang; Ou Sha; Jingxing Dai; Lin Yuan; Dongfei Li; Zhongqiu Wen; Huiying Yang; Meichun Yu; Hui Tao; Rongmei Qu; Yikuan Du; Yong Huang

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of allogeneically transplanted, adipose-derived stem cells in aging rats, in the present study, we established a rat model of subacute aging using continuous subcutaneous injections of D-galactose. Two weeks after the adipose-derived stem cells transplantations, serum superoxide dismutase activity was significantly increased, malondialdehyde content was significantly reduced, hippocampal neuronal degeneration was ameliorated, the apoptotic index of hippocampal neurons was decreased, and learning and memory function was significantly improved in the aging rats. These results indicate that allogeneic transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells may effectively delay D-galactose-induced aging.

  9. AN EVALUATION OF THE SAFETY OF ADIPOSE-DERIVED STEM CELLS

    Ngoc Bich Vu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue contains a large numbers of stem cells; adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs can be em- ployed in regenerative medicine. This study was aimed at isolating ADSCs and evaluating the safety of ADSCs in mouse models. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF was collected from the adipose tissue using collagenase. ADSCs were then isolated from SVFs by in vitro culture. The stemness of the ADSCs was evaluated in vitro based on their self-renewal potential, po- tential to differentiate into osteoblasts, and adipocytes, and the expression of specific markers. Finally, the tumor forma- tion ability of ADSCs was evaluated in vivo in athymic mice. Results showed that 100% of the ADSC samples developed well and maintained homogeneity up to passage 10. The ADSCs were completely sterilized and could not form tumors in athymic mice. These initial results showed that ADSCs were safe for use in stem cell therapy. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(9.000: 359-365

  10. Virally and physically transgenized equine adipose-derived stromal cells as a cargo for paracrine secreted factors

    Cavirani Sandro; Conti Virna; Del Bue Maurizio; Morini Giorgio; Franceschi Valentina; Capocefalo Antonio; Donofrio Gaetano; Grolli Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells have been shown to have multiple lineage differentiation properties and to be suitable for tissues regeneration in many degenerative processes. Their use has been proposed for the therapy of joint diseases and tendon injuries in the horse. In the present report the genetic manipulation of Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells has been investigated. Results Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells were successfully virally transduced as well as tran...

  11. Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Wound Healing: A Clinical Review

    Gunalp Uzun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review clinical studies on the use of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of chronic wounds. A search on PubMed was performed on April 30th, 2014 to identify the relevant clinical studies. We reviewed 13 articles that reported the use adipose derived stem cells in the treatment of different types of wounds. Adipose derived stem cells have the potential to be used in the treatment of chronic wounds. However, standard methods for isolation, storage and application of these cells are needed. New materials to transfer these stem cells to injured tissues should be investigated. [Dis Mol Med 2014; 2(4.000: 57-64

  12. Role of adipose-derived stromal cells in pedicle skin flap survival in experimental animal models.

    Foroglou, Pericles; Karathanasis, Vasileios; Demiri, Efterpi; Koliakos, George; Papadakis, Marios

    2016-03-26

    The use of skin flaps in reconstructive surgery is the first-line surgical treatment for the reconstruction of skin defects and is essentially considered the starting point of plastic surgery. Despite their excellent usability, their application includes general surgical risks or possible complications, the primary and most common is necrosis of the flap. To improve flap survival, researchers have used different methods, including the use of adipose-derived stem cells, with significant positive results. In our research we will report the use of adipose-derived stem cells in pedicle skin flap survival based on current literature on various experimental models in animals. PMID:27022440

  13. Chemically Defined and Xeno-Free Cryopreservation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    López, Melany; Bollag, Roni J.; Yu, Jack C.; Isales, Carlos M.; Eroglu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The stromal compartment of adipose tissue harbors multipotent cells known as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). These cells can differentiate into various lineages including osteogenic, chrondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic; this cellular fraction may be easily obtained in large quantities through a clinically safe liposuction procedure. Therefore, ASCs offer exceptional opportunities for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, current practices involving ASCs typically use fetal bovine serum (FBS)-based cryopreservation solutions that are associated with risks of immunological reactions and of transmitting infectious diseases and prions. To realize clinical applications of ASCs, serum- and xeno-free defined cryopreservation methods are needed. To this end, an animal product-free chemically defined cryopreservation medium was formulated by adding two antioxidants (reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate), two polymers (PVA and ficoll), two permeating cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide), a disaccharide (trehalose), and a calcium chelator (EGTA) to HEPES-buffered DMEM/F12. To limit the number of experimental groups, the concentration of trehalose, both polymers, and EGTA was fixed while the presence of the permeating CPAs and antioxidants was varied. ASCs suspended either in different versions of the defined medium or in the conventional undefined cryopreservation medium (10% dimethylsulfoxide+10% DMEM/F12+80% serum) were cooled to -70°C at 1°C/min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Samples were thawed either in air or in a water bath at 37°C. The presence of antioxidants along with 3.5% concentration of each penetrating cryoprotectant improved the freezing outcome to the level of the undefined cryopreservation medium, but the plating efficiency was still lower than that of unfrozen controls. Subsequently, increasing the concentration of both permeating cryoprotectants to 5% further improved the plating

  14. From bench to bedside: use of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Feisst V

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan Feisst,1 Sarah Meidinger,1 Michelle B Locke2 1Dunbar Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: Since the discovery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC in human adipose tissue nearly 15 years ago, significant advances have been made in progressing this promising cell therapy tool from the laboratory bench to bedside usage. Standardization of nomenclature around the different cell types used is finally being adopted, which facilitates comparison of results between research groups. In vitro studies have assessed the ability of ASC to undergo mesenchymal differentiation as well as differentiation along alternate lineages (transdifferentiation. Recently, focus has shifted to the immune modulatory and paracrine effects of transplanted ASC, with growing interest in the ASC secretome as a source of clinical effect. Bedside use of ASC is advancing alongside basic research. An increasing number of safety-focused Phase I and Phase IIb trials have been published without identifying any significant risks or adverse events in the short term. Phase III trials to assess efficacy are currently underway. In many countries, regulatory frameworks are being developed to monitor their use and assure their safety. As many trials rely on ASC injected at a distant site from the area of clinical need, strategies to improve the homing and efficacy of transplanted cells are also being explored. This review highlights each of these aspects of the bench-to-bedside use of ASC and summarizes their clinical utility across a variety of medical specialties. Keywords: standardization, bystander effect, stromal cells, mesenchymal stem cells, stromal vascular fraction

  15. Adipose-derived stem cells retain their regenerative potential after methotrexate treatment

    Beane, Olivia S. [Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Fonseca, Vera C. [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Darling, Eric M., E-mail: Eric_Darling@brown.edu [Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In musculoskeletal tissues like bone, chemotherapy can impair progenitor cell differentiation and proliferation, resulting in decreased bone growth and mineralization throughout a patient's lifetime. In the current study, we investigated the effects of chemotherapeutics on adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) function to determine whether this cell source could be a candidate for repairing, or even preventing, chemotherapy-induced tissue damage. Dose-dependent proliferation rates of ASCs and normal human fibroblasts (NHFs) were quantified after treatment with cytarabine (CY), etoposide (ETO), methotrexate (MTX), and vincristine (VIN) using a fluorescence-based assay. The influence of MTX on the multipotency of ASCs and freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells was also evaluated using lineage-specific stains and spectrophotometry. ASC and NHF proliferation were equally inhibited by exposure to CY and ETO; however, when treated with MTX and VIN, ASCs exhibited greater resistance. This was especially apparent for MTX-treated samples, with ASC proliferation showing no inhibition for clinically relevant MTX doses ranging from 0.1 to 50 μM. Additional experiments revealed that the differentiation potential of ASCs was not affected by MTX treatment and that upregulation of dihydrofolate reductase possibly contributed to this response. Moreover, SVF cells, which include ASCs, exhibited similar resistance to MTX impairment, with respect to cellular proliferation, clonogenicity, and differentiation capability. Therefore, we have shown that the regenerative properties of ASCs resist the cytotoxicity of MTX, identifying these cells as a potential key for repairing musculoskeletal damage in patients undergoing chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Long-term effects of chemotherapeutics can include musculoskeletal dysfunction. • A screen of common drugs showed disparate effects on ASCs and fibroblasts. • One drug, methotrexate, did not impair ASC growth

  16. Adipose-derived stem cells retain their regenerative potential after methotrexate treatment

    In musculoskeletal tissues like bone, chemotherapy can impair progenitor cell differentiation and proliferation, resulting in decreased bone growth and mineralization throughout a patient's lifetime. In the current study, we investigated the effects of chemotherapeutics on adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) function to determine whether this cell source could be a candidate for repairing, or even preventing, chemotherapy-induced tissue damage. Dose-dependent proliferation rates of ASCs and normal human fibroblasts (NHFs) were quantified after treatment with cytarabine (CY), etoposide (ETO), methotrexate (MTX), and vincristine (VIN) using a fluorescence-based assay. The influence of MTX on the multipotency of ASCs and freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells was also evaluated using lineage-specific stains and spectrophotometry. ASC and NHF proliferation were equally inhibited by exposure to CY and ETO; however, when treated with MTX and VIN, ASCs exhibited greater resistance. This was especially apparent for MTX-treated samples, with ASC proliferation showing no inhibition for clinically relevant MTX doses ranging from 0.1 to 50 μM. Additional experiments revealed that the differentiation potential of ASCs was not affected by MTX treatment and that upregulation of dihydrofolate reductase possibly contributed to this response. Moreover, SVF cells, which include ASCs, exhibited similar resistance to MTX impairment, with respect to cellular proliferation, clonogenicity, and differentiation capability. Therefore, we have shown that the regenerative properties of ASCs resist the cytotoxicity of MTX, identifying these cells as a potential key for repairing musculoskeletal damage in patients undergoing chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Long-term effects of chemotherapeutics can include musculoskeletal dysfunction. • A screen of common drugs showed disparate effects on ASCs and fibroblasts. • One drug, methotrexate, did not impair ASC growth

  17. Virally and physically transgenized equine adipose-derived stromal cells as a cargo for paracrine secreted factors

    Cavirani Sandro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells have been shown to have multiple lineage differentiation properties and to be suitable for tissues regeneration in many degenerative processes. Their use has been proposed for the therapy of joint diseases and tendon injuries in the horse. In the present report the genetic manipulation of Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells has been investigated. Results Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells were successfully virally transduced as well as transiently and stably transfected with appropriate parameters, without detrimental effect on their differentiation properties. Moreover, green fluorescent protein alone, fused to neo gene, or co-expressed as bi-cistronic reporter constructs, driven by viral and house-keeping gene promoters, were tested. The better expressed cassette was employed to stably transfect Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for cell therapy purposes. Stably transfected Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells with a heterologous secreted viral antigen were able to immunize horses upon injection into the lateral wall of the neck. Conclusion This study provides the methods to successfully transgenize Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells both by lentiviral vector and by transfection using optimized constructs with suitable promoters and reporter genes. In conclusion these findings provide a working platform for the delivery of potentially therapeutic proteins to the site of cells injection via transgenized Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells.

  18. Noncultured Autologous Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Therapy for Chronic Radiation Injury

    Sadanori Akita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern on chronic radiation injuries should be treated properly for life-saving improvement of wound management and quality of life. Recently, regenerative surgical modalities should be attempted with the use of noncultured autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs with temporal artificial dermis impregnated and sprayed with local angiogenic factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor, and secondary reconstruction can be a candidate for demarcation and saving the donor morbidity. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells, together with angiogenic and mitogenic factor of basic fibroblast growth factor and an artificial dermis, were applied over the excised irradiated skin defect and tested for Patients who were uneventfully healed with minimal donor-site morbidity, which lasts more than 1.5 years.

  19. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Long-Term Cryopreserved Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells

    Yong, Kar Wey; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Choi, Jane Ru; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Chua, Kien Hui; Safwani, Wan Kamarul Zaman Wan

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation represents an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and allows pooling of cells via long-term storage for clinical applications, e.g., cell-based therapies. It is crucial to reduce freezing injury during the cryopreservation process by loading the ASCs with the optimum concentration of suitable cryoprotective agents (CPAs). In this study, human ASCs were preserved for 3 months in different combinations of CPAs, in...

  20. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing, E-mail: caijingmmm@hotmail.com; Wang, Zehua, E-mail: zehuawang@163.net

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  1. Increased Adipogenesis of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Polycaprolactone Fiber Matrices

    Cecilia Brännmark; Alexandra Paul; Diana Ribeiro; Björn Magnusson; Gabriella Brolén; Annika Enejder; Anna Forslöw

    2014-01-01

    With accelerating rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes world-wide, interest in studying the adipocyte and adipose tissue is increasing. Human adipose derived stem cells - differentiated to adipocytes in vitro - are frequently used as a model system for white adipocytes, as most of their pathways and functions resemble mature adipocytes in vivo. However, these cells are not completely like in vivo mature adipocytes. Hosting the cells in a more physiologically relevant environment compared to c...

  2. Immunomodulatory Role of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Equine Endometriosis

    Maria Elena Falomo; Letizia Ferroni; Ilaria Tocco; Chiara Gardin; Barbara Zavan

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a degenerative process due to a chronic inflammatory damage leading to extracellular matrix components deposition and glandular fibrosis. It is known that mesenchymal stem cells secrete a wide range of bioactive molecules, some of them modulating the immune inflammatory response, and others providing regeneration and remodeling of injured tissue. We have performed in vitro experiments in order to analyze the capability of allogenic equine adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to...

  3. Adipose-derived Stromal Cells Overexpressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Accelerate Mouse Excisional Wound Healing

    Nauta, Allison; Seidel, Catharina; Deveza, Lorenzo; Montoro, Daniel; Grova, Monica; Ko, Sae Hee; Hyun, Jeong; Geoffrey C Gurtner; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, Fan

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential to wound repair, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent factor to stimulate angiogenesis. Here, we examine the potential of VEGF-overexpressing adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) for accelerating wound healing using nonviral, biodegradable polymeric vectors. Mouse ASCs were transfected with DNA plasmid encoding VEGF or green fluorescent protein (GFP) using biodegradable poly (β-amino) esters (PBAE). Cells transfected using Lipofectamine 2000, a c...

  4. Does the liposuction method influence the phenotypic characteristic of human adipose-derived stem cells?

    Bajek, Anna; GURTOWSKA, NATALIA; Gackowska, Lidia; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszałek, Andrzej; Januszewski, Rafał; Michalkiewicz, Jacek; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) possess a high differentiation and proliferation potential. However, the phenotypic characterization of ASCs is still difficult. Until now, there is no extensive analysis of ASCs markers depending on different liposuction methods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyse 242 surface markers and determine the differences in the phenotypic pattern between ASCs obtained during mechanical and ultrasound-assisted liposuction. ASCs were isolated from ...

  5. Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Collection and Characterization in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    Johnson, Shawn P.; Catania, Jeffrey M.; Harman, Robert J.; Jensen, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the regenerative properties and potential therapeutic value of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in the bottlenose dolphin, there is a need to determine whether an adequate adipose depot exists, in addition to the development of a standardized technique for minimally invasive adipose collection. In this study, an ultrasound-guided liposuction technique for adipose collection was assessed for its safety and efficacy. The ultrasound was utilized to identify and measure the postnuchal ...

  6. Isolation of adipose derived stem cells and their induction to a chondrogenic phenotype

    Estes, Bradley T.; Diekman, Brian O.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Guilak, Farshid

    2010-01-01

    The ability to isolate, expand, and differentiate adult stem cells into a chondrogenic lineage is an important step in the development of tissue engineering approaches for cartilage repair or regeneration for the treatment of joint injury or osteoarthritis, or for application in plastic or reconstructive surgery. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) provide an abundant and easily accessible source of adult stem cells for use in such regenerative approaches. This protocol describes the isolation ...

  7. 5-Azacytidine Is Insufficient For Cardiogenesis In Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Wan Safwani Wan Kamarul Zaman; Makpol Suzana; Sathapan Somasundaram; Chua Kien

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adipose tissue is a source of multipotent adult stem cells and it has the ability to differentiate into several types of cell lineages such as neuron cells, osteogenic cells and adipogenic cells. Several reports have shown adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have the ability to undergo cardiomyogenesis. Studies have shown 5-azacytidine can successfully drive stem cells such as bone marrow derived stem cells to differentiate into cardiomyogenic cells. Therefore, in this study...

  8. Allogeneic and Xenogeneic Transplantation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Immunocompetent Recipients Without Immunosuppressants

    Lin, Ching-Shwun; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known for their immunomodulatory capabilities. In particular, their immunosuppressive property is believed to permit their allogeneic or even xenogeneic transplantation into immunocompetent recipients without the use of immunosuppressants. Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC), owing to its ease of isolation from an abundant tissue source, is a promising MSC for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. ADSC has been shown to lack major histocompatibility co...

  9. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications

    Ru Dai; Zongjie Wang; Roya Samanipour; Kyo-in Koo; Keekyoung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a mesenchymal stem cell source with properties of self-renewal and multipotential differentiation. Compared to bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), ASCs can be derived from more sources and are harvested more easily. Three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering scaffolds are better able to mimic the in vivo cellular microenvironment, which benefits the localization, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of ASCs. Therefore, tissue-engineered ASCs ...

  10. Suction assisted liposuction does not impair the regenerative potential of adipose derived stem cells

    Duscher, Dominik; Luan, Anna; Rennert, Robert C; Atashroo, David; Maan, Zeshaan N; Brett, Elizabeth A.; Whittam, Alexander J.; Ho, Natalie; Lin, Michelle; Hu, Michael S.; Graham G Walmsley; Wenny, Raphael; Schmidt, Manfred; Schilling, Arndt F.; Machens, Hans-Günther

    2016-01-01

    Background Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been identified as a population of multipotent cells with promising applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. ASCs are abundant in fat tissue, which can be safely harvested through the minimally invasive procedure of liposuction. However, there exist a variety of different harvesting methods, with unclear impact on ASC regenerative potential. The aim of this study was thus to compare the functionality of ASCs derived from t...

  11. Intralesional injection of adipose-derived stem cells reduces hypertrophic scarring in a rabbit ear model

    Zhang, Qi; Liu, Li-Na; Yong, Qi; Deng, Jing-Cheng; Cao, Wei-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Redundant collagen deposition at sites of healing dermal wounds results in hypertrophic scars. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) exhibit promise in a variety of anti-fibrosis applications by attenuating collagen deposition. The objective of this study was to explore the influence of an intralesional injection of ADSCs on hypertrophic scar formation by using an established rabbit ear model. Methods Twelve New Zealand albino rabbits were equally divided into three groups, and six ...

  12. Therapeutic Potential of Adipose-Derived SSEA-3-Positive Muse Cells for Treating Diabetic Skin Ulcers

    Kinoshita, Kahori; Kuno, Shinichiro; Ishimine, Hisako; Aoi, Noriyuki; Mineda, Kazuhide; Kato, Harunosuke; Doi, Kentaro; Kanayama, Koji; Feng, Jingwei; Mashiko, Takanobu; Kurisaki, Akira; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    Refractory skin ulcers were generated in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with type 1 diabetes and delayed wound healing compared with nondiabetic SCID mice. Treatment with a multilineage differentiating stress-enduring (Muse)-rich cell population significantly accelerated wound healing compared with the Muse-poor cell population, and these cells be achieved in large amounts with minimal morbidity. Adipose-derived Muse cells could be a practical tool for a variety of stem cell-dep...

  13. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSC) and Aesthetic Surgery: A Mini Review

    Mehrabani, Davood; Mehrabani, Golshid; Zare, Shahrokh; Manafi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In cell therapy and regenerative medicine, a reliable source of stem cells together with cytokine growth factors and biomaterial scaffolds seem necessary. As adipose tissue is easy accessible and is abundant source of adult stem cells and can differentiate along multiple lineages, it can be considered as a good candidate in aesthetic medicine. The clinical application of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is reviewed in this article.

  14. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs

  15. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Improve Efficacy of Melanocyte Transplantation in Animal Skin

    Lim, Won-Suk; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Young; Do, Byung-Rok; Kim, Eo Jin; Lee, Ai-Young

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is a pigmentary disorder induced by a loss of melanocytes. In addition to replacement of pure melanocytes, cocultures of melanocytes with keratinocytes have been used to improve the repigmentation outcome in vitiligo treatment. We previously identified by in vitro studies, that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) could be a potential substitute for keratinocytes in cocultures with melanocytes. In this study, the efficacy of pigmentation including durability of grafted melanocytes and ...

  16. Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells differentiate into functional brown adipocytes

    Elabd, Christian; Chiellini, Chiara; Carmona, Mamen;

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the earlier contention, adult humans have been shown recently to possess active brown adipose tissue with a potential of being of metabolic significance. Up to now, brown fat precursor cells have not been available for human studies. We have shown previously that human multipotent...... adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells exhibit a normal karyotype and high self-renewal ability; they are known to differentiate into cells that exhibit the key properties of human white adipocytes, that is, uncoupling protein two expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, lipolysis in response to beta...

  17. Alginate and alginate/gelatin microspheres for human adipose-derived stem cell encapsulation and differentiation

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) encapsulated in alginate and alginate/gelatin microspheres with adjustable properties were fabricated via an improved microsphere generating device. The mechanism of the device, porous property, swelling behavior of the microspheres and hADSC proliferation as well as adipogenic differentiation were studied extensively. Microspheres with high-ratio evenly distributed adipocytes could be obtained by utilizing the proper matrix material and manufacturing parameters. The adipocyte/hADSC microspheres were a sound in vitro mimicking of a natural fat lobule and therefore a good candidate for adipose tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. (paper)

  18. Alginate and alginate/gelatin microspheres for human adipose-derived stem cell encapsulation and differentiation.

    Yao, Rui; Zhang, Renji; Luan, Jie; Lin, Feng

    2012-06-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) encapsulated in alginate and alginate/gelatin microspheres with adjustable properties were fabricated via an improved microsphere generating device. The mechanism of the device, porous property, swelling behavior of the microspheres and hADSC proliferation as well as adipogenic differentiation were studied extensively. Microspheres with high-ratio evenly distributed adipocytes could be obtained by utilizing the proper matrix material and manufacturing parameters. The adipocyte/hADSC microspheres were a sound in vitro mimicking of a natural fat lobule and therefore a good candidate for adipose tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:22556122

  19. Characterization of human adipose-derived stem cells and expression of chondrogenic genes during induction of cartilage differentiation

    Adila A Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Understanding the changes in chondrogenic gene expression that are involved in the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells to chondrogenic cells is important prior to using this approach for cartilage repair. The aims of the study were to characterize human adipose-derived stem cells and to examine chondrogenic gene expression after one, two, and three weeks of induction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells at passage 4 were evaluated by flow cytometry to examine the expression of surface markers. These adipose-derived stem cells were tested for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cells for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to determine the expression levels of chondrogenic genes after chondrogenic induction. RESULTS: Human adipose-derived stem cells were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen and successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. The human adipose-derived stem cells aggregated and formed a dense matrix after chondrogenic induction. The expression of chondrogenic genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, collagen type XI, COMP, and ELASTIN was significantly higher after the first week of induction. However, a significantly elevated expression of collagen type X was observed after three weeks of chondrogenic induction. CONCLUSION: Human adipose-derived stem cells retain stem cell characteristics after expansion in culture to passage 4 and serve as a feasible source of cells for cartilage regeneration. Chondrogenesis in human adiposederived stem cells was most prominent after one week of chondrogenic induction.

  20. Functional polyaniline nanofibre mats for human adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and adhesion

    Conductive polymer poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) (P(ANI-co-m-ABA)) and polyaniline (PANI) were blended with a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer, poly(L-lactic acid) and were electrospun into nanofibres to investigate their potential application as a scaffold for human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). These polymers, in both conductive and non-conductive form, were electrospun with average fibre diameters of less than 400 nm. Novel nanoindentation results obtained on the individual nanofibres revealed that the elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface (4–10 GPa, hmax max >75 nm). The composite nanofibres showed great promise as a scaffold for hASCs as they supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. After 1 week of cell culture hASCs were well spread on the substrates with abundant focal adhesions. The electrospun mats provide the cells with comparably stiff, sub-micron sized fibres as anchoring points on a substrate of high porosity. The conductive nature of these composite nanofibres offers exciting opportunities for electrical stimulation of the cells. - Highlights: ► Polyaniline and its copolymer's nanofibres were prepared by electrospinning. ► The elastic modulus of a single polyaniline composite nanofibres were determined. ► Elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface than the inner core. ► The electrospun mats supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. ► The nanofibres show great promise as a scaffold for adipose derived stem cells

  1. Potential of Adipose-derived stem cells in muscular regenerative therapies

    Sonia Forcales

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative capacity of skeletal muscles resides in satellite cells, a self-renewing population of muscle cells. Several studies are investigating epigenetic mechanisms that control myogenic proliferation and differentiation to find new approaches that could boost regeneration of endogenous myogenic progenitor populations. In recent years, a lot of effort has been applied to purify, expand and manipulate adult stem cells from muscle tissue. However, this population of endogenous myogenic progenitors in adults is limited and their access is difficult and invasive. Therefore, other sources of stem cells with potential to regenerate muscles need to be examined. An excellent candidate could be a population of adult stromal cells within fat characterized by mesenchymal properties, which have been termed adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs. These progenitor adult stem cells have been successfully differentiated in vitro to osteogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic and myogenic lineages. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells are multipotent and can be harvested with low morbidity; thus, they hold promise for a range of therapeutic applications. This review will discuss the use of ASCs in muscle regenerative approaches.

  2. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Liu, Xujie [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bachhuka, Akash [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Vasilev, Krasimir [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); School of Advanced Manufacturing, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH{sub 2}), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH{sub 3}), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH{sub 2}) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH{sub 3}). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH{sub 2} modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH{sub 3} modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  3. Ultrastructural study of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells induced towards osteogenic direction.

    Tsupykov, Oleg; Ustymenko, Alina; Kyryk, Vitaliy; Smozhanik, Ekaterina; Yatsenko, Kateryna; Butenko, Gennadii; Skibo, Galina

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the ultrastructural characteristics of mouse adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) induced towards osteogenic lineage. ASCs were isolated from adipose tissue of FVB-Cg-Tg(GFPU)5Nagy/J mice and expanded in monolayer culture. Flow cytometry, histochemical staining, and electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the ASCs with respect to their ability for osteogenic differentiation capacity. Immunophenotypically, ASCs were characterized by high expression of the CD44 and CD90 markers, while the relative content of cells expressing CD45, CD34 and CD117 markers was alkaline phosphatase production. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that undifferentiated ASCs had a rough endoplasmic reticulum with dilated cisterns and elongated mitochondria. At the end of the osteogenic differentiation, the ASCs transformed from their original fibroblast-like appearance to having a polygonal osteoblast-like morphology. Ultrastructurally, these cells were characterized by large euchromatic nucleus and numerous cytoplasm containing elongated mitochondria, a very prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and intermediate filament bundles. Extracellular matrix vesicles of variable size similar to the calcification nodules were observed among collagen fibrils. Our data provide the ultrastructural basis for further studies on the cellular mechanisms involved in osteogenic differentiation of mouse adipose-derived stem/stromal cells. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:557-564, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27087359

  4. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Liu, Xujie; Feng, Qingling; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (sbnd NH2), carboxyl (sbnd COOH) and methyl (sbnd CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (sbnd COOH and sbnd NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (sbnd CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the sbnd NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the sbnd COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the sbnd CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  5. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH2), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  6. Bone regeneration by implantation of adipose-derived stromal cells expressing BMP-2

    In this study, we reported that the adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) genetically modified by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) healed critical-sized canine ulnar bone defects. First, the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of the ADSCs derived from canine adipose tissue were demonstrated. And then the cells were modified by the BMP-2 gene and the expression and bone-induction ability of BMP-2 were identified. Finally, the cells modified by BMP-2 gene were applied to a β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) carrier and implanted into ulnar bone defects in the canine model. After 16 weeks, radiographic, histological, and histomorphometry analysis showed that ADSCs modified by BMP-2 gene produced a significant increase of newly formed bone area and healed or partly healed all of the bone defects. We conclude that ADSCs modified by the BMP-2 gene can enhance the repair of critical-sized bone defects in large animals

  7. Fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulates adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have demonstrated a capacity for differentiating into a variety of lineages, including bone, cartilage, or fat, depending on the inducing stimuli and specific growth and factors. It is acknowledged that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promotes chondrogenic and inhibits osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, but thorough investigations of its effects on adipogenic differentiation are lacking. In this study, we demonstrate at the cellular and molecular levels the effect of FGF-2 on adipogenic differentiation of ASCs, as induced by an adipogenic hormonal cocktail consisting of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), dexamethasone, insulin, and indomethacin. FGF-2 significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. Furthermore, in cultures receiving FGF-2 before adipogenic induction, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, was upregulated. The results of FGF-2 supplementation suggest the potential applications of FGF-2 and ASCs in adipose tissue regeneration

  8. Neural differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from GFP transgenic mice

    Taking advantage of homogeneously marked cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we have recently reported that adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) could differentiate into mesenchymal lineages in vitro. In this study, we performed neural induction using ASCs from GFP transgenic mice and were able to induce these ASCs into neuronal and glial cell lineages. Most of the neurally induced cells showed bipolar or multipolar appearance morphologically and expressed neuronal markers. Electron microscopy revealed their neuronal morphology. Some cells also showed glial phenotypes, as shown immunocytochemically. The present study clearly shows that ASCs derived from GFP transgenic mice differentiate into neural lineages in vitro, suggesting that these cells might provide an ideal source for further neural stem cell research with possible therapeutic application for neurological disorders

  9. One in vitro model for visceral adipose-derived fibroblasts in chronic inflammation

    One pathogenesis of the obesity-associated complications is that consistent with increased body fat mass, the elevation of adipose tissue-derived cytokines inflicts a low-grade chronic inflammation, which ultimately leads to metabolic disorders. Adipocytes and macrophages in visceral adipose (VA) have been confirmed to contribute to the chronic inflammation; however, the role of the resident fibroblasts is still unknown. We established one VA fibroblast cell line, termed VAFC. Morphological analysis indicated that there were large numbers of pits at the cell plasma membrane. In vitro VAFC cells promoted bone marrow cells to differentiate into macrophages and protected them from apoptosis in the serum-free conditions. Additionally, they also interfered in lymphocytes proliferation. On the basis of these results, this cell line might be an in vitro model for understanding the role of adipose-derived fibroblasts in obesity-associated chronic inflammation

  10. Human adipose-derived stromal/stem cell isolation, culture, and osteogenic differentiation.

    Qureshi, Ammar T; Chen, Cong; Shah, Forum; Thomas-Porch, Caasy; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Hayes, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Annually, more than 200,000 elective liposuction procedures are performed in the United States and over a million worldwide. The ease of harvest and abundance make human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) isolated from lipoaspirates an attractive, readily available source of adult stem cells that have become increasingly popular for use in many studies. Here, we describe common methods for hASC culture, preservation, and osteogenic differentiation. We introduce methods of ceramic, polymer, and composite scaffold synthesis with a description of morphological, chemical, and mechanical characterization techniques. Techniques for scaffold loading are compared, and methods for determining cell loading efficiency and proliferation are described. Finally, we provide both qualitative and quantitative techniques for in vitro assessment of hASC osteogenic differentiation. PMID:24529434

  11. Conditioned Media From Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Accelerates Healing in 3-Dimensional Skin Cultures.

    Collawn, Sherry S; Mobley, James A; Banerjee, N Sanjib; Chow, Louise T

    2016-04-01

    Wound healing involves a number of factors that results in the production of a "closed" wound. Studies have shown, in animal models, acceleration of wound healing with the addition of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSC). The cause for the positive effect which these cells have on wound healing has not been elucidated. We have previously shown that addition of ADSC to the dermal equivalent in 3-dimensional skin cultures accelerates reepithelialization. We now demonstrate that conditioned media (CM) from cultured ADSC produced a similar rate of healing. This result suggests that a feedback from the 3-dimensional epithelial cultures to ADSC was not necessary to effect the accelerated reepithelialization. Mass spectrometry of CM from ADSC and primary human fibroblasts revealed differences in secretomes, some of which might have roles in the accelerating wound healing. Thus, the use of CM has provided some preliminary information on a possible mode of action. PMID:26954733

  12. Functional polyaniline nanofibre mats for human adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and adhesion

    Abdul Rahman, Norizah, E-mail: norizah@science.putra.edu.my [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Chemistry, University of Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Feisst, Vaughan [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dickinson, Michelle E. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Malmström, Jenny [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dunbar, P. Rod [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Maurice Wilkins Centre, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka, E-mail: j.travas-sejdic@auckland.ac.nz [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2013-02-15

    Conductive polymer poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) (P(ANI-co-m-ABA)) and polyaniline (PANI) were blended with a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer, poly(L-lactic acid) and were electrospun into nanofibres to investigate their potential application as a scaffold for human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). These polymers, in both conductive and non-conductive form, were electrospun with average fibre diameters of less than 400 nm. Novel nanoindentation results obtained on the individual nanofibres revealed that the elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface (4–10 GPa, h{sub max} <75 nm) than in the inner fibre core (2–4 GPa, h{sub max} >75 nm). The composite nanofibres showed great promise as a scaffold for hASCs as they supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. After 1 week of cell culture hASCs were well spread on the substrates with abundant focal adhesions. The electrospun mats provide the cells with comparably stiff, sub-micron sized fibres as anchoring points on a substrate of high porosity. The conductive nature of these composite nanofibres offers exciting opportunities for electrical stimulation of the cells. - Highlights: ► Polyaniline and its copolymer's nanofibres were prepared by electrospinning. ► The elastic modulus of a single polyaniline composite nanofibres were determined. ► Elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface than the inner core. ► The electrospun mats supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. ► The nanofibres show great promise as a scaffold for adipose derived stem cells.

  13. The Effect of Secretory Factors of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Human Keratinocytes

    Soo-Wan Nam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium (ADSC-CM on skin regeneration have been reported. Although the mechanism of how ADSC-CM promotes skin regeneration is unclear, ADSC-CM contained various growth factors and it is an excellent raw material for skin treatment. ADSC-CM produced in a hypoxia condition of ADSC—in other words, Advanced Adipose-Derived Stem cell Protein Extract (AAPE—has great merits for skin regeneration. In this study, human primary keratinocytes (HKs, which play fundamental roles in skin tissue, was used to examine how AAPE affects HK. HK proliferation was significantly higher in the experimental group (1.22 μg/mL than in the control group. DNA gene chip demonstrated that AAPE in keratinocytes (p < 0.05 notably affected expression of 290 identified transcripts, which were associated with cell proliferation, cycle and migration. More keratinocyte wound healing and migration was shown in the experimental group (1.22 μg/mL. AAPE treatment significantly stimulated stress fiber formation, which was linked to the RhoA-ROCK pathway. We identified 48 protein spots in 2-D gel analysis and selected proteins were divided into 64% collagen components and 30% non-collagen components as shown by the MALDI-TOF analysis. Antibody array results contained growth factor/cytokine such as HGF, FGF-1, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, VEGF, and TGF-β3 differing from that shown by 2-D analysis. Conclusion: AAPE activates HK proliferation and migration. These results highlight the potential of the topical application of AAPE in the treatment of skin regeneration.

  14. Effects of hypergravity on adipose-derived stem cell morphology, mechanical property and proliferation

    Tavakolinejad, Alireza [Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabbani, Mohsen, E-mail: m.rabbani@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janmaleki, Mohsen [Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Alteration in specific inertial conditions can lead to changes in morphology, proliferation, mechanical properties and cytoskeleton of cells. In this report, the effects of hypergravity on morphology of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) are indicated. ADSCs were repeatedly exposed to discontinuous hypergravity conditions of 10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g by utilizing centrifuge (three times of 20 min exposure, with an interval of 40 min at 1 g). Cell morphology in terms of length, width and cell elongation index and cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules were analyzed by image processing. Consistent changes observed in cell elongation index as morphological change. Moreover, cell proliferation was assessed and mechanical properties of cells in case of elastic modulus of cells were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Increase in proliferation and decrease in elastic modulus of cells are further results of this study. Staining ADSC was done to show changes in cytoskeleton of the cells associated to hypergravity condition specifically in microfilament and microtubule components. After exposing to hypergravity, significant changes were observed in microfilaments and microtubule density as components of cytoskeleton. It was concluded that there could be a relationship between changes in morphology and MFs as the main component of the cells. - Highlights: • Hypergravity (10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g) affects on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). • ADSCs after exposure to the hypergravity are more slender. • The height of ADSCs increases in all test groups comparing their control group. • Hypergravity decreases ADSCs modulus of elasticity and cell actin fiber content. • Hypergravity enhances proliferation rate of ADSCs.

  15. Differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into neuron-like cells by Radix Angelicae Sinensis

    Qiaozhi Wang; Lile Zhou; Yong Guo; Guangyi Liu; Jiyan Cheng; Hong Yu

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissues are an ideal source of stem cells. It is important to find inducers that can safely and effectively differentiate stem cells into functional neurons for clinical use. In this study, we investigate the use of Radix Angelicae Sinensis as an inducer of neuronal differentiation. Primary human adipose-derived stem cells were obtained from adult subcutaneous fatty tissue, then pre-induced with 10%Radix Angelicae Sinensis injection for 24 hours, and incubated in serum-free Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium/Nutrient Mixture F-12 containing 40% Radix Angelicae Si-nensis to induce its differentiation into neuron-like cells. Butylated hydroxyanisole, a common in-ducer for neuronal differentiation, was used as the control. After human adipose-derived stem cells differentiated into neuron-like cells under the induction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis for 24 hours, the positive expression of neuron-specific enolase was lower than that of the butylated hydroxyani-sole-induced group, and the expression of glial fibril ary acidic protein was negative. After they were induced for 48 hours, the positive expression of neuron specific enolase in human adipose-derived stem cells was significantly higher than that of the butylated hydroxyanisole-induced group. Our experimental findings indicate that Radix Angelicae Sinensis can induce human adipose-derived stem celldifferentiation into neuron-like cells and produce less cytotoxicity.

  16. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes adult neurogenesis in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease mice

    Yufang Yan; Tuo Ma; Kai Gong; Qiang Ao; Xiufang Zhang; Yandao Gong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we transplanted adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the hippo-campi of APP/PS1 transgenic Alzheimer’s disease model mice. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the number of newly generated (BrdU+) cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus was signiifcantly higher in Alzheimer’s disease mice after adipose-de-rived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, and there was also a significant increase in the number of BrdU+/DCX+neuroblasts in these animals. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation enhanced neurogenic activity in the subventricular zone as well. Furthermore, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation reduced oxidative stress and alleviated cognitive impairment in the mice. Based on these ifndings, we propose that adipose-derived mes-enchymal stem cell transplantation enhances endogenous neurogenesis in both the subgranular and subventricular zones in APP/PS1 transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mice, thereby facilitating functional recovery.

  17. Isolation of Human Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Using Laser-Assisted Liposuction and Their Therapeutic Potential in Regenerative Medicine

    Chung, Michael T.; Zimmermann, Andrew S.; Paik, Kevin J.; Shane D Morrison; Hyun, Jeong S.; Lo, David D; McArdle, Adrian; Montoro, Daniel T.; Walmsley, Graham G.; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Sorkin, Michael; Rennert, Robert; Chen, Hsin-Han; Chung, Andrew S.; Vistnes, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of laser-assisted liposuction on the quality and differentiation potential of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). It was found that laser-assisted liposuction negatively impacts the biology of ASCs, and therefore cell harvest using suction-assisted liposuction is preferable for tissue-engineering purposes.

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Liposuction Does Not Compromise the Regenerative Potential of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Duscher, Dominik; Atashroo, David; Maan, Zeshaan N; Luan, Anna; Brett, Elizabeth A; Barrera, Janos; Khong, Sacha M; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Whittam, Alexander J; Hu, Michael S; Walmsley, Graham G; Pollhammer, Michael S; Schmidt, Manfred; Schilling, Arndt F; Machens, Hans-Günther; Huemer, Georg M; Wan, Derrick C; Longaker, Michael T; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2016-02-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently become a focus of regenerative medicine, both for their multilineage differentiation capacity and their excretion of proregenerative cytokines. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are of particular interest because of their abundance in fat tissue and the ease of harvest via liposuction. However, little is known about the impact of different liposuction methods on the functionality of ASCs. Here we evaluate the regenerative abilities of ASCs harvested via a third-generation ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) device versus ASCs obtained via standard suction-assisted lipoaspiration (SAL). Lipoaspirates were sorted using fluorescent assisted cell sorting based on an established surface-marker profile (CD34+/CD31-/CD45-), to obtain viable ASCs. Yield and viability were compared and the differentiation capacities of the ASCs were assessed. Finally, the regenerative potential of ASCs was examined using an in vivo model of tissue regeneration. UAL- and SAL-derived samples demonstrated equivalent ASC yield and viability, and UAL ASCs were not impaired in their osteogenic, adipogenic, or chondrogenic differentiation capacity. Equally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed comparable expression of most osteogenic, adipogenic, and key regenerative genes between both ASC groups. Cutaneous regeneration and neovascularization were significantly enhanced in mice treated with ASCs obtained by either UAL or SAL compared with controls, but there were no significant differences in healing between cell-therapy groups. We conclude that UAL is a successful method of obtaining fully functional ASCs for regenerative medicine purposes. Cells harvested with this alternative approach to liposuction are suitable for cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. Significance: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are an appealing source of therapeutic progenitor cells because of their multipotency

  19. Multilineage co-culture of adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering.

    Zhao, Yimu; Waldman, Stephen D; Flynn, Lauren E

    2015-07-01

    Stem cell interactions through paracrine cell signalling can regulate a range of cell responses, including metabolic activity, proliferation and differentiation. Moving towards the development of optimized tissue-engineering strategies with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), the focus of this study was on developing indirect co-culture models to study the effects of mature adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts on bovine ASC multilineage differentiation. For each lineage, ASC differentiation was characterized by histology, gene expression and protein expression, in the absence of key inductive differentiation factors for the ASCs. Co-culture with each of the mature cell populations was shown to successfully induce or enhance lineage-specific differentiation of the ASCs. In general, a more homogeneous but lower-level differentiation response was observed in co-culture as compared to stimulating the bovine ASCs with inductive differentiation media. To explore the role of the Wnt canonical and non-canonical signalling pathways within the model systems, the effects of the Wnt inhibitors WIF-1 and DKK-1 on multilineage differentiation in co-culture were assessed. The data indicated that Wnt signalling may play a role in mediating ASC differentiation in co-culture with the mature cell populations. PMID:23135884

  20. Applicability of adipose-derived stem cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Lin, Hui-Ping; Chan, Tzu-Min; Fu, Ru-Huei; Chuu, Chih-Pin; Chiu, Shao-Chih; Tseng, Yu-Hsiung; Liu, Shih-Ping; Lai, Kuang-Chi; Shih, Mu-Chin; Lin, Zung-Sheng; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Yeh, Da-Chuan; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a form of early onset diabetes mellitus characterized by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells (IPCs), resulting in hyperglycemia and abnormal glucose metabolism. There are currently no treatments available capable of completely curing the symptoms associated with the loss or functional defects of IPCs. Nonetheless, stem cell therapy has demonstrated considerable promise in the replacement of IPCs with immunomodulatory functions to overcome the defects caused by T1DM. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are particularly suitable for use in cell transplantation therapy, especially when seeking to avoid the ethical issues and tumorigenic complications commonly associated with embryos or induced pluripotent stem cells. Cell-based treatments have demonstrated therapeutic advantages and clinical applicability of ADSCs in T1DM, ensuring their suitability for transplantation therapy. This manuscript focuses on the benefits and possible mechanisms in a T1DM-relevant model and displays positive results from finished or ongoing human clinical trials. We also discuss and hypothesize potential methods to further enhance the therapeutic efficacy of these efforts, such as a humanized rodent model and gene therapies for IPC clusters, to meet the clinical applicability of the standard. PMID:25621468

  1. Use of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca in a Canine Model

    Villatoro, Antonio J.; Fernández, Viviana; Rico-Llanos, Gustavo A.; Becerra, José; Andrades, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or dry eye disease (DED) is an immune-mediated multifactorial disease, with high level of prevalence in humans and dogs. Our aim in this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of allogeneic adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (Ad-MSCs) implanted around the lacrimal glands in 12 dogs (24 eyes) with KCS, which is refractory to current available treatments. Schirmer tear test (STT) and ocular surface integrity were assessed at 0 (before treatment), 3, 6, and 9 months after treatment. Average STT values and all clinical signs showed a statistically significant change (P < 0.001) during the follow-up with reduction in all ocular parameters scored: ocular discharge, conjunctival hyperaemia, and corneal changes, and there were no signs of regression or worsening. Implanted cells were well tolerated and were effective reducing clinical signs of KCS with a sustained effect during the study period. None of the animals showed systemic or local complications during the study. To our knowledge, this is the first time in literature that implantation of allogeneic Ad-MSCs around lacrimal glands has been found as an effective therapeutic alternative to treat dogs with KCS. These results could reinforce a good effective solution to be extrapolated to future studies in human. PMID:25802852

  2. Characterization of Human Knee and Chin Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells

    Magali Kouidhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal study findings have revealed that individual fat depots are not functionally equivalent and have different embryonic origins depending on the anatomic location. Mouse bone regeneration studies have also shown that it is essential to match the Hox code of transplanted cells and host tissues to achieve correct repair. However, subcutaneous fat depots from any donor site are often used in autologous fat grafting. Our study was thus carried out to determine the embryonic origins of human facial (chin and limb (knee fat depots and whether they had similar features and molecular matching patterns. Paired chin and knee fat depots were harvested from 11 subjects and gene expression profiles were determined by DNA microarray analyses. Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs from both sites were isolated and analyzed for their capacity to proliferate, form clones, and differentiate. Chin and knee fat depots expressed a different HOX code and could have different embryonic origins. ASCs displayed a different phenotype, with chin-ASCs having the potential to differentiate into brown-like adipocytes, whereas knee-ASCs differentiated into white adipocytes. These results highlighted different features for these two fat sites and indicated that donor site selection might be an important factor to be considered when applying adipose tissue in cell-based therapies.

  3. Sundew-Inspired Adhesive Hydrogels Combined with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Wound Healing.

    Sun, Leming; Huang, Yujian; Bian, Zehua; Petrosino, Jennifer; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Yongzhong; Park, Ki Ho; Yue, Tao; Schmidt, Michael; Galster, Scott; Ma, Jianjie; Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-01-27

    The potential to harness the unique physical, chemical, and biological properties of the sundew (Drosera) plant's adhesive hydrogels has long intrigued researchers searching for novel wound-healing applications. However, the ability to collect sufficient quantities of the sundew plant's adhesive hydrogels is problematic and has eclipsed their therapeutic promise. Inspired by these natural hydrogels, we asked if sundew-inspired adhesive hydrogels could overcome the drawbacks associated with natural sundew hydrogels and be used in combination with stem-cell-based therapy to enhance wound-healing therapeutics. Using a bioinspired approach, we synthesized adhesive hydrogels comprised of sodium alginate, gum arabic, and calcium ions to mimic the properties of the natural sundew-derived adhesive hydrogels. We then characterized and showed that these sundew-inspired hydrogels promote wound healing through their superior adhesive strength, nanostructure, and resistance to shearing when compared to other hydrogels in vitro. In vivo, sundew-inspired hydrogels promoted a "suturing" effect to wound sites, which was demonstrated by enhanced wound closure following topical application of the hydrogels. In combination with mouse adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and compared to other therapeutic biomaterials, the sundew-inspired hydrogels demonstrated superior wound-healing capabilities. Collectively, our studies show that sundew-inspired hydrogels contain ideal properties that promote wound healing and suggest that sundew-inspired-ADSCs combination therapy is an efficacious approach for treating wounds without eliciting noticeable toxicity or inflammation. PMID:26731614

  4. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cryopreservation and Thawing Decrease α4-Integrin Expression

    Irioda, Ana Carolina; Cassilha, Rafael; Zocche, Larissa; Francisco, Julio Cesar; Cunha, Ricardo Correa; Ferreira, Priscila Elias; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Ferreira, Reginaldo Justino; Mogharbel, Bassam Felipe; Garikipati, Venkata Naga Srikanth; Souza, Daiany; Beltrame, Mirian Perlingeiro; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The effects of cryopreservation on adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells are not clearly documented, as there is a growing body of evidence about the importance of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative therapies. The aim of this study was to analyze human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells phenotypic expression (CD34, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD49d), colony forming unit ability, viability, and differentiation potential before and after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods. 12 samples of the adipose tissue were collected from a healthy donor using the liposuction technique. The cell isolation was performed by enzymatic digestion and then the cells were cultured up to passage 2. Before and after cryopreservation the immunophenotype, cellular viability analysis by flow cytometer, colony forming units ability, differentiation potential into adipocytes and osteoblasts as demonstrated by Oil Red O and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Results. The immunophenotypic markers expression was largely preserved, and their multipotency was maintained. However, after cryopreservation, the cells decreased α4-integrin expression (CD49d), cell viability, and number of colony forming units. Conclusions. These findings suggest that ADMSC transplanted after cryopreservation might compromise the retention of transplanted cells in the host tissue. Therefore, further studies are warranted to standardize protocols related to cryopreservation to attain full benefits of stem cell therapy. PMID:26981129

  5. Uniaxial cyclic strain enhances adipose-derived stem cell fusion with skeletal myocytes

    Andersen, Jens Isak; Juhl, Morten; Nielsen, Thøger; Emmersen, Jeppe; Fink, Trine; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo, E-mail: cpennisi@hst.aau.dk

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS) applied to ASCs alone or in coculture with myogenic precursors. • CTS promoted the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs. • Without biochemical supplements, CTS did not support advanced myogenic differentiation of ASCs. • Mechanical stimulation of cocultures boosted fusion of ASCs with skeletal myoblasts. - Abstract: Although adult muscle tissue possesses an exceptional capacity for regeneration, in the case of large defects, the restoration to original state is not possible. A well-known source for the de novo regeneration is the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which can be readily isolated and have been shown to have a broad differentiation and regenerative potential. In this work, we employed uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS), to mechanically stimulate human ASCs to participate in the formation skeletal myotubes in an in vitro model of myogenesis. The application of CTS for 48 h resulted in the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs, but failed to support skeletal muscle terminal differentiation. When the same stimulation paradigm was applied to cocultures with mouse skeletal muscle myoblasts, the percentage of ASCs contributing to the formation of myotubes significantly exceeded the levels reported in the literature hitherto. In perspective, the mechanical strain may be used to increase the efficiency of incorporation of ASCs in the skeletal muscles, which could be found useful in diverse traumatic or pathologic scenarios.

  6. The Antiaging Gene Klotho Regulates Proliferation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Fan, Jun; Sun, Zhongjie

    2016-06-01

    Klotho was originally discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether secreted Klotho (SKL) affects the proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that short-form Klotho was expressed in mouse ADSCs. The Klotho gene mutation KL(-/-) significantly decreased proliferation of ADSCs and expression of pluripotent transcription factors (Nanog, Sox-2, and Oct-4) in mice. The adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs was also decreased in KL(-/-) mice. Incubation with Klotho-deficient medium decreased ADSC proliferation, pluripotent transcription factor levels, and adipogenic differentiation, which is similar to what was found in KL(-/-) mice. These results indicate that Klotho deficiency suppresses ADSC proliferation and differentiation. Interestingly, treatment with recombinant SKL protein rescued the Klotho deficiency-induced impairment in ADSC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. SKL also regulated ADSCs' differentiation to other cell lineages (osteoblasts, myofibroblasts), indicating that SKL maintains stemness of ADSCs. It is intriguing that overexpression of SKL significantly increased PPAR-γ expression and lipid formation in ADSCs following adipogenic induction, indicating enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Overexpression of SKL inhibited expression of TGFβ1 and its downstream signaling mediator Smad2/3. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that SKL is essential to the maintenance of normal proliferation and differentiation in ADSCs. Klotho regulates adipogenic differentiation in ADSCs, likely via inhibition of TGFβ1 and activation of PPAR-γ. Stem Cells 2016;34:1615-1625. PMID:26865060

  7. The Effect of Laser Irradiation on Adipose Derived Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Abrahamse, H.; de Villiers, J.; Mvula, B.

    2009-06-01

    There are two fundamental types of stem cells: Embryonic Stem cells and Adult Stem cells. Adult Stem cells have a more restricted potential and can usually differentiate into a few different cell types. In the body these cells facilitate the replacement or repair of damaged or diseased cells in organs. Low intensity laser irradiation was shown to increase stem cell migration and stimulate proliferation and it is thought that treatment of these cells with laser irradiation may increase the stem cell harvest and have a positive effect on the viability and proliferation. Our research is aimed at determining the effect of laser irradiation on differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) into different cell types using a diode laser with a wavelength of 636 nm and at 5 J/cm2. Confirmation of stem cell characteristics and well as subsequent differentiation were assessed using Western blot analysis and cellular morphology supported by fluorescent live cell imaging. Functionality of subsequent differentiated cells was confirmed by measuring adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and cell viability.

  8. Fluoxetine Decreases the Proliferation and Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Bo Kyung Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine was originally developed as an antidepressant, but it has also been used to treat obesity. Although the anti-appetite effect of fluoxetine is well-documented, its potential effects on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs or mature adipocytes have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of fluoxetine on the proliferation of ASCs. We also investigated its inhibitory effect on adipogenic differentiation. Fluoxetine significantly decreased ASC proliferation, and signal transduction PCR array analysis showed that it increased expression of autophagy-related genes. In addition, fluoxetine up-regulated SQSTM1 and LC3B protein expression as detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence. The autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA, significantly attenuated fluoxetine-mediated effects on ASC proliferation and SQSTM1/LC3B expression. In addition, 3-MA decreased the mRNA expression of two autophagy-related genes, beclin-1 and Atg7, in ASCs. Fluoxetine also significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and down-regulated the levels of PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α in ASCs. Collectively, these results indicate that fluoxetine decreases ASC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. This is the first in vitro evidence that fluoxetine can reduce fat accumulation by inhibiting ASC proliferation and differentiation.

  9. Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Induced Cell Apoptosis and S Phase Arrest in Bladder Tumor

    Xi Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs on the viability and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells. EJ and T24 cells were cocultured with ADSCs or cultured with conditioned medium of ADSCs (ADSC-CM, respectively. The cell counting and colony formation assay showed ADSCs inhibited the proliferation of EJ and T24 cells. Cell viability assessment revealed that the secretions of ADSCs, in the form of conditioned medium, were able to decrease cancer cell viability. Wound-healing assay suggested ADSC-CM suppressed migration of T24 and EJ cells. Moreover, the results of the flow cytometry indicated that ADSC-CM was capable of inducing apoptosis of T24 cells and inducing S phase cell cycle arrest. Western blot revealed ADSC-CM increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, indicating that ADSC-CM induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way. PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins were involved in the mechanism of this reaction. Our study indicated that ADSCs may provide a promising and practicable manner for bladder tumor therapy.

  10. The Biomolecular Basis of Adipogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Maria Giovanna Scioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable attention regarding the role of receptor signaling and downstream-regulated mediators in the homeostasis of adipocytes, but less information is available concerning adipose-derived stem cell (ASC biology. Recent studies revealed that the pathways regulating ASC differentiation involve the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, including fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, ErbB receptors and the downstream-regulated serine/threonine protein kinase B (Akt and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN activity. RTKs are cell surface receptors that represent key regulators of cellular homeostasis but also play a critical role in the progression of cancer. Many of the metabolic effects and other consequences of activated RTKs are mediated by the modulation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 (Erk-1 signaling. Akt activity sustains survival and the adipogenic differentiation of ASCs, whereas Erk-1 appears downregulated. The inhibition of FGFR-1, EGFR and ErbB2 reduced proliferation, but only FGFR-1 inihibition reduced Akt activity and adipogenesis. Adipogenesis and neovascularization are also chronologically and spatially coupled processes and RTK activation and downstream targets are also involved in ASC-mediated angiogenesis. The potentiality of ASCs and the possibility to modulate specific molecular pathways underlying ASC biological processes and, in particular, those shared with cancer cells, offer new exciting strategies in the field of regenerative medicine.

  11. Ultrastructure of neuronal-like cells differentiated from adult adipose-derived stromal cells

    Changqing Ye; Xiaodong Yuan; Hui Liu; Yanan Cai; Ya Ou

    2010-01-01

    β-mercaptoethanol induces in vitro adult adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) to differentiate into neurons. However, the ultrastructural features of the differentiated neuronal-like cells remain unknown. In the present study, inverted phase contrast microscopy was utilized to observe β-mercaptcethanol-induced differentiation of neuronal-like cells from human ADSCs, and immunocytochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction were employed to detect expression of a neural stem cells marker (nestin), a neuronal marker (neuron-specific enolase), and a glial marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein). In addition, ultrastructure of neuronal-like cells was observed by transmission election microscopy. Results revealed highest expression rate of nestin and neuron-specific enolase at 3 and 5 hours following induced differentiation; cells in the 5-hour induction group exhibited a neuronal-specific structure, i.e., Nissl bodies. However, when induction solution was replaced by complete culture medium after 8-hour induction, the differentiated cells reverted to the fibroblast-like morphology from day 1. These results demonstrate that β-mercaptoethanol-induced ADSCs induced differentiation into neural stem cells, followed by morphology of neuronal-like cells. However, this differentiation state was not stable.

  12. Exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells ameliorate phenotype of Huntington's disease in vitro model.

    Lee, Mijung; Liu, Tian; Im, Wooseok; Kim, Manho

    2016-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by the aggregation of mutant Huntingtin (mHtt). Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have a potential for use in the treatment of incurable disorders, including HD. ASCs secrete various neurotrophic factors and microvesicles, and modulate hostile microenvironments affected by disease through paracrine mechanisms. Exosomes are small vesicles that transport nucleic acid and protein between cells. Here, we investigated the therapeutic role of exosomes from ASCs (ASC-exo) using in vitro HD model by examining pathological phenotypes of this model. Immunocytochemistry result showed that ASC-exo significantly decreases mHtt aggregates in R6/2 mice-derived neuronal cells. Western blot result further confirmed the reduction in mHtt aggregates level by ASC-exo treatment. ASC-exo up-regulates PGC-1, phospho-CREB and ameliorates abnormal apoptotic protein level in an in vitro HD model. In addition, MitoSOX Red, JC-1 and cell viability assay showed that ASC-exo reduces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis of in vitro HD model. These findings suggest that ASC-exo has a therapeutic potential for treating HD by modulating representative cellular phenotypes of HD. PMID:27177616

  13. 5-Azacytidine Is Insufficient For Cardiogenesis In Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    2012-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue is a source of multipotent adult stem cells and it has the ability to differentiate into several types of cell lineages such as neuron cells, osteogenic cells and adipogenic cells. Several reports have shown adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have the ability to undergo cardiomyogenesis. Studies have shown 5-azacytidine can successfully drive stem cells such as bone marrow derived stem cells to differentiate into cardiomyogenic cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect 5-azacytidine on the cardiogenic ability of ASCs. Methods The cardiogenic potential of ASCs was analysed by studying the morphological changes after induction, the changes in the cardiogenic genes expression i.e. GATA4, MLC-2v, MLC-2a, NKX2.5, β-MHC, α-MHC, Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), Connexin 43, Cardiac Troponin C, Cardiac Troponin I and myocyte enhancer factor (MEF2C) and the changes of embryonic stem cells genes expression at P5 and P10 using quantitative PCR. Results Our results showed that the induced ASCs did not show significant morphological difference compared to the non-induced ASCs. While quantitative PCR data indicated that most cardiogenic genes and stemness genes expression level decreased after induction at P5 and P10. Conclusion 5-azacytidine is insufficient for the cardiogenic induction of the ASCs. PMID:22221649

  14. 5-Azacytidine Is Insufficient For Cardiogenesis In Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Wan Safwani Wan Kamarul Zaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipose tissue is a source of multipotent adult stem cells and it has the ability to differentiate into several types of cell lineages such as neuron cells, osteogenic cells and adipogenic cells. Several reports have shown adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs have the ability to undergo cardiomyogenesis. Studies have shown 5-azacytidine can successfully drive stem cells such as bone marrow derived stem cells to differentiate into cardiomyogenic cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect 5-azacytidine on the cardiogenic ability of ASCs. Methods The cardiogenic potential of ASCs was analysed by studying the morphological changes after induction, the changes in the cardiogenic genes expression i.e. GATA4, MLC-2v, MLC-2a, NKX2.5, β-MHC, α-MHC, Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, Connexin 43, Cardiac Troponin C, Cardiac Troponin I and myocyte enhancer factor (MEF2C and the changes of embryonic stem cells genes expression at P5 and P10 using quantitative PCR. Results Our results showed that the induced ASCs did not show significant morphological difference compared to the non-induced ASCs. While quantitative PCR data indicated that most cardiogenic genes and stemness genes expression level decreased after induction at P5 and P10. Conclusion 5-azacytidine is insufficient for the cardiogenic induction of the ASCs.

  15. Melatonin Protects Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Oxidative Stress and Cell Death

    Han, Xiaolian; Sivakumaran, Priyadharshini; Lim, Shiang Y.; Morrison, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have applications in regenerative medicine based on their therapeutic potential to repair and regenerate diseased and damaged tissue. They are commonly subject to oxidative stress during harvest and transplantation, which has detrimental effects on their subsequent viability. By functioning as an antioxidant against free radicals, melatonin may exert cytoprotective effects on ASCs. Methods We cultured human ASCs in the presence of varying dosages of hydrogen peroxide and/or melatonin for a period of 3 hours. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining under fluorescence microscopy. Results Hydrogen peroxide (1–2.5 mM) treatment resulted in an incremental increase in cell death. 2 mM hydrogen peroxide was thereafter selected as the dose for co-treatment with melatonin. Melatonin alone had no adverse effects on ASCs. Co-treatment of ASCs with melatonin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide protected ASCs from cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and afforded maximal protection at 100 µM (n=4, one-way analysis of variance P<0.001). Melatonin co-treated ASCs displayed significantly fewer apoptotic cells, as demonstrated by condensed and fragmented nuclei under fluorescence microscopy. Conclusions Melatonin possesses cytoprotective properties against oxidative stress in human ASCs and might be a useful adjunct in fat grafting and cell-assisted lipotransfer. PMID:27218020

  16. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cryopreservation and Thawing Decrease α4-Integrin Expression

    Ana Carolina Irioda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The effects of cryopreservation on adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells are not clearly documented, as there is a growing body of evidence about the importance of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative therapies. The aim of this study was to analyze human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells phenotypic expression (CD34, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD49d, colony forming unit ability, viability, and differentiation potential before and after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods. 12 samples of the adipose tissue were collected from a healthy donor using the liposuction technique. The cell isolation was performed by enzymatic digestion and then the cells were cultured up to passage 2. Before and after cryopreservation the immunophenotype, cellular viability analysis by flow cytometer, colony forming units ability, differentiation potential into adipocytes and osteoblasts as demonstrated by Oil Red O and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Results. The immunophenotypic markers expression was largely preserved, and their multipotency was maintained. However, after cryopreservation, the cells decreased α4-integrin expression (CD49d, cell viability, and number of colony forming units. Conclusions. These findings suggest that ADMSC transplanted after cryopreservation might compromise the retention of transplanted cells in the host tissue. Therefore, further studies are warranted to standardize protocols related to cryopreservation to attain full benefits of stem cell therapy.

  17. New insight on obesity and adipose-derived stem cells using comprehensive metabolomics.

    Mastrangelo, Annalaura; Panadero, María I; Pérez, Laura M; Gálvez, Beatriz G; García, Antonia; Barbas, Coral; Rupérez, Francisco J

    2016-07-15

    Obesity affects the functional capability of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and their effective use in regenerative medicine through mechanisms that are still poorly understood. In the present study we used a multiplatform [LC/MS, GC/MS and capillary electrophoresis/MS (CE/MS)], metabolomics, untargeted approach to investigate the metabolic alteration underlying the inequalities observed in obesity-derived ASCs. The metabolic fingerprint (metabolites within the cells) and footprint (metabolites secreted in the culture medium), from obesity- and non-obesity-derived ASCs of humans or mice, were characterized to provide valuable information. Metabolites associated with glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway and the polyol pathway were increased in the footprint of obesity-derived human ASCs, indicating alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, whereas, from the murine model, deep differences in lipid and amino acid catabolism were highlighted. Therefore, new insights on the ASCs' metabolome were provided that enhance our understanding of the processes underlying ASCs' stemness capacity and its relationship with obesity, in different cell models. PMID:27208167

  18. Antioxidative fullerol promotes osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Yang XL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xinlin Yang, Ching-Ju Li, Yueping Wan, Pinar Smith, Guowei Shang, Quanjun Cui Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: Antioxidants were implicated as potential reagents to enhance osteogenesis, and nano-fullerenes have been demonstrated to have a great antioxidative capacity by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this study, we assessed the impact of a polyhydroxylated fullerene, fullerol, on the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs. Fullerol was not toxic against human ADSCs at concentrations up to 10 µM. At a concentration of 1 µM, fullerol reduced cellular reactive oxygen species after a 5-day incubation either in the presence or in the absence of osteogenic media. Pretreatment of fullerol for 7 days increased the osteogenic potential of human ADSCs. Furthermore, when incubated together with osteogenic medium, fullerol promoted osteogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, fullerol proved to promote expression of FoxO1, a major functional isoform of forkhead box O transcription factors that defend against reactive oxygen species in bone. Although further clarification of related mechanisms is required, the findings may help further development of a novel approach for bone repair, using combined treatment of nano-fullerol with ADSCs. Keywords: polyhydroxylated fullerene, bone repair, reactive oxygen species, forkhead box protein O1

  19. Nanostructured Tendon-Derived Scaffolds for Enhanced Bone Regeneration by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Ko, Eunkyung; Alberti, Kyle; Lee, Jong Seung; Yang, Kisuk; Jin, Yoonhee; Shin, Jisoo; Yang, Hee Seok; Xu, Qiaobing; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Decellularized matrix-based scaffolds can induce enhanced tissue regeneration due to their biochemical, biophysical, and mechanical similarity to native tissues. In this study, we report a nanostructured decellularized tendon scaffold with aligned, nanofibrous structures to enhance osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). Using a bioskiving method, we prepared decellularized tendon scaffolds from tissue slices of bovine Achilles and neck tendons with or without fixation, and investigated the effects on physical and mechanical properties of decellularized tendon scaffolds, based on the types and concentrations of cross-linking agents. In general, we found that decellularized tendon scaffolds without fixative treatments were more effective in inducing osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of hADSCs in vitro. When non-cross-linked decellularized tendon scaffolds were applied together with hydroxyapatite for hADSC transplantation in critical-sized bone defects, they promoted bone-specific collagen deposition and mineralized bone formation 4 and 8 weeks after hADSC transplantation, compared to conventional collagen type I scaffolds. Interestingly, stacking of decellularized tendon scaffolds cultured with osteogenically committed hADSCs and those containing human cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) induced vascularized bone regeneration in the defects 8 weeks after transplantation. Our study suggests that biomimetic nanostructured scaffolds made of decellularized tissue matrices can serve as functional tissue-engineering scaffolds for enhanced osteogenesis of stem cells. PMID:27502160

  20. Osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on gum tragacanth hydrogel.

    Haeri, Seyed Mohammad Jafar; Sadeghi, Yousef; Salehi, Mohammad; Farahani, Reza Masteri; Mohsen, Nourozian

    2016-05-01

    Currently, natural polymer based hydrogels has attracted great attention of orthopedic surgeons for application in bone tissue engineering. With this aim, osteoinductive capacity of Gum Tragacanth (GT) based hydrogel was compared to collagen hydrogel and tissue culture plate (TCPS). For this purpose, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) was cultured on the hydrogels and TCPS and after investigating the biocompatibility of hydrogels using MTT assay, osteoinductivity of hydrogels were evaluated using pan osteogenic markers such as Alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium content and osteo-related genes. Increasing proliferation trend of AT-MSCs on GT hydrogel demonstrated that TG has no-cytotoxicity and can even be better than the other groups i.e., highest proliferation at day 5. GT hydrogel displayed highest ALP activity and mineralization when compared to the collagen hydrogel and TCPS. Relative gene expression levels have demonstrated that highest expression of Runx2, osteonectin and osteocalcin in the cells cultured GT hydrogel but the expression of collagen type-1 remains constant in hydrogels. Above results demonstrate that GT hydrogel could be an appropriate scaffold for accelerating and supporting the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells which further can be used for orthopedic applications. PMID:27055599

  1. Characterization of Senescence of Culture-expanded Human Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Legzdina, Diana; Romanauska, Anete; Nikulshin, Sergey; Kozlovska, Tatjana; Berzins, Uldis

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are promising candidates in regenerative medicine. The need for in vitro propagation to obtain therapeutic quantities of the cells imposes a risk of impaired functionality due to cellular senescence. The aim of the study was to analyze in vitro senescence of previously cryopreserved human ADSCs subjected to serial passages in cell culture. Methods and Results ADSC cultures from 8 donors were cultivated until proliferation arrest was reached. A gradual decline of ADSC fitness was observed by altered cell morphology, loss of proliferative, clonogenic and differentiation abilities and increased β-galactosidase expression all of which occurred in a donor-specific manner. Relative telomere length (RTL) analysis revealed that only three tested cultures encountered replicative senescence. The presence of two ADSC subsets with significantly different RTL and cell size was discovered. The heterogeneity of ADSC cultures was supported by the intermittent nature of aging seen in tested samples. Conclusions We conclude that the onset of in vitro senescence of ADSCs is a strongly donor-specific process which is complicated by the intricate dynamics of cell subsets present in ADSC population. This complexity needs to be carefully considered when elaborating protocols for personalized cellular therapy. PMID:27426094

  2. Surgical sutures filled with adipose-derived stem cells promote wound healing.

    Ann Katharin Reckhenrich

    Full Text Available Delayed wound healing and scar formation are among the most frequent complications after surgical interventions. Although biodegradable surgical sutures present an excellent drug delivery opportunity, their primary function is tissue fixation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC act as trophic mediators and are successful in activating biomaterials. Here biodegradable sutures were filled with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC to provide a pro-regenerative environment at the injured site. Results showed that after filling, ASCs attach to the suture material, distribute equally throughout the filaments, and remain viable in the suture. Among a broad panel of cytokines, cell-filled sutures constantly release vascular endothelial growth factor to supernatants. Such conditioned media was evaluated in an in vitro wound healing assay and showed a significant decrease in the open wound area compared to controls. After suturing in an ex vivo wound model, cells remained in the suture and maintained their metabolic activity. Furthermore, cell-filled sutures can be cryopreserved without losing their viability. This study presents an innovative approach to equip surgical sutures with pro-regenerative features and allows the treatment and fixation of wounds in one step, therefore representing a promising tool to promote wound healing after injury.

  3. In vivo imaging of human adipose-derived stem cells in Alzheimer's disease animal model

    Ha, Sungji; Ahn, Sangzin; Kim, Saeromi; Joo, Yuyoung; Chong, Young Hae; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Chang, Keun-A.

    2014-05-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising tool for the treatment of diverse conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). To understand transplanted stem cell biology, in vivo imaging is necessary. Nanomaterial has great potential for in vivo imaging and several noninvasive methods are used, such as magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, fluorescence imaging (FI) and near-infrared FI. However, each method has limitations for in vivo imaging. To overcome these limitations, multimodal nanoprobes have been developed. In the present study, we intravenously injected human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) that were labeled with a multimodal nanoparticle, LEO-LIVE™-Magnoxide 675 or 797 (BITERIALS, Seoul, Korea), into Tg2576 mice, an AD mouse model. After sequential in vivo tracking using Maestro Imaging System, we found fluorescence signals up to 10 days after injection. We also found strong signals in the brains extracted from hASC-transplanted Tg2576 mice up to 12 days after injection. With these results, we suggest that in vivo imaging with this multimodal nanoparticle may provide a useful tool for stem cell tracking and understanding stem cell biology in other neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Transplantation of Adipose Derived Stromal Cells into the Developing Mouse Eye

    Adipose derived stromal cells (ADSCs) were transplanted into a developing mouse eye to investigate the influence of a developing host micro environment on integration and differentiation. Green fluorescent protein-expressing ADSCs were transplanted by intraocular injections. The age of the mouse was in the range of 1 to 10 days postnatal (PN). Survival dates ranged from 7 to 28 post transplantation (DPT), at which time immunohistochemistry was performed. The transplanted ADSCs displayed some morphological differentiations in the host eye. Some cells expressed microtubule associated protein 2 (marker for mature neuron), or glial fibrillary acid protein (marker for glial cell). In addition, some cells integrated into the ganglion cell layer. The integration and differentiation of the transplanted ADSCs in the 5 and 10 PN 7 DPT were better than in the host eye the other age ranges. This study was aimed at demonstrating how the age of host micro environment would influence the differentiation and integration of the transplanted ADSCs. However, it was found that the integration and differentiation into the developing retina were very limited when compared with other stem cells, such as murine brain progenitor cell

  5. Supplementation of fat grafts with adipose-derived regenerative cells in reconstructive surgery [Stammzellangereicherte Fetttransplantation in der rekonstruktiven Chirurgie

    Herold, C.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: The fraction of regenerative cells in adipose tissue has been described to be even higher than in bone marrow. Adipose tissue itself is excessively available in most patients. Given that adipose tissue is abundant in majority of patients adipose derrived stem cells (ASCs have come under scrutiny for regenerative procedures in reconstructive surgery.Material and methods: ASCs were extracted by the Celution system for enrichment of fat grafts that were administered in patients with decreased wound healing, soft tissue or scar defects.Results: All patients were satisfied after reconstruction with ASCs augmented fat grafts and no side effects were observed. Discussion: The Celution system provides fast recovery of ASCs which can be immediately utilized for appropriate application. Since a high number of stem cells are harvested from fat tissue no expansion of cells is needed as described for bone marrow derived stem cells. Enrichment of fat graft with ASCs is of great interest due to their reported angiogenetic effect. The reported cases demonstrate the potential of ASCs in the field of regenerative medicine and encourage further application in reconstructive surgery.[german] Einleitung: Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass der Anteil regenerativer Zellen im Fettgewebe höher als im Knochenmark ist. Fettgewebe hingegen ist bei den meisten Patienten exzessiv vorhanden. Das legt den Einsatz von ASCs (adipose derived stem cells bei regenerativen Anwendungen in der rekonstruktiven Chirurgie nahe.Material und Methoden: Mit dem Celution System von Cytori Therapeutics Inc. prozessierte, ASC angereicherte Fetttransplantate werden an vier Patienten mit Weichteildefiziten und störenden Narben sowie Wundheilungsstörungen angewendet.Ergebnisse: Insbesondere bei Patienten mit Weichteildefiziten und Narben konnte eine suffiziente Volumenaugmentation und ansprechende Verbesserung der Narben erzielt werden. Es wurden keine Nebenwirkungen

  6. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in a myocardial infarction model

    Rasmussen, Jeppe; Frøbert, Ole; Holst-Hansen, Claus;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of myocardial infarction with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and recently also adipose-derived stem cells has shown promising results. In contrast to clinical trials and their use of autologous bone marrow-derived cells from the ischemic patient, the animal...... myocardial infarction models are often using young donors and young, often immune-compromised, recipient animals. Our objective was to compare bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells from an elderly ischemic patient in the treatment of myocardial infarction, using a fully...... grown non-immunecompromised rat model. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissue and bone marrow and compared with respect to surface markers and proliferative capability. To compare the regenerative potential of the two stem cell populations, male Sprague-Dawley rats were...

  7. Adipose-Derived Stromal Cell Therapy Affects Lung Inflammation and Tracheal Responsiveness in Guinea Pig Model of COPD

    Feizpour, Azadeh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The effects of adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) were evaluated on tracheal responsiveness and biochemical parameters in guinea pigs model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thirty six guinea pigs were divided into 6 groups including: Control, COPD, COPD+intratracheal delivery of PBS (COPD+ITPBS), COPD+intravenous delivery of PBS (COPD+IVPBS), COPD+intratracheal delivery of ASCs (COPD+ITASC) and COPD+intravenous injection of ASCs (COPD+IVASC). COPD was induced by exposing ani...

  8. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cell Therapy: Safety and Feasibility in Different "Hospital Exemption" Clinical Applications

    Vériter, Sophie; André, Wivine; Aouassar, Najima; Poirel, Hélène Antoine; Lafosse, Aurore; Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Dufrane, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Based on immunomodulatory, osteogenic, and pro-angiogenic properties of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), this study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of ASC-derived cell therapies for clinical indications. Two autologous ASC-derived products were proposed to 17 patients who had not experienced any success with conventional therapies: (1) a scaffold-free osteogenic three-dimensional graft for the treatment of bone non-union and (2) a biological dressing for dermal reconstruction of non-...

  9. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cell Therapy: Safety and Feasibility in Different "Hospital Exemption" Clinical Applications.

    Veriter, Sophie; André, Wivine; Aouassar, Najima; Poirel, Hélène; Lafosse, Aurore; Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Dufrane, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Based on immunomodulatory, osteogenic, and pro-angiogenic properties of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), this study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of ASC-derived cell therapies for clinical indications. Two autologous ASC-derived products were proposed to 17 patients who had not experienced any success with conventional therapies: (1) a scaffold-free osteogenic three-dimensional graft for the treatment of bone non-union and (2) a biological dressing for dermal reconstruction of non-...

  10. Combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix and adipose-derived stem cells for adipose tissue engineering

    Wang, Lina; Johnson, Joshua A.; Zhang, Qixu; Elisabeth K. Beahm

    2013-01-01

    Repair of soft-tissue defects resulting from lumpectomy or mastectomy has become an important rehabilitation process for breast cancer patients. This study aimed to provide an adipose tissue engineering platform for soft-tissue defect repair by combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix (hDAM) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). To derive hDAM, incised human adipose tissues underwent a decellularization process. Effective cell removal and lipid removal were p...

  11. Single-Center Study of 83 Horses with Suspensory Injuries Treated with Adipose-Derived Stem and Regenerative Cells

    F. Ross Rich

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem and regenerative cells (ADRCs), concentrated from autologous fat tissue, have the ability to differentiate into various specific cell types including tenocytes. In this retrospective study, clinical data are presented from 83 horses with 176 suspensory ligament injuries, treated with ADRCs, given a strictly enforced standardized rehabilitation program, and followed up for at least one year after returning to work. Assessment for a successful outcome...

  12. Adipose-derived regenerative cell (ADRC)-enriched fat grafting: optimal cell concentration and effects on grafted fat characteristics

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Kushida, Satoshi; Hara, Tomoya; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Background To overcome the absorption of traditional fat grafting, techniques for adipose-derived regenerative cell (ADRC)-enriched fat grafting are currently being adapted for practical application. The Celution®800/CRS (Cytori Therapeutics, San Diego, CA) has enabled rapid grafting of the patient’s own freshly harvested ADRCs without requiring a culturing step. However, the optimal cell concentration and the effects of ADRCs on the characteristics of grafted fat after free fat grafting rema...

  13. MicroRNA-27b Enhances the Hepatic Regenerative Properties of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Chen, Kuang-Den; Huang, Kuang-Tzu; Lin, Chih-Che; Weng, Wei-Teng; Hsu, Li-Wen; Goto, Shigeru; Nakano, Toshiaki; Lai, Chia-Yun; Kung, Chao-Pin; Chiu, King-Wah; Wang, Chih-Chi; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ma, Yen-Ying; Chen, Chao-Long

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are readily available multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells and have become an attractive therapeutic tool for regenerative medicine. We herein investigated the mechanistic role of how miR-27b modulated regenerative capacities of ASCs. Intravenous administration of miR-27b-transfected ASCs (ASCs-miR-27b) was conducted after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). After PH, rats injected with ASCs-miR-27b had decreased inflammatory cytokines and increased...

  14. Long-Duration Three-Dimensional Spheroid Culture Promotes Angiogenic Activities of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Lee, Jun Hee; Han, Yong-Seok; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer significant therapeutic promise for various regenerative therapies. However, MSC-based therapy for injury exhibits low efficacy due to the pathological environment in target tissues and the differences between in vitro and in vivo conditions. To address this issue, we developed adipose-derived MSC spheroids as a novel delivery method to preserve the stem cell microenvironment. MSC spheroids were generated by suspension culture for 3 days, and their sizes in...

  15. Activated platelet-rich plasma improves adipose-derived stem cell transplantation efficiency in injured articular cartilage

    Pham, Phuc Van; Bui, Khanh Hong-Thien; Ngo, Dat Quoc; Vu, Ngoc Bich; Truong, Nhung Hai; Phan, Nhan Lu-Chinh; Le, Dung Minh; Duong, Triet Dinh; Nguyen, Thanh Duc; Le, Vien Tuong; Phan, Ngoc Kim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been isolated, expanded, and applied in the treatment of many diseases. ADSCs have also been used to treat injured articular cartilage. However, there is controversy regarding the treatment efficiency. We considered that ADSC transplantation with activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may improve injured articular cartilage compared with that of ADSC transplantation alone. In this study, we determined the role of PRP in ADSC transplantation t...

  16. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Esophagus Tissues Engineering

    Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are increasingly being used for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can be differentiated from ASCs. Oxygen is a key factor influencing the stem cell differentiation. Tissue engineered esophagus has been a preferred solution for diseased esophagus replacement. The first part involved the effect of hypoxia on differentiation. The results showed 5% hypoxia to be the optimal condition for differentiation of ASCs into contract...

  17. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar

    Angelou Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group. We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments.

  18. Adipose-derived stromal cells inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation inducing apoptosis

    Takahara, Kiyoshi [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Ii, Masaaki, E-mail: masaii@art.osaka-med.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Inamoto, Teruo; Komura, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Naokazu; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Asahi, Michio [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Azuma, Haruhito [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • AdSC transplantation exhibits inhibitory effect on tumor progressions of PCa cells. • AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway. • High expression of the TGF-β1 gene in AdSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Adipose-derived stromal cells (AdSCs) are known to exhibit extensive proliferation potential and can undergo multilineage differentiation, sharing similar characteristics to bone marrow-derived MSCs. However, as the effect of AdSCs on tumor growth has not been studied sufficiently, we assessed the degree to which AdSCs affect the proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cell. Human AdSCs exerted an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-nonresponsive (PC3) human PCa cells, while normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) did not, and in fact promoted PCa cell proliferation to a degree. Moreover, AdSCs induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells and PC3 cells, activating the caspase3/7 signaling pathway. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that AdSC-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC3 cells was related to the TGF-β signaling pathway. Consistent with our in vitro observations, local transplantation of AdSCs delayed the growth of tumors derived from both LNCaP- and PC3-xenografts in immunodeficient mice. This is the first preclinical study to have directly demonstrated that AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway, irrespective of androgen-responsiveness. Since autologous AdSCs can be easily isolated from adipose tissue without any ethical concerns, we suggest that therapy with these cells could be a novel approach for patients with PCa.

  19. Pericytes derived from adipose-derived stem cells protect against retinal vasculopathy.

    Thomas A Mendel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinal vasculopathies, including diabetic retinopathy (DR, threaten the vision of over 100 million people. Retinal pericytes are critical for microvascular control, supporting retinal endothelial cells via direct contact and paracrine mechanisms. With pericyte death or loss, endothelial dysfunction ensues, resulting in hypoxic insult, pathologic angiogenesis, and ultimately blindness. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs differentiate into pericytes, suggesting they may be useful as a protective and regenerative cellular therapy for retinal vascular disease. In this study, we examine the ability of ASCs to differentiate into pericytes that can stabilize retinal vessels in multiple pre-clinical models of retinal vasculopathy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that ASCs express pericyte-specific markers in vitro. When injected intravitreally into the murine eye subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR, ASCs were capable of migrating to and integrating with the retinal vasculature. Integrated ASCs maintained marker expression and pericyte-like morphology in vivo for at least 2 months. ASCs injected after OIR vessel destabilization and ablation enhanced vessel regrowth (16% reduction in avascular area. ASCs injected intravitreally before OIR vessel destabilization prevented retinal capillary dropout (53% reduction. Treatment of ASCs with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1 enhanced hASC pericyte function, in a manner similar to native retinal pericytes, with increased marker expression of smooth muscle actin, cellular contractility, endothelial stabilization, and microvascular protection in OIR. Finally, injected ASCs prevented capillary loss in the diabetic retinopathic Akimba mouse (79% reduction 2 months after injection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ASC-derived pericytes can integrate with retinal vasculature, adopting both pericyte morphology and marker expression, and provide functional vascular protection in multiple

  20. Chick embryo xenograft model reveals a novel perineural niche for human adipose-derived stromal cells

    Ingrid R. Cordeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSC are a heterogeneous cell population that contains adult multipotent stem cells. Although it is well established that hADSC have skeletal potential in vivo in adult organisms, in vitro assays suggest further differentiation capacity, such as into glia. Thus, we propose that grafting hADSC into the embryo can provide them with a much more instructive microenvironment, allowing the human cells to adopt diverse fates or niches. Here, hADSC spheroids were grafted into either the presumptive presomitic mesoderm or the first branchial arch (BA1 regions of chick embryos. Cells were identified without previous manipulations via human-specific Alu probes, which allows efficient long-term tracing of heterogeneous primary cultures. When grafted into the trunk, in contrast to previous studies, hADSC were not found in chondrogenic or osteogenic territories up to E8. Surprisingly, 82.5% of the hADSC were associated with HNK1+ tissues, such as peripheral nerves. Human skin fibroblasts showed a smaller tropism for nerves. In line with other studies, hADSC also adopted perivascular locations. When grafted into the presumptive BA1, 74.6% of the cells were in the outflow tract, the final goal of cardiac neural crest cells, and were also associated with peripheral nerves. This is the first study showing that hADSC could adopt a perineural niche in vivo and were able to recognize cues for neural crest cell migration of the host. Therefore, we propose that xenografts of human cells into chick embryos can reveal novel behaviors of heterogeneous cell populations, such as response to migration cues.

  1. Allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells promote survival of fat grafts in immunocompetent diabetic rats.

    Zhang, Jun; Bai, Xiaozhi; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yunchuan; Su, Linlin; Chang, Peng; Wang, Xujie; Han, Shichao; Gao, Jianxin; Hu, Xiaolong; Hu, Dahai; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-05-01

    Autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can protect fat grafts in cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL). However, diabetes alters the intrinsic properties of ADSCs and impairs their function so that they lack these protective effects. We investigate whether allogeneic ADSCs from healthy donors could protect fat grafts in immunocompetent diabetic rats. Syngeniec adipose tissues and ADSCs were derived from diabetic Lewis (LEW) rats, whereas allogeneic ADSCs were from healthy brown-Norway rats. A grafted mixture containing 0.7 ml granule fat and 0.3 ml 6 × 10(6) allogeneic/syngeneic ADSCs was injected subcutaneously on the skulls of diabetic LEW rats. Fat samples were harvested to evaluate the levels of injury and vascularization as shown by perilipin A, CD34 and VEGF at 14 days. The immune response was evaluated with a lymphocytotoxicity test and the CD4/CD8 ratio in peripheral blood at 14 days. The volume retention of fat grafts was measured at 3 months. Healthy allogeneic ADSCs increased the expression levels of perilipin A, CD34 and VEGF at 14 days. The volume retention of fat grafts was improved by allogeneic ADSCs at 3 months. ADSCs were demonstrated to have low immunogenicity by the lymphocyte proliferation test and immunophenotype including MHC and co-stimulatory markers. The lymphocytotoxicity test and CD4/CD8 ratio indicated no obvious immune response elicited by allogeneic ADSCs. Thus, healthy allogeneic ADSCs can promote the survival of fat grafts in this immunocompetent diabetic rat model, with little or no obvious immune rejection. PMID:26662284

  2. Crosstalk between adipose-derived stem cells and chondrocytes: when growth factors matter.

    Zhong, Juan; Guo, Bin; Xie, Jing; Deng, Shuwen; Fu, Na; Lin, Shiyu; Li, Guo; Lin, Yunfeng; Cai, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and mesenchymal stem cells are promising for tissue repair because of their multilineage differentiation capacity. Our previous data confirmed that the implantation of mixed ASCs and chondrocytes into cartilage defects induced desirable in vivo healing outcomes. However, the paracrine action of ASCs on chondrocytes needs to be further elucidated. In this study, we established a co-culture system to achieve cell-to-cell and cell-to-tissue crosstalk and explored the soluble growth factors in both ASCs and chondrocytes supplemented with 1% fetal bovine serum to mimic the physiological microenvironment. In ASCs, we screened for growth factors by semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR and found that the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB), hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and transforming growth factor-β1 significantly increased after co-culture in comparison with mono-culture. In chondrocytes, VEGFA was significantly enhanced after co-culture. Unexpectedly, the expression of collagen II and aggrecan was significantly down-regulated in the co-culture group compared with the mono-culture group. Meanwhile, among all the growth factors screened, we found that the BMP family members BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-5 were down-regulated and that VEGFB, HIF-1α, FGF-2, and PDGF were significantly decreased after co-culture. These results suggest that crosstalk between ASCs and chondrocytes is a pathway through the regulated growth factors that might have potential in cartilage repair and regeneration and could be useful for tissue engineering. PMID:26848404

  3. Comparative Analysis of Media and Supplements on Initiation and Expansion of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Riis, Simone; Nielsen, Frederik Mølgaard; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Zachar, Vladimir; Fink, Trine

    2016-03-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are being tested in clinical trials related to cell-based regenerative therapies. Although most of the current expansion protocols for ASCs use fetal calf serum (FCS), xenogeneic-free medium supplements are greatly desired. This study aims to compare the effect of FCS, human platelet lysate (hPL), and a fully defined medium on the initiation and maintenance of ASC cultures. ASCs obtained from five donors were cultured in five different media: StemPro, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% hPL, or α-minimum essential medium (A-MEM) supplemented with 5% hPL, 10% hPL, or 10% FCS. The effect of media on proliferation, colony-forming units (CFUs), attachment, and morphology was assessed along with cell size, granularity, and immunophenotype. StemPro greatly compromised the initiation of ASC cultures, which could not survive more than a few passages. Cells cultured in A-MEM proliferated at a faster rate than in DMEM, and hPL significantly enhanced cell size, granularity, and proliferation compared with FCS. All media except StemPro supported CFUs equally well. Analysis of surface markers revealed higher levels of CD73 and CD105 in FCS-cultured ASCs, whereas increased levels of CD146 were found in hPL-cultured cells. Multiparametric flow cytometric analysis performed after seven passages revealed the existence of four distinct ASC subpopulations, all positive for CD73, CD90, and CD105, which mainly differed by their expression of CD146 and CD271. Analysis of the different subpopulations might represent an important biological measure when assessing different medium formulations for a particular clinical application. PMID:26838270

  4. Endothelial Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Polyglycolic Acid/Polylactic Acid Mesh

    Meng Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC is considered as a cell source potentially useful for angiogenesis in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study investigated the growth and endothelial differentiation of human ADSCs on polyglycolic acid/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA mesh compared to 2D plastic. Cell adhesion, viability, and distribution of hADSCs on PGA/PLA mesh were observed by CM-Dil labeling, live/dead staining, and SEM examination while endothelial differentiation was evaluated by flow cytometry, Ac-LDL/UEA-1 uptake assay, immunofluorescence stainings, and gene expression analysis of endothelial related markers. Results showed hADSCs gained a mature endothelial phenotype with a positive ratio of 21.4 ± 3.7% for CD31+/CD34− when induced in 3D mesh after 21 days, which was further verified by the expressions of a comprehensive range of endothelial related markers, whereas hADSCs in 2D induced and 2D/3D noninduced groups all failed to differentiate into endothelial cells. Moreover, compared to 2D groups, the expression for α-SMA was markedly suppressed in 3D cultured hADSCs. This study first demonstrated the endothelial differentiation of hADSCs on the PGA/PLA mesh and pointed out the synergistic effect of PGA/PLA 3D culture and growth factors on the acquisition of mature characteristic endothelial phenotype. We believed this study would be the initial step towards the generation of prevascularized tissue engineered constructs.

  5. Effects of melatonin on the proliferation and differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells

    Zaminy Arash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteogenesis driven by adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs is regulated by physiological and pathological factors. Accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo experiments suggests that melatonin may have an influence on bone formation. However, little is known about the effects of melatonin on osteogenesis, which thus remains to be elucidated. This study was performed to determine whether melatonin at physiological concentrations (0.01-10 nM could affect the in vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat ADSCs. Materials and Methods: ADSCs were isolated from the fat of adult rats. After cell expansion in culture media and through three passages, osteogenesis was induced in a monolayer culture using osteogenic medium with or without melatonin at physiological concentrations (0.01-10 nM. After four weeks, the cultures were examined for mineralization by Alizarin Red S and von Kossa staining and for alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity using an ALP kit. Cell viability and apoptosis were also assayed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: The results indicated that at physiological concentrations, melatonin suppressed proliferation and differentiation of ADSCs. These data indicate that ADSCs exposed to melatonin, had a lower ALP activity in contrast to the cells exposed to osteogenic medium alone. Similarly, mineral deposition (calcium level also decreased in the presence of melatonin. Flow cytometry confirmed that cell growth had decreased and that the numbers of apoptotic cells had increased. Conclusion: These results suggest that the physiological concentration of melatonin has a negative effect on ADSC osteogenesis.

  6. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restore Impaired Mucosal Immune Responses in Aged Mice

    Aso, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruhara, Akitoshi; Takagaki, Kentaro; Oki, Katsuyuki; Ota, Megumi; Nose, Yasuhiro; Tanemura, Hideki; Urushihata, Naoki; Sasanuma, Jinichi; Sano, Masayuki; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Aso, Rio; McGhee, Jerry R.; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Several clinical trials have shown the ability of AMSCs to regenerate these differentiated cell types. Age-associated dysregulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) immune system has been well documented. Our previous studies showed that impaired mucosal immunity in the GI tract occurs earlier during agingthan is seen in the systemic compartment. In this study, we examined the potential of AMSCs to restore the GI mucosal immune system in aged mice. Aged (>18 mo old) mice were adoptively transferred with AMSCs. Two weeks later, mice were orally immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) plus cholera toxin (CT) three times at weekly intervals. Seven days after the final immunization, when fecal extract samples and plasma were subjected to OVA- and CT-B-specific ELISA, elevated levels of mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) and plasma IgG antibody (Ab) responses were noted in aged mouse recipients. Similar results were also seen aged mice which received AMSCs at one year of age. When cytokine production was examined, OVA-stimulated Peyer’s patch CD4+ T cells produced increased levels of IL-4. Further, CD4+ T cells from the lamina propria revealed elevated levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ production. In contrast, aged mice without AMSC transfer showed essentially no OVA- or CT-B-specific mucosal SIgA or plasma IgG Ab or cytokine responses. Of importance, fecal extracts from AMSC transferred aged mice showed neutralization activity to CT intoxication. These results suggest that AMSCs can restore impaired mucosal immunity in the GI tract of aged mice. PMID:26840058

  7. Xenotransplantation of human adipose-derived stem cells in zebrafish embryos.

    Jin Li

    Full Text Available Zebrafish is a widely used animal model with well-characterized background in developmental biology. The fate of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs after their xenotransplantation into the developing embryos of zebrafish is unknown. Therefore, human ADSCs were firstly isolated, and then transduced with lentiviral vector system carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter gene, and followed by detection of their cell viability and the expression of cell surface antigens. These GFP-expressing human ADSCs were transplanted into the zebrafish embryos at 3.3-4.3 hour post-fertilization (hpf. Green fluorescent signal, the proliferation and differentiation of human ADSCs in recipient embryos were respectively examined using fluorescent microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. The results indicated that human ADSCs did not change their cell viability and the expression levels of cell surface antigens after GFP transduction. Microscopic examination demonstrated that green fluorescent signals of GFP expressed in the transplanted cells were observed in the embryos and larva fish at post-transplantation. The positive staining of Ki-67 revealed the survival and proliferation of human ADSCs in fish larvae after transplantation. The expression of CD105 was observable in the xenotransplanted ADSCs, but CD31 expression was undetectable. Therefore, our results indicate that human ADSCs xenotransplanted in the zebrafish embryos not only can survive and proliferate at across-species circumstance, but also seem to maintain their undifferentiation status in a short term. This xenograft model of zebrafish embryos may provide a promising and useful technical platform for the investigation of biology and physiology of stem cells in vivo.

  8. Migration of Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stably Expressing Chondroitinase ABC In vitro

    Jian-Huang Wu; Miao Li; Yan Liang; Tao Lu; Chun-Yue Duan

    2016-01-01

    Background:Several studies have revealed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can be used as seed cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI).Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) decomposes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the glial scar that forms following SCI,allowing stem cells to penetrate through the scar and promote recovery of nerve function.This study aimed to establish ADSCs that stably express ChABC (ChABC-ADSCs) and evaluate the migratory capability of ChABC-ADSCs in vitro.Methods:ADSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using secondary collagenase digestion.Their phenotypes were characterized using flow cytometry detection of cell surface antigens and their stem cell properties were confirmed by induction of differentiation.After successful culture,ADSCs were transfected with lentiviral vectors and ChABC-ADSCs were obtained.Proliferation curves of ChABC-ADSCs were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 method,ChABC expression was verified using Western blotting,and the migration of ChABC-ADSCs was analyzed using the transwell assay.Results:Secondary collagenase digestion increased the isolation efficiency of primary ADSCs.Following transfection using lentiviral vectors,the proliferation of ChABC-ADSCs was reduced in comparison with control ADSCs at 48 h (P < 0.05).And the level of ChABC expression in the ChABC-ADSC group was significantly higher than that of the ADSC group (P < 0.05).Moreover,ChABC-ADSC migration in matrigel was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control (P < 0.05).Conclusions:Secondary collagenase digestion can be used to effectively isolate ADSCs.ChABC-ADSCs constructed using lentiviral vector transfection stably express ChABC,and ChABC expression significantly enhances the migratory capacity of ADSCs.

  9. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells are effective for chronic intractable radiation injuries

    Effective therapy for chronic radiation injuries, such as ulcers, is prone to infection. Stiffness is expected since the therapeutic radiation often involves wider and deeper tissues and often requires extensive debridement and reconstruction, which are not sometimes appropriate for elderly and compromised hosts. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) are highly yielding, forming relatively elderly aged consecutive 10 cases, 63.6±14.9 y (52-89 y), with mean radiation dose of 75.0±35.4 Gy (50-120 Gy) were included with at least 10-month follow-up. Minimal debridement and ADRC injection in the wound bed and margin along with the injection of mixture of fat and ADRCs in the periphery were tested for efficacy and regenerated tissue quality by clinically as well as imaging by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Uncultured ADRCs of 1.6±1.3 x 107 cells were obtained. All cases healed uneventfully after 6.6±3.2 weeks (2-10 weeks) post-operatively. The done site morbidity was negligible and without major complications, such as paralysis or massive haematoma. The regenerated tissue quality was significantly superior to the pre-operative one and the mixture of fat and ADRCs connected to the intact tissue was very soft and pliable. Mean follow-up at 1.9±0.8 y (0.9-2.9 y) revealed no recurrence or new ulceration after treatment. Thus, the ADRCs treatment for decades-long radiation injuries is effective, safe and improves the quality of wounds. (authors)

  10. Migration of Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stably Expressing Chondroitinase ABC In vitro

    Wu, Jian-Huang; Li, Miao; Liang, Yan; Lu, Tao; Duan, Chun-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have revealed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can be used as seed cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) decomposes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the glial scar that forms following SCI, allowing stem cells to penetrate through the scar and promote recovery of nerve function. This study aimed to establish ADSCs that stably express ChABC (ChABC-ADSCs) and evaluate the migratory capability of ChABC-ADSCs in vitro. Methods: ADSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using secondary collagenase digestion. Their phenotypes were characterized using flow cytometry detection of cell surface antigens and their stem cell properties were confirmed by induction of differentiation. After successful culture, ADSCs were transfected with lentiviral vectors and ChABC-ADSCs were obtained. Proliferation curves of ChABC-ADSCs were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 method, ChABC expression was verified using Western blotting, and the migration of ChABC-ADSCs was analyzed using the transwell assay. Results: Secondary collagenase digestion increased the isolation efficiency of primary ADSCs. Following transfection using lentiviral vectors, the proliferation of ChABC-ADSCs was reduced in comparison with control ADSCs at 48 h (P < 0.05). And the level of ChABC expression in the ChABC-ADSC group was significantly higher than that of the ADSC group (P < 0.05). Moreover, ChABC-ADSC migration in matrigel was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Secondary collagenase digestion can be used to effectively isolate ADSCs. ChABC-ADSCs constructed using lentiviral vector transfection stably express ChABC, and ChABC expression significantly enhances the migratory capacity of ADSCs. PMID:27364797

  11. In vivo distribution of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in novel xenotransplantation models.

    Meyerrose, Todd E; De Ugarte, Daniel A; Hofling, A Alex; Herrbrich, Phillip E; Cordonnier, Taylor D; Shultz, Leonard D; Eagon, J Chris; Wirthlin, Louisa; Sands, Mark S; Hedrick, Marc A; Nolta, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    The potential for human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSC) to traffic into various tissue compartments was examined using three murine xenotransplantation models: nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID), nude/NOD/SCID, and NOD/SCID/MPSVII mice. Enhanced green fluorescent protein was introduced into purified AMSC via retroviral vectors to assist in identification of cells after transplantation. Transduced cells were administered to sublethally irradiated immune-deficient mice through i.v., intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous injection. Up to 75 days after transplantation, tissues were harvested and DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for specific vector sequences as well as for human Alu repeat sequences. Duplex quantitative PCR using human beta-globin and murine rapsyn primers assessed the contribution of human cells to each tissue. The use of the novel NOD/SCID/MPSVII mouse as a recipient allowed rapid identification of human cells in the murine tissues, using an enzyme reaction that was independent of surface protein expression or transduction with an exogenous transgene. For up to 75 days after transplantation, donor-derived cells were observed in multiple tissues, consistently across the various administration routes and independent of transduction parameters. Tissue localization studies showed that the primary MSC did not proliferate extensively at the sites of lodgement. We conclude that human AMSC represent a population of stem cells with a ubiquitous pattern of tissue distribution after administration. AMSC are easily obtained and highly amenable to current transduction protocols for retroviral transduction, making them an excellent avenue for cell-based therapies that involve a wide range of end tissue targets. PMID:16960135

  12. Scaffold pore size modulates in vitro osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells

    Trabecular bone has an interconnected porous structure, which influences cellular responses, biochemical transport and mechanical strength. Appropriately mimicking this structural organization in biomaterial scaffolds can facilitate more robust bone tissue regeneration and integration by providing a native microenvironment to the cells. This study examined the effect of pore size on human adipose-derived stem/stromal cell (ASC) osteogenesis within poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds. Scaffold pore size was controlled by porogen leaching of custom-made paraffin particles with three different size ranges: P200 (< 500 µm), P500 (500–1000 µm), and P1000 (1000–1500 µm). Scaffolds produced by leaching these particles exhibited highly interconnected pores and rough surface structures that were favorable for cell attachment and ingrowth. The osteogenic response of ASCs was evaluated following 3 weeks of in vitro culture using biochemical (ALP, Ca2+/DNA content), mechanical (compression test) and histological (H and E and von Kossa staining) analyses. It was observed that while the total number of cells was similar for all scaffolds, the cell distributions and osteogenic properties were affected by the scaffold pore size. ASCs were able to bridge smaller pores and grow uniformly within these scaffolds (P200) while they grew as a layer along the periphery of the largest pores (P1000). The cell-biomaterial interactions specific to the latter case led to enhanced osteogenic responses. The ALP activity and Ca2+ deposition were doubled in P1000 scaffolds as compared to P200 scaffolds. A significant difference was observed between the compressive strength of unseeded and seeded P1000 scaffolds. Therefore, we demonstrated that the use of scaffolds with pores that are in the range of 1 mm enhances in vitro ASC osteogenesis, which may improve their performance in engineered bone substitutes. (paper)

  13. Anti-Aging Effect of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of Skin Aging Induced by D-Galactose

    Zhang, Shengchang; Dong, Ziqing; Peng, Zhangsong; Lu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Glycation products accumulate during aging of slowly renewing tissue, including skin, and are suggested as an important mechanism underlying the skin aging process. Adipose-derived cells are widely used in the clinic to treat ischemic diseases and enhance wound healing. Interestingly, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are also effective in anti-aging therapy, although the mechanism underlying their effects remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the anti-...

  14. Comparison of viability of adipose-derived Mesenchymal stem cells on agarose and fibrin glue scaffolds

    Farzaneh Tafvizi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Utilizing tissue engineering techniques and designing similar structures of the damaged tissues require the use of tools such as scaffolds, cells, and bioactive molecules in vitro. Meanwhile, appropriate cell cultures with the ability to divide and differentiate on the natural scaffolds lacking features like immunogenicity and tumorgenesis is particularly important. Adipose tissue has attracted researchers’ attention due to its abundance of mesenchymal stem cells and its availability through a liposuction. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility and viability of the adipose-derived stem cells on natural scaffolds of fibrin glue and agarose. Methods: In the present experimental study, the isolation and identification of the mesenchymal stem cells was performed on tissue obtained from liposuction. The tissues were extensively washed with PBS and were digested with collagenase I, then the mesenchymal stem cells were isolated. The cells were cultured in RPMI medium supplemented with antibiotic. Subsequently, the expression of cell surface markers including CD34, CD44, CD90, and CD105 were analyzed by flow cytometry to confirm the mesenchymal cells. After preparing fibrin glue and agarose scaffolds, the viability and proliferation of the adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells were examined at the period of 24, 48, and 72 hours by MTT and ELISA assays. The obtained results were analyzed by SPSS ver.19. Results: The results of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells culture on the fibrin glue and agarose scaffolds indicated that cell viability on fibrin glue and agarose scaffold were 68.22% and 89.75% in 24 hrs, 64.04% and 66.97% in 48 hours, 222.87% and 1089.68% in 72 hours respectively. Significant proliferation and viability cells on a synthesized agarose scaffold were seen compared to the fibrin glue scaffold after 72 hrs. The viability of the cells significantly increased on the

  15. Primary cilia: the chemical antenna regulating human adipose-derived stem cell osteogenesis.

    Josephine C Bodle

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC are multipotent stem cells that show great potential as a cell source for osteogenic tissue replacements and it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of lineage specification. Here we explore the role of primary cilia in human ASC (hASC differentiation. This study focuses on the chemosensitivity of the primary cilium and the action of its associated proteins: polycystin-1 (PC1, polycystin-2 (PC2 and intraflagellar transport protein-88 (IFT88, in hASC osteogenesis. To elucidate cilia-mediated mechanisms of hASC differentiation, siRNA knockdown of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 was performed to disrupt cilia-associated protein function. Immunostaining of the primary cilium structure indicated phenotypic-dependent changes in cilia morphology. hASC cultured in osteogenic differentiation media yielded cilia of a more elongated conformation than those cultured in expansion media, indicating cilia-sensitivity to the chemical environment and a relationship between the cilium structure and phenotypic determination. Abrogation of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 effected changes in both hASC proliferation and differentiation activity, as measured through proliferative activity, expression of osteogenic gene markers, calcium accretion and endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity. Results indicated that IFT88 may be an early mediator of the hASC differentiation process with its knockdown increasing hASC proliferation and decreasing Runx2, alkaline phosphatase and BMP-2 mRNA expression. PC1 and PC2 knockdown affected later osteogenic gene and end-product expression. PC1 knockdown resulted in downregulation of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin gene expression, diminished calcium accretion and reduced alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity. Taken together our results indicate that the structure of the primary cilium is intimately associated with the process of hASC osteogenic differentiation and that its associated proteins are critical

  16. [Adipose-derived stem cells promote the polarization from M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages].

    Yin, Xuehong; Pang, Chunyan; Bai, Li; Zhang, Ying; Geng, Lixia

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on M1/M2 macrophages and whether ADSCs are able to promote the polarization from M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages. Methods M1 macrophages were induced from J774.1 macrophages by 24-hour stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon γ (IFN-γ), and M2 macrophages were induced from J774.1 macrophages by interleukin 4 (IL-4) for another 24 hours. Then M1/M2 macrophages were separately cultured in the presence of ADSCs for 24 hours. The M1/M2 macrophages and their corresponding supernatants were collected for further analysis. The expressions of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), CD86, arginase 1 (Arg1), mannose receptors/CD206 (MR/CD206), IL-10, found in inflammatory zone 1 (FIZZ1), chitinase 3-like 3 (Ym-1) were detected by real-time PCR and ELISA. Results ADSCs significantly decreased the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, CCL2 and CD86, and increased the levels of Arg1, CD206 and IL-10 in M1 macrophages. In the supernatant of M1 macrophages, the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α were reduced, while those of CD206 were enhanced. In M2 macrophages, ADSCs resulted in down-regulation of IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, CD86 and up-regulation of Arg1, CD206, FIZZ-1, Ym-1 and IL-10. In the supernatant of M2 macrophages, the expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were down-regulated and those of CD206 were up-regulated. Conclusion ADSCs can inhibit the gene expression of M1 macrophages and promote the gene expression of M2 macrophages, as well as mediate the polarization from M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages. PMID:26927552

  17. Osteogenic potential: comparison between bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Han-Tsung; Liao; Chien-Tzung; Chen

    2014-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering(BTE) is now a promising re-search issue to improve the drawbacks from traditional bone grafting procedure such as limited donor sources and possible complications. Stem cells are one of the major factors in BTE due to the capability of self re-newal and multi-lineage differentiation. Unlike embry-onic stem cells, which are more controversial in ethical problem, adult mesenchymal stem cells are considered to be a more appropriate cell source for BTE. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs) are the ear-liest-discovered and well-known stem cell source using in BTE. However, the low stem cell yield requiring long expansion time in vitro, pain and possible morbidities during bone marrow aspiration and poor proliferation and osteogenic ability at old age impede its’ clinical ap-plication. Afterwards, a new stem cell source coming from adipose tissue, so-called adipose-derived stemcells(ASCs), is found to be more suitable in clinical ap-plication because of high stem cells yield from lipoaspi-rates, faster cell proliferation and less discomfort and morbidities during harvesting procedure. However, the osteogenic capacity of ASCs is now still debated be-cause most papers described the inferior osteogenesis of ASCs than BMSCs. A better understanding of the osteogenic differences between ASCs and BMSCs is crucial for future selection of cells in clinical application for BTE. In this review, we describe the commonality and difference between BMSCs and ASCs by cell yield, cell surface markers and multiple-differentiation poten-tial. Then we compare the osteogenic capacity in vitro and bone regeneration ability in vivo between BMSCs and ASCs based on the literatures which utilized both BMSCs and ASCs simultaneously in their articles. The outcome indicated both BMSCs and ASCs exhibited the osteogenic ability to a certain extent both in-vitro and in-vivo. However, most in-vitro study papers verified the inferior osteogenesis of ASCs; conversely, in

  18. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells express keratinocyte lineage markers in a co-culture model.

    Irfan-Maqsood, M; Matin, M M; Heirani-Tabasi, A; Bahrami, M; Naderi-Meshkin, H; Mirahmadi, M; Hassanzadeh, H; Sanjar Moussavi, N; Raza-Shah, H; Raeesolmohaddeseen, M; Bidkhori, H; Bahrami, A R

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous wound healing is a complex type of biological event involving proliferation, differentiation, reprograming, trans/de-differentiation, recruitment, migration, and apoptosis of a number of cells (keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, nerve cells and stem cells) to regenerate a multi-layered tissue that is damaged by either internal or external factors. The exact regeneration mechanism of damaged skin is still unknown but the epithelial and other kinds of stem cells located in skin play crucial roles in the healing process. In this work, a co-culture model composed of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells and keratinocytes was developed to understand the cellular differentiation behaviour in wound healing. Human mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from waste lipoaspirates. Keratinocytes were isolated from neonatal rats skin as well from human adult skin. Both types of cells were cultured and their culturing behaviour was observed microscopically under regular intervals of time. The identity of both cells was confirmed by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. Cells were co-cultured under the proposed co-culturing model and the model was observed for 7, 14 and 21 days. The cellular behaviour was studied based on change in morphology, colonization, stratification, migration and expression of molecular markers. Expression of molecular markers was studied at transcriptional level and change in cellular morphology and migration capabilities was observed under the invert microscope regularly. Successfully isolated and characterized mesenchymal stem cells were found to express keratinocyte lineage markers i.e. K5, K10, K14, K18, K19 and Involucrin when co-cultured with keratinocytes after 14 and 21 days. Their expression was found to increase by increasing the time span of cell culturing. The keratinocyte colonies started to disappear after 10 days of culturing which might be due to stratification process initiated by possibly transdifferentiated stem cells. It can

  19. Biological characteristics of human adipose-derived stem cells and their response to periostin in vitro

    LI Ying; YANG Xin; NIE Fang-fei; ZHAO Xia; QIN Ze-lian; LI Jian-ning

    2013-01-01

    Background Many studies on periostin have focused on its role in tumors and vascular reconstruction.However,the effect of periostin on stem cell function remains unclear.The aim of this study was to enhance vitality in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs),the effect of periostin on the function of ADSCs was observed.Methods Human ADSCs (hADSCs) were isolated from human adipose tissue by collagenase I digestion and collected in multi-periods for in vitro culture.CD29,CD34,CD44,CD45 and CD105 were detected by flow cytometry.In addition,directed differentiation of hADSCs was induced using adipogenic,osteogenic and chondrogenic induction mediums.The induced morphological changes were observed using oil red O,Alizarin red and alcian blue staining.Periostin was administered to hADSCs in an acidic environment.The treatments of cells were divided into three groups:a periostin group (P); an acidic control group (A); a normal group (N).Then the resulting cell proliferation and migration were detected using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and a transwell chamber assay,respectively.Results The detection rates of CD29,CD44,CD105,CD34 and CD45 were 98.89%,93.73%,8699%,0.19% and 0.16%.The specific staining of cells was positive after induction culture.The mean absorbance of the cells in group P and A at 12 hours were 16.67% and 22.22% greater than group N,respectively (P <0.01).The mean absorbance of cells from group P was 20.00% greater than that of group A at 48 hours (P <0.05).The mean number of migratory cells per visual field in group A was 50.38% lower than that in group N (P <0.05).The migratory cell number in group P was 119.98% greater than that in group A (P <0.05).Conclusions The acidic environment impacted hADSC proliferation and inhibited cell migration.However,periostin was able to promote the proliferation and migration of hADSCs despite the acidic environment.

  20. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Rapid Prototyped Three-Dimensional Hydroxyapatite/Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffold.

    Canciani, Elena; Dellavia, Claudia; Ferreira, Lorena Maria; Giannasi, Chiara; Carmagnola, Daniela; Carrassi, Antonio; Brini, Anna Teresa

    2016-05-01

    In the study, we assess a rapid prototyped scaffold composed of 30/70 hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium-phosphate (β-TCP) loaded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) to determine cell proliferation, differentiation toward osteogenic lineage, adhesion and penetration on/into the scaffold.In this in vitro study, hASCs isolated from fat tissue discarded after plastic surgery were expanded, characterized, and then loaded onto the scaffold. Cells were tested for: viability assay (Alamar Blue at days 3, 7 and Live/Dead at day 32), differentiation index (alkaline phosphatase activity at day 14), scaffold adhesion (standard error of the mean analysis at days 5 and 18), and penetration (ground sections at day 32).All the hASC populations displayed stemness markers and the ability to differentiate toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages.Cellular vitality increased between 3 and 7 days, and no inhibitory effect by HA/β-TCP was observed. Under osteogenic stimuli, scaffold increased alkaline phosphatase activity of +243% compared with undifferentiated samples. Human adipose-derived stem cells adhered on HA/β-TCP surface through citoplasmatic extensions that occupied the macropores and built networks among them. Human adipose derived stem cells were observed in the core of HA/β-TCP. The current combination of hASCs and HA/β-TCP scaffold provided encouraging results. If authors' data will be confirmed in preclinical models, the present engineering approach could represent an interesting tool in treating large bone defects. PMID:27092915

  1. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a new model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    Marta Dossena

    Full Text Available Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA or Kennedy's disease is an X-linked CAG/polyglutamine expansion motoneuron disease, in which an elongated polyglutamine tract (polyQ in the N-terminal androgen receptor (ARpolyQ confers toxicity to this protein. Typical markers of SBMA disease are ARpolyQ intranuclear inclusions. These are generated after the ARpolyQ binds to its endogenous ligands, which promotes AR release from chaperones, activation and nuclear translocation, but also cell toxicity. The SBMA mouse models developed so far, and used in preclinical studies, all contain an expanded CAG repeat significantly longer than that of SBMA patients. Here, we propose the use of SBMA patients adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs as a new human in vitro model to study ARpolyQ toxicity. These cells have the advantage to express only ARpolyQ, and not the wild type AR allele. Therefore, we isolated and characterized adipose-derived MSCs from three SBMA patients (ADSC from Kennedy's patients, ADSCK and three control volunteers (ADSCs. We found that both ADSCs and ADSCKs express mesenchymal antigens, even if only ADSCs can differentiate into the three typical cell lineages (adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes, whereas ADSCKs, from SBMA patients, showed a lower growth potential and differentiated only into adipocyte. Moreover, analysing AR expression on our mesenchymal cultures we found lower levels in all ADSCKs than ADSCs, possibly related to negative pressures exerted by toxic ARpolyQ in ADSCKs. In addition, with proteasome inhibition the ARpolyQ levels increased specifically in ADSCKs, inducing the formation of HSP70 and ubiquitin positive nuclear ARpolyQ inclusions. Considering all of this evidence, SBMA patients adipose-derived MSCs cultures should be considered an innovative in vitro human model to understand the molecular mechanisms of ARpolyQ toxicity and to test novel therapeutic approaches in SBMA.

  2. New Adipose Tissue Formation by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with Hyaluronic Acid Gel in Immunodeficient Mice

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Yun-Nan; Lee, Su-Shin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsai-Ming; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently available injectable fillers have demonstrated limited durability. This report proposes the in vitro culture of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) on hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for in vivo growth of de novo adipose tissue. Methods: For in vitro studies, hASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and were confirmed by multi-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry. hASCs were cultured on HA gel. The effectiveness of cell attachment and proliferation on HA gel was...

  3. Cognitive improvement following transvenous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rat model of traumatic brain injury

    Dongfei Li; Chun Yang; Rongmei Qu; Huiying Yang; Meichun Yu; Hui Tao; Jingxing Dai; Lin Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) transplantation for the repair of traumatic brain injury remain poorly understood. The present study observed neurological functional changes in a rat model of traumatic brain injury following ADMSC transplantation via the tail vein.Cell transplants were observed in injured cerebral cortex, and expression of brain-derived nerve growth factor was significantly increased in the injured hippocampus following transplantation. Results demonstrated that transvenous ADMSC transplants migrated to the injured cerebral cortex and significantly improved cognitive function.

  4. Impact of low oxygen tension on stemness, proliferation and differentiation potential of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Highlights: • Hypoxia maintains the stemness of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). • ASCs show an increased proliferation rate under low oxygen tension. • Oxygen level as low as 2% enhances the chondrogenic differentiation potential of ASCs. • HIF-1α may regulate the proliferation and differentiation activities of ASCs under hypoxia. - Abstract: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been found adapted to a specific niche with low oxygen tension (hypoxia) in the body. As an important component of this niche, oxygen tension has been known to play a critical role in the maintenance of stem cell characteristics. However, the effect of O2 tension on their functional properties has not been well determined. In this study, we investigated the effects of O2 tension on ASCs stemness, differentiation and proliferation ability. Human ASCs were cultured under normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (2% O2). We found that hypoxia increased ASC stemness marker expression and proliferation rate without altering their morphology and surface markers. Low oxygen tension further enhances the chondrogenic differentiation ability, but reduces both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. These results might be correlated with the increased expression of HIF-1α under hypoxia. Taken together, we suggest that growing ASCs under 2% O2 tension may be important in expanding ASCs effectively while maintaining their functional properties for clinical therapy, particularly for the treatment of cartilage defects

  5. Impact of low oxygen tension on stemness, proliferation and differentiation potential of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Choi, Jane Ru; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Noor Azmi, Mat Adenan; Omar, Siti Zawiah [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chua, Kien Hui [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Wan Safwani, Wan Kamarul Zaman, E-mail: wansafwani@um.edu.my [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-05-30

    Highlights: • Hypoxia maintains the stemness of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). • ASCs show an increased proliferation rate under low oxygen tension. • Oxygen level as low as 2% enhances the chondrogenic differentiation potential of ASCs. • HIF-1α may regulate the proliferation and differentiation activities of ASCs under hypoxia. - Abstract: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been found adapted to a specific niche with low oxygen tension (hypoxia) in the body. As an important component of this niche, oxygen tension has been known to play a critical role in the maintenance of stem cell characteristics. However, the effect of O{sub 2} tension on their functional properties has not been well determined. In this study, we investigated the effects of O{sub 2} tension on ASCs stemness, differentiation and proliferation ability. Human ASCs were cultured under normoxia (21% O{sub 2}) and hypoxia (2% O{sub 2}). We found that hypoxia increased ASC stemness marker expression and proliferation rate without altering their morphology and surface markers. Low oxygen tension further enhances the chondrogenic differentiation ability, but reduces both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. These results might be correlated with the increased expression of HIF-1α under hypoxia. Taken together, we suggest that growing ASCs under 2% O{sub 2} tension may be important in expanding ASCs effectively while maintaining their functional properties for clinical therapy, particularly for the treatment of cartilage defects.

  6. Effect of labeling with iron oxide particles or nanodiamonds on the functionality of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Sinead P Blaber

    Full Text Available Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity. In particular, we investigated the effects of two different particles: micron-sized (~0.9 µm fluorescently labeled (Dragon Green superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (M-SPIO particles; and, carboxylated nanodiamonds of ~0.25 µm in size. The effects of labeling on the functionality of adipose-derived MSCs were assessed by in vitro morphology, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, CD marker expression, cytokine secretion profiling and quantitative proteomics of the intra-cellular proteome. The differentiation and CD marker assays for stem-like functionality were not altered upon label incorporation and no secreted or intra-cellular protein changes indicative of stress or toxicity were detected. These in vitro results indicate that the M-SPIO particles and nanodiamonds investigated in this study are biocompatible with MSCs and therefore would be suitable labels for cell localization and tracking in vivo.

  7. Integration of Rabbit Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Hydroxyapatite Burr Hole Button Device for Bone Interface Regeneration

    Gayathri, Viswanathan; Harikrishnan, Varma; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2016-01-01

    Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, multipotent stem cells isolated from adipose tissue, present close resemblance to the natural in vivo milieu and microenvironment of bone tissue and hence widely used for in bone tissue engineering applications. The present study evaluates the compatibility of tissue engineered hydroxyapatite burr hole button device (HAP-BHB) seeded with Rabbit Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ADMSCs). Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress response, apoptotic behavior, attachment, and adherence of adipose MSC seeded on the device were evaluated by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The results of the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay indicated that powdered device material was noncytotoxic up to 0.5 g/mL on cultured cells. It was also observed that oxidative stress related reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis on cell seeded device were similar to those of control (cells alone) except in 3-day period which showed increased reactive oxygen species generation. Further scanning electron and confocal microscopy indicated a uniform attachment of cells and viability up to 200 μm deep inside the device, respectively. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the in-house developed HAP-BHB device seeded with ADMSCs is nontoxic/safe compatible device for biomedical application and an attractive tissue engineered device for calvarial defect regeneration. PMID:26880922

  8. Transdifferentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells into acinar cells of the submandibular gland using a co-culture system

    Lee, Jingu; Park, Sangkyu; Roh, Sangho, E-mail: sangho@snu.ac.kr

    2015-05-15

    A loss of salivary gland function often occurs after radiation therapy in head and neck tumors, though secretion of saliva by the salivary glands is essential for the health and maintenance of the oral environment. Transplantation of salivary acinar cells (ACs), in part, may overcome the side effects of therapy. Here we directly differentiated mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into ACs using a co-culture system. Multipotent ADSCs can be easily collected from stromal vascular fractions of adipose tissues. The isolated ADSCs showed positive expression of markers such as integrin beta-1 (CD29), cell surface glycoprotein (CD44), endoglin (CD105), and Nanog. The cells were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neural-like cells after 14 days in culture. ADSCs at passage 2 were co-cultured with mouse ACs in AC culture medium using the double-chamber (co-culture system) to avoid mixing the cell types. The ADSCs in this co-culture system expressed markers of ACs, such as α-amylases and aquaporin5, in both mRNA and protein. ADSCs cultured in AC-conditioned medium also expressed AC markers. Cellular proliferation and senescence analyses demonstrated that cells in the co-culture group showed lower senescence and a higher proliferation rate than the AC-conditioned medium group at Days 14 and 21. The results above imply direct conversion of ADSCs into ACs under the co-culture system; therefore, ADSCs may be a stem cell source for the therapy for salivary gland damage. - Highlights: • ADSCs could transdifferentiate into acinar cells (ACs) using ACs co-culture (CCA). • Transdifferentiated ADSCs expressed ACs markers such as α-amylase and aquaporin5. • High proliferation and low senescence were presented in CCA at Day 14. • Transdifferentiation of ADSCs into ACs using CCA may be an appropriate method for cell-based therapy.

  9. Transdifferentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells into acinar cells of the submandibular gland using a co-culture system

    A loss of salivary gland function often occurs after radiation therapy in head and neck tumors, though secretion of saliva by the salivary glands is essential for the health and maintenance of the oral environment. Transplantation of salivary acinar cells (ACs), in part, may overcome the side effects of therapy. Here we directly differentiated mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into ACs using a co-culture system. Multipotent ADSCs can be easily collected from stromal vascular fractions of adipose tissues. The isolated ADSCs showed positive expression of markers such as integrin beta-1 (CD29), cell surface glycoprotein (CD44), endoglin (CD105), and Nanog. The cells were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neural-like cells after 14 days in culture. ADSCs at passage 2 were co-cultured with mouse ACs in AC culture medium using the double-chamber (co-culture system) to avoid mixing the cell types. The ADSCs in this co-culture system expressed markers of ACs, such as α-amylases and aquaporin5, in both mRNA and protein. ADSCs cultured in AC-conditioned medium also expressed AC markers. Cellular proliferation and senescence analyses demonstrated that cells in the co-culture group showed lower senescence and a higher proliferation rate than the AC-conditioned medium group at Days 14 and 21. The results above imply direct conversion of ADSCs into ACs under the co-culture system; therefore, ADSCs may be a stem cell source for the therapy for salivary gland damage. - Highlights: • ADSCs could transdifferentiate into acinar cells (ACs) using ACs co-culture (CCA). • Transdifferentiated ADSCs expressed ACs markers such as α-amylase and aquaporin5. • High proliferation and low senescence were presented in CCA at Day 14. • Transdifferentiation of ADSCs into ACs using CCA may be an appropriate method for cell-based therapy

  10. Adipogenic differentiation of laser-printed 3D tissue grafts consisting of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Gruene, M; Deiwick, A; Koch, L; Schlie, S; Unger, C; Chichkov, B N [Nanotechnology Department, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Pflaum, M; Wilhelmi, M; Haverich, A, E-mail: m.gruene@lzh.de [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Laser-assisted bioprinting (LaBP) allows the realization of computer-generated 3D tissue grafts consisting of cells embedded in a hydrogel environment. In this study, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were printed in a free-scalable 3D grid pattern by means of LaBP. We demonstrate that neither the proliferation ability nor the differentiation behaviour of the stem cells was affected by the LaBP procedure. Furthermore, the 3D grafts were differentiated down the adipogenic lineage pathway for 10 days. We verify by quantitative assessments of adipogenic markers that the 3D grafts resemble cell lineages present in natural adipose tissue. Additionally, we provide the proof that even pre-differentiated hASCs could be utilized for the generation of 3D tissue grafts. These results indicate that the biofabrication of living grafts resembling their complex native origin is within reach.

  11. Adipogenic differentiation of laser-printed 3D tissue grafts consisting of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Laser-assisted bioprinting (LaBP) allows the realization of computer-generated 3D tissue grafts consisting of cells embedded in a hydrogel environment. In this study, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were printed in a free-scalable 3D grid pattern by means of LaBP. We demonstrate that neither the proliferation ability nor the differentiation behaviour of the stem cells was affected by the LaBP procedure. Furthermore, the 3D grafts were differentiated down the adipogenic lineage pathway for 10 days. We verify by quantitative assessments of adipogenic markers that the 3D grafts resemble cell lineages present in natural adipose tissue. Additionally, we provide the proof that even pre-differentiated hASCs could be utilized for the generation of 3D tissue grafts. These results indicate that the biofabrication of living grafts resembling their complex native origin is within reach.

  12. Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: A New Path in Articular Cartilage Defect Management?

    Jan-Philipp Stromps

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, over 6 million people undergo a variety of medical procedures for the repair of articular cartilage defects in the U.S. each year. Trauma, tumor, and age-related degeneration can cause major defects in articular cartilage, which has a poor intrinsic capacity for healing. Therefore, there is substantial interest in the development of novel cartilage tissue engineering strategies to restore articular cartilage defects to a normal or prediseased state. Special attention has been paid to the expansion of chondrocytes, which produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix in healthy cartilage. This review summarizes the current efforts to generate chondrocytes from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs and provides an outlook on promising future strategies.

  13. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Protects Kidneys against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction

    Chua Sarah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species are important mediators exerting toxic effects on various organs during ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. We hypothesized that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs protect the kidney against oxidative stress and inflammatory stimuli in rat during renal IR injury. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 24 were equally randomized into group 1 (sham control, group 2 (IR plus culture medium only, and group 3 (IR plus immediate intra-renal administration of 1.0 × 106 autologous ADMSCs, followed by intravenous ADMSCs at 6 h and 24 h after IR. The duration of ischemia was 1 h, followed by 72 hours of reperfusion before the animals were sacrificed. Results Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels and the degree of histological abnormalities were markedly lower in group 3 than in group 2 (all p Conclusion ADMSC therapy minimized kidney damage after IR injury through suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  14. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells markedly attenuate brain infarct size and improve neurological function in rats

    Sun Cheuk-Kwan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs on brain infarction area (BIA and neurological status in a rat model of acute ischemic stroke (IS was investigated. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 30 were divided into IS plus intra-venous 1 mL saline (at 0, 12 and 24 h after IS induction (control group and IS plus intra-venous ADMSCs (2.0 × 106 (treated interval as controls (treatment group after occlusion of distal left internal carotid artery. The rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were harvested on day 21 after the procedure. Results The results showed that BIA was larger in control group than in treatment group (p Conclusions ADMSC therapy significantly limited BIA and improved sensorimotor dysfunction after acute IS.

  15. Multifunctional nanocrystalline calcium phosphates loaded with Tetracycline antibiotic combined with human adipose derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hASCs).

    Marycz, K; Pazik, R; Zawisza, K; Wiglusz, K; Maredziak, M; Sobierajska, P; Wiglusz, R J

    2016-12-01

    Osteoconductive drug delivery system composed of nanocrystalline calcium phosphates (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2/β-Ca3(PO4)2) co-doped with Yb(3+)/Er(3+) ions loaded with Tetracycline antibiotic (TC) was developed. Their effect on human adipose derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hASCs) as a potential reconstructive biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration was studied. The XRD and TEM measurements were used in order to determine the crystal structure and morphology of the final products. The characteristics of nanocomposites with the TC and hASCs as potential regenerative materials as well as the antimicrobial activity of the nanoparticles against: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 as a model of the Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 of the Gram-negative bacteria, were shown. These combinations can be a promising material for theranostic due to its regenerative, antimicrobial and fluorescent properties. PMID:27612684

  16. Early combined treatment with sildenafil and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells preserves heart function in rat dilated cardiomyopathy

    Fu Morgan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether early combined autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC and sildenafil therapy offers an additive benefit in preserving heart function in rat dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Methods Adult Lewis rats (n = 8 per group were divided into group 1 (normal control, group 2 (saline-treated DCM rats, group 3 [2.0 × 106 ADMSC implanted into left ventricular (LV myocardium of DCM rats], group 4 (DCM rats with sildenafil 30 mg/kg/day, orally, and group 5 (DCM rats with combined ADMSC-sildenafil. Treatment was started 1 week after DCM induction and the rats were sacrificed on day 90. Results The results showed that mitochondrial protein expressions of connexin43 and cytochrome-C were lowest in group 2, and lower in groups 3 and 4 than in group 5 (p Conclusion Early combined ADMSC/sildenafil is superior to either treatment alone in preserving LV function.

  17. Efficient myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the transduction of engineered MyoD protein

    Sung, Min Sun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Mun, Ji-Young [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ohsuk [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Doo-Byoung, E-mail: dboh@kribb.re.kr [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •MyoD was engineered to contain protein transduction domain and endosome-disruptive INF7 peptide. •The engineered MyoD-IT showed efficient nuclear targeting through an endosomal escape by INF7 peptide. •By applying MyoD-IT, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were differentiated into myogenic cells. •hASCs differentiated by applying MyoD-IT fused to myotubes through co-culturing with mouse myoblasts. •Myogenic differentiation using MyoD-IT is a safe method without the concern of altering the genome. -- Abstract: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have great potential as cell sources for the treatment of muscle disorders. To provide a safe method for the myogenic differentiation of hASCs, we engineered the MyoD protein, a key transcription factor for myogenesis. The engineered MyoD (MyoD-IT) was designed to contain the TAT protein transduction domain for cell penetration and the membrane-disrupting INF7 peptide, which is an improved version of the HA2 peptide derived from influenza. MyoD-IT showed greatly improved nuclear targeting ability through an efficient endosomal escape induced by the pH-sensitive membrane disruption of the INF7 peptide. By applying MyoD-IT to a culture, hASCs were efficiently differentiated into long spindle-shaped myogenic cells expressing myosin heavy chains. Moreover, these cells differentiated by an application of MyoD-IT fused to myotubes with high efficiency through co-culturing with mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Because internalized proteins can be degraded in cells without altering the genome, the myogenic differentiation of hASCs using MyoD-IT would be a safe and clinically applicable method.

  18. Effects of external radiation in a co-culture model of endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells

    The inflammatory response clinically observed after radiation has been described to correlate with elevated expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules by endothelial cells. Therapeutic compensation for this microvascular compromise could be an important approach in the treatment of irradiated wounds. Clinical reports describe the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to enhance wound healing, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) and human adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) were cultured in a co-culture setting and irradiated with sequential doses of 2 to 12 Gy. Cell count was determined 48 h after radiation using a semi-automated cell counting system. Levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined in the supernatants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Irradiated HDMEC and ASC as well as non-irradiated co-cultures, HDMEC or ASC respectively were used as controls. Cell count was significantly reduced in irradiated co-cultures of HDMEC and ASC compared to non-irradiated controls. Levels of IL-6, FGF, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the supernatants of the co-cultures were significantly less affected by external radiation in comparison to HDMEC. The increased expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules by HDMEC after external radiation is mitigated in the co-culture setting with ASC. These in vitro changes seem to support the clinical observation that ASC may have a stabilizing effect when injected into irradiated wounds

  19. Efficient myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the transduction of engineered MyoD protein

    Highlights: •MyoD was engineered to contain protein transduction domain and endosome-disruptive INF7 peptide. •The engineered MyoD-IT showed efficient nuclear targeting through an endosomal escape by INF7 peptide. •By applying MyoD-IT, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were differentiated into myogenic cells. •hASCs differentiated by applying MyoD-IT fused to myotubes through co-culturing with mouse myoblasts. •Myogenic differentiation using MyoD-IT is a safe method without the concern of altering the genome. -- Abstract: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have great potential as cell sources for the treatment of muscle disorders. To provide a safe method for the myogenic differentiation of hASCs, we engineered the MyoD protein, a key transcription factor for myogenesis. The engineered MyoD (MyoD-IT) was designed to contain the TAT protein transduction domain for cell penetration and the membrane-disrupting INF7 peptide, which is an improved version of the HA2 peptide derived from influenza. MyoD-IT showed greatly improved nuclear targeting ability through an efficient endosomal escape induced by the pH-sensitive membrane disruption of the INF7 peptide. By applying MyoD-IT to a culture, hASCs were efficiently differentiated into long spindle-shaped myogenic cells expressing myosin heavy chains. Moreover, these cells differentiated by an application of MyoD-IT fused to myotubes with high efficiency through co-culturing with mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Because internalized proteins can be degraded in cells without altering the genome, the myogenic differentiation of hASCs using MyoD-IT would be a safe and clinically applicable method

  20. Amniotic membrane seeded with mesenchymal adipose-derived stem cell for coverage of wound in third degree burn: An experimental study

    Mohammad Javad Fatemi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Acellular amnion seeded with adipose-derived stem cell can result in faster wound healing and better histopathology characteristic. The amnion as a scaffold and the fat derived stem cells as healing accelerator are recommended for coverage of the 3rd degree burn wounds after excision and it may reduce the need for skin graft.

  1. Long-term MRI tracking of dual-labeled adipose-derived stem cells homing into mouse carotid artery injury

    Qin JB

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Bao Qin,1,5,* Kang-An Li,2,* Xiang-Xiang Li,1,5 Qing-Song Xie,3 Jia-Ying Lin,4 Kai-Chuang Ye,1,5 Mi-Er Jiang,1,5 Gui-Xiang Zhang,2 Xin-Wu Lu1,51Department of Vascular Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Cixi Municipal People's Hospital, Zhejiang Province, China; 4Clinic for Gynecology, Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 5Vascular Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China*These two authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Stem cell therapy has shown great promise for regenerative repair of injured or diseased tissues. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs have become increasingly attractive candidates for cellular therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging has been proven to be effective in tracking magnetic-labeled cells and evaluating their clinical relevance after cell transplantation. This study investigated the feasibility of imaging green fluorescent protein-expressing ADSCs (GFP-ADSCs labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, and tracked them in vivo with noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging after cell transplantation in a model of mouse carotid artery injury.Methods: GFP-ADSCs were isolated from the adipose tissues of GFP mice and labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles. Intracellular stability, proliferation, and viability of the labeled cells were evaluated in vitro. Next, the cells were transplanted into a mouse carotid artery injury model. Clinical 3 T magnetic resonance imaging was performed immediately before and 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 30 days after cell transplantation. Prussian blue staining and histological analysis were performed 7 and 30 days after transplantation.Results: GFP-ADSCs were found to be efficiently labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide

  2. Adiponectin enhances osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells by activating the APPL1-AMPK signaling pathway

    Chen, Tong; Wu, Yu-wei; Lu, Hui; Guo, Yuan [Second Dental Center, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Tang, Zhi-hui, E-mail: tang_zhihui@live.cn [Second Dental Center, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-29

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with multi-lineage differentiation potential including osteogenesis and adipogenesis. While significant progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional control of hASC fate, little is known about how hASC differentiation is regulated by the autocrine loop. The most abundant adipocytokine secreted by adipocytes, adiponectin (APN) plays a pivotal role in glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Growing evidence suggests a positive association between APN and bone formation yet little is known regarding the direct effects of APN on hASC osteogenesis. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the varied osteogenic effects and regulatory mechanisms of APN in the osteogenic commitment of hASCs. We found that APN enhanced the expression of osteoblast-related genes in hASCs, such as osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2, also known as CBFa1), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This was further confirmed by the higher expression levels of alkaline phosphatase and increased formation of mineralization nodules, along with the absence of inhibition of cell proliferation. Importantly, APN at 1 μg/ml was the optimal concentration, resulting in maximum deposition of calcium nodules, and was significant superior to bone morphogenetic protein 2. Mechanistically, we found for the first time that APN increased nuclear translocation of the leucine zipper motif (APPL)-1 as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, which were reversed by pretreatment with APPL1 siRNA. Our results indicate that APN promotes the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs by activating APPL1-AMPK signaling, suggesting that manipulation of APN is a novel therapeutic target for controlling hASC fate. - Highlights: • Adiponectin enhances osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells. • The knock-down of APPL1 block the enhancement of

  3. Adiponectin enhances osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells by activating the APPL1-AMPK signaling pathway

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with multi-lineage differentiation potential including osteogenesis and adipogenesis. While significant progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional control of hASC fate, little is known about how hASC differentiation is regulated by the autocrine loop. The most abundant adipocytokine secreted by adipocytes, adiponectin (APN) plays a pivotal role in glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Growing evidence suggests a positive association between APN and bone formation yet little is known regarding the direct effects of APN on hASC osteogenesis. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the varied osteogenic effects and regulatory mechanisms of APN in the osteogenic commitment of hASCs. We found that APN enhanced the expression of osteoblast-related genes in hASCs, such as osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2, also known as CBFa1), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This was further confirmed by the higher expression levels of alkaline phosphatase and increased formation of mineralization nodules, along with the absence of inhibition of cell proliferation. Importantly, APN at 1 μg/ml was the optimal concentration, resulting in maximum deposition of calcium nodules, and was significant superior to bone morphogenetic protein 2. Mechanistically, we found for the first time that APN increased nuclear translocation of the leucine zipper motif (APPL)-1 as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, which were reversed by pretreatment with APPL1 siRNA. Our results indicate that APN promotes the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs by activating APPL1-AMPK signaling, suggesting that manipulation of APN is a novel therapeutic target for controlling hASC fate. - Highlights: • Adiponectin enhances osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells. • The knock-down of APPL1 block the enhancement of

  4. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on hydroxyapatite-mineralized poly(lactic acid) nanofiber sheets

    Electrospun fiber sheets with various orientations (random, partially aligned, and aligned) and smooth and roughened casted membranes were prepared. Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals were in situ formed on these material surfaces via immersion in 10 × simulated body fluid solution. The size and morphology of the resulting fibers were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The average diameter of the fibers ranged from 225 ± 25 to 1050 ± 150 nm depending on the electrospinning parameters. Biological experiment results show that human adipose-derived stem cells exhibit different adhesion and osteogenic differentiation on the three types of fiber. The cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were best on the aligned fibers. Similar results were found for phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase expression. Electrospun poly(lactic acid) aligned fibers mineralized with HA crystals provide a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation and thus have great potential in the tissue engineering field. - Highlights: • hADSCs show higher adhesion and proliferation on HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets than those of the control membranes. • HA-mineralized fiber groups greatly improve cell growth and increase FAK and p-FAK expressions. • HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets present higher ALP and OC activity through the study periods. • Electrospun PLA fiber mineralized with HA provides a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. • A simple immersion of electrospun fibers in 10 × SBF are a potential matrix for bone tissue engineering

  5. Differential osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells co-cultured with human osteoblasts on polymeric microfiber scaffolds.

    Rozila, Ismail; Azari, Pedram; Munirah, Sha'ban; Wan Safwani, Wan Kamarul Zaman; Gan, Seng Neon; Nur Azurah, Abdul Ghani; Jahendran, Jeevanan; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Chua, Kien Hui

    2016-02-01

    The osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) co-cultured with human osteoblasts (HOBs) using selected HADSCs/HOBs ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2, respectively, is evaluated. The HADSCs/HOBs were seeded on electrospun three-dimensional poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] (PHB) blended with bovine-derived hydroxyapatite (BHA). Monocultures of HADSCs and HOBs were used as control groups. The effects of PHB-BHA scaffold on cell proliferation and cell morphology were assessed by AlamarBlue assay and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic-related gene expression of co-culture HADSCs/HOBs were examined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, alizarin Red S assay, and quantitative real time PCR, respectively. The results showed that co-culture of HADSCs/HOBs, 1:1 grown into PHB-BHA promoted better cell adhesion, displayed a significant higher cell proliferation, higher production of ALP, extracellular mineralization and osteogenic-related gene expression of run-related transcription factor, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin compared to other co-culture groups. This result also suggests that the use of electrospun PHB-BHA in a co-culture HADSCs/HOBs system may serve as promising approach to facilitate osteogenic differentiation activity of HADSCs through direct cell-to-cell contact with HOBs. PMID:26414782

  6. Combination of fibrin-agarose hydrogels and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Carriel, Víctor; Garrido-Gómez, Juan; Hernández-Cortés, Pedro; Garzón, Ingrid; García-García, Salomé; Sáez-Moreno, José Antonio; Sánchez-Quevedo, María del Carmen; Campos, Antonio; Alaminos, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The objective was to study the effectiveness of a commercially available collagen conduit filled with fibrin-agarose hydrogels alone or with fibrin-agarose hydrogels containing autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. Approach. A 10 mm gap was created in the sciatic nerve of 48 rats and repaired using saline-filled collagen conduits or collagen conduits filled with fibrin-agarose hydrogels alone (acellular conduits) or with hydrogels containing ADMSCs (ADMSC conduits). Nerve regeneration was assessed in clinical, electrophysiological and histological studies. Main results. Clinical and electrophysiological outcomes were more favorable with ADMSC conduits than with the acellular or saline conduits, evidencing a significant recovery of sensory and motor functions. Histological analysis showed that ADMSC conduits produce more effective nerve regeneration by Schwann cells, with higher remyelination and properly oriented axonal growth that reached the distal areas of the grafted conduits, and with intensely positive expressions of S100, neurofilament and laminin. Extracellular matrix was also more abundant and better organized around regenerated nerve tissues with ADMSC conduits than those with acellular or saline conduits. Significance. Clinical, electrophysiological and histological improvements obtained with tissue-engineered ADMSC conduits may contribute to enhancing axonal regeneration by Schwann cells.

  7. Addition of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Improves Bone Formation at an Ectopic Site

    Zhifa Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules. MSC sheets without ADSCs formed bone-like tissue; although neo-bone and cartilage-like tissues were sparse and unevenly distributed by eight weeks after implantation. In comparison, MSC sheets with ADSCs promoted better bone regeneration as evidenced by the greater density of bone, increased mineral deposition, obvious formation of blood vessels, large number of interconnected ossified trabeculae and woven bone structures, and greater bone volume/total volume within the composite constructs. Our results indicate that although sheets of only MSCs have the potential to form tissue engineered bone at an ectopic site, the addition of ADSCs can significantly increase the osteogenic potential of MSC sheets. Thus, the combination of MSC sheets with ADSCs may be regarded as a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate bone regeneration.

  8. A comparison of the chemical and liver extract-induced hepatic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells.

    Nhung, Truong Hai; Nam, Nguyen Hai; Nguyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Nghia, Huynh; Van Thanh, Nguyen; Ngoc, Phan Kim; Van Pham, Phuc

    2015-11-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been put forward as promising therapeutics for end-stage liver disease (ESLD). In the present study, we compared the effects of defined chemicals and liver extract on the hepatic differentiation of ADSCs. ADSCs were isolated according to the method described in our previously published study. Subsequently, the differentiation of ADSCs was induced separately by chemicals (including hepatic growth factor (HGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and oncostatin M (OSM)) and liver extract (30 μg/ml) in a total period of 21 d. The efficiency of hepatic differentiation was evaluated by changes in the cell morphology, gene expression, and cellular function. The results showed that the liver extract promoted the hepatic differentiation of ADSCs to a significantly greater extent than the chemicals. In the group of ADSCs treated with liver extract, changes in the cell morphology began sooner, and the expression of alpha-FP and albumin genes was higher than that in the chemically treated group. The ADSCs in both the groups stained positive for anti-alpha trypsin (AAT) and albumin markers. The cells also exhibited glycogen storage capacity. Therefore, we concluded that the liver extract could efficiently induce the differentiation of ADSCs into hepatocyte-like cells. This study reveals the potential of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in the liver extract, which supports further preclinical and clinical research on the application of ADSCs in ESLD treatment. PMID:26275888

  9. Neurospheres from rat adipose-derived stem cells could be induced into functional Schwann cell-like cells in vitro

    Shan Yanchang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schwann cells (SC which are myelin-forming cells in peripheral nervous system are very useful for the treatment of diseases of peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. However, it is difficult to obtain sufficient large number of SC for clinical use, so alternative cell systems are desired. Results Using a procedure similar to the one used for propagation of neural stem cells, we could induce rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC into floating neurospheres. In addition to being able to differentiate into neuronal- and glial-like cells, neurospheres could be induced to differentiate into SC-like cells. SC-like cells were bi- or tri-polar in shape and immunopositive for nestin and SC markers p75, GFAP and S-100, identical to genuine SC. We also found that SC-like cells could induce the differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells efficiently, perhaps through secretion of soluble substances. We showed further that SC-like cells could form myelin structures with PC12 cell neurites in vitro. Conclusion These findings indicated that ADSC could differentiate into SC-like cells in terms of morphology, phenotype and functional capacities. SC-like cells induced from ADSC may be useful for the treatment of neurological diseases.

  10. Production of islet-like insulin-producing cell clusters in vitro from adipose-derived stem cells

    Loan Thi-Tung Dang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a high incidence disease that has increased rapidly in recent years. Many new therapies are being studied and developed in order to find an effective treatment. An ideal candidate is stem cell therapy. In this study, we investigated the differentiation of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs into pseudo-islets in defined medium in vitro, to produce large quantities of insulin-producing cells (IPCs for transplantation. ADSCs isolated from adipose tissue were induced to differentiate into islet-like insulin-producing cell clusters in vitro by inducing medium DMEM/F12 containing nicotinamide, N2, B27, bFGF, and insulin-transferrin-selenite (ITS. Differentiated cells were analyzed for properties of IPCs, including storage of Zn2+ by dithizone staining, insulin production by ELISA and immunochemistry, and beta cell-related gene expression by reverse transcriptase PCR. The results showed that after 2 weeks of differentiation, the ADSCs aggregated into cell clusters, and after 4 weeks they formed islets, 50 and ndash;400 micrometers in diameter. These islet cells exhibited characteristics of pancreatic beta cells as they were positive for dithizone staining, expressed insulin in vitro and C-peptide in the cytoplasm, and expressed pancreatic beta cell-specific genes, including Pdx-1, NeuroD, and Ngn3. These results demonstrate that ADSCs can be used to produce a large number of functional islets for research as well as application. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(1.000: 184-192

  11. Enhanced angiogenic effect of adipose-derived stromal cell spheroid with low-level light therapy in hindlimb ischemia mice

    Park, In-Su; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2014-02-01

    Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are attractive cell source for tissue engineering. However, one obstacle to this approach is that the transplanted ASC population can decline rapidly in the recipient tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on transplanted human ASCs (hASCs) spheroid in a hindlimb ischemia animal model. LLLT, hASCs spheroid and hASCs spheroid transplantation with LLLT (spheroid + LLLT) were applied to the ischemic hindlimbs in athymic mice. The survival, differentiation and secretion of vascular endothelial growth (VEGF) of spheroid ASCs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The spheroid + LLLT group enhanced the tissue regeneration, including angiogenesis, compared with other groups. The spheroid contributed tissue regeneration via differentiation and secretion of growth factors. In the spheroid + LLLT group, the survival of spheroid hASCs was increased by the decreased apoptosis of spheroid hASCs in the ischemic hindlimb. The secretion of growth factors was stimulated in the spheroid + LLLT group compared with the ASCs group and spheroid group. These data suggest that LLLT is an effective biostimulator of spheroid hASCs in tissue regeneration that enhances the survival of ASCs and stimulates the secretion of growth factors in the ischemic hindlimb.

  12. Extracts of adipose derived stem cells slows progression in the R6/2 model of Huntington's disease.

    Wooseok Im

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for incurable disorders including Huntington's disease (HD. Adipose-derived stem cell (ASC is an easily available source of stem cells. Since ASCs can be differentiated into nervous stem cells, it has clinically feasible potential for neurodegenerative disease. In addition, ASCs secrete various anti-apoptotic growth factors, which improve the symptoms of disease from transplanted ASCs. Thus, cell-free extracts of ASCs (ASCs-E could be a potential candidate for treatment of HD. Here, we investigated effects of ASCs-E on R6/2 HD mouse model and neuronal cells. In R6/2 HD model, injection of ASCs-E improved the performance in Rotarod test. ASCs-E also ameliorated striatal atrophy and mutant huntingtin aggregation in the striatum. In Western blot increased expressions of p-Akt, p-CREB and PGC1α were noted by injection of ASCs-E, when comparing to the R6/2 HD model. Neuro2A neuroblastoma cells treated with ASCs-E showed increased expression of p-CREB and PGC1α. In conclusion, ASCs-E delayed disease progression in animal model of HD by restoring of CREB-PGC1α pathway and could be a potential resource for treatment of HD.

  13. Neurogenic differentiation from adipose-derived stem cells and application for autologous transplantation in spinal cord injury.

    Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Hui; Liu, Xin-wei; Chen, Jian-Ting; Xiang, Liang-Bi; Zhou, Da-Peng

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue have the capacity to differentiate into endodermal, mesoderm and ectodermal cell lineages in vitro, which are an ideal engraft in tissue-engineered repair. In this study, mouse adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were isolated from subcutaneous fat. The markers of ADSCs, CD13, CD29, CD44, CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD166, Nestin, GFAP and MAP-2 were detected by immunofluorescence assays. The ADSCs were cultured in cocktail factors (including ATRA, GGF-2, bFGF, PDGF and forskolin) for neurogenic differentiation. The neurogenic cells markers, Nestin, GFAP and MAP-2 were analyzed using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR after dramatic changes in morphology. Neurogenic cells from ADSCs were autologous transplanted into the mouse of spinal cord injury for observation neurogenic cells colonization in spinal cord. The result demonstrated that the mouse ADSCs were positive for the CD13, CD29, CD44, CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105 and CD166 but negative for neurogenic cell markers, MAP-2, GFAP and Nestin. After neurogenic differentiation, the neurogenic cells were positive for neurogenic cell special markers, gene expression level showed a time-lapse increase, and the cells were successful colonized into spinal cord. In conclusion, our research shows that a population of neuronal cells can be specifically generated from ADSCs and that induced cells may allow for participation in tissue-repair. PMID:25330756

  14. Cardiac regeneration by pharmacologically active microcarriers releasing growth factors and/or transporting adipose-derived stem cells

    Monia Savi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that cardiac regeneration through local delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, activation of resident cardiac stem cells via growth factors (GFs [hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1:GFs] or both, are improved by pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs interacting with cells/molecules conveyed on their surface. Rats with one-month old myocardial infarction were treated with ASCs, ASCs+PAMs, GF-releasing PAMs, ASCs+GF-releasing PAMs or vehicle. Two weeks later, hemodynamic function and inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs were assessed. Eventually, the hearts were subjected to anatomical and immunohistochemical analyses. A significant ASCs engraftment and the largest improvement in cardiac mechanics occurred in ASC+GF-releasing PAM rats which by contrast were more vulnerable to VAs. Thus, PAMs may improve cell/GF-based cardiac regeneration although caution should be paid on the electrophysiological impact of their physical interaction with the myocardium.

  15. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Alleviate Radiation-Induced Muscular Fibrosis by Suppressing the Expression of TGF-β1

    Wei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to investigate the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs transplantation on irradiation-induced skeletal muscle fibrosis. Sixty-four rabbits were randomly divided into ASCs group and PBS group followed by irradiation at unilateral hip with a single dose of 80 Gy. Nonirradiated side with normal skeletal muscle served as normal control. Skeletal muscle tissues were collected from eight rabbits in each group at 1 w, 4 w, 8 w, and 26 w after irradiation. Migration of ASCs was observed in the peripheral tissues along the needle passage in the injured muscle. The proportion of the area of collagen fibers to the total area in sections of ASCs group was lower than those of PBS groups at 4 w, 8 w, and 26 w after irradiation. Significant decrease was noted in the integrated optimal density of the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 in the ASCs group compared with those of PBS group at 4 w, 8 w, and 26 w after irradiation. Moreover, the expression of TGF-β1 was lower in the ASCs group compared to those of the PBS group at each time point determined by Western blot analysis. ASCs transplantation could alleviate irradiation fibrosis by suppressing the level of TGF-β1 in the irradiated skeletal muscle.

  16. Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1 Knockdown Suppresses the Proliferation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Zhang, Peihua; Li, Jin; Qi, Yawei; Tang, Xudong; Duan, Jianfeng; Liu, Li; Wu, Zeyong; Liang, Jie; Li, Jiangfeng; Wang, Xian; Zeng, Guofang; Liu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is a multifunctional matrix metalloproteinase, and it is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in various cell types. However, little is known about the effect of TIMP-1 expression on the proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Therefore, TIMP-1 expression in the ADSCs was firstly detected by western blotting, and TIMP-1 gene was knocked down by lentivirus-mediated shRNA. Cell proliferation was then evaluated by MTT assay and Ki67 staining, respectively. Cell cycle progression was determined by flow cytometry. The changes of p51, p21, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and P-CDK2 caused by TIMP-1 knockdown were detected by western blotting. The results indicated that ADSCs highly expressed TIMP-1 protein, and the knockdown of TIMP-1 inhibited cell proliferation and arrested cell cycle progression at G1 phase in the ADSCs possibly through the upregulation of p53, p21, and P-CDK2 protein levels and concurrent downregulation of cyclin E and CDK2 protein levels. These findings suggest that TIMP-1 works as a positive regulator of cell proliferation in ADSCs. PMID:27239203

  17. Priming Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Hyaluronan Alters Growth Kinetics and Increases Attachment to Articular Cartilage

    Peter Succar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Biological therapeutics such as adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy are gaining acceptance for knee-osteoarthritis (OA treatment. Reports of OA-patients show reductions in cartilage defects and regeneration of hyaline-like-cartilage with MSC-therapy. Suspending MSCs in hyaluronan commonly occurs in animals and humans, usually without supporting data. Objective. To elucidate the effects of different concentrations of hyaluronan on MSC growth kinetics. Methods. Using a range of hyaluronan concentrations, we measured MSC adherence and proliferation on culture plastic surfaces and a novel cartilage-adhesion assay. We employed time-course and dispersion imaging to assess MSC binding to cartilage. Cytokine profiling was also conducted on the MSC-secretome. Results. Hyaluronan had dose-dependent effects on growth kinetics of MSCs at concentrations of entanglement point (1 mg/mL. At higher concentrations, viscosity effects outweighed benefits of additional hyaluronan. The cartilage-adhesion assay highlighted for the first time that hyaluronan-primed MSCs increased cell attachment to cartilage whilst the presence of hyaluronan did not. Our time-course suggested patients undergoing MSC-therapy for OA could benefit from joint-immobilisation for up to 8 hours. Hyaluronan also greatly affected dispersion of MSCs on cartilage. Conclusion. Our results should be considered in future trials with MSC-therapy using hyaluronan as a vehicle, for the treatment of OA.

  18. The effect of progesterone and 17-β estradiol on membrane-bound HLA-G in adipose derived stem cells.

    Moslehi, Akram; Hashemi-Beni, Batool; Moslehi, Azam; Akbari, Maryam Ali; Adib, Minoo

    2016-07-01

    Membrane-bound HLA-G (mHLA-G) discovery on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) as a tolerogenic and immunosuppressive molecule was very important. Many documents have shown that HLA-G expression can be controlled via some hormones such as progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2). Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate progesterone and estradiol effects on mHLA-G in ADSCs at restricted and combination concentrations. Three independent cell lines were cultured in complete free phenol red DMEM and subcultured to achieve suffi cient cells. These cells were treated with P4, E2 and P4 plus E2 at physiologic and pregnancy concentrations for 3 days in cell culture conditions. The HLA-G positive ADSCs was measured via monoclonal anti HLA-G-FITC/MEMG-09 by means of flow cytometry in nine groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. There were no signifi cant values of the mean percentage of HLA-G positive cells in E2-treated and the combination of P4 plus E2-treated ADSCs compared to control cells (p value>0.05) but P4 had a signifi cant increase on mHLA-G in ADSCs (p value<0.05). High P4 concentration increased mHLA-G but E2 and the combination of P4 plus E2 could not change mHLA-G on ADSCs. PMID:27382350

  19. Sericin Enhances the Bioperformance of Collagen-Based Matrices Preseeded with Human-Adipose Derived Stem Cells (hADSCs

    Marieta Costache

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current clinical strategies for adipose tissue engineering (ATE, including autologous fat implants or the use of synthetic surrogates, not only are failing in the long term, but also can’t face the latest requirements regarding the aesthetic restoration of the resulted imperfections. In this context, modern strategies in current ATE applications are based on the implantation of 3D cell-scaffold bioconstructs, designed for prospective achievement of in situ functional de novo tissue. Thus, in this paper, we reported for the first time the evaluation of a spongious 60% collagen and 40% sericin scaffold preseeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs in terms of biocompatibility and adipogenic potential in vitro. We showed that the addition of the sticky protein sericin in the composition of a classical collagen sponge enhanced the adhesion and also the proliferation rate of the seeded cells, thus improving the biocompatibility of the novel scaffold. In addition, sericin stimulated PPARγ2 overexpression, triggering a subsequent upregulated expression profile of FAS, aP2 and perilipin adipogenic markers. These features, together with the already known sericin stimulatory potential on cellular collagen production, promote collagen-sericin biomatrix as a good candidate for soft tissue reconstruction and wound healing applications.

  20. Effects of γ-secretase inhibition on the proliferation and vitamin D3 induced osteogenesis in adipose derived stem cells

    As a γ-secretase inhibitor, DAPT has been widely used to evaluate the biological behaviors and Notch signaling pathway in various cells. This study was aimed to examine the effects of DAPT on the growth and vitamin D3 induced osteogenesis in adipose derived stem cells (ASCs). The cells were treated with or without DAPT and induced to osteoblastic lineage in the presence of vitamin D3. Alizarin red staining and real-time PCR results indicated that the addition of DAPT to vitamin D3 treatments enhanced osteogenesis in ASCs. According to the fold increase and colony-forming unit assay results, the cells cultured in DAPT exhibited lower proliferation rate than those cultured in control medium. Hey1, expressed in the nucleus of ASCs to act as a transcriptional repressor, was downregulated when Notch signaling was inhibited by DAPT. Whereas the expression of Runx2 increased in the nucleus of osteogenic induced ASCs after DAPT treatment. This study demonstrated that DAPT reduced the proliferation and enhanced the osteogenesis in ASCs via regulation of Notch and Runx2 expression.

  1. Iota-carrageenan/chitosan/gelatin scaffold for the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived MSCs in vitro.

    Li, Junjie; Yang, Boguang; Qian, Yufeng; Wang, Qiyu; Han, Ruijin; Hao, Tong; Shu, Yao; Zhang, Yabin; Yao, Fanglian; Wang, Changyong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we have developed ι-carrageenan/chitosan/gelatin (CCG) scaffold containing multiple functional groups (-NH2 , -OH, -COOH, and -SO3 H) to resemble the native extracellular matrix (ECM), using the ion-shielding technology and ultrasonic dispersion method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the CCG scaffolds suggests that the formation of CCG network involves electrostatic interactions between ι-carrageenan (ι-CA) and chitosan/gelatin, and the covalent cross-linking among amino groups of chitosan and/or gelatin. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation reveals that the porous structure of scaffolds can be modulated by the ratio of ι-CA to chitosan/gelatin. The swelling ratio of the hydrogels increases as the ι-CA contents increase. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we found that the double helix structure of ι-CA is only stabilized at low contents of ι-CA in the CCG scaffolds (e.g., 5 wt %). The scaffolds containing 5% ι-CA showed the best protein adsorption capacity (4.46 ± 0.63 μg protein/mg scaffold) and elastic modulus (5.37 ± 1.03 MPa). In addition, the CCG scaffolds exhibit excellent support for adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) attachment and proliferation, and they can improve the osteogenic differentiation and neovascularization capacities of ADMSCs. Overall, we conclude that the CCG may represent an ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25449538

  2. Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells into Smooth Muscle Cells Is Modulated by CaMKIIγ

    Aji, Kaisaier; Maimaijiang, Munila; Aimaiti, Abudusaimi; Rexiati, Mulati; Azhati, Baihetiya; Tusong, Hamulati

    2016-01-01

    The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is known to participate in maintenance and switches of smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypes. However, which isoform of CaMKII is involved in differentiation of adult mesenchymal stem cells into contractile SMCs remains unclear. In the present study, we detected γ isoform of CaMKII in differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) into SMCs that resulted from treatment with TGF-β1 and BMP4 in combination for 7 days. The results showed that CaMKIIγ increased gradually during differentiation of hASCs as determined by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of CaMKIIγ decreased the protein levels and transcriptional levels of smooth muscle contractile markers (a-SMA, SM22a, calponin, and SM-MHC), while CaMKIIγ overexpression increases the transcriptional and protein levels of smooth muscle contractile markers. These results suggested that γ isoform of CaMKII plays a significant role in smooth muscle differentiation of hASCs. PMID:27493668

  3. Induction and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells from human buccal fat pads into salivary gland cells.

    Kawakami, Miyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akira; Mataga, Izumi

    2016-07-01

    Atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland because of aging or disease leads to hyposalivation that affects patient quality of life by causing dry mouth, deterioration of mastication/deglutition, and poor oral hygiene status. Current therapy for atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland in clinical practice focuses on symptom relief using drugs and artificial saliva; therefore, there is still a need to develop new therapies. To investigate potential novel therapeutic targets, we induced the differentiation of salivary gland cells by co-culturing human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from buccal fat pads (hBFP-ASCs) with human salivary-gland-derived fibroblasts (hSG-fibros). We examined their potential for transplantation and tissue neogenesis. Following the culture of hBFP-ASCs and hSG-fibros, differentiated cells were transplanted into the submandibular glands of SCID mice, and their degree of differentiation in tissues was determined. We also examined their potential for functional tissue reconstitution using a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Co-cultured cells expressed salivary-glandrelated markers and generated new tissues following transplantation in vivo. Moreover, cell reconstituted glandular structures in the 3D culture system. In conclusion, coculture of hSG-fibros with hBFP-ASCs led to successful differentiation into salivary gland cells that could be transplanted to generate new tissues. PMID:26842556

  4. Hyaluronan preserves the proliferation and differentiation potentials of long-term cultured murine adipose-derived stromal cells

    For long-term culture, murine adipose-derived stromal cells (mADSCs) at latter passages demonstrated a marked decline in proliferative activity, exhibited senescent morphology and reduced differentiation potentials, particularly osteogenesis. To extend the lifespan of mADSCs, two culture conditions containing hyaluronan (HA) was compared in our study, one as a culture medium supplement (SHA), and the other where HA was pre-coated on culture surface (CHA). mADSCs cultivated with SHA exhibited a prolonged lifespan, reduced cellular senescence, and enhanced osteogenic potential compared to regular culture condition (control). Upon CHA treatment, mADSCs tended to form cell aggregates with gradual growth profiles, while their differentiation activities remained similar to SHA groups. After transferring mADSCs from CHA to control surface, they were shown to have an extended lifespan and an increase of osteogenic potential. Our results suggested that HA can be useful for preserving the proliferation and differentiation potentials of long-term cultured mADSCs

  5. A Comparative Study of Non-Viral Gene Delivery Techniques to Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell

    Nur Shuhaidatul Sarmiza Abdul Halim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs hold tremendous potential for therapeutic use in stem cell-based gene therapy. Ex vivo genetic modification of MSCs with beneficial genes of interest is a prerequisite for successful use of stem cell-based therapeutic applications. However, genetic manipulation of MSCs is challenging because they are resistant to commonly used methods to introduce exogenous DNA or RNA. Herein we compared the effectiveness of several techniques (classic calcium phosphate precipitation, cationic polymer, and standard electroporation with that of microporation technology to introduce the plasmid encoding for angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT-1 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP into human adipose-derived MSCs (hAD-MSCs. The microporation technique had a higher transfection efficiency, with up to 50% of the viable hAD-MSCs being transfected, compared to the other transfection techniques, for which less than 1% of cells were positive for eGFP expression following transfection. The capability of cells to proliferate and differentiate into three major lineages (chondrocytes, adipocytes, and osteocytes was found to be independent of the technique used for transfection. These results show that the microporation technique is superior to the others in terms of its ability to transfect hAD-MSCs without affecting their proliferation and differentiation capabilities. Therefore, this study provides a foundation for the selection of techniques when using ex vivo gene manipulation for cell-based gene therapy with MSCs as the vehicle for gene delivery.

  6. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on hydroxyapatite-mineralized poly(lactic acid) nanofiber sheets

    Kung, Fu-Chen [Department of Health Developing and Health Marketing, Kainan University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@thu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taiwan (China); Lai, Wen-Fu T., E-mail: Laitw@tmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    Electrospun fiber sheets with various orientations (random, partially aligned, and aligned) and smooth and roughened casted membranes were prepared. Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals were in situ formed on these material surfaces via immersion in 10 × simulated body fluid solution. The size and morphology of the resulting fibers were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The average diameter of the fibers ranged from 225 ± 25 to 1050 ± 150 nm depending on the electrospinning parameters. Biological experiment results show that human adipose-derived stem cells exhibit different adhesion and osteogenic differentiation on the three types of fiber. The cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were best on the aligned fibers. Similar results were found for phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase expression. Electrospun poly(lactic acid) aligned fibers mineralized with HA crystals provide a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation and thus have great potential in the tissue engineering field. - Highlights: • hADSCs show higher adhesion and proliferation on HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets than those of the control membranes. • HA-mineralized fiber groups greatly improve cell growth and increase FAK and p-FAK expressions. • HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets present higher ALP and OC activity through the study periods. • Electrospun PLA fiber mineralized with HA provides a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. • A simple immersion of electrospun fibers in 10 × SBF are a potential matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  7. Sericin Enhances the Bioperformance of Collagen-Based Matrices Preseeded with Human-Adipose Derived Stem Cells (hADSCs)

    Dinescu, Sorina; Galateanu, Bianca; Albu, Madalina; Cimpean, Anisoara; Dinischiotu, Anca; Costache, Marieta

    2013-01-01

    Current clinical strategies for adipose tissue engineering (ATE), including autologous fat implants or the use of synthetic surrogates, not only are failing in the long term, but also can’t face the latest requirements regarding the aesthetic restoration of the resulted imperfections. In this context, modern strategies in current ATE applications are based on the implantation of 3D cell-scaffold bioconstructs, designed for prospective achievement of in situ functional de novo tissue. Thus, in this paper, we reported for the first time the evaluation of a spongious 60% collagen and 40% sericin scaffold preseeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in terms of biocompatibility and adipogenic potential in vitro. We showed that the addition of the sticky protein sericin in the composition of a classical collagen sponge enhanced the adhesion and also the proliferation rate of the seeded cells, thus improving the biocompatibility of the novel scaffold. In addition, sericin stimulated PPARγ2 overexpression, triggering a subsequent upregulated expression profile of FAS, aP2 and perilipin adipogenic markers. These features, together with the already known sericin stimulatory potential on cellular collagen production, promote collagen-sericin biomatrix as a good candidate for soft tissue reconstruction and wound healing applications. PMID:23325052

  8. Osteoinductive Effects of Free and Immobilized Bone Forming Peptide-1 on Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Wenyue Li

    Full Text Available Most synthetic polymeric materials currently used for bone tissue engineering lack specific signals through which cells can identify and interact with the surface, resulting in incompatibility and compromised osteogenic activity. Soluble inductive factors also have issues including a short half-live in vivo. Bone forming peptide-1 is a truncated peptide from the immature form of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7 that displays higher osteogenic activity than full-length, mature BMP-7. In this study, we used a mussel-inspired immobilization strategy mediated by polymerization of dopamine to introduce recently discovered stimulators of bone forming peptide-1 (BFP-1 onto the surface of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA substrate to form a biomaterial that overcomes these challenges. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs, being abundant and easy accessible, were used to test the osteogenic activity of BFP-1 and the novel biomaterial. Under osteoinductive conditions, cells treated with both BFP-1 alone and BFP-1-coated biomaterials displayed elevated expression of the osteogenic markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP, osteocalcin (OC, and RUNX2. Furthermore, hASCs associated with poly-dopamine-assisted BFP-1-immobilized PLGA (pDA-BFP-1-PLGA scaffolds promoted in vivo bone formation in nude mice. Our novel materials may hold great promise for future bone tissue engineering applications.

  9. Long-Duration Three-Dimensional Spheroid Culture Promotes Angiogenic Activities of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Lee, Jun Hee; Han, Yong-Seok; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer significant therapeutic promise for various regenerative therapies. However, MSC-based therapy for injury exhibits low efficacy due to the pathological environment in target tissues and the differences between in vitro and in vivo conditions. To address this issue, we developed adipose-derived MSC spheroids as a novel delivery method to preserve the stem cell microenvironment. MSC spheroids were generated by suspension culture for 3 days, and their sizes increased in a time-dependent manner. After re-attachment of MSC spheroids to the plastic dish, their adhesion capacity and morphology were not altered. MSC spheroids showed enhanced production of hypoxia-induced angiogenic cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell derived factor (SDF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In addition, spheroid culture promoted the preservation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as laminin and fibronectin, in a culture time- and spheroid size-dependent manner. Furthermore, phosphorylation of AKT, a cell survival signal, was significantly higher and the expression of pro-apoptotic molecules, poly (ADP ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and cleaved caspase-3, was markedly lower in the spheroids than in MSCs in monolayers. In the murine hindlimb ischemia model, transplanted MSC spheroids showed better proliferation than MSCs in monolayer. These findings suggest that MSC spheroids promote MSC bioactivities via secretion of angiogenic cytokines, preservation of ECM components, and regulation of apoptotic signals. Therefore, MSC spheroid-based cell therapy may serve as a simple and effective strategy for regenerative medicine. PMID:26869524

  10. Labeling Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with Hoechst 33342: Usability and Effects on Differentiation Potential and DNA Damage

    P. Schendzielorz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs have been extensively studied in the field of stem cell research and possess numerous clinical applications. Cell labeling is an essential component of various experimental protocols and Hoechst 33342 (H33342 represents a cost-effective and easy methodology for live staining. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the labeling of rat ASCs with two different concentrations of H33342 (0.5 μg/mL and 5 μg/mL, with particular regard to usability, interference with cell properties, and potential DNA damage. Hoechst 33342 used at a low concentration of 0.5 μg/mL did not significantly affect cell proliferation, viability, or differentiation potential of the ASCs, nor did it cause any significant DNA damage as measured by the olive tail moment. High concentrations of 5 μg/mL H33342, however, impaired the proliferation and viability of the ASCs, and considerable DNA damage was observed. Undesirable colabeling of unlabeled cocultivated cells was seen in particular with higher concentrations of H33342, independent of varying washing procedures. Hence, H33342 labeling with lower concentrations represents a usable method, which does not affect the tested cell properties. However, the colabeling of adjacent cells is a drawback of the technique.

  11. Labeling Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with Hoechst 33342: Usability and Effects on Differentiation Potential and DNA Damage

    Schendzielorz, P.; Froelich, K.; Rak, K.; Gehrke, T.; Scherzad, A.; Hagen, R.; Radeloff, A.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been extensively studied in the field of stem cell research and possess numerous clinical applications. Cell labeling is an essential component of various experimental protocols and Hoechst 33342 (H33342) represents a cost-effective and easy methodology for live staining. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the labeling of rat ASCs with two different concentrations of H33342 (0.5 μg/mL and 5 μg/mL), with particular regard to usability, interference with cell properties, and potential DNA damage. Hoechst 33342 used at a low concentration of 0.5 μg/mL did not significantly affect cell proliferation, viability, or differentiation potential of the ASCs, nor did it cause any significant DNA damage as measured by the olive tail moment. High concentrations of 5 μg/mL H33342, however, impaired the proliferation and viability of the ASCs, and considerable DNA damage was observed. Undesirable colabeling of unlabeled cocultivated cells was seen in particular with higher concentrations of H33342, independent of varying washing procedures. Hence, H33342 labeling with lower concentrations represents a usable method, which does not affect the tested cell properties. However, the colabeling of adjacent cells is a drawback of the technique. PMID:27375746

  12. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on poly(dopamine)-coated electrospun poly(lactic acid) fiber mats.

    Lin, Chi-Chang; Fu, Shu-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of micro- or nano-fibers from a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized electrospun nano-fibers and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers coated with polydopamine (PDA). The morphology, chemical composition, and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by SEM and XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and collagen I levels and enhanced cell attachment and cell cycle progression were observed upon an increase in PDA content. In addition, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA mat. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenesis differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic degradable PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic biodegradable fibers, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. PMID:26478309

  13. Transplantation of Immortalized CD34+ and CD34- Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Improve Cardiac Function and Mitigate Systemic Pro-Inflammatory Responses.

    Jong-Ho Kim

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs have the potential to differentiate into various cell lineages and they are easily obtainable from patients, which makes them a promising candidate for cell therapy. However, a drawback is their limited life span during in vitro culture. Therefore, hTERT-immortalized CD34+ and CD34- mouse ADSC lines (mADSCshTERT tagged with GFP were established. We evaluated the proliferation capacity, multi-differentiation potential, and secretory profiles of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT in vitro, as well as their effects on cardiac function and systemic inflammation following transplantation into a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI to assess whether these cells could be used as a novel cell source for regeneration therapy in the cardiovascular field. CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT demonstrated phenotypic characteristics and multi-differentiation potentials similar to those of primary mADSCs. CD34+ mADSCshTERT exhibited a higher proliferation ability compared to CD34- mADSCshTERT, whereas CD34- mADSCshTERT showed a higher osteogenic differentiation potential compared to CD34+ mADSCshTERT. Primary mADSCs, CD34+, and CD34- mADSCshTERT primarily secreted EGF, TGF-β1, IGF-1, IGF-2, MCP-1, and HGFR. CD34+ mADSCshTERT had higher secretion of VEGF and SDF-1 compared to CD34- mADSCshTERT. IL-6 secretion was severely reduced in both CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT compared to primary mADSCs. Transplantation of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT significantly improved the left ventricular ejection fraction and reduced infarct size compared to AMI-induced rats after 28 days. At 28 days after transplantation, engraftment of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT was confirmed by positive Y chromosome staining, and differentiation of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT into endothelial cells was found in the infarcted myocardium. Significant decreases were observed in circulating IL-6 levels in CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT groups compared to the AMI

  14. Clinical use of Dieletrophoresis separation for live Adipose derived stem cells

    Wu Allan Y

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microelectrode dieletrophoresis capture of live cells has been explored in animal and cellular models ex-vivo. Currently, there is no clinical data available regarding the safety and efficacy of dielectrophoresis (DEP buffers and microcurrent manipulation in humans, despite copious pre-clinical studies suggesting its safety. The purpose of this study was to determine if DEP isolation of SVF using minimal manipulation methods is safe and efficacious for use in humans using the hand lipotransfer model. Methods Autologous stromal vascular fraction cells (SVF were obtained from lipoaspirate by collagenase digestion and centrifugation. The final mixture of live and dead cells was further processed using a custom DEP microelectrode array and microcurrent generator to isolate only live nucleated cells. Lipotransfer was completed using fat graft enhanced with either standard processed SVF (control versus DEP filtered SVF (experimental. Spectral photography, ultrasound and biometric measurements were obtained at post operatively days 1, 4, 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90. Results The DEP filter was capable of increasing SVF viability counts from 74.3 ± 2.0% to 94.7 ± 2.1%. Surrogate markers of inflammation (temperature, soft tissue swelling, pain and diminished range of motion were more profound on the control hand. Clinical improvement in hand appearance was appreciated in both hands, though the control hand exclusively sustained late phase erosive skin breaks on post operative day 7. No skin breaks were appreciated on the DEP-SVF treated hand. Early fat engraftment failure was noted on the control hand thenar web space at 3 months post surgery. Discussion No immediate hypersensitivity or adverse reaction was appreciated with the DEP-SVF treated hand. In fact, the control hand experienced skin disruption and mild superficial cellulitis, whereas the experimental hand did not experience this complication, suggesting a possible

  15. Undifferentiated Human Adipose-derived Stromal/Stem Cells loaded onto Wet-Spun Starch-polycaprolactone Scaffolds Enhance Bone Regeneration: Nude Mice Calvarial Defect in vivo Study

    Carvalho, Pedro P.; Leonor, Isabel B.; Smith, Brenda J.; Dias, Isabel R.; Reis, Rui L.; Jeffrey M Gimble; Gomes, Manuela E.

    2013-01-01

    The repair of large bony defects remains challenging in the clinical setting. Human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) have been reported to differentiate along different cell lineages, including the osteogenic. The objective of the present study was to assess the bone regeneration potential of undifferentiated hASCs loaded in starch-polycaprolactone (SPCL) scaffolds, in a critical-sized nude mice calvarial defect.

  16. Bone Tissue Engineering with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Bioactive Composites of Laser-Sintered Porous Polycaprolactone Scaffolds and Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Han-Tsung Liao; Jyh-Ping Chen; Ming-Yih Lee

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with consistent inter-pore channels, 83% porosity and 300–400 μm pore size were fabricated via selective laser sintering. The PCL scaffold was combined with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to form a bioactive composite and studied for potential application in bone tissue engineering using porcine adipose-derived stem cells (PASCs). The PCL/PRP/PASCs construct showed enhanced cell seeding efficiency and synergistically increased the differen...

  17. Porcine adipose-derived stem cells from buccal fat pad and subcutaneous adipose tissue for future preclinical studies in oral surgery

    Niada, S; L.M. Ferreira; Arrigoni, E.; Addis, A.; M. Campagnol; E. Broccaioli; Brini, A T

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are progenitor cells used in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Despite subcutaneous adipose tissue being more abundant, the buccal fat pad (BFP) is easily accessible for dentists and maxillofacial surgeons. For this reason, considering the need for preclinical study and the swine as an optimal animal model in tissue engineering applications, we compared the features of porcine ASCs (pASCs) from both tissue-harvesting sites. Metho...

  18. Characterization of human adipose-derived stem cells Caracterização de células-tronco do tecido adiposo humano

    Silvana Gaiba; Lucimar Pereira de França; Jerônimo Pereira de França; Lydia Masako Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is a growing scientific interest in the plasticity and therapeutic potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which are multipotent and abundant in adipose tissue and can differentiate in vitro into multiple lineages, including adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, neural cells, endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study was to isolate, cultivate and identify ASCs. METHODS: Human adipose precursor cells were obtained from subcutaneous abdominal tissue. Re...

  19. New Therapy of Skin Repair Combining Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose Scaffold in a Pre-Clinical Rat Model

    Cristiano Rodrigues; de Assis, Adriano M.; Moura, Dinara J.; Graziele Halmenschlager; Jenifer Saffi; Léder Leal Xavier; Marilda da Cruz Fernandes; Márcia Rosângela Wink

    2014-01-01

    Lesions with great loss of skin and extensive burns are usually treated with heterologous skin grafts, which may lead rejection. Cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells is arising as a new proposal to accelerate the healing process. We tested a new therapy consisting of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a biomaterial, in combination with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), to treat skin lesions in an in vivo rat model. This biomaterial did not affect membrane viability and induced a sma...

  20. Evaluation of Methylcellulose and Dimethyl Sulfoxide as the Cryoprotectants in a Serum-Free Freezing Media for Cryopreservation of Adipose-Derived Adult Stem Cells

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Devireddy, Ram V.

    2010-01-01

    Developing effective techniques for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived adult stem cells (ASCs) could increase the usefulness of these cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. To this end, we investigated the post-freeze/thaw viability and apoptotic behavior of Passage 1 (P1) adult stem cells (ASCs) in 11 different media: (i) the traditional media containing Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) with 80% fetal calf serum (FCS) and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), (ii...

  1. Grafting and early expression of growth factors from adipose-derived stem cells transplanted into the cochlea, in a guinea pig model of acoustic trauma

    Wanda Lattanzi

    2014-01-01

    Noise exposure causes damage of multiple cochlear cell types producing permanent hearing loss with important social consequences. In mammals, no regeneration of either damaged hair cells or auditory neurons has been observed and no successful treatment is available to achieve a functional recovery. Several evidences indicate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) as promising tools in diversified regenerative medicine applications, due to the high degree of plasticity and trophic features. This...

  2. Grafting and Early Expression of Growth Factors from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Transplanted into the Cochlea, in a Guinea Pig Model of Acoustic Trauma

    Fetoni, Anna Rita; Lattanzi, Wanda; Eramo, Sara Letizia Maria; Barba, Marta; Paciello, Fabiola; Moriconi, Chiara; Rolesi, Rolando; Michetti, Fabrizio; Troiani, Diana; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Noise exposure causes damage of multiple cochlear cell types producing permanent hearing loss with important social consequences. In mammals, no regeneration of either damaged hair cells or auditory neurons has been observed and no successful treatment is available to achieve a functional recovery. Loads of evidence indicate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) as promising tools in diversified regenerative medicine applications, due to the high degree of plasticity and trophic features. This st...

  3. Long Term Study of Protective Mechanisms of Human Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cisplatin Induced Kidney injury in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Elhusseini, Fatma M; Saad, Mohamed-Ahdy A.A; Anber, Nahla; Elghannam, Doaa; Sobh, Mohamed-Ahmed; ALSAYED, AZIZA; El-dusoky, Sara; SHEASHAA, HUSSEIN; Abdel-Ghaffar, Hassan; Sobh, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Long-term evaluation of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and the probable renal protective activities of stem cells are lacking up until now. We evaluated the early and long-term role of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in prevention or amelioration of cisplatin induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in Sprague-Dawley rats. For this, we determined the kidney tissue level of oxidative stress markers in conjugation with a renal histopathological scoring system o...

  4. In vivo tracking of human adipose-derived stem cells labeled with ferumoxytol in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion by magnetic resonance imaging

    Yan Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferumoxytol, an iron replacement product, is a new type of superparamagnetic iron oxide approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Herein, we assessed the feasibility of tracking transplanted human adipose-derived stem cells labeled with ferumoxytol in middle cerebral artery occlusion-injured rats by 3.0 T MRI in vivo. 1 × 10 4 human adipose-derived stem cells labeled with ferumoxytol-heparin-protamine were transplanted into the brains of rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neurologic impairment was scored at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days after transplantation. T2-weighted imaging and enhanced susceptibility-weighted angiography were used to observe transplanted cells. Results of imaging tests were compared with results of Prussian blue staining. The modified neurologic impairment scores were significantly lower in rats transplanted with cells at all time points except 1 day post-transplantation compared with rats without transplantation. Regions with hypointense signals on T2-weighted and enhanced susceptibility-weighted angiography images corresponded with areas stained by Prussian blue, suggesting the presence of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles within the engrafted cells. Enhanced susceptibility-weighted angiography image exhibited better sensitivity and contrast in tracing ferumoxytol-heparin-protamine-labeled human adipose-derived stem cells compared with T2-weighted imaging in routine MRI.

  5. Evaluation of β1-integrin expression on chondrogenically differentiating human adipose-derived stem cells using atomic force microscopy.

    Quisenberry, Chrystal R; Nazempour, Arshan; Van Wie, Bernard J; Abu-Lail, Nehal I

    2016-06-01

    The expression of β1-integrin on human adipose-derived stem cells, differentiating toward a chondrogenic lineage, is hypothesized to decrease when cells are grown under in vivo-like environments due to sufficient extracellular matrix (ECM) buildup in the engineered tissues. The opposite is true when cells are grown in static cultures such as in pellet or micromass. To probe β1-integrin distribution on cellular surfaces, atomic force microscopy cantilevers modified with anti-β1-integrin antibodies were used. Specific antibody-antigen adhesion forces were identified and indicated the locations of β1-integrins on cells. ECM properties were assessed by estimating the Young's modulus of the matrix. Specific single antibody-antigen interactions averaged 78 ± 10 pN with multiple bindings occurring at approximate multiples of 78 pN. The author's results show that upregulated β1-integrin expression coincided with a less robust ECM as assessed by mechanical properties of tissues. In micromass and pellet cultures, transforming growth factor β3(TGF-β3) elicited a decrease in Young's modulus by 3.7- and 4.4-fold while eliciting an increase in β1-integrin count by 1.1- and 1.3-fold, respectively. β1-integrin counts on cells grown in the presence of TGF-β3 with oscillating hydrostatic pressure decreased by a 1.1-fold while the Young's modulus increased by a 1.9-fold. Collectively, our results suggest that cells in insufficiently robust ECM express more integrin perhaps to facilitate cell-ECM adhesion and compensate for a looser less robust ECM. PMID:27106564

  6. Effect of adipose-derived stromal cells and BMP12 on intrasynovial tendon repair: A biomechanical, biochemical, and proteomics study.

    Gelberman, Richard H; Shen, Hua; Kormpakis, Ioannis; Rothrauff, Benjamin; Yang, Guang; Tuan, Rocky S; Xia, Younan; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly; Silva, Matthew J; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2016-04-01

    The outcomes of flexor tendon repair are highly variable. As recent efforts to improve healing have demonstrated promise for growth factor- and cell-based therapies, the objective of the current study was to enhance repair via application of autologous adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) and the tenogenic growth factor bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 12. Controlled delivery of cells and growth factor was achieved in a clinically relevant canine model using a nanofiber/fibrin-based scaffold. Control groups consisted of repair-only (no scaffold) and acellular scaffold. Repairs were evaluated after 28 days of healing using biomechanical, biochemical, and proteomics analyses. Range of motion was reduced in the groups that received scaffolds compared to normal. There was no effect of ASC + BMP12 treatment for range of motion or tensile properties outcomes versus repair-only. Biochemical assays demonstrated increased DNA, glycosaminoglycans, and crosslink concentration in all repair groups compared to normal, but no effect of ASC + BMP12. Total collagen was significantly decreased in the acellular scaffold group compared to normal and significantly increased in the ASC + BMP12 group compared to the acellular scaffold group. Proteomics analysis comparing healing tendons to uninjured tendons revealed significant increases in proteins associated with inflammation, stress response, and matrix degradation. Treatment with ASC + BMP12 amplified these unfavorable changes. In summary, the treatment approach used in this study induced a negative inflammatory reaction at the repair site leading to poor healing. Future approaches should consider cell and growth factor delivery methods that do not incite negative local reactions. PMID:26445383

  7. Tendon tissue engineering: adipose-derived stem cell and GDF-5 mediated regeneration using electrospun matrix systems

    Tendon tissue engineering with a biomaterial scaffold that mimics the tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) and is biomechanically suitable, and when combined with readily available autologous cells, may provide successful regeneration of defects in tendon. Current repair strategies using suitable autografts and freeze-dried allografts lead to a slow repair process that is sub-optimal and fails to restore function, particularly in difficult clinical situations such as zone II flexor tendon injuries of the hand. We have investigated the effect of GDF-5 on cell proliferation and gene expression by primary rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) that were cultured on a poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) PLAGA fiber scaffold and compared to a PLAGA 2D film scaffold. The electrospun scaffold mimics the collagen fiber bundles present in native tendon tissue, and supports the adhesion and proliferation of multipotent ADSCs. Gene expression of scleraxis, the neotendon marker, was upregulated seven- to eightfold at 1 week with GDF-5 treatment when cultured on a 3D electrospun scaffold, and was significantly higher at 2 weeks compared to 2D films with or without GDF-5 treatment. Expression of the genes that encode the major tendon ECM protein, collagen type I, was increased by fourfold starting at 1 week on treatment with 100 ng mL-1 GDF-5, and at all time points the expression was significantly higher compared to 2D films irrespective of GDF-5 treatment. Thus stimulation with GDF-5 can modulate primary ADSCs on a PLAGA fiber scaffold to produce a soft, collagenous musculoskeletal tissue that fulfills the need for tendon regeneration.

  8. PUMILIO-2 is involved in the positive regulation of cellular proliferation in human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Shigunov, Patrícia; Sotelo-Silveira, Jose; Kuligovski, Crisciele; de Aguiar, Alessandra Melo; Rebelatto, Carmen K; Moutinho, José A; Brofman, Paulo S; Krieger, Marco A; Goldenberg, Samuel; Munroe, David; Correa, Alejandro; Dallagiovanna, Bruno

    2012-01-20

    Stem cells can either differentiate into more specialized cells or undergo self-renewal. Several lines of evidence from different organisms suggest that these processes depend on the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The presence of the PUF [Pumilio/FBF (fem-3 binding factor)] domain defines a conserved family of RNA binding proteins involved in repressing gene expression. It has been suggested that a conserved function of PUF proteins is to repress differentiation and sustain the mitotic proliferation of stem cells. In humans, Pumilio-2 (PUM2) is expressed in embryonic stem cells and adult germ cells. Here we show that PUM2 is expressed in a subpopulation of adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) cultures, with a granular pattern of staining in the cytoplasm. Protein levels of PUM2 showed no changes during the differentiation of ASCs into adipocytes. Moreover, RNAi knockdown of pum2 did not alter the rate of adipogenic differentiation compared with wild-type control cells. A ribonomic approach was used to identify PUM2-associated mRNAs. Microarray analysis showed that PUM2-bound mRNAs are part of gene networks involved in cell proliferation and gene expression control. We studied pum2 expression in cell cultures with low or very high levels of proliferation and found that changes in pum2 production were dependent on the proliferation status of the cell. Transient knockdown of pum2 expression by RNAi impaired proliferation of ASCs in vitro. Our results suggest that PUM2 does not repress differentiation of ASCs but rather is involved in the positive control of ASCs division and proliferation. PMID:21649561

  9. Small activating RNA induces myogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells by upregulating MyoD

    Chenghe Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:RNA activation (RNAa is a mechanism of gene activation triggered by promoter-targeted small double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs, also known as small activating RNAs (saRNAs. Myogenic regulatory factor MyoD is regarded as the master activator of myogenic differentiation cascade by binding to enhancer of muscle specific genes. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency. It is thus expected that by promoting differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs into myoblasts by activating MyoD gene through RNAa may offer benefits to SUI.Materials and Methods:Rats ADSCs were isolated, proliferated in vitro, and identified by flow cytometry. Purified ADSCs were then transfected with a MyoD saRNA or control transfected. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect MyoD mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Immunocytochemical staining was applied to determine the expression of desmin protein in transfected cells. Cell viability was measured by using CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay kit.Results:Transfection of a MyoD saRNA (dsMyoD into ADSCs significantly induced the expression of MyoD at both the mRNA and protein levels, and inhibited cell proliferation. Desmin protein expression was detected in dsMyoD treated ADSCs 2 weeks later.Conclusion:Our findings show that RNAa mediated overexpression of MyoD can promote transdifferentiation of ADSCs into myoblasts and may help treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI–a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency.

  10. Adipose-Derived Stem Cell-Seeded Hydrogels Increase Endogenous Progenitor Cell Recruitment and Neovascularization in Wounds.

    Kosaraju, Revanth; Rennert, Robert C; Maan, Zeshaan N; Duscher, Dominik; Barrera, Janos; Whittam, Alexander J; Januszyk, Michael; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Rodrigues, Melanie; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2016-02-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are appealing for cell-based wound therapies because of their accessibility and ease of harvest, but their utility is limited by poor cell survival within the harsh wound microenvironment. In prior work, our laboratory has demonstrated that seeding ASCs within a soft pullulan-collagen hydrogel enhances ASC survival and improves wound healing. To more fully understand the mechanism of this therapy, we examined whether ASC-seeded hydrogels were able to modulate the recruitment and/or functionality of endogenous progenitor cells. Employing a parabiosis model and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, we demonstrate that application of ASC-seeded hydrogels to wounds, when compared with injected ASCs or a noncell control, increased the recruitment of provascular circulating bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (BM-MPCs). BM-MPCs comprised 23.0% of recruited circulating progenitor cells in wounds treated with ASC-seeded hydrogels versus 8.4% and 2.1% in those treated with controls, p functional modulation of BM-MPCs, we demonstrate a statistically significant increase in BM-MPC migration, proliferation, and tubulization when exposed to hydrogel-seeded ASC-conditioned medium versus control ASC-conditioned medium (73.8% vs. 51.4% scratch assay closure; 9.1% vs. 1.4% proliferation rate; 10.2 vs. 5.5 tubules/HPF; p assays). BM-MPC expression of genes related to cell stemness and angiogenesis was also significantly increased following exposure to hydrogel-seeded ASC-conditioned medium (p functionality to effect greater neovascularization. PMID:26871860

  11. Transplanted Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Testicular Dysfunction In A D-Galactose-Induced Aging Rat Model.

    Yang, Chun; Du, Yi-Kuan; Wang, Jun; Luan, Ping; Yang, Qin-Lao; Huang, Wen-Hua; Yuan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Glycation product accumulation during aging of slowly renewing tissues may be an important mechanism underlying aging of the testis. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have shown promise in a novel tissue regenerative technique and may have utility in treating sexual dysfunction. ADSCs have also been found to be effective in antiaging therapy, although the mechanism underlying their effects remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate the anti-aging effect of ADSCs in a D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging animal model and to clarify the underlying mechanism. Randomly selected 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal daily for 8 weeks. Two weeks after completion of treatment, D-gal-induced aging rats were randomized to receive caudal vein injections of 3 × 10(6) 5-bromo 2'deoxy-uridine-labeled ADSCs or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline. Serum testosterone level, steroidogenic enzymes (3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly in aging rats compared with the control group; serum lipid peroxidation, spermatogenic cell apoptosis, and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) expression increased significantly. ADSCs increased the SOD level and reduced the MDA level in the aging animal model and restored levels of serum testosterone, steroidogenic enzymes, and spermatogenic cell apoptosis. These results demonstrate that ADSCs can contribute to testicular regeneration during aging. ADSCs also provide functional benefits through glycation suppression and antioxidant effects in a rat model of aging. Although some ADSCs differentiated into Leydig cells, the paracrine pathway seems to play a main role in this process, resulting in the reduction of apoptosis. PMID:25728126

  12. Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation in Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Vitro

    Kevin Dzobo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs represent an area being intensively researched for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. MSCs may provide the opportunity to treat diseases and injuries that currently have limited therapeutic options, as well as enhance present strategies for tissue repair. The cellular environment has a significant role in cellular development and differentiation through cell–matrix interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of adipose-derived MSCs (ad-MSCs in the context of a cell-derived matrix so as to model the in vivo physiological microenvironment. The fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix (fd-ECM did not affect ad-MSC morphology, but reduced ad-MSC proliferation. Ad-MSCs cultured on fd-ECM displayed decreased expression of integrins α2 and β1 and subsequently lost their multipotency over time, as shown by the decrease in CD44, Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG gene expression. The fd-ECM induced chondrogenic differentiation in ad-MSCs compared to control ad-MSCs. Loss of function studies, through the use of siRNA and a mutant Notch1 construct, revealed that ECM-mediated ad-MSCs chondrogenesis requires Notch1 and β-catenin signaling. The fd-ECM also showed anti-senescence effects on ad-MSCs. The fd-ECM is a promising approach for inducing chondrogenesis in ad-MSCs and chondrogenic differentiated ad-MSCs could be used in stem cell therapy procedures.

  13. Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation in Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Vitro.

    Dzobo, Kevin; Turnley, Taegyn; Wishart, Andrew; Rowe, Arielle; Kallmeyer, Karlien; van Vollenstee, Fiona A; Thomford, Nicholas E; Dandara, Collet; Chopera, Denis; Pepper, Michael S; Parker, M Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) represent an area being intensively researched for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. MSCs may provide the opportunity to treat diseases and injuries that currently have limited therapeutic options, as well as enhance present strategies for tissue repair. The cellular environment has a significant role in cellular development and differentiation through cell-matrix interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of adipose-derived MSCs (ad-MSCs) in the context of a cell-derived matrix so as to model the in vivo physiological microenvironment. The fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix (fd-ECM) did not affect ad-MSC morphology, but reduced ad-MSC proliferation. Ad-MSCs cultured on fd-ECM displayed decreased expression of integrins α2 and β1 and subsequently lost their multipotency over time, as shown by the decrease in CD44, Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), SOX2, and NANOG gene expression. The fd-ECM induced chondrogenic differentiation in ad-MSCs compared to control ad-MSCs. Loss of function studies, through the use of siRNA and a mutant Notch1 construct, revealed that ECM-mediated ad-MSCs chondrogenesis requires Notch1 and β-catenin signaling. The fd-ECM also showed anti-senescence effects on ad-MSCs. The fd-ECM is a promising approach for inducing chondrogenesis in ad-MSCs and chondrogenic differentiated ad-MSCs could be used in stem cell therapy procedures. PMID:27527147

  14. Study of Carbon Nano-Tubes Effects on the Chondrogenesis of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells in Alginate Scaffold

    Ali Valiani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in middle-aged populations in the World and could become the fourth principal cause of disability by the year 2020. One of the critical properties for cartilage tissue engineering (TE is the ability of scaffolds to closely mimic the extracellular matrix and bond to the host tissue. Therefore, TE has been presented as a technique to introduce the best combination of cells and biomaterial scaffold and to stimulate growth factors to produce a cartilage tissue resembling natural articular cartilage. The aim of study is to improve differentiation of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs into chondrocytes in order to provide a safe and modern treatment for patients suffering from cartilage damages. Methods: After functionalization, dispersions and sterilizing carbon nano-tubes (CNTs, a new type of nanocomposite gel was prepared from water-soluble CNTs and alginate. ADSCs seeded in 1.5% alginate scaffold and cultured in chondrogenic media with and without transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 for 7 and 14 days. The genes expression of sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9, types II and X collagens was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and the amount of aggrecan (AGC and type I collagen was measured by ELISA. Results: Our findings showed that the expression of essential cartilage markers, SOX9, type II collagen and AGC, in differentiated ADSCs at the concentration of 1 μg/ml CNTs in the presence of TGF-β1 were significantly increased in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001. Meanwhile, type X collagen expression and also type I collagen production were significantly decreased (P < 0.001. Conclusions: The results showed that utilized three-dimensional scaffold had a brilliant effect in promoting gene expression of chondrogenesis.

  15. Quantification of early adipose-derived stem cell survival: comparison between sodium iodide symporter and enhanced green fluorescence protein imaging

    Objective: Strategies to overcome the problem of extensive early stem cell loss following transplantation requires a method to quantitatively assess their efficacy. This study compared the ability of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) imaging to monitor the effectiveness of treatments to enhance early stem cell survival. Methods: Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transduced with an adenoviral vector to express both NIS and EGFP were mixed with culture media (control), matrigel (matrigel group) or pro-survival cocktail (PSC group), and 5 × 106 cells were injected into thigh muscles of C57BL/6 mice. Animals underwent serial optical imaging and 99mTcO4- scintigraphy. Image-based EGFP fluorescence and 99mTcO4- uptake was measured by region-of-interest analysis, and extracted tissues were measured for 99mTc activity. Fluorescent intensity measured from homogenized muscle tissue was used as reference for actual amount of viable ADSCs. Results: ADSCs were efficiently transduced to express EGFP and NIS without affecting proliferative capacity. The absence of significant apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V FACS analysis and Western blots for activated caspase-3. Both fluorescence optical imaging and 99mTcO4- scintigraphy visualized implanted cells in living mice for up to 5 days. However, optical imaging displayed large variations in fluorescence intensity, and thus failed to detect difference in cell survival between groups or its change over time. In comparison, 99mTcO4- scintigraphy provided more reliable assessment of within-in group donor cell content as well as its temporal change. As a result, NIS imaging was able to discern beneficial effects of matrigel and pro-survival cocktail treatment on early ADSC survival, and provided quantitative measurements that correlated to actual donor cell content within implanted tissue. Conclusion: NIS reporter imaging may be useful for noninvasively assessing the efficacies of

  16. hBMP-7 induces the differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblast-like cells.

    Ren, Y; Han, C; Wang, J; Jia, Y; Kong, L; Eerdun, T; Wu, L; Jiang, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differentiation potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) into osteoblasts by human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (hBMP-7) induction. ADMSCs were isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of a rabbit, and then transfected with the pcDNA3.1 vector alone and pcDNA3.1-hBMP-7 (hBMP-7), respectively. Untransfected ADMSCs were used as the control group. After transfection, the morphology and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence intensity of ADMSCs were observed by fluorescent microscopy. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to detect the growth of ADMSCs at 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to observe the ultrastructural morphology of ADMSCs. In addition, ADMSCs were stained with quinalizarin and toluidine blue to reflect the content of osteoblasts and chondrocytes, respectively. Finally, the expression of collagen I and osteocalcin in ADMSCs was detected by western blot. ADMSCs were successfully isolated. Obvious GFP fluorescence and high expression of hBMP-7 demonstrated the successful transfection of hBMP-7. Specific morphological characters with a metabolically active ultrastructure were exhibited on the ADMSCs transfected with hBMP- 7. In addition, the growth rate of ADMSCs transfected with hBMP-7 was significantly higher than that of the cells in the vector and control groups. Successfully induced osteoblast-like cells were identified by an obvious erythrine area and high expression of collagen I and osteocalcin in ADMSCs transfected with hBMP-7. Thus, ADMSCs can be successfully differentiated into osteoblast-like cells by hBMP-7 induction in vitro. PMID:27525862

  17. 5-azacytidine improves the osteogenic differentiation potential of aged human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells by DNA demethylation.

    Yan, Xueying; Ehnert, Sabrina; Culmes, Mihaela; Bachmann, Anastasia; Seeliger, Claudine; Schyschka, Lilianna; Wang, Zhiyong; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Stöckle, Ulrich; De Sousa, Paul A; Pelisek, Jaroslav; Nussler, Andreas K

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) for bone regeneration is critically discussed. A possible reason for reduced osteogenic potential may be an age-related deterioration of the Ad-MSCs. In long term in vitro culture, epigenomic changes in DNA methylation are known to cause gene silencing, affecting stem cell growth as well as the differentiation potential. In this study, we observed an age-related decline in proliferation of primary human Ad-MSCs. Decreased Nanog, Oct4 and Lin28A and increased Sox2 gene-expression was accompanied by an impaired osteogenic differentiation potential of Ad-MSCs isolated from old donors (>60 a) as compared to Ad-MSCs isolated from younger donors (<45 a). 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) and 5-methylcytonsine (5 mC) distribution as well as TET gene expression were evaluated to assess the evidence of active DNA demethylation. We observed a decrease of 5 hmC in Ad-MSCs from older donors. Incubation of these cells with 5-Azacytidine induced proliferation and improved the osteogenic differentiation potential in these cells. The increase in AP activity and matrix mineralization was associated with an increased presence of 5 hmC as well as with an increased TET2 and TET3 gene expression. Our data show, for the first time, a decrease of DNA hydroxymethylation in Ad-MSCs which correlates with donor-age and that treatment with 5-Azacytidine provides an approach which could be used to rejuvenate Ad-MSCs from aged donors. PMID:24603866

  18. 5-azacytidine improves the osteogenic differentiation potential of aged human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells by DNA demethylation.

    Xueying Yan

    Full Text Available The therapeutic value of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs for bone regeneration is critically discussed. A possible reason for reduced osteogenic potential may be an age-related deterioration of the Ad-MSCs. In long term in vitro culture, epigenomic changes in DNA methylation are known to cause gene silencing, affecting stem cell growth as well as the differentiation potential. In this study, we observed an age-related decline in proliferation of primary human Ad-MSCs. Decreased Nanog, Oct4 and Lin28A and increased Sox2 gene-expression was accompanied by an impaired osteogenic differentiation potential of Ad-MSCs isolated from old donors (>60 a as compared to Ad-MSCs isolated from younger donors (<45 a. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC and 5-methylcytonsine (5 mC distribution as well as TET gene expression were evaluated to assess the evidence of active DNA demethylation. We observed a decrease of 5 hmC in Ad-MSCs from older donors. Incubation of these cells with 5-Azacytidine induced proliferation and improved the osteogenic differentiation potential in these cells. The increase in AP activity and matrix mineralization was associated with an increased presence of 5 hmC as well as with an increased TET2 and TET3 gene expression. Our data show, for the first time, a decrease of DNA hydroxymethylation in Ad-MSCs which correlates with donor-age and that treatment with 5-Azacytidine provides an approach which could be used to rejuvenate Ad-MSCs from aged donors.

  19. 5-Azacytidine Improves the Osteogenic Differentiation Potential of Aged Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by DNA Demethylation

    Culmes, Mihaela; Bachmann, Anastasia; Seeliger, Claudine; Schyschka, Lilianna; Wang, Zhiyong; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Stöckle, Ulrich; De Sousa, Paul A.; Pelisek, Jaroslav; Nussler, Andreas K.

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) for bone regeneration is critically discussed. A possible reason for reduced osteogenic potential may be an age-related deterioration of the Ad-MSCs. In long term in vitro culture, epigenomic changes in DNA methylation are known to cause gene silencing, affecting stem cell growth as well as the differentiation potential. In this study, we observed an age-related decline in proliferation of primary human Ad-MSCs. Decreased Nanog, Oct4 and Lin28A and increased Sox2 gene-expression was accompanied by an impaired osteogenic differentiation potential of Ad-MSCs isolated from old donors (>60 a) as compared to Ad-MSCs isolated from younger donors (<45 a). 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) and 5-methylcytonsine (5 mC) distribution as well as TET gene expression were evaluated to assess the evidence of active DNA demethylation. We observed a decrease of 5 hmC in Ad-MSCs from older donors. Incubation of these cells with 5-Azacytidine induced proliferation and improved the osteogenic differentiation potential in these cells. The increase in AP activity and matrix mineralization was associated with an increased presence of 5 hmC as well as with an increased TET2 and TET3 gene expression. Our data show, for the first time, a decrease of DNA hydroxymethylation in Ad-MSCs which correlates with donor-age and that treatment with 5-Azacytidine provides an approach which could be used to rejuvenate Ad-MSCs from aged donors. PMID:24603866

  20. Sustained presentation of BMP-2 enhances osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells in gelatin hydrogels.

    Samorezov, Julia E; Headley, Emma B; Everett, Christopher R; Alsberg, Eben

    2016-06-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) show great potential for healing bone defects. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been reported to stimulate their osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Here, methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels were evaluated as a system to deliver BMP-2 to encapsulated hASCs from two different donors, and BMP-2 delivered from the hydrogels was compared to BMP-2 presented exogenously in culture media. GelMA hydrogels were shown to provide sustained, localized presentation of BMP-2 due to electrostatic interactions between the growth factor and biomaterial after an initial burst release. Both donors exhibited similar responses to the loaded and exogenous growth factor; BMP-2 from the hydrogels had a statistically significant effect on hASC osteogenic differentiation compared to exogenous BMP-2. Expression of alkaline phosphatase was accelerated, and cells in hydrogels with loaded BMP-2 deposited more calcium at one, two, and four weeks than cells without BMP-2 or with the growth factor presented in the media. There were no statistically significant differences in calcium content between groups with 25, 50, or 100 µg/mL loaded BMP-2, suggesting that using a lower growth factor dose may be as effective as a higher loading amount in this system. Taken together, these findings suggest that controlled delivery of BMP-2 from the GelMA enhances its osteogenic bioactivity compared to free growth factor presented in the media. Thus, the GelMA system is a promising biomaterial for BMP-2-mediated hASC osteogenesis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1387-1397, 2016. PMID:26822338

  1. Naringin protects human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation.

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Ge; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Ma, Long-Fei; Zhang, Yuan-Min

    2015-12-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of osteoporosis. We show that naringin, a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, effectively protects human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation. Naringin increased viability of hAMDSCs and attenuated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Naringin also reversed H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 inhibits osteogenic differentiation by decreasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium content and mRNA expression levels of osteogenesis marker genes RUNX2 and OSX in hADMSCs. However, addition of naringin leads to a significant recovery, suggesting the protective effects of naringin against H2O2-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the H2O2-induced decrease of protein expressions of β-catenin and clyclin D1, two important transcriptional regulators of Wnt-signaling, was successfully rescued by naringin treatment. Also, in the presence of Wnt inhibitor DKK-1, naringin is no longer effective in stimulating ALP activity, increasing calcium content and mRNA expression levels of RUNX2 and OSX in H2O2-exposed hADMSCs. These data clearly demonstrates that naringin protects hADMSCs against oxidative stress-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation, which may involve Wnt signaling pathway. Our work suggests that naringin may be a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for osteoporosis and activation of Wnt signaling may represent attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of degenerative disease of bone tissue. PMID:26482937

  2. Melatonin facilitates adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to repair the murine infarcted heart via the SIRT1 signaling pathway.

    Han, Dong; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiang; Gao, Lei; Su, Tao; Li, Xiujuan; Ma, Sai; Liu, Tong; Li, Congye; Chen, Jiangwei; Gao, Erhe; Cao, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based therapy provides a promising therapy for the ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, engrafted MSCs are subjected to acute cell death in the ischemic microenvironment, characterized by excessive inflammation and oxidative stress in the host's infarcted myocardium. Melatonin, an indole, which is produced by many organs including pineal gland, has been shown to protect bone marrow MSCs against apoptosis although the mechanism of action remains elusive. Using a murine model of myocardial infarction (MI), this study was designed to evaluate the impact of melatonin on adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs)-based therapy for MI and the underlying mechanism involved with a focus on silent information regulator 1(SIRT1) signaling. Our results demonstrated that melatonin promoted functional survival of AD-MSCs in infarcted heart and provoked a synergetic effect with AD-MSCs to restore heart function. This in vivo effect of melatonin was associated with alleviated inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in infarcted heart. In vitro studies revealed that melatonin exert cytoprotective effects on AD-MSCs against hypoxia/serum deprivation (H/SD) injury via attenuating inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Mechanistically, melatonin enhanced SIRT1 signaling, which was accompanied with the increased expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, and decreased the expression of Ac-FoxO1, Ac-p53, Ac-NF-ΚB, and Bax. Taken together, our findings indicated that melatonin facilitated AD-MSCs-based therapy in MI, possibly through promoting survival of AD-MSCs via SIRT1 signaling. Our data support the promise of melatonin as a novel strategy to improve MSC-based therapy for IHD, possibly through SIRT1 signaling evocation. PMID:26607398

  3. The relative contribution of paracine effect versus direct differentiation on adipose-derived stem cell transplantation mediated cardiac repair.

    Dezhong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that transplantation of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC can improve cardiac function in animal models of myocardial infarction (MI. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect are not fully understood. In this study, we characterized the paracrine effect of transplanted ADSC and investigated its relative importance versus direct differentiation in ADSC transplantation mediated cardiac repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MI was experimentally induced in mice by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Either human ADSC, conditioned medium (CM collected from the same amount of ADSC or control medium was injected into the peri-infarct region immediately after MI. Compared with the control group, both ADSC and ADSC-CM significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and improved cardiac function. The therapeutic efficacy of ADSC was moderately superior to ADSC-CM. ADSC-CM significantly reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the infarct border zone, to a similar degree with ADSC treatment. ADSC enhanced angiogenesis in the infarct border zone, but to a stronger degree than that seen in the ADSC-CM treatment. ADSC was able to differentiate to endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell in post-MI heart; these ADSC-derived vascular cells amount to about 9% of the enhanced angiogenesis. No cardiomyocyte differentiated from ADSC was found. CONCLUSIONS: ADSC-CM is sufficient to improve cardiac function of infarcted hearts. The therapeutic function of ADSC transplantation is mainly induced by paracrine-mediated cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while ADSC differentiation contributes a minor benefit by being involved in angiogenesis. Highlights 1 ADSC-CM is sufficient to exert a therapeutic potential. 2. ADSC was able to differentiate to vascular cells but not cardiomyocyte. 3. ADSC derived vascular cells amount to about 9% of the enhanced angiogenesis. 4. Paracrine effect is the major

  4. The influence of sol-gel-derived silica coatings functionalized with betamethasone on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs).

    Donesz-Sikorska, Anna; Grzesiak, Jakub; Smieszeka, Agnieszk; Krzak, Justyna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Silica-based sol-gel coatings have gained attention in bone therapies and orthopedic applications, due to the biocompatibility and bioactivity, including a high potential for the controlled release both in vitro and in vivo. Bioactive materials are created to facilitate the biocompatibility of orthopedic implants. One of the promising alternatives is biomaterials with immobilized drugs. In this study we demonstrated for the first time novel sol-gel-derived silica coatings with active amino groups (SiO2(NH2)) functionalized with a steroid drug-betamethasone, applied to a substrate 316 L using dip coating technique. The presence of betamethasone in functionalized coatings was directly confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. The wettability was evaluated by the sessile drop method, while the surface free energy was estimated based on the contact angles measured. Our results showed a shift in surface properties from hydrophobic to hydrophilic after application of the coatings. We have investigated the morphology, proliferation factor, and the population doubling time of adipose-derived stem cells for biological purposes. Moreover, the analysis of the distribution and localization of cellular microvesicles was performed to evaluate the influence of functionalized surfaces on cellular cytophysiological activity. Increased proliferation and activation of cells, determined by the observations of microvesicles shedding processes, provided evidence of the availability of the drug. Therefore, we conclude that the sol-gel synthesis proposed here allows to improve the metal substrates and can be successfully used for immobilization of betamethasone. This in turn enables the direct delivery of the drug with implanted material into the wound site, and to stimulate the activity of cells to enhance tissue regeneration. PMID:24825759

  5. Biological character of human adipose-derived adult stem cells and influence of donor age on cell replication in culture

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the biological character of human adipose-derived adult stem cells (hADAS cells) when cultured in vitro and the relationship between hADAS cell’s replication activity and the donor’s age factor, and to assess the stem cells as a new source for tissue engineering. hADAS cells are isolated from human adipose tissue of different age groups (from adolescents to olds: <20 years old, 21―40 years old, 41―60 years old and >61 years old groups). The protein markers (CD29, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD49d, HLA-DR, CD106) of hADAS cells were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) to identify the stem cell, and the cell cycle was examined for P20 hADAS cells to evaluate the safety of the subculture in vitro. The generative activity of hADAS cells in different age groups was also examined by MTT method. The formula “ log2T D = t logN t ? logN 0” was used to get the time doubling (TD) of the cells. The results showed that the cells kept heredity stabilization by chromosome analysis for at least 20 passages. The TD of these cells increased progressively by ageing, and the TD of the <20 years old group was lower than that of the >61 years old group (statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA), P=0.002, P<0.05). These find- ings suggested that a higher level of hADAS cells replication activity was found in the younger dona- tors, and they represent novel and valuable seed cells for studies of tissue engineering.

  6. Adipogenic differentiation by adipose-derived stem cells harvested from GFP transgenic mice - including relationship of sex differences

    We have previously demonstrated that adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) as well as bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BSCs) differentiate into a variety of cell lineages both in vitro and in vivo. Both types are considered to include mesenchymal stem cells. Taking advantage of homogeneously marked cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we have also previously reported the plasticity of BSCs and ASCs. In this study, we focused on adipogenic differentiation in vitro by ASCs harvested from GFP transgenic mice. Moreover, preadipocytes and mature adipocytes were harvested at the same time, and the cells were cultured to compare them with ASCs. Inguinal fat pads from GFP transgenic mice were used for the isolation of ASCs, preadipocytes, and mature adipocytes. After expansion to three passages of ASCs, the cells were incubated in an adipogenic medium for two weeks. Adipogenic differentiation of ASCs was assessed by Oil Red O staining and the expression of the adipocyte specific peroxisome proliferative activated receptor γ2 (PPAR-γ2) gene. These ASCs stained positively, and expression of PPAR-γ2 was detected. Moreover, we also tried to characterize the influence of sex differences on the adipogenic differentiation of ASCs harvested from both male and female mice. This was assessed by the expression levels of the PPAR-γ2 gene using real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression levels of ASCs harvested from female mice were a maximum of 2.89 times greater than those harvested from male mice. This suggests that the adipogenic differentiation of ASCs is closely related to sex differences

  7. 脂肪干细胞诱导分化的现状及前景%Induced differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells

    赵娜

    2015-01-01

    背景:脂肪干细胞是由中胚层发育而来的多能干细胞,在特殊的生长因子和环境等诱导培养条件下,可以向不同的谱系分化。目的:详细阐述脂肪干细胞诱导分化的条件及鉴定方法。方法:应用计算机检索万方数据库及PubMed数据库2005至2014年10年间的文献,中文检索词为“脂肪干细胞,诱导,分化”;英文检索词为“adipose derived stem cels,differentiation”。依据纳入排除标准选择37篇文献进行归纳总结。结果与结论:脂肪干细胞在抗坏血酸、胰岛素、地塞米松、转化生长因子β作用下可向软骨细胞分化;成脂诱导液的配方包括3-异丁基-1-甲基黄嘌呤(IBMX)、胰岛素、地塞米松、吲哚美辛;成骨分化常用的诱导剂包含地塞米松或维生素 D3、抗坏血酸,β-甘油磷酸钠;碱性成纤维细胞生长因子、表皮生长因子及维生素B27可联合应用诱导脂肪干细胞成神经分化;向心肌细胞分化普遍应用的诱导因子是5-氮杂胞苷;血管内皮生长因子和碱性成纤维细胞生长因子共同作用可以诱导脂肪干细胞向血管内皮细胞分化。随着分子生物学和细胞生物学的迅速发展,脂肪干细胞的分化研究也会更加深入,在目前对脂肪干细胞诱导分化现象观察的基础上,应加强对其内在的分子机制及调控脂肪干细胞可塑性的基因和蛋白的研究。%BACKGROUND:Adipose-derived stem cels are pluripotent stem cels developed from the mesoderm, which can differentiate into different lineages induced by specific growth factors and under certain environmental conditions. OBJECTIVE: To describe the induced differentiation and identification of adipose-derived stem cels in detail. METHODS:A computer-based search of Wanfang and PubMed databases was performed for relevant articles published from 2005 to 2014 using the keywords of “adipose derived stem cels, induced

  8. The role of miR-135-modified adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in bone regeneration.

    Xie, Qing; Wang, Zi; Zhou, Huifang; Yu, Zhang; Huang, Yazhuo; Sun, Hao; Bi, Xiaoping; Wang, Yefei; Shi, Wodong; Gu, Ping; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineering technology employing genetically-modified mesenchymal stem cells combined with proper scaffolds represents a promising strategy for bone regeneration. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms that govern the osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells will give deeper insights into the regulatory patterns, as well as provide more effective methods to enhance bone regeneration. In this study, miR-135 was identified as an osteogenesis-related microRNA that was up-regulated during the osteogenesis of rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Gain- and loss-of-function experiments using a lentiviral expression system showed that Homeobox A2 (Hoxa2) was negatively regulated by miR-135, and luciferase reporter assay further indicated that miR-135 repressed Hoxa2 expression through binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the Hoxa2 mRNA. In vitro analyses showed that the overexpression of miR-135 significantly enhanced the expression of bone markers and extracellular matrix calcium deposition, whereas the knockdown of miR-135 suppressed these processes. Transduced ADSCs were then combined with poly(sebacoyl diglyceride) (PSeD) scaffold to repair a critical-sized calvarial defects in rats. The results showed that the overexpression of miR-135 significantly promoted new bone formation with higher bone mineral density (BMD) and number of trabeculae (Tb.N), as well as larger areas of newly formed bone and mineralization labeled by tetracycline, calcein and alizarin red. In contrast, the knockdown of miR-135 attenuated these processes. Additionally, immunohistochemical analyses showed that transduced ADSCs participated in new bone formation and a miR-135/Hoxa2/Runx2 pathway might contribute to the regulation of ADSC osteogenesis and bone regeneration. Taken together, our data suggested that miR-135 positively regulated the osteogenesis and bone regeneration of ADSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the combination of miR-135-modified ADSCs and the PSe

  9. The Use Of Laser Irradiation To Stimulate Adipose Derived Stem Cell Proliferation And Differentiation For Use In Autologous Grafts

    Abrahamse, Heidi

    2009-09-01

    Stem cells are characterized by the qualities of self-renewal, long term viability, and the ability to differentiate into various cell types. Historically, stem cells have been isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and harvesting these cells resulted in the death of the embryo leading to religious, political and ethical issues. The identification and subsequent isolation of adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma have been welcomed as an alternate source for stem cells. The clinical use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) presented problems such as limited cell number, pain and morbidity upon isolation. Adipose tissue is derived from the mesenchyme, is easily isolated, a reliable source of stem cells and able to differentiate into different cell types including smooth muscle. Over the past few years, the identification and characterization of stem cells has led the potential use of these cells as a promising alternative to cell replacement therapy. Smooth muscle is a major component of human tissues and is essential for the normal functioning of many different organs. Low intensity laser irradiation has been shown to increase viability, protein expression and migration of stem cells in vitro, and to stimulate proliferation of various types of stem cells. In addition, the use of laser irradiation to stimulate differentiation in the absence of growth factors has also been demonstrated in normal human neural progenitor cells (NHNPCs) in vitro where NHNPCs are not only capable of being sustained by light in the absence of growth factors, but that they are also able to differentiate normally as assessed by neurite formation. Our work has focused on the ability of laser irradiation to proliferate adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), maintain ADSC character and increase the rate and maintenance of differentiation of ADSCs into smooth muscle and skin fibroblast cells. Current studies are also investigating the effect of different irradiation wavelengths and

  10. PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in adipose-derived stem cells and muscle satellite cells

    Zhang, Feng [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Deng, Bing [Wuhan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430208 (China); Wen, Jianghui [Wu Han University of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Kun [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Liu, Wu; Ye, Shengqiang; Huang, Haijun [Wuhan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430208 (China); Jiang, Siwen, E-mail: jiangsiwen@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Xiong, Yuanzhu, E-mail: xiongyzhu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China)

    2015-03-06

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted protein belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and also functions in adipocyte maturation. Studies have shown that MSTN can inhibit adipogenesis in muscle satellite cells (MSCs) but not in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). However, the mechanism by which MSTN differently regulates adipogenesis in these two cell types remains unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) are two key transcription factors in fat and muscle cell development that influence adipogenesis. To investigate whether MSTN differentially regulates PPARγ and MyoD, we analyzed PPARγ and MyoD expression by assessing mRNA, protein and methylation levels in ADSCs and MSCs after treatment with 100 ng/mL MSTN for 0, 24, and 48 h. PPARγ mRNA levels were downregulated after 24 h and upregulated after 48 h of treatment in ADSCs, whereas in MSCs, PPARγ levels were downregulated at both time points. MyoD expression was significantly increased in ADSCs and decreased in MSCs. PPARγ and MyoD protein levels were upregulated in ADSCs and downregulated in MSCs. The CpG methylation levels of the PPARγ and MyoD promoters were decreased in ADSCs and increased in MSCs. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the different regulatory adipogenic roles of MSTN in ADSCs and MSCs act by differentially regulating PPARγ and MyoD expression. - Highlights: • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are upregulated by myostatin in ADSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are downregulated by myostatin in MSCs. • PPARγ exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • MyoD exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in ADSCs and MSCs.

  11. Pdcd4 restrains the self-renewal and white-to-beige transdifferentiation of adipose-derived stem cells.

    Bai, Y; Shang, Q; Zhao, H; Pan, Z; Guo, C; Zhang, L; Wang, Q

    2016-01-01

    The stemness maintenance of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is important for adipose homeostasis and energy balance. Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of obesity, but its possible roles in ADSC function and adipogenic capacity remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Pdcd4 is a key controller that limits the self-renewal and white-to-beige transdifferentiation of ADSCs. Pdcd4 deficiency in mice caused stemness enhancement of ADSCs as evidenced by increased expression of CD105, CD90, Nanog and Oct4 on ADSCs, together with enhanced in situ proliferation in adipose tissues. Pdcd4 deficiency promoted proliferation, colony formation of ADSCs and drove more ADSCs entering the S phase accompanied by AKT activation and cyclinD1 upregulation. Blockade of AKT signaling in Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs led to a marked decline in cyclinD1, S-phase entry and cell proliferation, revealing AKT as a target for repressing ADSC self-renewal by Pdcd4. Intriguingly, depletion of Pdcd4 promoted the transdifferentiation of ADSCs into beige adipocytes. A reduction in lipid contents and expression levels of white adipocyte markers including C/EBPα, PPAR-γ, adiponectin and αP2 was detected in Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs during white adipogenic differentiation, substituted by typical beige adipocyte characteristics including small, multilocular lipid droplets and UCP1 expression. More lactate produced by Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs might be an important contributor to the expression of UCP1 and white-to-beige transdifferentiation. In addition, an elevation of UCP1 expression was confirmed in white adipose tissues from Pdcd4-deficient mice upon high-fat diet, which displayed increased energy expenditure and resistance to obesity as compared with wild-type obese mice. These findings provide evidences that Pdcd4 produces unfavorable influences on ADSC stemness, which contribute to adipose dysfunction, obesity and metabolic syndromes, thereby

  12. PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in adipose-derived stem cells and muscle satellite cells

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted protein belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and also functions in adipocyte maturation. Studies have shown that MSTN can inhibit adipogenesis in muscle satellite cells (MSCs) but not in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). However, the mechanism by which MSTN differently regulates adipogenesis in these two cell types remains unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) are two key transcription factors in fat and muscle cell development that influence adipogenesis. To investigate whether MSTN differentially regulates PPARγ and MyoD, we analyzed PPARγ and MyoD expression by assessing mRNA, protein and methylation levels in ADSCs and MSCs after treatment with 100 ng/mL MSTN for 0, 24, and 48 h. PPARγ mRNA levels were downregulated after 24 h and upregulated after 48 h of treatment in ADSCs, whereas in MSCs, PPARγ levels were downregulated at both time points. MyoD expression was significantly increased in ADSCs and decreased in MSCs. PPARγ and MyoD protein levels were upregulated in ADSCs and downregulated in MSCs. The CpG methylation levels of the PPARγ and MyoD promoters were decreased in ADSCs and increased in MSCs. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the different regulatory adipogenic roles of MSTN in ADSCs and MSCs act by differentially regulating PPARγ and MyoD expression. - Highlights: • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are upregulated by myostatin in ADSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are downregulated by myostatin in MSCs. • PPARγ exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • MyoD exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in ADSCs and MSCs

  13. Advanced liposuction technologies and their potential application in the isolation of adipose-derived stem cells%现代吸脂技术采集脂肪混合物在脂肪干细胞制备领域中的应用

    付寅生; 张怡

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Currently, cosmetic liposuction has developed rapidly, but the liposuction for the isolation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been reported. OBJECTIVE:By evaluating the quantity and viability of stromal vascular fraction, adipocytes and adipose-derived stem cells obtained from different types of liposuctions, to find the advanced liposuction procedures that are most suitable for use in preparation, preservation and clinical application of adipose-derived stem cells. METHODS:Authors retrieved PubMed database, NIH clinical trial databaseand CNKI ful text database for relevant articles using the key words of“adipose-derived stem cells, ADSCs, liposuction, SAL, UAL, PAL, WAL”in English and Chinese, respectively. After eliminating the objective-independent articles and repeating reviews, 50 papers were included for further analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Suction-assisted liposuction (SAL), ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL), power-assisted liposuction (PAL) and water-assisted liposuction (WAL) are four major types of fat-harvesting technologies that can possibly be applied for adipose-derived stem cells isolation. Accumulative evidence suggests that these advanced liposuctions can obtain high quality of adipose tissue/cells, which are good enough for autologous fat grafting. Adipose-derived stem cells that are isolated from lipoaspirate by WAL, SAL and UAL, can be used as autologous cel-assisted lipotransfer and regenerative therapy. In summary, although each of these four types of liposuction technologies has its own advantages and is feasible to be used as autologous fat grafting, systematic comparative studies for viability, chromosome stability and differentiation potentials of adipose-derived stem cells isolated using each col ecting method are necessary in order to confirm the future perspectives in adipose-derived stem cells isolation, banking and regenerative repair.%背景:目前用于整容的吸脂术发展很快,但为了脂肪

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Are Maintained for 3 Weeks against Ischemic Damage in the Rabbit Spinal Cord

    Seung Myung Moon; Woosuk Kim; Jin Young Chung; Wooseok Im; Dae Young Yoo; Hyo Young Jung; Moo-Ho Won; Jung Hoon Choi; In Koo Hwang

    2014-01-01

    In the previous study, we demonstrated that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have neuroprotective effects against ischemic damage in the ventral horn of L5-6 levels at 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. In the present study, we expanded our observations for 3 weeks after ischemia/reperfusion to rule out the possibility of delayed neuronal death in several days after ischemia/reperfusion. Transient spinal cord ischemia was induced by a 15 min aortic artery occlusion in the subrenal region and...

  15. Gold nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    Choi SY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seon Young Choi,1 Min Seok Song,1 Pan Dong Ryu,1 Anh Thu Ngoc Lam,2 Sang-Woo Joo,2 So Yeong Lee1 1Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 2Department of Chemistry, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs are attractive materials for use in biomedicine due to their physical properties. Increasing evidence suggests that several nanoparticles induce the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes. In this study, we hypothesized that chitosan-conjugated AuNPs promote the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. For the evaluation of osteogenic differentiation, alizarin red staining, an alamarBlue® assay, and a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed. In order to examine specific signaling pathways, immunofluorescence and a western blotting assay were performed. Our results demonstrate that chitosan-conjugated AuNPs increase the deposition of calcium content and the expression of marker genes related to osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells at nontoxic concentrations. These results indicate that chitosan-conjugated AuNPs promote osteogenesis through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, chitosan-conjugated AuNPs can be used as a reagent for promoting bone formation. Keywords: chitosan-conjugated gold nanoparticle, mineralization, nonphosphorylated beta-catenin

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Metformin on Osteopontin Expression in Mice Adipose-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells and Adipose Tissue

    Agnieszka Śmieszek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin is applied not only as antidiabetic drug, but also in the treatment of obesity or as antiaging drug. The first part of the research discussed the effect of metformin at concentrations of 1 mM, 5 mM, and 10 mM on the morphology, ultrastructure, and proliferation potential of mice adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs in vitro. Additionally, we determined the influence of metformin on mice adipose tissue metabolism. This study has shown for the first time that metformin inhibits the proliferative potential of ASCs in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, we have found a significant correlation between the activity of ASCs and osteopontin at the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that 5 mM and 10 mM metformin have cytotoxic effect on ASCs, causing severe morphological, ultrastructural, and apoptotic changes. The reduced level of OPN in the adipose tissue of metformin-treated animals strongly correlated with the lower expression of Ki67 and CD105 and increased caspase-3. The metformin influenced also circulating levels of OPN, which is what was found with systemic and local action of metformin. The results are a valuable source of information regarding the in vitro effect of metformin on adipose-derived stem cells.

  17. Local transplantation of osteogenic pre-differentiated autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells may accelerate non-union fracture healing with limited pro-metastatic potency.

    Han, Duanyang; Han, Na; Zhang, Peixun; Jiang, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Fracture non-union is a serious complication in orthopedic clinical practice. Mesenchymal stem cells are believed to play a vital role in fracture healing process. Among various origins of mesenchymal stem cell, adipose derived stem cells hold great promise especially in clinical milieu. However, the wide spread application of mesenchymal stem cell based therapy is impeded by the pro-metastasis nature of the mesenchymal stem cell itself. Based on the findings from previous studies, we hypothesize that local transplanted osteogenic pre-differentiatiated adipose stem cell may promote the non-union fracture healing. Moreover, the pre-differnetiation stem cells by down-regulating the expression of CCL5 and CCL2. This novel osteogenic pre-differnetiation technique may help clinical orthopedists to resolve the refractory non-union cases and shed new light on other stem cell based therapies to counteract to avoid the pro-metastasis nature of the mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25785146

  18. Characterization of a PLGA sandwiched cell/fibrin tubular construct and induction of the adipose derived stem cells into smooth muscle cells

    A poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) sandwiched adipose derived stem cell (ADSC)/fibrin tubular construct, fabricated using a step-by-step mold/extraction method, was characterized in this work. The ADSCs were also induced into smooth-muscle-like cells using growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF). Compared with the non-induced cells, the proliferation ability of induced cells was much smaller. The PLGA sandwiched cell/hydrogel construct was shown to be useful for controlling the cellular microenvironment and cellular behaviors such as growth, migration, proliferation and differentiation. This strategy seems promising in tissue engineering and organ manufacturing.

  19. The effects of progestrone on the in-vitro expression of P0, S100 and Krox20 genes in adipose-derived stem cells

    Khanlarkhani N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs have noticeable self-renewal ability and can differentiate into several cell lines such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes. Progesterone plays a significant role in the myelination of peripheral nerves. Regarding the role of progesterone on the myelination of peripheral nervous system, we evaluated its effects on the in-vitro expression of P0, S100 and Krox20 mRNA in adipose-derived stem cells."n"nMethods : In this experimental study, rat adipose-derived stem cells were isolated from the inguinal region of the animals and were evaluated by flow cytometry before culture. In preinduction phase, the cells were sequentially treated with various factors such as β-mercaptoethanol and all-trans-retinoic acid, followed by different induction mixtures.  The cells were divided into four groups including two control groups (receiving either fibroblast and platelet derived-growth factors, or fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived-growth factor, forskolin and heregulin and two experimental groups (receiving either fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived-growth factor, forskolin and progesterone, or fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived-growth factor

  20. A Comparative Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Two Calcium Phosphate/Collagen Composite Materials and Their Osteogenic Effects on Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs are ideal seed cells for use in bone tissue engineering and they have many advantages over other stem cells. In this study, two kinds of calcium phosphate/collagen composite scaffolds were prepared and their effects on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs were investigated. The hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP composite scaffolds (HTPSs, which have an additional β-tricalcium phosphate, resulted in better proliferation of ADSCs and showed osteogenesis-promoting effects. Therefore, such composite scaffolds, in combination with ADSCs or on their own, would be promising for use in bone regeneration and potential clinical therapy for bone defects.

  1. Precise and long-term tracking of adipose-derived stem cells and their regenerative capacity via superb bright and stable organic nanodots.

    Ding, Dan; Mao, Duo; Li, Kai; Wang, Xiaomin; Qin, Wei; Liu, Rongrong; Chiam, David Shunzhong; Tomczak, Nikodem; Yang, Zhimou; Tang, Ben Zhong; Kong, Deling; Liu, Bin

    2014-12-23

    Monitoring and understanding long-term fate and regenerative therapy of administrated stem cells in vivo is of great importance. Herein we report organic nanodots with aggregation-induced emission characteristics (AIE dots) for long-term tracking of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and their regenerative capacity in living mice. The AIE dots possess high fluorescence (with a high quantum yield of 25±1%), excellent biological and photophysical stabilities, low in vivo toxicity, and superb retention in living ADSCs with negligible interference on their pluripotency and secretome. These AIE dots also exhibit superior in vitro cell tracking capability compared to the most popular commercial cell trackers, PKH26 and Qtracker 655. In vivo quantitative studies with bioluminescence and GFP labeling as the controls reveal that the AIE dots can precisely and quantitatively report the fate of ADSCs and their regenerative capacity for 42 days in an ischemic hind limb bearing mouse model. PMID:25427294

  2. Isolation, culture and identification of adipose-derived stem cells from mouse epididymis%小鼠附睾脂肪干细胞的分离培养及鉴定

    张鉴清; 季佳霖; 崔新明; 张祺; 李艳茹

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:As a new kind of adult stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells get more and more attention, because of rich source, drawing materials easily and powerful proliferation. OBJECTIVE:To isolate and culture adipose-derived stem cells from the epididymal adipose tissue in mice, and to identify their biological characteristics. METHODS:Adipose tissue was obtained from epididymis in mice by aseptical y cutting. The tissue was digested using col agenase. Adipose-derived stem cells were separated and purified by using one digestion, multiple col ection method and differential adhesion method. The morphology of adipose-derived stem cells was observed using inverted microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Growth curve of adipose-derived stem cells was drawn. Immunophenotype of adipose-derived stem cells was identified by flow cytometry. Adipose-derived stem cells were induced to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes using cellinductors. Compatibility of adipose-derived stem cells and col agen scaffold material was observed using scanning electron microscope. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Adipose-derived stem cells exhibited long spindle-like or fibroblast-like appearance, grew intensively and arranged in scrol and fascicular shape. In vitro, adipose-derived stem cells could be passaged to passage 9 under the inverted microscope. Under the transmission electron microscope, adipose-derived stem cells showed abundant microvil i on the cellsurface. The nuclei were big in size. Some organel es were seen in cytoplasma, such as mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Adipose-derived stem cells expressed CD44 and CD29, did not express CD34. After inducing by inductor, many smal lipid droplets were seen in the cytoplasm of adipose-derived stem cells. The smal lipid droplets were dyed red with oil red O. After induction of osteogenic inductor, the boundary line among adipose-derived stem cells was not clear and the structure of cells was fuzzy in the growth

  3. Clinical studies on the ex-vivo expansion of autologous adipose derived stem cells for the functional reconstruction of mucous membrane in empty nose syndrome

    Liang LI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze and evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using autologous adipose derived stem cells (ASCs for rebuilding the function of nasal mucosa in patients with empty nose syndrome (ENS. Methods Autologous adipose tissue 15-20ml were obtained from each of 5 ENS patients admitted from Aug. 2013 to Feb. 2014, and from which stem cells were isolated, cultured and expanded in vitro. The phenotype, differentiation, and genetic stability of the third generation of amplified stem cells were identified. For the patients with rudimental turbinate (n=3, ASCs were injected into the damaged nasal mucosa for 4 times (once every 10 days. For the patients with no rudimental turbinate (n=2, autologous pure fat granules 1-5ml were extracted after 3 times of ASCs injection into the damaged nasal mucosa, and mixed with the 3rd-6th generation of ASCs for inferior or middle nasal turbinate angioplasty. Nasal endoscopic examination was performed before treatment and 3, 6 and 9 months after treatment for comparison, and the data of SNOT-20 questionnaire, nasality resistance and nasal mucociliary clearance action were statistically analyzed. Results With injection transplantation of the 3rd-6th generation of ASCs in 2 patients with no rudimental turbinate, and 3, 6 and 9 months after the combined ASCs and fat granules transplantation in 3 patients with rudimental turbinate, nasal endoscopy showed that no obvious absorption in conchoplasty, nasal mucosa was improved significantly, and same as SNOT-20 scores, with statistically significant difference (P0.05. Conclusions The reconstruction of mucosa function by nasal turbinate angioplasty combined with adipose derived stem cells and autologous adipose transplantation may significantly improve the symptoms in patients with ENS with lasting effects. It is a new procedure which is helpful for the mucosal repair in patients with ENS. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.10.11

  4. RESEARCH AND APPLICATION PROGRESS OF ADIPOSE-DERIVED STEM CELLS%脂肪源性干细胞研究及其应用进展

    聂绪强; 陈怀红; 唐宁; 卞卡

    2011-01-01

    目的 对脂肪源性干细胞(adipose-derived stem cells,ADSCs)的生化特征、应用进展及前景等进行综述.方法 广泛查阅近年关于ADSCs的实验研究及临床研究文献,并进行整理、综合与分析.结果 ADSCs取材方便,易于培养,分化潜能巨大,可在体外稳定增殖传代.ADSCs在动物实验和临床应用中均取得重大进步,已广泛应用于临床进行心血管疾病、代谢性疾病、脑病的治疗及组织工程修复.结论 ADSCs逐渐取代了BMSCs,已成为干细胞研究的重点和热点.%Objective To review the biochemical characteristics, application progress, and prospects of the adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Methods The recent original experimental and clinical literature about ADSCs was extensively-reviewed and analyzed. Results ADSCs can be readily harvested in large numbers from adipose tissue with properties of stable proliferation and potential differentiation in vitro. Significant progress of ADSCs is made in the animal experiment and the clinical application. It has been widely used in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular disease, metabolic disease, encephalopathy, and tissue engineering repair. Conclusion ADSCs have gradually replaced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and become the focused hot spot of regenerative medicine and stem cells.

  5. Cinnamon extract regulates plasma levels of adipose-derived factors and expression of multiple genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of fructose-fed rats

    We reported previously that a dietary cinnamon extract (CE) improves systemic insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia by enhancing insulin signaling. In the present study, we examined the effects of CE on several biomarkers including plasma levels of adipose-derived adipokines, and the potential molec...

  6. Evaluation of gold nanotracers to track adipose-derived stem cells in a PEGylated fibrin gel for dermal tissue engineering applications

    Chung E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eunna Chung,1 Seung Yun Nam,1,2 Laura M Ricles,1 Stanislav Y Emelianov,1,2 Laura J Suggs11Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USAAbstract: Evaluating the regenerative capacity of a tissue-engineered device in a noninvasive and synchronous manner is critical to determining the mechanisms for success in clinical applications. In particular, directly tracking implanted cells in a three-dimensional (3D scaffold is desirable in that it enables the monitoring of cellular activity in a specific and localized manner. The authors' group has previously demonstrated that the PEGylation of fibrin results in a 3D scaffold that supports morphologic and phenotypic changes in mesenchymal stem cells that may be advantageous in wound healing applications. Recently, the authors have evaluated adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs as a mesenchymal cell source to regenerate skin and blood vessels due to their potential for proliferation, differentiation, and production of growth factors. However, tracking and monitoring ASCs in a 3D scaffold, such as a PEGylated fibrin gel, have not yet been fully investigated. In the current paper, nanoscale gold spheres (20 nm as cell tracers for ASCs cultured in a PEGylated fibrin gel were evaluated. An advanced dual-imaging modality combining ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging was utilized to monitor rat ASCs over time. The ASCs took up gold nanotracers and could be detected up to day 16 with high sensitivity using photoacoustic imaging. There were no detrimental effects on ASC morphology, network formation, proliferation, and protein expression/secretion (ie, smooth muscle α-actin, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 associated with gold nanotracers. Therefore, utilization of gold nanotracers can be an effective strategy to monitor the regenerative process of a stem cell

  7. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression during adipogenesis in human adipose-derived stromal cells reveals novel patterns of gene expression during adipocyte differentiation.

    Ambele, Melvin Anyasi; Dessels, Carla; Durandt, Chrisna; Pepper, Michael Sean

    2016-05-01

    We have undertaken an in-depth transcriptome analysis of adipogenesis in human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) induced to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Gene expression was assessed on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 post-induction and genes differentially expressed numbered 128, 218, 253 and 240 respectively. Up-regulated genes were associated with blood vessel development, leukocyte migration, as well as tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. They also shared common pathways with certain obesity-related pathophysiological conditions. Down-regulated genes were enriched for immune response processes. KLF15, LMO3, FOXO1 and ZBTB16 transcription factors were up-regulated throughout the differentiation process. CEBPA, PPARG, ZNF117, MLXIPL, MMP3 and RORB were up-regulated only on days 14 and 21, which coincide with the maturation of adipocytes and could possibly serve as candidates for controlling fat accumulation and the size of mature adipocytes. In summary, we have identified genes that were up-regulated only on days 1 and 7 or days 14 and 21 that could serve as potential early and late-stage differentiation markers. PMID:27108396

  8. Three-dimensional scaffold of type II collagen promote the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells into a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype.

    Zhou, Xiaopeng; Tao, Yiqing; Wang, Jingkai; Liu, Dongyu; Liang, Chengzhen; Li, Hao; Chen, Qixin

    2016-07-01

    Type II collagen is reported to have the capability of guiding adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to differentiate towards a nucleus pulposus (NP)-like phenotype. So this study aimed to establish a three-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffold using N,N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDAC/NHS) to increase the efficiency of ADSC differentiation into NP-like cells. Physical properties, such as porosity, biodegradation, and microstructure, and biological characteristics such as cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, and expression of relevant genes and proteins were measured to evaluate the efficacy of different scaffolds. Collagen scaffolds cross-linked with EDAC/NHS exhibited higher biological stability, better spatial structure, and higher gene and protein expression of functional markers such as aggrecan, SOX9 and COL2 than those of other groups. Based on the results, freeze-dried type II collagen cross-linked with EDAC/NHS formed the best 3D scaffold, for inducing ADSC proliferation and differentiation toward a NP-like phenotype. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1687-1693, 2016. PMID:26940048

  9. Electrospun poly(L-lactide/poly(ε-caprolactone blend nanofibrous scaffold: characterization and biocompatibility with human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available The essence of tissue engineering is the fabrication of autologous cells or induced stem cells in naturally derived or synthetic scaffolds to form specific tissues. Polymer is thought as an appealing source of cell-seeded scaffold owing to the diversity of its physicochemical property and can be electrospun into nano-size to mimic natural structure. Poly (L-lactic acid (PLLA and poly (ε-caprolactone (PCL are both excellent aliphatic polyester with almost "opposite" characteristics. The controlling combination of PLLA and PCL provides varying properties and makes diverse applications. Compared with the copolymers of the same components, PLLA/PCL blend demonstrates its potential in regenerative medicine as a simple, efficient and scalable alternative. In this study, we electrospun PLLA/PCL blends of different weight ratios into nanofibrous scaffolds (NFS and their properties were detected including morphology, porosity, degradation, ATR-FTIR analysis, stress-stain assay, and inflammatory reaction. To explore the biocompatibility of the NFS we synthesized, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs were used to evaluate proliferation, attachment, viability and multi-lineage differentiation. In conclusion, the electrospun PLLA/PCL blend nanofibrous scaffold with the indicated weight ratios all supported hASCs well. However, the NFS of 1/1 weight ratio showed better properties and cellular responses in all assessments, implying it a biocompatible scaffold for tissue engineering.

  10. Semaphorin 3A-modified adipose-derived stem cell sheet may improve osseointegration in a type 2 diabetes mellitus rat model

    Fang, Kaixiu; Song, Wen; Wang, Lifeng; Xu, Xiaoru; Tan, Naiwen; Zhang, Sijia; Wei, Hongbo; Song, Yingliang

    2016-01-01

    Although titanium (Ti) implants are considered to be an optimal choice for the replacement of missing teeth, it remains difficult to obtain sufficient osseointegration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study aimed to investigate whether adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may be used to improve Ti implant osseointegration in T2DM conditions with the addition of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a recently identified osteoprotective protein. Cell morphology was observed using a scanning electron microscope. Cell proliferation was determined using Cell Counting Kit-8. Osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the staining of alkaline phosphatase, collagen secretion and calcium deposition. An in vivo evaluation was performed in the T2DM rat model, which was induced by a high-fat diet and a low-dose streptozotocin intraperitoneal injection. A Sema3A-modified ASC sheet was wrapped around the Ti implant, which was subsequently inserted into the tibia. The rats were then exposed to Sema3A stimulation. The morphology and proliferation ability of ASCs remained unchanged; however, their osteogenic differentiation ability was increased. Micro-computed tomography scanning and histological observations confirmed that formation of new bone was improved with the use of the Sema3A-modified ASCs sheet. The present study indicated that the Sema3A-modified ASCs sheet may be used to improve osseointegration under T2DM conditions. PMID:27484405

  11. New therapy of skin repair combining adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells with sodium carboxymethylcellulose scaffold in a pre-clinical rat model.

    Cristiano Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Lesions with great loss of skin and extensive burns are usually treated with heterologous skin grafts, which may lead rejection. Cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells is arising as a new proposal to accelerate the healing process. We tested a new therapy consisting of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC as a biomaterial, in combination with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs, to treat skin lesions in an in vivo rat model. This biomaterial did not affect membrane viability and induced a small and transient genotoxicity, only at the highest concentration tested (40 mg/mL. In a rat wound model, CMC at 10 mg/mL associated with ADSCs increased the rate of cell proliferation of the granulation tissue and epithelium thickness when compared to untreated lesions (Sham, but did not increase collagen fibers nor alter the overall speed of wound closure. Taken together, the results show that the CMC is capable to allow the growth of ADSCs and is safe for this biological application up to the concentration of 20 mg/mL. These findings suggest that CMC is a promising biomaterial to be used in cell therapy.

  12. AB102. Therapeutic potential of adipose-derived stem cells-based micro-tissues in a rat model of stress urinary incontinence

    Li, Meng; Yang, Bicheng; Guan, Ruili; Li, Hongen; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to halt stress urinary incontinence (SUI) progression have low retention rate and limited function recuperation poorly mimicking in vivo conditions. This study aims to examine the potential and mechanism of three-dimensional (3D) cultures of ADSCs in the treatment of SUI in a rat model simulating childbirth injury. Methods ADSCs were used to generate microtissues (MTs) with a hanging drop method. A total of 48 postpartum Sprague-Dawley rats were developed SUI models by 4 hours vagina dilation (VD) followed by bilateral ovariectomy (OV). Ten rats underwent sham OV without VD served as control group. The SUI rats were divided into three groups and received urethral injection of PBS, ADSCs and MTs. Specimens were harvested for histology examination and ADSCs tracking at day 1, 3, 7, 28 (n=3) post-injection. At day 28, the remaining rats were examined for voiding function. Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry staining were performed to examine histological changes and cytokines expression. Results The voiding function and histopathological structures were better recovered in MTs group than those in ADSCs group. Compared with ADSCs, MTs express higher level of vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF), TNFα stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6) in vitro and represented a higher retention rate in vivo. Conclusions Urethral injection of MTs better restored the voiding function than ADSCs.

  13. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, bioavailability and tolerance of an injectable vehicle for adipose-derived stem/stromal cells for plastic surgery indications.

    Lequeux, Charlotte; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Boucher, Fabien; Rouyer, Ondine; Damour, Odile; Mojallal, Ali; Auxenfans, Céline

    2015-11-01

    Soft tissue reconstruction is a challenge in plastic surgery, when replacing lost materials and correcting contour defects. Many permanent and temporary fillers have been used to restore the volume of these lesions, but often with poor results and even complications. Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) and adipose tissue engineering have been suggested as valuable alternatives. In order to inject these cultured cells, it was essential to find a suitable vehicle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Cytocare(®), an injectable medical device, composed of hyaluronic acid plus amino acids, vitamins and mineral salts. First, ASC viability and bioavailability in the 3 different available Cytocare(®) formulations using the MTT test were assessed; then an animal experiment, testing the tolerance after intradermal injections of both Cytocare(®) alone and with ASCs was carried out. Our in vitro results demonstrate a high biocompatibility of Cytocare(®) resulting in a better viability of ASCs when cultured in Cytocare(®) compared to culture medium (p < 0.05, Mann and Whitney). Cytocare(®) also permits their bioavailability and proliferation, making it a potential transfer vehicle that can retain the cells before their integration around the recipient site. Finally, our animal experiment shows that the ASC + Cytocare(®) combination is well tolerated. In conclusion, Cytocare(®) can be used as a biocompatible scaffold for cultured ASCs in therapeutic treatments, ensuring ASC bioavailability, as well as evidence of excellent tolerance in nude mice. PMID:26282247

  14. Molecular Characterization of Equine APRIL and its Expression Analysis During the Adipogenic Differentiation of Equine Adipose-Derived Stem Cell In Vitro.

    Wu, Haitao; Bi, Xiaolin; Cao, Fang; Zhu, Cuicui; Liu, Hongzhen; Song, Jinyun; Ma, Lei; Ma, Li; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Dongwei; Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Xinzhou; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2016-10-01

    A proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily. It shares two receptors with B-cell activating factor (BAFF), B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI). Herein, the equine APRIL was identified from equine adipose-derived stem cell (ASC), and the protein expression of APRIL and its related molecules were detected during the adipogenic differentiation of equine ASC in vitro. The equine APRIL gene was located on chromosome 11, spans 1852 base pairs (bp). Its open reading frame covers 753 bp, encoding a 250-amino acid protein with the typical TNF structure domain. During the two weeks' adipogenic differentiation of equine ASC, although the protein expression of APRIL and TACI had an insignificant change, that of BCMA increased significantly. Moreover, with the addition of recombinant protein His6-sAPRIL, a reduced differentiation of equine ASC toward adipocyte was detected. These results may provide the basis for investigating the role of APRIL in ASC adipogenic differentiation. PMID:27565870

  15. Metformin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Species, Enhances Osteogenic Properties of Adipose-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro, and Increases Bone Density In Vivo.

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Henry, Brandon Michael; Wroński, Sebastian; Tarasiuk, Jacek; Maredziak, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Due to its pleiotropic effects, the commonly used drug metformin has gained renewed interest among medical researchers. While metformin is mainly used for the treatment of diabetes, recent studies suggest that it may have further application in anticancer and antiaging therapies. In this study, we investigated the proliferative potential, accumulation of oxidative stress factors, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of mouse adipose-derived stem cells (MuASCs) isolated from mice treated with metformin for 8 weeks. Moreover, we investigated the influence of metformin supplementation on mice bone density and bone element composition. The ASCs isolated from mice who were treated with metformin for 8 weeks showed highest proliferative potential, generated a robust net of cytoskeletal projections, had reduced expression of markers associated with cellular senescence, and decreased amount of reactive oxygen species in comparison to control group. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these cells possessed greatest osteogenic differentiation potential, while their adipogenic differentiation ability was reduced. We also demonstrated that metformin supplementation increases bone density in vivo. Our result stands as a valuable source of data regarding the in vivo influence of metformin on ASCs and bone density and supports a role for metformin in regenerative medicine. PMID:27195075

  16. Metformin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Species, Enhances Osteogenic Properties of Adipose-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro, and Increases Bone Density In Vivo

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its pleiotropic effects, the commonly used drug metformin has gained renewed interest among medical researchers. While metformin is mainly used for the treatment of diabetes, recent studies suggest that it may have further application in anticancer and antiaging therapies. In this study, we investigated the proliferative potential, accumulation of oxidative stress factors, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of mouse adipose-derived stem cells (MuASCs isolated from mice treated with metformin for 8 weeks. Moreover, we investigated the influence of metformin supplementation on mice bone density and bone element composition. The ASCs isolated from mice who were treated with metformin for 8 weeks showed highest proliferative potential, generated a robust net of cytoskeletal projections, had reduced expression of markers associated with cellular senescence, and decreased amount of reactive oxygen species in comparison to control group. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these cells possessed greatest osteogenic differentiation potential, while their adipogenic differentiation ability was reduced. We also demonstrated that metformin supplementation increases bone density in vivo. Our result stands as a valuable source of data regarding the in vivo influence of metformin on ASCs and bone density and supports a role for metformin in regenerative medicine.

  17. Differentiated adipose-derived stem cells act synergistically with RGD-modified surfaces to improve neurite outgrowth in a co-culture model.

    de Luca, A C; Faroni, A; Downes, S; Terenghi, G

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral nerve damage is a problem encountered after trauma and during surgery and the development of synthetic polymer conduits may offer a promising alternative to autografts. In order to improve the performance of the polymer to be used for nerve conduits, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) films were chemically functionalized with RGD moieties, using a chemical reaction previously developed. In vitro cultures of dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons provide a valid model to study different factors affecting axonal growth. In this work, DRG neurons were cultured on RGD-functionalized PCL films. Adult adipose-derived stem cells differentiated to Schwann cells (dASCs) were initially cultured on the functionalized PCL films, resulting in improved attachment and proliferation. dASCs were also co-cultured with DRG neurons on treated and untreated PCL to assess stimulation by dASCs on neurite outgrowth. Neuron response was generally poor on untreated PCL films, but long neurites were observed in the presence of dASCs or RGD moieties. A combination of the two factors enhanced even further neurite outgrowth, acting synergistically. Finally, in order to better understand the extracellular matrix (ECM)-cell interaction, a β1 integrin blocking experiment was carried out. Neurite outgrowth was not affected by the specific antibody blocking, showing that β1 integrin function can be compensated by other molecules present on the cell membrane. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23950058

  18. Effect of cold storage on collagen-based hydrogels for the three-dimensional culture of adipose-derived stem cells

    Collagen gels have been extensively used as three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems. To enhance their mechanical properties, the manufacture of collagen-based gels with agarose has been proposed. However, little is known about the stability of these gels under cold storage conditions. The consequences of cold storage on biological tissues for clinical applications are known to be significant; yet, they have not been considered on hydrogels used for in vitro experiments. This work studies the effect of extended cold storage on the stability of collagen and collagen-agarose hydrogels using rheometry and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, cell-matrix interactions of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) have been studied using these gels. Results show that both the storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of pure collagen gels gradually decrease with extended cold storage along the 30 days of the study, while G′ and G″ increase in collagen-agarose gels under the same conditions. Moreover, significant changes in both moduli of collagen-agarose gels were only found after 30 days of cold storage, while in the case of collagen gels significant changes were already detected after 7 days. Finally, a reduction in the ability of ADSC to remodel the gel after prolonged cold storage was observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work proving that cold storage of hydrogels prior to cell culture might have a significant impact on their mechanical properties and cell–matrix interactions. (paper)

  19. Metformin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Species, Enhances Osteogenic Properties of Adipose-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro, and Increases Bone Density In Vivo

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A.; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Henry, Brandon Michael; Wroński, Sebastian; Tarasiuk, Jacek; Maredziak, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Due to its pleiotropic effects, the commonly used drug metformin has gained renewed interest among medical researchers. While metformin is mainly used for the treatment of diabetes, recent studies suggest that it may have further application in anticancer and antiaging therapies. In this study, we investigated the proliferative potential, accumulation of oxidative stress factors, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of mouse adipose-derived stem cells (MuASCs) isolated from mice treated with metformin for 8 weeks. Moreover, we investigated the influence of metformin supplementation on mice bone density and bone element composition. The ASCs isolated from mice who were treated with metformin for 8 weeks showed highest proliferative potential, generated a robust net of cytoskeletal projections, had reduced expression of markers associated with cellular senescence, and decreased amount of reactive oxygen species in comparison to control group. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these cells possessed greatest osteogenic differentiation potential, while their adipogenic differentiation ability was reduced. We also demonstrated that metformin supplementation increases bone density in vivo. Our result stands as a valuable source of data regarding the in vivo influence of metformin on ASCs and bone density and supports a role for metformin in regenerative medicine. PMID:27195075

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Are Maintained for 3 Weeks against Ischemic Damage in the Rabbit Spinal Cord

    Seung Myung Moon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous study, we demonstrated that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs have neuroprotective effects against ischemic damage in the ventral horn of L5-6 levels at 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. In the present study, we expanded our observations for 3 weeks after ischemia/reperfusion to rule out the possibility of delayed neuronal death in several days after ischemia/reperfusion. Transient spinal cord ischemia was induced by a 15 min aortic artery occlusion in the subrenal region and rabbit ASCs were administered intrathecally into recipient rabbits (2×105 immediately after reperfusion. Transplantation of ASCs improved the neurological motor functions of the hindlimb 3 weeks after ischemia/reperfusion. Similarly, the cresyl violet-positive neurons were significantly increased at 3 weeks after ischemia/reperfusion compared to that in the vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid-treated group. The transplantation of ASCs significantly reduced reactive microglia induced by ischemia at 3 weeks after ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, transplantation of ASCs maintained the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels 3 weeks after ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of ASCs are maintained 3 weeks after ischemia/reperfusion by modulating microgliosis and BDNF levels in the spinal cord.

  1. Bone Tissue Engineering with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Bioactive Composites of Laser-Sintered Porous Polycaprolactone Scaffolds and Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Han-Tsung Liao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional porous polycaprolactone (PCL scaffolds with consistent inter-pore channels, 83% porosity and 300–400 μm pore size were fabricated via selective laser sintering. The PCL scaffold was combined with platelet-rich plasma (PRP to form a bioactive composite and studied for potential application in bone tissue engineering using porcine adipose-derived stem cells (PASCs. The PCL/PRP/PASCs construct showed enhanced cell seeding efficiency and synergistically increased the differentiation capability of PASCs in osteogenic medium toward the osteoblast lineage, judging from elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and up-regulated osteogenic genes expression. For in vivo study, a 3 cm × 3 cm mandible defect was created in pigs and reconstructed by implanting acellular PCL scaffolds or PCL/PRP/PASCs constructs. Both groups showed new bone formation, however, the new bone volume was 5.1 times higher for PCL/PRP/PASCs 6 months post-operation. The bone density was less and loose in the acellular PCL group and the Young’s modulus was only 29% of normal bone. In contrast, continued and compact bone formation was found in PCL/PRP/PASCs and the Young’s modulus was 81% that of normal bone. Masson’s trichrome stain, immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin and collagen type I also confirmed new bone formation.

  2. Functional recoveries of sciatic nerve regeneration by combining chitosan-coated conduit and neurosphere cells induced from adipose-derived stem cells.

    Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ju; Huang, Tzu-Chieh; Fan, Shih-Chen; Wang, Duo-Hsiang; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Wu, Chia-Ching; Lin, Sheng-Che

    2014-02-01

    Suboptimal repair occurs in a peripheral nerve gap, which can be partially restored by bridging the gap with various biosynthetic conduits or cell-based therapy. In this study, we developed a combination of chitosan coating approach to induce neurosphere cells from human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on chitosan-coated plate and then applied these cells to the interior of a chitosan-coated silicone tube to bridge a 10-mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve. Myelin sheath degeneration and glial scar formation were discovered in the nerve bridged by the silicone conduit. By using a single treatment of chitosan-coated conduit or neurosphere cell therapy, the nerve gap was partially recovered after 6 weeks of surgery. Substantial improvements in nerve regeneration were achieved by combining neurosphere cells and chitosan-coated conduit based on the increase of myelinated axons density and myelin thickness, gastrocnemius muscle weight and muscle fiber diameter, and step and stride lengths from gait analysis. High expressions of interleukin-1β and leukotriene B4 receptor 1 in the intra-neural scarring caused by using silicone conduits revealed that the inflammatory mechanism can be inhibited when the conduit is coated with chitosan. This study demonstrated that the chitosan-coated surface performs multiple functions that can be used to induce neurosphere cells from ASCs and to facilitate nerve regeneration in combination with a cells-assisted coated conduit. PMID:24360575

  3. Characterization of glycol chitosan grafted with low molecular weight polyethylenimine as a gene carrier for human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Bae, Yoonhee; Lee, Young Hwa; Lee, Sunray; Han, Jin; Ko, Kyung Soo; Choi, Joon Sig

    2016-11-20

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a great capacity for self-renewal while still maintaining their multipotency, and can differentiate into a variety of cell types. The delivery of genes to a site of injury is a current and interesting field of gene therapy. In the present study, we describe a nonviral gene delivery carrier, glycol chitosan-methyl acrylate-polyethylenimine (GMP) polymer targeted towards human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs). Transfection efficiency, using luciferase (Luc) and a pDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), along with cytotoxicity assays, were performed in human AD-MSCs. The results show that the transfection efficiency of the GMP polymer was similar to that of PEI25kD, and the cytotoxicity was lower. Moreover, human AD-MSCs were treated with the GMP polymer/pDNA polyplex and its cellular uptake and distribution were analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Furthermore, we performed endosomal escape analysis using LysoTracker Red, and found that the conjugated GMP polymer could escape from the endosome to the cytosol. Human AD-MSCs treated with the GMP polymer maintained their potential for osteogenic differentiation and phenotypic expression of human AD-MSCs based on flow cytometry analysis. The present study demonstrates that the GMP polymer can be used as a potential targeted-delivery carrier for effective gene delivery. PMID:27561509

  4. Improvement of Mouth Functional Disability in Systemic Sclerosis Patients over One Year in a Trial of Fat Transplantation versus Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells

    Maria Giuseppina Onesti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a multisystem disease characterized by cutaneous and visceral fibrosis. Face and mouth changes include telangiectasia, sicca syndrome, and thinning and reduction of mouth width (microcheilia and opening (microstomia. We applied autologous fat transplantation compared with autologous adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs injection to evaluate the clinical improvement of mouth opening. Methods. From February to May 2013 ten consecutive SSc patients were enrolled from the outpatient clinic of Plastic Surgery Department of Sapienza University of Rome. Patients were divided into two groups as follows: 5 patients were treated with fat transplantation and 5 patients received infiltration of ADSCs produced by cell factory of our institution. To value mouth opening, we use the Italian version of Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis Scale (IvMHISS. Mouth opening was assessed in centimetres (Maximal Mouth Opening, MMO. In order to evaluate compliance and physician and patient satisfaction, we employed a Questionnaire of Satisfaction and the Visual Analogic Scale (VAS performed before starting study and 1 year after the last treatment. Results and Conclusion. We noticed that both procedures obtained significant results but neither one emerged as a first-choice technique. The present clinical experimentation should be regarded as a starting point for further experimental research and clinical trials.

  5. Dual Inhibition of Activin/Nodal/TGF-β and BMP Signaling Pathways by SB431542 and Dorsomorphin Induces Neuronal Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells

    Vedavathi Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the nervous system can cause devastating diseases or musculoskeletal dysfunctions and transplantation of progenitor stem cells can be an excellent treatment option in this regard. Preclinical studies demonstrate that untreated stem cells, unlike stem cells activated to differentiate into neuronal lineage, do not survive in the neuronal tissues. Conventional methods of inducing neuronal differentiation of stem cells are complex and expensive. We therefore sought to determine if a simple, one-step, and cost effective method, previously reported to induce neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells, can be applied to adult stem cells. Indeed, dual inhibition of activin/nodal/TGF-β and BMP pathways using SB431542 and dorsomorphin, respectively, induced neuronal differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs as evidenced by formation of neurite extensions, protein expression of neuron-specific gamma enolase, and mRNA expression of neuron-specific transcription factors Sox1 and Pax6 and matured neuronal marker NF200. This process correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of p38, Erk1/2, PI3K, and Akt1/3. Additionally, in vitro subcutaneous implants of SB431542 and dorsomorphin treated hADSCs displayed significantly higher expression of active-axonal-growth-specific marker GAP43. Our data offers novel insights into cell-based therapies for the nervous system repair.

  6. Label-free assessment of adipose-derived stem cell differentiation using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton microscopy

    Mouras, Rabah; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Downes, Andrew R.; Elfick, Alistair P. D.

    2012-11-01

    Adult stem cells (SCs) hold great potential as likely candidates for disease therapy but also as sources of differentiated human cells in vitro models of disease. In both cases, the label-free assessment of SC differentiation state is highly desirable, either as a quality-control technology ensuring cells to be used clinically are of the desired lineage or to facilitate in vitro time-course studies of cell differentiation. We investigate the potential of nonlinear optical microscopy as a minimally invasive technology to monitor the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) into adipocytes and osteoblasts. The induction of ADSCs toward these two different cell lineages was monitored simultaneously using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, two photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), and second harmonic generation at different time points. Changes in the cell's morphology, together with the appearance of biochemical markers of cell maturity were observed, such as lipid droplet accumulation for adipo-induced cells and the formation of extra-cellular matrix for osteo-induced cells. In addition, TPEF of flavoproteins was identified as a proxy for changes in cell metabolism that occurred throughout ADSC differentiation toward both osteoblasts and adipocytes. These results indicate that multimodal microscopy has significant potential as an enabling technology for the label-free investigation of SC differentiation.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression during adipogenesis in human adipose-derived stromal cells reveals novel patterns of gene expression during adipocyte differentiation

    Melvin Anyasi Ambele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have undertaken an in-depth transcriptome analysis of adipogenesis in human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs induced to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Gene expression was assessed on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 post-induction and genes differentially expressed numbered 128, 218, 253 and 240 respectively. Up-regulated genes were associated with blood vessel development, leukocyte migration, as well as tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. They also shared common pathways with certain obesity-related pathophysiological conditions. Down-regulated genes were enriched for immune response processes. KLF15, LMO3, FOXO1 and ZBTB16 transcription factors were up-regulated throughout the differentiation process. CEBPA, PPARG, ZNF117, MLXIPL, MMP3 and RORB were up-regulated only on days 14 and 21, which coincide with the maturation of adipocytes and could possibly serve as candidates for controlling fat accumulation and the size of mature adipocytes. In summary, we have identified genes that were up-regulated only on days 1 and 7 or days 14 and 21 that could serve as potential early and late-stage differentiation markers.

  8. Self-Assembled Tetrahedral DNA Nanostructures Promote Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Migration via lncRNA XLOC 010623 and RHOA/ROCK2 Signal Pathway.

    Shi, Sirong; Peng, Qiang; Shao, Xiaoru; Xie, Jing; Lin, Shiyu; Zhang, Tao; Li, Qianshun; Li, Xiaolong; Lin, Yunfeng

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) with precise sizes have been extensively applied in various fields owing to their exceptional mechanical rigidity, structural stability, and modification versatility. In addition, TDNs can be internalized by mammalian cells and remain mainly intact within the cytoplasm by escaping degradation by nucleases. Here, we studied the effects of TDNs on cell migration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. TDNs remarkably enhanced the migration of rat adipose-derived stem cells and down-regulated the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) XLOC 010623 to activate the mRNA expression of Tiam1 and Rac1. Furthermore, TDNs highly up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of RHOA, ROCK2, and VCL. These results indicate that TDNs suppressed the transcription of lncRNA XLOC 010623 and activated the TIAM1/RAC1 and RHOA/ROCK2 signaling pathways to promote cell migration. On the basis of these findings, TDNs show a high potential for application in tissue repair and regenerative medicine as a functional three-dimensional DNA nanomaterial. PMID:27403707

  9. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on adipose derived stromal cell differentiation, morphology, ECM deposition and its susceptibility to bacterial infections

    Mironava, Tatsiana; Xu, Yan; Rafailovich, Miriam

    The growing annual production of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles is proportional to an increase in the chances of occupational and consumer exposure. Considering, that these nanoparticles are currently being used in multiple personal care products many concerns have arisen about their health impact. Human skin is in constant contact with the external environment and is one of the most important routes of exposure to TiO2. In this study we have investigated the effect of two forms of TiO2, rutile and anatase, on human adipose derived stromal cells (ADSCs). Here, we focus on the effects of TiO2 exposure on intracellular lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic markers; on whether different forms of TiO2 have similar effects on cell function; and whether nanoparticle localization inside cells correlates with loss of cell function. In addition presence of bacteria on the skin is taken into account in its complex interaction with ADSCs and TiO2 nanoparticles. Altogether, the present study indicates that nanosized TiO2 particles adversely effects the differentiation of ADSCs, have profound effects on cell function and increase the rate of bacterial infection.

  10. Semaphorin 3A-modified adipose-derived stem cell sheet may improve osseointegration in a type 2 diabetes mellitus rat model.

    Fang, Kaixiu; Song, Wen; Wang, Lifeng; Xu, Xiaoru; Tan, Naiwen; Zhang, Sijia; Wei, Hongbo; Song, Yingliang

    2016-09-01

    Although titanium (Ti) implants are considered to be an optimal choice for the replacement of missing teeth, it remains difficult to obtain sufficient osseointegration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study aimed to investigate whether adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may be used to improve Ti implant osseointegration in T2DM conditions with the addition of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a recently identified osteoprotective protein. Cell morphology was observed using a scanning electron microscope. Cell proliferation was determined using Cell Counting Kit‑8. Osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the staining of alkaline phosphatase, collagen secretion and calcium deposition. An in vivo evaluation was performed in the T2DM rat model, which was induced by a high‑fat diet and a low‑dose streptozotocin intraperitoneal injection. A Sema3A‑modified ASC sheet was wrapped around the Ti implant, which was subsequently inserted into the tibia. The rats were then exposed to Sema3A stimulation. The morphology and proliferation ability of ASCs remained unchanged; however, their osteogenic differentiation ability was increased. Micro‑computed tomography scanning and histological observations confirmed that formation of new bone was improved with the use of the Sema3A-modified ASCs sheet. The present study indicated that the Sema3A‑modified ASCs sheet may be used to improve osseointegration under T2DM conditions. PMID:27484405

  11. Potential Biomedical Application of Enzymatically Treated Alginate/Chitosan Hydrosols in Sponges—Biocompatible Scaffolds Inducing Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells

    Anna Zimoch-Korzycka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current regenerative strategies used for cartilage repair rely on biomaterial functionality as a scaffold for cells that may have potential in chondrogenic differentiation. The purpose of the research was to investigate the biocompatibility of enzymatically treated alginate/chitosan hydrosol sponges and their suitability to support chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose derived multipotent stromal cells (hASCs. The alginate/chitosan and enzyme/alginate/chitosan sponges were formed from hydrosols with various proportions and were used as a biomaterial in this study. Sponges were tested for porosity and wettability. The porosity of each sponge was higher than 80%. An equal dose of alginate and chitosan in the composition of sponges improved their swelling ability. It was found that equal concentrations of alginate and chitosan in hydrosols sponges assure high biocompatibility properties that may be further improved by enzymatic treatment. Importantly, the high biocompatibility of these biomaterials turned out to be crucial in the context of hydrosols’ pro-chondrogenic function. After exposure to the chondrogenic conditions, the hASCs in N/A/C and L/A/C sponges formed well developed nodules and revealed increased expression of collagen type II, aggrecan and decreased expression of collagen type I. Moreover, in these cultures, the reactive oxygen species level was lowered while superoxide dismutase activity increased. Based on the obtained results, we conclude that N/A/C and L/A/C sponges may have prospective application as hASCs carriers for cartilage repair.

  12. Application of bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for testing the biocompatibility of metal-based biomaterials functionalized with ascorbic acid

    In this study, metal-based biomaterials were functionalized with ascorbic acid (LAA). Two types of substrates were used: austenitic steel 316L and titanium Ti6Al4V. Coatings were prepared with the sol–gel method and applied on metal surfaces using the dip-coating technique. Ascorbic acid was delivered with SiO2-coating at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.4 M. The morphology of the surfaces and coatings was determined using scanning electron microscope (SEM), whereas their elemental composition by SEM-EDX. Immobilization of ascorbic acid in the coatings was confirmed with Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the materials obtained was tested in vitro using both bone marrow- and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC and ADMSC, respectively). Proliferation rate and morphology of cells cultured in the presence of designed biomaterials were monitored after 24, 48, 120 and 168 h of propagation. The results obtained indicated that silica coatings doped with 0.4 M LAA had a positive effect on the proliferation rate of investigated cells, and in some cases on the growth pattern of culture. (paper)

  13. An Electrostatically Self-Assembled Ternary Nanocomplex as a Non-Viral Vector for the Delivery of Plasmid DNA into Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Cho, Sun-Hee; Noh, Young-Woock; Cho, Mi Young; Lim, Yong Taik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed electrostatically self-assembled ternary nanocomplexes as a safe and effective non-viral vector for the delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) into human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Although polyethylenimine (PEI) polymers initially showed excellent performance as gene delivery carriers, their broad use has been limited by cytotoxicity resulting from their strong positive charge. To reduce the cytotoxicity, we utilized anionic hyaluronic acid (HA) as a corona layer material for pDNA/PEI binary nanocomplexes. HA was also introduced to increase the targeting efficiency of pDNA/PEI nanocomplexes because HA has can bind CD44 that is highly expressed on the surface of hASCs. We confirmed that the addition of HA changed the surface charge of pDNA/PEI nanocomplexes from positive to negative. The pDNA/PEI/HA ternary nanocomplexes showed high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity compared with commercially available products. When hASCs were pretreated with HA to passivate CD44, the transfection efficiency of pDNA/PEI/HA nanocomplexes was significantly reduced. These results suggest that HA that can act as a targeting ligand to CD44 contributed to the improved transfection of pDNA into hASCs. Our novel pDNA/PEI/HA nanocomplexes may be used as an effective non-viral pDNA delivery system for hASCs. PMID:27136523

  14. Evaluation of AD-MSC (adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells) as a vehicle for IFN-β delivery in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Mohammadzadeh, Adel; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Shahrokhi, Somayeh; Fallah, Ali; Tahoori, Mohammad Taher; Amari, Afshin; Forouzandeh, Mahdi; Soleimani, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    Interferon-β (IFN-β) is commonly used as a disease modifying drug for the treatment of relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS). However, the underlying mechanism by which IFN-β mediate this immunosuppressive effect is still unknown. In this study, we analyzed the effects of genetically modified adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) expressing murine interferon beta (MSCs-VP/IFN-β) on the animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Lymph node mononuclear cells and serum were examined by using RT-PCR and ELISA methods to measure the production of IL-10 and IL-17 gene and protein expression, respectively. Our results indicated that in the MSCs-VP/IFN-β treated group induction of Tregs and IL-10 and reduction of IL-17 were significant. Taken together, we showed that using AD-MSCs expressing IFN-β as an anti-inflammatory agent, offer evidence supporting that the stem cell therapies in EAE conceivably will improve the valuable effects of IFN-β in this autoimmune disease. PMID:27373971

  15. Enhancement of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as a Potential Chondrogenic Marker during Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Arai, Yoshie; Park, Sunghyun; Choi, Bogyu; Ko, Kyoung-Won; Choi, Won Chul; Lee, Joong-Myung; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Hun-Kuk; Han, Inbo; Lee, Jong Hun; Lee, Soo-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have a capacity to undergo adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. Recently, hASCs were applied to various fields including cell therapy for tissue regeneration. However, it is hard to predict the direction of differentiation of hASCs in real-time. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are one family of proteolytic enzymes that plays a pivotal role in regulating the biology of stem cells. MMPs secreted by hASCs are expected to show different expression patterns depending on the differentiation state of hASCs because biological functions exhibit different patterns during the differentiation of stem cells. Here, we investigated proteolytic enzyme activity, especially MMP-2 activity, in hASCs during their differentiation. The activities of proteolytic enzymes and MMP-2 were higher during chondrogenic differentiation than during adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. During chondrogenic differentiation, mRNA expression of MMP-2 and the level of the active form of MMP-2 were increased, which also correlated with Col II. It is concluded that proteolytic enzyme activity and the level of the active form of MMP-2 were increased during chondrogenic differentiation, which was accelerated in the presence of Col II protein. According to our findings, MMP-2 could be a candidate maker for real-time detection of chondrogenic differentiation of hASCs. PMID:27322256

  16. Low-power laser irradiation suppresses inflammatory response of human adipose-derived stem cells by modulating intracellular cyclic AMP level and NF-κB activity.

    Jyun-Yi Wu

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-based tissue regeneration is a promising therapeutic strategy for treating damaged tissues. However, the inflammatory microenvironment that exists at a local injury site might restrict reconstruction. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI has been widely applied to retard the inflammatory reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of LPLI on human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs in an inflammatory environment. We showed that the hADSCs expressed Toll-like Receptors (TLR 1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR6 and that lipopolysaccharide (LPS significantly induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and Interleukin-8 (IL-8. LPLI markedly inhibited LPS-induced, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at an optimal dose of 8 J/cm². The inhibitory effect triggered by LPLI might occur through an increase in the intracellular level of cyclic AMP (cAMP, which acts to down-regulate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB transcriptional activity. These data collectively provide insight for further investigations of the potential application of anti-inflammatory treatment followed by stem cell therapy.

  17. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Wu Minjuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM. The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration.

  18. Effects of {gamma}-secretase inhibition on the proliferation and vitamin D{sub 3} induced osteogenesis in adipose derived stem cells

    Jing, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 14, 3rd Section of Renmin South Road, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xiong, Zhonghua [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Sichuan Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Chengdu (China); Cai, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yuanding; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Xingmei; Liu, Lei; Tang, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 14, 3rd Section of Renmin South Road, Chengdu 610041 (China); Lin, Yunfeng, E-mail: yunfenglin@scu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 14, 3rd Section of Renmin South Road, Chengdu 610041 (China); Tian, Weidong, E-mail: drtianwd@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 14, 3rd Section of Renmin South Road, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2010-02-12

    As a {gamma}-secretase inhibitor, DAPT has been widely used to evaluate the biological behaviors and Notch signaling pathway in various cells. This study was aimed to examine the effects of DAPT on the growth and vitamin D{sub 3} induced osteogenesis in adipose derived stem cells (ASCs). The cells were treated with or without DAPT and induced to osteoblastic lineage in the presence of vitamin D{sub 3}. Alizarin red staining and real-time PCR results indicated that the addition of DAPT to vitamin D{sub 3} treatments enhanced osteogenesis in ASCs. According to the fold increase and colony-forming unit assay results, the cells cultured in DAPT exhibited lower proliferation rate than those cultured in control medium. Hey1, expressed in the nucleus of ASCs to act as a transcriptional repressor, was downregulated when Notch signaling was inhibited by DAPT. Whereas the expression of Runx2 increased in the nucleus of osteogenic induced ASCs after DAPT treatment. This study demonstrated that DAPT reduced the proliferation and enhanced the osteogenesis in ASCs via regulation of Notch and Runx2 expression.

  19. Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis treatment using autologous adipose derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma: a clinical study

    Phuc Van Pham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases, and it affects 12% of the population around the world. Although the disease is chronic, it significantly reduces the patient's quality of life. At present, stem cell therapy is considered to be an efficient approach for treating this condition. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs show the most potential for stem cell therapy of osteoarthritis. In fact, MSCs can differentiate into certain mesodermal tissues such as cartilage and bone. Therefore, in the present study, we applied adipose tissue-derived MSCs to osteoarthritis treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficiency of autologous adipose tissue-derived MSC transplantation in patients with confirmed osteoarthritis at grade II and III. Adipose tissue was isolated from the belly, and used for extraction of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF. The SVF was mixed with activated platelet- rich plasma before injection. The clinical efficiencies were evaluated by the pain score (VAS, Lysholm score, and MRI findings. We performed the procedure in 21 cases from 2012 to 2013. All 21 patients showed improved joint function after 8.5 months. The pain score decreased from 7.6+/-0.5 before injection to 3.5+/-0.7 at 3 months and 1.5+/-0.5 at 6 months after injection. The Lysholm score increased from 61+/-11 before injection to 82+/-8.1 after injection. Significant improvements were noted in MRI findings, with increased thickness of the cartilage layer. Moreover, there were no side-effects or complications related to microorganism infection, graft rejection, or tumorigenesis. These results provide a new opportunity for osteoarthritis treatment. Level of evidence: IV. [Biomed Res Ther 2014; 1(1.000: 02-08

  20. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from the sand rat: transforming growth factor beta and 3D co-culture with human disc cells stimulate proteoglycan and collagen type I rich extracellular matrix

    Tapp, Hazel; Deepe, Ray; Ingram, Jane A; Kuremsky, Marshall; Hanley, Edward N; Gruber, Helen E.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Adult mesenchymal stem cell therapy has a potential application in the biological treatment of disc degeneration. Our objectives were: to direct adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) from the sand rat to produce a proteoglycan and collagen type I extracellular matrix (ECM) rich in known ECM components of the annulus fibrosis of disc; and to stimulate proteoglycan production by co-culture of human annulus cells with AD-MSC. Methods AD-MSC were isolated and characterised ...

  1. Isolating culture and identification of adipose-derived stem cells%脂肪组织来源干细胞的分离培养及鉴定

    傅荣; 游晓波; 鲁峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore a way to isolate and culture adipose-derived stem cells ( ASCs) from the liposuction aspirates, and observe the cell growth kinetics, morphology, differentiation capability, cell aging, and surface marker profiles. Methods From the liposuction aspirates, ASCs were isolated by enzymatic digestion,and the cultured cells appearance observed. The cell viability was evaluated with MTT chromatometry. Flow cytometry was performed for cell cycle analysis,and acridine orange staining was utilized for cell aging evaluation. The surface molecule expression was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Adipogenic differentiation of ASCs was assessed by Oil Red O staining. Results Primarily cultured ASCs adhered to the culture plates had a fibroblastic appearance and strong proliferation capacity as shown by MTT chromatometry. ASCs also showed characteristics of stem by cell cycle a-nalysis. The expressions of CD29,CD44,and CD34 were observed in ASCs by flow cytometry. Expressions of VⅢ factor,CD31 ,CD34, CD105 and SMA were observed in ASCs by immunohistochemistry. Oil Red 0 staining of the ASCs after 2 weeks of culture demonstrated numerous intracellular lipid droplets. Conclusions ASCs can be isolated from autologous liposuction aspirates of human via enzymatic digestion and cultured ex vivo. These cells are fibroblast-like cells expressing cell surface markers of stem cells with strong prolif-erative ability,and can be induced to differentiate into adipose tissue.%目的 探讨脂肪组织来源干细胞(adipose-derived stem cells,ASCs)的分离、培养、分化和鉴定的方法,为进一步的实验研究提供理论依据.方法 酶消化法处理脂类抽吸物,分离培养ASCs,观察细胞形态;四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)比色法测细胞活性并绘制细胞生长曲线,流式细胞仪测定细胞周期,丫啶橙染色检测细胞的衰老;流式细胞仪、免疫组织化学染色法鉴定表面分子表达;成脂定向诱导

  2. Layer-by-layer paper-stacking nanofibrous membranes to deliver adipose-derived stem cells for bone regeneration

    Wan W

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wenbing Wan,1–3,* Shiwen Zhang,2–4,* Liangpeng Ge,2,3,5 Qingtao Li,1 Xingxing Fang,1 Quan Yuan,4 Wen Zhong,6 Jun Ouyang,1 Malcolm Xing1,2,7 1Department of Anatomy, Guangdong Provincial Medical Biomechanical Key Laboratory, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 4Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 5Chongqing Academy of Animal Sciences, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Textile Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 7Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Bone tissue engineering through seeding of stem cells in three-dimensional scaffolds has greatly improved bone regeneration technology, which historically has been a constant challenge. In this study, we researched the use of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC-laden layer-by-layer paper-stacking polycaprolactone/gelatin electrospinning nanofibrous membranes for bone regeneration. Using this novel paper-stacking method makes oxygen distribution, nutrition, and waste transportation work more efficiently. ADSCs can also secrete multiple growth factors required for osteogenesis. After the characterization of ADSC surface markers CD29, CD90, and CD49d using flow cytometry, we seeded ADSCs on the membranes and found cells differentiated, with significant expression of the osteogenic-related proteins osteopontin, osteocalcin, and osteoprotegerin. During 4 weeks in vitro, the ADSCs cultured on the paper-stacking membranes in the osteogenic medium exhibited the highest osteogenic-related gene expressions. In vivo, the paper-stacking scaffolds were implanted into the rat calvarial defects (5 mm diameter, one defect per parietal bone for 12 weeks. Investigating

  3. Longitudinal monitoring adipose-derived stem cell survival by PET imaging hexadecyl-4-124I-iodobenzoate in rat myocardial infarction model

    Highlights: • We developed a safe, simple and appropriate stem cell labeling method with 124I-HIB. • ADSC survival can be monitored with PET in MI model via direct labeling. • Tracking of ADSC labeled with 124I-HIB was possible for 3 days in MI model using PET. • ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by 124I-HIB labeling. • Survival of ADSC in living bodies can be longitudinally tracked with PET imaging. - Abstract: This study aims to monitor how the change of cell survival of transplanted adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) responds to myocardial infarction (MI) via the hexadecyl-4-124I-iodobenzoate (124I-HIB) mediated direct labeling method in vivo. Stem cells have shown the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. However, monitoring of the fate of transplanted stem cells at target sites is still unclear. Rat ADSCs were labeled with 124I-HIB, and radiolabeled ADSCs were transplanted into the myocardium of normal and MI model. In the group of 124I-HIB-labeled ADSC transplantation, in vivo imaging was performed using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for 9 days. Twenty-one days post-transplantation, histopathological analysis and apoptosis assay were performed. ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by 124I-HIB labeling. In vivo tracking of the 124I-HIB-labeled ADSCs was possible for 9 and 3 days in normal and MI model, respectively. Apoptosis of transplanted cells increased in the MI model compared than that in normal model. We developed a direct labeling agent, 124I-HIB, and first tried to longitudinally monitor transplanted stem cell to MI. This approach may provide new insights on the roles of stem cell monitoring in living bodies for stem cell therapy from pre-clinical studies to clinical trials

  4. Plasma Surface Modification of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsequioxane-Poly(carbonate-urea) Urethane with Allylamine Enhances the Response and Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Chaves, Camilo; Alshomer, Feras; Palgrave, Robert G; Kalaskar, Deepak M

    2016-07-27

    This study present amino functionalization of biocompatible polymer polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane-poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) using plasma polymerization process to induce osteogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). Optimization of plasma polymerization process was carried out keeping cell culture application in mind. Thus, samples were rigorously tested for retention of amino groups under both dry and wet conditions. Physio-chemical characterization was carried out using ninhydrin test, X-ray photon spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and static water contact analysis. Results from physio chemical characterization shows that functionalization of the amino group is not stable under wet conditions and optimization of plasma process is required for stable bonding of amino groups to the POSS-PCU polymer. Optimized samples were later tested in vitro in short and long-term culture to study differentiation of ADSCs on amino modified samples. Short-term cell culture shows that initial cell attachment was significantly (p PCU) compared to unmodified POSS-PCU. NH2-POSS-PCU samples also facilitates osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs as confirmed by immunological staining of cells for extracellular markers such as collagen Type I and osteopontin. Quantification of total collagen and ALP activity also shows significant (p PCU samples compared to unmodified POSS-PCU. A pilot study also confirms that these optimized amino modified POSS-PCU samples can further be functionalized using bone inducing peptide such as KRSR using conventional wet chemistry. This further provides an opportunity for biofunctionalization of the polymer for various tissue specific applications. PMID:27384590

  5. Longitudinal monitoring adipose-derived stem cell survival by PET imaging hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate in rat myocardial infarction model

    Kim, Min Hwan [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sang-Keun; Lee, Kyo Chul; An, Gwang Il [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pandya, Darpan [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh Won; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Eom, Ki Dong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Wha [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joo Hyun [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jeongsoo, E-mail: yooj@knu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Jin, E-mail: yjlee@kirams.re.kr [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We developed a safe, simple and appropriate stem cell labeling method with {sup 124}I-HIB. • ADSC survival can be monitored with PET in MI model via direct labeling. • Tracking of ADSC labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB was possible for 3 days in MI model using PET. • ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. • Survival of ADSC in living bodies can be longitudinally tracked with PET imaging. - Abstract: This study aims to monitor how the change of cell survival of transplanted adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) responds to myocardial infarction (MI) via the hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate ({sup 124}I-HIB) mediated direct labeling method in vivo. Stem cells have shown the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. However, monitoring of the fate of transplanted stem cells at target sites is still unclear. Rat ADSCs were labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB, and radiolabeled ADSCs were transplanted into the myocardium of normal and MI model. In the group of {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSC transplantation, in vivo imaging was performed using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for 9 days. Twenty-one days post-transplantation, histopathological analysis and apoptosis assay were performed. ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. In vivo tracking of the {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSCs was possible for 9 and 3 days in normal and MI model, respectively. Apoptosis of transplanted cells increased in the MI model compared than that in normal model. We developed a direct labeling agent, {sup 124}I-HIB, and first tried to longitudinally monitor transplanted stem cell to MI. This approach may provide new insights on the roles of stem cell monitoring in living bodies for stem cell therapy from pre-clinical studies to clinical trials.

  6. Does Freeze-Thawing Influence the Effects of Platelet Concentrates? An In Vitro Study on Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Ceci, Caterina; Niada, Stefania; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Lolato, Alessandra; Taschieri, Silvio; Giannasi, Chiara; Brini, Anna Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been proposed as a possible therapy for tissue regeneration in aesthetic, plastic, and reconstructive surgery. Today, platelet concentrates are used in a wide range of disciplines, but their storage has become a controversial aspect. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF), after a freeze-thawing cycle, on the proliferation and biological activity of progenitor cells involved in soft tissue healing. Different formulations of activated PRGF were added to hASCs cultured in serum-free medium. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT test and cell count up to 7 and 12-day incubation. Osteo-differentiation ability of hASCs was also tested after 7 and 14-day incubation by alkaline phosphatase assay. The effects of 4 PRGF preparations (fresh/frozen and with/without platelets) were compared with corresponding formulations of plasma poor in growth factors and with standard medium. hASCs cultured in the presence of platelet concentrates increased proliferation rate with respect to cells grown in standard medium without significant differences among all the tested plasma formulations on cell viability up to 12 days of culture. PRGF activity is preserved after cryopreservation and platelet-rich preparations promoted osteo-differentiation of hASCs at day 7. In conclusion, PRGF supports the proliferation and the differentiation of progenitor cells in vitro also when applied after cryopreservation. Platelet concentrates, either alone or in combination with mesenchymal stem cells, might be a valuable tool in the field of tissue regeneration. PMID:26872279

  7. GC-Rich Extracellular DNA Induces Oxidative Stress, Double-Strand DNA Breaks, and DNA Damage Response in Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Svetlana Kostyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cell free DNA (cfDNA circulates throughout the bloodstream of both healthy people and patients with various diseases. CfDNA is substantially enriched in its GC-content as compared with human genomic DNA. Principal Findings. Exposure of haMSCs to GC-DNA induces short-term oxidative stress (determined with H2DCFH-DA and results in both single- and double-strand DNA breaks (comet assay and γH2AX, foci. As a result in the cells significantly increases the expression of repair genes (BRCA1 (RT-PCR, PCNA (FACS and antiapoptotic genes (BCL2 (RT-PCR and FACS, BCL2A1, BCL2L1, BIRC3, and BIRC2 (RT-PCR. Under the action of GC-DNA the potential of mitochondria was increased. Here we show that GC-rich extracellular DNA stimulates adipocyte differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (haMSCs. Exposure to GC-DNA leads to an increase in the level of RNAPPARG2 and LPL (RT-PCR, in the level of fatty acid binding protein FABP4 (FACS analysis and in the level of fat (Oil Red O. Conclusions. GC-rich fragments in the pool of cfDNA can potentially induce oxidative stress and DNA damage response and affect the direction of mesenchymal stem cells differentiation in human adipose—derived mesenchymal stem cells. Such a response may be one of the causes of obesity or osteoporosis.

  8. Platelet-rich plasma and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine-associated treatments in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus.

    Richard J Griffeth

    Full Text Available Dolphins exhibit an extraordinary capacity to heal deep soft tissue injuries. Nevertheless, accelerated wound healing in wild or captive dolphins would minimize infection and other side effects associated with open wounds in marine animals. Here, we propose the use of a biological-based therapy for wound healing in dolphins by the application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP. Blood samples were collected from 9 different dolphins and a specific and simple protocol which concentrates platelets greater than two times that of whole blood was developed. As opposed to a commonly employed human protocol for PRP preparation, a single centrifugation for 3 minutes at 900 rpm resulted in the best condition for the concentration of dolphin platelets. By FACS analysis, dolphin platelets showed reactivity to platelet cell-surface marker CD41. Analysis by electron microscopy revealed that dolphin platelets were larger in size than human platelets. These findings may explain the need to reduce the duration and speed of centrifugation of whole blood from dolphins to obtain a 2-fold increase and maintain proper morphology of the platelets. For the first time, levels of several growth factors from activated dolphin platelets were quantified. Compared to humans, concentrations of PDGF-BB were not different, while TGFβ and VEGF-A were significantly lower in dolphins. Additionally, adipose tissue was obtained from cadaveric dolphins found along the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs were successfully isolated, amplified, and characterized. When dolphin ASCs were treated with 2.5 or 5% dolphin PRP they exhibited significant increased proliferation and improved phagocytotic activity, indicating that in culture, PRP may improve the regenerative capacity of ASCs. Taken together, we show an effective and well-defined protocol for efficient PRP isolation. This protocol alone or in combination with ASCs, may constitute the basis of a

  9. Correction of diabetic erectile dysfunction with adipose derived stem cells modified with the vascular endothelial growth factor gene in a rodent diabetic model.

    Guihua Liu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene can improve endothelial function, recover the impaired VEGF signaling pathway and enhance smooth muscle contents in a rat diabetic erectile dysfunction (DED model. DED rats were induced via intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, and then screened by apomorphine (100 µg/kg. Five groups were used (n = 12/group-Group 1 (G1: intracavernous injection of lentivirus-VEGF; G2: ADSCs injection; G3: VEGF-expressing ADSCs injection; G4: Phosphate buffered saline injection; G1-G4 were DED rats; G5: normal rats. The mean arterial pressure (MAP and intracavernosal pressure (ICP were measured at days 7 and 28 after the injections. The components of the VEGF system, endothelial, smooth muscle, pericytes markers in cavernoursal tissue were assessed. On day 28 after injection, the group with intracavernosum injection of ADSCs expressing VEGF displayed more efficiently and significantly raised ICP and ICP/MAP (p<0.01 than those with ADSCs or lentivirus-VEGF injection. Western blot and immunofluorescent analysis demonstrated that improved erectile function by ADSCs-VEGF was associated with increased expression of endothelial markers (VEGF, VEGF R1, VEGF R2, eNOS, CD31 and vWF, smooth muscle markers (a-actin and smoothelin, and pericyte markers (CD146 and NG2. ADSCs expressing VEGF produced a therapeutic effect and restored erectile function in diabetic rats by enhancing VEGF-stimulated endothelial function and increasing the contents of smooth muscle and pericytes.

  10. Osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stromal cells on 3-dimensional mesoporous TiO2 coating with magnesium impregnation

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic response of human adipose-derived stromal cells (ADScs) to mesoporous titania (TiO2) coatings produced with evaporation-induced self-assembly method (EISA) and loaded with magnesium. Our emphasis with the magnesium release functionality was to modulate progenitor cell osteogenic differentiation under standard culture conditions. Osteogenic properties of the coatings were assessed for stromal cells by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, colorimetric mitochondrial viability assay (MTT), colorimetric alkaline phosphates activity (ALP) assay and real time RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) it was shown that the surface expansion area (Sdr) was strongly enhanced by the presence of magnesium. From MTT results it was shown that ADSc viability was significantly increased on mesoporous surfaces compared to the non-porous one at a longer cell culture time. However, no differences were observed between the magnesium impregnated and non-impregnated surfaces. The alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed that ADSc started to differentiate into the osteogenic phenotype after 2 weeks of culturing. The gene expression profile at 2 weeks of cell growth showed that such coatings were capable to incorporate specific osteogenic markers inside their interconnected nano-pores and, at 3 weeks, ADSc differentiated into osteoblasts. Interestingly, magnesium significantly promoted the osteopontin gene expression, which is an essential gene for the early biomaterial–cell osteogenic interaction. - Highlights: • The magnesium loading presents a transitory effect on mesoporous TiO2 surface topography • The mesoporous structure promotes cellular attachment and spreading • The mesoporous structure activates osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells in absence of osteogenic promoters • The physical adsorbed magnesium is suggested to be involved in the expression of osteopontin

  11. Histochemical examination of adipose derived stem cells combined with β-TCP for bone defects restoration under systemic administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3.

    Feng, Wei; Lv, Shengyu; Cui, Jian; Han, Xiuchun; Du, Juan; Sun, Jing; Wang, Kefeng; Wang, Zhenming; Lu, Xiong; Guo, Jie; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Xu, Xin; Li, Minqi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of osteogenic differentiated adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) loaded beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in the restoration of bone defects under intraperitoneal administration of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1α,25(OH)2D3). ADSCs were isolated from the fat tissue of 8 week old Wister rats and co-cultured with β-TCP for 21 days under osteogenic induction. Then the ADSC-β-TCP complexes were implanted into bone defects in the femora of rats. 1α,25(OH)2D3 (VD) or normal saline (NS) was administrated intraperitoneally every other day after the surgery. Femora were harvested at day 7, day 14 and day 28 post-surgery. There were 4 groups for all specimens: β-TCP-NS group; β-TCP-ADSC-NS group; β-TCP-VD group and β-TCP-ADSC-VD group. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was up-regulated obviously in ADSC groups compared with non-ADSC groups at day 7, day 14 and day 28, although high expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was only seen at day 7. Furthermore, the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and the expression of cathepsin K (CK) were significantly decreased in VD groups compared with non-VD groups at day 7 and day 14. As a most significant finding, the β-TCP-ADSC-VD group showed the highest BV/TV ratio compared with the other three groups at day 28. Taken together, ADSC-loaded β-TCP under the administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3 made a promising therapy for bone defects restoration. PMID:26046276

  12. Comparison of Osteogenesis between Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Sheets on Poly-ε-Caprolactone/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Composite Scaffolds in Canine Bone Defects.

    Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kang, Byung-Jae; Kim, Wan Hee; Yun, Hui-Suk; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC sheets have effective potentials of bone regeneration. Composite polymer/ceramic scaffolds such as poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used to repair large bone defects. The present study investigated the in vitro osteogenic potential of canine adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSCs) and Ad-MSC sheets. Composite PCL/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with Ad-MSCs or wrapped with osteogenic Ad-MSC sheets (OCS) were also fabricated and their osteogenic potential was assessed following transplantation into critical-sized bone defects in dogs. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteogenic Ad-MSCs (O-MSCs) and OCS was significantly higher than that of undifferentiated Ad-MSCs (U-MSCs). The ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteopontin, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 mRNA levels were upregulated in O-MSCs and OCS as compared to U-MSCs. In a segmental bone defect, the amount of newly formed bone was greater in PCL/β-TCP/OCS and PCL/β-TCP/O-MSCs/OCS than in the other groups. The OCS exhibit strong osteogenic capacity, and OCS combined with a PCL/β-TCP composite scaffold stimulated new bone formation in a critical-sized bone defect. These results suggest that the PCL/β-TCP/OCS composite has potential clinical applications in bone regeneration and can be used as an alternative treatment modality in bone tissue engineering. PMID:27610141

  13. Morphological, molecular and functional differences of adult bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rats of different ages

    Mantovani, Cristina [Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biomedicine, The University of Manchester, Room 3,106 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences (United Kingdom); Department of Integrative Medical Biology and Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Raimondo, Stefania [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, University of Turin (Italy); Haneef, Maryam S. [Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biomedicine, The University of Manchester, Room 3,106 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences (United Kingdom); Geuna, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, University of Turin (Italy); Terenghi, Giorgio [Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biomedicine, The University of Manchester, Room 3,106 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences (United Kingdom); Shawcross, Susan G., E-mail: sue.shawcross@manchester.ac.uk [Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biomedicine, The University of Manchester, Room 3,106 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences (United Kingdom); Wiberg, Mikael [Department of Integrative Medical Biology and Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells have self-renewal and multiple differentiation potentials, and play important roles in regenerative medicine. However, their use may be limited by senescence or age of the donor, leading to changes in stem cell functionality. We investigated morphological, molecular and functional differences between bone marrow-derived (MSC) and adipose-derived (ASC) stem cells isolated from neonatal, young and old rats compared to Schwann cells from the same animals. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, proliferation assays, western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate expression of senescence markers. Undifferentiated and differentiated ASC and MSC from animals of different ages expressed Notch-2 at similar levels; protein-38 and protein-53 were present in all groups of cells with a trend towards increased levels in cells from older animals compared to those from neonatal and young rats. Following co-culture with adult neuronal cells, dMSC and dASC from animals of all ages elicited robust neurite outgrowth. Mitotracker{sup Registered-Sign} staining was consistent with ultrastructural changes seen in the mitochondria of cells from old rats, indicative of senescence. In conclusion, this study showed that although the cells from aged animals expressed markers of senescence, aged MSC and ASC differentiated into SC-like cells still retain potential to support axon regeneration. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aged MSC and ASC differentiated into Schwann-like cells support axon regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 expression does not appreciably influence the biology of Schwann or stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch 2 expression was similar in cells derived from animals of different ages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation rates of dMSC varied little over time or with animal age.

  14. Grafting and early expression of growth factors from adipose-derived stem cells transplanted into the cochlea, in a guinea pig model of acoustic trauma

    Anna Rita Fetoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Noise exposure causes damage of multiple cochlear cell types producing permanent hearing loss with important social consequences. In mammals, no regeneration of either damaged hair cells or auditory neurons has been observed and no successful treatment is available to achieve a functional recovery. Several evidences indicate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs as promising tools in diversified regenerative medicine applications, due to the high degree of plasticity and trophic features.This study was aimed at identifying the path of in vivo cell migration and expression of trophic growth factors, upon ASC transplantation into the cochlea, following noise-induced injury. ASCs were isolated in primary culture from the adipose tissue of a guinea pig, transduced using a viral vector to express the green fluorescent protein, and implanted into the scala tympani of deafened animals. Auditory function was assessed 3 and 7 days after surgery. The expression of trophic growth factors was comparatively analyzed using real time PCR in control and noise-injured cochlear tissues. Immunofluorescence was used to assess the in vivo localization and expression of trophic growth factors in ASCs and cochleae, 3 and 7 days following homologous implantation. ASC implantation did not modify auditory function. ASCs migrated from the perilymphatic to the endolymphatic compartment, during the analyzed time course. Upon noise exposure, the expression of chemokine ligands and receptors related to the PDGF, VEGF and TGFbeta pathways, increased in the cochlear tissues, possibly guiding in vivo cell migration. Immunofluorescence confirmed the increased expression, which appeared to be further strengthened by ASC implantation.These results indicate that ASCs are able to migrate at the site of tissue damage and express trophic factors, upon intracochlear implantantion, providing an original proof of principle, which could pave the way for further developments of ASC

  15. Grafting and early expression of growth factors from adipose-derived stem cells transplanted into the cochlea, in a Guinea pig model of acoustic trauma.

    Fetoni, Anna Rita; Lattanzi, Wanda; Eramo, Sara Letizia Maria; Barba, Marta; Paciello, Fabiola; Moriconi, Chiara; Rolesi, Rolando; Michetti, Fabrizio; Troiani, Diana; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Noise exposure causes damage of multiple cochlear cell types producing permanent hearing loss with important social consequences. In mammals, no regeneration of either damaged hair cells or auditory neurons has been observed and no successful treatment is available to achieve a functional recovery. Loads of evidence indicate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) as promising tools in diversified regenerative medicine applications, due to the high degree of plasticity and trophic features. This study was aimed at identifying the path of in vivo cell migration and expression of trophic growth factors, upon ASCs transplantation into the cochlea, following noise-induced injury. ASCs were isolated in primary culture from the adipose tissue of a guinea pig, transduced using a viral vector to express the green fluorescent protein, and implanted into the scala tympani of deafened animals. Auditory function was assessed 3 and 7 days after surgery. The expression of trophic growth factors was comparatively analyzed using real-time PCR in control and noise-injured cochlear tissues. Immunofluorescence was used to assess the in vivo localization and expression of trophic growth factors in ASCs and cochleae, 3 and 7 days following homologous implantation. ASC implantation did not modify auditory function. ASCs migrated from the perilymphatic to the endolymphatic compartment, during the analyzed time course. Upon noise exposure, the expression of chemokine ligands and receptors related to the PDGF, VEGF, and TGFbeta pathways, increased in the cochlear tissues, possibly guiding in vivo cell migration. Immunofluorescence confirmed the increased expression, which appeared to be further strengthened by ASCs' implantation. These results indicated that ASCs are able to migrate at the site of tissue damage and express trophic factors, upon intracochlear implantation, providing an original proof of principle, which could pave the way for further developments of ASC-based treatments of

  16. Morphological, molecular and functional differences of adult bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rats of different ages

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells have self-renewal and multiple differentiation potentials, and play important roles in regenerative medicine. However, their use may be limited by senescence or age of the donor, leading to changes in stem cell functionality. We investigated morphological, molecular and functional differences between bone marrow-derived (MSC) and adipose-derived (ASC) stem cells isolated from neonatal, young and old rats compared to Schwann cells from the same animals. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, proliferation assays, western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate expression of senescence markers. Undifferentiated and differentiated ASC and MSC from animals of different ages expressed Notch-2 at similar levels; protein-38 and protein-53 were present in all groups of cells with a trend towards increased levels in cells from older animals compared to those from neonatal and young rats. Following co-culture with adult neuronal cells, dMSC and dASC from animals of all ages elicited robust neurite outgrowth. Mitotracker® staining was consistent with ultrastructural changes seen in the mitochondria of cells from old rats, indicative of senescence. In conclusion, this study showed that although the cells from aged animals expressed markers of senescence, aged MSC and ASC differentiated into SC-like cells still retain potential to support axon regeneration. -- Highlights: ► Aged MSC and ASC differentiated into Schwann-like cells support axon regeneration. ► p53 expression does not appreciably influence the biology of Schwann or stem cells. ► Notch 2 expression was similar in cells derived from animals of different ages. ► Proliferation rates of dMSC varied little over time or with animal age.

  17. Conversion of adipose-derived stem cells into natural killer-like cells with anti-tumor activities in nude mice.

    Hongxiu Ning

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop peripheral blood-derived nature killer (NK cells into therapeutic products have been hampered by these cells' low abundance and histoincompatibility. On the other hand, derivation of NK-like cells from more abundant cell sources such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs and umbilical cord blood (UCB requires the selection of rare CD34+ cells. Thus, we sought to convert adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs, which are abundant and natively CD34+, into NK-like cells. When grown in hematopoietic induction medium, ADSCs formed sphere clusters and expressed hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and KDR. Further induction in NK cell-specific medium resulted in a population of cells that expressed NK cell marker CD56, and thus termed ADSC-NK. Alternatively, the hematopoietically induced ADSCs were transduced with NK cell-specific transcription factor E4BP4 prior to induction in NK cell-specific medium. This latter population of cells, termed ADSC-NKE, expressed CD56 and additional NK cell markers such as CD16, CD94, CD158, CD314, FasL, and NKp46. ADSC-NKE was as potent as NK leukemia cell NKL in killing breast cancer cell MCF7 and prostate cancer cells DU145, PC3, LnCap, DuPro, C4-2 and CWR22, but exhibited no killing activity toward normal endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In nude mice test ADSC-NKE was able to significantly delay the progression of tumors formed by MCF7 and PC3. When injected into immunocompetent rats, ADSC-NKE was detectable in bone marrow and spleen for at least 5 weeks. Together, these results suggest that ADSCs can be converted into NK-like cells with anti-tumor activities.

  18. Osteogenic Differentiation of Three-Dimensional Bioprinted Constructs Consisting of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    Liu, Yun-Song; Sun, Yu-chun; Wang, Yu-guang; Wang, Yong; Lyu, Pei-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted tissue constructs in vitro and in vivo. A 3D Bio-plotter dispensing system was used for building 3D constructs. Cell viability was determined using live/dead cell staining. After 7 and 14 days of culture, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to analyze the expression of osteogenesis-related genes (RUNX2, OSX, and OCN). Western blotting for RUNX2 and immunofluorescent staining for OCN and RUNX2 were also performed. At 8 weeks after surgery, osteoids secreted by osteogenically differentiated cells were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, Masson trichrome staining, and OCN immunohistochemical staining. Results from live/dead cell staining showed that most of the cells remained alive, with a cell viability of 89%, on day 1 after printing. In vitro osteogenic induction of the 3D construct showed that the expression levels of RUNX2, OSX, and OCN were significantly increased on days 7 and 14 after printing in cells cultured in osteogenic medium (OM) compared with that in normal proliferation medium (PM). Fluorescence microscopy and western blotting showed that the expression of osteogenesis-related proteins was significantly higher in cells cultured in OM than in cells cultured in PM. In vivo studies demonstrated obvious bone matrix formation in the 3D bioprinted constructs. These results indicated that 3D bioprinted constructs consisting of hASCs had the ability to promote mineralized matrix formation and that hASCs could be used in 3D bioprinted constructs for the repair of large bone tissue defects. PMID:27332814

  19. Targeted transplantation of iron oxide-labeled, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in promoting meniscus regeneration following a rabbit massive meniscal defect

    QI, YIYING; YANG, ZHIGAO; DING, QIANHAI; ZHAO, TENGFEI; HUANG, ZHONGMING; FENG, GANG

    2016-01-01

    Repair of a massive meniscal defect remains a challenge in the clinic. However, targeted magnetic cell delivery, an emerging technique, may be useful in its treatment. The present study aimed to determine the effect of targeted intra-articular injection of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) in a rabbit model of a massive meniscal defect. ASCs may be directly labeled and almost 100% of the ASCs were labeled with SPIO after 24 h; these SPIO-labeled ASCs may be orientated by magnet. The centrifuged SPIO-labeled ASCs precipitations may be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The anterior half of the medial meniscus of 18 New Zealand Rabbits was excised. After 7 days, the rabbits were randomized to injections of 2×106 SPIO-labeled ASCs, 2×106 unlabeled ASCs or saline. Permanent magnets were fixed to the outside of the operated joints for one day, and after 6 and 12 weeks, the knee joints were examined using MRI, gross and histological observation, and Prussian blue staining. Marked hypointense artifacts caused by SPIO-positive cells in the meniscus were detected using MRI. Histological observation revealed that the anterior portion of the meniscus was similar to the native tissue, demonstrating typical fibrochondrocytes surrounded by richer extracellular matrix in the SPIO-ASCs group. Collagen-rich matrix bridging the interface and the neo-meniscus integrated well with its host meniscus. Furthermore, degenerative changes occurred in all groups, but intra-articular injection of SPIO-ASCs or ASCs alleviated these degenerative changes. Prussian blue staining indicated that the implanted ASCs were directly associated with the regenerated tissue. Overall, targeted intra-articular delivery of SPIO-ASCs promoted meniscal regeneration whilst providing protective effects from osteoarthritic damage. PMID:26893631

  20. Osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stromal cells on 3-dimensional mesoporous TiO{sub 2} coating with magnesium impregnation

    Cecchinato, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.cecchinato@mah.se [Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Karlsson, Johan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Applied Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara [Department of Histology, Microbiology, and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Galli, Silvia; Wennerberg, Ann [Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Zavan, Barbara [Department of Histology, Microbiology, and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Andersson, Martin [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Applied Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jimbo, Ryo [Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Department of Applied Prosthodontics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic response of human adipose-derived stromal cells (ADScs) to mesoporous titania (TiO{sub 2}) coatings produced with evaporation-induced self-assembly method (EISA) and loaded with magnesium. Our emphasis with the magnesium release functionality was to modulate progenitor cell osteogenic differentiation under standard culture conditions. Osteogenic properties of the coatings were assessed for stromal cells by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, colorimetric mitochondrial viability assay (MTT), colorimetric alkaline phosphates activity (ALP) assay and real time RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) it was shown that the surface expansion area (S{sub dr}) was strongly enhanced by the presence of magnesium. From MTT results it was shown that ADSc viability was significantly increased on mesoporous surfaces compared to the non-porous one at a longer cell culture time. However, no differences were observed between the magnesium impregnated and non-impregnated surfaces. The alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed that ADSc started to differentiate into the osteogenic phenotype after 2 weeks of culturing. The gene expression profile at 2 weeks of cell growth showed that such coatings were capable to incorporate specific osteogenic markers inside their interconnected nano-pores and, at 3 weeks, ADSc differentiated into osteoblasts. Interestingly, magnesium significantly promoted the osteopontin gene expression, which is an essential gene for the early biomaterial–cell osteogenic interaction. - Highlights: • The magnesium loading presents a transitory effect on mesoporous TiO{sub 2} surface topography • The mesoporous structure promotes cellular attachment and spreading • The mesoporous structure activates osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells in absence of osteogenic promoters • The physical adsorbed magnesium is suggested to be involved in the expression of

  1. Electrospun poly(ester-Urethane- and poly(ester-Urethane-Urea fleeces as promising tissue engineering scaffolds for adipose-derived stem cells.

    Alfred Gugerell

    Full Text Available An irreversible loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in patients after tumor removal or deep dermal burns makes soft tissue engineering one of the most important challenges in biomedical research. The ideal scaffold for adipose tissue engineering has yet not been identified though biodegradable polymers gained an increasing interest during the last years. In the present study we synthesized two novel biodegradable polymers, poly(ε-caprolactone-co-urethane-co-urea (PEUU and poly[(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone-co-(L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate-block-oligo(ethylene glycol-urethane] (PEU, containing different types of hydrolytically cleavable bondings. Solutions of the polymers at appropriate concentrations were used to fabricate fleeces by electrospinning. Ultrastructure, tensile properties, and degradation of the produced fleeces were evaluated. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs were seeded on fleeces and morphology, viability, proliferation and differentiation were assessed. The biomaterials show fine micro- and nanostructures composed of fibers with diameters of about 0.5 to 1.3 µm. PEUU fleeces were more elastic, which might be favourable in soft tissue engineering, and degraded significantly slower compared to PEU. ASCs were able to adhere, proliferate and differentiate on both scaffolds. Morphology of the cells was slightly better on PEUU than on PEU showing a more physiological appearance. ASCs differentiated into the adipogenic lineage. Gene analysis of differentiated ASCs showed typical expression of adipogenetic markers such as PPARgamma and FABP4. Based on these results, PEUU and PEU meshes show a promising potential as scaffold materials in adipose tissue engineering.

  2. Co-culture of adipose-derived stem cells and endothelial cells in fibrin induces angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in a chorioallantoic membrane model.

    Strassburg, Sandra; Nienhueser, Henrik; Björn Stark, G; Finkenzeller, Günter; Torio-Padron, Nestor

    2016-06-01

    Neovascularization of adipose tissue equivalents is a crucial step in successful adipose tissue engineering, since insufficient vascularization results in graft resorption in an in vivo situation. A possible cellular approach to overcome this limitation is the co-implantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) with endothelial cells to stimulate the formation of a vascular network. We investigated the potential of ASCs derived from human abdominal fat tissue co-cultured with endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from human peripheral blood to stimulate neovascularization of fibrin constructs on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of fertilized chicken eggs, in direct comparison to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). After 9 days of incubation, cell-fibrin constructs were explanted and histologically evaluated with respect to ingrowth of avian blood vessels into the construct and formation of human blood vessels by co-implanted endothelial cells. When administered on the CAM, ASCs successfully guided host vasculature into the construct (angiogenesis) and guided formation of capillary-like structures by co-implanted human endothelial cells (vasculogenesis), with HUVECs being superior to EPCs, leading to a perfused avian and human capillary network within the fibrin construct. However, the results also showed that perfused human blood vessels were only observed near the CAM compared to unperfused capillary-like structures near the top of the construct, indicating that perfusion of the cell-fibrin construct takes longer than 9 days. In conclusion, as blood vessel formation is an essential step during adipogenic differentiation, the data support our hypothesis that cellular communication between transplanted ASCs and endothelial cells is beneficial for vasculogenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23712963

  3. Prostaglandin E2 and Transforming Growth Factor-β Play a Critical Role in Suppression of Allergic Airway Inflammation by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Kyu-Sup Cho

    Full Text Available The role of soluble factors in the suppression of allergic airway inflammation by adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs remains to be elucidated. Moreover, the major soluble factors responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of ASCs in allergic airway diseases have not been well documented. We evaluated the effects of ASCs on allergic inflammation in asthmatic mice treated with a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 inhibitor or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β neutralizing antibodies.Asthmatic mice were injected intraperitoneally with a PGE2 inhibitor or TGF-β neutralizing antibodies at approximately the same time as ASCs injection and were compared with non-treated controls. In asthmatic mice, ASCs significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, the number of total inflammatory cells and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and serum total and allergen-specific IgE and IgG1. ASCs significantly inhibited Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and enhanced the Th1 cytokine (Interferon-γ and regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β in the BALF and lung draining lymph nodes (LLNs. ASCs engraftment caused significant increases in the regulatory T cell (Treg and IL-10+ T cell populations in LLNs. However, blocking PGE2 or TGF-β eliminated the immunosuppressive effect of ASCs in allergic airway inflammation.ASCs are capable of secreting PGE2 and TGF-β, which may play a role in inducing Treg expansion. Furthermore, treatment with a PGE2 inhibitor or TGF-β neutralizing antibodies eliminated the beneficial effect of ASCs treatment in asthmatic mice, suggesting that PGE2 and TGF-β are the major soluble factors responsible for suppressing allergic airway inflammation.

  4. Platelet-rich plasma and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine-associated treatments in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Griffeth, Richard J; García-Párraga, Daniel; Mellado-López, Maravillas; Crespo-Picazo, Jose Luis; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; Martinez-Romero, Alicia; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Dolphins exhibit an extraordinary capacity to heal deep soft tissue injuries. Nevertheless, accelerated wound healing in wild or captive dolphins would minimize infection and other side effects associated with open wounds in marine animals. Here, we propose the use of a biological-based therapy for wound healing in dolphins by the application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Blood samples were collected from 9 different dolphins and a specific and simple protocol which concentrates platelets greater than two times that of whole blood was developed. As opposed to a commonly employed human protocol for PRP preparation, a single centrifugation for 3 minutes at 900 rpm resulted in the best condition for the concentration of dolphin platelets. By FACS analysis, dolphin platelets showed reactivity to platelet cell-surface marker CD41. Analysis by electron microscopy revealed that dolphin platelets were larger in size than human platelets. These findings may explain the need to reduce the duration and speed of centrifugation of whole blood from dolphins to obtain a 2-fold increase and maintain proper morphology of the platelets. For the first time, levels of several growth factors from activated dolphin platelets were quantified. Compared to humans, concentrations of PDGF-BB were not different, while TGFβ and VEGF-A were significantly lower in dolphins. Additionally, adipose tissue was obtained from cadaveric dolphins found along the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) were successfully isolated, amplified, and characterized. When dolphin ASCs were treated with 2.5 or 5% dolphin PRP they exhibited significant increased proliferation and improved phagocytotic activity, indicating that in culture, PRP may improve the regenerative capacity of ASCs. Taken together, we show an effective and well-defined protocol for efficient PRP isolation. This protocol alone or in combination with ASCs, may constitute the basis of a biological

  5. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells transplantation via portal vein improves microcirculation and ameliorates liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats

    Wang Yu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs, carrying the similar characteristics to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, only much more abundant and easier to obtain, may be a promising treatment for liver fibrosis. We aim to investigate the therapeutic potential of ADMSCs transplantation in liver fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats as well as its underlying mechanism, and to further explore the appropriate infusion pathway. Methods ADMSCs were isolated, cultured and identified. Placebo and ADMSCs were transplanted via portal vein and tail vein respectively into carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver fibrosis rats. Computed tomography (CT perfusion scan and microvessel counts were performed to measure the alteration of liver microcirculation after therapy. Liver function tests and histological findings were estimated. Results CT perfusion scan shown significant decrease of hepatic arterial perfusion index, significant increased portal vein perfusion, total liver perfusion in rats receiving ADMSCs from portal vein, and Factor VIII (FVIII immunohistochemical staining shown significant decrease of microvessels in rats receiving ADMSCs from portal vein, indicating microcirculation improvement in portal vein group. Vascular endothelial growth Factor (VEGF was significantly up-regulated in fibrosis models, and decreased after ADMSCs intraportal transplantation. A significant improvement of liver functional test and histological findings in portal vein group were observed. No significance was found in rats receiving ADMSCs from tail vein. Conclusions ADMSCs have a therapeutic effect against CCl4-mediated liver fibrosis. ADMSCs may benefit the fibrotic liver through alteration of microcirculation, evidenced by CT perfusion scan and down-regulation of VEGF. Intraportal transplantation is a better pathway than tail vein transplantation.

  6. Cryopreservation of stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue in a serum-free freezing medium

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Devireddy, Ram V.

    2010-01-01

    Developing effective techniques for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived adult stem cells could increase the usefulness of these cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Unfortunately, the use of serum and a commonly used cryoprotectant chemical, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), during cryopreservation storage restricts the direct translation of adult stem cells to in vivo applications. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the stromal vascular fraction...

  7. Non-expanded adipose stromal vascular fraction cell therapy for multiple sclerosis

    Rodriguez Jorge; Alfaro Miguel; Lara Fabian; Solano Fabio; Wang Hao; Min Wei-Ping; Ichim Thomas E; Riordan Neil H; Harman Robert J; Patel Amit N; Murphy Michael P; Lee Roland R; Minev Boris

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is known to contain mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), T regulatory cells, endothelial precursor cells, preadipocytes, as well as anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Safety of autologous adipose tissue implantation is supported by extensive use of this procedure in cosmetic surgery, as well as by ongoing studies using in vitro expanded adipose derived MSC. Equine and canine studies demonstrating anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects...

  8. 脂肪干细胞表型和标记物的研究进展%A review on phenotype and markers of adipose-derived stem cells

    陈犹白; 陈聪慧(综述); Qixu Zhang; 韩岩(审校)

    2016-01-01

    No consensus has been made so far on the specific markers of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) due to the differences of fat donor,micro-environment between in vivo and in vitro,cell passages and lack of standard of harvest,isolation,culture,et al.We reviewed all markers of ASCs and found that most positive markers are stromal cells and mesenchymal stem cells markers, while most negative markers were hematopoietic cells markers.The controversial markers of ASCs were basically bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs),vascular endothelial cells and pericytes markers. In vivo, fresh-isolated ASCs and ASCs from initial passages of in vitro expansion were CD34+, however the expression of CD34 was decreasing with long-term expansion in vitro and ifnally vanish. This was the reason of controversy on CD34 expression from literatures and the evidence that ASCs have different phenotypes in vivo and in vitro.Furthermore,stemness markers like Stro-1 were important and promising in identifying ASCs, however further studies are needed to determine their role in ASCs identiifcation. According to the phenotypic differences between Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells and ASCs subpopulations,we speculated that ASCs in vivo may origin from BMSCs,pericytes or ifbroblasts. We compared the phenotypes of ASCs with BMSCs and found that ASCs are CD36+/CD49d+/ CD48f-/CD104-, while BMSCs were the opposite,which could be used to identify ASCs from BMSCs.Finally,we introduced the experience of Tissue Regeneration and Molecular Cell Engineering Lab, Department of Plastic Surgery, MD Anderson Cancer Center and predicted the future research interests of ASCs phenotypes and markers based on our experience and current issues.%由于脂肪供体、提取方法、分离、培养、体内外微环境、鉴定时的细胞代数和检测方法等诸多因素的差异,迄今为止尚未发现脂肪干细胞(adipose-derived stem cell,ASCs)的特异性标记物。本文总结了所有ASCs的相关标记物

  9. 不同细胞促进脂肪移植存活的实验研究%Effects of different human adipose-derived cells in promoting human adipose tissue engraftment in nude mice

    朱茗; 鲁峰; 高建华; 廖云君

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨应用自人脂肪组织来源的不同细胞辅助脂肪移植,寻找促进移植物存活率的最佳种子细胞的有效方法,为干细胞进一步运用于临床提供实验依据.方法 从临床抽脂病人获取脂肪组织并提炼细胞,将0.3 ml待移植的脂肪颗粒分别与以下细胞进行混合处理:(1)低氧脂肪来源间充质干细胞(A组);(2)脂肪来源间充质干细胞(B组);(3)血管基质层细胞(SVFs)(C组);(4)加完全培养基的单纯脂肪颗粒为对照组(D组)脂肪颗粒与相应细胞混合后,注射移植于6只裸鼠背部皮下.术后3个月观察移植物情况,通过组织学、HE染色等方法进行分析.结果 A~D组湿重分别为(61.67±8.165)、(91.67±1.472)、(96.67±5.164)和(40.83±4.916)mg,A、B、C组脂肪存活率均高于D组(P<0.05),B、C两组之间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)且都高于A组.A、B、C组血管密度均高于组D,且C组明显高于其他3组(P<0.05).A、B、C组存活脂肪细胞计数均高于D组,且B、C组最高(P<0.05),纤维组织计数均低于D组(P<0.05).结论 来源于人自体干细胞复合脂肪颗粒能够显著提高移植脂肪组织的成活率,其中血管基质层细胞及脂肪来源间充质干细胞移植脂肪的存活率最高.%Objective To explore the optimal seed cells derived from human adipose tissue for promoting the engraftment of transplanted adipose tissue in nude mice. Methods Human adipose tissue granules (0.3 ml) obtained from patients undergoing liposuction were mixed with hypoxic adipose-derived stem cells (ADCs, group A), ADCs (Group B), stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells (group C), or pure adipose tissue granules in complete culture medium particles (group D). The mixtures were injected subcutaneously on the back of 6 nude mice, and the transplanted adipose tissues were harvested 3 months later to examine the engraftment using histological method and HE staining. Results The wet weights of the adipose

  10. Protective effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells against acute kidney injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats

    SHEASHAA, HUSSEIN; LOTFY, AHMED; ELHUSSEINI, FATMA; AZIZ, AZZA ABDEL; BAIOMY, AZZA; AWAD, SAMAH; ALSAYED, AZIZA; EL-GILANY, ABDEL-HADY; SAAD, MOHAMED-AHDY A.A.; MAHMOUD, KHALED; ZAHRAN, FATEN; SALEM, DALIA A.; SARHAN, AHMED; GHAFFAR, HASSAN ABDEL; SOBH, MOHAMED

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex clinical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality and lacking effective management. Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains one of the leading causes of AKI in native and transplanted kidneys. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in the prevention of renal IRI in rats. The study was conducted on male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=72) weighing 250–300 g. Rats were randomly assigned to three main groups: i) Sham-operated control group (n=24); ii) positive control group, in which rats were subjected to IRI and were administered culture media following 4 h of IRI (n=24); and iii) ADSC group (n=24), in which rats were administered 1×106 ADSCs via the tail vein following 4 h of IRI. Each main group was further divided according to the timing after IRI into four equal-sized subgroups. Renal function was tested via the measurement of serum creatinine levels and creatinine clearance. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in serum and renal tissue homogenate as an indicator of oxidative stress. Histopathological changes were analyzed in different regions of the kidney, namely the cortex, outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM), inner stripe of the outer medulla (ISOM) and inner medulla. In each region, the scoring system considered active injury changes, regenerative changes and chronic changes. The ADSCs were assessed and their differentiation capability was verified. IRI resulted in a significant increase in serum creatinine, serum and tissue MDA levels and a significant reduction in creatinine clearance compared with those in sham-operated rats,. These changes were attenuated by the use of ADSCs. The prominent histopathological changes in the cortex, ISOM and OSOM were reflected in the injury score, which was significantly evident in the positive control group. The use of ADSCs was associated with significantly lowered injury

  11. Fullerene mediates proliferation and cardiomyogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells via modulation of MAPK pathway and cardiac protein expression

    Hao T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tong Hao,1,2,* Jin Zhou,2,* Shuanghong Lü,3,* Boguang Yang,2,4 Yan Wang,2 Wancai Fang,2,4 Xiaoxia Jiang,2 Qiuxia Lin,2 Junjie Li,2 Changyong Wang1,21School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 2Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, 3Laboratory of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Polymer Science, Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Zero-dimensional fullerenes can modulate the biological behavior of a variety of cell lines. However, the effects and molecular mechanisms of proliferation and cardiomyogenic differentiation in brown adipose-derived stem cells (BADSCs are still unclear. In this study, we report the initial biological effects of fullerene-C60 on BADSCs at different concentrations. Results suggest that fullerene-C60 has no cytotoxic effects on BADSCs even at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. Fullerene-C60 improves the MAPK expression level and stem cell survival, proliferation, and cardiomyogenesis. Further, we found that the fullerene-C60 modulates cardiomyogenic differentiation. Fullerene-C60 improves the expression of cardiomyocyte-specific proteins (cTnT and α-sarcomeric actinin. At elevated concentration, fullerene-C60 reduces the incidence of diminished spontaneous cardiac differentiation of BADSCs with time. At the genetic level, fullerene-C60 (5 µg/mL also improves the expression of cTnT. In addition, fullerene-C60 promotes the formation of gap junction among cells. These findings have important implications for clinical application of fullerenes in the treatment of myocardial infarction.Keywords: C60, BADSCs, molecular

  12. Agent-based model of therapeutic adipose-derived stromal cell trafficking during ischemia predicts ability to roll on P-selectin.

    Alexander M Bailey

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous delivery of human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs is a promising option for the treatment of ischemia. After delivery, hASCs that reside and persist in the injured extravascular space have been shown to aid recovery of tissue perfusion and function, although low rates of incorporation currently limit the safety and efficacy of these therapies. We submit that a better understanding of the trafficking of therapeutic hASCs through the microcirculation is needed to address this and that selective control over their homing (organ- and injury-specific may be possible by targeting bottlenecks in the homing process. This process, however, is incredibly complex, which merited the use of computational techniques to speed the rate of discovery. We developed a multicell agent-based model (ABM of hASC trafficking during acute skeletal muscle ischemia, based on over 150 literature-based rules instituted in Netlogo and MatLab software programs. In silico, trafficking phenomena within cell populations emerged as a result of the dynamic interactions between adhesion molecule expression, chemokine secretion, integrin affinity states, hemodynamics and microvascular network architectures. As verification, the model reasonably reproduced key aspects of ischemia and trafficking behavior including increases in wall shear stress, upregulation of key cellular adhesion molecules expressed on injured endothelium, increased secretion of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, quantified levels of monocyte extravasation in selectin knockouts, and circulating monocyte rolling distances. Successful ABM verification prompted us to conduct a series of systematic knockouts in silico aimed at identifying the most critical parameters mediating hASC trafficking. Simulations predicted the necessity of an unknown selectin-binding molecule to achieve hASC extravasation, in addition to any rolling behavior mediated by hASC surface expression of CD15s, CD34, CD62e, CD62p

  13. Electrospun composite poly(L-lactic acid)/tricalcium phosphate scaffolds induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Development of tissue-engineered bone constructs has recently focused on the use of electrospun composite scaffolds seeded with stem cells from various source tissues. In this study, we fabricated electrospun composite scaffolds consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) crystals and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) at varying loading levels of TCP (0, 5, 10, 20 wt%) and assessed the composite scaffolds' material properties and ability to induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in the presence of osteogenic differentiating medium. The electrospun scaffolds all exhibited a nonwoven structure with an interconnected porous network. With the addition of TCP, the fiber diameter increased with each treatment ranging from 503.39 ± 20.31 nm for 0 wt% TCP to 1267.36 ± 59.03 nm for 20 wt% TCP. Tensile properties of the composite scaffolds were assessed and the overall tensile strength of the neat scaffold (0 wt% TCP) was 847 ± 89.43 kPA; the addition of TCP significantly decreased this value to an average of 350.83 ± 38.57 kPa. As the electrospun composite scaffolds degraded in vitro, TCP was released into the medium with the largest release occurring within the first 6 days. Human ASCs were able to adhere, proliferate and osteogenically differentiate on all scaffold combinations. DNA content increased in a temporal manner for each scaffold over 18 days in culture although for the day 12 timepoint, the 10 wt% TCP scaffold induced the greatest hASC proliferation. Endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity was enhanced on the composite PLA/TCP scaffolds compared to the PLA control particularly by day 18. It was noted that at the highest TCP loading levels of 10 and 20 wt%, there was a dramatic increase in the amount of cell-mediated mineralization compared to the 5 wt% TCP and the neat PLA scaffold. This work suggests that local environment cues provided by the biochemical nature of the scaffold can accelerate the overall

  14. Addition of bone morphogenetic protein type 2 to ascorbate and β-glycerophosphate supplementation did not enhance osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Ariadne Cristiane Cabral Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (BMP-2 is a potent local factor, which promotes bone formation and has been used as an osteogenic supplement for mesenchymal stem cells. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of a recombinant BMP-2 as well as the endogenous BMP-4 and BMP-7 in the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs in medium supplemented with ascorbate and β-glycerophosphate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human ASCs were treated with osteogenic medium in the presence (ASCs+OM+BMP-2 or absence (ASCs+OM of BMP-2. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined and the extracellular matrix mineralization was evaluated by Von Kossa staining and calcium quantification. The expressions of BMP-4, BMP-7, Smad1, Smad4, and phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 were analyzed by western blotting. Relative mRNA expressions of Smad1, BMP receptor type II (BMPR-II, osteonectin, and osteocalcin were evaluated by qPCR. Results: ASCs+OM demonstrated the highest expression of BMP-4 and BMP-7 at days 21 and 7, respectively, the highest levels of BMPR-II mRNA expression at day 28, and the highest levels of Smad1 mRNA at days 14 and 28. ASCs+OM+BMP-2 demonstrated the highest levels of Smad1 mRNA expression at days 1, 7, and 21, the highest expression of Smad1 at day 7, the highest expression of Smad4 at day 14, the highest ALP activity at days 14 and 21, and expression of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 at day 7. ASCs+OM and ASCs+OM+BMP2 showed similar ALP activity at days 7 and 28, similar osteonectin and osteocalcin mRNA expression at all time periods, and similar calcium depositions at all time periods. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that human ASCs expressed endogenous BMP-4 and BMP-7. Moreover, the supplementation of ASCs with BMP-2 did not increase the level of osteogenic markers in the initial (ALP activity, intermediate (osteonectin and osteocalcin, or final (calcium deposition phases, suggesting that the exogenous addition of BMP-2 did not improve

  15. Differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells toward nucleus pulposuslike cells induced by hypoxia and a three-dimensional chitosan-alginate gel scaffold in vitro

    Zhang Zhicheng; Li Fang; Tian Haiquan; Guan Kai; Zhao Guangmin; Shan Jianlin; Ren Dajiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Injectable three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds have the advantages of fluidity and moldability to fill irregularshaped defects,simple incorporation of bioactive factors,and limited surgical invasiveness.Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent and can be differentiated toward nucleus pulposus (NP)-Iike cells.A hypoxic environment may be important for differentiation to NP-like cells because the intervertebral disc is an avascular tissue.Hence,we investigated the induction effects of hypoxia and an injectable 3D chitosan-alginate (C/A) gel scaffold on ADSCs.Methods The C/A gel scaffold consisted of medical-grade chitosan and alginate.Gel porosity was calculated by liquid displacement method.Pore microstructure was analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy.ADSCs were isolated and cultured by conventional methods.Passage 2 BrdU-labeled ADSCs were co-cultured with the C/A gel.ADSCs were divided into three groups (control,normoxia-induced,and hypoxia-induced groups).In the control group,cells were cultured in 10% FBS/DMEM.Hypoxia-induced and normoxia-induced groups were induced by adding transforming growth factor-β1,dexamethasone,vitamin C,sodium pyruvate,proline,bone morphogenetic protein-7,and 1% ITS-plus to the culture medium and maintaining in 2% and 20% O2,respectively.Histological and morphological changes were observed by light and electron microscopy.ADSCs were characterized by flow cytometry.Cell viability was investigated by BrdU incorporation.Proteoglycan and type Ⅱ collagen were measured by safranin O staining and the Sicool method,respectively.mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducing factor-1α (HIF-1α),aggrecan,and Type Ⅱ collagen was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.Results C/A gels had porous exterior surfaces with 80.57% porosity and 50-200 μm pore size.Flow cytometric analysis of passage 2 rabbit ADSCs showed high CD90 expression,while CD45 expression was very low.The morphology of

  16. In vitro differentiation of human adipose-derived adult stromal cells into neuron-like cells in hippocampal astrocyte conditioned medium

    Xinchun Ye; Hongjun He; Feng Yang; Kepeng Zhao; Jun Yao; Bin Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, researches on differentiating from human adipose-derived adult stromal cells (hADASC) to neuron-like cells are focus on inducing by artificial-synthetic compound solution;however,hippocampal astrocyte conditioned medium(HCAM)can induce in vitro differentiation from hADASC to neuron-like cells is still unclear.OBJECTIVE:To observe whether HCAM can induce in vitro differentiation from hADASC to neuron-like cells.DESIGN:Randomized control study.SETTING:Department of Neurology,Taixing People's Hospital;Central Laboratory,North China Coal Medical College.MATERIALS:Donor of adipose tissue was donated by female volunteers suffering from caesarean section in the department of obstetrics & gynecology in our hospital and aged 20-35 years. Adipose tissue was collected from subcutaneous tissue of abdomen during the operation.In addition.8 male newborn Wistar rats within 24 hours with average body mass of 20 g were provided by Animal Institute of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.Rabbit-anti-human Nestin polyclonal antibody.Rabbit-anti-human glial fibriliary acidic protein (GFAP)polyclonal antibody, rabbit-anti-human neuro-specific enolase polyclonal antibody and mouse-anti-human microtubal associated protein 2(MAP-2)polyclonal antibody were provided by Wuhan Boster Company.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Central Laboratory of North China Coal Medical College from October 2004 to June 2005.hADASC was cultured with HCAM and its growth and morphological changes were observed under inverted phase contrast microscope.Immunocytochemistry.immunofluorescence and Western blotting were used to evaluate the expressions of Nestin,which was a specific sign of nerve precursor,neuro-specific enolase and MAP-2,which was a specific sign of nerve cell,and GFAP,which was a specific sign of neuroglial cells.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nestin,which was a specific sign of nerve precursor,neuro-specific enolase and MAP-2,which was a specific sign of nerve cell

  17. Dynamic compression combined with SOX-9 overexpression in rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured in a three-dimensional gradual porous PLGA composite scaffold upregulates HIF-1α expression.

    Chen, Xu; Li, Jianjun; Wang, Enbo; Zhao, Qun; Kong, Zhan; Yuan, Xiangnan

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in how the fate of adipose-derived stem cells is determined. Physical stimuli play a crucial role in skeletogenesis and in cartilage repair and regeneration. In the present study, we investigated the comparative and interactive effects of dynamic compression and SRY-related high-mobility group box gene-9 (SOX-9) on chondrogenesis of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells in three-dimensional gradual porous PLGA (polylactic-co-glycolic acid) composite scaffolds. Articular cartilage is stratified into zones delineated by characteristic changes in cellular, matrix, and nutritive components. As a consequence, biochemical and biomechanical properties vary greatly between the different zones, giving the tissue its unique structure and, thus, the ability to cope with extreme loading. The effects on development of the cartilage were examined using a combination of computational modeling to predict alterations in biophysical stimuli, detailed morphometric analysis of 3D digital representations. In addition, early chondrogenic differentiation was assessed via real-time PCR of mRNA expression levels for bone- and cartilage-specific gene markers. Our findings define the important role of dynamic compression combined with SOX-9 overexpression during in vitro generation of tissue-engineering cartilage and suggest that a 3D gradual porous PLGA composite scaffold may benefit articular cartilage tissue engineering in cartilage regeneration for better force distribution. PMID:26123537

  18. Influence of different oxygen partial pressures on cytokines secreted from human adipose-derived stem cells%不同氧分压时人脂肪干细胞细胞因子的分泌

    姜亦瑶; 刘晓程; 裴宇; 朱德琳

    2013-01-01

    背景:不同氧分压对人脂肪来源干细胞分泌细胞因子的影响目前尚未定论,这些差异可能由于研究者对于氧分压的选取不同而造成影响。  目的:检测不同氧分压对人脂肪来源干细胞分泌细胞因子的影响。  方法:体外分离培养人脂肪来源干细胞进行免疫表型进行鉴定。将人脂肪来源干细胞分别在1%,3%,5%,10%,21%氧分压的环境中培养24 h后,使用实时定量PCR和酶联免疫吸附法对人脂肪来源干细胞分泌的血管内皮生长因子、肝细胞生长因子、神经细胞生长因子、角质细胞生长因子,在基因水平以及蛋白水平上进行检测分析。  结果与结论:人脂肪来源的人脂肪来源干细胞阳性表达 CD71,CD73,CD90,CD105,阴性表达 CD34, CD45,CD54及HLA-DR。经单因素方差分析统计,在基因水平上,低氧环境(体积分数1%,3%氧)均可促进人脂肪来源干细胞显著性高表达血管内皮生长因子、神经生长因子(P均0.05)。在蛋白水平上,低氧促进人脂肪来源干细胞分泌肝细胞生长因子、血管内皮生长因子蛋白(P均 OBJECTIVE:To investigate the influence of different oxygen partial pressures on cytokines secreted from human adipose-derived stem cells. METHODS:Human adipose-derived stem cells were cultured in vitro and identified by its immunophenotype. Human adipose-derived stem cells were divided into five groups and cultured under different oxygen partial pressure conditions (1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, 21%) for 24 hours, respectively. With quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the secretion of cytokines, vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, nerve growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor, from human adipose-derived stem cells were analyzed on the gene and protein levels. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Human adipose-derived stem cells were positive for CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105 and

  19. Successful closure of persistent oro-cutaneous fistulas by injection of autologous adipose-derived stem cells: a case report [Erfolgreiche Behandlung persistierender oro-kutaner Fisteln durch Injektion mit autologen Fettstammzellen: ein Fallbericht

    Föll, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: Oro-cutaneous fistulas are a possible complication of oro-facial surgery. If recurrent they are difficult to treat and greatly affect the patient's functional and aesthetic integrity besides carrying the risk of infection. Usage of concentrated adipose-derived stem cells for chronic wounds is a new and experimental treatment strategy, so far only applied in a few selected studies. We report the case of two oro-cutaneous fistulas in one patient treated with adipose-derived stem cells leading to closure of the fistulas.Case description: The patient was a 57-year old female immunosuppressed liver and kidney recipient who presented with a large mandibular and soft tissue defect after resection and irradiation of a squamous-cell carcinoma of the tongue base. After radical debridement, hardware removal and soft tissue reconstruction using a second free flap two oro-cutaneous fistulas reoccurred. Conventional surgical methods failed to consolidate the fistulas due to the severe radiation of the oral mucosa. Therefore autologous adipose-derived stem cells were extracted from lipoaspirate and applied in the surrounding fistula tissue in one session using the Cytori Celution system. The fistulas closed spontaneously during the postoperative course within 4 weeks and remain closed after 6 months.Conclusion: To our knowledge this is the first report of successful application of adipose-derived stem cells to two oro-cutaneous fistulas. Innovative stem cell therapy in combination with well established surgical methods can be a useful treatment strategy in certain cases.[german] Einleitung: Oro-kutane Fisteln sind eine mögliche Komplikation eines oro-fazialen Eingriffs. Bei Therapieresistenz können solche Fisteln zu hohem Leidensdruck führen und stellen eine ständige Infektionsgefahr dar. Die Applikation von konzentrierten Stammzellen aus Fettgewebe zur Behandlung chronischer Wunden ist eine neue und experimentelle Therapiestrategie

  20. Fluorescent supermagnetic nanoparticles-labeled adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the three-dimensional culture system%荧光磁性纳米粒子标记三维培养系统中的脂肪间充质干细胞

    吕品雷; 苏约翰; 崔大祥; 汪铮

    2015-01-01

    背景:荧光磁性纳米粒子具有量子点和磁粒子的双重特质,生物相容性好,能够被胞吞入细胞质高效地标记细胞。目的:验证荧光磁性纳米粒子标记人脂肪间充质干细胞的可行性。方法:抽脂术抽取健康人脂肪组织,采用Ⅰ型胶原酶消化法分离,贴壁培养纯化人脂肪间充质干细胞。取第6代脂肪间充质干细胞与荧光磁性纳米粒子孵育过夜,采用普鲁士蓝染色、激光共聚焦显微镜检测体外标记细胞情况,荧光成像系统观察荧光磁性纳米粒子标记的干细胞体内示踪效果。结果与结论:普鲁士蓝染色显示荧光磁性纳米粒子以蓝色颗粒的形式分散于脂肪间充质细胞胞质中。激光共聚焦显微镜观察显示人脂肪间充质干细胞的细胞核被Hoechest33258染成蓝色,细胞质被标记成绿色;荧光成像结果表明标记的人脂肪间充质干细胞具有很好的成像效果。结果提示荧光磁性纳米粒子可以作为示踪剂在体外标记人脂肪间充质干细胞,为脂肪间充质干细胞的移植转化研究提供新方法。%BACKGROUND:Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles with the properties of quantum dots and magnetic particles have good biocompatibility, and can label cels effectively through endocytosis. OBJECTIVE:To validate the feasibility of fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles in labeling human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels. METHODS:Healthy human adipose tissue was extracted and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels were isolatedin vitro by type I colagenase digestion. Passage 6 cels were incubated with the fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles overnight. Prussian blue staining and laser scanning confocal microscope were used to observe labeled adipose-derived mesenchymal stem celsin vitro after co-culturing with fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles. The tracing effect of labeled adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels in vivo was detected by fluorescence

  1. Allogeneic Platelet Releasate Preparations Derived via a Novel Rapid Thrombin Activation Process Promote Rapid Growth and Increased BMP-2 and BMP-4 Expression in Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Michael McLaughlin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The administration of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs represents a promising regenerative therapy for the treatment of orthopedic injuries. While ASCs can be easily isolated from liposuction-derived adipose tissue, most clinical applications will likely require in vitro culture expansion of these cells using nonxenogeneic components. In this study, platelet releasate was generated using a novel rapid thrombin activation method (tPR. ASCs grown in media supplemented with tPR proliferated much faster than ASCs grown in media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The cells also retained the ability to differentiate along chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic lineages. The tPR cultured ASCs displayed elevated expression of BMP-4 (5.7 ± 0.97-fold increase and BMP-2 (4.7 ± 1.3-fold increase and decreased expression of PDGF-B (4.0 ± 1.4-fold decrease and FGF-2 (33 ± 9.0-fold decrease. No significant changes in expression were seen with TGF-β and VEGF. This pattern of gene expression was consistent across different allogeneic tPR samples and different ASC lines. The use of allogeneic rapidly activated tPR to culture ASCs is associated with both an increased cell yield and a defined gene expression profile making it an attractive option for cell expansion prior to cell-based therapy for orthopedic applications.

  2. Inhibition of Viability, Proliferation, Cytokines Secretion, Surface Antigen Expression, and Adipogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells by Seven-Day Exposure to 0.5 T Static Magnetic Fields

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After seven-day exposure to 0.5-Tesla Static Magnetic Field (SMF, Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASCs and those labeled by superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles were examined for viability by methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay, proliferation by cell counting and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation, DNA integrity by single cell gel electrophoresis, surface antigen by flow cytometry analysis, and the expression of cytokines and genetic markers by reverse transcription-PCR and underwent adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation assessed by quantifying related specific genes expression. The SMF slightly reduced cell viability and proliferation and inhibited the expression of CD49d, CD54, and CD73 but did not damage DNA integrity. The SMF slightly downregulated the expression of cytokines including Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1, Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1, genetic markers comprising Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Sca1, Octamer-4 (Oct-4, ATP-binding Cassette Subfamily B Member 1 (ABCB1, adipogenic marker genes containing Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPAR-γ, and osteogenic marker genes including Secreted Phosphor-protein 1 (SPP1 and Osterix (OSX. Exposure to 0.5 T SMF for seven days inhibited viability, proliferation, surface antigen expression, cytokine secretion, stem cell genetic marker expression, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation but did not affect the DNA integrity in ASCs with or without SPIO labeling.

  3. Intraoperative engineering of osteogenic grafts combining freshly harvested, human adipose-derived cells and physiological doses of bone morphogenetic protein-2

    A Mehrkens

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Engineered osteogenic constructs for bone repair typically involve complex and costly processes for cell expansion. Adipose tissue includes mesenchymal precursors in large amounts, in principle allowing for an intraoperative production of osteogenic grafts and their immediate implantation. However, stromal vascular fraction (SVF cells from adipose tissue were reported to require a molecular trigger to differentiate into functional osteoblasts. The present study tested whether physiological doses of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 could induce freshly harvested human SVF cells to generate ectopic bone tissue. Enzymatically dissociated SVF cells from 7 healthy donors (1 x 106 or 4 x 106 were immediately embedded in a fibrin gel with or without 250 ng rhBMP-2, mixed with porous silicated calcium-phosphate granules (Actifuse®, Apatech (final construct size: 0.1 cm3 and implanted ectopically for eight weeks in nude mice. In the presence of rhBMP-2, SVF cells not only supported but directly contributed to the formation of bone ossicles, which were not observed in control cell-free, rhBMP-2 loaded implants. In vitro analysis indicated that rhBMP-2 did not involve an increase in the percentage of SVF cells recruited to the osteogenic lineage, but rather induced a stimulation of the osteoblastic differentiation of the committed progenitors. These findings confirm the feasibility of generating fully osteogenic grafts using an easily accessible autologous cell source and low amounts of rhBMP-2, in a timing compatible with an intraoperative schedule. The study warrants further investigation at an orthotopic site of implantation, where the delivery of rhBMP-2 could be bypassed thanks to the properties of the local milieu.

  4. 脂肪源性干细胞临床转化应用中的相关问题%RELATED ISSUES IN CLINICAL TRANSLATIONAL APPLICATION OF ADIPOSE-DERIVED STEM CELLS

    刘宏伟; 程飚; 付小兵

    2012-01-01

    目的 对近年来国内外有关脂肪源性干细胞(adipose-derived stem cells,ASCs)在临床转化应用中应该或必须关注的问题进行综述.方法 广泛查阅近年相关文献,对ASCs生产和使用过程中有关产品的管理、生产、运输、使用、安全性等方面进行综合分析.结果 ASCs作为成体干细胞家族的新成员在再生医学领域展现了广阔的应用前景.目前在美国国立卫生研究院(NIH)的http://www.clinicaltrials.gov网站上已注册登记的在15个国家进行的临床试验达40多个,说明世界范围内从事干细胞研究和应用的学者对ASCs临床转化应用的浓厚兴趣和重视.在临床转化应用中,ASCs产品存在管理,生产应遵循的质量控制标准,病原微生物污染的预防措施,分离过程中对酶和相关试剂的要求,取材过程中供区、年龄和性别可能的影响,低温贮藏,产品运输以及安全性等一系列问题.结论 ASCs作为成体干细胞具有较好的临床转化应用优点,在临床应用中对其存在的问题必须给予高度重视和进一步研究,以加速其临床转化过程.%Objective To introduce the related issues in the clinical translational application of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Methods The latest papers were extensively reviewed, concerning the issues of ASCs production, management, transportation, use, and safety during clinical application. Results ASCs, as a new member of adult stem cells family, bring to wide application prospect in the field of regenerative medicine. Over 40 clinical trials using ASCs conducted in 15 countries have been registered on the website (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), suggesting that ASCs represents a promising approach to future cell-based therapies. In the clinical translational application, the related issues included the quality control standard that management and production should follow, the prevention measures of

  5. Effect of solid freeform fabrication-based polycaprolactone/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/collagen scaffolds on cellular activities of human adipose-derived stem cells and rat primary hepatocytes.

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Arthur Joon; Park, Ju Young; Yi, Namwoo; Kang, Inhye; Park, Jaesung; Rhie, Jong-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2013-04-01

    Highly biocompatible polycaprolactone (PCL)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/collagen scaffolds in which the PCL/PLGA collagen solution was selectively dispensed into every other space between the struts were fabricated using solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technology, as we described previously. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the PCL/PLGA/collagen scaffolds (group 3) with PCL/PLGA-only scaffolds (group 1) and PCL/PLGA scaffolds with collagen by the dip-coating method (group 2) using human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and rat primary hepatocytes. The selectively dispensed collagen formed a three-dimensional (3D) network of nanofibers in group 3, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The compressive strength and modulus of group 3 were approximately 140 and 510 times higher, respectively, than those of a sponge-type collagen scaffold whose weak mechanical properties were regarded as a critical drawback. Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hASCs were promoted significantly in group 3 compared to groups 1 and 2. In addition, we found that the viability and albumin secretion ability of rat primary hepatocytes were highly retained for 10 days in group 3 but not group 1. Interestingly, hepatocyte aggregation, which enhances hepatic function through cell-cell interactions, was observed particularly in group 3. In conclusion, group 3, in which the collagen was selectively dispensed in the 3D space of the porous PCL/PLGA framework, will be a promising 3D scaffold for culturing various cell types. PMID:23430333

  6. Curcumin-Induced Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Prevents H2O2-Induced Cell Death in Wild Type and Heme Oxygenase-2 Knockout Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Niels A. J. Cremers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC administration is a promising adjuvant therapy to treat tissue injury. However, MSC survival after administration is often hampered by oxidative stress at the site of injury. Heme oxygenase (HO generates the cytoprotective effector molecules biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide (CO and iron/ferritin by breaking down heme. Since HO-activity mediates anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects, we hypothesized that modulation of the HO-system affects MSC survival. Adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs from wild type (WT and HO-2 knockout (KO mice were isolated and characterized with respect to ASC marker expression. In order to analyze potential modulatory effects of the HO-system on ASC survival, WT and HO-2 KO ASCs were pre-treated with HO-activity modulators, or downstream effector molecules biliverdin, bilirubin, and CO before co-exposure of ASCs to a toxic dose of H2O2. Surprisingly, sensitivity to H2O2-mediated cell death was similar in WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. However, pre-induction of HO-1 expression using curcumin increased ASC survival after H2O2 exposure in both WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. Simultaneous inhibition of HO-activity resulted in loss of curcumin-mediated protection. Co-treatment with glutathione precursor N-Acetylcysteine promoted ASC survival. However, co-incubation with HO-effector molecules bilirubin and biliverdin did not rescue from H2O2-mediated cell death, whereas co-exposure to CO-releasing molecules-2 (CORM-2 significantly increased cell survival, independently from HO-2 expression. Summarizing, our results show that curcumin protects via an HO-1 dependent mechanism against H2O2-mediated apoptosis, and likely through the generation of CO. HO-1 pre-induction or administration of CORMs may thus form an attractive strategy to improve MSC therapy.

  7. Adipose-derived stem cells from lean and obese humans show depot specific differences in their stem cell markers, exosome contents and senescence: role of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) in adipose stem cell niche

    Patel, Rekha S.; Carter, Gay; El Bassit, Ghattas; Patel, Achintya A.; Cooper, Denise R.; Murr, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and its exosomes are gaining utmost importance in the field of regenerative medicine. The ASCs tested for their potential in wound healing are predominantly derived from the subcutaneous depot of lean donors. However, it is important to characterize the ASC derived from different adipose depots as these depots have clinically distinct roles. Methods We characterized the ASC derived from subcutaneous and omental depots from a lean donor (sc-ASCn and om-ASCn) and compared it to the ASC derived from an obese donor (sc-ASCo and om-ASCo) using flow cytometry and real time qPCR. Results We show that stem cell markers Oct4, Sal4, Sox15, KLF4 and BMI1 have distinct expression patterns in each ASC. We evaluated the secretome of the ASC and characterized their secreted exosomes. We show long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are secreted by ASC and their expression varied between the ASC’s derived from different depots. Protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) regulates the mitogenic signals in stem cells. We evaluated the effect of silencing PKCδ in sc-ASCn, om-ASCn, sc-ASCo and om-ASCo. Using β-galactosidase staining, we evaluated the percentage of senescent cells in sc-ASCn, om-ASCn, sc-ASCo and om-ASCo. Our results also indicated that silencing PKCδ increases the percentage of senescent cells. Conclusions Our case-specific study demonstrates a role of PKCδ in maintaining the adipose stem cell niche and importantly demonstrates depot-specific differences in adipose stem cells and their exosome content. PMID:27358894

  8. Loss-of-Function of HtrA1 Abrogates All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of Mouse Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Through Deficiencies in p70S6K Activation.

    Glanz, Stephan; Mirsaidi, Ali; López-Fagundo, Cristina; Filliat, Gladys; Tiaden, André N; Richards, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a potent inducer of osteogenic differentiation in mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (mASCs), although the underlying mechanisms responsible for its mode of action have yet to be completely elucidated. High temperature requirement protease A1 (HtrA1) is a newly recognized modulator of human multipotent stromal cell (MSC) osteogenesis and as such, may play a role in regulating ATRA-dependent osteogenic differentiation of mASCs. In this study, we assessed the influence of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced repression of HtrA1 production on mASC osteogenesis and examined its effects on ATRA-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Inhibition of HtrA1 production in osteogenic mASCs resulted in a significant reduction of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation. Western blot analyses revealed the rapid activation of Akt (Ser473) and p70S6K (Thr389) in ATRA-treated mASCs, and that levels of phosphorylated p70S6K were noticeably reduced in HtrA1-deficient mASCs. Further studies using mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and siRNA specific for the p70S6K gene Rps6kb1 confirmed ATRA-mediated mASC osteogenesis as being dependent on p70S6K activation. Finally, transfection of cells with a constitutively active rapamycin-resistant p70S6K mutant could restore the mineralizing capacity of HtrA1-deficient mASCs. These findings therefore lend further support for HtrA1 as a positive mediator of MSC osteogenesis and provide new insights into the molecular mode of action of ATRA in regulating mASC lineage commitment. PMID:26950191

  9. Automated enumeration and viability measurement of canine stromal vascular fraction cells using fluorescence-based image cytometry method.

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Cohen, Donald A; Kuksin, Dmitry; Paradis, Benjamin D; Qiu, Jean

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the lipoaspirate collected from adipose tissue has been seen as a valuable source of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for autologous cellular therapy. For multiple applications, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue. Because the fresh stromal vascular fraction typically contains a heterogeneous mixture of cells, determining cell concentration and viability is a crucial step in preparing fraction samples for downstream processing. Due to a large amount of cellular debris contained in the SVF sample, as well as counting irregularities standard manual counting can lead to inconsistent results. Advancements in imaging and optics technologies have significantly improved the image-based cytometric analysis method. In this work, we validated the use of fluorescence-based image cytometry for SVF concentration and viability measurement, by comparing to standard flow cytometry and manual hemocytometer. The concentration and viability of freshly collected canine SVF samples are analyzed, and the results highly correlated between all three methods, which validated the image cytometry method for canine SVF analysis, and potentially for SVF from other species. PMID:24740550

  10. 维甲酸和睾酮单独与联合诱导脂肪源干细胞周期的变化%Retinoic acid, testosterone or their combination affects the cell cycle of adipose-derived stem cells

    段富华; 曾文钦; 杨春; 杨会营; 余美春; 陶晖; 戴景兴; 原林

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The researches about the effect of retinoic acid on the proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells are rare, and the researches on the testosterone are mainly on the inhibition of cellaging. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of retinoic acid and testosterone or combination on the cellcycle of adipose derived stem cells. METHODS:Adipose derived stem cells were isolated from adult female Sprague Dawley rats with 2 months age and cultured in vitro til passage 3 adipose derived stem cells, and then the 3rd passage adipose-derived stem cells were performed with adipogenic induction, osteogenic induction and surface marker identification. The cells were divided into six groups:(1) Control group;(2) 10-5 mol/L retinoic acid group;(3) Retinoic acid group;(4) 10-5 mol/L retinoic acid+testosterone group;(5) 10-6 mol/L retinoic acid+testosterone group;(6) Testosterone group. The adipose-derived stem cells in the control group were cultured with Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium+10%fetal bovine serum culture medium, and the adipose-derived stem cells in the other five groups were induced with corresponding dose of retinoic acid and testosterone on the basis of control group. After cultured for 36 hours, the flow cytometry was used to detect the changes of cellcycle. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Compared with the control group, cellproportions in phase G 1 of 10-5 mol/L retinoic acid group and 10-6 mol/L retinoic acid group were increased significantly, and the cellproportions in phase S were decreased. Compared with control group, the cellproportion in phase G 1 of testosterone group was significantly reduced, and the cellproportion in phase S was increased. Compared with 10-5 mol/L retinoic acid group and 10-6 mol/L retinoic acid group, cellproportions in phase G 1 of 10-5 mol/L retinoic acid+testosterone group and 10-6 mol/L retinoic acid+testosterone group were reduced significantly and the cellproportions in phase S were increased. Retinoic acid can inhibit the

  11. Treatment of facial depression deformity with autologous adipose-derived stem cells combined with fat transplantation%自体脂肪源性干细胞辅助脂肪移植治疗面部凹陷畸形

    宋起滨; 刘晓燕; 陶凯; 梁久龙; 于鲲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨自体脂肪源性干细胞辅助脂肪移植治疗面部凹陷畸形的可行性和临床效果.方法 预估面部凹陷畸形软组织缺损量,吸脂或切脂获取脂肪组织,采用标准分离、纯化程序获取人自体脂肪来源干细胞,将干细胞与颗粒脂肪混合体,用螺旋推进注射器施行皮下软组织缺损区移植.采用面型观察、B超、MRI检查确定临床疗效.定期判定随访患者对治疗效果的满意度.结果 本组共23例患者,术后随访1~24个月,未发现感染、硬结、皮下包块、囊肿或其他并发症.治疗后,畸形明显改善者14例,有效者9例.结论 自体脂肪源性干细胞辅助脂肪移植治疗面部凹陷畸形,其操作方法安全、有效,临床效果明显.%Objective To evaluate the feasibility and clinical effect of autologous adipose-derived stem cells ( ADSCs ) combined with fat transplantation for the treatment of facial depression deformity. Methods The absent volume of the facial soft tissue was estimated preoperatively. Adipose tissue was harvested by liposuction or lipectomy, and the adipose tissue was separated and purified under the standard process to harvest ADSCs. The mixture of ADSCs and the granular adipose tissue was injected subcutaneously by push-type syringe with spiracle to the defective area. The clinical effects were evaluated by facial-shaped observation, B-ultrasound and MRI. The degree of satisfaction was evaluated by regular follow-up. Results After 1 to 24 months follow-up, 14 cases received excellence results, 9 cases received effective results, and the satisfaction rate was 87% . There were few complications such as infection, sclerosis, subcutaneous lump and cyst occurring. Conclusion The application of autologous ADSCs combined with fat transplantation for the facial depression deformity is safe and effective in clinic. It can obtain a good clinical result.

  12. Hearing restoration in a deaf animal model with transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from guinea pigs%豚鼠脂肪间充质干细胞植入耳聋模型修复听力的作用

    王晓燕; 吉彬; 李兵兵; 毕晓娟; 刘立中

    2014-01-01

    背景:脂肪间充质干细胞是否是治疗因毛细胞退化、缺失所造成的感音神经性聋的福音呢?目的:探讨豚鼠脂肪间充质干细胞经耳蜗鼓阶途径植入感音神经性耳聋动物模型后对听力的修复作用。方法:庆大霉素腹腔注射建立豚鼠感音神经性耳聋动物模型,耳蜗鼓阶途径植入豚鼠脂肪间充质干细胞,分别于植入后1,3周检测听性脑干反应,观察植入脂肪间充质干细胞后耳聋动物听力的变化;并追踪EDU标记的豚鼠脂肪间充质干细胞在耳蜗内的迁移及分布情况。结果与结论:在植入后1周及3周进行听性脑干反应检测,听力较移植前逐渐好转。植入细胞后1周,细胞大多分布在外淋巴液中,部分迁移至耳蜗柯蒂器贴附于基底膜上,植入细胞后3周,细胞不仅迁移并贴附在Corti器基底膜发挥作用,而且部分迁移到蜗神经,植入时间越长,存活细胞越少。结果表明豚鼠脂肪间充质干细胞通过耳蜗鼓阶途径微孔植入,可以定向迁移并存活最终达到提高听力的目的。%BACKGROUND:Can adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells be used to treat sensorineural deafness caused by hair celldegeneration and loss? OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from guinea pigs transplanted via the scala tympani on the recovery from sensorineural hearing in an animal model. METHODS:Intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin was performed to prepare sensorineural deafness models in guinea pigs. Then, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from guinea pig were transplanted via the scala tympani. After 1 and 3 weeks, auditory brainstem responses were detected to observe the hearing variation after adipose-derived mesenchymal stem celltransplantation. Meanwhile, the migration and distribution of EDU-labeled adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the cochlea were traced. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After 1 and 3

  13. 人脂肪干细胞脂向分化中长非编码RNA的差异表达%Differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs in adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    岳文峻; 王香梅; 张芹; 黄海华; 韦有万; 彭智

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The obesity has led to a plenty of diseases including hypertension, coronary heart disease, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of adipocyte differentiation is of far-reaching significance to the prevention and treatment of obesity. For the current studies of the mechanism of adipocyte differentiation pay more attention to microRNA, rather than long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). OBJECTIVE:To obtain the lncRNAs whose fold change was apparent during adipogenic differentiation, and to further screen the lncRNAs that possibly play a crucial role in adipogenic differentiation for verification. METHODS:Subcutaneous fat was obtained from human abdomen. Adipose-derived stem cells were col ected using tissue culture method. The third passage of adipose-derived stem cells was used for adipogenic differentiation. Through microarray technology, the expression levels of lncRNAs and mRNA were analyzed at 0, 5 and 12 days in adipogenic differentiation. Combining with bioinformatics report, lncRNAs apparently presented fold change were screened and verified by qRT-PCR. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Fold change 1.5 (P<0.05) was considered as a criterion during adipogenic differentiation. The number of up-regulated lncRNAs was 748 for 5 days versus 0 day, 847 for 12 days versus 0 days, 593 for 12 days versus 5 days. At the same time, the down-regulated number was 828 for 5 days versus 0 day, 1 113 for 12 days versus 0 day, 750 for 12 days versus 5 days during adipogenic differentiation. In combination with bioinformatics analysis results, 3 of 28 lncRNAs were related to lipid metabolism:AK304548, BP216319 and DA852857, according to the standard that fold change in 0, 5 and 12 days was higher, and the target genes were known to be associated with adipogenesis-related genes. PCR results showed that the expression of AK304548 and BP216319 and its target gene presented an up-down trend, which is consistent with the microarray

  14. 间接共培养环境下脂肪干细胞诱导分化的研究%Induced Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Indirect Co-culture

    庞坤; 曲鑫健; 郭文华; 王海; 孙玉波; 王子栋; 齐志明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To build an indirect co-culture system for adipose-derived stem cells( ADSCs) and tenocytes in vitro, explore the differentiation mechanism of ADSCs,and provide a reference for the clinical applications in treatment of tendinopathy. Methods The isolated tenocytes of rabbits was cultured. ADSCs were collected in vitro and be expanded. Rabbit blood was prepared and had plasma activated to get the plasma extraction. An indirect co-culture system was established by using co-culture kit of 0.4 μm to ensure circulation of culture fluid and avoid direct contact of cells. An additional PRP was added and indirect co-culture group was set up. The corresponding protein levels of tenomodulin(TNMD) and type I collagen by immunohistochemistry methods at various time points(3,7,14 d) to study the secretion of extra cellular matrix and differentiation of ADSCs induced by the co-culture environment. Results On the 14th day,the results of immunohistochemical staining were measured for statistical analysis. The statistical data showed that experimental groups had a notable higher type I collagen and TNMD expression than the negative control but lower than the positive control. The expression in the PRP group was higher than that in the stem cells group. Conclusion The type I Collagen and TNMD expression of ADSCs could be induced by the environment of being co-cultured with tenocytes. There is some significant effect of PRP on the secretion of extra cellular matrix of ADSCs in the environment of co-culture.%目的 肌腱病的治疗是临床的难点,脂肪干细胞(ADSCs)具有多向分化潜能,为肌腱病的治疗提供了新思路.此课题在体外构建ADSCs与肌腱细胞的间接共培养模式以探索其机制,为其临床应用提供参考.方法 分别采集培养兔肌腱细胞和ADSCs及富血小板血浆(PRP).选用孔径为0.4 μm的共培养嵌盒和6孔板来构建间接共培养模式.分别将P3代肌腱细胞、ADSCs接种于内、外室,另

  15. Tissue engineered tympanic membrane repairment materials with adipose-derived stem cells%大鼠脂肪干细胞构建组织工程化鼓膜修复材料的初步研究

    雷蕙嘉; 孙建军; 刘阳; 李雪盛; 彭本刚

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察大鼠脂肪干细胞(adipose-derived stem cell,ASC)在聚乳酸-羟基乙酸共聚物(polylactic-co-glycolic acid,PLGA)支架上的生长状态、分裂增殖能力及黏附性,为进一步构建组织工程化鼓膜修复材料提供实验参考.方法 以Wistar大鼠为研究对象,分离其ASC,并与PLGA支架材料复合培养.分别行细胞波形蛋白(Vimentin)和Ki67免疫荧光染色,激光共聚焦显微镜下观察ASC在PLGA支架上的生长状态及分裂增殖能力.扫描电镜观察ASC与PLGA的黏附性.结果 Vimentin免疫荧光结果显示ASC在PLGA支架材料中生长状态良好,排列有序;ASC在PLGA支架上能正常活跃增殖,Ki67平均阳性指数((x)±s)为(8.21±1.76)%,对照组(未放支架材料,直接生长的ASC) Ki67平均阳性指数为(9.06±1.95)%,两组间差异无统计学意义(=1.03,P=0.30).扫描电镜结果显示,ASC与支架材料有较好的黏附性,伪足清晰可见,增殖的细胞间连接紧密.结论 大鼠ASC与PLGA有较好的相容性,可以在PLGA上正常黏附、增殖.%Objective To explore the morphology.,proliferative activity and adhesion of adiposederived stem cells (ASC) seeded in the polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold,and to provide experimental data for fabricating tissue engineered tympanic membrane repairment materials.Methods Wistar rats were selected,and the ASC were isolated and co-cultured with the PLGA scaffold. The morphology and proliferative activity of ASC in the scaffold were examined by immunofluorescence of Vimentin and Ki67 respectively.All the immunofluorescence signals were analyzed by a confocal laser scan microscopy system FLUOVIEW FV1000.The adhesion of ASC to the PLGA scalfold was determined by scanning electron microscopy.Results Immunofluorescence of vimentin showed rats ASC displayed normal morphology and grew orderly in the PLGA scalfold.Immunofluorescence of Ki67 showed the normal active proliferation of ASC in the scaffolds.The Ki67 mean

  16. 杆状病毒修饰后的脂肪干细胞移植治疗mdx鼠的实验研究%The Study of Baculovirus Modiifed Adipose-derived Stem Cells Tranplantation on mdx Mice

    孔杰; 操基清; 陈菲; 杨娟; 张成

    2015-01-01

    目的:利用经杆状病毒基因载体系统进行micro-dystrophin基因修饰后的脂肪干细胞(ADSCs)移植治疗Duchenne型肌营养不良症模型(mdx)鼠,探讨ADSCs移植治疗DMD的安全性及可行性。方法 Mdx鼠60只,分为mdx对照组(30只)和mdx移植组(30只);正常C57小鼠为C57对照组(30只)。体外分离培养小鼠ADSCs,利用杆状病毒基因载体进行micro-dystrophin基因修饰;将基因修饰后的ADSCs经尾静脉移植到mdx鼠体内。于移植后检测mdx鼠的运动功能(采用主动牵引实验和被动转棒实验)、血清CK水平、肌肉病理改变以及肌肉micro-dystrophin表达水平。结果经micro-dystrophin基因修饰的ADSCs移植后,能够重建mdx鼠的micro-dystrophin表达,一定程度上减轻并逆转肌肉的病理损害,进而降低血清CK水平,mdx鼠整体运动功能也有一定改善。结论 ADSCs治疗mdx鼠后,可部分重建模型鼠的dystrophin表达,改善肌肉的病理损害,表明ADSCs是有希望治愈DMD的方法之一。%Aim To explore the safety and feasibility of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transplantation on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) treatment, in which gene defect on mdx mouse was repaired with recombinant baculovirus carrying micro-dystrophin. Methods Adipose stem cells of mdx mouse were isolated and cultured in vitro. Gene defect was repaired with recombinant baculovirus. The modiifed stem cells were injected DMD mouse model through tail vein. Motor function, serum CK levels, muscle pathology and muscle dystrophin expression were observed after transplantation. Results After transplantation, micro-dystrophin expression in DMD mouse model could be rebuilt, pathological damage on muscles and serum CK levels were reduced, motor function of mouse model showed improvement. Conclusion After transplantation, gene expression can be partially reconstructed, pathological damage can be improved. These results suggested that stem cell

  17. Fractional Echoes

    Karras, G; Billard, F; Lavorel, B; Siour, G; Hartmann, J -M; Faucher, O; Gershnabel, Erez; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of fractional echoes in a double-pulse excited nonlinear system. Unlike standard echoes which appear periodically at delays which are integer multiple of the delay between the two exciting pulses, the fractional echoes appear at rational fractions of this delay. We discuss the mechanism leading to this phenomenon, and provide the first experimental demonstration of fractional echoes by measuring third harmonic generation in a thermal gas of CO2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.

  18. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  19. Fractional thermoelasticity

    Povstenko, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

  20. 大鼠脂肪干细胞体外诱导分化为胰岛样细胞%Rat adipose derived stem cells differentiate into islet-like cells in vitro

    房艳; 刘雷; 宋慧娟; 单伟; 曾瑞霞; 李德华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore reliable methods to induce rat adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) into islet-like cells. Methods: Rat ADSCs dissociated from inguinal adipose tissue were cultured, and identified by morphological features and specific surface antigens by using flow cytometry. Three different reagents, including nicotinamide (N), activin (A) and glucagon-like pep-tide 1 (G), were used to induce the ADSCs towards islet-like cells with four different combinations: NA. NG, AG, and NAG. Besides of morphological change, the secretion of insulin and C-peptide was detected by ELISA assay, and zinc-ion was observed by di-thizone staining. Additionally, the expressions of genes related (3 cell were analyzed using RT-PCR. Results: The rat ADSCs were long spindle in shape, just like fibroblast, and positive against CD44, weak positive to CD49d, and negative to CD31 and CD106. After being induced by AG and NAG for 14 days, the cells became to round and their refraction was enhanced. One week later, the cell incubated with NAG were found to be as islet-like cell clusters with positive to dithizone staining. And, the detectable insulin and C peptide of these cells were statistically higher than those in other treated cells. The expression of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) gene was detected only in AG and NAG treated cells after induction being maintained for 14 days. The expressions of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT 2), insulin 2, insulin 1 and PDX1 were detectable in AG and NAG group on day 21. However, expression levels of these genes in AG treated cells were significantly lower than those in cells induced by NAG, which were similar to those in normal islet of rats. Conclusion: The rat ADSCs possesses stem cell properties, and can be differentiated into functional islet-like cells with the presence of NAG.%目的:探索大鼠脂肪干细胞(ADSCs)向胰岛样细胞诱导分化的诱导方案.方法:取SD大鼠腹股沟区脂肪组织,酶消化法分离培养ADSCs,

  1. Isolation of human adipose-derived stem cells and the identification of biological characteristics%人脂肪源性干细胞的分离及生物学性状的鉴定

    王洁晴; 柏树令; 侯伟健; 佟浩; 田晓红; 徐赫

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a method to isolate and culture adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from the human liposuction aspirates, and conduct observations of the cell morphology、 growth kinetics、 surface markers and differentiating capacity. Method Adipose tissues were obtained from 4 healthy adult women who were experienced abdominal liposuction. ASCs, from liposuction aspirates, were isolated by enzymatic digestion, and were cultured to passage 20, the morphology of the cultured cells was observed. The cell viability was evaluated with MTT, and compared among passage 3,9, 15 and 20. Cell growth curve was generated. The cell cycle and the surface marker profiles were detected by flow cytometry. Adipogenic differentiation and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs was assessed by oil red O and Alizarin Red staining respectively. Results The ASCs present a vortex pattern growth with a fibroblast-like appearance,and as shown by MTT, proliferation activity was strong when they subcultured to passage 15, then gradually slowed down,significantly reduced when they passed to passage 20. Statistical analysis showed that passage 20 and passage 3,9,15 were significantly different (P < 0.05 ). ASCs also showed characteristics of stem cell cycle. The positive expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers CD90, CD44 and negative expression of hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34, the blood cell marker CD45 ,the endothelial cell marker CD31 were observed in ASCs by flow cytometry. In addition, the expression of CD49d was low and of CD106 was negative. Oil red O staining of ASCs after adipogenic induction demonstrated numerous intracellular lipid droplets. Calcium nodules could seen after osteogenic induction and Alizarin red staining was positive. Conclusion ASCs can be isolated from human liposuction aspirates and expressing cell surface markers of stem cells with strong proliferative ability. ASCs also can be induced to differentiate into adipose tissue and osseous tissue under

  2. Clinical outcomes of breast augmentation using fat transplantation with adipose-derived stem cells%脂肪干细胞辅助的自体脂肪移植隆乳术临床疗效分析

    申东辰; 陈月光; 刘炎锋; 徐静文; 徐克森

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of adipose-derived stem cells assist ed fat transplantation. Methods: One hundred patients was enrolled in this research who underwent ADSCs assisted fat. transplantation for breast augmentation from November 2008 to December 2009. Adipose tissue we-: suctioned subcutaneously from lower abdomen or thighs of the patients, and S ml. of ADSCs was abstracted from 100 mL of liposuction aspirates. ADSCs was mixed uniformly with graft material and injected to patients' breast, each one for about 200 mL. The vertical distance was measured between root of nipple and sternal coronal plane before and after surgery, taking the increasing amount to measure augmentation of breast. It was measured 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after surgery, and retention percentage was calculated using 2 weeks' measurement as reference value. Results: Each surgery was completed successfully without severe complication, and almost all the patients were satisfied with the soft and natural-appearing augmentation. Average increase of vertical distance between root of nipple and sternal coronal plane was 14.35 mm, and the retention percentage of 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery was 79.08%, 86.75% and 70.57%, respectively. Differences between 2 weeks and the other three groups, between 1 month and 3 months, 6 months showed significance (P<0.05). And there was no significant difference between 3 months and 6 months after surgery. Difference among different age groups shows no significance except 2 weeks after surgery. Conclusion:ADSCs assisted fat transplantation for breast augmentation is safe and effective, especially excellent in the natural appearing. Fat tissues retained in breastfor 3 months after surgery would survive and maintain the augmentation of breast for long time". Patients of all agegreups may share the same benefit of this technology.%目的:评价脂肪干细胞(ADSCs)辅助的自体脂肪移植隆乳

  3. 来源于乳鼠与成年大鼠的脂肪源性干细胞增殖特性比较%Proliferation characteristics of adipose-derived stem cells from neonatal suckling rats and adult ones

    杜谋选; 李鹏; 蔡颖谦; 邹雨汐; 唐艳萍; 秦玲莎; 姜晓丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the proliferative differences of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from neonatal suckling SD rats (5-d-old) and adult ones under the same culture condition.Methods ADSCs were isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of neonatal suckling SD rats and adult ones,and then,type Ⅰ collagenase digestion was employed to obtain the ADSCs; the morphology of these cells was detected.The expressions of such cell surface markers as CD45,CD29 and CD90 were observed. The number of ADSCs on the 4th d of culture under the same condition and with the same planted density was compared between the neonate and adult rats. In vitro culture of the second generation of ADSCs was performed in the 96-well plates, and CCK-8 and alamar blue kit were employed to compare and quantitate the proliferative differences; optical density was observed by microplate reader. Results The ADSCs from neonatal SD rats and adult ones expressed the stem cell biomarkers: the expression of CD45 was negative, and that of CD29 was 98.04% and 93.17%,respectively,and that of CD90 was 94.92% and 93.3%,respectively,for neonate SD rat and adult ones.The cell counting results indicated that the number of ADSCs from neonatal rats ([8.87±0.13]×105 cells) was larger than that of adult ones ([4.51±0.36]×105 cells) after being cultured under the same condition and at the same planted density. The optical density value of ADSCs in neonatal rats was significantly higher than that in adult ones on the 6th and 7th d of culturing detected by CCK-8 kit and on the 2nd-7th d of culturing by alamar blue assay. Conclusion The proliferative ability of ADSCs from neonatal rats is greater than that of adult ones.%目的 比较来源于出生5dSD乳鼠和成年SD大鼠的脂肪源性干细胞(ADSCs)在同等条件下进行培养时增殖情况的差异. 方法 分别分离乳鼠和成年大鼠皮下脂肪组织并使用Ⅰ型胶原酶消化法获取ADSCs,进行形态学观察.应用流式细

  4. BMP2基因修饰犬脂肪源性基质细胞修复自体大段骨缺损%Repairing canine segmental bone defects using BMP2 gene modified adipose-derived stromal cells

    李慧武; 戴尅戎; 汤亭亭; 张晓玲; 唐坚; 孙晓江; 张双燕; 楼觉人

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate osteogenetic effectiveness of porous β-tricalcium phosphate(β-TCP) ceramic mixed with human bone morphogenetic protein2 gene(Adv-hBMP2)modified adipose derived stromal cells (ADSCs) in the repair of critical-sized bone defects..Methods The ADSCs taken from the back of beagle dogs were modified by the BMP2 gene.The expression and bone-induction ability of BMP2 was identified by ELISA and ectopic bone formation in nude mice.The cells were applied to a β-tricalcium phosphate (TGP)carrier and implanted into ulnar bone defects in the canine model.18 ulnar bone defects were divided into three groups randomly and filled with granular TCP alone,granular TCP and ADSCs,or TCP and ADSCs transduced with Adv-hBMP2 respectively.All dogs were followed clinically and roentgenographically for 16 weeks and then sacrificed.Results ELISA and ectopic bone formation in nude mice showed the recombinant ADSCs could express BMP2 highly and stably.No bone defects healed after implanting granular TCP alone or granular TCP and ADSCs.In the TCP and ADSCs transduced with AdvhBMP2 group,two defects healed,four partly healed.Histological examination showed woven bone at the both end of the cortices but entirelv fibrous tissue in the middle in which defects filled with TCP alone or TCP and ADSCs.Defects filled with TCP and transduced ADSCs showed substatial new bone formation.Histomorphometry showed TCP combined with ADSCs did not significantly increase new bone area compared with TCP alone.TCP and recombinant ADSCs produced a significant increase in newly formed bone area.Conclusion ADSCs tansduced with BMP2 gene in a TCP carrier can enhance bone regeneratmn to repair the critically-sized bone defect.%目的 评价BMP2基因修饰的犬脂肪源性基质细胞(ADSCs)与β-磷酸三钙(β-TCP)复合修复自体大段骨缺损的疗效.方法 从比格犬背部脂肪组织中提取基质细胞,转染腺病毒介导的人BMP2基因(Adv-hBMP2),通过ELISA和裸鼠体

  5. Non-expanded adipose stromal vascular fraction cell therapy for multiple sclerosis

    Rodriguez Jorge

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The stromal vascular fraction (SVF of adipose tissue is known to contain mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, T regulatory cells, endothelial precursor cells, preadipocytes, as well as anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Safety of autologous adipose tissue implantation is supported by extensive use of this procedure in cosmetic surgery, as well as by ongoing studies using in vitro expanded adipose derived MSC. Equine and canine studies demonstrating anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of non-expanded SVF cells have yielded promising results. Although non-expanded SVF cells have been used successfully in accelerating healing of Crohn's fistulas, to our knowledge clinical use of these cells for systemic immune modulation has not been reported. In this communication we discuss the rationale for use of autologous SVF in treatment of multiple sclerosis and describe our experiences with three patients. Based on this rationale and initial experiences, we propose controlled trials of autologous SVF in various inflammatory conditions.

  6. Stromal Vascular Fraction Transplantation as an Alternative Therapy for Ischemic Heart Failure: Anti-inflammatory Role

    Lin Xue

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were: (1 to show the feasibility of using adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF as an alternative to bone marrow mono nuclear cell (BM-MNC for cell transplantation into chronic ischemic myocardium; and (2 to explore underlying mechanisms with focus on anti-inflammation role of engrafted SVF and BM-MNC post chronic myocardial infarction (MI against left ventricular (LV remodelling and cardiac dysfunction. Methods Four weeks after left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, 32 Male Lewis rats with moderate MI were divided into 3 groups. SVF group (n = 12 had SVF cell transplantation (6 × 106 cells. BM-MNC group (n = 12 received BM-MNCs (6 × 106 and the control (n = 10 had culture medium. At 4 weeks, after the final echocardiography, histological sections were stained with Styrus red and immunohistochemical staining was performed for α-smooth muscle actin, von Willebrand factor, CD3, CD8 and CD20. Results At 4 weeks, in SVF and BM-MNC groups, LV diastolic dimension and LV systolic dimension were smaller and fractional shortening was increased in echocardiography, compared to control group. Histology revealed highest vascular density, CD3+ and CD20+ cells in SVF transplanted group. SVF transplantation decreased myocardial mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-1, TIMP-1 and inhibited collagen deposition. Conclusions Transplantation of adipose derived SVF cells might be a useful therapeutic option for angiogenesis in chronic ischemic heart disease. Anti-inflammation role for SVF and BM transplantation might partly benefit for the cardioprotective effect for chronic ischemic myocardium.

  7. Experimental study of acellular nerve and adipose derived stem cells in repairing of nerve defects%去细胞神经复合脂肪干细胞修复神经缺损的实验研究

    高嵩涛; 蔡启卿; 姚伟涛; 王家强; 王鑫; 张鹏

    2015-01-01

    异体神经构建的组织工程化神经能有效地修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损。%Objective To investigate the efficacy of allogenic acellular nerve scaffold and adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs)⁃differentiated Schwann⁃like in repairing the sciatic nerve defect of rats. Methods Thirty healthy F344 inbred rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=15 each). In these groups,a 10⁃mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged with different grafts:allogenic acellular nerve(from SD rat)scaffold in Group A,and allogenic acellular nerve scaffold seeded with Schwann⁃like cells differentiated from ADSCs in Group B. After 6 and 12 weeks,the both groups were compared for recovery rate of sciatic functional index (SFI%) and the neural electrophysiology (NEP) which included recovery rates of motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) of sciatic nerve, compound muscle action potential (CAMP) of gastrocnemius,regenerated myelinated fiber counts,nerve fiber diameter and myelin sheath thickness,as well as histological changes with myelin regeneration under light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy,so as to evaluate the experimental efficacy. Results At 6 and 12 weeks after operation,the Group B appeared advantageous over Group A in SFI%(at 6 weeks,52.38 ± 7.12 vs 46.32 ± 5.13;at 12 weeks,79.99 ± 10.33 vs 72.73 ± 8.06),MNCV recovery rate(at 6 weeks,51.12 ± 8.15 vs 42.54 ± 6.33;at12 weeks,75.93 ± 5.95 vs 69.34 ± 9.13),CAMP recovery rate(at 6 weeks,45.38 ± 4.12 vs 40.52 ± 4.15;at 12 weeks,75.98 ± 10.99 vs 68.24 ± 9.45),regenerated myelinated nerve fiber count recovery rate(at 6 weeks, 44.29±7.52 vs 38.45±6.28;at 12 weeks,77.06±11.54 vs 67.89±11.87),nerve fiber diameter recovery rate (at 6 weeks,43.58 ± 4.87 vs 40.11 ± 4.32;at 12 weeks,83.23 ± 6.32 vs 76.37 ± 9.38),myelin sheath thickness recovery rate(at 6 weeks,46.41±4.35 vs 41.33±4.58;at 12 weeks,83.96±8.31 vs 77.62±7.98) (all P<0.05). Light microscopy revealed that the diameter and number of

  8. Fractional charges

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  9. Fractional statistic

    Bergère, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    We improve Haldane's formula which gives the number of configurations for $N$ particles on $d$ states in a fractional statistic defined by the coupling $g=l/m$. Although nothing is changed in the thermodynamic limit, the new formula makes sense for finite $N=pm+r$ with $p$ integer and $0

  10. Effects of human insulin-like growth factor 1 gene trasfection on adipose-derived stem cells%人胰岛素样生长因子1基因转染脂肪源性干细胞的效应**☆

    张海宁; 丁昌荣; 吕成昱; 王英振; 周峰; 续宗耀

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human insulin-like growth factor 1 gene produces effects on the proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible effects of human insulin-like growth factor 1 gene transfection on the adipose-derived stem cells cultured in vitro. METHODS: The cDNA for human insulin-like growth factor 1 was cloned into the recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-hIGF-1. The adipose-derived stem cells were derived from adipose tissue and cultured in vitro, and then the plasmid was transfected into cells by Lipofectamine 2000. After gene transfection, changes in cel proliferation and morphology were observed. Through the use of inverted fluorescent microscopy, the marker gene coding enhanced green fluorescent protein was observed and the transfection efficiency was determined. The human insulin growth factor 1 concentration in the supernatant fluids was measured by ELISA. The expression of human insulin-like growth factor 1 was detected by immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR. The changes in cel cycle before and after transfection were assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-hIGF-1 was confirmed by gene sequencing and enzyme digestion. The adipose-derived stem cells cultured in vitro were in multiple shapes. The expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein was detected for the first time at 6 hours after transfection and peaked at 60 hours, with transfection efficacy of 16±3%. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 in the supernatant fluid was 22.65 μg/L at 60 hours after transfection. Human insulin growth factor 1 expression was detected by immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR. Division and proliferation of the cells were accelerated after gene transfection, leading to the decrease of the population doubling time, and the increase of the percentage of stem cells in the S stage. These results indicate that human

  11. 自体脂肪源性干细胞与成纤维细胞联合尿道周围注射治疗大鼠压力性尿失禁%Periurinary tract transplantation of autologous adipose-derived stem cells combined with fibroblasts for treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    关立铭; 李秀娟; 陈亚萍; 李倩; 吴芸; 陈伟

    2012-01-01

    背景:干细胞增殖和分化形成成纤维细胞以及适当的结缔组织,从而实现组织的再生,治疗自体盆腔器官脱垂和压力性尿失禁是目前该领域的一个研究热点.目的:观察自体脂肪源性干细胞与成纤维细胞治疗压力性尿失禁的可行性.方法:建立压力性尿失禁大鼠模型,建模后1个月行自体脂肪源干细胞与成纤维细胞尿道周围注射,细胞移植后1个月测定大鼠腹压漏尿点压力,同时近端尿道组织采用苏木精-伊红染色、弹力纤维染色观察形态学改变.结果与结论:干细胞治疗后的模型大鼠漏尿点压力升高(P < 0.01),膀胱排空正常.尿道壁肌层增厚(P < 0.01),弹力纤维、平滑肌含量增多(P < 0.01).结果证实,自体脂肪源性干细胞与成纤维细胞联合尿道周围注射能明显提高压力性尿失禁大鼠腹压漏尿点压力,增强注射点尿道肌层压力,可用于压力性尿失禁的治疗.%BACKGROUND: Stem cells proliferated and differented to form fibroblasts and well-suited connective tissue, followed by tissue regeneration, which is a gradually increasing research area for treatment of pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of periurinary tract infection of autologous adipose-derived stem cells combined with fibroblasts for treatment of stress urinary incontinence.METHODS: Rats were induced to develop stress urinary transplantation by postpartum vaginal balloon dilation and bilateral ovariectomy. One month later, autologous adipose-derived stem cells and fibroblasts were injected into the region surrounding the urinary tract. Another month later, urinary voiding function was assessed by conscious cystometry. At the same time, urinary tract proximal end tissue was stained by hematoxylin-eosin and elastic fibers were stained to observe morphological change. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with un-treated rats, rats receiving stem cell treatment

  12. The Comparison of differentiation potency of adipose-derived stem cells from sprague-dawley rats and wistar rats%不同品系大鼠皮下脂肪源干细胞诱导分化能力的比较

    曲戎梅; 姚红卫; 戴景兴; 陈白虹; 张艳玲; 林来兴妹; 原林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference of differentiation potency of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and Wistar Rats. Methods ADSCs were isolated from the fat pad located in pars inguinalis of 6 SD rats and 6 Wistar rats and cultured in vitro. The morphology of ADSCs was observed using phase-contrast microscopy. ADSCs at generation 4th were cultured under adipogenic and osteogenic condition to conform their differentiation potential. The morphological characteristics of inductive cells were observed using histological staining such as alizarin red for mineralization nodules and oil red O for lipid accumulation during osteogenic and adipogenic induction. Results There was no significant difference in cell morphology of ADSCs between SD rats and Wistar rats. Both of them have the capacity to differentiate toward the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Conclusion ADSCs obtained from SD rats show similar cell differentiation potential to those ohtained from Wistar rats. Therefore , these two kinds of ADSCs are hoth favorable choice for stem cell transplantation and tissue engineering.%目的:对比SD 大鼠和Wistar 大鼠皮下脂肪源干细胞(adipose-derived stem cells,ADSCs)体外诱导分化能力,为ADSCs 的进一步应用提供实验依据.方法:SD 大鼠和Wistar 大鼠各6 只取腹股沟脂肪垫,培养扩增ADSCs,相差显微镜下观察两个品系来源的ADSCs 的形态.用第4 代细胞进行成骨和成脂诱导,分别用茜素红和油红O 染色观察向成骨细胞分化后的矿化结节和向脂肪细胞分化后的脂质沉积.结果:两个品系来源的ADSCs 在细胞形态上没有显著区别,都能进行成骨和成脂诱导分化.结论:SD 大鼠和Wistar 大鼠腹股沟脂肪垫来源的ADSCs 诱导分化能力差异无显著性.

  13. Fractional Complex Transform for Fractional Differential Equations

    Li, Zheng-Biao; He, Ji-Huan

    2010-01-01

    Fractional complex transform is proposed to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations, so that all analytical methods devoted to advanced calculus can be easily applied to fractional calculus. Two examples are given.

  14. Fractionation statistics

    Zheng Chunfang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paralog reduction, the loss of duplicate genes after whole genome duplication (WGD is a pervasive process. Whether this loss proceeds gene by gene or through deletion of multi-gene DNA segments is controversial, as is the question of fractionation bias, namely whether one homeologous chromosome is more vulnerable to gene deletion than the other. Results As a null hypothesis, we first assume deletion events, on one homeolog only, excise a geometrically distributed number of genes with unknown mean µ, and these events combine to produce deleted runs of length l, distributed approximately as a negative binomial with unknown parameter r, itself a random variable with distribution π(·. A more realistic model requires deletion events on both homeologs distributed as a truncated geometric. We simulate the distribution of run lengths l in both models, as well as the underlying π(r, as a function of µ, and show how sampling l allows us to estimate µ. We apply this to data on a total of 15 genomes descended from 6 distinct WGD events and show how to correct the bias towards shorter runs caused by genome rearrangements. Because of the difficulty in deriving π(· analytically, we develop a deterministic recurrence to calculate each π(r as a function of µ and the proportion of unreduced paralog pairs. Conclusions The parameter µ can be estimated based on run lengths of single-copy regions. Estimates of µ in real data do not exclude the possibility that duplicate gene deletion is largely gene by gene, although it may sometimes involve longer segments.

  15. Effect of adipose derived stem cells on ovariectomised Wistar rats

    Anitha Oommen

    2015-11-01

    Methods: hADSCs were cultured in the Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM supplemented with 4 and #8201;mM L-glutamine and 110 and #8201;mg/l sodium pyruvate, 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS, 1% penicillin and ndash;streptomycin and non-essential amino acids. For osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs, cells were cultured as above then were exposed to osteogenic induction medium for seven days. Intravenous infusion of osteogenesis induced hADSCs was given to 20 ovariectomised Wistar rats three months after ovariectomy (test group and 20 ovariectomised rats were kept as controls. Rats were sacrificed 35 days after infusion and tibial cross sections at the level of tibio-fibular joint were stained with H and E and Masson's trichrome. The digital slide images were viewed using Aperio Image Scope software. Results: The results showed that there was new bone formation in the test group, indicated by osteoid formation and osteoblasts. There was significant increase in the cortical thickness in the test group when compared with the control group. There was no significant increase in trabecular volume when compared to the control group. Conclusions: hADSCs after osteogenic induction may have the potential to enhance new bone formation and may be useful in the treatment of osteoporosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3224-3229

  16. Adipose-derived stem cells - Methods and protocols

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This book is pleasing the reader already by the Authors’ preface. It is one in a million case to find a figure or a graph in the foreword presentation of a book. Here, Professors Gimble and Bunnell decided to give a warning to the reader about the increasing relevance that the topics covered by the book is playing in the life sciences researches: they simply decided to show the ISI Web of knowledge annual publications and citations for adipose stem cells. Clear enough, the statistics is impressive: few papers in 2000, nearly 600 in 2009 and 2010. The same pattern is present in the citations per year, quite a few in 2000 – 2001 and something like 12,000 in 2010 ! I think that these numbers justify the idea to have a volume devoted to cover all of the topics related to these intriguing stem cell type, likely originating from a perivascular histological niche within highly vascularized fat tissue. The book is divided in four parts.......

  17. Adipose-derived regenerative cells in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Perin, Emerson C; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Sánchez, Pedro L;

    2014-01-01

    tomography (6, 12, and 18 months), metabolic equivalents and maximal oxygen consumption (MVO2) (6 and 18 months), and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (6 months). We enrolled 21 ADRC-treated and 6 control patients. Liposuction was well tolerated, ADRCs were successfully prepared, and transendocardial...

  18. Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Special Function

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Fractional vector calculus is discussed in the spherical coordinate framework. A variation of the Legendre equation and fractional Bessel equation are solved by series expansion and numerically. Finally, we generalize the hypergeometric functions.

  19. Estado actual de las terapias con células madre derivadas de tejido adiposo en el ámbito de la Cirugía Plástica The state of the adipose-derived stem cell therapies in Plastic Surgery

    J.M. Lasso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante la última década, la terapia celular ha emergido como una estrategia útil en el tratamiento de diversas enfermedades como la isquemia miocárdica y las fístulas en la enfermedad de Crohn; pero últimamente, hay también ya líneas de investigación centradas en su uso en reconstrucción mamaria, cuyos resultados van siendo publicados paulatinamente. Existen varios tipos de células madre adultas que han sido investigadas en estudios preclínicos y clínicos diseñados para este propósito: células de medula ósea, células del sistema circulatorio y mioblastos y, recientemente se está trabajando en una población de células madre en el tejido adiposo, que presentan una fácil extracción y manipulación. Estas células son capaces de diferenciarse en múltiples líneas celulares, como los adipocitos y las células endoteliales entre otras. En el presente artículo, trataremos de hacer una revisión de los principios básicos de las células madre derivadas del tejido adiposo (tipos, características, procesos de obtención y multiplicación, los primeros estudios experimentales y los ensayos clínicos que están siendo realizados en la actualidad.Over the past decade, cell therapy has emerged as a new approach to reverse several diseases as myocardial ischemia and fistula in Crohn disease; but lately new efforts are centered in breast reconstruction. Several types of adult stem cell have been studied in both preclinical and clinical condition for this purpose: bone marrow cells, circulating cells, and myoblasts. Recently the existence of a population of stem cells located in the adipose tissue has been observed. These cells are able to differentiate into multiple cell lineage including adipocytes and endothelial cells. In this review we discuss the basic principle of adipose-derived stem cell (types, characteristic, harvesting and expansion, the initial experimental studies and the currently ongoing clinical trials.

  20. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered

  1. Influência de um protocolo de criopreservação no rendimento in vitro de células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo Effect of a cryopreservation protocol on the in vitro yield of adipose-derived stem cells

    Fernanda Ginani

    2012-09-01

    live state for long periods of time, without impairing their function. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a cryopreservation protocol on the proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells. METHODS: Fragments of mouse adipose tissue were subjected to enzymatic digestion in order to isolate cells that were then cultured in minimum essential medium (α-MEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Cells were maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide (CO2. At the first passage, an aliquot of 1 × 10(6 cells was cryopreserved in FBS with 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO for 30 days, whereas the remaining cells were seeded and maintained in culture. When these cells reached the third passage, the 2 groups of cells (cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved were seeded for experiments. Cell viability and proliferation curves were established at intervals of 24, 48, and 72 hours by counting cells with a hemocytometer and MTT assay. Nuclear morphology was assessed by DAPI staining. The data were statistically analyzed, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Increasing cellular proliferation was observed in both groups, with no significant difference throughout the experiment (P > 0.05. There was no significant change in cell viability and signs of nuclear damage were not detected in both the groups studied. CONCLUSIONS: The cryopreservation protocol analyzed was effective for maintaining the integrity of adipose-derived stem cells, allowing their storage for later use.

  2. 重组人骨形态发生蛋白2调节人脂肪间充质干细胞表达血管内皮生长因子***★%Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 adjusts expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    曹鑫; 金格勒; 杨毅; 陈慧锦; 殷剑

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 can promote tissue engineering bone vascularization, but its biological rules targeting human cel s are not clear. At present, there is in which report on recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 adjusts the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human cel s. OBJECTIVE: To observe and compare the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cel s on gene level and protein level at different time points after induced with human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2. METHODS: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cel s were separated from adult human adipose tissues and cultured until passage 3, then divided into induced group and control group. The cel s in the induced group were induced by human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 which final concentration was 100 μg/L, then the samples were col ected at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 hours after induction. Reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect vascular endothelial growth factor expression on gene level and protein level, compared with the control group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 adjusted vascular endothelial growth factor expression of adipose mesenchymal stem cel s in a time-dependent manner, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor changed at different time points. Compared with the control group, human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 could suppress vascular endothelial growth factor expression at 3-6 hours (P < 0.05), while at 18-24 hours, human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 could promote vascular endothelial growth factor expression (P < 0.05). These two time periods should be paid attention when using human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 to promote tissue engineering bone vascularization.%  背景:重组人骨形态发生蛋白2可以促进组织工程骨

  3. On Multiplicative Fractional Calculus

    Abdeljawad, Thabet

    2015-01-01

    We set the main concepts for multiplicative fractional calculus. We define Caputo, Riemann and Letnikov multiplicative fractional derivatives and multiplicative fractional integrals and study some of their properties. Finally, the multiplicative analogue of the local conformable fractional derivative and integral is studied.

  4. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  5. Tempered fractional calculus

    Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: sabzika2@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: mcubed@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: cjhdzdz@163.com [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  6. Tempered fractional calculus

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series

  7. Fractional dynamics recent advances

    Klafter, Joseph; Metzler, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    This volume provides the latest developments in the field of fractional dynamics, which covers fractional (anomalous) transport phenomena, fractional statistical mechanics, fractional quantum mechanics and fractional quantum field theory. The contributors are selected based on their active and important contributions to their respective topics. This volume is the first of its kind that covers such a comprehensive range of topics in fractional dynamics. It will point out to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and young researchers the possible directions of research in this subject. I

  8. Effects of adipose-derived stem cells on acellular pericardium implanted in the rats vaginal submucosa%脂肪源性干细胞对大鼠阴道黏膜下生物补片移植物的影响

    王茂淮; 张晓薇; 黎燕霞; 徐丽珍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨脂肪源性干细胞(ADSCs)对大鼠阴道黏膜下生物补片生物相容性的影响.方法 2010年4月至2011年2月在广州医学院第一附属医院,获取大鼠腹股沟处脂肪组织分离培养ADSCs,选择第3代细胞与脱细胞猪心包膜(APP)、脱细胞牛心包膜(ABP)两种生物补片构建新型组织工程补片,选取体外培养1、7d的新型组织工程补片进行扫描电镜.根据大鼠阴道黏膜下植入生物补片的不同类型,将20只去势SD雌性大鼠随机分为5组:APP组,ABP组,APP+ ADSCs组,ABP+ ADSCs组,对照组.术后30 d植入部位取材,HE染色观察组织的炎症反应程度,巨噬细胞及异物巨细胞计数.结果 ADSCs可以在两种生物补片上黏附及生长.与ABP组比较,APP组局部的炎症反应及异物反应较重,补片结构破坏明显.加载ADSCs的两种生物补片植入局部组织的炎症反应及异物反应明显低于未加载ADSCs的生物补片.结论 ABP较APP具有更好的生物相容性.ADSCs 可以调节生物补片植入部位的炎症反应及异物反应,可能对生物补片的降解有缓解作用.%Objective To explore the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on biocompatibility of biological patch implanted in the rats vaginal submucosa. Methods In the First Affiliate Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University between April 2010 and February 2011, ADSCs were separated from rat inguinal fat pads and cultured. The third generation cells were used for constructing a new tissue engineering scaffold with acellular porcine pericardium ( ABP) and acellular bovine pericardium ( ABP). The two new tissue engineering scaffolds which were cultured one day and seven days in vitro were ready for scanning electron microscopy. Twenty Castration SD female rats were randomly divided into five groups by the biological patch implanted in the rats vaginal submucosa: APP group, ABP group, APP + ADSCs group, ABP + ADSCs group, blank control group. Specimens were collected

  9. 高糖及糖基化终末产物对人脂肪干细胞成骨分化能力的影响%Effects of high glucose and advanced glycation end-products on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells in vitro

    李冬松; 李叔强; 蔡波; 王苹; 冯卫; 刘建国

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone metabolism disorder happens in diabetic environment, bone defects in which are difficult to repair. Study addressing osteogenic property of adipose-derived stroma cells (ADSCs) in diabetic environment provides theoretical basis for its application in certain environment.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of high glucose (HG) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on osteogenic capacity of human ADSCs. METHODS: 100 mg/L AGEs and 27.5 mmol/L HG were used to simulate in vitro diabetic environment and intervened ADSCs osteogenic differentiation. The cells were divided into 4 groups, with 6 samples in each group. The expression of type Ⅰ collagen was examined by fluorescent immunofluorescence at 21 days after osteogenic induction. The number of calcification nodes was counted under contrast phase microscopy at 14, 21 and 28 days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Fluorescent quantitation scan showed that the type Ⅰ collagen amount of the AGEs+HG treated group was 2.76 times lower than that of the control group. AGEs+HG reduced the number of ADSCs calcification nodes compared with the control, HG, and AGEs groups, the differences were statistical significant (P < 0.01). AGEs and HG exposure inhibit the cognate osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs, which suggest that AGEs and HG are unfavorable factors that reduce ADSCs osteogenic ability.%背景:因糖尿病条件下骨质代谢存在紊乱,对这类骨缺损的修复具有挑战性,研究糖尿病环境下脂肪干细胞的成骨特性将为其在特定环境下的应用提供理论基础.目的:观察高糖、糖基化终末产物对人脂肪干细胞成骨分化能力的影响.方法:选取27.5 mmol/L高糖、100 mg/L糖基化终末产物体外模拟糖尿病环境,干预人脂肪干细胞成骨分化;实验分为4组,每组设立6个样本.通过荧光染色检测脂肪干细胞诱导成骨21 d时的Ⅰ型胶原表达量,矿化结节染色观测各组中等量脂肪干细胞在14,21,28 d时矿化结节

  10. An Experimental Study of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Combined with Nonwoven Polyglycolic Acid Membrane for Urethral Reconstruction%脂肪干细胞复合非编织状聚乙醇酸膜片重建兔尿道的实验研究

    刘阳; 宋鲁杰; 卢洪凯

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨脂肪干细胞( ADSCs)复合非编织状聚乙醇酸膜片( PGA膜片)重建兔尿道的可行性和效果。方法将18只雄性2~3月龄的新西兰大白兔分为ADSCs-PGA组及单纯PGA组,每组9只。原代培养ADSCs,制备1cm ×1cm的非编织状PGA膜片,将ADSCs与PGA膜片复合。扫描电镜观察ADSCs与PGA复合情况。建立1 cm ×0.8 cm腹侧尿道黏膜缺损动物模型,分别将单纯PGA膜片、复合ADSCs的PGA膜片植入兔尿道缺损区域,修补尿道缺损。术后1,2,3个月进行尿道造影、大体观察和组织学观察,评价尿道重建情况。结果扫描电镜下ADSCs沿PGA纤维方向伸展,复合情况良好。 ADSCs-PGA组7只排尿通畅,2只出现尿道狭窄。单纯PGA组5只排尿通畅,2只出现尿道狭窄,2只出现尿瘘。组织学检查发现术后3个时间点ADSCs-PGA组较单纯PGA组尿道黏膜再生速度快,上皮层次多,黏膜下平滑肌、胶原纤维、微血管数量多。结论复合ADSCs的PGA膜片能够较好地修复新西兰大白兔1cm尿道黏膜的缺损。%Objective To investigate the feasibility and effect to reconstruct urethral with adipose-derived stem cells ( ADSCs ) combined with nonwoven polyglycolic acid (PGA) membrane.Methods Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits aged 2~3 months were divided into ADSCs-PGA group and simple PGA group .Each of them contained 9 rabbits.Combined the primary cultured ADSCs with the nonwoven PGA membrane .The complex condition of ADSCs and PGA was observed by SEM .Then the ADSCs-PGA membrane and the non-woven PGA membrane were implanted into the cavernous urethral of rabbit after partial resection of 1cm ×0.8cm urethral mucosa .All rabbit were sacrificed for macroscopical and histological examination .Results SEM showed that ADSCs spreaded along the direction of PGA fiber and the complex condition was satisfied .All the rabbit survived after surgery .In ADSCs-PGA group,7 rabbits voided

  11. Fractional Dynamical Systems

    Edelman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the author presents the results of the preliminary investigation of fractional dynamical systems based on the results of numerical simulations of fractional maps. Fractional maps are equivalent to fractional differential equations describing systems experiencing periodic kicks. Their properties depend on the value of two parameters: the non-linearity parameter, which arises from the corresponding regular dynamical systems; and the memory parameter which is the order of the fractional derivative in the corresponding non-linear fractional differential equations. The examples of the fractional Standard and Logistic maps demonstrate that phase space of non-linear fractional dynamical systems may contain periodic sinks, attracting slow diverging trajectories, attracting accelerator mode trajectories, chaotic attractors, and cascade of bifurcations type trajectories whose properties are different from properties of attractors in regular dynamical systems. The author argues that discovered properties s...

  12. Asphalt chemical fractionation

    Asphalt fractionation were carried out in the Esmeraldas Oil Refinery using n-pentane, SiO2 and different mixture of benzene- methane. The fractions obtained were analyzed by Fourier's Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR)

  13. Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Maxwell's Equations

    Vasily E. Tarasov

    2009-01-01

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and i...

  14. Fractional Differential Forms

    Cotrill-Shepherd, Kathleen; NAber, Mark

    2003-01-01

    A generalization of exterior calculus is considered by allowing the partial derivatives in the exterior derivative to assume fractional orders. That is, a fractional exterior derivative is defined. This is found to generate new vector spaces of finite and infinite dimension, fractional differential form spaces. The definitions of closed and exact forms are extended to the new fractional form spaces with closure and integrability conditions worked out for a special case. Coordinate transformat...

  15. DIY Fraction Pack.

    Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

  16. On continued fraction algorithms

    Smeets, Ionica

    2010-01-01

    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in this thesis.

  17. Fractional Poisson Bracket

    Golmankhaneh, Alireza Khalili

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper fractional Hamilton-Jacobi equation has been derived for dynamical systems involving Caputo derivative. Fractional Poisson-bracket is introduced. Further Hamilton's canonical equations are formulated and quantum wave equation corresponds to the fractional Hamilton-Jacobi equation is suggested. Illustrative examples have been worked out to explain the formalism.

  18. Fractional smith chart theory

    Shamim, Atif

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, a generalized Smith chart is introduced here to represent fractional order circuit elements. It is shown that the standard Smith chart is a special case of the generalized fractional order Smith chart. With illustrations drawn for both the conventional integer based lumped elements and the fractional elements, a graphical technique supported by the analytical method is presented to plot impedances on the fractional Smith chart. The concept is then applied towards impedance matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. Fractional factorial plans

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  20. Fractional Derivative and Integral

    Aygören, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this thesis we studied fractional order derivative and integral. In Chapter1, a brief history on the foundation of fractional derivative and integration has been given. In the second chapter, some definitions and theorems have been provided. Also some needed special functions such as Gamma, Beta, Mittag-Leffler and Wright function have taken place in this chapter. Properties of fractional derivative and integral are discussed in Chapter 3. We started to this chapter by the dis...

  1. Fractional vortex Hilbert's Hotel

    Gbur, Greg

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how the unusual mathematics of transfinite numbers, in particular a nearly perfect realization of Hilbert's famous hotel paradox, manifests in the propagation of light through fractional vortex plates. It is shown how a fractional vortex plate can be used, in principle, to create any number of "open rooms," i.e. topological charges, simultaneously. Fractional vortex plates are therefore demonstrated to create a singularity of topological charge, in which the vortex state is completely undefined and in fact arbitrary.

  2. Digestion Fractional Crystallisation (DFC)

    Pilbeam, Llewellyn Howard; Nielsen, T.F.D.; Waight, Tod Earle

    2013-01-01

    several zoning types most of the olivine grains have similar margins. The olivine cores are considered to be xenocrysts in the kimberlite magma whereas the margins represent cognate olivine crystallized from the kimberlite melt itself. We evaluate models of olivine margin formation by fractional...... crystallization, fractional crystallization with simultaneous digestion of xenoliths, and diffusion. Only fractional crystallization coupled with digestion of xenocrysts (primarily orthopyroxene), with subsequent minor diffusion, can account for the observed compositional profiles in the olivine margins...

  3. Fractional Diffusion based on Riemann-Liouville Fractional Derivatives

    Hilfer, R.

    2000-01-01

    A fractional diffusion equation based on Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives is solved exactly. The initial values are given as fractional integrals. The solution is obtained in terms of $H$-functions. It differs from the known solution of fractional diffusion equations based on fractional integrals. The solution of fractional diffusion based on a Riemann-Liouville fractional time derivative does not admit a probabilistic interpretation in contrast with fractional diffusion based on frac...

  4. hADSCs移植联合运动训练对脊髓损伤大鼠运动功能的影响及其相关机制%Effects of human adipose-derived mesenchymai stem cells transplantation combined with exercise training on function recovery in rats after spinal cord injury and its related mechanism

    张鑫; 李萌; 陈银海; 王清华

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨人脂肪间充质干细胞(hADSCs)移植联合运动训练对不完全脊髓损伤(SCI)大鼠运动功能的影响以及相关机制. 方法 100只SD大鼠按随机数字表法分为联合治疗组、细胞移植组、康复训练组、损伤对照组及假手术组,每组各20只.除假手术组外其余各组采用改良Allen法制成T10节段SCI模型,且联合治疗组与细胞移植组于术后立即将体外培养的hADSCs移植入受损脊髓中,联合治疗组及康复训练组于术后次日给予运动训练.术前和术后第1、2、3、7、14、21、28天采用BBB评分法对大鼠后肢运动功能进行评定.术后第3、7、14、28天采用ELISA法检测脊髓组织中脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)的相对表达量. 结果 (1)自术后第7天起,细胞移植组和康复训练组BBB评分明显高于损伤对照组,而自术后第3天起联合治疗组BBB评分在各时间点均明显高于细胞移植组、康复训练组和损伤对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).(2)自术后第3天起,损伤对照组BDNF相对表达量持续下降,各时间点均明显低于假手术组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);自术后第7天起,细胞移植组与康复训练组BDNF相对表达量均明显高于损伤对照组,而联合治疗组BDNF相对表达量均明显高于细胞移植组与康复训练组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 hDSCs移植联合运动训练治疗SCI具有协同效应,能进一步促进SCI后运动功能的恢复,其机制与脊髓中BDNF的高表达有关.%Objective To study the effects of transplantation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) combined with exercise training on the functional recovery in rats after spinal cord injury(SCI) and the related mechanism.Methods One hundred male SD rats were randomly divided into combination therapy group,cell transplantation group,rehabilitation training group,injury control group and shamed-operated group (n=20).Except for the

  5. 奥氮平诱导肥胖大鼠糖脂代谢紊乱对细胞因子和认知功能损伤的影响%Effects of glucose metabolic disorder on adipose-derived cytokine and cognitive impairment in olanzapine-induced obese rats

    买买提热厦提·吐尔逊; 马晓洁; 张文惠; 夏小龙; 桂学萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the adipose-derived cytokine changes and aggravate cognitive impairment in olanzapine-induced obese rats caused by glucose metabolic disorder.Methods 20 rats fed with ordinary fodder were used as normal control group,olanzapine group of 20 rats fed with olanzapine(1.2 mg · kg-1) and ordinary fodder for 4 weeks.Successfully established experimental model rats induced by olanzapine after 4 weeks.Serum tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α),interleukins 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) contents were measured by Elisa.Serum glucose contents were determined by biochemical colorimetric method and blood lipid contents determined with automatic biochemical analyzer.Learning,memory capacity and escape latency were detected with Maze test.Results After administration 4 weeks,the levels of body weight,blood glucose and blood lipid in olanzapine group were higher than those in control group.The serum TNF-α((1.57±0.04) ng/ml),IL-6((127.47±11.38) pg/ml) and CRP ((2.68±0.06) mg/ml) in olanzapine group rised,compared with control group ((0.59±0.03) ng/ml,(96.58± 8.77) pg/ml and (1.86±0.04) mg/ml respectively),the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Electric shocks and escape latency in olanzapine group were higher than those in control group (P<0.05).The FBS had positive correlation with hs-CRP,IL-6 and TNF-α respectively (r=0.385,0.260,1.280; all P<0.05).Conclusion Olanzapine can induce metabolic disturbance of blood glucose,blood hpid,and the increase of serum TNF-α,IL-6 and CRP levels in rats.Positive correlation is showed between TNF-of and FBS.Hyperglycemia can promote cell toxicity and leads to cognitive dysfunction in rats.%目的 观察奥氮平诱导肥胖大鼠糖脂代谢紊乱对脂肪源性细胞因子影响和认知功能损伤实验研究.方法 40只大鼠随机分为对照组和实验组,每组20只.对照组大鼠进行普通饲料喂养,实验组在普通饲粮喂养基础上行奥氮平(1.2 mg·kg-1)灌胃4周

  6. Holographic fractional topological insulators

    We give a holographic realization of the recently proposed low-energy effective action describing a fractional topological insulator. In particular we verify that the surface of this hypothetical material supports a fractional quantum Hall current corresponding to half that of a Laughlin state.

  7. An Especial Fractional Oscillator

    Tofighi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a peculiar fractional oscillator. By assuming that the motion takes place in a complex media where the level of fractionality is low, we find that the time rate of change of the energy of this system has an oscillatory behavior.

  8. (Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)

    O' Leary, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  9. The Local Fractional Bootstrap

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Hounyo, Ulrich; Lunde, Asger;

    new resampling method, the local fractional bootstrap, relies on simulating an auxiliary fractional Brownian motion that mimics the fine properties of high frequency differences of the Brownian semistationary process under the null hypothesis. We prove the first order validity of the bootstrap method...

  10. Social Trust and Fractionalization:

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes a closer look at the importance of fractionalization for the creation of social trust. It first argues that the determinants of trust can be divided into two categories: those affecting individuals' trust radii and those affecting social polarization. A series of estimates using a...... much larger country sample than in previous literature confirms that fractionalization in the form of income inequality and political diversity adversely affects social trust while ethnic diversity does not. However, these effects differ systematically across countries, questioning standard...... interpretations of the influence of fractionalization on trust....

  11. Experimental study of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in rats transfected into the insulin-secreting cells in vitro%大鼠脂肪间充质干细胞体外转染为胰岛素分泌细胞的实验研究

    葛亮; 赵建勇; 孙诚谊; 贾文胜

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨脂肪间充质干细胞(ADMSCs)体外转染成为胰岛素分泌细胞的可能性及其在不同浓度葡萄糖环境下的胰岛素分泌情况.方法 以未转染的ADMSCs作为对照组,含有PcDNA3.1的ADMSCs作为空载体组,含有PcDNA3.1-hINS的ADMSCs作为重组载体组,转染后再将重组载体组根据培养时间不同分为1、6、12、18 d组,并将重组载体18 d组根据葡萄糖浓度的不同分为高糖组和低糖组.RT-PCR扩增人胰岛素基因,并构建含有人胰岛素基因的真核表达重组载体PcDNA3.1-hINS.经离心消化法获得ADMSCs,并通过流式细胞仪检测.瞬时转染,RT-PCR测各组胰岛素DNA的转录,ELISA法检测各组胰岛素分泌量,并对重组载体18 d组行葡萄糖刺激实验,计量资料以x±s表示,多组间的比较采用方差分析,两组比较采用t检验.结果 流式细胞仪检测ADMSCs表面抗原:CD44、CD90、CD106表达阳性,CD34、CD45、CD11b表达阴性.RT-PCR法检测重组载体组有胰岛素DNA转录,对照组和空载体组均无转录.ELISA法检测重组载体1、6、12、18 d组胰岛素分泌量分别为(4.7±0.8)mIU/L、(8.8±0.5)mIU/L、(8.9±0.8) mIU/L、(8.6±0.6) mIU/L,与对照组的(1.3±0.6) mIU/L和空载体组的(1.7±0.8)mIU/L分别比较,差异均有统计学意义(t=10.09,32.64,22.20,55.53;9.23,27.56,19.43,51.25,P<0.05);重组载体1d组与6、12、18 d组的胰岛素分泌量分别比较,差异有统计学意义(t=12.77,12.26,13.93,P<0.05);而6、12、18 d组间的胰岛素分泌量比较,差异无统计学意义(F=45.67,P>0.05).高糖组和低糖组胰岛素分泌量比较,差异有统计学意义(t=2.03,P<0.05).葡萄糖刺激实验阴性.结论 ADMSCs成功转染为胰岛素分泌细胞,并可以稳定分泌胰岛素,虽然胰岛素分泌量不能根据葡萄糖的浓度改变而改变,但仍为干细胞治疗糖尿病提供了一种新的种子细胞.%Objective To investigate the possibility of transfection of adipose-derived

  12. Experimental study of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in rats transfected into the insulin-secreting cells in vitro%大鼠脂肪间充质干细胞体外转染为胰岛素分泌细胞的实验研究

    葛亮; 赵建勇; 孙诚谊; 贾文胜

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨脂肪间充质干细胞(ADMSCs)体外转染成为胰岛素分泌细胞的可能性及其在不同浓度葡萄糖环境下的胰岛素分泌情况.方法 以未转染的ADMSCs作为对照组,含有PcDNA3.1的ADMSCs作为空载体组,含有PcDNA3.1-hINS的ADMSCs作为重组载体组,转染后再将重组载体组根据培养时间不同分为1、6、12、18 d组,并将重组载体18 d组根据葡萄糖浓度的不同分为高糖组和低糖组.RT-PCR扩增人胰岛素基因,并构建含有人胰岛素基因的真核表达重组载体PcDNA3.1-hINS.经离心消化法获得ADMSCs,并通过流式细胞仪检测.瞬时转染,RT-PCR测各组胰岛素DNA的转录,ELISA法检测各组胰岛素分泌量,并对重组载体18 d组行葡萄糖刺激实验,计量资料以x±s表示,多组间的比较采用方差分析,两组比较采用t检验.结果 流式细胞仪检测ADMSCs表面抗原:CD44、CD90、CD106表达阳性,CD34、CD45、CD11b表达阴性.RT-PCR法检测重组载体组有胰岛素DNA转录,对照组和空载体组均无转录.ELISA法检测重组载体1、6、12、18 d组胰岛素分泌量分别为(4.7±0.8)mIU/L、(8.8±0.5)mIU/L、(8.9±0.8) mIU/L、(8.6±0.6) mIU/L,与对照组的(1.3±0.6) mIU/L和空载体组的(1.7±0.8)mIU/L分别比较,差异均有统计学意义(t=10.09,32.64,22.20,55.53;9.23,27.56,19.43,51.25,P<0.05);重组载体1d组与6、12、18 d组的胰岛素分泌量分别比较,差异有统计学意义(t=12.77,12.26,13.93,P<0.05);而6、12、18 d组间的胰岛素分泌量比较,差异无统计学意义(F=45.67,P>0.05).高糖组和低糖组胰岛素分泌量比较,差异有统计学意义(t=2.03,P<0.05).葡萄糖刺激实验阴性.结论 ADMSCs成功转染为胰岛素分泌细胞,并可以稳定分泌胰岛素,虽然胰岛素分泌量不能根据葡萄糖的浓度改变而改变,但仍为干细胞治疗糖尿病提供了一种新的种子细胞.%Objective To investigate the possibility of transfection of adipose-derived

  13. Discrete fractional calculus

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  14. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  15. Fractional Darboux Transformations

    Humi, Mayer

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we utilize the covariance of Ricatti equation with respect to linear fractional transformations to define classes of conformally equivalent second order differential equations. This motivates then the introduction of fractional Darboux transformations which can be recognized also as generalized Cole-Hopf transformations. We apply these transformations to find Schrodinger equations with isospectral potentials and to the linearization of some new classes of nonlinear partial diffe...

  16. soil organic matter fractionation

    Osat, Maryam; Heidari, Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    Carbon is essential for plant growth, due to its effects on other soil properties like aggregation. Knowledge of dynamics of organic matter in different locations in the soil matrix can provide valuable information which affects carbon sequestration and soil the other soil properties. Extraction of soil organic matter (SOM) fractions has been a long standing approach to elucidating the roles of soil organic matter in soil processes. Several kind fractionation methods are used and all provide information on soil organic matter function. Physical fractionation capture the effects on SOM dynamics of the spatial arrangement of primary and secondary organomineral particles in soil while chemical fractionation can not consider the spatial arrangement but their organic fractions are suitable for advanced chemical characterization. Three method of physical separation of soil have been used, sieving, sedimentation and densitometry. The distribution of organic matter within physical fractions of the soil can be assessed by sieving. Sieving separates soil particles based strictly on size. The study area is located on north central Iran, between 35° 41'- 36° 01' N and 50° 42'- 51° 14' E. Mean annual precipitation about 243.8 mm and mean annual air temperature is about 14.95 °C. The soil moisture and temperature regime vary between aridic-thermic in lower altitudes to xeric-mesic in upper altitudes. More than 36 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected according to land-use map units. After preliminary analyzing of samples 10 samples were selected for further analyses in five size fractions and three different time intervals in September, January and April 2008. Fractionation carried out by dry sieving in five classes, 1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm, 270 μm-0.5mm, 53-270 μm and soil organic matter to humic acid and fulvic acid shows that there is a better correlation between humic acid contents and soil organic matter (R2 = 0.86) than fulvic acid and organic matter (R2=0.5). The

  17. Calculus of variations with fractional derivatives and fractional integrals

    Almeida, Ricardo; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2009-01-01

    We prove Euler-Lagrange fractional equations and sufficient optimality conditions for problems of the calculus of variations with functionals containing both fractional derivatives and fractional integrals in the sense of Riemann-Liouville.

  18. Fractional Vortices and Lumps

    Eto, Minoru; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Konishi, Kenichi; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Vinci, Walter

    2009-01-01

    We study what might be called fractional vortices, vortex configurations with the minimum winding from the viewpoint of their topological stability, but which are characterized by various notable substructures in the transverse energy distribution. The fractional vortices occur in diverse Abelian or non-Abelian generalizations of the Higgs model. The global and local features characterizing these are studied, and we identify the two crucial ingredients for their occurrence - the vacuum degeneracy leading to non-trivial vacuum moduli M, and the BPS nature of the vortices. Fractional vortices are further classified into two kinds. The first type of such vortices appear when M has orbifold Z_n singularities; the second type occurs in systems in which the vacuum moduli space M possesses either a deformed geometry or some singularity. These general features are illustrated with several concrete models.

  19. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions

  20. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  1. A Fractional Survival Model

    Lee, Cheng K.; Lee, Jenq-Daw

    2006-01-01

    A survival model is derived from the exponential function using the concept of fractional differentiation. The hazard function of the proposed model generates various shapes of curves including increasing, increasing-constant-increasing, increasing-decreasing-increasing, and so-called bathtub hazard curve. The model also contains a parameter that is the maximum of the survival time.

  2. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-01

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

  3. Fractional Differential Equation

    Moustafa El-Shahed

    2007-01-01

    where 2<α<3 is a real number and D0+α is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem of cone preserving operators. An example is also given to illustrate the main results.

  4. Field-Flow Fractionation.

    Caldwell, Karin D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a technique for separating samples that range over 15 orders of magnitude in molecular weight. Discusses theory, apparatus, and sample preparation techniques. Lists several types of field-flow fractionation (FFF) and their uses: sedimentation FFF, thermal FFF, flow FFF, electrical FFF, and steric FFF. (ML)

  5. Fractions through Fruit Salad.

    Lincoln, Lisa

    1987-01-01

    The mathematics concept of fractions was taught to a group of learning disabled, dyslexic, and multiply handicapped students (15-20 years old) by preparing a fruit salad. Enthusiastic student participation and enhanced knowledge illustrated the effectiveness of employing several sensory modes in learning activities. (CB)

  6. Fractional gradient and its application to the fractional advection equation

    D'Ovidio, M; Garra, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide a definition of fractional gradient operators, related to directional derivatives. We develop a fractional vector calculus, providing a probabilistic interpretation and mathematical tools to treat multidimensional fractional differential equations. A first application is discussed in relation to the d-dimensional fractional advection-dispersion equation. We also study the connection with multidimensional L\\'evy processes.

  7. From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform

    FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.

  8. 大鼠同种异体脂肪来源间充质干细胞对移植脂肪早期微血管形成的影响%Effects of rat allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells on the early neovascularization of autologous fat transplantation

    田甜; 贾赤宇; 刘毅; 刘真; 胡国栋; 王瑞晨; 常春娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) of rat on the early neovascularization of autologous fat transplantation.Methods (1) Experiment 1.Adipose tissue was collected from both inguinal regions of two SD rats to isolate,culture,and purify ADSCs through collagen enzyme digestion,density gradient centrifugation,and adherence method.The fourth passage of cells were collected for morphologic observation,detection of expressions of surface markers CD34,CD49d,CD106,and CD45 of ADSCs with flow cytometer,identification of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation,and determination of the cell proliferation ability with thiazolyl blue method.(2) Experiment 2.Another 30 SD rats were divided into allogeneic adipose granule (AG) group (A,n =6),autologous AG group (B,n =8),autologous ADSCs + autologous AG group (C,n =8),and allogeneic ADSCs + autologous AG group (D,n =8) according to the random number table.The fourth passage of ADSCs were obtained from adipose tissue from one side of inguinal region of SD rats in group C.Adipose tissue obtained from one side of inguinal region of SD rats of the other 3 groups was abandoned.The AG was prepared from another side of inguinal region of SD rats in the 4 groups.The mixture of 0.6 g AG from one rat and 1 mL DMEM/F12 nutrient solution was injected subcutaneously into the back of another rat in group A,and so on.Autologous AG was injected into its own body of the rats in group B.The mixture of 1 mL autologous ADSCs mixture which contains 3.0 × 106 cells per mililitre autologous ADSCs combined with autologous AG was injected into the rats in group C.The mixture of 1 mL allogeneic ADSCs mixture which contains 3.0 × 106 cells per mililitre ADSCs extractived from the former 2 rats in experiment 1 combined with autologous AG was injected into the rats in group D.At 7 days post transplantation,fat transplants were harvested for gross observation,measurement of wet weight

  9. Parameter estimation for fractional birth and fractional death processes

    Cahoy, Dexter O.; Polito, Federico

    2013-01-01

    The fractional birth and the fractional death processes are more desirable in practice than their classical counterparts as they naturally provide greater flexibility in modeling growing and decreasing systems. In this paper, we propose formal parameter estimation procedures for the fractional Yule, the fractional linear death, and the fractional sublinear death processes. The methods use all available data possible, are computationally simple and asymptotically unbiased. The procedures explo...

  10. Discrete fractional Calculus and Inequalities

    Anastassiou, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Here we define a Caputo like discrete fractional difference and we compare it to the earlier defined Riemann-Liouville fractional discrete analog. Then we produce discrete fractional Taylor formulae for the first time, and we estimate their remainders. Finally, we derive related discrete fractional Ostrowski, Poincare and Sobolev type inequalities.

  11. An Introduction to Continued Fractions.

    Moore, Charles G.

    Provided is an introduction to the properties of continued fractions for the intellectually curious high school student. Among the topics included are (1) Expansion of Rational Numbers into Simple Continued Fractions, (2) Convergents, (3) Continued Fractions and Linear Diophantine Equations of the Type am + bn = c, (4) Continued Fractions and…

  12. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  13. Testing Fractional Action Cosmology

    Shchigolev, V K

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests that gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  14. Fractions in elementary education

    Quinn, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper is one of a series in which elementary-education practice is analyzed by comparison with the history of mathematics, mathematical structure, modern practice, and (occasionally) cognitive neuroscience. The primary concerns are: Why do so many children find elementary mathematics difficult? And, why are the ones who succeed still so poorly prepared for college material needed for technical careers? The answer provided by conventional wisdom is essentially that mathematics is difficult. Third-graders are not developmentally ready for the subtlety of fractions, for instance, and even high-performing students cannot be expected to develop the skills of experienced users. However we will see that this is far from the whole story and is probably wrong: elementary-education fractions are genuinely harder and less effective than the version employed by experienced users. Experts discard at least 90% of what is taught in schools. Our educational system is actually counterproductive for skill development, and...

  15. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    A Tofighi

    2012-04-01

    We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency response we find a logarithmic enhancement for the relative ratio of susceptibility.

  16. Fractional Galilean Symmetries

    Hosseiny, Ali

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the differential representation of the operators of the Galilean algebras to include fractional derivatives. As a result a whole new class of scale invariant Galilean algebras are obtained. The first member of this class has dynamical index $z=2$ similar to the Schr\\"odinger algebra. The second member of the class has dynamical index $z=3/2$, which happens to be the dynamical index Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

  17. New Dry Fractionation Methods

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes new fractionation methods that are used to create dust that is respirable for testing the effects of inhalation of lunar dust in preparation for future manned lunar exploration. Because lunar dust is a very limited commodity, a method that does not result in loss of the material had to be developed. The dust separation system that is described incorporates some traditional methods, while preventing the dust from being contaminated or changed in reactivity properties while also limiting losses.

  18. Fractional Galilean symmetries

    Hosseiny, Ali; Rouhani, Shahin

    2016-09-01

    We generalize the differential representation of the operators of the Galilean algebras to include fractional derivatives. As a result a whole new class of scale invariant Galilean algebras are obtained. The first member of this class has dynamical index z = 2 similar to the Schrödinger algebra. The second member of the class has dynamical index z = 3 / 2, which happens to be the dynamical index Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

  19. Principles of Fractional Quantum Mechanics

    Laskin, Nick

    2010-01-01

    A review of fundamentals and physical applications of fractional quantum mechanics has been presented. Fundamentals cover fractional Schr\\"odinger equation, quantum Riesz fractional derivative, path integral approach to fractional quantum mechanics, hermiticity of the Hamilton operator, parity conservation law and the current density. Applications of fractional quantum mechanics cover dynamics of a free particle, new representation for a free particle quantum mechanical kernel, infinite poten...

  20. Fractional random walk lattice dynamics

    Michelitsch, Thomas; Riascos, Alejandro Perez; Nowakowski, Andrzeij; Nicolleau, Franck

    2016-01-01

    We analyze time-discrete and continuous `fractional' random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in $n=1,2,3,..$ dimensions.The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving {\\it fractional powers of Laplacian matrices $L^{\\frac{\\alpha}{2}}$}where $\\alpha=2$ recovers the normal walk.First we demonstrate thatthe interval $0\\textless{}\\alpha\\leq 2$ is admissible for the fractional random walk. We derive analytical expressions for fractional transition matrix and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain thefundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$, and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk.The representation for the fundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$ relates fractional random walks with normal random walks.We show that the fractional transition matrix elements exihibit for large cubic $n$-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an $n$-dimensional infinite spaceRiesz fractional deriva...

  1. Fractional Cointegration Rank Estimation

    Lasak, K.A.; Velasco, C

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in the Journal of Business & Economic Statistics , 2015, 33(2), 241-254. We consider cointegration rank estimation for a p-dimensional Fractional Vector Error Correction Model. We propose a new two-step procedure which allows testing for further long-run equilibrium relations with possibly different persistence levels. The first step consists in estimating the parameters of the model under the null hypothesis of the cointegration rank r=1,2,…,p-1. Th...

  2. Linear Network Fractional Routing

    S.ASOKAN,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A Network is a finite directed acyclic graph with source messages from a fixed alphabet and message demands at sink nodes. Linear Programming is an algorithm design method. It can be used whenthe solution to a problem can be viewed as the result of a sequence of decisions. The Linear Programming model for the network problem where in every variable has a value one or zero. The problem is todetermine a method of transmitting the messages through the network such that all sink demands are satisfied. We will prove fractional routing capacity for some solvable network using Linear Programmingmodel.

  3. Solvent Fractionation of Lignin

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. The major issues for the commercial production of value added high performance lignin products are lignin s physical and chemical heterogenities. To overcome these problems, a variety of procedures have been developed to produce pure lignin suitable for high performace applications such as lignin-derived carbon materials. However, most of the isolation procedures affect lignin s properties and structure. In this chapter, a short review of the effect of solvent fractionation on lignin s properties and structure is presented.

  4. Cosmological Models with Fractional Derivatives and Fractional Action Functional

    V.K. Shchigolev

    2011-01-01

    Cosmological models of a scalar field with dynamical equations containing fractional derivatives or derived from the Einstein-Hilbert action of fractional order, are constructed. A number of exact solutions to those equations of fractional cosmological models in both eases is given.

  5. BNCT and dose fractionation

    Some portion of the radiation dose received by a patient during BNCT consists of primary and secondary gammas. The biological effect of that portion of the dose will depend upon the time history of the delivered dose. The well-known models for relating time-dose effects to clinical experience, are of questionable value in understanding dose effects in the time regime of a few hours, and for doses of less than tolerance. In order to examine the time-dose effect in the regime of interest to BNCT a simple phenomenological model was developed and normalized to the accepted body of clinical experience. The model has been applied to the question of fractionation of BNCT and the results are presented. The model is simply a linear healing model with two time constants. In other words, a first hit of radiation is assumed to wound (or potentiate) a cell. Given time, the cell will fully repair itself. If a second hit occurs before the cell has healed, the cell is killed. Apparently, there are two kinds of healing, one which occurs in 30 to 60 minutes, the other in two to four days. A small fraction of the cells will die on the first hit

  6. Continued fraction interpolation

    Interpolation by rational functions is especially useful for applications in which there are extended function ranges for abbreviated domains of definition. A particular case in point is the set of soil characteristic curves relating hydraulic conductivity, moisture content, and pressure head. In calculating the flow of fluids in unsaturated media, it is convenient to have values for both these curves and their derivatives. A relatively simple and accurate way to obtain both the curves and their derivatives from sparse data is via continued fraction interpolation. By defining the nth approximant F'/sub n/ of a continued fraction interpolant F/sub n/(x) = b1 + H/sub n-1/(x), where H1 - 1/b/sub n/; H/sub i/ = (x - x/sub n-1/)/(b/sub n-i+ H/sub i-1/); i = 2, ..., n-1; a very simple recursive for F'/sub n/(x) is derived as F/sub n/(x) = H'/sub n-1/

  7. The survival condition and immunoregulatory function of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF in the early stage of nonvascularized adipose transplantation.

    Ziqing Dong

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue transplantation is one of the standard procedures for soft-tissue augmentation, reconstruction, and rejuvenation. However, it is unknown as to how the graft survives after transplantation. We thus seek out to investigate the roles of different cellular components in the survival of graft. MATERIALS & METHODS: The ratios of stromal vascular fraction (SVF cellular components from human adipose tissue were evaluated using flow cytometry. Human liposuction aspirates that were either mixed with marked SVF cells or PBS were transplanted into nude mice. The graft was harvested and stained on days 1,4,7 and 14. The inflammation level of both SVF group and Fat-only group were also evaluated. RESULTS: Flow cytometric analysis showed SVF cells mainly contained blood-derived cells, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, and endothelial cells. Our study revealed that most cells are susceptible to death after transplantation, although CD34+ ASCs can remain viable for 14 days. Notably, we found that ASCs migrated to the peripheral edge of the graft. Moreover, the RT-PCR and the immuno-fluorescence examination revealed that although the SVF did not reduce the number of infiltrating immune cells (macrophages in the transplant, it does have an immunoregulatory function of up-regulating the expression of CD163 and CD206 and down-regulating that of IL-1β, IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the survival of adipose tissue after nonvascularized adipose transplantation may be due to the ASCs in SVF cells. Additionally, the immunoregulatory function of SVF cells may be indirectly contributing to the remolding of adipose transplant, which may lead to SVF-enriched adipose transplantation.

  8. Effect of Adipose-derived Stem Cells Compound Chitosan Transplantation on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin-1β Content in Early Degenerate Intervertebral Disc of Rabbits%脂肪干细胞复合壳聚糖支架移植对兔退变早期椎间盘内肿瘤坏死因子α、白介素1β的影响

    李进珍; 李放; 叶超群; 任大江; 万中元; 吴坤

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察脂肪干细胞复合可注射温敏型壳聚糖支架移植对退变早期兔椎间盘内肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)、白介素1β(IL-1β)含量的影响.方法 24只新西兰大白兔,雌雄不限,随机分为髓核抽吸组、脂肪干细胞壳聚糖支架复合移植组、单纯支架移植组以及单纯椎间盘暴露组.术后2、4、8周分别将每组处死2只兔,使用ELISA方法检测L2-3、L3-4、L4-5、L5-6椎间盘内TNF-α、IL-1β含量.结果 24只动物均存活.髓核抽吸组与单纯椎间盘暴露组相比,TNF-α、IL-1β浓度升高(P<0.05);复合移植组、单纯支架移植组与单纯椎间盘暴露组相比较,TNF-α、IL-1β浓度均降低(P<0.05);复合移植组与单纯支架移植组相比,8周时IL-1β降低(P<0.05).结论 脂肪干细胞与温敏型壳聚糖支架在兔椎间盘退变早期能抑制TNF-α、IL-1β表达,可能减轻炎症反应.%Objective To observe the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) compound injective thermo-sensitive chitosan scaffold transplantation on content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in early degenerate lumbar intervertebral disc of rabbits. Methods 24 white New Zealand rabbits (no limit of male or female) were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups: A. Degeneration model group: nucleus aspiration. B. ADSCs compound chitosan transplantation group. C. Cell-free chitosan transplantation group. D. Blank control group: only explore the target intervertebral disc. When aspirate pulposus with 21G needle, inject ADSCs-scaffold complex and chitosan scaffold respectively. The samples of L2-3, L3-4 , L4-5, L5-6 intervertebral disc were obtained from 2 rabit in each group 2, 4, 8 weeks after operation. The contents of TNF-α, IL-1β were measured with ELISA.Results All animals survived after the operation. Compare with the blank control group, the contents of TNF-α, IL-1β in degeneration model group increased significantly (P<0. 05). It

  9. Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement Updated:May 31,2016 The ejection fraction (EF) is an important measurement in determining how well your heart is pumping ...

  10. NESDIS VIIRS Green Vegetation Fraction

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to...

  11. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    Yuan, Linfeng

    difference. In this thesis, separations using crossflow elecro-membrane filtration (EMF) of amino acids, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and industrial enzymes from Novozymes were performed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the technological feasibility of EMF in the application of industrial...... enzyme fractionation, such as removal of a side activity from the main enzyme activity. As a proof-of-concept, amino acids were used as model solution to test the feasibility of EMF in the application of amphoteric molecule separation. A single amino acid was used to illustrate the effect of an electric...... TMP on the separation performance were very small in the investigated range. The mass transport of each enzyme can be well explained by the Extended-Nernst-Planck equation. Better separation was observed at lower feed concentration, higher solution pH in the investigated range and with a polysulfone...

  12. Fractional cointegration rank estimation

    Lasak, Katarzyna; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider cointegration rank estimation for a p-dimensional Fractional Vector Error Correction Model. We propose a new two-step procedure which allows testing for further long-run equilibrium relations with possibly different persistence levels. The fi…rst step consists in estimating the...... parameters of the model under the null hypothesis of the cointegration rank r = 1, 2, ..., p-1. This step provides consistent estimates of the cointegration degree, the cointegration vectors, the speed of adjustment to the equilibrium parameters and the common trends. In the second step we carry out a sup......-likelihood ratio test of no-cointegration on the estimated p - r common trends that are not cointegrated under the null. The cointegration degree is re-estimated in the second step to allow for new cointegration relationships with different memory. We augment the error correction model in the second step to...

  13. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-09-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

  14. Misonidazole in fractionated radiotherapy: are many small fractions best

    The largest sensitizing effect is always demonstrated with six fractions, each given with 2 g/m2 of misonidazole. In the absence of reoxygenation a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.7 is predicted, but this falls to 1.1-1.2 if extensive reoxygenation occurs. Less sensitization is observed with 30 fractions, each with 0.4 g/m2 of drug. However, for clinical use, the important question is which treatment kills the maximum number of tumour cells. Many of the simulations predict a marked disadvantage of reducing the fraction number for X rays alone. The circumstances in which this disadvantage is offset by the large Sensitizer enhancement ratio values with a six-fraction schedule are few. The model calculations suggest that many small fractions, each with a low drug dose, are safest unless the clinician has some prior knowledge that a change in fraction number is not disadvantageous. (author)

  15. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  16. Fractional telegrapher's equation from fractional persistent random walks

    Masoliver, Jaume

    2016-05-01

    We generalize the telegrapher's equation to allow for anomalous transport. We derive the space-time fractional telegrapher's equation using the formalism of the persistent random walk in continuous time. We also obtain the characteristic function of the space-time fractional process and study some particular cases and asymptotic approximations. Similarly to the ordinary telegrapher's equation, the time-fractional equation also presents distinct behaviors for different time scales. Specifically, transitions between different subdiffusive regimes or from superdiffusion to subdiffusion are shown by the fractional equation as time progresses.

  17. Proton Fraction in Neutron Stars

    张丰收; 陈列文

    2001-01-01

    The proton fraction in β-stable neutron stars is investigated within the framework of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock theory using the extended Skyrme effective interaction for the first time. The calculated results show that the proton fraction disappears at high density, which implies that the pure neutron matter may exist in the interior of neutron stars. The incompressibility of the nuclear equation-of-state is shown to be more important to determine the proton fraction. Meanwhile, it is indicated that the addition of muons in neutron stars will change the proton fraction. It is also found that the higher-order terms of the nuclear symmetry energy have obvious effects on the proton fraction and the parabolic law of the nuclear symmetry energy is not enough to determine the proton fraction.

  18. The fractional symmetric rigid rotor

    Herrmann, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Riemann fractional derivative the Casimir operators and multipletts for the fractional extension of the rotation group SO(n) are calculated algebraically. The spectrum of the corresponding fractional symmetric rigid rotor is discussed. It is shown, that the rotational, vibrational and $\\gamma$-unstable limits of the standard geometric collective models are particular limits of this spectrum. A comparison with the ground state band spectra of nuclei shows an agreement with experim...

  19. Comment on "Fractional quantum mechanics" and "Fractional Schroedinger equation"

    Wei, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    In this comment, we point out some shortcomings in two papers "Fractional quantum mechanics" [Phys. Rev. E 62, 3135 (2000)] and "Fractional Schroedinger equation" [Phys. Rev. E 66, 056108 (2002)]. We prove that the fractional uncertainty relation does not hold generally. The probability continuity equation in fractional quantum mechanics has a missing source term, which leads to particle teleportation, i.e., a particle can teleport from one place to another. Since the relativistic kinetic energy can be viewed as an approximate realization of the fractional kinetic energy, the particle teleportation should be an observable relativistic effect in quantum mechanics. With the help of this concept, superconductivity could be viewed as the teleportation of electrons from one side of a superconductor to another and superfluidity could be viewed as the teleportation of helium atoms from one end of a capillary tube to the other. We also point out how to teleport a particle to a destination.

  20. A Holographic Fractional Topological Insulator

    Hoyos-Badajoz, Carlos; Karch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We give a holographic realization of the recently proposed low energy effective action describing a fractional topological insulator. In particular we verify that the surface of this hypothetical material supports a fractional quantum Hall current corresponding to half that of a Laughlin state.

  1. The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Rao, Sumathi

    1999-01-01

    We give a brief introduction to the phenomenon of the Fractional Quantum Hall effect, whose discovery was awarded the Nobel prize in 1998. We also explain the composite fermion picture which describes the fractional quantum Hall effect as the integer quantum Hall effect of composite fermions.

  2. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    Goedhart, M.H.; Spronk, Jaap

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with multiple goal variables. The approach is illustrated by means of an example in financial planning.

  3. Wavelet-fractional Fourier transforms

    Yuan Lin

    2008-01-01

    This paper extends the definition of fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) proposed by Namias V by using other orthonormal bases for L2 (R) instead of Hermite-Ganssian functions.The new orthonormal basis is gained indirectly from multiresolution analysis and orthonormal wavelets. The so defined FRFT is called wavelets-fractional Fourier transform.

  4. Fractional active disturbance rejection control.

    Li, Dazi; Ding, Pan; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    A fractional active disturbance rejection control (FADRC) scheme is proposed to improve the performance of commensurate linear fractional order systems (FOS) and the robust analysis shows that the controller is also applicable to incommensurate linear FOS control. In FADRC, the traditional extended states observer (ESO) is generalized to a fractional order extended states observer (FESO) by using the fractional calculus, and the tracking differentiator plus nonlinear state error feedback are replaced by a fractional proportional-derivative controller. To simplify controller tuning, the linear bandwidth-parameterization method has been adopted. The impacts of the observer bandwidth ωo and controller bandwidth ωc on system performance are then analyzed. Finally, the FADRC stability and frequency-domain characteristics for linear single-input single-output FOS are analyzed. Simulation results by FADRC and ADRC on typical FOS are compared to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:26928516

  5. Radiating subdispersive fractional optical solitons

    Fujioka, J., E-mail: fujioka@fisica.unam.mx; Espinosa, A.; Rodríguez, R. F. [Departamento de Física Química, Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Malomed, B. A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-09-01

    It was recently found [Fujioka et al., Phys. Lett. A 374, 1126 (2010)] that the propagation of solitary waves can be described by a fractional extension of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation which involves a temporal fractional derivative (TFD) of order α > 2. In the present paper, we show that there is also another fractional extension of the NLS equation which contains a TFD with α < 2, and in this case, the new equation describes the propagation of radiating solitons. We show that the emission of the radiation (when α < 2) is explained by resonances at various frequencies between the pulses and the linear modes of the system. It is found that the new fractional NLS equation can be derived from a suitable Lagrangian density, and a fractional Noether's theorem can be applied to it, thus predicting the conservation of the Hamiltonian, momentum and energy.

  6. Radiating subdispersive fractional optical solitons

    Fujioka, J.; Espinosa, A.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Malomed, B. A.

    2014-09-01

    It was recently found [Fujioka et al., Phys. Lett. A 374, 1126 (2010)] that the propagation of solitary waves can be described by a fractional extension of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation which involves a temporal fractional derivative (TFD) of order α > 2. In the present paper, we show that there is also another fractional extension of the NLS equation which contains a TFD with α < 2, and in this case, the new equation describes the propagation of radiating solitons. We show that the emission of the radiation (when α < 2) is explained by resonances at various frequencies between the pulses and the linear modes of the system. It is found that the new fractional NLS equation can be derived from a suitable Lagrangian density, and a fractional Noether's theorem can be applied to it, thus predicting the conservation of the Hamiltonian, momentum and energy.

  7. Mechanical Analogies of Fractional Elements

    HU Kai-Xin; ZHU Ke-Qin

    2009-01-01

    A Fractional element model describes a special kind of viscoelastic material.Its stress is proportional to the fractional-order derivative of strain. Physically the mechanical analogies of fractional elements can be represented by spring-dashpot fractal networks. We introduce a constitutive operator in the constitutive equations of viscoelastic materials.To derive constitutive operators for spring-dashpot fractal networks, we use Heaviside operational calculus, which provides explicit answers not otherwise obtainable simply.Then the series-parallel formulas for the constitutive operator are derived. Using these formulas, a constitutive equation of fractional element with 1/2-order derivative is obtained.Finally we find the way to derive the constitutive equations with other fractional-order derivatives and their mechanical analogies.

  8. Permutation entropy of fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise

    We have worked out theoretical curves for the permutation entropy of the fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise by using the Bandt and Shiha [C. Bandt, F. Shiha, J. Time Ser. Anal. 28 (2007) 646] theoretical predictions for their corresponding relative frequencies. Comparisons with numerical simulations show an excellent agreement. Furthermore, the entropy-gap in the transition between these processes, observed previously via numerical results, has been here theoretically validated. Also, we have analyzed the behaviour of the permutation entropy of the fractional Gaussian noise for different time delays

  9. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)

  10. Fractional trajectories: Decorrelation versus friction

    Svenkeson, A.; Beig, M. T.; Turalska, M.; West, B. J.; Grigolini, P.

    2013-11-01

    The fundamental connection between fractional calculus and subordination processes is explored and affords a physical interpretation of a fractional trajectory, that being an average over an ensemble of stochastic trajectories. Heretofore what has been interpreted as intrinsic friction, a form of non-Markovian dissipation that automatically arises from adopting the fractional calculus, is shown to be a manifestation of decorrelations between trajectories. We apply the general theory developed herein to the Lotka-Volterra ecological model, providing new insight into the final equilibrium state. The relaxation time to achieve this state is also considered.

  11. On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed.

  12. Fractional Order Dynamic Positioning Controller

    Anna Witkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Improving the performance of Dynamic Positioning System in such applications as station keeping, position mooring and slow speed references tracking requires improving the position and heading control precision. These goals can be achieved through the improvement of the ship control system. Fractional-order calculus is a very useful tool which extends classical, integer-order calculus and is used in contemporary modeling and control applications. Fractional-order PI?D? controller, based on the added flexibility of fractional-order operators, are capable of superior performance compared to their integer-order counterparts. This paper presents the fractional order PI?D? controller designed to maintain the ship position and heading and the results were compared with classical integer order PID controller.

  13. Physcicists rewarded for 'fractional electrons'

    Ball, P

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 Nobel prize for physics has been awarded to Horst Stormer, Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin.Stormer and Tsui were the first to observe the fractional quantum Hall effect and Laughlin provided the theory shortly afterwards (1 page).

  14. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  15. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  16. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  17. Some Applications of Fractional Equations

    Weitzner, H.; Zaslavsky, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    We present two observations related to theapplication of linear (LFE) and nonlinear fractional equations (NFE). First, we give the comparison and estimates of the role of the fractional derivative term to the normal diffusion term in a LFE. The transition of the solution from normal to anomalous transport is demonstrated and the dominant role of the power tails in the long time asymptotics is shown. Second, wave propagation or kinetics in a nonlinear media with fractal properties is considere...

  18. Fractional Order Dynamic Positioning Controller

    Anna Witkowska

    2015-01-01

    Improving the performance of Dynamic Positioning System in such applications as station keeping, position mooring and slow speed references tracking requires improving the position and heading control precision. These goals can be achieved through the improvement of the ship control system. Fractional-order calculus is a very useful tool which extends classical, integer-order calculus and is used in contemporary modeling and control applications. Fractional-order PI?D? controller, based on th...

  19. Photo-induced isotopic fractionation

    Miller, Charles E.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic method for the analysis of photo-induced isotopic fractionation. The physical basis for this fractionation mechanism centers on the fact that isotopic substitution alters the energy levels, molecular symmetries, spin statistical weights and other fundamental molecular properties, producing spectroscopic signatures distinguishable from that of the parent isotopomer. These mass-dependent physical properties are identical to those invoked by Urey to explain stabl...

  20. Fractional characteristic times and dissipated energy in fractional linear viscoelasticity

    Colinas-Armijo, Natalia; Di Paola, Mario; Pinnola, Francesco P.

    2016-08-01

    In fractional viscoelasticity the stress-strain relation is a differential equation with non-integer operators (derivative or integral). Such constitutive law is able to describe the mechanical behavior of several materials, but when fractional operators appear, the elastic and the viscous contribution are inseparable and the characteristic times (relaxation and retardation time) cannot be defined. This paper aims to provide an approach to separate the elastic and the viscous phase in the fractional stress-strain relation with the aid of an equivalent classical model (Kelvin-Voigt or Maxwell). For such equivalent model the parameters are selected by an optimization procedure. Once the parameters of the equivalent model are defined, characteristic times of fractional viscoelasticity are readily defined as ratio between viscosity and stiffness. In the numerical applications, three kinds of different excitations are considered, that is, harmonic, periodic, and pseudo-stochastic. It is shown that, for any periodic excitation, the equivalent models have some important features: (i) the dissipated energy per cycle at steady-state coincides with the Staverman-Schwarzl formulation of the fractional model, (ii) the elastic and the viscous coefficients of the equivalent model are strictly related to the storage and the loss modulus, respectively.

  1. Chondrogenic potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Danisovic, L.; Lesný, Petr; Jendelová, Pavla; Teyssler, P.; Havlas, V.; Fujeriková, G.; Syková, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, Supplement 1 (2006), s. 191-191. ISSN 1465-3249. [ ISCT 2006. 04.05.2006-07.05.2006, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0021620803; GA MZd(CZ) NR8121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Mesenchymal Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  2. Differentiated Adipose-derived Stem Cells Promote Reinnervation of Rat Skin Flaps

    Koichi Tomita, MD, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Conclusions: dASCs could improve flap reinnervation by 2 mechanisms: First, neurotrophic factors produced by dASCs facilitated regrowth of cutaneous axons from the surroundings of flap. Second, nerve growth factor released by dASCs induced the collateral sprouting of undamaged axons in adjacent tissues. In addition to the use of innervated flaps, dASC transplantation therapy could be a new approach to improve the sensory recovery of skin flaps.

  3. Phenotypic characterizations and comparison of adult dental stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells

    Razieh Alipour

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: Both cell populations derived from adipose tissue and dental pulp showed common phenotypic markers of mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, mesenchymal stem cells could be isolated and cultured successfully from dental pulp of human exfo-liated deciduous teeth, they are very good candidates for treatment and prevention of human diseases.

  4. Current progress in use of adipose derived stem cells inperipheral nerve regeneration

    Shomari DL Zack-Williams; Peter E Butler; Deepak M Kalaskar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike central nervous system neurons; those in theperipheral nervous system have the potential for fullregeneration after injury. Following injury, recovery iscontrolled by schwann cells which replicate and modulatethe subsequent immune response. The level of nerverecovery is strongly linked to the severity of the initialinjury despite the significant advancements in imagingand surgical techniques. Multiple experimental modelshave been used with varying successes to augment thenatural regenerative processes which occur following nerveinjury. Stem cell therapy in peripheral nerve injury maybe an important future intervention to improve the bestattainable clinical results. In particular adipose derivedstem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent mesenchymal stemcells similar to bone marrow derived stem cells, which arethought to have neurotrophic properties and the ability todifferentiate into multiple lineages. They are ubiquitouswithin adipose tissue; they can form many structuresresembling the mature adult peripheral nervous system.Following early in vitro work; multiple small and largeanimal in vivo models have been used in conjunction withconduits, autografts and allografts to successfully bridgethe peripheral nerve gap. Some of the ADSC relatedneuroprotective and regenerative properties have beenelucidated however much work remains before a modelcan be used successfully in human peripheral nerve injury(PNI). This review aims to provide a detailed overview ofprogress made in the use of ADSC in PNI, with discussionon the role of a tissue engineered approach for PNI repair.

  5. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells: a better cell source for nervous system regeneration

    Han Chao; Zhang Liang; Song Lin; Liu Yang; Zou Wei; Piao Hua; Liu Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to suggest an ideal source of adult stem cells for the treatment of nervous system diseases,MSCs from human adipose tissue and bone marrow were isolated and studied to explore the differences with regard to cell morphology,surface markers,neuronal differentiation capacity,especially the synapse structure formation and the secretion of neurotrophic factors.Methods The neuronal differentiation capacity of human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (hADSCs) and bone marrow (hBMSCs) was determined based on nissl body and synapse structure formation,and neural factor secretion function.hADSCs and hBMSCs were isolated and differentiated into neuron-like cells with rat brain-conditioned medium,a potentially rich source of neuronal differentiation promoting signals.Specific neuronal proteins and neural factors were detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis,respectively.Results Flow cytometric analysis showed that both cell types had similar phenotypes.Cell growth curves showed that hADSCs proliferated more quickly than hBMSCs.Both kinds of cells were capable of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation.The morphology of hADSCs and hBMSCs changed during neuronal differentiation and displayed neuronlike cell appearance after 14 days' differentiation.Both hADSCs and hBMSCs were able to differentiate into neuron-like cells based on their production of neuron specific proteins including β-tubulin-Ⅲ,neuron-specific enolase (NSE),nissl bodies,and their ability to secrete brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF).Assessment of synaptop hysin and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) suggested synapse structure formation in differentiated hADSCs and hBMSCs.Conclusions Our results demonstrate that hADSCs have neuronal differentiation potential similar to hBMSC,but with a higher proliferation capacity than hBMSC.Adipose tissue is abundant,easily available and would be a potential ideal source of adult stem cells for neural-related clinical research and application.

  6. Multiphoton luminescent graphene quantum dots for in vivo tracking of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Kim, Jin; Song, Sung Ho; Jin, Yoonhee; Park, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Hyewon; Jeon, Seokwoo; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2016-04-01

    The applicability of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) for the in vitro and in vivo live imaging and tracking of different types of human stem cells is investigated. GQDs synthesized by the modified graphite intercalated compound method show efficient cellular uptake with improved biocompatibility and highly sensitive optical properties, indicating their feasibility as a bio-imaging probe for stem cell therapy.The applicability of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) for the in vitro and in vivo live imaging and tracking of different types of human stem cells is investigated. GQDs synthesized by the modified graphite intercalated compound method show efficient cellular uptake with improved biocompatibility and highly sensitive optical properties, indicating their feasibility as a bio-imaging probe for stem cell therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional results. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02143c

  7. Isolation and expansion of adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering

    Fink, Trine; Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Lund, Pia;

    2011-01-01

    subsequent clinical use. In the isolation step, several enzymes were compared with respect to yield of nucleated cells and precursor cells. Our results showed, that the interdonor variablility was greater than differences between individual enzymes. For propagation of cells, different types of media, sera...... to differentiate. Also, the effect of cell seeding density and hypoxic culture was evaluated. In this study, we show that it is possible to maximize cell yield regardless of donor individual characteristics by simple manipulations of media composition, cell seeding density and gaseous environment....

  8. Tracking Intravenous Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Model of Elastase-Induced Emphysema

    Kim, You-sun; Kim, Ji-Young; Shin, Dong-Myung; Huh, Jin Won; Lee, Sei Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from bone marrow or adipose tissue can successfully repair emphysematous animal lungs, which is a characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here, we describe the cellular distribution of MSCs that were intravenously injected into mice with elastase-induced emphysema. The distributions were also compared to the distributions in control mice without emphysema. Methods We used fluorescence optical imaging with quantum dots (QDs) to...

  9. The role of adipose-derived inflammatory cytokines in type 1 diabetes.

    Shao, Lan; Feng, Boya; Zhang, Yuying; Zhou, Huanjiao; Ji, Weidong; Min, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction correlates with the development of diabetes. Mice with an adipocyte-specific deletion of the SUMO-specific protease SENP1 develop symptoms of type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Peri-pancreatic adipocytes (PATs) exert both systemic and paracrine effects on pancreases function. Our recent studies report that PATs of SENP1-deficient mice have increased proinflammatory cytokine production compared with other adipose depots. Proinflammatory cytokines produced from PATs not only have direct cytotoxic effects on pancreatic islets, but also increase CCL5 expression in adjacent pancreatic islets, which induces persistent inflammation in pancreases by acquisition of Th1 and Th17 effector T cell subsets. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) can post-translationally conjugate to cellular proteins (SUMOylation) and modulate their biological functions. Several components in SUMOylation associate with T1DM susceptibility. We find that SUMOylation of NF-κB essential molecule NEMO augments NF-κB activity, NF-κB-dependent cytokine production and pancreatic inflammation. NF-κB inhibitor should provide therapeutic approach to block PAT inflammation and ameliorate the T1DM phenotype. We further propose that adipocytes in PATs may play a primary role in establishing pancreatic immune regulation at onset of diabetes, providing new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. PMID:27617172

  10. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for chronic myocardial ischemia (MyStromalCell Trial)

    Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun;

    2012-01-01

    regenerative therapy to replace injured tissue by creating new blood vessels and cardiomyocytes in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease. The aim of this special report is to review the present preclinical data leading to clinical stem cell therapy using ADSCs in patients with ischemic heart disease. In...

  11. Human adipose-derived stromal cells in a clinically applicable injectable alginate hydrogel

    Larsen, Bjarke Follin; Juhl, Morten; Cohen, Smadar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS: Clinical trials have documented beneficial effects of mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue (ASCs) as treatment in patients with ischemic heart disease. However, retention of transplanted cells is poor. One potential way to increase cell retention is to in...... and alginate is non-immunogenic and, in fact, immunosuppressive....

  12. In vitro differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into endothelial-like cells

    GUAN Lidong; SHI Shuangshuang; PEI Xuetao; LI Shaoqing; WANG Yunfang; YUE Huimin; LIU Daqing; HE Lijuan; BAI Cixian; YAN Fang; NAN Xue

    2006-01-01

    The neovascularization of ischemic tissue is a crucial initial step for the functional rehabilitation and wound healing. However, the short of seed cell candidate for the foundation of vascular network is still a big issue. Human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs), which possess multilineage potential, are capable of adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. We examined whether this kind of stem cells could differentiate into endothelial-like cells and participate in blood vessel formation, and whether they could be used as an ideal cell source for therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic diseases or vascularization of tissue constructs. The results showed that hADSCs, grown under appropriately induced conditions, displayed characteristics similar to those of vessel endothelium. The differentiated cells expressed endothelial cell markers CD34 and vWF, and had high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and prostacyclin. In addition, the induced cells were able to form tube-like structures when cultured on matrigel. Our data indicated that induced hADSCs could exhibit characteristics of endothelial cells. Therefore, these cells, as a source of human endothelial cells, may find many applications in such realms as engineering blood vessels, endothelial cell transplantation for myocardial regeneration, and induction of angiogenesis for treatment of regional ischemia.

  13. GENERALIZED FRACTIONAL TRACE VARIATIONAL IDENTITY AND A NEW FRACTIONAL INTEGRABLE COUPLINGS OF SOLITON HIERARCHY

    Hanyu WEI; Tiecheng XIA

    2014-01-01

    Based on fractional isospectral problems and general bilinear forms, the gener-alized fractional trace identity is presented. Then, a new explicit Lie algebra is introduced for which the new fractional integrable couplings of a fractional soliton hierarchy are derived from a fractional zero-curvature equation. Finally, we obtain the fractional Hamiltonian structures of the fractional integrable couplings of the soliton hierarchy.

  14. Conformable Fractional Bessel Equation and Bessel Functions

    Gökdoğan, Ahmet; Ünal, Emrah; Çelik, Ercan

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study the fractional power series solutions around regular singular point x=0 of conformable fractional Bessel differential equation and fractional Bessel functions. Then, we compare fractional solutions with ordinary solutions. In addition, we present certain property of fractional Bessel functions.

  15. From fractional Fourier transformation to quantum mechanical fractional squeezing transformation

    吕翠红; 范洪义; 李东韡

    2015-01-01

    By converting the triangular functions in the integration kernel of the fractional Fourier transformation to the hy-perbolic function, i.e., tanα→tanhα, sinα→sinhα, we find quantum mechanical fractional squeezing transformation (FrST) which satisfies additivity. By virtue of the integration technique within ordered product of operators (IWOP) wederive the unitary operator responsible for the FrST, which is composite and is made of eiπa†a/2 and exp[ iα2 (a2+a†2)]. The FrST may be implemented in combinations of quadratic nonlinear crystals with different phase mismatches.

  16. Ablative and fractional ablative lasers.

    Brightman, Lori A; Brauer, Jeremy A; Anolik, Robert; Weiss, Elliot; Karen, Julie; Chapas, Anne; Hale, Elizabeth; Bernstein, Leonard; Geronemus, Roy G

    2009-10-01

    The field of nonsurgical laser resurfacing for aesthetic enhancement continues to improve with new research and technological advances. Since its beginnings in the 1980s, the laser-resurfacing industry has produced a multitude of devices employing ablative, nonablative, and fractional ablative technologies. The three approaches largely differ in their method of thermal damage, weighing degrees of efficacy, downtime, and side effect profiles against each other. Nonablative technologies generate some interest, although only for those patient populations seeking mild improvements. Fractional technologies, however, have gained dramatic ground on fully ablative resurfacing. Fractional laser resurfacing, while exhibiting results that fall just short of the ideal outcomes of fully ablative treatments, is an increasingly attractive alternative because of its far more favorable side effect profile, reduced recovery time, and significant clinical outcome. PMID:19850197

  17. Fractional derivatives in Dengue epidemics

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  18. Fractional differences and sums with binomial coefficients

    Abdeljawad, Thabet; Baleanu, Dumitru; Jarad, Fahd; Agarwal, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    In fractional calculus there are two approaches to obtain fractional derivatives. The first approach is by iterating the integral and then defining a fractional order by using Cauchy formula to obtain Riemann fractional integrals and derivatives. The second approach is by iterating the derivative and then defining a fractional order by making use of the binomial theorem to obtain Gr\\"{u}nwald-Litnikov fractional derivatives. In this article we formulate the delta and nabla discrete versions f...

  19. Optical encryption with cascaded fractional wavelet transforms

    BAO Liang-hua; CHEN Lin-fei; ZHAO Dao-mu

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of fractional wavelet transform, we propose a new method called cascaded fractional wavelet transform to encrypt images. It has the virtues of fractional Fourier transform and wavelet transform. Fractional orders, standard focal lengths and scaling factors are its keys. Multistage fractional Fourier transforms can add the keys easily and strengthen information security. This method can also realize partial encryption just as wavelet transform and fractional wavelet transform. Optical realization of encryption and decryption is proposed. Computer simulations confirmed its possibility.

  20. Fractional Schrödinger equation.

    Laskin, Nick

    2002-11-01

    Some properties of the fractional Schrödinger equation are studied. We prove the Hermiticity of the fractional Hamilton operator and establish the parity conservation law for fractional quantum mechanics. As physical applications of the fractional Schrödinger equation we find the energy spectra of a hydrogenlike atom (fractional "Bohr atom") and of a fractional oscillator in the semiclassical approximation. An equation for the fractional probability current density is developed and discussed. We also discuss the relationships between the fractional and standard Schrödinger equations. PMID:12513557

  1. The bootstrap fraction in TFTR

    The TRANSP plasma analysis code is used to calculate the bootstrap current generated during neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating for a wide variety of TFTR discharges. An empirical scaling relation is given for the bootstrap current fraction using the ratio of the peakednesses of the thermal pressure and of the total current density. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  3. What next in fractionated radiotherapy

    Trends in models for predicting the total dose required to produce tolerable normal-tissue injury can be seen by the progression from the ''cube root law'', through Strandqvist's slope of 0.22, to NSD, TDF and CRE which have separate time and fraction number exponents, to even better approximations now available. The dose-response formulae that can be used to define the effect of fraction size (and number) include (1) the linear quadratic (LQ) model (2) the two-component (TC) multi-target model and (3) repair-misrepair models. The LQ model offers considerable convenience, requires only two parameters to be determined, and emphasizes the difference between late and early normal-tissue dependence on dose per fraction first shown by exponents greater than the NSD slope of 0.24. Exponents of overall time, e.g. Tsup(0.11), yield the wrong shape of time curve, suggesting that most proliferating occurs early, although it really occurs after a delay depending on the turnover time of the tissue. Improved clinical results are being sought by hyperfractionation, accelerated fractionation, or continuous low dose rate irradiation as in interstitial implants. (U.K.)

  4. Fractional signal processing: scale conversion

    Ortigueira, M.D.; J.C. Matos; Piedade, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Scale conversion of discrete-time signals are studied taking as base the fractional discrete-time system theory. Some simulation results to illustrate the behaviour of the algorithms will be presented. A new algorithm for performing the zoom transform is also described.

  5. Fractional quantum Hall effect revisited

    Jacak, J., E-mail: janusz.jacak@pwr.edu.pl; Łydżba, P., E-mail: patrycja.lydzba@pwr.edu.pl; Jacak, L., E-mail: lucjan.jacak@pwr.edu.pl

    2015-10-15

    The topology-based explanation of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is summarized. The cyclotron braid subgroups crucial for this approach are introduced in order to identify the origin of the Laughlin correlations in 2D (two-dimensional) Hall systems. Flux-tubes and vortices for composite fermions in their standard constructions are explained in terms of cyclotron braids. The derivation of the hierarchy of the FQHE is proposed by mapping onto the integer effect within the topology-based approach. The experimental observations of the FQHE supporting the cyclotron braid picture are reviewed with a special attention paid to recent experiments with a suspended graphene. The triggering role of a carrier mobility for organization of the fractional state in Hall configuration is emphasized. The prerequisites for the FQHE are indicated including topological conditions substantially increasing the previously accepted set of physical necessities. The explanation of numerical studies by exact diagonalizations of the fractional Chern insulator states is formulated in terms of the topology condition applied to the Berry field flux quantization. Some new ideas withz regard to the synthetic fractional states in the optical lattices are also formulated.

  6. A Fast Fractional Difference Algorithm

    Jensen, Andreas Noack; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T logT . For...

  7. Isotopic Fractionation in Interstellar Chemistry

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Isotopically fractionated material is found in many solar system objects, including meteorites and comets. It is thought, in some cases, to trace interstellar material that was incorporated into the solar sys tem without undergoing significant processing. In this poster, we sho w the results of several models of the nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon f ractionation in proto-stellar cores.

  8. A fast fractional difference algorithm

    Jensen, Andreas Noack; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    2014-01-01

    We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T logT . For...

  9. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

    Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte

    2014-09-01

    This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

  10. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  11. Staircase and Fractional Part Functions

    Amram, Meirav; Dagan, Miriam; Ioshpe, Michael; Satianov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The staircase and fractional part functions are basic examples of real functions. They can be applied in several parts of mathematics, such as analysis, number theory, formulas for primes, and so on; in computer programming, the floor and ceiling functions are provided by a significant number of programming languages--they have some basic uses in…

  12. Generalized time fractional IHCP with Caputo fractional derivatives

    The numerical solution of the generalized time fractional inverse heat conduction problem (GTFIHCP) on a finite slab is investigated in the presence of measured (noisy) data when the time fractional derivative is interpreted in the sense of Caputo. The GTFIHCP involves the simultaneous identification of the heat flux and temperature transient functions at one of the boundaries of the finite slab together with the initial condition of the original direct problem from noisy Cauchy data at a discrete set of points on the opposite (active) boundary. A finite difference space marching scheme with adaptive regularization, using trigonometric mollification techniques and generalized cross validation is introduced. Error estimates for the numerical solution of the mollified problem and numerical examples are provided.

  13. Fractional Processes and Fractional-Order Signal Processing Techniques and Applications

    Sheng, Hu; Qiu, TianShuang

    2012-01-01

    Fractional processes are widely found in science, technology and engineering systems. In Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing, some complex random signals, characterized by the presence of a heavy-tailed distribution or non-negligible dependence between distant observations (local and long memory), are introduced and examined from the ‘fractional’ perspective using simulation, fractional-order modeling and filtering and realization of fractional-order systems. These fractional-order signal processing (FOSP) techniques are based on fractional calculus, the fractional Fourier transform and fractional lower-order moments. Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing: • presents fractional processes of fixed, variable and distributed order studied as the output of fractional-order differential systems; • introduces FOSP techniques and the fractional signals and fractional systems point of view; • details real-world-application examples of FOSP techniques to demonstr...

  14. Galaxy cluster baryon fractions revisited

    Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Sivanandam, Suresh; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    We measure the baryons contained in both the stellar and hot-gas components for 12 galaxy clusters and groups at z ∼ 0.1 with M = 1-5 × 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}. This paper improves upon our previous work through the addition of XMM-Newton X-ray data, enabling measurements of the total mass and masses of each major baryonic component—intracluster medium, intracluster stars, and stars in galaxies—for each system. We recover a mean relation for the stellar mass versus halo mass, M{sub ⋆}∝M{sub 500}{sup −0.52±0.04}, that is 1σ shallower than in our previous result. We confirm that the partitioning of baryons between the stellar and hot-gas components is a strong function of M {sub 500}; the fractions of total mass in stars and X-ray gas within a sphere of radius r {sub 500} scale as f{sub ⋆}∝M{sub 500}{sup −0.45±0.04} and f{sub gas}∝M{sub 500}{sup 0.26±0.03}, respectively. We also confirm that the combination of the brightest cluster galaxy and intracluster stars is an increasingly important contributor to the stellar baryon budget in lower halo masses. Studies that fail to fully account for intracluster stars typically underestimate the normalization of the stellar baryon fraction versus M {sub 500} relation by ∼25%. Our derived stellar baryon fractions are also higher, and the trend with halo mass weaker, than those derived from recent halo occupation distribution and abundance matching analyses. One difference from our previous work is the weak, but statistically significant, dependence here of the total baryon fraction upon halo mass: f{sub bary}∝M{sub 500}{sup 0.16±0.04}. For M {sub 500} ≳ 2 × 10{sup 14}, the total baryon fractions within r {sub 500} are on average 18% below the universal value from the seven year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) analysis, or 7% below for the cosmological parameters from the Planck analysis. In the latter case, the difference between the universal value and cluster baryon fractions is

  15. Green's Theorem for Generalized Fractional Derivatives

    Odzijewicz, Tatiana; Malinowska, Agnieszka B.; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2012-01-01

    We study three types of generalized partial fractional operators. An extension of Green's theorem, by considering partial fractional derivatives with more general kernels, is proved. New results are obtained, even in the particular case when the generalized operators are reduced to the standard partial fractional derivatives and fractional integrals in the sense of Riemann-Liouville or Caputo.

  16. Using Number Sense to Compare Fractions

    Bray, Wendy S.; Abreu-Sanchez, Laura

    2010-01-01

    One mathematical focus for third graders is to develop deep understanding of fractions and fraction equivalence, including comparing fractions through use of models and reasoning strategies. Before reading further, consider how you might solve the following problem: Which fraction is greater, 14/24 or 17/36? The initial impulse of many adults is…

  17. Fractionated radiation therapy after Strandqvist

    Models for predicting the total dose required to produce tolerable normal-tissue damage in radiation therapy are becoming less empirical, more realistic, and more specific for different tissue reactions. The progression is described from the 'cube root law', through STRANDQVIST'S well known graph to NSD, TDF and CRE and more recently to biologically based time factors and linear-quadratic dose-response curves. New applications of the recent approach are reviewed together with their implications for non-standard fractionation in radiation therapy. It is concluded that accelerated fractionation is an important method to be investigated, as well as hyperfractionation; and that more data are required about the proliferation rates of clonogenic cells in human tumours. (orig.)

  18. Fractional Authorship in Nuclear Physics

    Pritychenko, B

    2015-01-01

    Large, multi-institutional groups or collaborations of scientists are engaged in nuclear physics research projects, and the number of research facilities is dwindling. These collaborations have their own authorship rules, and they produce a large number of highly-cited papers. Multiple authorship of nuclear physics publications creates a problem with the assessment of an individual author's productivity relative to his/her colleagues and renders ineffective a performance metrics solely based on annual publication and citation counts. Many institutions are increasingly relying on the total number of first-author papers; however, this approach becomes counterproductive for large research collaborations with an alphabetical order of authors. A concept of fractional authorship (the claiming of credit for authorship by more than one individual) helps to clarify this issue by providing a more complete picture of research activities. In the present work, nuclear physics fractional and total authorships have been inv...

  19. Optimal fractionation from radiobiological view

    Not only in animal experiments but also from analyses of clinical data important knowledge could be obtained in recent years, that deal with the course of biological processes in tumor and normal tissue during fractionated irradiation. Relevant are differences in the capacity for recovery from sublethal radiation injury and in repopulation. Chronically reacting normal tissues show a clearly higher repair capacity than tumors, that can be used for hyperfractionation with reduced single dosis. However, strong attention must be given to repairing time, that the selective benefit is not endangered by incomplete recovery. On the other side clinical analyses have confirmed that the stem cell repopulation - going on in several tumor types, so e.g. in squamous cell carcinomas, during the time of conventional treatment - can make a considerable contribution to radioresistance. The actual level of knowledge justifies further clinical experiments with unconventional fractionation, especially with accelerated hyperfractionation. (author)

  20. Theoretical exploration on ultra-fractionated radiotherapy

    This study based on the hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) effect, a new tumour radiotherapy method - ultra-fractionation has been devised. Compared with conventional fractionation, the dose per fraction is decreased from 2Gy to 0.2 ∼ 0.5Gy for the ultra-fractionation. Although the amount of fractions is increased in order to reach the same therapeutic efficacy, the total dose is significantly reduced