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Sample records for adipose tissue treatment

  1. Targeting adipose tissue in the treatment of obesity-associated diabetes.

    Kusminski, Christine M; Bickel, Perry E; Scherer, Philipp E

    2016-09-01

    Adipose tissue regulates numerous physiological processes, and its dysfunction in obese humans is associated with disrupted metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although several US-approved treatments for obesity and T2DM exist, these are limited by adverse effects and a lack of effective long-term glucose control. In this Review, we provide an overview of the role of adipose tissue in metabolic homeostasis and assess emerging novel therapeutic strategies targeting adipose tissue, including adipokine-based strategies, promotion of white adipose tissue beiging as well as reduction of inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:27256476

  2. Adipose tissue fibrosis

    Buechler, Christa; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity causes a major interest in white adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissue cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix proteins whose composition and remodeling is of crucial importance for cell function. The expansion of adipose tissue in obesity is linked to an inappropriate supply with oxygen and hypoxia development. Subsequent activation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and initiates adipose tissue fibrosis. The...

  3. Impact of Doxorubicin Treatment on the Physiological Functions of White Adipose Tissue.

    Luana Amorim Biondo

    Full Text Available White adipose tissue (WAT plays a fundamental role in maintaining energy balance and important endocrine functions. The loss of WAT modifies adipokine secretion and disrupts homeostasis, potentially leading to severe metabolic effects and a reduced quality of life. Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent used clinically because of its good effectiveness against various types of cancer. However, doxorubicin has deleterious effects in many healthy tissues, including WAT, liver, and skeletal and cardiac muscles. Our objective was to investigate the effects of doxorubicin on white adipocytes through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Doxorubicin reduced the uptake of glucose by retroperitoneal adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells via the inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase Thr172 phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 content. Doxorubicin also reduced the serum level of adiponectin and, to a greater extent, the expression of genes encoding lipogenic (Fas and Acc and adipogenic factors (Pparg, C/ebpa, and Srebp1c in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. In addition, doxorubicin inhibited both lipogenesis and lipolysis and reduced the hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase protein levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate the impact of doxorubicin on WAT. These results are important to understand some side effects observed in patients receiving chemotherapy and should encourage new adjuvant treatments that aim to inhibit these side effects.

  4. Impact of Doxorubicin Treatment on the Physiological Functions of White Adipose Tissue

    Cruz, Maysa Mariana; Cunha, Roberta D. C.; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel; Oyama, Lila Missae; Nascimento, Claudia M. Oller; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; dos Santos, Ronaldo V. T.; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a fundamental role in maintaining energy balance and important endocrine functions. The loss of WAT modifies adipokine secretion and disrupts homeostasis, potentially leading to severe metabolic effects and a reduced quality of life. Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent used clinically because of its good effectiveness against various types of cancer. However, doxorubicin has deleterious effects in many healthy tissues, including WAT, liver, and skeletal and cardiac muscles. Our objective was to investigate the effects of doxorubicin on white adipocytes through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Doxorubicin reduced the uptake of glucose by retroperitoneal adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells via the inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase Thr172 phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 content. Doxorubicin also reduced the serum level of adiponectin and, to a greater extent, the expression of genes encoding lipogenic (Fas and Acc) and adipogenic factors (Pparg, C/ebpa, and Srebp1c) in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. In addition, doxorubicin inhibited both lipogenesis and lipolysis and reduced the hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase protein levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate the impact of doxorubicin on WAT. These results are important to understand some side effects observed in patients receiving chemotherapy and should encourage new adjuvant treatments that aim to inhibit these side effects. PMID:27015538

  5. Impact of Doxorubicin Treatment on the Physiological Functions of White Adipose Tissue.

    Biondo, Luana Amorim; Lima Junior, Edson Alves; Souza, Camila Oliveira; Cruz, Maysa Mariana; Cunha, Roberta D C; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel; Oyama, Lila Missae; Nascimento, Claudia M Oller; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Dos Santos, Ronaldo V T; Lira, Fabio Santos; Rosa Neto, José Cesar

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a fundamental role in maintaining energy balance and important endocrine functions. The loss of WAT modifies adipokine secretion and disrupts homeostasis, potentially leading to severe metabolic effects and a reduced quality of life. Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent used clinically because of its good effectiveness against various types of cancer. However, doxorubicin has deleterious effects in many healthy tissues, including WAT, liver, and skeletal and cardiac muscles. Our objective was to investigate the effects of doxorubicin on white adipocytes through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Doxorubicin reduced the uptake of glucose by retroperitoneal adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells via the inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase Thr172 phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 content. Doxorubicin also reduced the serum level of adiponectin and, to a greater extent, the expression of genes encoding lipogenic (Fas and Acc) and adipogenic factors (Pparg, C/ebpa, and Srebp1c) in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. In addition, doxorubicin inhibited both lipogenesis and lipolysis and reduced the hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase protein levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate the impact of doxorubicin on WAT. These results are important to understand some side effects observed in patients receiving chemotherapy and should encourage new adjuvant treatments that aim to inhibit these side effects. PMID:27015538

  6. A New Approach for Adipose Tissue Treatment and Body Contouring Using Radiofrequency-Assisted Liposuction

    Paul, Malcolm; Mulholland, Robert Stephen

    2009-01-01

    A new liposuction technology for adipocyte lipolysis and uniform three-dimensional tissue heating and contraction is presented. The technology is based on bipolar radiofrequency energy applied to the subcutaneous adipose tissue and subdermal skin surface. Preliminary clinical results, thermal monitoring, and histologic biopsies of the treated tissue demonstrate rapid preaspiration liquefaction of adipose tissue, coagulation of subcutaneous blood vessels, and uniform sustained heating of tissue.

  7. Adipose Tissue Metabolism During Hypobaria

    D. P. Chattopadhyay

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible factors affecting the metabolism of adipose tissue under hypobaric conditions have been reviewed. The hormonal changes brought into play under hypoxic stress generally stress generally increase the adipose tissue lipolysis.

  8. Time variation of adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment: in vitro study using OCT

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Trunina, Natalia A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2012-03-01

    Time variation of the adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment was studied using OCT. Fat tissue slices 200-500 μm thick were used in in vitro experiments. To stain the fat tissue we used water-ethanol solutions of indocyanine green (ICG) and brilliant green (BG) with the concentration 1 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml, respectively. The CW laser diode (VD-VII DPSS, 808 nm) and the dental diode irradiator Ultra Lume Led 5 (442 and 597 nm) were used for irradiation of tissue slices. The irradiation time was 5 min for the laser and 15 min for the diode lamp. The experiments were carried out at room temperature. It was discovered the immersion optical clearing of fat tissue slices due to fat cell lipolysis under photodynamic treatment. Released cell content works as an immersion agent, thus the relative refractive index of tissue scatterers decreasing with the time elapsed after the treatment. These data support the hypothesis that photodynamic treatment induces fat cell lipolysis for some period after treatment.

  9. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  10. Short- and long-term glucocorticoid treatment enhances insulin signalling in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    Gathercole, LL; Morgan, SA; Bujalska, IJ; Stewart, PM; Tomlinson, JW

    2011-01-01

    Background: Endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoid (GC) excess (Cushing's syndrome) is characterized by increased adiposity and insulin resistance. Although GCs cause global insulin resistance in vivo, we have previously shown that GCs are able to augment insulin action in human adipose tissue, contrasting with their action in skeletal muscle. Cushing's syndrome develops following chronic GC exposure and, in addition, is a state of hyperinsulinemia. Objectives: We have therefore compared the ...

  11. Bioengineering beige adipose tissue therapeutics

    Kevin eTharp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of UCP1-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable brown adipose tissues for human therapeutic purposes at this time.Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit WAT derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of beige adipose tissue implants and their potential for the metabolic

  12. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  13. Pioglitazone treatment reduces adipose tissue inflammation through reduction of mast cell and macrophage number and by improving vascularity.

    Michael Spencer

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue in insulin resistant subjects contains inflammatory cells and extracellular matrix components. This study examined adipose pathology of insulin resistant subjects who were treated with pioglitazone or fish oil.Adipose biopsies were examined from nine insulin resistant subjects before/after treatment with pioglitazone 45 mg/day for 12 weeks and also from 19 subjects who were treated with fish oil (1,860 mg EPA, 1,500 mg DHA daily. These studies were performed in a clinical research center setting.Pioglitazone treatment increased the cross-sectional area of adipocytes by 18% (p = 0.01, and also increased capillary density without affecting larger vessels. Pioglitazone treatment decreased total adipose macrophage number by 26%, with a 56% decrease in M1 macrophages and an increase in M2 macrophages. Mast cells were more abundant in obese versus lean subjects, and were decreased from 24 to 13 cells/mm(2 (p = 0.02 in patients treated with pioglitazone, but not in subjects treated with FO. Although there were no changes in total collagen protein, pioglitazone increased the amount of elastin protein in adipose by 6-fold.The PPARγ agonist pioglitazone increased adipocyte size yet improved other features of adipose, increasing capillary number and reducing mast cells and inflammatory macrophages. The increase in elastin may better permit adipocyte expansion without triggering cell necrosis and an inflammatory reaction.

  14. Meal Fat Storage in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue – Comparison of Pioglitazone and Glipizide Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita; Pattan, Vishwanath; Rizza, Robert A.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with pioglitazone changes abdominal fat in the opposite direction as treatment with glipizide. To determine if these two medications affect adipose tissue meal fatty acid storage differently we studied 19 T2DM treated with either pioglitazone (n=8) or glipizide (n=11) and 11 non-DM control subjects matched for age, BMI, abdominal and leg fat. A breakfast mixed meal containing [1-14C] triolein was given and abdominal and femoral subcutaneous (sc) adipose tis...

  15. WJD 5th Anniversary Special Issues(1): Insulin Benefits of healthy adipose tissue in the treatment of diabetes

    Subhadra; C; Gunawardana

    2014-01-01

    The major malfunction in diabetes mellitus is severe perturbation of glucose homeostasis caused by deficiency of insulin.Insulin deficiency is either absolute due to destruction or failure of pancreaticβcells,or relative due to decreased sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin.The primary lesion being related to insulin,treatments for diabetes focus on insulin replacement and/or increasing sensitivity to insulin.These therapies have their own limitations and complications,some of which can be life-threatening.For example,exogenous insulin administration can lead to fatal hypoglycemic episodes;islet/pancreas transplantation requires life-long immunosuppressive therapy;and anti-diabetic drugs have dangerous side effects including edema,heart failure and lactic acidosis.Thus the need remains for better safer long term treatments for diabetes.The ultimate goal in treating diabetes is to re-establish glucose homeostasis,preferably through endogenously generated hormones.Recent studies increasingly show that extra-pancreatic hormones,particularly those arising from adipose tissue,can compensate for insulin,or entirely replace the function of insulin under appropriate circumstances.Adipose tissue is a versatile endocrine organ that secretes a variety of hormones with far-reaching effects on overall metabolism.While unhealthy adipose tissue can exacerbate diabetes through limiting circulation and secreting of pro-inflammatory cytokines,healthy uninflamed adipose tissue secretes beneficial adipokines with hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory properties,which can complement and/or compensate for the function of insulin.Administration of specific adipokines is known to alleviate both type 1 and 2 diabetes,and leptin mono-therapy is reported to reverse type 1 diabetes independent of insulin.Although specific adipokines may correct diabetes,administration of individual adipokines still carries risks similar to those of insulin monotherapy.Thus a better approach is to

  16. Impact of Doxorubicin Treatment on the Physiological Functions of White Adipose Tissue

    Luana Amorim Biondo; Edson Alves Lima Junior; Camila Oliveira de Souza; Maysa Mariana Cruz; Roberta D C Cunha; Maria Isabel Alonso-Vale; Lila Missae Oyama; Claudia M Oller Nascimento; Gustavo Duarte Pimentel; dos Santos, Ronaldo V. T.; Fabio Santos De Lira; José Cesar Rosa Neto

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a fundamental role in maintaining energy balance and important endocrine functions. The loss of WAT modifies adipokine secretion and disrupts homeostasis, potentially leading to severe metabolic effects and a reduced quality of life. Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent used clinically because of its good effectiveness against various types of cancer. However, doxorubicin has deleterious effects in many healthy tissues, including WAT, liver, and skeletal an...

  17. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model.

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation. PMID:26678825

  18. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiolog...

  19. Obesity-related hypertension: epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatments, and the contribution of perivascular adipose tissue.

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Heagerty, Anthony M

    2012-06-01

    The advent of the obesity epidemic has highlighted the need to re-assess more closely the pathophysiology of obesity-related hypertension with the aim of identifying new therapies. In this article, we review the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, and inflammation in relation to the pathophysiology of this condition. We also discuss the potential role of the perivascular adipose tissue in the context of obesity-related hypertension. PMID:22713152

  20. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  1. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization). In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal o...

  2. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    Maria-Jesus eObregon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases. The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. Brite or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2 and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that activate UCP1 in WAT and

  3. Long-term pioglitazone treatment enhances lipolysis in rat adipose tissue

    Pravenec, Michal; Kazdová, L.; Maxová, M.; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Kurtz, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 12 (2008), s. 1848-1853. ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME791; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110604; GA MZd NR9387; GA MZd(CZ) NR9359 Grant ostatní: EURATools(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : pioglitazone * adipose tissue * lipolysis Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.640, year: 2008

  4. Adipose tissue macrophages: amicus adipem?

    Odegaard, Justin I.; Ganeshan, Kirthana; Chawla, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Chronic overnutrition drives complex adaptations within both professional metabolic and bystander tissues that, despite intense investigation, are still poorly understood. Xu et al. (2013) now describe the unexpected ability of adipose tissue macrophages to buffer lipids released from obese adipocytes in a manner independent of inflammatory macrophage activation.

  5. Vibrational and structural investigations on adipose tissues

    Giarola, Marco; Guella, G.; Mariotto, G.; Monti, Francesca; Rossi, Barbara; Sanson, Andrea; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Two types of adipose tissue are found in mammals, including humans: the white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brown adipose tissue (BAT). The WAT has a major role in lipid storage and body thermal insulation, while the BAT is a thermogenic tissue that produces heat by oxidizing fatty acids. Both structural characterization and spectroscopic discrimination of these different adipose tissues are matter of current interest, also in view of possible medical and ...

  6. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik;

    2002-01-01

    adipose tissue venous glycerol concentration. Despite several methodological limitations inherent to both techniques, the results strongly suggest that microdialysis and catheterization provide similar estimates of subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in steady-state experimental settings like rest and...

  7. Exercise regulation of adipose tissue.

    Stanford, Kristin I; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training results in adaptations to numerous organ systems and offers protection against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes, and recent reports suggest that adipose tissue may play a role in these beneficial effects of exercise on overall health. Multiple studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the induction of beige adipocytes. Studies from both rodents and humans show that there are exercise training-induced changes in WAT including decreased cell size and lipid content, and increased mitochondrial activity. In rodents, exercise training causes an increased beiging of WAT. Whether exercise training causes a beiging of human scWAT, as well as which factors contribute to the exercise-induced beiging of WAT are areas of current investigation. Studies investigating the effects of exercise training on BAT mass and function have yielded conflicting data, and hence, is another area of intensive investigation. This review will focus on studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms regulating exercise training induced-adaptations to adipose tissue. PMID:27386159

  8. Effects of anabolic steroid treatment associated with physical training in adipose tissue of male Wistar rats

    Marcela de Paiva Foletto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic-steroids (AAS include a broad class of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, being nandrolone decanoate the most widely used in sports environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in sedentary and trained adult male rats. We established four experimental groups: sedentary control, sedentary treated, trained control and trained treated. The training had consisted of running on a treadmill for nine weeks. Treated animals received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate (0.5 mg kg-1 during the last four weeks of physical training. The training time as the drug used were not sufficient to significantly reduce body weight gain, but caused a significative decrease on diameter of adipocytes and in the amount of adipose tissue stored, as well as decreased the plasma levels of glucose and total cholesterol.

  9. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute...... to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible...... quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and...

  10. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity.

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:27073214

  11. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa; Fernandes, Rúben

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of n...

  12. Hounsfield unit dynamics of adipose tissue and non-adipose soft tissue in growing pigs

    Mcevoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Strathe, Anders Bjerring;

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs.......Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs....

  13. Irbesartan increased PPARγ activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    Research highlights: → Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. → Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. → DNA-binding for PPARγ was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. → Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. → Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPARγ agonistic action of an AT1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPARγ in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPARγ in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPARγ and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  14. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Horiuchi, Masatsugu, E-mail: horiuchi@m.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  15. Peptides from adipose tissue in mental disorders

    Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Zając, Andrzej; Pilecki, Maciej; Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that is essential to regulation of metabolism in humans. A new approach to mental disorders led to research on involvement of adipokines in the etiology of mental disorders and mood states and their impact on the health status of psychiatric patients, as well as the effects of treatment for mental health disorders on plasma levels of adipokines. There is evidence that disturbances in adipokine secretion are important in the pathogenesis, clinical pr...

  16. Combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix and adipose-derived stem cells for adipose tissue engineering

    Wang, Lina; Johnson, Joshua A.; Zhang, Qixu; Elisabeth K. Beahm

    2013-01-01

    Repair of soft-tissue defects resulting from lumpectomy or mastectomy has become an important rehabilitation process for breast cancer patients. This study aimed to provide an adipose tissue engineering platform for soft-tissue defect repair by combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix (hDAM) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). To derive hDAM, incised human adipose tissues underwent a decellularization process. Effective cell removal and lipid removal were p...

  17. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues.

    Oh, Chang-Myung; Namkung, Jun; Go, Younghoon; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Park, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Song, Junghan; Shong, Minho; Yadav, Vijay K; Karsenty, Gerard; Kajimura, Shingo; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Hail

    2015-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) is an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests peripheral 5-HT may affect organismal energy homeostasis. Here we show 5-HT regulates white and brown adipose tissue function. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT synthesis leads to inhibition of lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), induction of browning in inguinal WAT and activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice with inducible Tph1 KO in adipose tissues exhibit a similar phenotype as mice in which 5-HT synthesis is inhibited pharmacologically, suggesting 5-HT has localized effects on adipose tissues. In addition, Htr3a KO mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with an Htr2a antagonist reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest important roles for adipocyte-derived 5-HT in controlling energy homeostasis. PMID:25864946

  18. Capillary permeability in adipose tissue

    Paaske, W P; Nielsen, S L

    1976-01-01

    A method for measurement of capillary permeability using external registration of gamma emitting isotopes after close arterial bolus injection was applied to the isolated inguinal fat pad in slightly fasting rabbits. An average extraction of 26 per cent for 51Cr-EDTA was found at a plasma flow of...... about 7 ml/100 g-min. This corresponds to a capillary diffusion capacity of 2.0 ml/100 g-min which is half the value reported for vasodilated skeletal muscle having approximately twice as great capillary surface area. Thus, adipose tissue has about the same capillary permeability during slight metabolic...

  19. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...... and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...

  20. Transplantation of Adipose Tissue and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells as a Tool to Study Metabolic Physiology and for Treatment of Disease

    Tran, Thien T.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Humans and other mammals have three main fat depots - visceral white fat, subcutaneous white fat, and brown fat - each possessing unique cell-autonomous properties. In contrast to visceral fat which can induce detrimental metabolic effects, subcutaneous white fat and brown fat have potential beneficial metabolic effects, including improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy consumption, which might be transferred by transplantation of these fat tissues. In addition, fat contains adipose...

  1. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization. In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal organs. With humans there are white and brown adipose tissues, which is predominant with infants and small children. Histologic characteristics From a histological point of view, it is a special form of reticular connective tissue, which contains adipocytes with netlike structure. Human adipose tissue has four types of adrenergic receptors with different topographic dispositions, which manifest different metabolic activity of adipocytes of particular body organs. Changes in adipose tissue are associated with the process of adipocyte differentiation. Critical moments for this process are last months of pregnancy, the first six months of infancy and then puberty. However, the differentiation process may also begin during maturity. Namely, as size of adipocytes can increase to a certain limit, this process can be activated after reaching a 'critical' adipocyte volume. The differentiation process is affected by a number of hormones (insulin, glucagon, corticosteroids, somatotropin (STH, thyroid gland hormones, prolactin, testosterone, but also by some other substances (fatty acids, prostaglandins, liposoluble vitamins, butyrate, aspirin, indomethacin, metylxanthine, etc..

  2. Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review

    Anna Meiliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in most countries in the world today. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some form of cancer. Adipose tissue biology is currently one of the “hot” areas of biomedical science, as fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its related disorders.CONTENT: Adipose tissue consist predominantly of adipocytes, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissue to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. Obesity causes adipose tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders. SUMMARY: It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Undestanding the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and its associated disease cluster is also of great significance as the need for new and more effective therapeutic strategies is more urgent than ever.  KEYWORDS: obesity, adipocyte, adipose, tissue, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, lipid droplet, lipolysis, plasticity, dysfunction.

  3. USE OF AUTOLOGOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE DERIVED STROMAL VASCULAR FRACTION IN TREATMENT OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CHONDRAL LESIONS

    Vinay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a joint inflammation that results from cartilage degeneration. It can be caused by aging, heredity and injury from trauma or disease. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF, containing large amount of stem cells and other regenerative cells, can be easily obtained from loose connective tissue that is associated with adipose tissue. Here we evaluated safety and clinical efficacy of freshly isolated autologous SVF cells in patients with grade 2 - 4 degenerative osteoarthritis (OA. A total of 31 patients underwent standard liposuction under local anesthesia and SVF cells were isolated and prepared for application into joints. A total of 61 joints, mainly knee and hip joints, were treated with a single dose of SVF cells. 19 patients were fol lowed for minimum 6 weeks for safety and efficacy. Modified KOOS Clinical Score was used to evaluate clinical effect and was based on pain, non - steroid analgesic usage, limping, extent of joint movement, and stiffness evaluation before and at pre - operative , 1 week post - op, 1 month and 6 weeks after the treatment. No serious side effects, systemic infection or cancer was associated with SVF cell therapy. All patients improved after the treatment. Average KOOS score improved from pre - operative 37.5 to post - op erative 6 week average 66.6. All sub scale parameter for pain, symptoms, activity of living & quality of life are also improved. Higher grade of OA were associated with slower healing. In conclusion, here we report a novel and promising treatment approach for patients with degenerative OA that is safe, cost - effective, and relying only on autologous cells, and can be used as one of the minimal invasive treatment modality for osteoarthritis

  4. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  5. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    Svedman Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by stretching in vitro, and a pathway for the response has been elucidated. In humans, intermittent stretching of skin for reconstructional purposes leads to thinning of adipose tissue and thickening of epidermis – findings matching those observed in vitro in response to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, protracted suspension of one leg increases the intermuscular adipose tissue volume of the limb. These findings may indicate a local homeostatic adipose tissue volume-regulating mechanism based on movement-induced reduction of adipocyte differentiation. This function might, during evolution, have been of importance in confined spaces, where overgrowth of adipose tissue could lead to functional disturbance, as for instance in the turtle. In humans, adipose tissue near muscle might in particular be affected, for instance intermuscularly, extraperitoneally and epicardially. Mechanical homeostasis might also contribute to protracted maintainment of soft tissue shape in the face and neck region. Testing of the hypothesis Assessment of messenger RNA-expression of human adipocytes following activity in adjacent muscle is planned, and study of biochemical and volumetric adipose tissue changes in man are proposed. Implications of the hypothesis The interpretation of metabolic disturbances by means of adipose tissue might be influenced. Possible applications in the head and neck were discussed.

  6. Sustainable Three-Dimensional Tissue Model of Human Adipose Tissue

    Bellas, Evangelia; Marra, Kacey G.; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    The need for physiologically relevant sustainable human adipose tissue models is crucial for understanding tissue development, disease progression, in vitro drug development and soft tissue regeneration. The coculture of adipocytes differentiated from human adipose-derived stem cells, with endothelial cells, on porous silk protein matrices for at least 6 months is reported, while maintaining adipose-like outcomes. Cultures were assessed for structure and morphology (Oil Red O content and CD31...

  7. Adipose Tissue Engineering for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    Choi, Jennifer H.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Lee, Kyongbum; Marra, Kacey G.; Rubin, J. Peter; Yoo, James J; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Current treatment modalities for soft tissue defects caused by various pathologies and trauma include autologous grafting and commercially available fillers. However, these treatment methods present a number of challenges and limitations, such as donor-site morbidity and volume loss over time. As such, improved therapeutic modalities need to be developed. Tissue engineering techniques offer novel solutions to these problems through development of bioactive tissue constructs that can regenerat...

  8. Browning of white adipose tissue: role of hypothalamic signaling

    Bi, Sheng; Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Two types of fat, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), exist in mammals including adult humans. While WAT stores excess calories and an excessive accumulation of fat causes obesity, BAT dissipates energy to produce heat through non-shivering thermogenesis for protection against cold environments and provides the potential for the development of novel anti-obesity treatments. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of energy balance. Specifically, recent obse...

  9. Hypothalamic Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis and Energy Homeostasis

    Zhang, Wei; Bi, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, but the strategies for the prevention and treatment of these disorders remain inadequate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for cold protection by producing heat using lipids and glucose as metabolic fuels. This thermogenic action causes increased energy expenditure and significant lipid/glucose disposal. In addition, BAT in white adipose tissue (WAT) or beige cells have been found and they also exhibit the thermogenic a...

  10. A retrospective analysis of thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue

    Recep Bedir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the lesions containing mature adipose tissues in surgical materials of the patients who underwent thyroidectomy operation owing to the diagnosis of nodular goiter. Methods: A total of 2800 pathologic specimens of thyroidectomies stained with hematoxylin-eosin were collected between January 2010 and November 2013 in Recep Tayyip Erdogan University School of Medicine. Pathologic sections were selected from pathology archive and re-examined. Upon examination, we determined 10 lesions with mature adipose tissue within thyroid parenchyma. Results: Thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue were observed in 10 (0.004 % of 2800 thyroidectomy materials. Eight of the patients were female and two of them were male. Minimum, maximum and median age of the patients were found to be 31, 74 and 52 years respectively. All of the cases had underwent a bilateral total thyroidectomy operation. In macroscopic examination of the only one cases, a homogenous yellow-gray color was observed. In other cases a large number of colloid-rich nodules of various sizes were observed. On microscopic examination, five adipose tissues in the nodules (adenolipoma-thyrolipoma, four scattered foci of mature adipose tissues (heterotopic adiposis and one diffuse infiltrating mature adipose tissue on entire thyroid gland (diffuse thyrolipomatosis were determined among mature adipose tissue containing lesions. A follicular variant of papillary microcarcinoma was found in two of thyrolipoma cases. Conclusion: Nodular thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue, as a result of particularly on the outer surface of the gland and parathyroid glands containining mature adipose tissue may mimic parathyroid gland lesion. Therefore, to prevent from inappropriate treatments, pathologists should be aware of these kinds of lesions, especially when they are investigating the lesions of parathyroid glands during an

  11. Methods in Enzymology (MIE): Methods of Adipose Tissue Biology-: Chapter 7: Imaging of Adipose Tissue

    Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher; Gericke, Martin T; Jeffery, Elise; Colman, Laura; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that specializes in lipid metabolism and is distributed throughout the body in distinct white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots. These tissues have opposing roles in lipid metabolism with WAT storing excessive caloric intake in the form of lipid, and BAT burning lipid through non-shivering thermogenesis. As accumulation of lipid in mature adipocytes of WAT leads to obesity and increased risk of comorbidity (Pi-Sunyer et al., 1998),...

  12. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    Svedman Paul

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by str...

  13. Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue may promote angiogenesis for adipose tissue remodeling in obesity

    Pang, Can; Gao, Zhanguo; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Jin; Jia, Weiping; Ye, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    The biological role of macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue in obesity remains to be fully understood. We hypothesize that macrophages may act to stimulate angiogenesis in the adipose tissue. This possibility was examined by determining macrophage expression of angiogenic factor PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) and regulation of tube formation of endothelial cells by PDGF. The data suggest that endothelial cell density was reduced in the adipose tissue of ob/ob mice. Expression of...

  14. CT-demonstration of adipose tissue of the sinus cavernosus

    Adipose bodies of the sinus cavernosus - the only genuine intracranial adipose tissue - can be demonstrated well by CT. They appear as polymorph well defined hypodense objects in unilateral or bilateral manifestation. Adipose bodies most frequently show a size between 4 and 9 mm and densities about -20 to -40 HE. Occasionally the adipose bodies directly lead into the adipose tissue of the orbit. (orig.)

  15. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A;

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  16. Echocardiographic Assessment of Epicardial Adipose Tissue - A Marker of Visceral Adiposity

    Singh, Navneet; Singh, Harleen; Khanijoun, Harleen K; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2007-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue predicts an unfavorable cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile in humans. Existing methods to assess visceral adipose tissue have been limited. Thus, echocardiographic assessment of epicardial adipose tissue as a marker of visceral adiposity was suggested. The technique has been shown to be a very reliable method and an excellent measure of visceral adiposity. In this article, epicardial adipose tissue’s localization on the heart, function, method of assessment and ...

  17. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beig...

  18. Injectable Biomaterials for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    Young, D. Adam; Christman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect, and thus classifi...

  19. Obesity and adipose tissue endocrine function

    Joshi, Anuradha Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have profoundly changed the concept of adipose tissue from being an energy depot to an active endocrine organ. Adipose tissue secretes bioactive peptides, termed as ‘adipokines’.They act through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine pathways. In obesity, increased production of most adipokines affects multiple functions such as appetite and energy balance, immunity, insulin sensitivity, angiogenesis, blood pressure, lipid metabolism and haemostasis. Increased activity of the tumor n...

  20. Treatment of Early-Stage Pressure Ulcers by Using Autologous Adipose Tissue Grafts

    Giovanni Francesco Marangi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients.

  1. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  2. White adipose tissue resilience to insulin deprivation and replacement.

    Lilas Hadji

    Full Text Available Adipocyte size and body fat distribution are strongly linked to the metabolic complications of obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the plasticity of white adipose tissue in response to insulin deprivation and replacement. We have characterized the changes of adipose cell size repartition and gene expressions in type 1 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rats and type 1 diabetic supplemented with insulin.Using streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes, we induced rapid changes in rat adipose tissue weights to study the changes in the distribution of adipose cell sizes in retroperitoneal (rWAT, epididymal (eWAT and subcutaneous adipose tissues (scWAT. Adipose tissue weights of type 1 diabetic rats were then rapidly restored by insulin supplementation. Cell size distributions were analyzed using multisizer IV (Beckman Coulter. Cell size changes were correlated to transcriptional regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in lipid and glucose metabolisms and adipocytokines.The initial body weight of the rats was 465±5.2 g. Insulin privation was stopped when rats lost 100 g which induced reductions in fat mass of 68% for rWAT, 42% for eWAT and 59% for scWAT corresponding to decreased mode cell diameters by 31.1%, 20%, 25.3%, respectively. The most affected size distribution by insulin deprivation was observed in rWAT. The bimodal distribution of adipose cell sizes disappeared in response to insulin deprivation in rWAT and scWAT. The most important observation is that cell size distribution returned close to control values in response to insulin treatment. mRNAs coding for adiponectin, leptin and apelin were more stimulated in scWAT compared to other depots in diabetic plus insulin group.Fat depots have specific responses to insulin deprivation and supplementation. The results show that insulin is a major determinant of bimodal cell repartition in adipose tissues.

  3. Galectin-3 inhibition prevents adipose tissue remodelling in obesity.

    Martínez-Martínez, E; Calvier, L; Rossignol, P; Rousseau, E; Fernández-Celis, A; Jurado-López, R; Laville, M; Cachofeiro, V; López-Andrés, N

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular matrix remodelling of the adipose tissue has a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is increased in obesity and mediates inflammation and fibrosis in the cardiovascular system. However, the effects of Gal-3 on adipose tissue remodelling associated with obesity remain unclear. Male Wistar rats were fed either a high-fat diet (33.5% fat) or a standard diet (3.5% fat) for 6 weeks. Half of the animals of each group were treated with the pharmacological inhibitor of Gal-3, modified citrus pectin (MCP; 100 mg kg(-1) per day) in the drinking water. In adipose tissue, obese animals presented an increase in Gal-3 levels that were accompanied by an increase in pericellular collagen. Obese rats exhibited higher adipose tissue inflammation, as well as enhanced differentiation degree of the adipocytes. Treatment with MCP prevented all the above effects. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Gal-3 (10(-8 )m) treatment increased fibrosis, inflammatory and differentiation markers. In conclusion, Gal-3 emerges as a potential therapeutic target in adipose tissue remodelling associated with obesity and could have an important role in the development of metabolic alterations associated with obesity. PMID:26853916

  4. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material.

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-11-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  5. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  6. Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma, Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, and Stromal Vascular Fraction on the Survival of Human Transplanted Adipose Tissue

    Kim, Deok-Yeol; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Kim, Deok-Woo; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Yoon, Eul-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Traditional adipose tissue transplantation has unpredictable viability and poor absorption rates. Recent studies have reported that treatment with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) are related to increased survival of grafted adipose tissue. This study was the first simultaneous comparison of graft survival in combination with PRP, ASCs, and SVF. Adipose tissues were mixed with each other, injected subcutaneously into the back o...

  7. Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue

    Weisberg, Stuart P.; McCann, Daniel; Desai, Manisha; Rosenbaum, Michael; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Ferrante, Anthony W

    2003-01-01

    Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications. To further characterize the changes that occur in adipose tissue with increasing adiposity, we profiled transcript expression in perigonadal adipose tissue from groups of mice in which adiposity varied due to sex, diet, and the obesity-related mutations agouti (Ay) and obese (Lepob). We fou...

  8. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition. PMID:27485231

  9. Recent Advances in Proteomic Studies of Adipose Tissues and Adipocytes

    Eun Young Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease that is associated with significantly increased levels of risk of a number of metabolic disorders. Despite these enhanced health risks, the worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Obesity is caused by the accumulation of an abnormal amount of body fat in adipose tissue, which is composed mostly of adipocytes. Thus, a deeper understanding of the regulation mechanism of adipose tissue and/or adipocytes can provide a clue for overcoming obesity-related metabolic diseases. In this review, we describe recent advances in the study of adipose tissue and/or adipocytes, focusing on proteomic approaches. In addition, we suggest future research directions for proteomic studies which may lead to novel treatments of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  10. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Harry J. Mersmann; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. ...

  11. Injectable biomaterials for adipose tissue engineering

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect and thus classifies them as temporary fillers. As a result, a significant need for injectable materials that not only act as fillers but also promote in vivo adipogenesis is beginning to be realized. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of commercially available soft tissue fillers. It will then summarize the current state of research using injectable synthetic materials, biopolymers and extracellular matrix-derived materials for adipose tissue engineering. Furthermore, the successful attributes observed across each of these materials will be outlined along with a discussion of the current difficulties and future directions for adipose tissue engineering. (paper)

  12. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects. PMID:27234867

  13. Adipose tissue and fat cell biology

    Kopecký, Jan

    New York: Springer International Publishing, 2015 - (Pappas, A.), s. 201-224 ISBN 978-3-319-09942-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E12073; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adipose tissue * endocrine function * lipid mediators Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  14. Adipose tissue plasticity from WAT to BAT and in between

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Mottillo, Emilio P.; Granneman, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays an essential role in regulating energy balance through its metabolic, cellular and endocrine functions. Adipose tissue has been historically classified into anabolic white adipose tissue and catabolic brown adipose tissue. An explosion of new data, however, points to the remarkable heterogeneity among the cells types that can become adipocytes, as well as the inherent metabolic plasticity of mature cells. These data indicate that targeting cellular and metabolic plasticit...

  15. Visceral Adiposity Index: An Indicator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Marco Calogero Amato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI has recently proven to be an indicator of adipose distribution and function that indirectly expresses cardiometabolic risk. In addition, VAI has been proposed as a useful tool for early detection of a condition of cardiometabolic risk before it develops into an overt metabolic syndrome. The application of the VAI in particular populations of patients (women with polycystic ovary syndrome, patients with acromegaly, patients with NAFLD/NASH, patients with HCV hepatitis, patients with type 2 diabetes, and general population has produced interesting results, which have led to the hypothesis that the VAI could be considered a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Unfortunately, in some cases, on the same patient population, there is conflicting evidence. We think that this could be mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the application limits of the index, on the part of various authors, and to having applied the VAI in non-Caucasian populations. Future prospective studies could certainly better define the possible usefulness of the VAI as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk.

  16. Advances in our understanding of adipose tissue homeostasis

    Stern, Jennifer H.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, numerous noteworthy papers focusing on adipose tissue physiology were published. Many of these articles showed the promise of adipose-tissue-targeted approaches for therapeutic intervention in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we highlight advances in the development and maintenance of brown and/or beige adipocytes and the metabolic implications of infammation in adipose tissues.

  17. Orexin modulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Madden, Christopher J.; Tupone, Domenico; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2012-01-01

    Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation. In addition, activations of BAT have important implications for energy homeostasis due to the metabolic consumption of energy reserves entailed in the production of heat in this tissue. In this conceptual overview we describe the role of orexins/hypocretins within the central nervous system in the modulation of thermogenesis in BAT under several physiological conditions. Within this framewor...

  18. Orexin receptor expression in human adipose tissue: effects of orexin-A and orexin-B.

    Digby, J E; Chen, J; Tang, J Y; Lehnert, H; Matthews, R N; Randeva, H S

    2006-10-01

    Orexin-A and orexin-B, via their receptors orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) have been shown to play a role in the regulation of feeding, body weight, and energy expenditure. Adipose tissue also contributes significantly to the maintenance of body weight by interacting with a complex array of bioactive peptides; however, there are no data as yet on the expression of orexin components in adipose tissue. We, therefore, analyzed the expression of OX1R and OX2R in human adipose tissue and determined functional responses to orexin-A and orexin-B. OX1R and OX2R mRNA expression was detected in subcutaneous (s.c.) and omental adipose tissue and in isolated adipocytes. Protein for OX1R and OX2R was also detected in whole adipose tissue sections and lysates. Treatment with orexin-A, and orexin-B (100 nM, 24 h) resulted in a significant increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma-2 mRNA expression in s.c. adipose tissue (P B treatment (P < 0.05). Glycerol release from omental adipose tissue was also significantly reduced with orexin-A treatment (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of functional orexin receptors in human adipose tissue and suggest a role for orexins in adipose tissue metabolism and adipogenesis. PMID:17065396

  19. Adipose Tissue Angiogenesis: Impact on Obesity and Type-2 Diabetes

    Corvera, Silvia; Gealekman, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The growth and function of tissues is critically dependent on their vascularization. Adipose tissue is capable of expanding many-fold during adulthood, therefore requiring the formation of new vasculature to supply growing and proliferating adipocytes. The expansion of the vasculature in adipose tissue occurs through angiogenesis, where new blood vessels develop from those pre-existing within the tissue. Inappropriate angiogenesis may underlie adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, which in t...

  20. Salsalate activates brown adipose tissue in mice.

    van Dam, Andrea D; Nahon, Kimberly J; Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Susan M; Kanhai, Anish A; Kikuchi, Takuya; Heemskerk, Mattijs M; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Lombès, Marc; van den Hoek, Anita M; de Winther, Menno P J; Lutgens, Esther; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Boon, Mariëtte R

    2015-05-01

    Salsalate improves glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial metabolic effects of salsalate by treating mice with salsalate during and after development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. We found that salsalate attenuated and reversed high-fat diet-induced weight gain, in particular fat mass accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Mechanistically, salsalate selectively promoted the uptake of fatty acids from glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled lipoprotein-like emulsion particles by brown adipose tissue (BAT), decreased the intracellular lipid content in BAT, and increased rectal temperature, all pointing to more active BAT. The treatment of differentiated T37i brown adipocytes with salsalate increased uncoupled respiration. Moreover, salsalate upregulated Ucp1 expression and enhanced glycerol release, a dual effect that was abolished by the inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In conclusion, salsalate activates BAT, presumably by directly activating brown adipocytes via the PKA pathway, suggesting a novel mechanism that may explain its beneficial metabolic effects in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25475439

  1. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José;

    2012-01-01

    Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT) are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification ...... controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases....

  2. Central Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    ShaunF.Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the c...

  3. Hypothalamic Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    Alexandre Caron; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system, which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The charac...

  4. Hypothalamic control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Labbé, Sebastien M.; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Monge-Rofarello, Boris; Bartness, Timothy J.; Richard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system (CNS), which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The ...

  5. Epicardial adipose tissue and atrial fibrillation.

    Hatem, Stéphane N; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2014-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice. AF is often associated with profound functional and structural alterations of the atrial myocardium that compose its substrate. Recently, a relationship between the thickness of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and the incidence and severity of AF has been reported. Adipose tissue is a biologically active organ regulating the metabolism of neighbouring organs. It is also a major source of cytokines. In the heart, EAT is contiguous with the myocardium without fascia boundaries resulting in paracrine effects through the release of adipokines. Indeed, Activin A, which is produced in abundance by EAT during heart failure or diabetes, shows a marked fibrotic effect on the atrial myocardium. The infiltration of adipocytes into the atrial myocardium could also disorganize the depolarization wave front favouring micro re-entry circuits and local conduction block. Finally, EAT contains progenitor cells in abundance and therefore could be a source of myofibroblasts producing extracellular matrix. The study on the role played by adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of AF is just starting and is highly likely to uncover new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AF. PMID:24648445

  6. Insulin degradation by adipose tissue is increased in human obesity

    Rafecas Jorba, Immaculada; Fernández López, José Antonio; Salinas, Isabel; X. Formiguera Sala; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Foz Sala, M. (Màrius); Alemany, Marià

    1995-01-01

    White adipose tissue samples from obese and lean patients were used for the estimation ofinsulin protease and insulin:glutathione transhydrogenase using 1251-labeled insulin. There was no activity detected in the absence of reduced glutathione, which indicates that insulin is cleaved in human adipose "tissue through reduction of the disulfide bridge between the chains. O bese patients showed higher transhydrogenase activity (per U tissue protein wt, per U tissue wt, and in the total adipose t...

  7. Treatment with TUG891, a free fatty acid receptor 4 agonist, restores adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction following chronic sleep fragmentation in mice

    Gozal, D; Qiao, Z; Almendros, I;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep fragmentation (SF), a frequent occurrence in multiple sleep and other diseases leads to increased food intake and insulin resistance via increased macrophage activation and inflammation in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT). Free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) is reduced in pedi...... FFA4 activity may serve as potentially useful adjunctive therapies for sleep disorders accompanied by metabolic morbidity.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 16 March 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.37....... in pediatric sleep apnea patients and FFA4 agonists have been proposed in the treatment of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. METHODS: Male mice were subjected to SF exposures for 6 weeks, and treated during the last 2 weeks with either TUG891, a potent and selective FFA4 agonist, or vehicle (Veh). Glucose...

  8. Stem cell treatment for patients with autoimmune disease by systemic infusion of culture-expanded autologous adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Ra Jeong Chan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prolonged life expectancy, life style and environmental changes have caused a changing disease pattern in developed countries towards an increase of degenerative and autoimmune diseases. Stem cells have become a promising tool for their treatment by promoting tissue repair and protection from immune-attack associated damage. Patient-derived autologous stem cells present a safe option for this treatment since these will not induce immune rejection and thus multiple treatments are possible without any risk for allogenic sensitization, which may arise from allogenic stem cell transplantations. Here we report the outcome of treatments with culture expanded human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs of 10 patients with autoimmune associated tissue damage and exhausted therapeutic options, including autoimmune hearing loss, multiple sclerosis, polymyotitis, atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment, we developed a standardized culture-expansion protocol for hAdMSCs from minimal amounts of fat tissue, providing sufficient number of cells for repetitive injections. High expansion efficiencies were routinely achieved from autoimmune patients and from elderly donors without measurable loss in safety profile, genetic stability, vitality and differentiation potency, migration and homing characteristics. Although the conclusions that can be drawn from the compassionate use treatments in terms of therapeutic efficacy are only preliminary, the data provide convincing evidence for safety and therapeutic properties of systemically administered AdMSC in human patients with no other treatment options. The authors believe that ex-vivo-expanded autologous AdMSCs provide a promising alternative for treating autoimmune diseases. Further clinical studies are needed that take into account the results obtained from case studies as those presented here.

  9. Differential fatty acid profile in adipose and non-adipose tissues in obese mice

    Li, Mengting; Fu, Weisi; Li, Xiang-An

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic inflammation. Early studies indicated that adipose tissue from obese mice contains more saturated fatty acids and that the saturated fatty acids activate TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling, which contributes to inflammation in adipose tissue. In this study, we determined fatty acid profile in non-adipose tissues from obese (db/db) mice and compared with that from lean mice. Unexpectedly, in contrast to a significant increase in saturat...

  10. Negative Regulators of Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT)-Mediated Thermogenesis

    Sharma, Bal Krishan; Patil, Mallikarjun; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, a process called adaptive thermogenesis. PET-CT scans recently demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, which revitalized our interest in BAT. Increasing the amount and/or activity of BAT holds tremendous promise for the treatment of obesity and its associated diseases. PGC1α is the master regulator of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in BAT. A number of proteins have been identified to influence therm...

  11. Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    Tsuji, Wakako; Rubin, J. Peter; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs damaged by injury and dise...

  12. Human periprostatic adipose tissue promotes prostate cancer aggressiveness in vitro

    Ribeiro Ricardo; Monteiro Cátia; Cunha Virgínia; Oliveira Maria; Freitas Mariana; Fraga Avelino; Príncipe Paulo; Lobato Carlos; Lobo Francisco; Morais António; Silva Vítor; Sanches-Magalhães José; Oliveira Jorge; Pina Francisco; Mota-Pinto Anabela

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and mortality. The contribution of periprostatic adipose tissue, which is often infiltrated by malignant cells, to cancer progression is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine if periprostatic adipose tissue is linked with aggressive tumor biology in prostate cancer. Methods Supernatants of whole adipose tissue (explants) or stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from paired fat samples of periprostatic (PP) ...

  13. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T; Barkan, Ariel L.; Saltiel, Alan R.; Chandler, William F.; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several...

  14. Rapid Cellular Turnover in Adipose Tissue

    Alessandra Rigamonti; Kristen Brennand; Frank Lau; Cowan, Chad A.

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that cellular turnover occurs within the human adipocyte population. Through three independent experimental approaches — dilution of an inducible histone 2B-green fluorescent protein (H2BGFP), labeling with the cell cycle marker Ki67 and incorporation of BrdU — we characterized the degree of cellular turnover in murine adipose tissue. We observed rapid turnover of the adipocyte population, finding that 4.8% of preadipocytes are replicating at any time and that between 1–...

  15. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone-fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues - subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT - is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat tissues

  16. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone–fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues – subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT – is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat

  17. Reduction of Adipose Tissue Mass by the Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis.

    Byung Young Park

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity. This study was undertaken to determine whether ALS-L1023 (ALS prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from Melissa leaves, which exhibits antiangiogenic activity, can regulate adipose tissue growth. The effects of ALS on angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling were measured using in vitro assays. The effects of ALS on adipose tissue growth were investigated in high fat diet-induced obese mice. ALS inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity in vitro. Compared to obese control mice, administration of ALS to obese mice reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size without affecting appetite. ALS treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. ALS reduced the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2 and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas ALS increased the mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in adipose tissues. The protein levels of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also decreased by ALS in adipose tissue. Metabolic changes in plasma lipids, liver triglycerides, and hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation genes occurred during ALS-induced weight loss. These results suggest that ALS, which has antiangiogenic and MMP inhibitory activities, reduces adipose tissue mass in nutritionally obese mice, demonstrating that adipose tissue growth can be regulated by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  18. Brown adipose tissue development and metabolism in ruminants.

    Smith, S B; Carstens, G E; Randel, R D; Mersmann, H J; Lunt, D K

    2004-03-01

    We conducted several experiments to better understand the relationship between brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism and thermogenesis. In Exp. 1, we examined perirenal (brown) and sternum s.c. adipose tissue in 14 Wagyu x Angus neonates infused with norepinephrine (NE). Perirenal adipocytes contained numerous large mitochondria with well-differentiated cristae; sternum s.c. adipocytes contained a few, small mitochondria, with poorly developed cristae. Lipogenesis from acetate was high in BAT but barely detectable in sternum s.c. adipose tissue. In Exp. 2, we compared perirenal and tailhead adipose tissues between NE-infused Angus (n = 6) and Brahman (n = 7) newborn calves. Brahman BAT contained two-to-three times as many total beta-receptors as Angus BAT. The mitochondrial UCP1:28S rRNA ratio was greater in Brahman BAT than in BAT from Angus calves. Lipogenesis from acetate and glucose again was high, but lipogenesis from palmitate was barely detectable. Tail-head s.c. adipose tissue from both breed types contained adipocytes with distinct brown adipocyte morphology. In Exp. 3, three fetuses of each breed type were taken at 96, 48, 24, 14, and 6 d before expected parturition, and at parturition. Lipogenesis from acetate and glucose in vitro decreased 97% during the last 96 d of gestation in both breed types, whereas the UCP1 gene expression tripled during gestation in both breed types. At birth, palmitate esterification was twice as high in Angus than in Brahman BAT and was at least 100-fold higher than in BAT from NE-infused calves from Exp. 2. Uncoupling protein-1 mRNA was readily detectable in tailhead s.c. adipose tissue in all fetal samples. In Exp. 4, male Brahman and Angus calves (n = 5 to 7 per group) were assigned to 1) newborn treatment (15 h of age), 2) 48 h of warm exposure (22 degrees C) starting at 15 h of age, or 3) 48 h of cold exposure (4 degrees C) starting at 15 h of age. Brahman BAT adipocytes shrank with cold exposure, whereas Angus BAT

  19. EFFECT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANT PREPARATIONS OF ADIPOSE TISSUE METABOLISM

    Bambhole, V. D.

    1988-01-01

    Powder in fine suspension, water and alcoholic extract preparations of Cyperus Rotundus (Mustak), Iris versicolor (Haimavati) and Holoptelai integrifolia (Chirubilva) were used in adipose cell suspension and also administered orally to evaluate the effect of these plant preparations on adipose tissue metabolism in rats. The result, showed that the preparations from these medicinal plants exhibited lipolytic action to mobilize fat from adipose tissues in rats and consequently helped in the red...

  20. Brown Adipose Tissue: A New Target for Antiobesity Therapy

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human fat consist of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT. Though most fat is energy-storing WAT, the thermogenic capacity of even small amounts of BAT makes it an attractive therapeutic target for inducing weight loss through energy expenditure. CONTENT: Over the past year, several independent research teams used a combination of positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT imaging, immunohistochemistry and gene and protein expression assays to prove conclusively that adult humans have functional BAT. BAT is important for thermogenesis and energy balance in small mammals and its induction in mice promotes energy expenditure, reduces adiposity and protects mice from diet-induced obesity. The thermogenic capacity of BAT is impressive. In humans, it has been estimated that as little as 50g of BAT could utilize up to 20% of basal caloric needs if maximally stimulated. SUMMARY: The obesity pandemic requires new and novel treatments. The past few years have witnessed multiple studies conclusively showing that adult humans have functional BAT, a tissue that has a tremendous capacity for obesity-reducing thermogenesis. Novel therapies targeting BAT thermogenesis may be available in the near future as therapeutic options for obesity and diabetes. Thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity. KEYWORDS: brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, energy expenditure, antiobesity therapy.

  1. Biomarkers of Habitual Fish Intake in Adipose-Tissue

    Marckmann, P.; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Haraldsdottir, H.; Sandström, B.

    1995-01-01

    significantly associated with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid content (DHA; r = 0.55 and 0.58, respectively, P <0.001), but not with eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid contents. Our study indicates that the adipose tissue DHA content is the biomarker of choice for the assessment of long...

  2. Identification of progesterone receptor in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    O'Brien, S N; Welter, B H; Mantzke, K A; Price, T M

    1998-02-01

    Sex steroids are postulated to play a role in adipose tissue regulation and distribution, because the amount and location of adipose tissue changes during puberty and menopause. Because of the nature of adipose tissue, receptors for the female sex steroids have been difficult to demonstrate. To date, estrogen receptor messenger RNA and protein have been identified in human subcutaneous adipose tissue, but the presence of progesterone receptor (PR) has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrate PR message by Northern blot analysis in RNA isolated from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of premenopausal women. These preliminary studies revealed that PR messenger RNA levels are higher in the stromal-vascular fraction as opposed to the adipocyte fraction. Western blot analysis demonstrates both PR protein isoforms (human PR-A and human PR-B) in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, total PR could be quantitated. These studies substantiate that sex steroid receptors are present in human adipose tissue, thereby providing a direct route for regulation of adipose tissue by female sex steroids. PMID:9467566

  3. Altered autophagy in human adipose tissues in obesity

    Context: Autophagy is a housekeeping mechanism, involved in metabolic regulation and stress response, shown recently to regulate lipid droplets biogenesis/breakdown and adipose tissue phenotype. Objective: We hypothesized that in human obesity autophagy may be altered in adipose tissue in a fat d...

  4. Characterization of the human visceral adipose tissue secretome

    Alvarez Llamas, Gloria; Szalowska, Ewa; de Vries, Marcel P.; Weening, Desiree; Landman, Karloes; Hoek, Annemieke; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Roelofsen, Johan; Vonk, Roel J.

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ involved in storage and release of energy but also in regulation of energy metabolism in other organs via secretion of peptide and protein hormones (adipokines). Especially visceral adipose tissue has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome and t

  5. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  6. Albumin induced cytokine expression in porcine adipose tissue explants

    Albumin has historically been included in medium designed for use with adipose tissue when evaluating metabolism, gene expression or protein secretion. However, recent studies with mouse adipocytes (Ruan et al., J. Biol. Chem. 278:47585-47593, 2003) and human adipose tissue (Schlesinger et al., Ame...

  7. Automatic Segmentation of Abdominal Adipose Tissue in MRI

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Pilgaard, Kasper; Vaag, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus

    This paper presents a method for automatically segmenting abdominal adipose tissue from 3-dimensional magnetic resonance images. We distinguish between three types of adipose tissue; visceral, deep subcutaneous and superficial subcutaneous. Images are pre-processed to remove the bias field effect...... of intensity in-homogeneities. This effect is estimated by a thin plate spline extended to fit two classes of automatically sampled intensity points in 3D. Adipose tissue pixels are labelled with fuzzy c-means clustering and locally determined thresholds. The visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue...... are separated using deformable models, incorporating information from the clustering. The subcutaneous adipose tissue is subdivided into a deep and superficial part by means of dynamic programming applied to a spatial transformation of the image data. Regression analysis shows good correspondences...

  8. Epicardial adipose tissue and coronary artery disease: an article review

    Sareh Mousavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue surrounding the heart may contribute in the progression of coronary atherosclerosis due to its proximity to the coronary arteries. In addition, epicardial adipose tissue has paracrine and endocrine functions. It can secrete numerous bioactive molecules. Most previous studies examined the relation between coronary artery disease and epicardial adipose tissue have used echocardiography and have reported controversial results, probably due to differences in measurement techniques and study populations. This study aimed to give a brief review on the value of echocardiographic assessment of epicardial adipose tissue in the prediction of coronary artery disease severity.Epicardial adipose tissue, easily and non-invasively evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography, can be considered as an adjunctive marker to classical risk factors despite all the limitations. Moreover, it might be recommended as a useful quantitative screening examination for the prediction of the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease and the extent of atherosclerosis.

  9. Cardio-adipose tissue cross-talk

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    increases adiponectin secretion, indicating that NPs may improve adipose tissue function and in this way function as a cardio-protective agent in HF. Accordingly we investigated the interplay between plasma adiponectin, plasma proBNP, and development of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively followed...... 5574 randomly selected men and women from the community without ischaemic heart disease or HF. Plasma adiponectin and proBNP were measured at study entry. Median follow-up time was 8.5 years (interquartile range 8.0-9.1 years). During follow-up 271 participants developed symptomatic HF. Plasma...... and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and physical activity) by Cox regression analysis, adiponectin remained an independent predictor of HF: the hazard ratio (HR) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in adiponectin...

  10. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  11. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Miroslav Šram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT, the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD. Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1 the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2 determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value.

  12. 0Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    Wakako; Tsuji; J; Peter; Rubin; Kacey; G; Marra

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells(ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differ-entiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs dam-aged by injury and diseases. This article reviews the implications of ASCs in tissue regeneration.

  13. Adipose tissue-organotypic culture system as a promising model for studying adipose tissue biology and regeneration

    Toda, Shuji; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Sonoda, Emiko; Yamasaki, Fumio; Piao, Meihua; Ootani, Akifumi; Yonemitsu, Nobuhisa; Sugihara, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue consists of mature adipocytes, preadipocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but a culture system for analyzing their cell types within the tissue has not been established. We have recently developed “adipose tissue-organotypic culture system” that maintains unilocular structure, proliferative ability and functions of mature adipocytes for a long term, using three-dimensional collagen gel culture of the tissue fragments. In this system, both preadipocytes and MSCs regenerate...

  14. Does Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Play a Role in Metabolic Health?

    Craig Porter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function ascribed to brown adipose tissue in humans has long been confined to thermoregulation in neonates, where this thermogenic capacity was thought lost with maturation. Recently, brown adipose tissue depots have been identified in adult humans. The significant oxidative capacity of brown adipocytes and the ability of their mitochondria to respire independently of ATP production, has led to renewed interest in the role that these adipocytes play in human energy metabolism. In our view, there is a need for robust physiological studies determining the relationship between molecular signatures of brown adipose tissue, adipose tissue mitochondrial function, and whole body energy metabolism, in order to elucidate the significance of thermogenic adipose tissue in humans. Until such information is available, the role of thermogenic adipose tissue in human metabolism and the potential that these adipocytes may prevent or treat obesity and metabolic diseases in humans will remain unknown. In this article, we summarize the recent literature pertaining to brown adipose tissue function with the aims of drawing the readers’ attention to the lack of data concerning the role of brown adipocytes in human physiology, and to the potential limitations of current research strategies.

  15. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    Mental stress [a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)] increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation

  16. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  17. Mest and Sfrp5 are biomarkers for healthy adipose tissue.

    Jura, Magdalena; Jarosławska, Julia; Chu, Dinh Toi; Kozak, Leslie P

    2016-05-01

    Obesity depends on a close interplay between genetic and environmental factors. However, it is unknown how these factors interact to cause changes in the obese condition during the progression of obesity from the neonatal to the aged individual. We have utilized Mest and Sfrp5 genes, two genes highly correlated with adipose tissue expansion in diet-induced obesity, to characterize the obese condition during development of 2 genetic models of obesity. A model for the early onset of obesity was presented by leptin-deficient mice (ob/ob), whereas late onset of obesity was induced with high-fat diet (HFD) consumption in C57BL/6J mice with inherent risk of obesity (DIO). We correlated obese and diabetic phenotypes with Mest and Sfrp5 gene expression profiles in subcutaneous fat during pre-weaning, pre-adulthood and adulthood. A rapid development of obesity began in ob/ob mice immediately after weaning at 21 days of age, whereas the obesity of DIO mice was not evident until after 2 months of age. Even after 5 months of HFD treatment, the adiposity index of DIO mice was lower than in ob/ob mice at 2 months of age. In both obesity models, the expression of Mest and Sfrp5 genes increased in parallel with fat mass expansion; however, gene expression proceeded to decrease when the adiposity reached a plateau. The reduction in the expression of genes of caveolae structure and glucose metabolism were also suppressed in the aging adipose tissue. The analysis of fat mass and adipocyte size suggests that reduction in Mest and Sfrp5 is more sensitive to the age of the fat than its morphology. The balance of factors controlling fat deposition can be evaluated in part by the differential expression profiles of Mest and Sfrp5 genes with functions linked to fat deposition as long as there is an active accumulation of fat mass. PMID:26001362

  18. Biomarkers of Habitual Fish Intake in Adipose-Tissue

    Marckmann, P.; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Haraldsdottir, H.; Sandström, B.

    1995-01-01

    8-mo study period. The adipose tissue fatty acid composition of each individual was determined by gas chromatography as the mean of two gluteal biopsies, obtained in the first and the last month of the study. The daily consumption of fish and of marine n-3 PUFAs in absolute terms (g/d) was...... significantly associated with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid content (DHA; r = 0.55 and 0.58, respectively, P <0.001), but not with eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid contents. Our study indicates that the adipose tissue DHA content is the biomarker of choice for the assessment of long...

  19. Comparison of human adult stem cells from adipose tissue and bone marrow in the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Semon, Julie A.; Maness, Catherine; Zhang, Xiujuan; Sharkey, Steven A.; Beuttler, Marc M; Shah, Forum S.; Pandey, Amitabh C; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Shijia; Scruggs, Brittni A; Strong, Amy L.; Strong, Thomas A; Bunnell, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While administration of ex vivo culture-expanded stem cells has been used to study immunosuppressive mechanisms in multiple models of autoimmune diseases, less is known about the uncultured, nonexpanded stromal vascular fraction (SVF)-based therapy. The SVF is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells and has been used clinically to treat acute and chronic diseases, alleviating symptoms in a range of tissues and organs. Methods In this study, the ability of human SVF cells ...

  20. Direct effects of leptin on brown and white adipose tissue.

    Siegrist-Kaiser, C A; Pauli, V; Juge-Aubry, C E; Boss, O; Pernin, A; Chin, W W; Cusin, I; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Burger, A G; Zapf, J; Meier, C A

    1997-01-01

    Leptin is thought to exert its actions on energy homeostasis through the long form of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), which is present in the hypothalamus and in certain peripheral organs, including adipose tissue. In this study, we examined whether leptin has direct effects on the function of brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) at the metabolic and molecular levels. The chronic peripheral intravenous administration of leptin in vivo for 4 d resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in the in vivo glucose utilization index of BAT, whereas no significant change was found after intracerebroventricular administration compared with pair-fed control rats, compatible with a direct effect of leptin on BAT. The effect of leptin on WAT fat pads from lean Zucker Fa/ fa rats was assessed ex vivo, where a 9- and 16-fold increase in the rate of lipolysis was observed after 2 h of exposure to 0.1 and 10 nM leptin, respectively. In contrast, no increase in lipolysis was observed in the fat pads from obese fa/fa rats, which harbor an inactivating mutation in the OB-Rb. At the level of gene expression, leptin treatment for 24 h increased malic enzyme and lipoprotein lipase RNA 1.8+/-0.17 and 1.9+/-0.14-fold, respectively, while aP2 mRNA levels were unaltered in primary cultures of brown adipocytes from lean Fa/fa rats. Importantly, however, no significant effect of leptin was observed on these genes in brown adipocytes from obese fa/fa animals. The presence of OB-Rb receptors in adipose tissue was substantiated by the detection of its transcripts by RT-PCR, and leptin treatment in vivo and in vitro activated the specific STATs implicated in the signaling pathway of the OB-Rb. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that leptin has direct effects on BAT and WAT, resulting in the activation of the Jak/STAT pathway and the increased expression of certain target genes, which may partially account for the observed increase in glucose utilization and lipolysis in leptin

  1. Effect of oxygen breathing and perfluorocarbon emulsion treatment on air bubbles in adipose tissue during decompression sickness

    Randsoe, T; Hyldegaard, O

    2009-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) after air diving has been treated with success by means of combined normobaric oxygen breathing and intravascular perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions causing increased survival rate and faster bubble clearance from the intravascular compartment. The beneficial PFC effect...... breathing. The combined effect of oxygen breathing and PFC infusion neither prevented nor increased transient bubble growth time, rate, or growth ratio compared with oxygen breathing alone. We conclude that oxygen breathing in combination with PFC infusion causes faster bubble disappearance and does...... has been explained by the increased transport capacity of oxygen and inert gases in blood. However, previous reports have shown that extravascular bubbles in lipid tissue of rats suffering from DCS will initially grow during oxygen breathing at normobaric conditions. We hypothesize that the combined...

  2. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT

  3. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    Proença, A.R.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Limeira, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Sertié, R.A.L. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, A.C. [Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Campaãa, A.B.; Caminhotto, R.O.; Chimin, P.; Lima, F.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-03

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.

  4. Deep subcutaneous adipose tissue is more saturated than superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Lundbom, J; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, N; Taskinen, M-R

    2013-04-01

    Upper body abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) can be divided into deep SAT (DSAT) and superficial SAT (SSAT) depots. Studies on adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) composition have made no distinction between these two depots. The aim of this study is to determine whether DSAT and SSAT differ in FA composition. We studied the FA composition of DSAT and SSAT in 17 male and 13 female volunteers using non-invasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to differentiate between DSAT and SSAT. Adipose tissue spectra were analysed for lipid unsaturation, or double bond (DB) content, and polyunsaturation (PU), according to previously validated methods. The DSAT depot was more saturated than the SSAT depot, in both men (0.833 ± 0.012 vs 0.846 ± 0.009 DB, P<0.002) and women (0.826 ± 0.018 vs 0.850 ± 0.018 DB, P<0.002). In contrast, PU did not differ between DSAT and SSAT in either men (0.449 ± 0.043 vs 0.461 ± 0.044 PU, P=0.125) or women (0.411 ± 0.070 vs 0.442 ± 0.062 PU, P=0.234) and displayed a close correlation between the depots (R=0.908, P<0.001, n=30). The higher saturation in DSAT compared with SSAT can be attributed to a higher ratio of saturated to monounsaturated FAs. These results should be taken into account when determining the FA composition of SAT. PMID:22641063

  5. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: the role of adipose tissue

    Several physiopathological explanations for the metabolic syndrome have been proposed involving insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation following adipose tissue saturation. However, current concepts create several paradoxes, including limited cardiovascular risk reducti...

  6. Adipocyte Turnover: Relevance to Human Adipose Tissue Morphology

    Arner, Erik; Westermark, Pål O.; Spalding, Kirsty L.; Britton, Tom; Rydén, Mikael; Frisén, Jonas; Bernard, Samuel; Arner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Adipose tissue may contain few large adipocytes (hypertrophy) or many small adipocytes (hyperplasia). We investigated factors of putative importance for adipose tissue morphology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subcutaneous adipocyte size and total fat mass were compared in 764 subjects with BMI 18–60 kg/m2. A morphology value was defined as the difference between the measured adipocyte volume and the expected volume given by a curved-line fit for a given body fat mass and was related ...

  7. Cytomegalovirus infection of adipose tissues induces steatitis in adult mice.

    Price, P; Eddy, K. S.; Papadimitriou, J M; Robertson, T. A.; Shellam, G R

    1990-01-01

    Young adult mice infected with MCMV were shown to develop inflammatory lesions in the peripancreatic and salivary gland adipose tissues. MCMV replication was detected by immunoperoxidase staining and electron microscopy in adipocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and pericytes in brown and white adipose tissues. More infected cells were detected in C3H mice than in BALB/c, BALB.B, BALB.K or C57BL/6 mice. Peripancreatic steatitis consisted of a monocytic infiltrate surrounding focal necrosis...

  8. Preventing diet-induced obesity in mice by adipose tissue transformation and angiogenesis using targeted nanoparticles.

    Xue, Yuan; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Farokhzad, Omid C; Langer, Robert

    2016-05-17

    The incidence of obesity, which is recognized by the American Medical Association as a disease, has nearly doubled since 1980, and obesity-related comorbidities have become a major threat to human health. Given that adipose tissue expansion and transformation require active growth of new blood vasculature, angiogenesis offers a potential target for the treatment of obesity-associated disorders. Here we construct two peptide-functionalized nanoparticle (NP) platforms to deliver either Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activator rosiglitazone (Rosi) or prostaglandin E2 analog (16,16-dimethyl PGE2) to adipose tissue vasculature. These NPs were engineered through self-assembly of a biodegradable triblock polymer composed of end-to-end linkages between poly(lactic-coglycolic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) and an endothelial-targeted peptide. In this system, released Rosi promotes both transformation of white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown-like adipose tissue and angiogenesis, which facilitates the homing of targeted NPs to adipose angiogenic vessels, thereby amplifying their delivery. We show that i.v. administration of these NPs can target WAT vasculature, stimulate the angiogenesis that is required for the transformation of adipose tissue, and transform WAT into brown-like adipose tissue, by the up-regulation of angiogenesis and brown adipose tissue markers. In a diet-induced obese mouse model, these angiogenesis-targeted NPs have inhibited body weight gain and modulated several serological markers including cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin, compared with the control group. These findings suggest that angiogenesis-targeting moieties with angiogenic stimulator-loaded NPs could be incorporated into effective therapeutic regimens for clinical treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases. PMID:27140638

  9. Profiling of chicken adipose tissue gene expression by genome array

    Wang Shou-Zhi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is a major problem in the present-day broiler industry. However, few studies have analyzed the expression of adipose tissue genes that are involved in pathways and mechanisms leading to adiposity in chickens. Gene expression profiling of chicken adipose tissue could provide key information about the ontogenesis of fatness and clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity. In this study, Chicken Genome Arrays were used to construct an adipose tissue gene expression profile of 7-week-old broilers, and to screen adipose tissue genes that are differentially expressed in lean and fat lines divergently selected over eight generations for high and low abdominal fat weight. Results The gene expression profiles detected 13,234–16,858 probe sets in chicken adipose tissue at 7 weeks, and genes involved in lipid metabolism and immunity such as fatty acid binding protein (FABP, thyroid hormone-responsive protein (Spot14, lipoprotein lipase(LPL, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7(IGFBP7 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC, were highly expressed. In contrast, some genes related to lipogenesis, such as leptin receptor, sterol regulatory element binding proteins1 (SREBP1, apolipoprotein B(ApoB and insulin-like growth factor 2(IGF2, were not detected. Moreover, 230 genes that were differentially expressed between the two lines were screened out; these were mainly involved in lipid metabolism, signal transduction, energy metabolism, tumorigenesis and immunity. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was performed to validate fifteen differentially expressed genes screened out by the microarray approach and high consistency was observed between the two methods. Conclusion Our results establish the groundwork for further studies of the basic genetic control of growth and development of chicken adipose tissue, and will be beneficial in clarifying the molecular mechanism of

  10. Antipsychotics-induced metabolic alterations: focus on adipose tissue and molecular mechanisms.

    Gonçalves, Pedro; Araújo, João Ricardo; Martel, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The use of antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of mood disorders and psychosis has increased dramatically over the last decade. Despite its consumption being associated with beneficial neuropsychiatric effects in patients, atypical antipsychotics (which are the most frequently prescribed antipsychotics) use is accompanied by some secondary adverse metabolic effects such as weight gain, dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance. The molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects are not fully understood but have been suggested to involve a dysregulation of adipose tissue homeostasis. As such, the aim of this paper is to review and discuss the role of adipose tissue in the development of secondary adverse metabolic effects induced by atypical antipsychotics. Data analyzed in this article suggest that atypical antipsychotics may increase adipose tissue (particularly visceral adipose tissue) lipogenesis, differentiation/hyperplasia, pro-inflammatory mediator secretion and insulin resistance and decrease adipose tissue lipolysis. Consequently, patients receiving antipsychotic medication could be at risk of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A better knowledge of the impact of these drugs on adipose tissue homeostasis may unveil strategies to develop novel antipsychotic drugs with less adverse metabolic effects and to develop adjuvant therapies (e.g. behavioral and nutritional therapies) to neuropsychiatric patients receiving antipsychotic medication. PMID:25523882

  11. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  12. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  13. Contribution of adipose tissue to health span and longevity.

    Huffman, Derek M; Barzilai, Nir

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue accounts for approximately 20% (lean) to >50% (in extreme obesity) of body mass and is biologically active through its secretion of numerous peptides and release and storage of nutrients such as free fatty acids. Studies in rodents and humans have revealed that body fat distribution, including visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous (SC) fat and ectopic fat are critical for determining the risk posed by obesity. Specific depletion or expansion of the VF depot using genetic or surgical strategies in animal models has proven to have direct effects on metabolic characteristics and disease risk. In humans, there is compelling evidence that abdominal obesity most strongly predicts mortality risk, while in rats, surgical removal of VF improves mean and maximum life span. There is also growing evidence that fat deposition in ectopic depots such as skeletal muscle and liver can cause lipotoxicity and impair insulin action. Conversely, expansion of SC adipose tissue may confer protection from metabolic derangements by serving as a 'metabolic sink' to limit both systemic lipids and the accrual of visceral and ectopic fat. Treatments targeting the prevention of fat accrual in these harmful depots should be considered as a primary target for improving human health span and longevity. PMID:20703052

  14. Human periprostatic adipose tissue promotes prostate cancer aggressiveness in vitro

    Ribeiro Ricardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and mortality. The contribution of periprostatic adipose tissue, which is often infiltrated by malignant cells, to cancer progression is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine if periprostatic adipose tissue is linked with aggressive tumor biology in prostate cancer. Methods Supernatants of whole adipose tissue (explants or stromal vascular fraction (SVF from paired fat samples of periprostatic (PP and pre-peritoneal visceral (VIS anatomic origin from different donors were prepared and analyzed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs 2 and 9 activity. The effects of those conditioned media (CM on growth and migration of hormone-refractory (PC-3 and hormone-sensitive (LNCaP prostate cancer cells were measured. Results We show here that PP adipose tissue of overweight men has higher MMP9 activity in comparison with normal subjects. The observed increased activities of both MMP2 and MMP9 in PP whole adipose tissue explants, likely reveal the contribution of adipocytes plus stromal-vascular fraction (SVF as opposed to SVF alone. MMP2 activity was higher for PP when compared to VIS adipose tissue. When PC-3 cells were stimulated with CM from PP adipose tissue explants, increased proliferative and migratory capacities were observed, but not in the presence of SVF. Conversely, when LNCaP cells were stimulated with PP explants CM, we found enhanced motility despite the inhibition of proliferation, whereas CM derived from SVF increased both cell proliferation and motility. Explants culture and using adipose tissue of PP origin are most effective in promoting proliferation and migration of PC-3 cells, as respectively compared with SVF culture and using adipose tissue of VIS origin. In LNCaP cells, while explants CM cause increased migration compared to SVF, the use of PP adipose tissue to generate CM result in the increase of both cellular proliferation and migration

  15. Adipose Tissue Regeneration: A State of the Art

    Alessandro Casadei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue pathologies and defects have always represented a reconstructive challenge for plastic surgeons. In more recent years, several allogenic and alloplastic materials have been developed and used as fillers for soft tissue defects. However, their clinical use has been limited by further documented complications, such as foreign-body reactions potentially affecting function, degradation over time, and the risk for immunogenicity. Tissue-engineering strategies are thus being investigated to develop methods for generating adipose tissue. This paper will discuss the current state of the art in adipose tissue engineering techniques, exploring the biomaterials used, stem cells application, culture strategies, and current regulatory framework that are in use are here described and discussed.

  16. Gene expression profiling in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Hausman, Gary J; Barb, C Rick; Fairchild, Brian D; Gamble, John; Lee-Rutherford, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for gene microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays (Affymetrix) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of global gene expression in chicken adipose tissue were initiated since such studies in many animal species show that adipose tissue expresses and secretes many factors that can influence growth and physiology. Microarray results indicated 333 differentially expressed adipose tissue genes between 3 and 6 wk, 265 differentially expressed genes between 4 and 6 wk and 42 differentially expressed genes between 3 and 4 wk. Enrichment scores of Gene Ontology Biological Process categories indicated strong age upregulation of genes involved in the immune system response. In addition to microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to confirm the influence of age on the expression of adipose tissue CC chemokine ligands (CCL), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF), chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8), and several other genes. Between 3 and 6 wk of age CCL5, CCL1, and CCR8 expression increased (P = 0.0001) with age. Furthermore, TLR2, CCL19, and LITAF expression increased between 4 and 6 wk of age (P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of age related changes in CCL, LITAF, and TLR2 gene expression in chicken adipose tissue. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of these adipose tissue genes in growth and the immune system. PMID:26317054

  17. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Katarina Marcinko

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC.

  18. Control of adipose tissue lipolysis in ectotherm vertebrates.

    Migliorini, R H; Lima-Verde, J S; Machado, C R; Cardona, G M; Garofalo, M A; Kettelhut, I C

    1992-10-01

    Lipolytic activity of fish (Hoplias malabaricus), toad (Bufo paracnemis), and snake (Philodryas patagoniensis) adipose tissue was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Catecholamines or glucagon did not affect the release of free fatty acids (FFA) by incubated fish and toad adipose tissue. Catecholamines also failed to activate snake adipose tissue lipolysis, which even decreased in the presence of epinephrine. However, glucagon stimulated both the lipolytic activity of reptilian tissue in vitro and the mobilization of FFA to plasma when administered to snakes in vivo. The release of FFA from incubated fish, amphibian, and reptilian adipose tissue increased markedly in the presence of cAMP or xanthine derivatives, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase. Forskolin or fluoride, activators of specific components of the adenylate cyclase system, strongly stimulated toad adipose tissue lipolysis. The data suggest that adipocyte triacylglycerol lipase of ectotherm vertebrates is activated by a cAMP-mediated phosphorylation and that the organization of the membrane-bound adenylate cyclase system is similar to that of mammals. PMID:1329567

  19. Adipose tissue macrophages induce PPARγ-high FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    Toshiharu Onodera; Atsunori Fukuhara; Myoung Ho Jang; Jihoon Shin; Keita Aoi; Junichi Kikuta; Michio Otsuki; Masaru Ishii; Iichiro Shimomura

    2015-01-01

    Numerous regulatory T cells (Tregs) are present in adipose tissues compared with other lymphoid or non-lymphoid tissues. Adipose Tregs regulate inflammatory state and insulin sensitivity. However, the mechanism that maintains Tregs in adipose tissue remains unclear. Here, we revealed the contribution of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) to the induction and proliferation of adipose Tregs. ATMs isolated from mice under steady state conditions induced Tregs with high expression of PPARγ compare...

  20. White adipose tissue resilience to insulin deprivation and replacement

    Lilas Hadji; Emmanuelle Berger; Hédi Soula; Hubert Vidal; Alain Géloën

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adipocyte size and body fat distribution are strongly linked to the metabolic complications of obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the plasticity of white adipose tissue in response to insulin deprivation and replacement. We have characterized the changes of adipose cell size repartition and gene expressions in type 1 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rats and type 1 diabetic supplemented with insulin. Methods: Using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, we induced rapi...

  1. Unequivocal Identification of Brown Adipose Tissue in a Human Infant

    Hu, Houchun H.; Tovar, Jason; Pavlova, Zdena; Smith, Michelle L; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    We report the unique depiction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) by MRI and computed tomography (CT) in a human three month-old infant. Based on cellular differences between BAT and more lipid-rich white adipose tissue (WAT), chemical-shift MRI and CT were both capable of generating distinct signal contrasts between the two tissues and against surrounding anatomy, utilizing fat-signal fraction metrics in the former and X-ray attenuation values in the latter. While numerous BAT imaging experiments...

  2. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Hilker, David R.; Aldous, Kenneth M. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States)], E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org

    2009-03-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time.

  3. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time

  4. Epikardiales Fett als Biomarker? // Epicardial Adipose Tissue as a Biomarker?

    Tscharre M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epicardial adipose tissue as the “visceral” adipose tissue of the heart is arousing more and more scientific interest, as it has numerous local and systemic effects. There is no fascia separating the epicardial adipose tissue and the myocardium and they both share its blood supply via the coronary arteries, thus allowing a possible interaction. Under normal physiological conditions, epicardial adipose tissue has mainly anti-atherogenic, thermogenic and mechanical characteristics. Under pathological conditions it becomes harmful to the myocardium and the coronary arteries. Important features in the clinical setting are correlations with coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and visceral adipose tissue, thus acting as a possible biomarker of cardiovascular risk. p bKurzfassung:/b Das epikardiale Fettgewebe erweckt als „viszerales“ Fettdepot des Herzens mit zahlreichen lokalen und systemischen Effekten immer mehr wissenschaftliches Interesse. Das Fehlen einer trennenden Faszie zwischen epikardialem Fettgewebe und Myokard und die gemeinsame Blutversorgung durch die Koronararterien erlauben eine potenzielle Interaktion. Unter normalen physiologischen Verhältnissen hat das epikardiale Fettgewebe hauptsächlich anti-atherogene, thermogenetische und mechanische Funktionen. Unter pathologischen Verhältnissen schädigt es das Myokard und die Koronararterien. Einen klinischen Stellenwert hat es aufgrund von Korrelationen mit koronarer Herzerkrankung, Herzinsuffizienz, Vorhofflimmern und viszeralem Fettgewebe. Dadurch könnte es als neuer Biomarker für das kardiovaskuläre Risiko dienen.

  5. The contribution of IL-6 to beta 3 adrenergic receptor mediated adipose tissue remodeling.

    Buzelle, Samyra L; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Peppler, Willem T; Castellani, Laura; Wright, David C

    2015-02-01

    The chronic activation of beta 3 adrenergic receptors results in marked alterations in adipose tissue morphology and metabolism, including increases in mitochondrial content and the expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis and glyceroneogenesis. Acute treatment with CL 316,243, a beta 3 adrenergic agonist, induces the expression of interleukin 6. Interestingly, IL-6 has been shown to induce mitochondrial genes in cultured adipocytes. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the role of interleukin 6 in mediating the in vivo effects of CL 316,243 in white adipose tissue. Circulating IL-6, and markers of IL-6 signaling in white adipose tissue were increased 4 h following a single injection of CL 316,243 in C57BL6/J mice. Once daily injections of CL 316,243 for 5 days increased the protein content of a number of mitochondrial proteins including CORE1, Cytochrome C, PDH, MCAD, and Citrate Synthase to a similar extent in adipose tissue from WT and IL-6(-/-) mice. Conversely, CL 316,243-induced increases in COXIV and phosphorylated AMPK were attenuated in IL-6(-/-) mice. Likewise, the slight, but significant, CL 316,243-induced increases in ATGL, PEPCK, and PPARγ, were reduced or absent in adipose tissue IL-6(-/-) mice. The attenuated response to CL 316,243 in white adipose tissue in IL-6(-/-) mice was associated with reductions in whole-body oxygen consumption and energy expenditure in the light phase. Our findings suggest that IL-6 plays a limited role in CL 316,243-mediated adipose tissue remodeling. PMID:25713332

  6. Intrinsic regulation of blood flow in adipose tissue

    Henriksen, O; Nielsen, Steen Levin; Paaske, W

    1976-01-01

    Previous studies on intact human subcutaneous tissue have shown, that blood flow remains constant during minor changes in perfusion pressure. This so-called autoregulatory response has not been demonstrable in isolated preparations of adipose tissue. In the present study on isolated, denervated...... vasoconstriction with pronounced flow reduction. These two reactions may be important for local regulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue during orthostatic changes in arterial and venous pressure. It is concluded that the response in adipose tissue to changes in arterial pressure (autoregulation), venous...... subcutaneous tissue in female rabbits only 2 of 12 expts. revealed an autoregulatory response during reduction in arterial perfusion pressure. Effluent blood flow from the tissue in the control state was 15.5 ml/100 g-min (S.D. 6.4, n = 12) corresponding to slight vasodilatation of the exposed tissue...

  7. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

    Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after an...... increase in ATLD was seen after the glucose load in the lean subjects. In the obese subjects, ATLD remained constant throughout the study and was significantly lower compared to the lean subjects. These results indicate a reduced ability to remove macromolecules from the interstitial space through the...... lymphatic system in obese subjects. Furthermore, they suggest that postprandial changes in ATLD taking place in lean subjects are not observed in obese subjects. This may have a role in the development of obesity-related inflammation in hypertrophic adipose tissue.International Journal of Obesity advance...

  8. The effect of hypokinesia on lipid metabolism in adipose tissue

    Macho, Ladislav; Kvetn̆anský, Richard; Ficková, Mária

    The increase of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in plasma was observed in rats subjected to hypokinesia for 1-60 days. In the period of recovery (7 and 21 days after 60 days immobilization) the content of NEFA returned to control values. The increase of fatty acid release from adipose tissue was observed in hypokinetic rats, however the stimulation of lipolysis by norepinephrine was lower in rats exposed to hypokinesis. The decrease of the binding capacity and a diminished number of beta-adrenergic receptors were found in animals after hypokinesia. The augmentation of the incorporation of glucose into lipids and the marked increase in the stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin were found in adipose tissue of rats subjected to long-term hypokinesia. These results showed an important effect of hypokinesia on lipid mobilization, on lipogenesis and on the processes of hormone regulation in adipose tissue.

  9. Expression of Resistin Protein in Normal Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Pregnant Women Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Placenta

    ZHOU Yongming; GUO Tiecheng; ZHANG Muxun; GUO Wei; YU Meixia; XUE Keying; HUANG Shiang; CHEN Yanhong; ZHU Huanli; XU Lijun

    2006-01-01

    The expression of resistin protein in normal human abdominal, thigh, pregnant women abdominal, non-pregnant women abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta and the relationship between obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), pregnant physiological insulin resistance (IR) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was investigated. The expression of resistin protein in normal human abdominal, thigh, pregnant women abdominal, non-pregnant women abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta was detected by using Western blotting method.Fasting serum glucose concentration was measured by glucose oxidase assay. Serum cholesterol (CHOL), serum triglycerides (TG), serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined by full automatic biochemical instrument. Fasting insulin was measured by enzyme immunoassay to calculate insulin resistance index (IRI). Height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF %). Resistin protein expression in pregnant women placental tissue (67 905±8441) (arbitrary A values) was much higher than that in subcutaneous adipose tissue in pregnant women abdomen (40 718 ± 3818, P < 0.01), non-pregnant women abdomen (38 288±2084, P<0.01), normal human abdomen (39 421±6087, P<0.01)and thigh (14 942 ±6706, P<0. 001) respectively. The resistin expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue showed no significant difference among pregnant, non-pregnant women and normal human, but much higher than that in thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (P<0. 001). Pearson analysis revealed that resistin protein was correlated with BMI (r=0.42), fasting insulin concentration (r=0.38),IRI (r=0. 34), BF % (r=0.43) and fasting glucose (r=0. 39), but not with blood pressure,CHOL, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C. It was suggested that resistin protein expression in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was much higher

  10. Adipocyte insulin receptor activity maintains adipose tissue mass and lifespan.

    Friesen, Max; Hudak, Carolyn S; Warren, Curtis R; Xia, Fang; Cowan, Chad A

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes follows a well-defined progressive pathogenesis, beginning with insulin resistance in metabolic tissues such as the adipose. Intracellular signaling downstream of insulin receptor activation regulates critical metabolic functions of adipose tissue, including glucose uptake, lipogenesis, lipolysis and adipokine secretion. Previous studies have used the aP2 promoter to drive Cre recombinase expression in adipose tissue. Insulin receptor (IR) knockout mice created using this aP2-Cre strategy (FIRKO mice) were protected from obesity and glucose intolerance. Later studies demonstrated the promiscuity of the aP2 promoter, casting doubts upon the tissue specificity of aP2-Cre models. It is our goal to use the increased precision of the Adipoq promoter to investigate adipocyte-specific IR function. Towards this end we generated an adipocyte-specific IR knockout (AIRKO) mouse using an Adipoq-driven Cre recombinase. Here we report AIRKO mice are less insulin sensitive throughout life, and less glucose tolerant than wild-type (WT) littermates at the age of 16 weeks. In contrast to WT littermates, the insulin sensitivity of AIRKO mice is unaffected by age or dietary regimen. At any age, AIRKO mice are comparably insulin resistant to old or obese WT mice and have a significantly reduced lifespan. Similar results were obtained when these phenotypes were re-examined in FIRKO mice. We also found that the AIRKO mouse is protected from high-fat diet-induced weight gain, corresponding with a 90% reduction in tissue weight of major adipose depots compared to WT littermates. Adipose tissue mass reduction is accompanied by hepatomegaly and increased hepatic steatosis. These data indicate that adipocyte IR function is crucial to systemic energy metabolism and has profound effects on adiposity, hepatic homeostasis and lifespan. PMID:27246738

  11. New tissue substitutes representing cortical bone and adipose tissue in quantitative radiology

    To employ quantitative radiology more accurately, we examined phantom materials for cortical bone and adipose tissue as calibration standards and as experimental phantoms. New tissue substitutes for cortical bone and adipose tissue composed of liquid phantom were verified by computing their attenuation coefficients and observing their chemical properties. We showed that a potassium pyrophosphate (K4P2O7) solution for cortical bone was comparable to a dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) solution. Also, the use of methyl alcohol for adipose tissue was more suitable than ethyl alcohol as a phantom material because of its physical and chemical properties. (author)

  12. Direct effects of leptin on brown and white adipose tissue.

    Siegrist-Kaiser, C A; Pauli, V; Juge-Aubry, C E; Boss, O; Pernin, A; Chin, W W; Cusin, I; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Burger, A G; Zapf, J; Meier, C A

    1997-01-01

    Leptin is thought to exert its actions on energy homeostasis through the long form of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), which is present in the hypothalamus and in certain peripheral organs, including adipose tissue. In this study, we examined whether leptin has direct effects on the function of brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) at the metabolic and molecular levels. The chronic peripheral intravenous administration of leptin in vivo for 4 d resulted in a 1.6-fold increase...

  13. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Emiel Beijer; Janna Schoenmakers; Guy Vijgen; Fons Kessels; Anne-Marie Dingemans; Patrick Schrauwen; Miel Wouters; Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt; Jaap Teule; Boudewijn Brans

    2012-01-01

    Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT). Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activ...

  14. Endotrophin triggers adipose tissue fibrosis and metabolic dysfunction

    Sun, Kai; Park, Jiyoung; Gupta, Olga T;

    2014-01-01

    We recently identified endotrophin as an adipokine with potent tumour-promoting effects. However, the direct effects of local accumulation of endotrophin in adipose tissue have not yet been studied. Here we use a doxycycline-inducible adipocyte-specific endotrophin overexpression model to demonst......We recently identified endotrophin as an adipokine with potent tumour-promoting effects. However, the direct effects of local accumulation of endotrophin in adipose tissue have not yet been studied. Here we use a doxycycline-inducible adipocyte-specific endotrophin overexpression model...

  15. Quantifying Size and Number of Adipocytes in Adipose Tissue

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Lentz, Stephen I.; Mori, Hiroyuki; MacDougald, Ormond A.

    2014-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a dynamic and modifiable tissue that develops late during gestation in humans and through early postnatal development in rodents. WAT is unique in that it can account for as little as 3% of total body weight in elite athletes or as much as 70% in the morbidly obese. With the development of obesity, WAT undergoes a process of tissue remodeling in which adipocytes increase in both number (hyperplasia) and size (hypertrophy). Metabolic derangements associated with o...

  16. Alterations in Adipose Tissue during Critical Illness: An Adaptive and Protective Response?

    Langouche, Lies; Vander Perre, Sarah; Thiessen, Steven; Gunst, Jan; Hermans, Greet; D'Hoore, André; Kola, Blerina; Korbonits, Márta; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Critical illness is characterized by lean tissue wasting, whereas adipose tissue is preserved. Overweight and obese critically ill patients may have a lower risk of death than lean patients, suggestive of a protective role for adipose tissue during illness. Objectives: To investigate whether adipose tissue could protectively respond to critical illness by storing potentially toxic metabolites, such as excess circulating glucose and triglycerides. Methods: We studied adipose tissue ...

  17. Vitamin D and adipose tissue - more than storage

    Shivaprakash Jagalur Mutt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pandemic increase in obesity is inversely associated with vitamin D levels. While a higher BMI was causally related to lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, no evidence was obtained for a BMI lowering effect by higher 25(OHD. Some of the physiological functions of 1,25(OH2D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol via its receptor within the adipose tissue have been investigated such as its effect on energy balance, adipogenesis, adipokine and cytokine secretion. Adipose tissue inflammation has been recognized as the key component of metabolic disorders, e.g. in the metabolic syndrome. The adipose organ secretes more than 260 different proteins/peptides. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of 1,25(OH2D3, vitamin D binding proteins (VDBPs and nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR after sequestration in adipose tissue and their regulations are still unclear. 1,25(OH2D3 and its inactive metabolites are known to inhibit the formation of adipocytes in mouse 3T3-L1 cell line. In humans, 1,25(OH2D3 promotes preadipocyte differentiation under cell culture conditions. Further evidence of its important functions is given by VDR knock out (VDR -/- and CYP27B1 knock out (CYP27B1 -/- mouse models: Both VDR -/- and CYP27B1 -/- models are highly resistant to the diet induced weight gain, while the specific overexpression of human VDR in adipose tissue leads to increased adipose tissue mass. The analysis of microarray datasets from human adipocytes treated with macrophage-secreted products up-regulated VDR and CYP27B1 genes indicating the capacity of adipocytes to even produce active 1,25(OH2D3. Experimental studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH2D3 has an active role in adipose tissue by modulating inflammation, adipogenesis and adipocyte secretion. Yet, further in vivo studies are needed to address the effects and the effective dosages of vitamin D in human adipose tissue and its relevance in the associated diseases.

  18. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil.

    Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Sung Kwon; Choi, Chang Weon; Li, Xiang Zi; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Won Young; Jeong, Joon; Johnson, Bradley J; Zan, Linsen; Smith, Stephen B

    2016-03-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (poil decreased (p = 0.01) PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (ppalm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ) gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (poil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05); SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers. Contrary to our original hypothesis, palm oil did not promote adipogenic gene expression in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue. PMID:26950873

  19. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Research highlights: → Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. → For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. → This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the underlying

  20. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Bai, Xiaowen, E-mail: baixw01@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Alt, Eckhard, E-mail: ealt@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. {yields} For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. {yields} This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the

  1. Visceral adipose tissue modulates mammalian longevity

    Muzumdar, Radhika; Allison, David B.; Huffman, Derek M.; Ma, Xiaohui; Atzmon, Gil; Einstein, Francine H.; Fishman, Sigal; Poduval, Aruna D.; McVei, Theresa; Keith, Scott W.; Barzilai, Nir

    2008-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can delay many age-related diseases and extend lifespan, while an increase in adiposity is associated with enhanced disease risk and accelerated aging. Among the various fat depots, the accrual of visceral fat (VF) is a common feature of aging, and has been shown to be the most detrimental on metabolic syndrome of aging in humans. We have previously demonstrated that surgical removal of VF in rats improves insulin action; thus, we set out to determine if VF removal af...

  2. Adipose tissue remodeling: its role in energy metabolism and metabolic disorders

    Sung Sik eChoe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue (WAT functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue (BAT accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secret various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic over-nutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response.

  3. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders.

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue-resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic overnutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response. PMID:27148161

  4. Impact of runting on adipokine gene expression in neonatal pig adipose tissue

    This study examined the effects of runting on adipokines in neonatal adipose tissue. Pigs were selected as runts (R) by birth weight adipose tissues were collected at d1 (n = 5), d7 (n = 7) or d21 (n...

  5. Impact of Age on the Relationships of Brown Adipose Tissue With Sex and Adiposity in Humans

    Pfannenberg, Christina; Werner, Matthias K.; Ripkens, Sabine; Stef, Irina; Deckert, Annette; Schmadl, Maria; Reimold, Matthias; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Claussen, Claus D.; Stefan, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Brown adipose tissue (BAT) regulates energy homeostasis and fat mass in mammals and newborns and, most likely, in adult humans. Because BAT activity and BAT mass decline with age in humans, the impact of BAT on adiposity may decrease with aging. In the present study we addressed this hypothesis and further investigated the effect of age on the sex differences in BAT activity and BAT mass. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 260 subjects (98 with BAT and 162 study date–matched cont...

  6. Adipose tissue distribution and risk of metabolic disease: does thiazolidinedione-induced adipose tissue redistribution provide a clue to the answer?

    Yang, X; Smith, U

    2007-06-01

    The relative effect of visceral and subcutaneous obesity on the risk of chronic metabolic disease has been a matter of long-term dispute. While ample data support either of the fat depots being causative or associative, valid argument for one depot often automatically belittles the other. Paradigms such as the visceral/portal hypothesis and the acquired lipodystrophy/ectopic fat storage and endocrine hypothesis have been proposed. Nevertheless, neither hypothesis alone explains the entire pathophysiological setting. Treatment of diabetes with thiazolidinediones selectively increases fat partitioning to the subcutaneous adipose depot but does not change visceral fat accumulation. This is in contrast to the preferential visceral fat mobilisation by diet and exercise. Surgical removal of visceral or subcutaneous adipose tissue yields relatively long-lasting metabolic improvement only when combined with procedures that ameliorate adipose tissue cell composition. These studies illustrate that human adipose tissue in different anatomic locations does not work in isolation, and that there is a best-fit relationship in terms of volume and function among different fat depots that needs to be met to maintain the systemic energy balance and to prevent the complications related to obesity. PMID:17393135

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in adipose tissue of women with gestational diabetes.

    Stella Liong

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are two increasingly common and important obstetric complications that are associated with severe long-term health risks to mothers and babies. IL-1β, which is increased in obese and GDM pregnancies, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of these two pregnancy complications. In non-pregnant tissues, endoplasmic (ER stress is increased in diabetes and can induce IL-1β via inflammasome activation. The aim of this study was to determine whether ER stress is increased in omental adipose tissue of women with GDM, and if ER stress can also upregulate inflammasome-dependent secretion of IL-1β. ER stress markers IRE1α, GRP78 and XBP-1s were significantly increased in adipose tissue of obese compared to lean pregnant women. ER stress was also increased in adipose tissue of women with GDM compared to BMI-matched normal glucose tolerant (NGT women. Thapsigargin, an ER stress activator, induced upregulated secretion of mature IL-1α and IL-1β in human omental adipose tissue explants primed with bacterial endotoxin LPS, the viral dsRNA analogue poly(I:C or the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Inhibition of capase-1 with Ac-YVAD-CHO resulted in decreased IL-1α and IL-1β secretion, whereas inhibition of pannexin-1 with carbenoxolone suppressed IL-1β secretion only. Treatment with anti-diabetic drugs metformin and glibenclamide also reduced IL-1α and IL-1β secretion in infection and cytokine-primed adipose tissue. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated ER stress to activate the inflammasome in pregnant adipose tissue. Therefore, increased ER stress may contribute towards the pathophysiology of obesity in pregnancy and GDM.

  8. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue...

  9. Lipolytic and thermogenic depletion of adipose tissue in cancer cachexia.

    Tsoli, Maria; Swarbrick, Michael M; Robertson, Graham R

    2016-06-01

    Although muscle wasting is the obvious manifestation of cancer cachexia that impacts on patient quality of life, the loss of lipid reserves and metabolic imbalance in adipose tissue also contribute to the devastating impact of cachexia. Depletion of fat depots in cancer patients is more pronounced than loss of muscle and often precedes, or even occurs in the absence of, reduced lean body mass. Rapid mobilisation of triglycerides stored within adipocytes to supply the body with fatty acids in periods of high-energy demand is normally mediated through a well-defined process of lipolysis involving the lipases ATGL, HSL and MGL. Studies into how these lipases contribute to fat loss in cancer cachexia have revealed the prominent role for ATGL in initiating lipolysis during adipose tissue atrophy, together with links between tumour-derived factors and the signalling pathways that control lipid flux within fat cells. The recent findings of increased thermogenesis in brown fat during cancer cachexia indicate that metabolically active adipose tissue contributes to the imbalance in energy homeostasis involved in catabolic wasting. Such energetically futile use of fatty acids liberated from adipose tissue to generate heat represents a maladaptive response in conjunction with anorexia experienced by cancer patients. As IL-6 release by tumours provokes lipolysis and activates the thermogenic programme in brown fat, this review explores the overlap in dysregulated metabolic processes due to inflammatory mediators in cancer cachexia and other disease states characterised by elevated cytokines such as obesity and diabetes. PMID:26529279

  10. Differential gene expression profile in pig adipose tissue treated with/without clenbuterol

    Deng Xue M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clenbuterol, a beta-agonist, can dramatically reduce pig adipose accumulation at high dosages. However, it has been banned in pig production because people who eat pig products treated with clenbuterol can be poisoned by the clenbuterol residues. To understand the molecular mechanism for this fat reduction, cDNA microarray, real-time PCR, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectra were used to study the differential gene expression profiles of pig adipose tissues treated with/without clenbuterol. The objective of this research is to identify novel genes and physiological pathways that potentially facilitate clenbuterol induced reduction of adipose accumulation. Results Clenbuterol was found to improve the lean meat percentage about 10 percent (P Conclusion Pig fat accumulation was reduced dramatically with clenbuterol treatment. Histological sections and global evaluation of gene expression after administration of clenbuterol in pigs identified profound changes in adipose cells. With clenbuterol stimulation, adipose cell volumes decreased and their gene expression profile changed, which indicate some metabolism processes have been also altered. Although the biological functions of the differentially expressed genes are not completely known, higher expressions of these molecules in adipose tissue might contribute to the reduction of fat accumulation. Among these genes, five lipid metabolism related genes were of special interest for further study, including apoD and apoR. The apoR expression was increased at both the RNA and protein levels. The apoR may be one of the critical molecules through which clenbuterol reduces fat accumulation.

  11. Crosstalk between Adipocytes and Immune Cells in Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation in Obesity

    Huh, Jin Young; Park, Yoon Jeong; Ham, Mira; Kim, Jae Bum

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings, notably on adipokines and adipose tissue inflammation, have revised the concept of adipose tissues being a mere storage depot for body energy. Instead, adipose tissues are emerging as endocrine and immunologically active organs with multiple effects on the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis. Notably, compared with other metabolic organs such as liver and muscle, various inflammatory responses are dynamically regulated in adipose tissues and most of the immune cells in ...

  12. A novel ChREBP isoform in adipose tissue regulates systemic glucose metabolism

    Herman, Mark Andrew; Peroni, Odile Daniele; Villoria, Jorge; Schön, Michael R; Abumrad, Nada A.; Blüher, Matthias; Klein, Samuel; Kahn, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of obesity and type 2-diabetes is increasing worldwide and threatens to shorten lifespan. Impaired insulin action in peripheral tissues is a major pathogenic factor. Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in adipose tissue through the Glut4-glucose transporter and alterations in adipose-Glut4 expression or function regulate systemic insulin sensitivity. Downregulation of adipose tissue-Glut4 occurs early in diabetes development. Here we report that adipose tissue-Glut4 regul...

  13. Natural Killer T Cells in Adipose Tissue Are Activated in Lean Mice

    Kondo, Taisuke; Toyoshima, Yujiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kyuwa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues are closely connected with the immune system. It has been suggested that metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis and liver steatosis can be attributed to adipose tissue inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration. To understand a physiological and pathological role of natural killer T (NKT) cells on inflammation in adipose tissue, we characterized a subset of NKT cells in abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissues in C57BL/6J mice fed normal or ...

  14. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in ...

  15. Interleukin-17A Differentially Induces Inflammatory and Metabolic Gene Expression in the Adipose Tissues of Lean and Obese Mice

    Yine Qu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The functions of interleukin-17A (IL-17A in adipose tissues and adipocytes have not been well understood. In the present study, male mice were fed with a regular diet (n = 6, lean mice or a high-fat diet (n = 6, obese mice for 30 weeks. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT were analyzed for IL-17A levels. SAT and VAT were treated with IL-17A and analyzed for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. Mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, followed with IL-17A treatment and analysis for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. We found that IL-17A levels were higher in obese SAT than lean SAT; the basal expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes was different between SAT and VAT and between lean and obese adipose tissues. IL-17A differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes, such as tumor necrosis factor α, Il-6, Il-1β, leptin, and glucose transporter 4, in adipose tissues of lean and obese mice. IL-17A also differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes in pre-adipocytes and adipocytes, and IL-17A selectively activated signaling pathways in adipose tissues and adipocytes. These findings suggest that IL-17A differentially induces inflammatory and metabolic gene expression in the adipose tissues of lean and obese mice.

  16. Interleukin-17A Differentially Induces Inflammatory and Metabolic Gene Expression in the Adipose Tissues of Lean and Obese Mice.

    Qu, Yine; Zhang, Qiuyang; Ma, Siqi; Liu, Sen; Chen, Zhiquan; Mo, Zhongfu; You, Zongbing

    2016-01-01

    The functions of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in adipose tissues and adipocytes have not been well understood. In the present study, male mice were fed with a regular diet (n = 6, lean mice) or a high-fat diet (n = 6, obese mice) for 30 weeks. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were analyzed for IL-17A levels. SAT and VAT were treated with IL-17A and analyzed for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. Mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, followed with IL-17A treatment and analysis for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. We found that IL-17A levels were higher in obese SAT than lean SAT; the basal expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes was different between SAT and VAT and between lean and obese adipose tissues. IL-17A differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes, such as tumor necrosis factor α, Il-6, Il-1β, leptin, and glucose transporter 4, in adipose tissues of lean and obese mice. IL-17A also differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes in pre-adipocytes and adipocytes, and IL-17A selectively activated signaling pathways in adipose tissues and adipocytes. These findings suggest that IL-17A differentially induces inflammatory and metabolic gene expression in the adipose tissues of lean and obese mice. PMID:27070576

  17. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, Bente; Bülow, J

    subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism was investigated. In both series Fick's principle was applied. Intravenous infusion increased blood flow, glucose uptake and oxygen uptake in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. It is concluded that skeletal muscle contributes about 40% and adipose tissue about 5% of...

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  6. Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging of Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue

    Zhang, Xueli; Kuo, Chaincy; Moore, Anna; Ran, Chongzhao

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), widely known as a “good fat” plays pivotal roles for thermogenesis in mammals. This special tissue is closely related to metabolism and energy expenditure, and its dysfunction is one important contributor for obesity and diabetes. Contrary to previous belief, recent PET/CT imaging studies indicated the BAT depots are still present in human adults. PET imaging clearly shows that BAT has considerably high uptake of 18F-FDG under certain conditions. In this video repo...

  7. The sexually dimorphic role of adipose and adipocyte estrogen receptors in modulating adipose tissue expansion, inflammation, and fibrosis

    Our data demonstrate that estrogens, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), and estrogen receptor-ßeta (ERßeta) regulate adipose tissue distribution, inflammation, fibrosis, and glucose homeostasis, by determining that alphaERKO mice have increased adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis prior to obesi...

  8. Exercise training decreases adipose tissue inflammation in cachectic rats.

    Lira, F S; Yamashita, A S; Rosa, J C; Koyama, C H; Caperuto, E C; Batista, M L; Seelaender, M C L

    2012-02-01

    Bearing in mind that cancer cachexia is associated with chronic systemic inflammation and that endurance training has been adopted as a nonpharmacological anti-inflammatory strategy, we examined the effect of 8 weeks of moderate intensity exercise upon the balance of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in 2 different depots of white adipose tissue in cachectic tumour-bearing (Walker-256 carcinosarcoma) rats. Animals were assigned to a sedentary control (SC), sedentary tumour-bearing (ST), sedentary pair-fed (SPF) or exercise control (EC), exercise tumour-bearing (ET), and exercise pair-fed (EPF) group. Trained rats ran on a treadmill (60% VO(2)max) 60 min/day, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks. The retroperitoneal (RPAT) and mesenteric (MEAT) adipose pads were excised and the mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (ELISA) expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were evaluated. The number of infiltrating monocytes in the adipose tissue was increased in cachectic rats. TNF-α mRNA in MEAT was increased in the cachectic animals (preduction of the infiltrating monocytes both in MEAT and RPAT (p<0.05), when compared with ST. We conclude that cachexia is associated with inflammation of white adipose tissue and that exercise training prevents this effect in the MEAT, and partially in RPAT. PMID:22266827

  9. White adipose tissue urea cycle activity is not affected by one-month treatment with a hyperlipidic diet in female rats.

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià; Fernández-López, José Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Under high-energy diets, amino acid N is difficult to dispose of, as a consequence of the availability of alternative substrates. We found, recently, that WAT contains a complete functional urea cycle, we analyzed the possible overall changes in the WAT urea cycle (and other-related amino acid metabolism gene expressions) in rats subjected to a cafeteria diet. Adult female Wistar rats were fed control or simplified cafeteria diets. Samples of WAT sites: mesenteric, periovaric, retroperitoneal and subcutaneous, were used for the estimation of all urea cycle enzyme activities and gene expressions. Other key amino acid metabolism gene expressions, and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured. Subcutaneous WAT showed a differentiated amino acid metabolism profile, since its cumulative (whole site) activity for most enzymes was higher than the activities of the other sites studied. After one month of eating an energy-rich cafeteria diet, and in spite of doubling the size of WAT, the transforming capacity of most amino acid metabolism enzymes remained practically unchanged in the tissue. This was not only due to limited changes in the overall enzyme activity, but also a consequence of a relative decrease in the expression of the corresponding genes. Overall, the results of this study support the consideration of WAT as an organ, disperse but under uniform control. The metabolic peculiarities between its different sites, and their ability to adapt to different energy availability conditions only add to the variable nature of adipose tissue. We have presented additional evidence of the significant role of WAT in amino acid metabolism. PMID:26901686

  10. Bone marrow–derived circulating progenitor cells fail to transdifferentiate into adipocytes in adult adipose tissues in mice

    Koh, Young Jun; Kang, Shinae; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Choi, Tae-Saeng; Lee, Ho Sub; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Koh, Gou Young

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about whether bone marrow–derived circulating progenitor cells (BMDCPCs) can transdifferentiate into adipocytes in adipose tissues or play a role in expanding adipocyte number during adipose tissue growth. Using a mouse bone marrow transplantation model, we addressed whether BMDCPCs can transdifferentiate into adipocytes under standard conditions as well as in the settings of diet-induced obesity, rosiglitazone treatment, and exposure to G-CSF. We also addressed the possibilit...

  11. Biologically and mechanically driven design of an RGD-mimetic macroporous foam for adipose tissue engineering applications.

    Rossi, Eleonora; Gerges, Irini; Tocchio, Alessandro; Tamplenizza, Margherita; Aprile, Paola; Recordati, Camilla; Martello, Federico; Martin, Ivan; Milani, Paolo; Lenardi, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Despite clinical treatments for adipose tissue defects, in particular breast tissue reconstruction, have certain grades of efficacy, many drawbacks are still affecting the long-term survival of new formed fat tissue. To overcome this problem, in the last decades, several scaffolding materials have been investigated in the field of adipose tissue engineering. However, a strategy able to recapitulate a suitable environment for adipose tissue reconstruction and maintenance is still missing. To address this need, we adopted a biologically and mechanically driven design to fabricate an RGD-mimetic poly(amidoamine) oligomer macroporous foam (OPAAF) for adipose tissue reconstruction. The scaffold was designed to fulfil three fundamental criteria: capability to induce cell adhesion and proliferation, support of in vivo vascularization and match of native tissue mechanical properties. Poly(amidoamine) oligomers were formed into soft scaffolds with hierarchical porosity through a combined free radical polymerization and foaming reaction. OPAAF is characterized by a high water uptake capacity, progressive degradation kinetics and ideal mechanical properties for adipose tissue reconstruction. OPAAF's ability to support cell adhesion, proliferation and adipogenesis was assessed in vitro using epithelial, fibroblast and endothelial cells (MDCK, 3T3L1 and HUVEC respectively). In addition, in vivo subcutaneous implantation in murine model highlighted OPAAF potential to support both adipogenesis and vessels infiltration. Overall, the reported results support the use of OPAAF as a scaffold for engineered adipose tissue construct. PMID:27428768

  12. Tissue Engineering of Injectable Soft tissue Filler: Using Adipose Stem Cells and Micronized Acellular Dermal Matrix

    Yoo, Gyeol; Lim, Jin Soo

    2009-01-01

    In this study of a developed soft tissue filler, adipose tissue equivalents were constructed using adipose stem cells (ASCs) and micronized acellular dermal matrix (Alloderm). After labeling cultured human ASCs with fluorescent green protein and attaching them to micronized Alloderm (5×105 cells/1 mg), ASC-Alloderm complexes were cultured in adipogenic differentiation media for 14 days and then injected into the dorsal cranial region of nude male mice. The viabilities of ASCs in micronized Al...

  13. Heterogeneous response of adipose tissue to cancer cachexia

    P.S. Bertevello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia causes disruption of lipid metabolism. Since it has been well established that the various adipose tissue depots demonstrate different responses to stimuli, we assessed the effect of cachexia on some biochemical and morphological parameters of adipocytes obtained from the mesenteric (MES, retroperitoneal (RPAT, and epididymal (EAT adipose tissues of rats bearing Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, compared with controls. Relative weight and total fat content of tissues did not differ between tumor-bearing rats and controls, but fatty acid composition was modified by cachexia. Adipocyte dimensions were increased in MES and RPAT from tumor-bearing rats, but not in EAT, in relation to control. Ultrastructural alterations were observed in the adipocytes of tumor-bearing rat RPAT (membrane projections and EAT (nuclear bodies.

  14. Brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Han; Huang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Rongcai; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Zhou, Huiqiao; Dong, Meng; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, is a complex endocrinopathy. Because the cause of PCOS at the molecular level is largely unknown, there is no cure or specific treatment for PCOS. Here, we show that transplantation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) reversed anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. BAT transplantation into a PCOS rat significantly stabilized menstrual irregularity and improved systemic insulin sensitivity up to a normal level, which was not shown in a sham-operated or muscle-transplanted PCOS rat. Moreover, BAT transplantation, not sham operation or muscle transplantation, surprisingly improved fertility in PCOS rats. Interestingly, BAT transplantation activated endogenous BAT and thereby increased the circulating level of adiponectin, which plays a prominent role in whole-body energy metabolism and ovarian physiology. Consistent with BAT transplantation, administration of adiponectin protein dramatically rescued DHEA-induced PCOS phenotypes. These results highlight that endogenous BAT activity is closely related to the development of PCOS phenotypes and that BAT activation might be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS. PMID:26903641

  15. Physiological adaptations in adipose tissue of Brahman vs Angus heifers.

    Sprinkle, J E; Hansard, H S; Warrington, B G; Holloway, J W; Wu, G; Smith, S B

    1998-03-01

    Nonpregnant yearling Brahman (n = 12) and Angus (n = 12) heifers were equally allocated to two dietary treatments in a replicated study to examine responses in lipid metabolism to nutritional treatments consisting of a moderate energy diet (2.0 Mcal ME/kg) fed at maintenance and a 2.5 x maintenance high-energy diet (2.4 Mcal ME/kg) fed for 30 d. In vitro lipogenesis and the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were determined in perianal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies at the start and end of the trial. At the start of the trial, breeds had similar (P > .10) rates of lipogenesis and LPL activity. Brahman had greater (P Angus at the start of the trial and tended (P .10) HSL activity. Heifers on the high-energy, higher-intake diet had greater lipogenesis (P .10) rates of lipogenesis at the end of the trial. When adjusted for BCS nested within breed, Brahman had greater (P Angus. PMID:9535333

  16. Visceral adipose tissue modulates mammalian longevity.

    Muzumdar, Radhika; Allison, David B; Huffman, Derek M; Ma, Xiaohui; Atzmon, Gil; Einstein, Francine H; Fishman, Sigal; Poduval, Aruna D; McVei, Theresa; Keith, Scott W; Barzilai, Nir

    2008-06-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can delay many age-related diseases and extend lifespan, while an increase in adiposity is associated with enhanced disease risk and accelerated aging. Among the various fat depots, the accrual of visceral fat (VF) is a common feature of aging, and has been shown to be the most detrimental on metabolic syndrome of aging in humans. We have previously demonstrated that surgical removal of VF in rats improves insulin action; thus, we set out to determine if VF removal affects longevity. We prospectively studied lifespan in three groups of rats: ad libitum-fed (AL-fed), CR (Fed 60% of AL) and a group of AL-fed rats with selective removal of VF at 5 months of age (VF-removed rats). We demonstrate that compared to AL-fed rats, VF-removed rats had a significant increase in mean (p fat mass, specifically VF, may be one of the possible underlying mechanisms of the anti-aging effect of CR. PMID:18363902

  17. Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Adipose Tissue in Children and Adolescents

    Kotnik Primož; Fischer Posovszky Pamela; Wabitsch Martin

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is implicated in many endocrine and metabolic processes. Leptin was among the first identified adipose-secreted factors, which act in an auto-, para- and endocrine manner. Since leptin, many other adipose tissue factors were determined, some primarily secreted from the adipocytes, some from other cells of the adipose tissue. So-called adipokines are not only involved in obesity and its complications, as are insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and other components of the metabol...

  18. α 1-acid glycoprotein inhibits lipogenesis in neonatal swine adipose tissue.

    Ramsay, T G; Blomberg, L; Caperna, T J

    2016-05-01

    Serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is elevated during late gestation and at birth in the pig and rapidly declines postnatally. In contrast, the pig is born with minimal lipid stores in the adipose tissue, but rapidly accumulates lipid during the first week. The present study examined if AGP can affect adipose tissue metabolism in the neonatal pig. Isolated cell cultures or tissue explants were prepared from dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue of preweaning piglets. Porcine AGP was used at concentrations of 0, 100, 1000 and 5000 ng/ml medium in 24 h incubations. AGP reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of the lipogenic enzymes, malic enzyme (ME), fatty acid synthase and acetyl coA carboxylase by at least 40% (Pmetabolism by AGP appears to function through an inhibition in insulin-mediated glucose oxidation and incorporation into fatty acids. This was supported by the analysis of the mRNA abundance for sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), carbohydrate regulatory element-binding protein (ChREBP) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), which all demonstrated reductions of at least 23% in response to AGP treatment (Pmetabolic data and SREBP, ChREBP and IRS1 gene expression analysis suggest is through an inhibition in insulin-mediated events. Second, these data suggest that AGP may contribute to limiting lipogenesis within adipose tissue during the perinatal period, as AGP levels are highest for any serum protein at birth. PMID:26608612

  19. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  20. Treatment of Rats with a Self-Selected Hyperlipidic Diet, Increases the Lipid Content of the Main Adipose Tissue Sites in a Proportion Similar to That of the Lipids in the Rest of Organs and Tissues

    Romero, María del Mar; Roy, Stéphanie; Pouillot, Karl; Feito, Marisol; Esteve, Montserrat; Grasa, María del Mar; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Alemany, Marià; Remesar, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal) and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents). Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1–1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28–63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle) 38–44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in “other organs” was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle), as well as in the ”rest” of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose) or not-specialized (liver, muscle) tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed. PMID:24603584

  1. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide has impaired effect on abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects

    Asmar, M; Simonsen, L; Arngrim, N;

    2013-01-01

    that increased GIP secretion in obesity will promote lipid deposition in adipose tissue. In light of the current attempts to employ GIP antagonists in the treatment and prevention of human obesity, the present experiments were performed in order to elucidate whether the adipose tissue lipid metabolism...... would be enhanced or blunted during a GIP, hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic (HI-HG) clamp in obese subjects with either normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). DESIGN: Sixteen obese (BMI>30 kg m(-2)) subjects were divided into two groups, based on their plasma glucose...... deposition in adipose tissue under the applied experimental conditions and likewise the circulating triglyceride (TAG) concentrations remained constant. CONCLUSION: The applied GIP, HI-HG clamp did not induce any changes in TAG uptake in adipose tissue in obese subjects. This may be due to a blunted increase...

  2. Visceral periadventitial adipose tissue regulates arterial tone of mesenteric arteries.

    Verlohren, Stefan; Dubrovska, Galyna; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Essin, Kirill; Luft, Friedrich C; Huang, Yu; Gollasch, Maik

    2004-09-01

    Periadventitial adipose tissue produces vasoactive substances that influence vascular contraction. Earlier studies addressed this issue in aorta, a vessel that does not contribute to peripheral vascular resistance. We tested the hypothesis that periadventitial adipose tissue modulates contraction of smaller arteries more relevant to blood pressure regulation. We studied mesenteric artery rings surrounded by periadventitial adipose tissue from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The contractile response to serotonin, phenylephrine, and endothelin I was markedly reduced in intact vessels compared with vessels without periadventitial fat. The contractile response to U46619 or depolarizing high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L) was similar in vessels with and without periadventitial fat. The K+ channel opener cromakalim induced relaxation of vessels precontracted by serotonin but not by U46619 or high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L), suggesting that K+ channels are involved. The intracellular membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was more hyperpolarized in intact vessels than in vessels without periadventitial fat. Both the anticontractile effect and membrane hyperpolarization of periadventitial fat were abolished by inhibition of delayed-rectifier K+ (K(v)) channels with 4-aminopyridine (2 mmol/L) or 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mmol/L). Blocking other K+ channels with glibenclamide (3 micromol/L), apamin (1 micromol/L), iberiotoxin (100 nmol/L), tetraethylammonium ions (1 mmol/L), tetrapentylammonium ions (10 micromol/L), or Ba2+ (3 micromol/L) had no effect. Longitudinal removal of half the perivascular tissue reduced the anticontractile effect of fat by almost 50%, whereas removal of the endothelium had no effect. We suggest that visceral periadventitial adipose tissue controls mesenteric arterial tone by inducing vasorelaxation via K(v) channel activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:15302842

  3. Thermoluminescent dosimetry system equivalent to adipose tissue

    The dosimetric system is a fine-dispersed (size of particles 2B4O7 (0.03% Mn) and the non-luminophor [NH(C2H5)3]2B12H12 in equal quantities. The process and the results are presented measuring phantom doses absorbed by fat tissue in gamma and roentgen short-distance irradiation. A substance consisting of 55% paraffin and of 45% Li2Co3 is recommended to imitate fat tissue in phantom measurements. (author)

  4. Effect of propylene glycol on adipose tissue mobilization in postpartum over-conditioned Holstein cows

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam Christian; Eslamizad, M;

    2015-01-01

    ) days in milk (DIM), body composition was determined using the deuterium oxide dilution technique, liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected, and mammary gland nutrient uptake was measured. Weekly blood samples were obtained during the experiment and daily blood samples were taken...... concentration was noted between treatments in the treatment period. Yet, PG allocation resulted in decreased plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and increased plasma concentrations of glucose. In the follow-up period, plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and BHB did not...... differ between treatments. Additionally, the change in abundance of proteins in adipose tissue biopsies from prepartum to 4 DIM was not affected by treatment. In conclusion, the different variables to assess body fat mobilization were concurrent and showed that a 4-wk postpartum PG allocation had limited...

  5. CREBH-FGF21 axis improves hepatic steatosis by suppressing adipose tissue lipolysis.

    Park, Jong-Gil; Xu, Xu; Cho, Sungyun; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kersten, Sander; Lee, Ann-Hwee

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipolysis produces glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) that serve as energy sources during nutrient scarcity. Adipose tissue lipolysis is tightly regulated and excessive lipolysis causes hepatic steatosis, as NEFA released from adipose tissue constitutes a major source of TG in the liver of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. Here we show that the liver-enriched transcription factor CREBH is activated by TG accumulation and induces FGF21, which suppresses adipose tissue lipolysis, ameliorating hepatic steatosis. CREBH-deficient mice developed severe hepatic steatosis due to increased adipose tissue lipolysis, when fasted or fed a high-fat low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. FGF21 production was impaired in CREBH-deficient mice, and adenoviral overexpression of FGF21 suppressed adipose tissue lipolysis and improved hepatic steatosis in these mice. Thus, our results uncover a negative feedback loop in which CREBH regulates NEFA flux from adipose tissue to the liver via FGF21. PMID:27301791

  6. Adipose tissue development in extramuscular and intramuscular depots in meat animals

    The cellular and metabolic aspects of developing intramuscular adipose tissue and other adipose tissue depots have been studied including examination of the expression of a number of genes. Depot dependent or depot “marker” genes such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase and leptin for subcutaneous adipose ti...

  7. Erythropoietin administration partially prevents adipose tissue loss in experimental cancer cachexia models

    Penna, Fabio; Busquets, Silvia; Toledo, Miriam; Pin, Fabrizio; Massa, David; López-Soriano, Francisco J.; Costelli, Paola; Argilés, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated cachexia is characterized, among other symptoms, by a dramatic loss of both muscle and fat. In addition, the cachectic syndrome is often associated with anemia. The object of the present investigation was to assess the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment on experimental cancer cachexia models. The results clearly show that, in addition to the improvement of the hematocrit, EPO treatment promoted a partial preservation of adipose tissue while exerting negligible effects...

  8. Levels of chlordane, oxychlordane, and nonachlor in human adipose tissues

    Hirai, Yukio; Tomokuni, Katsumaro (Saga Medical School (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    Chlordane was used as a termiticide for more than twenty years in Japan. Chlordane is stable in the environment such as sediment and its bioaccumulation in some species of bacteria, freshwater invertebrates, and marine fish is large. Many researches were done to elucidate the levels of chlordane and/or its metabolite oxychlordane in human adipose tissues. A comprehensive review concerning chlordane was recently provided by USEPA. On the other hand, Japan authorities banned the use of chlordane in September 1986. In the last paper, the authors reported that both water and sediment of the rivers around Saga city were slightly contaminated with chlordane. In the present study, they investigated the levels of chlordane, oxychlordane and nonachlor in human adipose tissues.

  9. Fully automated adipose tissue measurement on abdominal CT

    Yao, Jianhua; Sussman, Daniel L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Obesity has become widespread in America and has been associated as a risk factor for many illnesses. Adipose tissue (AT) content, especially visceral AT (VAT), is an important indicator for risks of many disorders, including heart disease and diabetes. Measuring adipose tissue (AT) with traditional means is often unreliable and inaccurate. CT provides a means to measure AT accurately and consistently. We present a fully automated method to segment and measure abdominal AT in CT. Our method integrates image preprocessing which attempts to correct for image artifacts and inhomogeneities. We use fuzzy cmeans to cluster AT regions and active contour models to separate subcutaneous and visceral AT. We tested our method on 50 abdominal CT scans and evaluated the correlations between several measurements.

  10. Adipose tissue is a regulated source of interleukin-10.

    Juge-Aubry, Cristiana E; Somm, Emmanuel; Pernin, Agnès; Alizadeh, Navid; Giusti, Vittorio; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Meier, Christoph A

    2005-03-21

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is the source of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and we have recently shown that this tissue is a major source of the anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). We now aimed at identifying additional adipose-derived cytokines, which might serve as regulators of IL-1Ra. We demonstrate here for the first time that the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 is secreted by human WAT explants and that it is up-regulated by LPS and TNF-alpha in vitro, as well as in obesity in humans (2- and 6-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral WAT, respectively) and rodents (4-fold increase). PMID:15749027

  11. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  12. Regulation of Triglyceride Metabolism. IV. Hormonal regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue

    Jaworski, Kathy; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Duncan, Robin E.; Ahmadian, Maryam; Sul, Hei Sook

    2007-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) stored in adipose tissue can be rapidly mobilized by the hydrolytic action of lipases, with the release of fatty acids (FA) that are used by other tissues during times of energy deprivation. Unlike synthesis of TAG, which occurs not only in adipose tissue but also in other tissues such as liver for very-low-density lipoprotein formation, hydrolysis of TAG, lipolysis, predominantly occurs in adipose tissue. Until recently, hormone-sensitive lipase was considered to be the...

  13. Molecular clock integration of brown adipose tissue formation and function

    Nam, Deokhwa; Yechoor, Vijay K.; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The circadian clock is an essential time-keeping mechanism that entrains internal physiology to environmental cues. Despite the well-established link between the molecular clock and metabolic homeostasis, an intimate interplay between the clock machinery and the metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) is only emerging. Recently, we came to appreciate that the formation and metabolic functions of BAT, a key organ for body temperature maintenance, are under an orchestrated circadian clock regulation. Two complementary studies from our group uncover that the cell-intrinsic clock machinery exerts concerted control of brown adipogenesis with consequent impacts on adaptive thermogenesis, which adds a previously unappreciated temporal dimension to the regulatory mechanisms governing BAT development and function. The essential clock transcriptional activator, Bmal1, suppresses adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation, whereas the clock repressor, Rev-erbα, promotes these processes. This newly discovered temporal mechanism in fine-tuning BAT thermogenic capacity may enable energy utilization and body temperature regulation in accordance with external timing signals during development and functional recruitment. Given the important role of BAT in whole-body metabolic homeostasis, pharmacological interventions targeting the BAT-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders, particularly those associated with circadian dysregulation.

  14. Inhibition of Sam68 triggers adipose tissue browning.

    Zhou, Junlan; Cheng, Min; Boriboun, Chan; Ardehali, Mariam M; Jiang, Changfei; Liu, Qinghua; Han, Shuling; Goukassian, David A; Tang, Yao-Liang; Zhao, Ting C; Zhao, Ming; Cai, Lu; Richard, Stéphane; Kishore, Raj; Qin, Gangjian

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; molecular mechanisms that promote energy expenditure can be utilized for effective therapy. Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) is potentially significant, because knockout (KO) of Sam68 leads to markedly reduced adiposity. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanism by which Sam68 regulates adiposity and energy homeostasis. We first found that Sam68 KO mice have a significantly reduced body weight as compared to controls, and the difference is explained entirely by decreased adiposity. Interestingly, these effects were not mediated by a difference in food intake; rather, they were associated with enhanced physical activity. When they were fed a high-fat diet, Sam68 KO mice gained much less body weight and fat mass than their WT littermates did, and they displayed an improved glucose and insulin tolerance. In Sam68 KO mice, the brown adipose tissue (BAT), inguinal, and epididymal depots were smaller, and their adipocytes were less hypertrophied as compared to their WT littermates. The BAT of Sam68 KO mice exhibited reduced lipid stores and expressed higher levels of Ucp1 and key thermogenic and fatty acid oxidation genes. Similarly, depots of inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) in Sam68 KO mice appeared browner, their multilocular Ucp1-positive cells were much more abundant, and the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16, and Ppargc1a genes was greater as compared to WT controls, which suggests that the loss of Sam68 also promotes WAT browning. Furthermore, in all of the fat depots of the Sam68 KO mice, the expression of M2 macrophage markers was up-regulated, and that of M1 markers was down-regulated. Thus, Sam68 plays a crucial role in controlling thermogenesis and may be targeted to combat obesity and associated disorders. PMID:25934704

  15. Microbiota depletion promotes browning of white adipose tissue and reduces obesity.

    Suárez-Zamorano, Nicolas; Fabbiano, Salvatore; Chevalier, Claire; Stojanović, Ozren; Colin, Didier J; Stevanović, Ana; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Tarallo, Valentina; Rigo, Dorothée; Germain, Stéphane; Ilievska, Miroslava; Montet, Xavier; Seimbille, Yann; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Trajkovski, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) promotes a lean and healthy phenotype and improves insulin sensitivity. In response to cold or exercise, brown fat cells also emerge in the white adipose tissue (WAT; also known as beige cells), a process known as browning. Here we show that the development of functional beige fat in the inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ingSAT) and perigonadal visceral adipose tissue (pgVAT) is promoted by the depletion of microbiota either by means of antibiotic treatment or in germ-free mice. This leads to improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and decreased white fat and adipocyte size in lean mice, obese leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Such metabolic improvements are mediated by eosinophil infiltration, enhanced type 2 cytokine signaling and M2 macrophage polarization in the subcutaneous white fat depots of microbiota-depleted animals. The metabolic phenotype and the browning of the subcutaneous fat are impaired by the suppression of type 2 cytokine signaling, and they are reversed by recolonization of the antibiotic-treated or germ-free mice with microbes. These results provide insight into the microbiota-fat signaling axis and beige-fat development in health and metabolic disease. PMID:26569380

  16. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth.; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cell...

  17. Configuration of Fibrous and Adipose Tissues in the Cavernous Sinus

    Liang, Liang; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qunyuan; Zhang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objective Three-dimensional anatomical appreciation of the matrix of the cavernous sinus is one of the crucial necessities for a better understanding of tissue patterning and various disorders in the sinus. The purpose of this study was to reveal configuration of fibrous and adipose components in the cavernous sinus and their relationship with the cranial nerves and vessels in the sinus and meningeal sinus wall. Materials and Methods Nineteen cadavers (8 females and 11 males; age range, 54–89...

  18. Fluorescence Imaging of Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue in Living Mice†

    Rice, Douglas R.; White, Alexander G.; Leevy, W. Matthew; Smith, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in energy expenditure and heat generation and is a promising target for diagnosing and treating obesity, diabetes and related metabolism disorders. While several nuclear and magnetic resonance imaging methods are established for detecting human BAT, there are no convenient protocols for high throughput imaging of BAT in small animal models. Here we disclose a simple but effective method for non-invasive optical imaging of interscapular BAT in mice u...

  19. Insulin Regulates the Unfolded Protein Response in Human Adipose Tissue

    Boden, Guenther; Cheung, Peter; Salehi, Sajad; Homko, Carol; Loveland-Jones, Catherine; Jayarajan, Senthil; Stein, T Peter; Williams, Kevin Jon; Liu, Ming-Lin; Barrero, Carlos A.; Merali, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increased in obesity and is postulated to be a major contributor to many obesity-related pathologies. Little is known about what causes ER stress in obese people. Here, we show that insulin upregulated the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive reaction to ER stress, in vitro in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in vivo, in subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue of nondiabetic subjects, where it increased the UPR dose dependently over the entire physiologic insulin ra...

  20. Insulin action in human adipose tissue in acromegaly.

    Bolinder, J.; Ostman, J; Werner, S.; Arner, P.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in acromegaly were investigated. Adipose tissue was obtained from nine patients with acromegaly who had in vivo insulin resistance and from 14 matched healthy control subjects. Receptor binding and the antilipolytic effect of insulin were determined in isolated fat cells. Insulin-induced glucose oxidation at a physiological hexose concentration was investigated in fat segments. In fat cells obtained from acromegaly patients after an overnight fast,...

  1. Effects of immunosuppressive drugs on human adipose tissue metabolism

    Pereira, Maria J

    2012-01-01

    The immunosuppressive agents (IAs) rapamycin, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus, as well as glucocorticoids are used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune disorders. Despite their desired action on the immune system, these agents have serious longterm metabolic side-effects, including dyslipidemia and new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation. The overall aim is to study the effects of IAs on human adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism, and to incr...

  2. Hkat, a novel nutritionally regulated transmembrane protein in adipose tissues

    Ren Zhang

    2012-01-01

    White adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ regulating many aspects of whole body physiology and pathology. Adipogenesis, a process in which premature cells differentiate into adipocytes, is a complex process that includes orchestrated changes in gene expression and cell morphology in response to various nutritional and hormonal stimuli. To profile transcriptome changes in response to nutritional stimulation, we performed RNA-seq on fat in mice treated with either a high-fat diet or fas...

  3. Seeking the source of adipocytes in adult white adipose tissues

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Granneman, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Adipocyte progenitors are thought to play a fundamental role in white adipose tissue (WAT) plasticity, which enables dynamic modulation of WAT metabolic and cellular characteristics in response to various stimuli. In general, two main strategies have been used to identify adipocyte progenitor cells: fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based prospective analysis and lineage tracing. Although FACS-isolation is highly useful in defining multipotential stem cell populations for in vitro an...

  4. Brown Adipose Tissue: A New Target for Antiobesity Therapy

    Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human fat consist of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT). Though most fat is energy-storing WAT, the thermogenic capacity of even small amounts of BAT makes it an attractive therapeutic target for inducing weight loss through energy expenditure. CONTENT: Over the past year, several independent research teams used a combination of positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging, immunohistochemistry and gene and protein expression assays to prove conc...

  5. Adipose tissue and sustainable development: a connection that needs protection

    Tremblay, Angelo; Picard-Deland, Éliane; Panahi, Shirin; Marette, André

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is generally considered as an excess body fat that increases the risk to develop ergonomic, metabolic, and psychosocial problems. As suggested in this paper, body fat gain is also a protective adaptation that prevents body lipotoxicity, contributes to the secretion of molecules involved in metabolic regulation, and dilutes lipid soluble persistent organic pollutants. Recent literature shows that this protective role of adipose tissue is more solicited in a modern context in which unsu...

  6. Sleep deprivation affects inflammatory marker expression in adipose tissue

    Santos Ronaldo VT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation has been shown to increase inflammatory markers in rat sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Inflammation is a condition associated with pathologies such as obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated changes in the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in different depots of white adipose tissue in rats. We also assessed lipid profiles and serum levels of corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin after 96 hours of sleep deprivation. Methods The study consisted of two groups: a control (C group and a paradoxical sleep deprivation by 96 h (PSD group. Ten rats were randomly assigned to either the control group (C or the PSD. Mesenteric (MEAT and retroperitoneal (RPAT adipose tissue, liver and serum were collected following completion of the PSD protocol. Levels of interleukin (IL-6, interleukin (IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α were analysed in MEAT and RPAT, and leptin, adiponectin, glucose, corticosterone and lipid profile levels were analysed in serum. Results IL-6 levels were elevated in RPAT but remained unchanged in MEAT after PSD. IL-10 protein concentration was not altered in either depot, and TNF-α levels decreased in MEAT. Glucose, triglycerides (TG, VLDL and leptin decreased in serum after 96 hours of PSD; adiponectin was not altered and corticosterone was increased. Conclusion PSD decreased fat mass and may modulate the cytokine content in different depots of adipose tissue. The inflammatory response was diminished in both depots of adipose tissue, with increased IL-6 levels in RPAT and decreased TNF-α protein concentrations in MEAT and increased levels of corticosterone in serum.

  7. Sympathetic and sensory innervation of brown adipose tissue

    Bartness, TJ; Vaughan, CH; Song, CK

    2010-01-01

    The innervation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is incontrovertible and, with its activation, functions as the principal, if not exclusive, stimulator of BAT thermogenesis. The parasympathetic innervation of BAT only appears in two minor BAT depots, but not in the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. BAT thermogenesis is triggered by the release of norepinephrine from its sympathetic nerve terminals, stimulating β3-adrenoceptors that turns on a cascade o...

  8. Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Middelbeek, Roeland J.W.; Townsend, Kristy L.; An, Ding; Nygaard, Eva B.; Hitchcox, Kristen M.; Markan, Kathleen R.; Nakano, Kazuhiro; Hirshman, Michael F.; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to function in the dissipation of chemical energy in response to cold or excess feeding, and also has the capacity to modulate energy balance. To test the hypothesis that BAT is fundamental to the regulation of glucose homeostasis, we transplanted BAT from male donor mice into the visceral cavity of age- and sex-matched recipient mice. By 8–12 weeks following transplantation, recipient mice had improved glucose tolerance, increased insulin sensitivity, lowe...

  9. Estradiol Regulates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis via Hypothalamic AMPK

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B.; González-García, Ismael; Martins, Luís; Lage, Ricardo; Fernández-Mallo, Diana; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Ruíz-Pino, Francisco; Liu, Ji; Morgan, Donald A.; Pinilla, Leonor; Gallego, Rosalía; Saha, Asish K.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Estrogens play a major role in the modulation of energy balance through central and peripheral actions. Here, we demonstrate that central action of estradiol (E2) inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) selectively in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), leading to activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in a feeding-independent manner. Genetic activation of AMPK in...

  10. Obesity, adipose tissue function and the role of vitamin D

    Koszowska, Aneta U.; Nowak, Justyna; Dittfeld, Anna; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Kulpok, Agata; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is not just a cosmetic problem. Pathological accumulation of body fat can cause many health problems: insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes mellitus type 2. It may also increase morbidity and mortality. Adipose tissue plays an important role in body homeostasis by producing and secreting several bioactive proteins known as adipokines: adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and apelin, which are involved in the regulation of food intake, glucose an...

  11. Brominated dioxins and dibenzofurans in human adipose tissue. Final report

    Cramer, P.H.; Stanley, J.S.; Bauer, K.; Ayling, R.E.; Thornburg, K.R.

    1990-04-11

    The report describes the analytical efforts for the determination of polybrominated dioxins (PBDDs) and furans (PBDFs) in human adipose tissues. Data on the precision and accuracy of the method for three tetra- through hexabrominated dioxins and three tetra- through hexabrominated furans (specific 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers) were generated from the analysis of 5 unspiked and 10 spiked (5 replicates at 2 spike levels) adipose tissue samples that were included with the analysis of the FY 1987 samples. In addition, data are presented on the results of the analysis of 48 composite samples for the six specific PBDD and PBDF compounds. The targeted 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDDs and PBDFs were not detected in any of the samples except those prepared as spiked QC materials. The detection limits calculated for the tetrabromo congeners in the samples ranged from 0.46 to 8.9 pg/g (lipid basis). The detection limits for the higher brominated congeners were typically greater than that observed for the tetrabrominated compounds. There is some evidence for the presence of other brominated compounds in the adipose tissue samples. Specifically, responses were noted that correspond to the qualitative criteria for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (hexa through octabromo).

  12. Food consumption and adipose tissue DDT levels in Mexican women

    Marcia Galván-Portillo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose tissue DDE levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Adipose tissue DDE levels increased significantly with age (p = 0.005 and residence in coastal areas (p = 0.002 and non-significantly with the consumption of onion, cauliflower, prickly pear, squash blossoms, sweet corn, broad beans, chili pepper sauce, ham, and fish. Even so, during breastfeeding there was a non-significant reduction in these levels. The findings suggest that certain foods serve as vehicles for DDE residues and confirm that breastfeeding is a mechanism for the elimination of this insecticide, which accumulates over the years in the human body.

  13. Food consumption and adipose tissue DDT levels in Mexican women

    Galván-Portillo Marcia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose tissue DDE levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Adipose tissue DDE levels increased significantly with age (p = 0.005 and residence in coastal areas (p = 0.002 and non-significantly with the consumption of onion, cauliflower, prickly pear, squash blossoms, sweet corn, broad beans, chili pepper sauce, ham, and fish. Even so, during breastfeeding there was a non-significant reduction in these levels. The findings suggest that certain foods serve as vehicles for DDE residues and confirm that breastfeeding is a mechanism for the elimination of this insecticide, which accumulates over the years in the human body.

  14. Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells express neuronal phenotypes

    杨立业; 刘相名; 孙兵; 惠国桢; 费俭; 郭礼和

    2004-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) can be greatly expanded in vitro, and induced to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal cell types, including osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, and adipogenic cells. This study was designed to investigate the possibility of ADSCs differentiating into neurons.Methods Adipose tissue from rats was digested with collagenase, and adherent stromal cells were cultured. A medium containing a low concentration of fetal bovine serum was adopted to induce the cells to differentiate. ADSCs were identified by immunocytochemistry, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR was applied to detect mRNA expression of neurofilament 1 (NF1), nestin, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE).Results Nestin-positive cells were found occasionally among ADSCs. ADSCs were found to express NSE mRNA and nestin mRNA, but not NF1 mRNA. ADSCs could differentiate into neuron-like cells in a medium composed of a low concentration of fetal bovine serum, and these differentiated cells displayed complicated neuron-like morphologies.Conclusions The data support the hypothesis that adipose tissue contains stem cells capable of differentiating into neurons. These stem cells can overcome their mesenchymal commitment, and may represent an alternative autologous stem cell source for CNS cell transplantation.

  15. Adipose tissue-liver axis in alcoholic liver disease

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains an important healthproblem worldwide. The disease spectrum is featuredby early steatosis, steatohepatitis (steatosis with inflammatorycells infiltration and necrosis), with someindividuals ultimately progressing to fibrosis/cirrhosis.Although the disease progression is well characterized,no effective therapies are currently available for thetreatment in humans. The mechanisms underlying theinitiation and progression of ALD are multifactorial andcomplex. Emerging evidence supports that adiposetissue dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis ofALD. In the first part of this review, we discuss themechanisms whereby chronic alcohol exposure contributedto adipose tissue dysfunction, including cell death,inflammation and insulin resistance. It has been longknown that aberrant hepatic methionine metabolismis a major metabolic abnormality induced by chronicalcohol exposure and plays an etiological role in thepathogenesis of ALD. The recent studies in our groupdocumented the similar metabolic effect of chronicalcohol drinking on methionine in adipose tissue. Inthe second part of this review, we also briefly discussthe recent research progress in the field with a focuson how abnormal methionine metabolism in adiposetissue contributes to adipose tissue dysfunction and liverdamage.

  16. Adipose Tissue Engineering - In vitro Development of a subcutaneous fat layer and a vascularized adipose tissue construct utilizing extracellular matrix structures

    Werner, Katharina Julia

    2014-01-01

    Each year millions of plastic and reconstructive procedures are performed to regenerate soft tissue defects after, for example, traumata, deep burns or tumor resections. Tissue engineered adipose tissue grafts are a promising alternative to autologous fat transfer or synthetic implants to meet this demand for adipose tissue. Strategies of tissue engineering, especially the use of cell carriers, provide an environment for better cell survival, an easier positioning and supplemented with the ap...

  17. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated the...... basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection of...... ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain...

  18. Adipose tissue in imaging of the pelvis

    Fat is a fundamental contrast agent in pelvic imaging. The features of fat are typical on CT and MRI but vary on ultrasonography according to the physical caracteristics and histology. The study of pelvic fat is of great importance in pelvic exploration because fat outlines both the normal structures and their borders. Involvement or masking of the pelvic fat is a good marker of carcinologic spread. Changes in pelvic fat may also be observe in inflammatory diseases. Specific diseases of fatty pelvic connective tissue such as lipomatosis and liposarcomas, are classically described. Teratomas with a fatty component derived from pelvic structures (ovaries) are easily diagnosed using imaging methods

  19. Similarity of mouse perivascular and brown adipose tissues and their resistance to diet-induced inflammation

    Fitzgibbons, Timothy P.; Kogan, Sophia; Aouadi, Myriam; Hendricks, Greg M.; Straubhaar, Juerg; Czech, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Thoracic perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a unique adipose depot that likely influences vascular function and susceptibility to pathogenesis in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Surprisingly, PVAT has been reported to share characteristics of both brown and white adipose, but a detailed direct comparison to interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) has not been performed. Here we show by full genome DNA microarray analysis that global gene expression profiles of PVAT are virtually ident...

  20. Laser light propagation in adipose tissue and laser effects on adipose cell membranes

    Solarte, Efraín; Rebolledo, Aldo; Gutierrez, Oscar; Criollo, William; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, José; Ramírez, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Recently Neira et al. have presented a new liposuction technique that demonstrated the movement of fat from inside to outside of the cell, using a low-level laser device during a liposuction procedure with Ultrawet solution. The clinical observations, allowed this new surgical development, started a set of physical, histological and pharmacological studies aimed to determine the mechanisms involved in the observed fat mobilization concomitant to external laser application in liposuction procedures. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, studies show that the cellular arrangement of normal adipose tissue changes when laser light from a diode laser: 10 mW, 635 nm is applied. Laser exposures longer than 6 minutes cause the total destruction of the adipocyte panicles. Detailed observation of the adipose cells show that by short irradiation times (less than four minutes) the cell membrane exhibits dark zones, that collapse by longer laser exposures. Optical measurements show that effective penetration length depends on the laser intensity. Moreover, the light scattering is enhanced by diffraction and subsequent interference effects, and the tumescent solution produces a clearing of the tissue optical medium. Finally, isolate adipose cell observation show that fat release from adipocytes is a concomitant effect between the tumescent solution (adrenaline) and laser light, revealing a synergism which conduces to the aperture, and maybe the disruption, of the cell membrane. All these studies were consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from inside the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides a strong modification of the cellular membranes.

  1. Transketolase Haploinsufficiency Reduces Adipose Tissue and Female Fertility in Mice

    Xu, Zheng-Ping; Wawrousek, Eric F.; Piatigorsky, Joram

    2002-01-01

    Transketolase (TKT) is a ubiquitous enzyme used in multiple metabolic pathways. We show here by gene targeting that TKT-null mouse embryos are not viable and that disruption of one TKT allele can cause growth retardation (≈35%) and preferential reduction of adipose tissue (≈77%). Other TKT+/− tissues had moderate (≈33%; liver, gonads) or relatively little (≈7 to 18%; eye, kidney, heart, brain) reductions in mass. These mice expressed a normal level of growth hormone and reduced leptin levels....

  2. Sex and depot differences in ex vivo adipose tissue fatty acid storage and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Chen, Liang; Oberschneider, Elisabeth; Harteneck, Debra; Jensen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue fatty acid storage varies according to sex, adipose tissue depot, and degree of fat gain. However, the mechanism(s) for these variations is not completely understood. We examined whether differences in adipose tissue glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) might play a role in these variations. We optimized an enzyme activity assay for total GPAT and GPAT1 activity in human adipose tissue and measured GPAT activity. Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from...

  3. Impaired Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Adipose Tissue in Acquired Obesity.

    Heinonen, Sini; Buzkova, Jana; Muniandy, Maheswary; Kaksonen, Risto; Ollikainen, Miina; Ismail, Khadeeja; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesse; Lundbom, Nina; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Moilanen, Eeva; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Suomalainen, Anu; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H

    2015-09-01

    Low mitochondrial number and activity have been suggested as underlying factors in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. However, the stage at which mitochondrial dysfunction manifests in adipose tissue after the onset of obesity remains unknown. Here we examined subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) samples from healthy monozygotic twin pairs, 22.8-36.2 years of age, who were discordant (ΔBMI >3 kg/m(2), mean length of discordance 6.3 ± 0.3 years, n = 26) and concordant (ΔBMI <3 kg/m(2), n = 14) for body weight, and assessed their detailed mitochondrial metabolic characteristics: mitochondrial-related transcriptomes with dysregulated pathways, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) amount, mtDNA-encoded transcripts, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) protein levels. We report global expressional downregulation of mitochondrial oxidative pathways with concomitant downregulation of mtDNA amount, mtDNA-dependent translation system, and protein levels of the OXPHOS machinery in the obese compared with the lean co-twins. Pathway analysis indicated downshifting of fatty acid oxidation, ketone body production and breakdown, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which inversely correlated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative metabolic pathways, and OXPHOS proteins in SAT are downregulated in acquired obesity, and are associated with metabolic disturbances already at the preclinical stage. PMID:25972572

  4. Adipose tissue and vascular inflammation in coronary artery disease

    Enrica; Golia; Giuseppe; Limongelli; Francesco; Natale; Fabio; Fimiani; Valeria; Maddaloni; Pina; Elvira; Russo; Lucia; Riegler; Renatomaria; Bianchi; Mario; Crisci; Gaetano; Di; Palma; Paolo; Golino; Maria; Giovanna; Russo; Raffaele; Calabrò; Paolo; Calabrò

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become an important public health issue in Western and developing countries,with well known metabolic and cardiovascular complications.In the last decades,evidence have been growing about the active role of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ in determining these pathological consequences.As a consequence of the expansion of fat depots,in obese subjects,adipose tissue cells develope a phenotypic modification,which turns into a change of the secretory output.Adipocytokines produced by both adipocytes and adipose stromal cells are involved in the modulation of glucose and lipid handling,vascular biology and,moreover,participate to the systemic inflammatory response,which characterizes obesity and metabolic syndrome.This might represent an important pathophysiological link with atherosclerotic complications and cardiovascular events.A great number of adipocytokines have been described recently,linking inflammatory mileu and vascular pathology.The understanding of these pathways is crucial not only from a pathophysiological point of view,but also to a better cardiovascular disease risk stratification and to the identification of possible therapeutic targets.The aim of this paper is to review the role of Adipocytokines as a possible link between obesity and vascular disease.

  5. Mechanobiology and Mechanotherapy of Adipose Tissue-Effect of Mechanical Force on Fat Tissue Engineering.

    Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Ogawa, Rei

    2015-12-01

    Our bodies are subjected to various mechanical forces, which in turn affect both the structure and function of our bodies. In particular, these mechanical forces play an important role in tissue growth and regeneration. Adipocytes and adipose-derived stem cells are both mechanosensitive and mechanoresponsive. The aim of this review is to summarize the relationship between mechanobiology and adipogenesis. PubMed was used to search for articles using the following keywords: mechanobiology, adipogenesis, adipose-derived stem cells, and cytoskeleton. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that adipogenesis is strongly promoted/inhibited by various internal and external mechanical forces, and that these effects are mediated by changes in the cytoskeleton of adipose-derived stem cells and/or various signaling pathways. Thus, adipose tissue engineering could be enhanced by the careful application of mechanical forces. It was shown recently that mature adipose tissue regenerates in an adipose tissue-engineering chamber. This observation has great potential for the reconstruction of soft tissue deficiencies, but the mechanisms behind it remain to be elucidated. On the basis of our understanding of mechanobiology, we hypothesize that the chamber removes mechanical force on the fat that normally impose high cytoskeletal tension. The reduction in tension in adipose stem cells triggers their differentiation into adipocytes. The improvement in our understanding of the relationship between mechanobiology and adipogenesis means that in the near future, we may be able to increase or decrease body fat, as needed in the clinic, by controlling the tension that is loaded onto fat. PMID:26894003

  6. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil

    Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Sung Kwon; Choi, Chang Weon; Li, Xiang Zi; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Won Young; Jeong, Joon; Johnson, Bradley J.; Zan, Linsen; Smith, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (p<0.03). SCD gene expression did not change between the initial and intermediate biopsies but declined by over 75% by the final period (p = 0.04), and G-coupled protein receptor 43 (GPR43) gene expression was unaffected by diet or time on trial. Soybean oil decreased (p = 0.01) PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (p<0.05). AMPKα gene expression was less in s.c. adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ) gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (p<0.03). Soybean oil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05); SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers

  7. Weight cycling enhances adipose tissue inflammatory responses in male mice.

    Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production, release of cytokines and adipokines and to dysregulated glucose-insulin homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Nutritional interventions such as dieting are often accompanied by repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, a phenomenon known as weight cycling (WC. METHODS: In this work we studied the effects of WC on the feed efficiency, blood lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, adiposity and inflammatory markers in C57BL/6 male mice that WC two or three consecutive times by alternation of a high-fat (HF diet with standard chow (SC. RESULTS: The body mass (BM grew up in each cycle of HF feeding, and decreased after each cycle of SC feeding. The alterations observed in the animals feeding HF diet in the oral glucose tolerance test, in blood lipids, and in serum and adipose tissue expression of adipokines were not recuperated after WC. Moreover, the longer the HF feeding was (two, four and six months, more severe the adiposity was. After three consecutive WC, less marked was the BM reduction during SC feeding, while more severe was the BM increase during HF feeding. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that both the HF diet and WC are relevant to BM evolution and fat pad remodeling in mice, with repercussion in blood lipids, homeostasis of glucose-insulin and adipokine levels. The simple reduction of the BM during a WC is not able to recover the high levels of adipokines in the serum and adipose tissue as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines enhanced during a cycle of HF diet. These findings are significant because a milieu with altered adipokines in association with WC potentially aggravates the chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production and release of adipokines in mice.

  8. Cold but not sympathomimetics activates human brown adipose tissue in vivo

    Cypess, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Chieh; Sze, Cathy; Wang, Ke; English, Jeffrey; Chan, Onyee; Holman, Ashley R.; Tal, Ilan; Palmer, Matthew R.; Kolodny, Gerald M.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    As potential activators of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mild cold exposure and sympathomimetic drugs have been considered as treatments for obesity and diabetes, but whether they activate the same pathways is unknown. In 10 healthy human volunteers, we found that the sympathomimetic ephedrine raised blood pressure, heart rate, and energy expenditure, and increased multiple circulating metabolites, including glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones. Cold exposure also increased blood pressure and...

  9. Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL) and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase (HSL) Deficiencies Affect Expression of Lipolytic Activities in Mouse Adipose Tissues*

    Morak, Maria; Schmidinger, Hannes; Riesenhuber, Gernot; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Kollroser, Manfred; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Kronenberg, Florian; Hermetter, Albin

    2012-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are key enzymes involved in intracellular degradation of triacylglycerols. It was the aim of this study to elucidate how the deficiency in one of these proteins affects the residual lipolytic proteome in adipose tissue. For this purpose, we compared the lipase patters of brown and white adipose tissue from ATGL (−/−) and HSL (−/−) mice using differential activity-based gel electrophoresis. This method is based on activity-r...

  10. New Adipose Tissue Formation by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with Hyaluronic Acid Gel in Immunodeficient Mice

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Yun-Nan; Lee, Su-Shin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsai-Ming; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently available injectable fillers have demonstrated limited durability. This report proposes the in vitro culture of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) on hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for in vivo growth of de novo adipose tissue. Methods: For in vitro studies, hASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and were confirmed by multi-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry. hASCs were cultured on HA gel. The effectiveness of cell attachment and proliferation on HA gel was...

  11. Osteopontin deletion prevents the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis via impaired adipose tissue matrix remodeling and reduced inflammation and fibrosis in adipose tissue and liver in mice.

    Andoni Lancha

    Full Text Available Osteopontin (OPN is a multifunctional extracellular matrix (ECM protein involved in multiple physiological processes. OPN expression is dramatically increased in visceral adipose tissue in obesity and the lack of OPN protects against the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in mice. We sought to unravel the potential mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of the absence of OPN. We analyzed the effect of the lack of OPN in the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD using OPN-KO mice. OPN expression was upregulated in epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT and liver in wild type (WT mice with HFD. OPN-KO mice had higher insulin sensitivity, lower body weight and fat mass with reduced adipose tissue ECM remodeling and reduced adipocyte size than WT mice under a HFD. Reduced MMP2 and MMP9 activity was involved in the decreased ECM remodeling. Crown-like structure number in EWAT as well as F4/80-positive cells and Emr1 expression in EWAT and liver increased with HFD, while OPN-deficiency blunted the increase. Moreover, our data show for the first time that OPN-KO under a HFD mice display reduced fibrosis in adipose tissue and liver, as well as reduced oxidative stress in adipose tissue. Gene expression of collagens Col1a1, Col6a1 and Col6a3 in EWAT and liver, as well as the profibrotic cytokine Tgfb1 in EWAT were increased with HFD, while OPN-deficiency prevented this increase. OPN deficiency prevented hepatic steatosis via reduction in the expression of molecules involved in the onset of fat accumulation such as Pparg, Srebf1, Fasn, Mogat1, Dgat2 and Cidec. Furthermore, OPN-KO mice exhibited higher body temperature and improved BAT function. The present data reveal novel mechanisms of OPN in the development of obesity, pointing out the inhibition of OPN as a promising target for the treatment of obesity and fatty liver.

  12. SUBCUTANEOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE INSULIN RESISTANCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH VISCERAL ADIPOSITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Casey, Beret A.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We determined whether whole body and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) insulin resistance was proportional to regional fat mass (FM). Design and Methods We studied postmenopausal women (Mean±SD; age 56±4 y, n=25) who were overweight or obese (BMI 29.9±5.1 kg/m2). Whole body and regional FM were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT). Women were studied during basal and insulin-stimulated (3-stage euglycemic clamp) conditions. Whole-body lipol...

  13. Determination of the tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for 131iodo-antipyrine in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    Jelnes, R; Astrup, A

    1985-01-01

    131Iodo-antipyrine (131I-AP) is commonly used for blood flow measurements in adipose tissue. These estimations have been based on the assumption of the tissue-to-blood partition coefficient being 1 ml g-1. No exact determination of the tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for 131I-AP in adipose...

  14. Effects of a physiological GH pulse on interstitial glycerol in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    Gravhølt, C H; Schmitz, Ole; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Christiansen, J S; Møller, N

    concentrations in adipose tissue, and whether there would be regional differences between femoral and abdominal subcutaneous fat, by employing microdialysis for 6 h after administration of GH (200 microgram) or saline intravenously. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured by the local Xenon...... washout method. Baseline of interstitial glycerol was higher in adipose tissue than in blood [220 +/- 12 (abdominal) vs. 38 +/- 2 (blood) micromol/l, P <0.0005; 149 +/- 9 (femoral) vs. 38 +/- 2 (blood) micromol/l, P <0.0005] and higher in abdominal adipose tissue compared with femoral adipose tissue (P <0.......0005). Administration of GH induced an increase in interstitial glycerol in both abdominal and femoral adipose tissue (ANOVA: abdominal, P = 0. 04; femoral, P = 0.03). There was no overall difference in the response to GH in the two regions during the study period as a whole (ANOVA: P = 0.5), but during peak...

  15. Tissue/blood partition coefficients for xenon in various adipose tissue depots in man

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A; Madsen, J; Vilmann, P

    1987-01-01

    Tissue/blood partition coefficients (lambda) for xenon were calculated for subcutaneous adipose tissue from the abdominal wall and the thigh, and for the perirenal adipose tissue after chemical analysis of the tissues for lipid, water and protein content. The lambda in the perirenal tissue was...... found to correlate linearly to the relative body weight (RBW) in per cent with the regression equation lambda = 0.045 . RBW + 0.99. The subcutaneous lambda on the abdomen correlated linearly to the local skinfold thickness (SFT) with the equation lambda = 0.22 SFT + 2.99. Similarly lambda on the thigh...... correlated to SFT with the equation lambda = 0.20 . SFT + 4.63. It is concluded that the previously accepted lambda value of 10 is generally too high in perirenal as well as in subcutaneous tissue. Thus, by application of the present regression equations, it is possible to obtain more exact estimates of the...

  16. Advantages of Sheep Infrapatellar Fat Pad Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering

    Vahedi, Parviz; Soleimanirad, Jafar; Roshangar, Leila; Shafaei, Hajar; Jarolmasjed, Seyedhosein; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study has been to evaluate adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) from infrapatellar fat pad and characterize their cell surface markers using anti-human antibodies, as adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) have great potential for cellular therapies to restore injured tissues. Methods: Adipose tissue was obtained from infrapatellar fat pad of sheep. Surface markers evaluated by flow cytometry. In order to evaluate cell adhesion, the Polycaprolactone (PCL) was sterilized under Ultraviolet (UV) light and about 1×105 cells were seeded on PCL. Then, ASCs- PCL construct were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (Mira3 Te Scan, Czech Republic). Results: We showed that adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) maintain their fibroblastic-like morphology during different subcultures and cell adhesion. They were positive for CD44 and CD90 markers and negative for CD31 and Cd45 markers by human antibodies. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ASCs surface markers can be characterized by anti-human antibodies in sheep. As stem cells, they can be used in tissue engineering. PMID:27123425

  17. Laminin α4 deficient mice exhibit decreased capacity for adipose tissue expansion and weight gain.

    Vaicik, Marcella K; Thyboll Kortesmaa, Jill; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Soininen, Raija; Bergström, Göran; Ohlsson, Claes; Chong, Li Yen; Rozell, Björn; Emont, Margo; Cohen, Ronald N; Brey, Eric M; Tryggvason, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to the increasing medical burdens related to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue expansion could lead to therapeutics that eliminate or reduce obesity-associated morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to regulate the development and function of numerous tissues and organs. However, there is little understanding of its function in adipose tissue. In this manuscript we describe the role of laminin α4, a specialized ECM protein surrounding adipocytes, on weight gain and adipose tissue function. Adipose tissue accumulation, lipogenesis, and structure were examined in mice with a null mutation of the laminin α4 gene (Lama4-/-) and compared to wild-type (Lama4+/+) control animals. Lama4-/- mice exhibited reduced weight gain in response to both age and high fat diet. Interestingly, the mice had decreased adipose tissue mass and altered lipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. In particular, epididymal adipose tissue mass was specifically decreased in knock-out mice, and there was also a defect in lipogenesis in this depot as well. In contrast, no such differences were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 weeks. The results suggest that laminin α4 influences adipose tissue structure and function in a depot-specific manner. Alterations in laminin composition offers insight into the roll the ECM potentially plays in modulating cellular behavior in adipose tissue expansion. PMID:25310607

  18. Laminin α4 Deficient Mice Exhibit Decreased Capacity for Adipose Tissue Expansion and Weight Gain

    Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Soininen, Raija; Bergström, Göran; Ohlsson, Claes; Chong, Li Yen; Rozell, Björn; Emont, Margo; Cohen, Ronald N.; Brey, Eric M.; Tryggvason, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to the increasing medical burdens related to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue expansion could lead to therapeutics that eliminate or reduce obesity-associated morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to regulate the development and function of numerous tissues and organs. However, there is little understanding of its function in adipose tissue. In this manuscript we describe the role of laminin α4, a specialized ECM protein surrounding adipocytes, on weight gain and adipose tissue function. Adipose tissue accumulation, lipogenesis, and structure were examined in mice with a null mutation of the laminin α4 gene (Lama4−/−) and compared to wild-type (Lama4+/+) control animals. Lama4−/− mice exhibited reduced weight gain in response to both age and high fat diet. Interestingly, the mice had decreased adipose tissue mass and altered lipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. In particular, epididymal adipose tissue mass was specifically decreased in knock-out mice, and there was also a defect in lipogenesis in this depot as well. In contrast, no such differences were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 weeks. The results suggest that laminin α4 influences adipose tissue structure and function in a depot-specific manner. Alterations in laminin composition offers insight into the roll the ECM potentially plays in modulating cellular behavior in adipose tissue expansion. PMID:25310607

  19. The Ubiquitin Ligase Siah2 Regulates Obesity-induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation

    Kilroy, Gail; Carter, Lauren E; Newman, Susan; Burk, David H.; Manuel, Justin; Möller, Andreas; Bowtell, David D.; Mynatt, Randall L.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Floyd, Z. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic, low-grade adipose tissue inflammation associated with adipocyte hypertrophy is an important link in the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance. Although ubiquitin ligases regulate inflammatory processes, the role of these enzymes in metabolically driven adipose tissue inflammation is relatively unexplored. Herein, we examined the effect of the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 on obesity-related adipose tissue inflammation. Methods Wild-type and Siah2KO mice were fed a lo...

  20. Roles of FGFs as adipokines in adipose tissue development, remodeling, and metabolism

    NobuyukiItoh

    2014-01-01

    White and brown adipose tissues, which store and burn lipids, respectively, play critical roles in energy homeostasis. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are signaling proteins with diverse functions in development, metabolism, and neural function. Among twenty-two FGFs, FGF1, FGF10, and FGF21 play roles as adipokines, adipocyte-secreted proteins, in the development and function of white and brown adipose tissues. FGF1 is a critical transducer in white adipose tissue remodeling. The PPARγ–F...

  1. Enhanced ZAG production by subcutaneous adipose tissue is linked to weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients

    Mracek, T.; Stephens, N. A.; Gao, D.; Bao, Y.; Ross, J A; Rydén, M; Arner, P; Trayhurn, P.; Fearon, K C H; Bing, C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Profound loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a recently identified adipokine, is suggested as a candidate in lipid catabolism. Methods: In the first study, eight weight-stable and 17 cachectic cancer patients (weight loss ⩾5% in previous 6 months) were recruited. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA and protein expression were assessed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue morphology was examined and serum ZAG conce...

  2. Configuration of Fibrous and Adipose Tissues in the Cavernous Sinus

    Liang, Liang; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qunyuan; Zhang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objective Three-dimensional anatomical appreciation of the matrix of the cavernous sinus is one of the crucial necessities for a better understanding of tissue patterning and various disorders in the sinus. The purpose of this study was to reveal configuration of fibrous and adipose components in the cavernous sinus and their relationship with the cranial nerves and vessels in the sinus and meningeal sinus wall. Materials and Methods Nineteen cadavers (8 females and 11 males; age range, 54–89 years; mean age, 75 years) were prepared as transverse (6 sets), coronal (3 sets) and sagittal (10 sets) plastinated sections that were examined at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Results Two types of the web-like fibrous networks were identified and localized in the cavernous sinus. A dural trabecular network constituted a skeleton-frame in the sinus and contributed to the sleeves of intracavernous cranial nerves III, IV, V1, V2 and VI. A fine trabecular network, or adipose tissue, was the matrix of the sinus and was mainly distributed along the medial side of the intracavernous cranial nerves, forming a dumbbell-shaped adipose zone in the sinus. Conclusions This study revealed the nature, fine architecture and localization of the fine and dural trabecular networks in the cavernous sinus and their relationship with intracavernous cranial nerves and vessels. The results may be valuable for better understanding of tissue patterning in the cranial base and better evaluation of intracavernous disorders, e.g. the growth direction and extent of intracavernous tumors. PMID:24586578

  3. Metformin and resveratrol ameliorate muscle insulin resistance through preventing lipolysis and inflammation in hypoxic adipose tissue.

    Zhao, Wenjun; Li, Aiyun; Feng, Xin; Hou, Ting; Liu, Kang; Liu, Baolin; Zhang, Ning

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of metformin and resveratrol on muscle insulin resistance with emphasis on the regulation of lipolysis in hypoxic adipose tissue. ICR mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 10days with administration of metformin, resveratrol, or intraperitoneal injection of digoxin. Adipose hypoxia, inflammation and cAMP/PKA-dependent lipolysis were investigated. Moreover, lipid deposition and insulin resistance were examined in the muscle. Metformin and resveratrol attenuated adipose hypoxia, inhibited HIF-1α expression and inflammation in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice. Metformin and resveratrol inhibited lipolysis through prevention of PKA/HSL activation by decreasing the accumulation of cAMP via preserving PDE3B. Metformin and resveratrol reduced FFAs influx and DAG accumulation, and thus improved insulin signaling in the muscle by inhibiting PKCθ translocation. This study presents a new view of regulating lipid metabolism to ameliorate insulin resistance and provides the clinical guiding significance for obesity and type 2 diabetes with metformin and resveratrol treatment. PMID:27343375

  4. Stromal vascular progenitors in adult human adipose tissue

    Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Donnenberg, Vera S.; Pfeifer, Melanie E.; Meyer, E. Michael; Péault, Bruno; Rubin, J. Peter; Donnenberg, Albert D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The in vivo progenitor of culture-expanded mesenchymal-like adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) remains elusive, owing in part to the complex organization of stromal cells surrounding the small vessels, and the rapidity with which adipose stromal vascular cells adopt a mesenchymal phenotype in vitro. Methods Immunohistostaining of intact adipose tissue was used to identify 3 markers (CD31, CD34, CD146) which together unambiguously discriminate histologically distinct inner and outer rings of vessel-associated stromal cells, as well as capillary and small vessel endothelial cells. These markers were used in multiparameter flow cytometry in conjunction with stem/progenitor markers (CD90, CD117) to further characterize stromal vascular fraction (SVF) subpopulations. Two mesenchymal and two endothelial populations were isolated by high speed flow cytometric sorting, expanded in short term culture and tested for adipogenesis. Results The inner layer of stromal cells in contact with small vessel endothelium (pericytes) was CD146+/α-SMA+/CD90±/CD34−/CD31−; the outer adventitial stromal ring (designated supra adventitial-adipose stromal cells, SA-ASC) was CD146−/α-SMA−/CD90+/CD34+/CD31−. Capillary endothelial cells were CD31+/CD34+/CD90+ (endothelial progenitor), while small vessel endothelium was CD31+/CD34−/CD90− (endothelial mature). Flow cytometry confirmed these expression patterns and revealed a CD146+/CD90+/CD34+/CD31− pericyte subset that may be transitional between pericytes and SA-ASC. Pericytes had the most potent adipogenic potential, followed by the more numerous SA-ASC. Endothelial populations had significantly reduced adipogenic potential compared to unsorted expanded SVF cells. Conclusions In adipose tissue perivascular stromal cells are organized in two discrete layers, the innermost consisting of CD146+/CD34− pericytes, and the outermost of CD146−/CD34+ SA-ASC, both of which have adipogenic potential in culture. A CD146+/CD

  5. Exercise Prevents Diet-Induced Cellular Senescence in Adipose Tissue.

    Schafer, Marissa J; White, Thomas A; Evans, Glenda; Tonne, Jason M; Verzosa, Grace C; Stout, Michael B; Mazula, Daniel L; Palmer, Allyson K; Baker, Darren J; Jensen, Michael D; Torbenson, Michael S; Miller, Jordan D; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Tchkonia, Tamara; van Deursen, Jan M; Kirkland, James L; LeBrasseur, Nathan K

    2016-06-01

    Considerable evidence implicates cellular senescence in the biology of aging and chronic disease. Diet and exercise are determinants of healthy aging; however, the extent to which they affect the behavior and accretion of senescent cells within distinct tissues is not clear. Here we tested the hypothesis that exercise prevents premature senescent cell accumulation and systemic metabolic dysfunction induced by a fast-food diet (FFD). Using transgenic mice that express EGFP in response to activation of the senescence-associated p16(INK4a) promoter, we demonstrate that FFD consumption causes deleterious changes in body weight and composition as well as in measures of physical, cardiac, and metabolic health. The harmful effects of the FFD were associated with dramatic increases in several markers of senescence, including p16, EGFP, senescence-associated β-galactosidase, and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) specifically in visceral adipose tissue. We show that exercise prevents the accumulation of senescent cells and the expression of the SASP while nullifying the damaging effects of the FFD on parameters of health. We also demonstrate that exercise initiated after long-term FFD feeding reduces senescent phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue while attenuating physical impairments, suggesting that exercise may provide restorative benefit by mitigating accrued senescent burden. These findings highlight a novel mechanism by which exercise mediates its beneficial effects and reinforces the effect of modifiable lifestyle choices on health span. PMID:26983960

  6. Interleukin-6 production in human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue

    Lyngsø, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2002-01-01

    change was observed during exercise. Post-exercise the IL-6 output began to increase after 30 min. Three hours post-exercise it was 58.6 +/- 22.2 pg (100 g)(-1) min(-1). In the control experiments the IL-6 output also increased, but it only reached a level of 3.5 +/- 0.8 pg (100 g)(-1) min(-1). The...... begin to increase. Thus, we suggest that the enhanced IL-6 production post-exercise in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue may act locally via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms influencing lipolysis and fatty acid mobilization rate from this lipid depot....

  7. Have we entered the brown adipose tissue renaissance?

    Ravussin, E.; Kozak, L P

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, it was observed that rodents could offset excess calories ingested when they were fed a human-like `cafeteria diet'. Although it was erroneously concluded that this so-called diet-induced thermogenesis was because of brown adipose tissue (BAT), it led to efforts to test whether variations in brown fat in humans may explain the susceptibility to obesity. However, from evidence on the inability of ephedrine or beta-3 adrenergic agonists to induce BAT thermogenesis, it wa...

  8. n-3 PUFA: bioavailability and modulation of adipose tissue function

    Kopecký, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin; Flachs, Pavel; Kuda, Ondřej; Brauner, Petr; Jílková, Zuzana; Staňková, B.; Tvrzická, E.; Bryhn, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 4 (2009), s. 361-369. ISSN 0029-6651. [Meeting of the Nutrition Society. Edinburgh, 07.04.2009-08.04.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/08/0664; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/08/H037 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-005272 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : n-3 PUFA * DHA * adipose tissue Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.321, year: 2009

  9. ß-carotene conversion products and their effects on adipose tissue

    Tourniaire, F.; Gouranton, E.; Lintig, von J.; Keijer, J.; Bonet, M.L.; Amengual, J.; Lietz, G.; Landrier, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggest that ß-carotene may be protective against metabolic diseases in which adipose tissue plays a key role. Adipose tissue constitutes the major ß-carotene storage tissue and its functions have been shown to be modulated in response to ß-carotene breakdown products, es

  10. Adipose tissue chromium and vanadium disbalance in high-fat fed Wistar rats.

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Kwan, Olga V; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content and adipose tissue dysfunction in a model of diet-induced obesity. A total of 26 female Wistar rats were fed either standard or high-fat diet (31.6% of fat from total caloric content) for 3 months. High-fat-feeding resulted in 21 and 33% decrease in adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content, respectively. No change was seen in hair chromium or vanadium levels. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of adipose tissue Cr and V with animal morphometric parameters and adipocyte size. Significant inverse dependence was observed between adipose tissue Cr and V and serum leptin and proinflammatory cytokines' levels. At the same time, adipose tissue Cr and V levels were characterized by positive correlation between serum adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adipose tissue Cr and V were inversely correlated (prats; however, both serum glucose and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in high-fat fed, compared to control, rats. The results allow to hypothesize that impairment of adipose tissue Cr and V content plays a certain role in the development of adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in obesity. PMID:25194956

  11. Role of the sympathoadrenergic system in adipose tissue metabolism during exercise in humans

    Stallknecht, Bente; Lorentsen, J; Enevoldsen, L H;

    2001-01-01

    lipolysis. In SCI subjects, the exercise-induced increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis was not lower in decentralized than in sympathetically innervated adipose tissue. During exercise the interstitial noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were lower in SCI compared with healthy subjects...... clavicular (Cl) and in umbilical (Um) (sympathetically decentralized in SCI) subcutaneous adipose tissue during 1 h of arm cycling exercise at approximately 60 % of the peak rate of oxygen uptake. 3. During exercise, adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) and interstitial glycerol, lactate and noradrenaline...

  12. M1-M2 balancing act in white adipose tissue browning - a new role for RIP140.

    Liu, Pu-Ste; Lin, Yi-Wei; Burton, Frank H; Wei, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    A "Holy Grail" sought in medical treatment of obesity is to be able to biologically reprogram their adipose tissues to burn fat rather than store it. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores fuel and its expansion underlines insulin resistance (IR) whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fuel and stimulates insulin sensitivity. These two types of fats seesaw within our bodies via a regulatory mechanism that involves intricate communication between adipocytes and blood cells, particularly macrophages that migrate into adipose deposits. The coregulator, Receptor Interacting Protein 140 (RIP140), plays a key role in regulating this communication. In mice on a high-fat diet, the level of RIP140 in macrophages is dramatically elevated to activate their inflammatory M1 polarization and enhance their recruitment into WAT, facilitating IR. Conversely, lowering the level of RIP140 in macrophages not only reduces M1 macrophages but also expands alternatively polarized, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, triggering white adipose tissue browning, fat burning, and restoration of insulin sensitivity. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for reversing IR, obesity, and atherosclerotic or even cosmetic fat deposits: therapeutic browning of white adipose deposits by diminishing RIP140 levels in macrophages. PMID:26167418

  13. Stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase protects against obesity by recruiting brown adipose tissue.

    Hoffmann, Linda S; Etzrodt, Jennifer; Willkomm, Lena; Sanyal, Abhishek; Scheja, Ludger; Fischer, Alexander W C; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Bloch, Wilhelm; Friebe, Andreas; Heeren, Joerg; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by a positive energy balance and expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts energy to produce heat. Here we show that a small molecule stimulator (BAY 41-8543) of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP), protects against diet-induced weight gain, induces weight loss in established obesity, and also improves the diabetic phenotype. Mechanistically, the haeme-dependent sGC stimulator BAY 41-8543 enhances lipid uptake into BAT and increases whole-body energy expenditure, whereas ablation of the haeme-containing β1-subunit of sGC severely impairs BAT function. Notably, the sGC stimulator enhances differentiation of human brown adipocytes as well as induces 'browning' of primary white adipocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that sGC is a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:26011238

  14. Exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose uptake in subcutaneous adipose tissue through eNOS-dependent mechanisms.

    Trevellin, Elisabetta; Scorzeto, Michele; Olivieri, Massimiliano; Granzotto, Marnie; Valerio, Alessandra; Tedesco, Laura; Fabris, Roberto; Serra, Roberto; Quarta, Marco; Reggiani, Carlo; Nisoli, Enzo; Vettor, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are associated with a reduction of mitochondrial content in various tissues of mammals. Moreover, a reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability impairs several cellular functions, including mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, two important mechanisms of body adaptation in response to physical exercise. Although these mechanisms have been thoroughly investigated in skeletal muscle and heart, few studies have focused on the effects of exercise on mitochondria and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue. In this study, we compared the in vivo effects of chronic exercise in subcutaneous adipose tissue of wild-type (WT) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) knockout (eNOS(-/-)) mice after a swim training period. We then investigated the in vitro effects of NO on mouse 3T3-L1 and human subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived adipocytes after a chronic treatment with an NO donor: diethylenetriamine-NO (DETA-NO). We observed that swim training increases mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial DNA content, and glucose uptake in subcutaneous adipose tissue of WT but not eNOS(-/-) mice. Furthermore, we observed that DETA-NO promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and elongation, glucose uptake, and GLUT4 translocation in cultured murine and human adipocytes. These results point to the crucial role of the eNOS-derived NO in the metabolic adaptation of subcutaneous adipose tissue to exercise training. PMID:24622799

  15. Characterization of microRNA expression in bovine adipose tissues: a potential regulatory mechanism of subcutaneous adipose tissue development

    Basarab John A; Moore Stephen S; Dodson Michael V; Jin Weiwu; Guan Le Luo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small non-coding RNA molecules, appear to regulate animal lipid metabolism and preadipocyte conversion to form lipid-assimilating adipocytes (i.e. adipogenesis). However, no miRNA to date has been reported to modulate adipogenesis and lipid deposition in beef cattle. Results The expression patterns of 89 miRNAs including four bovine specific miRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissues from three groups of crossbred steers differing in backfat thi...

  16. Algorithms for muscle oxygenation monitoring corrected for adipose tissue thickness

    Geraskin, Dmitri; Platen, Petra; Franke, Julia; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2007-07-01

    The measurement of skeletal muscle oxygenation by NIRS methods is obstructed by the subcutaneous adipose tissue which might vary between muscle haemoglobin / myoglobin concentrations. First, we demonstrate by comparison with ultrasound imaging that the optical lipid signal peaking at 930 nm is a good predictor of the adipose tissue thickness (ATT). Second, the algorithm is based on measurements of the wavelength dependence of the slope ΔA/Δρ of attenuation A with respect to source detector distance ρ and Monte Carlo simulations which estimate the muscle absorption coefficient based on this slope and the additional information of the ATT. Third, we illustrate the influence of the wavelength dependent transport scattering coefficient of the new algorithm by using the solution of the diffusion equation for a two-layered turbid medium. This method is tested on experimental data measured on the vastus lateralis muscle of volunteers during an incremental cycling exercise under normal and hypoxic conditions (corresponding to 0, 2000 and 4000 m altitude). The experimental setup uses broad band detection between 700 and 1000 nm at six source-detector distances. We demonstrate that the description of the experimental data as judged by the residual spectrum is significantly improved and the calculated changes in oxygen saturation are markedly different when the ATT correction is included.

  17. Changes in lipolysis in rat adipose tissue during continuous irradiation

    Changes in lipolysis were monitored by measuring the release of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol under basal conditions and after stimulation with L-noradrenaline in rat adipose tissue in the course of continuous irradiation with daily gamma doses of 0.57 Gy (60 R) for 50 days. As compared with the control animals, lipolysis in the irradiated rats was lower on days 3 to 14, and higher on days 21 to 25 to 32 and at the end of the screening period (day 50) of continuous irradiation. The changes in lipolysis in the course of irradiation reflected individual stages of the general adaptation syndrome. Many changes were modified by the effect of non-specific factors due to the experimental field and the starvation prior to the analysis. Changes in lipolysis were connected with changes in the mobilization of fatty acids and the concentrations of NEFA in white adipose tissue with changes in serum lipids predominantly in the period of 21 to 25 days of continuous irradiation. (author)

  18. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

    A.M. Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs in horses through (1 the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2 flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to collect adipose tissue from the base of the tail. After isolation and culture of AdMSCs, immunophenotypic characterization was performed through flow cytometry. There was a high expression of CD44, CD90 and CD105, and no expression of MHC Class II markers. The tri-lineage differentiation was confirmed by specific staining: adipogenic (Oil Red O, osteogenic (Alizarin Red, and chondrogenic (Alcian Blue. The equine AdMSCs are a promising type of adult progenitor cell for tissue engineering in veterinary medicine.

  19. Telmisartan attenuates the inflamed mesenteric adipose tissue in spontaneous colitis by mechanisms involving regulation of neurotensin/microRNA-155 pathway.

    Li, Yi; Zuo, Lugen; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zhen; Gu, Lili; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-02-15

    Mesenteric adipose tissue hypertrophy is unique to Crohn's disease while the molecular basis of the crosstalk between MAT and the intestinal inflammation is largely unknown. Telmisartan is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-receptor-γ agonist which has beneficial effects on fat distribution and pro-inflammatory adipokine expression. We evaluated the effect of telmisartan upon mesenteric adipose tissue alterations and inflammatory features in IL-10(-)/(-) mice. We found that treatment with telmisartan significantly ameliorated the severity of colitis in IL-10(-)/(-) mice. Additionally, administration of telmisartan was associated with restoration of mesenteric adipose tissue adipocyte morphology and the expression of adipokines. Furthermore, telmisartan treatment suppressed the neurotensin/microRNA-155 pathway in mesenteric adipose tissue from spontaneous colitis which was confirmed by an in vitro study using cultured mesenteric adipose tissue from Crohn's disease patients. Administration of telmisartan showed promising results in spontaneous colitis which was associated with the attenuated mesenteric adipose tissue alteration which at least in part, was associated with its activity in the regulation of the neurotensin/microRNA-155 pathway. These results support the hypothesis that regulating the abnormal immune response in adipose tissue is an important target for the treatment of Crohn's disease. PMID:25576685

  20. Adipose atrophy in cancer cachexia: morphologic and molecular analysis of adipose tissue in tumour-bearing mice.

    Bing, C; Russell, S; Becket, E; Pope, M; Tisdale, M J; Trayhurn, P; Jenkins, J R

    2006-10-23

    Extensive loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia but the cellular and molecular basis remains unclear. This study has examined morphologic and molecular characteristics of white adipose tissue in mice bearing a cachexia-inducing tumour, MAC16. Adipose tissue from tumour-bearing mice contained shrunken adipocytes that were heterogeneous in size. Increased fibrosis was evident by strong collagen-fibril staining in the tissue matrix. Ultrastructure of 'slimmed' adipocytes revealed severe delipidation and modifications in cell membrane conformation. There were major reductions in mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in adipose tissue, which was accompanied by reduced protein content of C/EBPalpha and SREBP-1. mRNA levels of SREBP-1c targets, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase, also fell as did glucose transporter-4 and leptin. In contrast, mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha and uncoupling protein-2 were increased in white fat of tumour-bearing mice. These results suggest that the tumour-induced impairment in the formation and lipid storing capacity of adipose tissue occurs in mice with cancer cachexia. PMID:17047651

  1. Controlled cellular energy conversion in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Horowitz, J. M.; Plant, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue serves as a model system for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) since a) it has as a primary physiological function the conversion of chemical energy to heat; and b) preliminary data from other tissues involved in NST (e.g., muscle) indicate that parallel mechanisms may be involved. Now that biochemical pathways have been proposed for brown fat thermogenesis, cellular models consistent with a thermodynamic representation can be formulated. Stated concisely, the thermogenic mechanism in a brown fat cell can be considered as an energy converter involving a sequence of cellular events controlled by signals over the autonomic nervous system. A thermodynamic description for NST is developed in terms of a nonisothermal system under steady-state conditions using network thermodynamics. Pathways simulated include mitochondrial ATP synthesis, a Na+/K+ membrane pump, and ionic diffusion through the adipocyte membrane.

  2. Development of the mouse dermal adipose layer occurs independently of subcutaneous adipose tissue and is marked by restricted early expression of FABP4.

    Wojciechowicz, K.; Gledhill, K; Ambler, C.A.; Manning, C B; Jahoda, C.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before bir...

  3. Identification of the Avian RBP7 Gene as a New Adipose-Specific Gene and RBP7 Promoter-Driven GFP Expression in Adipose Tissue of Transgenic Quail

    Ahn, Jinsoo; Shin, Sangsu; Suh, Yeunsu; Park, Ju Yeon; Hwang, Seongsoo; Lee, Kichoon

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of an increasing number of new adipose-specific genes has significantly contributed to our understanding of adipose tissue biology and the etiology of obesity and its related diseases. In the present study, comparison of gene expression profiles among various tissues was performed by analysis of chicken microarray data, leading to identification of RBP7 as a novel adipose-specific gene in chicken. Adipose-specific expression of RBP7 in the avian species was further confirmed at ...

  4. Adipose Tissue MicroRNAs as Regulators of CCL2 Production in Human Obesity

    Arner, Erik; Mejhert, Niklas; Kulyté, Agné; Balwierz, Piotr J.; Pachkov, Mikhail; Cormont, Mireille; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Ehrlund, Anna; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Hedén, Per; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Tanti, Jean-François; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Rydén, Mikael; Dahlman, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    In obesity, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation is linked to insulin resistance. Increased adipocyte chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) secretion may initiate adipose inflammation by attracting the migration of inflammatory cells into the tissue. Using an unbiased approach, we identified adipose microRNAs (miRNAs) that are dysregulated in human obesity and assessed their possible role in controlling CCL2 production. In subcutaneous WAT obtained from 56 subjects, 11 miRNAs were present ...

  5. Effect of training on epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis determined by microdialysis in human adipose tissue

    Stallknecht, Bente; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Vinten, Jørgen; Galbo, H

    Trained humans (Tr) have a higher fat oxidation during submaximal physical work than sedentary humans (Sed). To investigate whether this reflects a higher adipose tissue lipolytic sensitivity to catecholamines, we infused epinephrine (0.3 nmol.kg-1.min-1) for 65 min in six athletes and six...... sedentary young men. Glycerol was measured in arterial blood, and intercellular glycerol concentrations in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by microdialysis. Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by 133Xe-washout technique. From these measurements adipose tissue lipolysis was calculated....... During epinephrine infusion intercellular glycerol concentrations were lower, but adipose tissue blood flow was higher in trained compared with sedentary subjects (P <0.05). Glycerol output from subcutaneous tissue (Tr: 604 +/- 322 nmol.100 g-1.min-1; Sed: 689 +/- 203; mean +/- SD) as well as arterial...

  6. Metabolic effects of interleukin-6 in human splanchnic and adipose tissue

    Lyngsø, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was infused intravenously for 2.5 h in seven healthy human volunteers at a dose giving rise to a circulating IL-6 concentration of approximately 35 ng l(-1). The metabolic effects of this infusion were studied in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the anterior abdominal wall and in...... the IL-6 infusion. It is concluded that IL-6 elicits lipolytic effects in human adipose tissue in vivo, and that IL-6 also has effects on the splanchnic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism....... the splanchnic tissues by the Fick principle after catheterizations of an artery, a subcutaneous vein draining adipose tissue, and a hepatic vein, and measurements of regional adipose tissue and splanchnic blood flows. In control studies without IL-6 infusion subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism was...

  7. Mitochondrial respiration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity

    Kraunsøe, Regitze; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard;

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue exerts important endocrine and metabolic functions in health and disease. Yet the bioenergetics of this tissue is not characterized in humans and possible regional differences are not elucidated. Using high resolution respirometry, mitochondrial respiration was quantified in human...... abdominal subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral (omentum majus) adipose tissue from biopsies obtained in 20 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) were determined by the PCR technique for estimation of mitochondrial density. Adipose tissue samples.......05) higher in visceral (0.95 +/- 0.05 and 1.15 +/- 0.06 pmol O(2) s(1) mg(1), respectively) compared with subcutaneous (0.76 +/- 0.04 and 0.98 +/- 0.05 pmol O(2) s(1) mg(1), respectively) adipose tissue. Expressed per mtDNA, visceral adipose tissue had significantly (P <0.05) lower mitochondrial respiration...

  8. Dietary whole cottonseed depresses lipogenesis but has no effect on stearoyl coenzyme desaturase activity in bovine subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Page, A M; Sturdivant, C A; Lunt, D K; Smith, S B

    1997-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term feeding of whole cottonseed (WCS) on lipogenesis and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity in growing steers. Brangus steers were fed either a control, cornbased diet (n = 11) or 30% WCS (n = 12). The 30% WCS contributed an estimated 6.6% additional lipid to the diet. Steers fed the added WCS had greater live weights (P = 0.04) and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (P = 0.005). Subcutaneous fat thickness was not different (P = 0.20) between treatment groups, although WCS elicited an increase in the proportion of large diameter subcutaneous adipocytes. The rate of [U-14C]acetate incorporation into fatty acids in subcutaneous adipose tissue was reduced by dietary WCS (171.4 vs 122.1 nmol x 100 mg adipose tissue-1 x 2 hr-1, P = 0.03), indicating that the increased dietary fat depressed de novo lipogenesis. Hepatic desaturase activity was much lower than that of subcutaneous adipose tissue, a feature common to cattle. We anticipated that added WCS also would depress stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver due to its cyclopropene fatty acid content. Instead, desaturase activity was numerically (although not significantly) greater in liver (P = 0.37) and adipose tissue (P = 0.23). PMID:9417995

  9. FGF21 Lowers Plasma Triglycerides by Accelerating Lipoprotein Catabolism in White and Brown Adipose Tissues.

    Schlein, Christian; Talukdar, Saswata; Heine, Markus; Fischer, Alexander W; Krott, Lucia M; Nilsson, Stefan K; Brenner, Martin B; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2016-03-01

    FGF21 decreases plasma triglycerides (TGs) in rodents and humans; however, the underlying mechanism or mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we examined the role of FGF21 in production and disposal of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in mice. Treatment with pharmacological doses of FGF21 acutely reduced plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), liver TG content, and VLDL-TG secretion. In addition, metabolic turnover studies revealed that FGF21 facilitated the catabolism of TRL in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). FGF21-dependent TRL processing was strongly attenuated in CD36-deficient mice and transgenic mice lacking lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissues. Insulin resistance in diet-induced obese and ob/ob mice shifted FGF21 responses from WAT toward energy-combusting BAT. In conclusion, FGF21 lowers plasma TGs through a dual mechanism: first, by reducing NEFA plasma levels and consequently hepatic VLDL lipidation and, second, by increasing CD36 and LPL-dependent TRL disposal in WAT and BAT. PMID:26853749

  10. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression studies in human brown adipose tissue.

    Taube, Magdalena; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Lindberg, Kristin; Pereira, Maria J; Gäbel, Markus; Svensson, Maria K; Eriksson, Jan W; Svensson, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has during the last 5 year been subjected to an increasing research interest, due to its putative function as a target for future obesity treatments. The most commonly used method for molecular studies of human BAT is the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This method requires normalization to a reference gene (genes with uniform expression under different experimental conditions, e.g. similar expression levels between human BAT and WAT), but so far no evaluation of reference genes for human BAT has been performed. Two different microarray datasets with samples containing human BAT were used to search for genes with low variability in expression levels. Seven genes (FAM96B, GNB1, GNB2, HUWE1, PSMB2, RING1 and TPT1) identified by microarray analysis, and 8 commonly used reference genes (18S, B2M, GAPDH, LRP10, PPIA, RPLP0, UBC, and YWHAZ) were selected and further analyzed by quantitative PCR in both BAT containing perirenal adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results were analyzed using 2 different algorithms (Normfinder and geNorm). Most of the commonly used reference genes displayed acceptably low variability (geNorm M-values GNB1 are suitable novel reference genes for qPCR analysis of human BAT and we recommend that they are included in future gene expression studies of human BAT. PMID:26451284

  11. CTLA-4Ig immunotherapy of obesity-induced insulin resistance by manipulation of macrophage polarization in adipose tissues

    Highlights: •CTLA-4Ig completely alleviates HFD-induced insulin resistance. •CTLA-4Ig reduces epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissue weight and adipocyte size. •CTLA-4Ig alters ATM polarization from inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2. •CTLA-4Ig may lead to a novel anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent. •We identified the mechanism of the novel favorable effects of CTLA-4lg. -- Abstract: It has been established that obesity alters the metabolic and endocrine function of adipose tissue and, together with accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages, contributes to insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have reported that shifting the polarization of macrophages from M1 to M2 can alleviate adipose tissue inflammation, manipulation of macrophage polarization has not been considered as a specific therapy. Here, we determined whether cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4IgG1 (CTLA-4Ig) can ameliorate insulin resistance by induction of macrophages from proinflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 polarization in the adipose tissues of high fat diet-induced insulin-resistant mice. CTLA4-Ig treatment prevented insulin resistance by changing gene expression to M2 polarization, which increased the levels of arginase 1. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis confirmed the alteration of polarization from CD11c (M1)- to CD206 (M2)-positive cells. Concomitantly, CTLA-4Ig treatment resulted in weight reductions of epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, which may be closely related to overexpression of apoptosis inhibitors in macrophages. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels decreased significantly. In contrast, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and adiponectin expression increased significantly in subcutaneous adipose tissue. This novel mechanism of CTLA-4lg immunotherapy may lead to an ideal anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent

  12. CTLA-4Ig immunotherapy of obesity-induced insulin resistance by manipulation of macrophage polarization in adipose tissues

    Fujii, Masakazu, E-mail: masakazu731079@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Inoguchi, Toyoshi, E-mail: toyoshi@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Batchuluun, Battsetseg, E-mail: battsetseg.batchuluun@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sugiyama, Naonobu, E-mail: nao1@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kunihisa, E-mail: nihisak@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, 1-1-1 Zokumyoin, Chikushino, Fukuoka 818-8502 (Japan); Sonoda, Noriyuki, E-mail: noriyuki@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Takayanagi, Ryoichi, E-mail: takayana@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •CTLA-4Ig completely alleviates HFD-induced insulin resistance. •CTLA-4Ig reduces epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissue weight and adipocyte size. •CTLA-4Ig alters ATM polarization from inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2. •CTLA-4Ig may lead to a novel anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent. •We identified the mechanism of the novel favorable effects of CTLA-4lg. -- Abstract: It has been established that obesity alters the metabolic and endocrine function of adipose tissue and, together with accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages, contributes to insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have reported that shifting the polarization of macrophages from M1 to M2 can alleviate adipose tissue inflammation, manipulation of macrophage polarization has not been considered as a specific therapy. Here, we determined whether cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4IgG1 (CTLA-4Ig) can ameliorate insulin resistance by induction of macrophages from proinflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 polarization in the adipose tissues of high fat diet-induced insulin-resistant mice. CTLA4-Ig treatment prevented insulin resistance by changing gene expression to M2 polarization, which increased the levels of arginase 1. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis confirmed the alteration of polarization from CD11c (M1)- to CD206 (M2)-positive cells. Concomitantly, CTLA-4Ig treatment resulted in weight reductions of epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, which may be closely related to overexpression of apoptosis inhibitors in macrophages. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels decreased significantly. In contrast, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and adiponectin expression increased significantly in subcutaneous adipose tissue. This novel mechanism of CTLA-4lg immunotherapy may lead to an ideal anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent.

  13. Effects of ethyl acetate extract of Kaempferia parviflora on brown adipose tissue.

    Kobayashi, Hiroko; Horiguchi-Babamoto, Emi; Suzuki, Mio; Makihara, Hiroko; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Tsubata, Masahito; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi; Aburada, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported the effects of Kaempferia parviflora (KP), including anti-obesity, preventing various metabolic diseases, and regulating differentiation of white adipose cells. In this study we used Tsumura, Suzuki, Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice--an animal model of spontaneous obese type II diabetes--and primary brown preadipocytes to examine the effects of the ethyl acetate extract of KP (KPE) on brown adipose tissue, which is one of the energy expenditure organs. TSOD mice were fed with MF mixed with either KPE 0.3 or 1% for 8 weeks. Computed tomography images showed that whitening of brown adipocytes was suppressed in the interscapular tissue of the KPE group. We also examined mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) and β3-adrenalin receptor (β3AR) in brown adipose tissue. As a result, mRNA expression of UCP-1 significantly increased in the KPE 1% treatment group, indicating that KPE activated brown adipose tissue. We then evaluated the direct effects of KPE on brown adipocytes using primary brown preadipocytes isolated from interscapular brown adipocytes in ICR mice. Triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation in primary brown preadipocytes was increased by KPE in a dose-dependent manner. Each mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), UCP-1, and β3AR exhibited an upward trend compared with the control group. Moreover, some polymethoxyflavonoids (PMFs), the main compound in KP, also increased TG accumulation. This study therefore showed that KPE enhanced the thermogenesis effect of brown adipocytes as well as promoted the differentiation of brown adipocyte cells. PMID:26386971

  14. Characterization of microRNA expression in bovine adipose tissues: a potential regulatory mechanism of subcutaneous adipose tissue development

    Basarab John A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a family of small non-coding RNA molecules, appear to regulate animal lipid metabolism and preadipocyte conversion to form lipid-assimilating adipocytes (i.e. adipogenesis. However, no miRNA to date has been reported to modulate adipogenesis and lipid deposition in beef cattle. Results The expression patterns of 89 miRNAs including four bovine specific miRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissues from three groups of crossbred steers differing in backfat thickness were compared using qRT-PCR analysis. Eighty-six miRNAs were detectable in all samples, with 42 miRNAs differing among crossbreds (P Conclusions MiRNA expression patterns differed significantly in response to host genetic components. Approximately 20% of the miRNAs in this study were identified as being correlated with backfat thickness. This result suggests that miRNAs may play a regulatory role in white adipose tissue development in beef animals.

  15. Leucine Deprivation Decreases Fat Mass by Stimulation of Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue and Upregulation of Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) in Brown Adipose Tissue

    Ying CHENG; Meng, Qingshu; Wang, Chunxia; Li, Houkai; Huang, Zhiying; Chen, Shanghai; Xiao, Fei; Guo, Feifan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) play distinct roles in adaptation to changes in nutrient availability, with WAT serving as an energy store and BAT regulating thermogenesis. We previously showed that mice maintained on a leucine-deficient diet unexpectedly experienced a dramatic reduction in abdominal fat mass. The cellular mechanisms responsible for this loss, however, are unclear. The goal of current study is to investigate possible mechanisms. RESEARCH DE...

  16. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    He Mao L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synthetic (industrial hydrogenation CLA or CLA from beef on growth and adipose tissue responses of weanling, male, Wistar rats (n = 56; 14 per treatment diet were investigated in a completely randomized design experiment. Diets were: control (CON diet containing casein and soybean oil, synthetic CLA (SCLA diet; where 1.69% synthetic CLA replaced soybean oil, two beef-diets; CONM and CLAM, containing freeze dried beef from steers either not fed or fed 14% sunflower seeds to increase CLA content of beef. Diets were isonitrogenous (20% protein and isocaloric. Rat weights and ad libitum intakes were recorded every 2 wk. After 9 wk, rats were fasted for 24 h, blood sampled by heart puncture, sacrificed, tissue and organs were harvested and weights recorded. The adipose tissue responses with regard to cellularity and fatty acid compositions of retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue were determined. Results Body weights and gains were comparable, but organ weights as percent of body weight were greater for rats fed SCLA than CONM. Fasting blood glucose concentration was lower (p 7 cells/g and 8.03 × 108 cells than those fed CONM (28.88 × 107 cells/g and 32.05 × 108 cells, respectively. Conclusion Study suggests that dietary CLA either as synthetic or high CLA-beef may alter adipose tissue characteristics by decreasing the number of adipocytes and by decreasing the size of the tissue.

  17. Adipose tissue infiltration in normal-weight subjects and its impact on metabolic function.

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Omiste, Antonio; Castellano-Castillo, Daniel; Lhamyani, Said; Camargo, Antonio; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    Discordant phenotypes, metabolically healthy obese and unhealthy normal-weight individuals, are always interesting to provide important insights into the mechanistic link between adipose tissue dysfunction and associated metabolic alterations. Macrophages can release factors that impair the proper activity of the adipose tissue. Thus, studying subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, we investigated for the first time the differences in monocyte/macrophage infiltration, inflammation, and adipogenesis of normal-weight subjects who differed in their degree of metabolic syndrome. The study included 92 normal-weight subjects who differed in their degree of metabolic syndrome. Their anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. RNA from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues was isolated, and mRNA expression of monocyte/macrophage infiltration (CD68, CD33, ITGAM, CD163, EMR-1, CD206, MerTK, CD64, ITGAX), inflammation (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], IL-10, IL-1b, CCL2, CCL3), and adipogenic and lipogenic capacity markers (PPARgamma, FABP4) were measured. Taken together, our data provide evidence of a different degree of macrophage infiltration between the adipose tissues, with a higher monocyte/macrophage infiltration in subcutaneous adipose tissue in metabolically unhealthy normal-weight subjects, whereas visceral adipose tissue remained almost unaffected. An increased macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue and its consequences, such as a decrease in adipogenesis function, may explain why both the obese and normal-weight subjects can develop metabolic diseases or remain healthy. PMID:26829067

  18. Contact with existing adipose tissue is inductive for adipogenesis in matrigel.

    Kelly, John L

    2006-07-01

    The effect of adipose tissue on inductive adipogenesis within Matrigel (BD Biosciences) was assessed by using a murine chamber model containing a vascular pedicle. Three-chamber configurations that varied in the access to an adipose tissue source were used, including sealed- and open-chamber groups that had no access and limited access, respectively, to the surrounding adipose tissue, and a sealed-chamber group in which adipose tissue was placed as an autograft. All groups showed neovascularization, but varied in the amount of adipogenesis seen in direct relation to their access to preexisting adipose tissue: open chambers showed strong adipogenesis, whereas the sealed chambers had little or no adipose tissue; adipogenesis was restored in the autograft chamber group that contained 2- to 5-mg fat autografts. These showed significantly more adipogenesis than the sealed chambers with no autograft ( p < 0.01). Autografts with 1mg of fat were capable of producing adipogenesis but did so less consistently than the larger autografts. These findings have important implications for adipose tissue engineering strategies and for understanding de novo production of adipose tissue.

  19. In vivo human lipolytic activity in preperitoneal and subdivisions of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, Bente;

    2001-01-01

    We studied eight normal-weight male subjects to examine whether the lipolytic rate of deep subcutaneous and preperitoneal adipose tissues differs from that of superficial abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. The lipolytic rates in the superficial anterior and deep posterior subcutaneous abdomin...

  20. A pilot study of sampling subcutaneous adipose tissue to examine biomarkers of cancer risk

    Campbell, Kristin L.; Makar, Karen W.; Kratz, Mario; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M.

    2009-01-01

    Examination of adipose tissue biology may provide important insight into mechanistic links for the observed association between higher body fat and risk of several types of cancer, in particular colorectal and breast cancer. We tested two different methods of obtaining adipose tissue from healthy individuals.

  1. Desensitization of human adipose tissue to adrenaline stimulation studied by microdialysis

    Stallknecht, Bente; Bülow, J; Frandsen, E;

    1997-01-01

    1. Desensitization of fat cell lipolysis to catecholamine exposure has been studied extensively in vitro but only to a small extent in human adipose tissue in vivo. 2. We measured interstitial glycerol concentrations by microdialysis in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue in healthy humans...

  2. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  3. Post-exercise adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in humans

    Mulla, N A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    One purpose of the present experiments was to examine whether the relative workload or the absolute work performed is the major determinant of the lipid mobilization from adipose tissue during exercise. A second purpose was to determine the co-ordination of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipid...

  4. Brown adipose tissue. III. Effect of ethanol, nicotine and caffeine exposure.

    Sidlo, J; Zaviacic, M; Trutzová, H

    1996-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue is known to be the most important organ for generating heat in non-shivering thermogenesis. Process of thermogenesis and thermoregulation may be affected by many drugs. The paper deals with actual literary data of effect of ethanol, nicotine and caffeine on brown adipose tissue, heat production and its regulation in experimental animals and in human. PMID:9560910

  5. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M;

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate...

  6. Estrogens increase expression of bone morphogenetic protein 8b in brown adipose tissue of mice

    A. Grefhorst (Aldo); J.C. van den Beukel (Johanna); A.F. van Houten (A.); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. Several studies showed that females have more active BAT. Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families are expressed

  7. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  8. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the 18F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  9. Insulin action in adipose tissue in type 1 diabetes

    F Arrieta-Blanco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available F Arrieta-Blanco1, JI Botella-Carretero1, P Iglesias1, JA Balsa1, I Zamarrón1, C De la Puerta1, JJ Arrieta2, F Ramos3, C Vázquez1, A Rovira21Unit of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Ramóny, Cajal, Madrid, Spain, Irycis, Ciberobn; 2Fundación Jimenez Díaz. Madrid, Spain; 3Hospital Sureste de ArgandaBackground: Insulin action has been reported to be normal in type 1 diabetic patients. However, some studies have reported an insulin resistance state in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate insulin resistance in a group of type 1 diabetic patients. We studied the insulin action in adipose tissue and analyzed the effects of duration of disease, body mass index (BMI, and glycosylated hemoglobin on insulin action at the receptor and postreceptor levels in adipocytes.Methods: Nine female type 1 diabetic patients with different durations of disease and eight nondiabetic female patients of comparable age and BMI were studied. 125I-insulin binding and U-[14C]-D-glucose transport was measured in a sample of subcutaneous gluteus adipose tissue obtained by open surgical biopsy from each subject.Results: The duration of disease was negatively correlated with both 125I-insulin binding capacity (r = -0.70, P < 0.05 and basal and maximum insulin-stimulated glucose transport (r = -0.87, P < 0.01, and r = -0.88, P < 0.01, respectively. Maximum specific 125I-insulin binding to the receptors in adipocytes was higher in the group of patients with a shorter duration of disease (P < 0.01. Basal and maximum insulin-stimulated glucose transport was significantly higher in the group with less than 5 years of disease (P < 0.01. No correlation was found between BMI and insulin action.Conclusion: Female type 1 diabetic patients have normal insulin action. There is a high glucose uptake in the early phase of the disease, although a longer duration of disease appears to be a contributing factor to a

  10. Vascular and metabolic effects of adrenaline in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Galbo, H; Bülow, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim was to investigate adipose tissue vascular and metabolic effects of an adrenaline infusion in vivo in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Design:Clinical intervention study with 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion.Subjects:Eight male overweight T2DM subjects...... and eight male weight-matched, non-T2DM subjects were studied before, during and after an 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was determined by Xenon wash-out technique, and microvascular volume in the adipose tissue was studied by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging....... Adipose tissue fluxes of glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triacylglycerol and glucose were measured by Fick's principle after catherisation of a radial artery and a vein draining the abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue.Results:ATBF increased similarly in both groups during the adrenaline...

  11. Depot-dependent effects of adipose tissue explants on co-cultured hepatocytes

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Tao; Lock, Erik-Jan;

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro hepatocyte-adipose tissue explant (ATE) co-culture model enabling examination of the effect of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues on primary rat hepatocytes. Initial analyses of inflammatory marker genes were performed in fractionated epididymal or inguinal ad......), particularly macrophages, in inguinal adipose tissue resulting in stronger responses in terms of hepatotoxicity and insulin-resistance....... elicited a stronger cytotoxic response and higher level of insulin resistance in the co-cultured hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results reveal depot-dependent effects of ATEs on co-cultured primary hepatocytes, which in part may be related to a more pronounced infiltration of stromal vascular cells (SVCs......We have developed an in vitro hepatocyte-adipose tissue explant (ATE) co-culture model enabling examination of the effect of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues on primary rat hepatocytes. Initial analyses of inflammatory marker genes were performed in fractionated epididymal or inguinal...

  12. Insulin Mediated 14C-Glucose Incorporation Into Adipose Tissue: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Experiment

    Landman, A. D.; Eskin, N. A. M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which rat adipose tissue samples are exposed to labeled glucose; insulin is added to one sample. Subsequent scintillation counting demonstrates the ability of insulin to facilitate the entry of glucose into the tissue. (MLH)

  13. Carcass, sensory, and adipose tissue traits of Brangus steers fed casein-formaldehyde-protected starch and/or canola lipid.

    Gilbert, C D; Lunt, D K; Miller, R K; Smith, S B

    2003-10-01

    We predicted that providing rumen-protected starch to the small intestine would increase adiposity of intramuscular adipose tissue, and hence marbling scores. Eighteen 15-mo-old Brangus steers were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatment groups: 1) cracked corn (Corn); 2) casein-formaldehyde-protected lipid (Canola Lipid); or 3) casein-formaldehyde-protected starch (Marble Plus). All diets were equally balanced for ME (2.91 Mcal/kg), CP (12.5%), and DM (89%). Ether extract was 3.7, 6.9, and 6.9% for the Corn, Canola Lipid, and Marble Plus diets, respectively, and the Marble Plus also contained 3.7% protected starch. Steers were fed the diets for 126 d before slaughter. Average daily feed intake (as-fed basis), ADG, and feed:gain ratio (P > or = 0.23) did not differ among treatments. Carcasses across treatments did not differ (P = 0.26) in adjusted fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, marbling scores, or USDA quality grade. Percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was higher (P or = 0.33) by diet in i.m. adipose tissue. Fatty acid synthetase activity tended (P = 0.08) to be higher in s.c. adipose tissue of Marble Plus steers, and NADP-malic dehydrogenase activity was higher (P = 0.03) in i.m. adipose tissue of Canola Lipid steers. We conclude that Marble Plus did not improve carcass quality, but also did not reduce beef sensory attributes. Any differences we observed in carcass characteristics, adipose tissue cellularity, or lipogenesis apparently were caused by the protected lipid rather than the protected starch. PMID:14552372

  14. FNDC5 expression and circulating irisin levels are modified by diet and hormonal conditions in hypothalamus, adipose tissue and muscle.

    Varela-Rodríguez, B M; Pena-Bello, L; Juiz-Valiña, P; Vidal-Bretal, B; Cordido, F; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S

    2016-01-01

    Irisin is processed from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function. To elucidate the relationship between serum irisin and FNDC5 mRNA expression levels, we evaluated plasma irisin levels and FNDC5 gene expression in the hypothalamus, gastrocnemius muscle and different depots of adipose tissue in models of altered metabolism. In normal rats, blood irisin levels diminished after 48-h fast and with leptin, insulin and alloxan treatments, and serum irisin concentrations increased in diabetic rats after insulin treatment and acute treatments of irisin increased blood insulin levels. No changes were observed during long-term experiments with different diets. We suggested that levels of circulating irisin are the result of the sum of the irisin produced by different depots of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. This study shows for the first time that there are differences in FNDC5 expression depending on white adipose tissue depots. Moreover, a considerable decrease in visceral and epididymal adipose tissue depots correlated with increased FNDC5 mRNA expression levels, probably in an attempt to compensate the decrease that occurs in their mass. Hypothalamic FNDC5 expression did not change for any of the tested diets but increased with leptin, insulin and metformin treatments suggesting that the regulation of central and peripheral FNDC5/irisin expression and functions are different. PMID:27432282

  15. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda;

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxic...

  16. Protein turnover in adipose tissue from fasted or diabetic rats

    Tischler, Marc E.; Ost, Alan H.; Coffman, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation in vitro were compared in epididymal fat pads from animals deprived of food for 48 h or treated 6 or 12 days prior with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Although both fasting and diabetes led to depressed (-24 to -57 percent) protein synthesis, the diminution in protein degradation (-63 to -72 percent) was even greater, so that net in vitro protein balance improved dramatically. Insulin failed to inhibit protein degradation in fat pads of these rats as it does for fed animals. Although insulin stimulated protein synthesis in fat pads of fasted and 12 day diabetic rats, the absolute change was much smaller than that seen in the fed state. The inhibition of protein degradation by leucine also seems to be less in fasted animals, probably because leucine catabolism is slower in fasting. These results show that fasting and diabetes may improve protein balance in adipose tissue but diminish the regulatory effects of insulin.

  17. Adipose tissue resistin gene expression in DIO and DR rats

    Yuanyuan Zhao; Yuhui Ni; Xirong Guo; Haixia Gong; Xia Chi; Ronghua Chen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of resistin gene in diet-induced obesity (DIO) and diet resistance (DR)rats. Methods: DIO and DR models were prepared with male SD rats after 6 weeks feeding by a diet of relatively high fat, sucrose, and caloric content (HE diet). Body-weight, fat mass, and the concentration of serum insulin were measured, and the expression of resistin and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptory-γ(PPAR-γ) gene in whit adipose tissue (WAT) was also detected by RT-PCR. Results: ①Body weight, fat mass and the concentration of serum insulin were significantly increased in DIO rats and decreased in DR rats. ② The expression of resistin and PPARγ gene was upregulated in DIO group and supressed in DR group, but the expression of resistin was not detectable in all samples within three groups. Conclusion: Resistin may serve as a link between obesity and insulin resistance, but the individual difference is enormous.

  18. Leptin receptor in peripheral adipose tissues of obesity subjects

    To investigate the relationship between leptin receptor and obesity by studying the leptin receptor density Bmax and dissociation constant Kd value in peripheral adipose tissues with different body weight mass index (BMI), leptin receptor density Bmax and Kd value were assayed via radioligand competition method from 71 cases, including 32 classified as obesity, 19 weight excess and 20 normal controls. With the elevation of BMI, the leptin receptor density was significantly higher in obese and weight excess group than that in normal controls (both Pd value, there were no differences among all three groups, suggesting no correlation between the binding ability of leptin to its receptor and BMI. There was negative correlation between BMI and Bmax (r=- 0.76, P<0.01). Conclusion: Leptin receptor density correlated with the BMI in obese cases and it suggested that the down-regulation of leptin receptor may contribute to occurrence of leptin resistance and obesity afterwards

  19. Activation of brown adipose tissue mitochondrial GDP binding sites

    The primary function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is heat production. This ability is attributed to the existence of a unique inner mitochondrial membrane protein termed the uncoupling protein or thermogenin. This protein is permeable to H+ and thus allows respiration (and therefore thermogenesis) to proceed at a rapid rate, independent of ADP phosphorylation. Proton conductance can be inhibited by the binding of purine nucleotides to the uncoupling protein. The binding of [3H]-GDP to BAT mitochondria is frequently used as a measure of BAT thermogenic activity. Rats fed a diet that was low but adequate in protein exhibited a decrease in feed efficiency. In addition, BAT thermogenesis was activated as indicated by an elevation in the level of GDP binding to BAT mitochondria. This phenomena occurred in older rats and persisted over time

  20. Activation of brown adipose tissue mitochondrial GDP binding sites

    Swick, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The primary function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is heat production. This ability is attributed to the existence of a unique inner mitochondrial membrane protein termed the uncoupling protein or thermogenin. This protein is permeable to H+ and thus allows respiration (and therefore thermogenesis) to proceed at a rapid rate, independent of ADP phosphorylation. Proton conductance can be inhibited by the binding of purine nucleotides to the uncoupling protein. The binding of (/sup 3/H)-GDP to BAT mitochondria is frequently used as a measure of BAT thermogenic activity. Rats fed a diet that was low but adequate in protein exhibited a decrease in feed efficiency. In addition, BAT thermogenesis was activated as indicated by an elevation in the level of GDP binding to BAT mitochondria. This phenomena occurred in older rats and persisted over time.

  1. Cellular and molecular basis of adipose tissue development: from stem cells to adipocyte physiology

    Louveau, Isabelle; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Gondret, Florence

    2014-01-01

    White adipose tissue plays a key role in the regulation of energy balance in vertebrates. Its primary function is to store and release energy. It is also recognized to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Unlike other tissues, adipose tissue mass has large capacity to expand and can be seen as a dynamic tissue able to adapt to a variety of environmental and genetic factors. The aim of this review...

  2. Intratunical Injection of Genetically Modified Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells with Human Interferon α-2b for Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Tunica Albugineal Fibrosis

    Gokce, Ahmet; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y.; Lasker, George F.; Bouljihad, Mostafa; Braun, Stephen E.; Kim, Hogyoung; Kadowitz, Philip J.; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Sikka, Suresh C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peyronie's disease (PD) has frequently been associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) and may further compromise coitus. Aim To investigate the efficacy of intratunical injection of genetically modified rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) expressing human interferon α-2b (ADSCs-IFN) in decreasing fibrosis and restoring erectile function in a rat model of tunica albugineal fibrosis (TAF). Methods A total of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old; 300–350 g) were randomly divided in six equal groups: (i) sham group (50 μL saline-injected into the tunica albuginea [TA]); (ii) TAF group (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β1 [0.5 μg/50 μL] injected into the TA); (iii) TGF-β1 plus 5 × 105 control ADSCs injected same day; (iv) TGF-β1 plus 5 × 105 ADSCs-IFN injected same day; (v)TGF-β1 plus 5 × 105 control ADSCs injected after 30 days; and (vi) TGF-β1 plus 5 × 105 ADSCs-IFN injected after 30 days. Rat allogeneic ADSCs were harvested from inguinal fat tissue. Main Outcome Measures Forty-five days following the TGF-β1 injection, erectile function was assessed, and penile tissues were harvested for further evaluations. Results In the same-day injection groups, intratunical injection of ADSCs and ADSC-IFN improved erectile response observed upon stimulation of cavernous nerve compared with TAF group. Intratunical ADSC-IFN injection at day 30 improved erectile responses 3.1, 1.8, and 1.3 fold at voltages of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.0, respectively, when compared with TAF group. Furthermore, at voltages of 2.5 and 5.0, treatment on day 30 with ADSCs-IFN improved erectile responses 1.6- and 1.3-fold over treatment with ADSCs alone. Local injection of ADSCs or ADSCs-IFN reduced Peyronie's-like manifestations, and these effects might be associated with a decrease in the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Conclusion This study documents that transplantation of genetically modified ADSCs, with or without human IFN α-2b, attenuated

  3. Adipose tissue gene expression and metabolic health of obese adults.

    Das, S K; Ma, L; Sharma, N K

    2015-05-01

    Obese subjects with a similar body mass index (BMI) exhibit substantial heterogeneity in gluco- and cardiometabolic heath phenotypes. However, defining genes that underlie the heterogeneity of metabolic features among obese individuals and determining metabolically healthy and unhealthy phenotypes remain challenging. We conducted unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue transcripts from 30 obese men and women ⩾40 years old. Despite similar BMIs in all subjects, we found two distinct subgroups, one metabolically healthy (group 1) and one metabolically unhealthy (group 2). Subjects in group 2 showed significantly higher total cholesterol (P=0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.006), 2-h insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (P=0.015) and lower insulin sensitivity (SI, P=0.029) compared with group 1. We identified significant upregulation of 141 genes (for example, MMP9 and SPP1) and downregulation of 17 genes (for example, NDRG4 and GINS3) in group 2 subjects. Intriguingly, these differentially expressed transcripts were enriched for genes involved in cardiovascular disease-related processes (P=2.81 × 10(-11)-3.74 × 10(-02)) and pathways involved in immune and inflammatory response (P=8.32 × 10(-5)-0.04). Two downregulated genes, NDRG4 and GINS3, have been located in a genomic interval associated with cardiac repolarization in published GWASs and zebra fish knockout models. Our study provides evidence that perturbations in the adipose tissue gene expression network are important in defining metabolic health in obese subjects. PMID:25520251

  4. Adipocyte Hypertrophy, Inflammation and Fibrosis Characterize Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Healthy, Non-Obese Subjects Predisposed to Type 2 Diabetes

    A M Josefin Henninger; Björn Eliasson; Jenndahl, Lachmi E.; Ann Hammarstedt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The adipose tissue is important for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and adipose tissue dysfunction has been proposed as an underlying cause. In the present study we investigated presence of adipocyte hypertrophy, and gene expression pattern of adipose tissue dysfunction in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, non-obese subjects predisposed to type 2 diabetes compared to matched control subjects with no known genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes. ...

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Lower Leg Adipose Tissue Distribution in Youth with Myelomeningocele.

    Lorenzana, Daniel J; Mueske, Nicole M; Ryan, Deirdre D; Van Speybroeck, Alexander L; Wren, Tishya A L

    2016-07-01

    Children with myelomeningocele have a high prevalence of obesity and excess fat accumulation in their lower extremities. However, it is not known if this is subcutaneous or intramuscular fat, the latter of which has been associated with insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. This study quantified lower leg bone, muscle, and adipose tissue volume in children with myelomeningocele, classifying adipose as subcutaneous or muscle-associated. Eighty-eight children with myelomeningocele and 113 children without myelomeningocele underwent lower leg computed tomographic scans. Subcutaneous and muscle-associated adipose were classified based on location relative to the crural fascia. No differences were seen in subcutaneous adipose. Higher level disease severity was associated with increased muscle-associated adipose volume and decreased muscle volume. Bone volume tended to decrease with higher levels of involvement. Increases in lower leg adiposity in children with myelomeningocele are primarily attributable to accumulation of muscle-associated adipose, which may signify increased risk for metabolic disorders. PMID:26961265

  6. Interleukin-15 modulates adipose tissue by altering mitochondrial mass and activity.

    Nicole G Barra

    Full Text Available Interleukin-15 (IL-15 is an immunomodulatory cytokine that affects body mass regulation independent of lymphocytes; however, the underlying mechanism(s involved remains unknown. In an effort to investigate these mechanisms, we performed metabolic cage studies, assessed intestinal bacterial diversity and macronutrient absorption, and examined adipose mitochondrial activity in cultured adipocytes and in lean IL-15 transgenic (IL-15tg, overweight IL-15 deficient (IL-15-/-, and control C57Bl/6 (B6 mice. Here we show that differences in body weight are not the result of differential activity level, food intake, or respiratory exchange ratio. Although intestinal microbiota differences between obese and lean individuals are known to impact macronutrient absorption, differing gut bacteria profiles in these murine strains does not translate to differences in body weight in colonized germ free animals and macronutrient absorption. Due to its contribution to body weight variation, we examined mitochondrial factors and found that IL-15 treatment in cultured adipocytes resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased lipid deposition. Lastly, IL-15tg mice have significantly elevated mitochondrial activity and mass in adipose tissue compared to B6 and IL-15-/- mice. Altogether, these results suggest that IL-15 is involved in adipose tissue regulation and linked to altered mitochondrial function.

  7. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

    Ribeiro Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprostatic (PP adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia. Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated. Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis, whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH. Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable

  8. Development of Synthetic and Natural Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications Using Adipose Stem Cells

    Yunfan He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose stem cells have prominent implications in tissue regeneration due to their abundance and relative ease of harvest from adipose tissue and their abilities to differentiate into mature cells of various tissue lineages and secrete various growth cytokines. Development of tissue engineering techniques in combination with various carrier scaffolds and adipose stem cells offers great potential in overcoming the existing limitations constraining classical approaches used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, as most tissue engineering techniques are new and highly experimental, there are still many practical challenges that must be overcome before laboratory research can lead to large-scale clinical applications. Tissue engineering is currently a growing field of medical research; in this review, we will discuss the progress in research on biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering applications using adipose stem cells.

  9. Angiotensin II receptor blocker ameliorates stress-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Motoharu Hayashi

    Full Text Available A strong causal link exists between psychological stress and insulin resistance as well with hypertension. Meanwhile, stress-related responses play critical roles in glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients. As clinical trials suggest that angiotensin-receptor blocker delays the onset of diabetes in hypertensive patients, we investigated the effects of irbesartan on stress-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2-week intermittent restraint stress and orally treated with vehicle, 3 and 10 mg/kg/day irbesartan. The plasma concentrations of lipid and proinflammatory cytokines [Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6] were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Monocyte/macrophage accumulation in inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT was observed with CD11b-positive cell counts and mRNA expressions of CD68 and F4/80 using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR methods respectively. The mRNA levels of angiotensinogen, proinflammatory cytokines shown above, and adiponectin in WAT were also assessed with RT-PCR method. Glucose metabolism was assessed by glucose tolerance tests (GTTs and insulin tolerance tests, and mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 in WAT. Restraint stress increased monocyte accumulation, plasma free fatty acids, expression of angiotensinogen and proinflammatory cytokines including MCP-1, and reduced adiponectin. Irbesartan reduced stress-induced monocyte accumulation in WAT in a dose dependent manner. Irbesartan treatment also suppressed induction of adipose angiotensinogen and proinflammatory cytokines in WAT and blood, and reversed changes in adiponectin expression. Notably, irbesartan suppressed stress-induced reduction in adipose tissue weight and free fatty acid release, and improved insulin tolerance with restoration of IRS-1 and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in WAT. The results

  10. Increased adipose tissue in male and female estrogen receptor-α knockout mice

    Heine, P. A.; Taylor, J.A.; Iwamoto, G. A.; Lubahn, D.B.; Cooke, P S

    2000-01-01

    Estrogen regulates the amount of white adipose tissue (WAT) in females, but its role in males and whether WAT effects involve estrogen receptor-α (ERα) or ERβ were unclear. We analyzed the role of ERα in WAT and brown adipose tissue by comparing these tissues in wild-type (WT) and ERα-knockout (αERKO) male and female mice. Brown adipose tissue weight was similar in αERKO and WT males at all ages. Progressive increases in WAT were seen in αERKO males with advancing ...

  11. Proinsulin-producing, hyperglycemia-induced adipose tissue macrophages underlie insulin resistance in high fat-fed diabetic mice

    Adipose tissue macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of obese type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet-induced obesity has been shown to lead to adipose tissue macrophages accumulation in rodents;however, the impact of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue macrophages dynamics in high-fat diet-fed ...

  12. File list: InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 Input control Adipocyte Adipose Tissue,... White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  13. File list: NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 No description Adipocyte Adipose Tissue..., White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 Input control Adipocyte Adipose Tissue,... White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 No description Adipocyte Adipose Tissue..., White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 Input control Adipocyte Adipose Tissue,... White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 No description Adipocyte Adipose Tissue..., White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Metformin on Osteopontin Expression in Mice Adipose-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells and Adipose Tissue

    Agnieszka Śmieszek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin is applied not only as antidiabetic drug, but also in the treatment of obesity or as antiaging drug. The first part of the research discussed the effect of metformin at concentrations of 1 mM, 5 mM, and 10 mM on the morphology, ultrastructure, and proliferation potential of mice adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs in vitro. Additionally, we determined the influence of metformin on mice adipose tissue metabolism. This study has shown for the first time that metformin inhibits the proliferative potential of ASCs in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, we have found a significant correlation between the activity of ASCs and osteopontin at the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that 5 mM and 10 mM metformin have cytotoxic effect on ASCs, causing severe morphological, ultrastructural, and apoptotic changes. The reduced level of OPN in the adipose tissue of metformin-treated animals strongly correlated with the lower expression of Ki67 and CD105 and increased caspase-3. The metformin influenced also circulating levels of OPN, which is what was found with systemic and local action of metformin. The results are a valuable source of information regarding the in vitro effect of metformin on adipose-derived stem cells.

  19. CD40 promotes MHC class II expression on adipose tissue macrophages and regulates adipose tissue CD4+ T cells with obesity.

    Morris, David L; Oatmen, Kelsie E; Mergian, Taleen A; Cho, Kae Won; DelProposto, Jennifer L; Singer, Kanakadurga; Evans-Molina, Carmella; O'Rourke, Robert W; Lumeng, Carey N

    2016-06-01

    Obesity activates both innate and adaptive immune responses in adipose tissue, but the mechanisms critical for regulating these responses remain unknown. CD40/CD40L signaling provides bidirectional costimulatory signals between antigen-presenting cells and CD4(+) T cells, and CD40L expression is increased in obese humans. Therefore, we examined the contribution of CD40 to the progression of obesity-induced inflammation in mice. CD40 was highly expressed on adipose tissue macrophages in mice, and CD40/CD40L signaling promoted the expression of antigen-presenting cell markers in adipose tissue macrophages. When fed a high fat diet, Cd40-deficient mice had reduced accumulation of conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tconv: CD3(+)CD4(+)Foxp3(-)) in visceral fat compared with wild-type mice. By contrast, the number of regulatory CD4(+) T cells (Treg: CD3(+)CD4(+)Foxp3(+)) in lean and obese fat was similar between wild-type and knockout mice. Adipose tissue macrophage content and inflammatory gene expression in fat did not differ between obese wild-type and knockout mice; however, major histocompatibility complex class II and CD86 expression on adipose tissue macrophages was reduced in visceral fat from knockout mice. Similar results were observed in chimeric mice with hematopoietic Cd40-deficiency. Nonetheless, neither whole body nor hematopoietic disruption of CD40 ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice. In human adipose tissue, CD40 expression was positively correlated with CD80 and CD86 expression in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. These findings indicate that CD40 signaling in adipose tissue macrophages regulates major histocompatibility complex class II and CD86 expression to control the expansion of CD4(+) T cells; however, this is largely dispensable for the development of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. PMID:26658005

  20. Disruption of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase Ameliorates Diet-induced Adiposity but Exacerbates Systemic Insulin Resistance and Adipose Tissue Inflammatory Response*

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Huaijun; Gao, Zhanguo; Telang, Sucheta; Chesney, Jason; Chen, Y. Eugene; Ye, Jianping; Chapkin, Robert S.; Wu, Chaodong

    2009-01-01

    Adiposity is commonly associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and many overnutrition-related metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Much attention has been paid to reducing adiposity as a way to improve adipose tissue function and systemic insulin sensitivity. PFKFB3/iPFK2 is a master regulator of adipocyte nutrient metabolism. Using PFKFB3+/− mice, the present study investigated the role of PFKFB3/iPFK2 in regulating diet-induced adiposity and systemic insulin resistance. On a high...

  1. Estimating adipose tissue in the chest wall using ultrasonic and alternate 40K and biometric measurements

    The percentage of adipose (fat) tissue in the chest wall must be known to accurately measure Pu in the human lung. Correction factors of 100% or more in x-ray detection efficiency are common. Methods using simple 40K and biometric measurement techniques were investigated to determine the adipose content in the human chest wall. These methods predict adipose content to within 15% of the absolute ultrasonic value. These new methods are discussed and compared with conventional ultrasonic measurement techniques

  2. Improved resolution of the human adipose tissue proteome at alkaline and wide range pH by the addition of hydroxyethyl disulfide

    Cortón, Marta; Villuendas, Gemma; Botella-Carretero, José I; San Millán, José L.; Héctor F Escobar-Morreale; Peral, Belén

    2004-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a very common disease affecting 6.5% of women. It is frequently associated with obesity with the link between the two disorders being insulin resistance. From morbidly obese women submitted to surgical treatment of obesity, we obtain intra-abdominal adipose tissue samples in order to compare protein patterns between women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Adipose tissue is a complex material extremel...

  3. Global gene expression profiling of brown to white adipose tissue transformation in sheep reveals novel transcriptional components linked to adipose remodeling

    Basse, Astrid L.; Dixen, Karen; Yadav, Rachita;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large mammals are capable of thermoregulation shortly after birth due to the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The majority of BAT disappears after birth and is replaced by white adipose tissue (WAT). Results: We analyzed the postnatal transformation of adipose in sheep with a......, including NR1H3, MYC, KLF4, ESR1, RELA and BCL6, which were linked to the overall changes in gene expression during the adipose tissue remodeling. Finally, the perirenal adipose tissue expressed both brown and brite/beige adipocyte marker genes at birth, the expression of which changed substantially over...... time course study of the perirenal adipose depot. We observed changes in tissue morphology, gene expression and metabolism within the first two weeks of postnatal life consistent with the expected transition from BAT to WAT. The transformation was characterized by massively decreased mitochondrial...

  4. Gender and obesity specific MicroRNA expression in adipose tissue from lean and obese pigs

    Mentzel, Caroline M. Junker; Anthon, Christian; Jacobsen, Mette Juul;

    2015-01-01

    differentially expressed miRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue by RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Both male and female pigs are included to explore gender differences. The RNAseq study shows that the most highly expressed miRNAs are in accordance with comparable studies in pigs and humans. A total of six miRNAs are...... and treatment plans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs regulating target mRNA by binding to their 3'UTR. They are involved in numerous biological processes and diseases, including obesity. In this study we use a mixed breed pig model designed for obesity studies to investigate...

  5. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Activity and Acquirement of Brown Adipose Tissue-Like Property in the White Adipose Tissue of Fsp27 Deficient Mice

    Toh, Shen Yon; Gong, Jingyi; Du, Guoli; Li, John Zhong; Yang, Shuqun; Ye, Jing; Yao, Huilan; Zhang, Yinxin; Xue, Bofu; Li, Qing; Yang, Hongyuan; Wen, Zilong; Li, Peng

    2008-01-01

    Fsp27, a member of the Cide family proteins, was shown to localize to lipid droplet and promote lipid storage in adipocytes. We aimed to understand the biological role of Fsp27 in regulating adipose tissue differentiation, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. Fsp27 −/− mice and Fsp27/lep double deficient mice were generated and we examined the adiposity, whole body metabolism, BAT and WAT morphology, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial activity, and gene expression changes in these mouse st...

  6. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Activity and Acquirement of Brown Adipose Tissue-Like Property in the White Adipose Tissue of Fsp27 Deficient Mice

    Shen Yon Toh; Jingyi Gong; Guoli Du; John Zhong Li; Shuqun Yang; Jing Ye; Huilan Yao; Yinxin Zhang; Bofu Xue; Qing Li; Hongyuan Yang; Zilong Wen; Peng Li

    2008-01-01

    Fsp27, a member of the Cide family proteins, was shown to localize to lipid droplet and promote lipid storage in adipocytes. We aimed to understand the biological role of Fsp27 in regulating adipose tissue differentiation, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. Fsp27(-/-) mice and Fsp27/lep double deficient mice were generated and we examined the adiposity, whole body metabolism, BAT and WAT morphology, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial activity, and gene expression changes in these mouse s...

  7. Microarray Evidences the Role of Pathologic Adipose Tissue in Insulin Resistance and Their Clinical Implications

    Prashant Mathur; Priyanka Jain; Sandeep Kumar Mathur

    2011-01-01

    Clustering of insulin resistance and dysmetabolism with obesity is attributed to pathologic adipose tissue. The morphologic hallmarks of this pathology are adipocye hypertrophy and heightened inflammation. However, it's underlying molecular mechanisms remains unknown. Study of gene function in metabolically active tissues like adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver is a promising strategy. Microarray is a powerful technique of assessment of gene function by measuring transcription of large...

  8. Penetration of Moxifloxacin into Healthy and Inflamed Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues in Humans

    Joukhadar, Christian; Stass, Heino; Müller-Zellenberg, Ulrike; Lackner, Edith; Kovar, Florian; Minar, Erich; Müller, Markus

    2003-01-01

    The present study addressed the ability of moxifloxacin to penetrate into healthy and inflamed subcutaneous adipose tissues in 12 patients with soft tissue infections (STIs). Penetration of moxifloxacin into the interstitial space fluid of healthy and inflamed subcutaneous adipose tissues was measured by use of in vivo microdialysis following administration of a single intravenous dosage of 400 mg in six diabetic and six nondiabetic patients with STIs. For the entire study population, the mea...

  9. Does adipose tissue-derived stem cell therapy improve graft quality in freshly grafted ovaries?

    Damous, Luciana L.; Nakamuta, Juliana S.; Saturi de Carvalho, Ana ET; Carvalho, Katia Candido; Soares-Jr, José Maria; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Krieger, José Eduardo; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-01-01

    Background A major concern in ovarian transplants is substantial follicle loss during the initial period of hypoxia. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been employed to improve angiogenesis when injected into ischemic tissue. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) therapy in the freshly grafted ovaries 30 days after injection. Methods Rat ASCs (rASCs) obtained from transgenic rats expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-(5 × 104 ...

  10. Activation of prostaglandin E2-EP4 signaling reduces chemokine production in adipose tissue.

    Tang, Eva H C; Cai, Yin; Wong, Chi Kin; Rocha, Viviane Z; Sukhova, Galina K; Shimizu, Koichi; Xuan, Ge; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Libby, Peter; Xu, Aimin

    2015-02-01

    Inflammation of adipose tissue induces metabolic derangements associated with obesity. Thus, determining ways to control or inhibit inflammation in adipose tissue is of clinical interest. The present study tested the hypothesis that in mouse adipose tissue, endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) negatively regulates inflammation via activation of prostaglandin E receptor 4 (EP4). PGE2 (5-500 nM) attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA and protein expression of chemokines, including interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α in mouse adipose tissue. A selective EP4 antagonist (L161,982) reversed, and two structurally different selective EP4 agonists [CAY10580 and CAY10598] mimicked these actions of PGE2. Adipose tissue derived from EP4-deficient mice did not display this response. These findings establish the involvement of EP4 receptors in this anti-inflammatory response. Experiments performed on adipose tissue from high-fat-fed mice demonstrated EP4-dependent attenuation of chemokine production during diet-induced obesity. The anti-inflammatory actions of EP4 became more important on a high-fat diet, in that EP4 activation suppressed a greater variety of chemokines. Furthermore, adipose tissue and systemic inflammation was enhanced in high-fat-fed EP4-deficient mice compared with wild-type littermates, and in high-fat-fed untreated C57BL/6 mice compared with mice treated with EP4 agonist. These findings provide in vivo evidence that PGE2-EP4 signaling limits inflammation. In conclusion, PGE2, via activation of EP4 receptors, functions as an endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator in mouse adipose tissue, and targeting EP4 may mitigate adipose tissue inflammation. PMID:25510249

  11. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, 18F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to 18F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99mTc-sestamibi, 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 18F-fluorodopa and 18F-14(R,S)-[18F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Quantum dots for labeling adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Yukawa, Hiroshi; Mizufune, Shogo; Mamori, Chiharu; Kagami, Yukimasa; Oishi, Koichi; Kaji, Noritada; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Takeshi, Manabu; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Baba, Yoshinobu; Hamaguchi, Michinari; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Shuji

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have a self-renewing ability and can be induced to differentiate into various types of mesenchymal tissue. Because of their potential for clinical application, it has become desirable to label the cells for tracing transplanted cells and for in vivo imaging. Quantum dots (QDs) are novel inorganic probes that consist of CdSe/ZnS-core/shell semiconductor nanocrystals and have recently been explored as fluorescent probes for stem cell labeling. In this study, negatively charged QDs655 were applied for ASCs labeling, with the cationic liposome, Lipofectamine. The cytotoxicity of QDs655-Lipofectamine was assessed for ASCs. Although some cytotoxicity was observed in ASCs transfected with more than 2.0 nM of QDs655, none was observed with less than 0.8 nM. To evaluate the time dependency, the fluorescent intensity with QDs655 was observed until 24 h after transfection. The fluorescent intensity gradually increased until 2 h at the concentrations of 0.2 and 0.4 nM, while the intensity increased until 4 h at 0.8 nM. The ASCs were differentiated into both adipogenic and osteogenic cells with red fluorescence after transfection with QDs655, thus suggesting that the cells retain their potential for differentiation even after transfected with QDs655. These data suggest that QDs could be utilized for the labeling of ASCs. PMID:19775521

  14. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    Bauwens, Matthias [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Research School NUTRIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bucerius, Jan [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University, Research School CARIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to {sup 18}F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), {sup 18}F-fluorodopa and {sup 18}F-14(R,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  15. Subcutaneous adipose tissue transplantation in diet-induced obese mice attenuates metabolic dysregulation while removal exacerbates it

    Foster, Michelle T.; Softic, Samir; Caldwell, Jody; Kohli, Rohit; deKloet, Annette D; Seeley, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue distribution is an important determinant of obesity-related comorbidities. It is well established that central obesity (visceral adipose tissue accumulation) is a risk factor for many adverse health consequences such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and type-2-diabetes. We hypothesize that the metabolic dysregulation that occurs following high fat diet-induced increases in adiposity are due to alterations in visceral adipose tissue function which influence lipid flux to the...

  16. Adipose tissue dysregulation and reduced insulin sensitivity in non-obese individuals with enlarged abdominal adipose cells

    Hammarstedt Ann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity contributes to Type 2 diabetes by promoting systemic insulin resistance. Obesity causes features of metabolic dysfunction in the adipose tissue that may contribute to later impairments of insulin action in skeletal muscle and liver; these include reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport, reduced expression of GLUT4, altered expression of adipokines, and adipocyte hypertrophy. Animal studies have shown that expansion of adipose tissue alone is not sufficient to cause systemic insulin resistance in the absence of adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction. To determine if this holds true for humans, we studied the relationship between insulin resistance and markers of adipose tissue dysfunction in non-obese individuals. Method 32 non-obese first-degree relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients were recruited. Glucose tolerance was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity was measured with the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Blood samples were collected and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies obtained for gene/protein expression and adipocyte cell size measurements. Results Our findings show that also in non-obese individuals low insulin sensitivity is associated with signs of adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction characterized by low expression of GLUT4, altered adipokine profile and enlarged adipocyte cell size. In this group, insulin sensitivity is positively correlated to GLUT4 mRNA (R = 0.49, p = 0.011 and protein (R = 0.51, p = 0.004 expression, as well as with circulating adiponectin levels (R = 0.46, 0 = 0.009. In addition, insulin sensitivity is inversely correlated to circulating RBP4 (R = −0.61, 0 = 0.003 and adipocyte cell size (R = −0.40, p = 0.022. Furthermore, these features are inter-correlated and also associated with other clinical features of the metabolic syndrome in the absence of obesity. No association could be found

  17. Mapping, expression and regulation of the TRα gene in porcine adipose tissue.

    Cai, Z-W; Sheng, Y-F; Zhang, L-F; Wang, Y; Jiang, X-L; Lv, Z-Z; Xu, N-Y

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. There are at least two TR isoforms, TRα and TRβ. The TRα isoform plays a critical role in mediating the action of thyroid hormone in adipose tissue. We mapped the porcine TRα gene to chromosome 12 p11-p13, by using the ImpRH panel. We examined tissue-localization of TRα and determined expression patterns of TRα in porcine adipose tissue with quantitative real-time PCR. TRα was expressed in all tissues, including heart, liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, brain, small intestine, skeletal muscle, and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In the adipose tissue, the expression of TRα decreased postnatally. Compared to Yorkshire pigs, Jinhua pigs had significantly lower expression levels of TRα gene in the subcutaneous fat tissue. The expression levels of β2-AR, HSL and ATGL were also significantly lower in Jinhua pigs than in Yorkshire pigs. However, no significant differences in PPARγ and SREBP-1C expression levels were found between Jinhua and Yorkshire pigs. Incubation of porcine adipose tissue explants with high doses of isoproterenol (100 and 1000 nM) significantly increased the expression levels of TRα. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that TRα plays an important role in fat deposition in porcine adipose tissue. PMID:21751158

  18. Production of chemokines by perivascular adipose tissue: a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis?

    Enrichot, Elvire; Juge-Aubry, Cristiana E; Pernin, Agnès; Pache, Jean-Claude; Velebit, Valdimir; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Meda, Paolo; Chizzolini, Carlo; Meier, Christoph A

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Although it is known that white adipose tissue (WAT) produces numerous proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokines and chemokines, it is unclear whether adipose-derived chemotactic signals affect the chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis.

  19. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Aimee L. Dordevic; Pendergast, Felicity J.; Han Morgan; Silas Villas-Boas; Caldow, Marissa K.; Larsen, Amy E.; Andrew J. Sinclair; David Cameron-Smith

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage ...

  20. IL-6 regulates exercise and training-induced adaptations in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice

    Brandt, Claus; Jakobsen, Anne Hviid; Hassing, Helle Adser;

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL-6 regulates exercise-induced gene responses in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice. Methods: Four months old male IL-6 whole body knockout (KO) mice and C57B wild-type (WT) mice performed 1h of treadmill exercise, where subcutaneous ad...... regulating exercise and training-induced leptin and PPAR¿ expression in adipose tissue. In addition, while IL-6 is required for TNF-a mRNA reduction in response to acute exercise, IL-6 does not appear to be mandatory for anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training in adipose tissue....

  1. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, B; Bülow, J

    1993-01-01

    Elevated plasma adrenaline is known to increase whole body energy expenditure. We studied the thermogenic effect and the effects on substrate utilization in man during infusion of adrenaline. Two series were performed: in one series skeletal muscle metabolism was investigated and in another series...... subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism was investigated. In both series Fick's principle was applied. Intravenous infusion increased blood flow, glucose uptake and oxygen uptake in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. It is concluded that skeletal muscle contributes about 40% and adipose tissue about 5...

  2. Waves of adipose tissue growth in the genetically obese Zucker fatty rat.

    Jennifer MacKellar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammals, calories ingested in excess of those used are stored primarily as fat in adipose tissue; consistent ingestion of excess calories requires an enlargement of the adipose tissue mass. Thus, a dysfunction in adipose tissue growth may be a key factor in insulin resistance due to imbalanced fat storage and disrupted insulin action. Adipose tissue growth requires the recruitment and then the development of adipose precursor cells, but little is known about these processes in vivo. METHODOLOGY: In this study, adipose cell-size probability distributions were measured in two Zucker fa/fa rats over a period of 151 and 163 days, from four weeks of age, using micro-biopsies to obtain subcutaneous (inguinal fat tissue from the animals. These longitudinal probability distributions were analyzed to assess the probability of periodic phenomena. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue growth in this strain of rat exhibits a striking temporal periodicity of approximately days. A simple model is proposed for the periodicity, with PPAR signaling driven by a deficit in lipid uptake capacity leading to the periodic recruitment of new adipocytes. This model predicts that the observed period will be diet-dependent.

  3. Intestinal FXR agonism promotes adipose tissue browning and reduces obesity and insulin resistance.

    Fang, Sungsoon; Suh, Jae Myoung; Reilly, Shannon M; Yu, Elizabeth; Osborn, Olivia; Lackey, Denise; Yoshihara, Eiji; Perino, Alessia; Jacinto, Sandra; Lukasheva, Yelizaveta; Atkins, Annette R; Khvat, Alexander; Schnabl, Bernd; Yu, Ruth T; Brenner, David A; Coulter, Sally; Liddle, Christopher; Schoonjans, Kristina; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Saltiel, Alan R; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M

    2015-02-01

    The systemic expression of the bile acid (BA) sensor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has led to promising new therapies targeting cholesterol metabolism, triglyceride production, hepatic steatosis and biliary cholestasis. In contrast to systemic therapy, bile acid release during a meal selectively activates intestinal FXR. By mimicking this tissue-selective effect, the gut-restricted FXR agonist fexaramine (Fex) robustly induces enteric fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), leading to alterations in BA composition, but does so without activating FXR target genes in the liver. However, unlike systemic agonism, we find that Fex reduces diet-induced weight gain, body-wide inflammation and hepatic glucose production, while enhancing thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). These pronounced metabolic improvements suggest tissue-restricted FXR activation as a new approach in the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25559344

  4. Feeding feedlot steers fish oil alters the fatty acid composition of adipose and muscle tissue.

    Wistuba, T J; Kegley, E B; Apple, J K; Rule, D C

    2007-10-01

    Sixteen steers (441±31.7kg initial body weight) consumed two high concentrate diets with either 0 or 3% fish oil to determine the impact of fish oil, an omega-3 fatty acid source, on the fatty acid composition of beef carcasses. Collected tissue samples included the Longissimus thoracis from the 6th to 7th rib section, ground 10th to 12th rib, liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to the 12th rib, intramuscular adipose tissue in the 6th to 7th rib sections, perirenal adipose tissue, and brisket adipose tissue. Including fish oil in the diet increased most of the saturated fatty acids (Pniche marketing if there are no deleterious effects on consumer satisfaction. PMID:22061591

  5. Obesity-Induced Changes in Adipose Tissue Microenvironment and Their Impact on Cardiovascular Disease.

    Fuster, José J; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Gokce, Noyan; Walsh, Kenneth

    2016-05-27

    Obesity is causally linked with the development of cardiovascular disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates that cardiovascular disease is the collateral damage of obesity-driven adipose tissue dysfunction that promotes a chronic inflammatory state within the organism. Adipose tissues secrete bioactive substances, referred to as adipokines, which largely function as modulators of inflammation. The microenvironment of adipose tissue will affect the adipokine secretome, having actions on remote tissues. Obesity typically leads to the upregulation of proinflammatory adipokines and the downregulation of anti-inflammatory adipokines, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus on the microenvironment of adipose tissue and how it influences cardiovascular disorders, including atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases, through the systemic actions of adipokines. PMID:27230642

  6. Characterization of In Vitro Engineered Human Adipose Tissues: Relevant Adipokine Secretion and Impact of TNF-α

    Kim Aubin; Meryem Safoine; Maryse Proulx; Marie-Alice Audet-Casgrain; Jean-François Côté; Félix-André Têtu; Alphonse Roy; Julie Fradette

    2015-01-01

    Representative modelling of human adipose tissue functions is central to metabolic research. Tridimensional models able to recreate human adipogenesis in a physiological tissue-like context in vitro are still scarce. We describe the engineering of white adipose tissues reconstructed from their cultured adipose-derived stromal precursor cells. We hypothesize that these reconstructed tissues can recapitulate key functions of AT under basal and pro-inflammatory conditions. These tissues, featuri...

  7. Adipose tissue is a major source of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist: upregulation in obesity and inflammation.

    Juge-Aubry, Cristiana E; Somm, Emmanuel; Giusti, Vittorio; Pernin, Agnès; Chicheportiche, Rachel; Verdumo, Chantal; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Burger, Danielle; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Meier, Christoph A

    2003-05-01

    The secreted form of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an acute-phase protein intervening in the counterregulation of inflammatory processes. We previously showed that this cytokine antagonist is upregulated in the serum of obese patients, correlating with BMI and insulin resistance. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of IL-1Ra and showed that it is highly expressed not only in liver and spleen, but also in white adipose tissue (WAT), where it is upregulated in obesity. In WAT of obese humans, IL-1Ra was also markedly increased. Moreover, human WAT explants secreted IL-1Ra into the medium, a process that could be stimulated fivefold by interferon-beta. Finally, lipopolysaccharide administration induced a long-lasting expression of IL-1Ra in mouse WAT, suggesting that adipose tissue is an important source of IL-1Ra in both obesity and inflammation. In summary, we demonstrated that WAT is one of the most important sources of IL-1Ra quantitatively, suggesting that this tissue could represent a novel target for anti-inflammatory treatment. Moreover, it can be speculated that IL-1Ra, whose production is markedly increased in WAT in obese individuals, contributes further to weight gain because of its endocrine and paracrine effects on the hypothalamus and adipocytes, respectively. PMID:12716739

  8. Chronic glucocorticoid exposure-induced epididymal adiposity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in white adipose tissue of male C57BL/6J mice.

    Jie Yu

    Full Text Available Prolonged and excessive glucocorticoids (GC exposure resulted from Cushing's syndrome or GC therapy develops central obesity. Moreover, mitochondria are crucial in adipose energy homeostasis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to chronic GC exposure-induced epididymal adiposity in the present study. A total of thirty-six 5-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (∼20 g were administrated with 100 µg/ml corticosterone (CORT or vehicle through drinking water for 4 weeks. Chronic CORT exposure mildly decreased body weight without altering food and water intake in mice. The epididymal fat accumulation was increased, but adipocyte size was decreased by CORT. CORT also increased plasma CORT, insulin, leptin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 concentrations as measured by RIA or ELISA. Interestingly, CORT increased plasma levels of triacylglycerols and nonesterified fatty acids, and up-regulated the expression of both lipolytic and lipogenic genes as determined by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, CORT impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function in epididymal WAT. The reactive oxygen species production was increased and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were reduced by CORT treatment as well. Taken together, these findings reveal that chronic CORT administration-induced epididymal adiposity is, at least in part, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse epididymal white adipose tissue.

  9. Adipose tissue deficiency and chronic inflammation in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Bai Xue

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2DM is a heterogeneous group of diseases that is progressive and involves multiple tissues. Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats are a polygenic model with elevated blood glucose, peripheral insulin resistance, a non-obese phenotype, and exhibit many degenerative changes observed in human T2DM. As part of a systems analysis of disease progression in this animal model, this study characterized the contribution of adipose tissue to pathophysiology of the disease. We sacrificed subgroups of GK rats and appropriate controls at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age and carried out a gene array analysis of white adipose tissue. We expanded our physiological analysis of the animals that accompanied our initial gene array study on the livers from these animals. The expanded analysis included adipose tissue weights, HbA1c, additional hormonal profiles, lipid profiles, differential blood cell counts, and food consumption. HbA1c progressively increased in the GK animals. Altered corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin profiles were also documented in GK animals. Gene array analysis identified 412 genes that were differentially expressed in adipose tissue of GKs relative to controls. The GK animals exhibited an age-specific failure to accumulate body fat despite their relatively higher calorie consumption which was well supported by the altered expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis in the white adipose tissue of these animals, including Fasn, Acly, Kklf9, and Stat3. Systemic inflammation was reflected by chronically elevated white blood cell counts. Furthermore, chronic inflammation in adipose tissue was evident from the differential expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses and activation of natural immunity, including two interferon regulated genes, Ifit and Iipg, as well as MHC class II genes. This study demonstrates an age specific failure to accumulate adipose tissue in the GK rat and the presence of chronic

  10. Adipose tissue and sustainable development: a connection that needs protection

    Angelo eTremblay

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is generally considered as an excess body fat that increases the risk to develop ergonomic, metabolic and psychosocial problems. As suggested in this paper, body fat gain is also a protective adaptation that prevents body lipotoxicity, contributes to the secretion of molecules involved in metabolic regulation, and dilutes lipid soluble persistent organic pollutants (POPs. Recent literature shows that this protective role of adipose tissue is more solicited in a modern context in which unsuspected factors can affect energy balance to a much greater extent than what is generally perceived by health care professionals. These factors include short sleep duration, demanding mental work, and chemical pollution whose impact is more detectable in a context dominated by economic productivity and competitiveness. Since these factors might also include the increase in atmospheric CO2, it is likely that obesity prevention will need the support of a promotion in sustainable development, whether it is for human health and well-being or global ecological protection.

  11. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness by near-infrared

    Obesity is strongly associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thickness and to understand the distribution of body fat. A device was designed to illuminate the body parts by near-infrared (NIR), measure the backscattered light, and predict the SAT layer thickness. The device was controlled by a single-chip microcontroller (SCM), and the thickness value was presented on a liquid crystal display (LCD). There were 30 subjects in this study, and the measurements were performed on 14 body parts for each subject. The paper investigated the impacts of pressure and skin colour on the measurement. Combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector regression (SVR), the measurement accuracy of SAT layer thickness was 89.1 % with a mechanical caliper as reference. The measuring range was 5–11 mm. The study provides a non-invasive and low-cost technique to detect subcutaneous fat thickness, which is more accessible and affordable compared to other conventional techniques. The designed device can be used at home and in community.

  12. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in...... women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women....... Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss...

  13. Leptin receptor in peripheral adipose tissues of obese subjects

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between leptin receptor and obesity by studying the leptin receptor density Bmax and dissociation constant Kd in peripheral adipose tissue in subjects with different body weight mass (BMI). Methods: Leptin receptor density Bmax and Kd were assayed via radioligand method in 71 cases, including 32 classified as obese, 19 over-weight and 20 normal control. Results: With the escalating of BMI, the leptin receptor density significantly decreased in obese and over-weight group compared with that in normal control (both Pd values were of no differences among all three groups suggesting no correlation between the binding ability of leptin to its receptor and BMI. A negative correlation between BMI and Bmax (r=-0.76, P<0.01) displayed after all. Conclusion: Leptin receptor density correlates with the BMI in obese cases and it suggests that the down-regulation of leptin receptor may contribute to the occurrence of leptin resistance and obesity after-wards

  14. Central neural control of thermoregulation and brown adipose tissue.

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-04-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the homeostatic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the experimental underpinnings of our current model of the CNS pathways controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction controlling heat loss, and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these effectors is regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific, core efferent pathways within the CNS that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. Via the lateral parabrachial nucleus, skin thermal afferent input reaches the hypothalamic preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control heat production by inhibiting thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to thermogenesis-controlling premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation of spinal circuits necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus sympathetic premotor neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction. The model proposed for central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation and elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation. PMID:26924538

  15. Collagen-hyaluronic acid scaffolds for adipose tissue engineering.

    Davidenko, N; Campbell, J J; Thian, E S; Watson, C J; Cameron, R E

    2010-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) in vitro models of the mammary gland require a scaffold matrix that supports the development of adipose stroma within a robust freely permeable matrix. 3-D porous collagen-hyaluronic acid (HA: 7.5% and 15%) scaffolds were produced by controlled freeze-drying technique and crosslinking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride. All scaffolds displayed uniform, interconnected pore structure (total porosity approximately 85%). Physical and chemical analysis showed no signs of collagen denaturation during the formation process. The values of thermal characteristics indicated that crosslinking occurred and that its efficiency was enhanced by the presence of HA. Although the crosslinking reduced the swelling of the strut material in water, the collagen-HA matrix as a whole tended to swell more and show higher dissolution resistance than pure collagen samples. The compressive modulus and elastic collapse stress were higher for collagen-HA composites. All the scaffolds were shown to support the proliferation and differentiation 3T3-L1 preadipocytes while collagen-HA samples maintained a significantly increased proportion of cycling cells (Ki-67+). Furthermore, collagen-HA composites displayed significantly raised Adipsin gene expression with adipogenic culture supplementation for 8 days vs. control conditions. These results indicate that collagen-HA scaffolds may offer robust, freely permeable 3-D matrices that enhance mammary stromal tissue development in vitro. PMID:20466086

  16. Soluble LR11/SorLA represses thermogenesis in adipose tissue and correlates with BMI in humans.

    Whittle, Andrew J; Jiang, Meizi; Peirce, Vivian; Relat, Joana; Virtue, Sam; Ebinuma, Hiroyuki; Fukamachi, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Mao; Murano, Takeyoshi; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Jin, Wenlong; Jin, Zhehu; Campbell, Mark; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Bujo, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important component of energy expenditure in mammals. Recent studies have confirmed its presence and metabolic role in humans. Defining the physiological regulation of BAT is therefore of great importance for developing strategies to treat metabolic diseases. Here we show that the soluble form of the low-density lipoprotein receptor relative, LR11/SorLA (sLR11), suppresses thermogenesis in adipose tissue in a cell-autonomous manner. Mice lacking LR11 are protected from diet-induced obesity associated with an increased browning of white adipose tissue and hypermetabolism. Treatment of adipocytes with sLR11 inhibits thermogenesis via the bone morphogenetic protein/TGFβ signalling pathway and reduces Smad phosphorylation. In addition, sLR11 levels in humans are shown to positively correlate with body mass index and adiposity. Given the need for tight regulation of a tissue with a high capacity for energy wastage, we propose that LR11 plays an energy conserving role that is exaggerated in states of obesity. PMID:26584636

  17. Dysregulation of the Peripheral and Adipose Tissue Endocannabinoid System in Human Abdominal Obesity

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sádor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R.; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001), whereas FAAH gene expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that abdominal fat accumulation is a critical correlate of the dysregulation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes. PMID:17065342

  18. Clinical Evaluation of Extracellular ADMA Concentrations in Human Blood and Adipose Tissue

    Marcus May

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, has been proposed as a biomarker for clinical outcome. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH is the main enzyme responsible for ADMA metabolism and elimination. Adipose tissue ADMA concentrations and DDAH activity and their role in diabetes and obesity have not yet been investigated. In this study, we evaluated clinical microdialysis in combination with a sensitive analytical method (GC-MS/MS to measure ADMA concentrations in extracellular fluid. Adipose tissue ADMA concentrations were assessed before and during an oral glucose tolerance test in lean healthy subjects and subjects with diabetes (n = 4 each, and in morbidly obese subjects before and after weight loss of 30 kg (n = 7. DDAH activity was determined in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue obtained during laparoscopic surgery (n = 5 paired samples. Mean interstitial ADMA concentrations did not differ between study populations (healthy 0.17 ± 0.03 µM; diabetic 0.21 ± 0.03 µM; morbidly obese 0.16 ± 0.01 and 0.17 ± 0.01 µM before and after weight loss, respectively. We did not observe any response of interstitial ADMA concentrations to the oral glucose challenge. Adipose tissue DDAH activity was negligible compared to liver tissue. Thus, adipose tissue ADMA plays a minor role in NO-dependent regulation of adipose tissue blood flow and metabolism.

  19. Effect of training on insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and lipolysis in human adipose tissue

    Stallknecht, B; Larsen, J J; Mikines, K J; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Galbo, H

    2000-01-01

    Training increases insulin sensitivity of both whole body and muscle in humans. To investigate whether training also increases insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, we performed a three-step hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp in eight endurance-trained (T) and eight sedentary (S) young men...... [insulin infusion rates: 10,000 (step I), 20,000 (step II), and 150,000 (step III) microU x min(-1) x m(-2)]. Glucose and glycerol concentrations were measured in arterial blood and also by microdialysis in interstitial fluid in periumbilical, subcutaneous adipose tissue and in quadriceps femoris muscle...... (glucose only). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by (133)Xe washout. In the basal state, adipose tissue blood flow tended to be higher in T compared with S subjects, and in both groups blood flow was constant during the clamp. The change from basal in arterial-interstitial glucose concentration...

  20. IMPROVED RECOVERY OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN ADIPOSE TISSUE WITH A MODIFIED MICRO MULTIRESIDUE PROCEDURE

    Using the described methodology the recovery of hexachlorobenzene from adipose tissue was significantly increased over that normally obtained with other multiresidue procedures. The recovery of other commonly encountered chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides was not affected nor was...

  1. Investigation of the mechanisms that influence the accretion of bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    The understanding of the mechanisms that differ between breeds of cattle and their ability to deposit intramuscular adipose tissue is imperative to profitable beef production. Thus, the interactions among breeds, metabolic substrates and specific hormones in bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue were investigated. Subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues were obtained from 10 Angus and 9 Santa Gertrudis steers immediately postmortem. The adipose tissues were incubated for 2 h and 48 h with and without 1 mU/ml insulin and 30 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) to measure the incorporation of 14C-labeled acetate and glucose into lipid fractions. At the same chronological age, Angus steers had a more youthful lean maturity score, higher USDA marbling scores and higher USDA quality grades than carcasses from Santa Gertrudis steers

  2. Long-term allergen exposure induces adipose tissue inflammation and circulatory system injury.

    Jung, Chien-Cheng; Su, Huey-Jen

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to study whether allergen exposure can induce inflammation and lower the anti-inflammation levels in serum and in adipose tissues, and further develop cardiovascular injury. Our data showed that heart rate was significantly higher in the OVA-challenged mice compared to control mice. Moreover, there were higher expressions of pro-inflammation genes in the OVA-challenged mice in adipose tissues, and the expressions of anti-inflammation genes were lower. The levels of inflammation mediators were associated in serum and adipose tissues. The level of circulatory injury lactate dehydrogenase was significantly associated with the levels of E-selectin, resistin and adiponectin in the serum. The hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry stains indicated the OVA-challenged mice had higher levels of inflammation. In summary, the current study demonstrated allergen exposure can cause cardiovascular injury, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissues play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular injury. PMID:27004794

  3. Prolactin suppresses malonyl-CoA concentration in human adipose tissue

    Nilsson, L. A.; Roepstorff, Carsten; Kiens, Bente;

    2009-01-01

    Prolactin is best known for its involvement in lactation, where it regulates mechanisms that supply nutrients for milk production. In individuals with pathological hyperprolactinemia, glucose and fat homeostasis have been reported to be negatively influenced. It is not previously known, however, ...... lipogenesis could contribute to an insulin resistant state with consequences for the health......., whether prolactin regulates lipogenesis in human adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prolactin on lipogenesis in human adipose tissue in vitro. Prolactin decreased the concentration of malonyl-CoA, the product of the first committed step in lipogenesis, to 77......+/-6% compared to control 100+/-5% (p=0.022) in cultured human adipose tissue. In addition, prolactin was found to decrease glucose transporter 4 ( GLUT4) mRNA expression, which may cause decreased glucose uptake. In conclusion, we propose that prolactin decreases lipogenesis in human adipose tissue as a...

  4. Interstitial concentrations of adipokines in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    Nielsen, Ninna Bo; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P;

    2009-01-01

    Adipokines play important regulatory roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance. We measured plasma and interstitial concentrations of the adipokines adiponectin, resistin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in...... subcutaneous, abdominal and femoral adipose tissue using calibrated, large-pore microdialysis technique in 8 healthy, lean men on 2 experimental days. The interstitial leptin concentration was 2.5-fold higher in subcutaneous, femoral than abdominal adipose tissue (P<0.05), but no regional differences were...... found for the remaining adipokines (P>0.05). Adiponectin and leptin concentrations were higher in plasma than subcutaneous adipose tissue (approximately 25-fold and approximately 2-fold, respectively, P<0.05), whereas MCP-1, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations were higher in subcutaneous adipose tissue than...

  5. The role of innate immune cells in obese adipose tissue inflammation and development of insulin resistance

    Chmelař, Jindřich; Chung, K.-J.; Chavakis, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2013), s. 399-406. ISSN 0340-6245 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Obesity * adipose tissue * inflammation * review * leukocytes Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.760, year: 2013

  6. The expression of testosterone converting enzymes in adipose tissue of polycystic ovary syndrome rat mode

    王丽华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) rat model and compare the expression of testosterone converting enzymes in adipose tissue of PCOS rat with that of controls.Methods 21-day-old female SD

  7. Investigation of the mechanisms that influence the accretion of bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    Miller, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanisms that differ between breeds of cattle and their ability to deposit intramuscular adipose tissue is imperative to profitable beef production. Thus, the interactions among breeds, metabolic substrates and specific hormones in bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue were investigated. Subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues were obtained from 10 Angus and 9 Santa Gertrudis steers immediately postmortem. The adipose tissues were incubated for 2 h and 48 h with and without 1 mU/ml insulin and 30 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) to measure the incorporation of /sup 14/C-labeled acetate and glucose into lipid fractions. At the same chronological age, Angus steers had a more youthful lean maturity score, higher USDA marbling scores and higher USDA quality grades than carcasses from Santa Gertrudis steers.

  8. Loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in HIV-associated lipodystrophy is not due to accelerated apoptosis.

    Mynarcik, Dennis; Wei, Lin-Xiang; Komaroff, Eugene; Ferris, Robert; McNurlan, Margaret; Gelato, Marie

    2005-01-01

    HIV-associated lipodystrophy is characterized by a loss of adipose tissue from the subcutaneous compartment. Previously reported data suggested that this loss of adipose tissue was the result of an increased rate of apoptosis in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The present study examined the rate of apoptosis in subcutaneous adipose tissue with a sensitive ligase-mediated polymerase chain reaction technique to amplify DNA ladders. Individuals with HIV lipodystrophy were compared with HIV-infected subjects without lipodystrophy and subjects without HIV disease. Although apoptosis was observed in subjects with HIV lipodystrophy, there was no difference in the frequency of individuals with apoptosis among those with HIV lipodystrophy (10/22), those with HIV but no lipodystrophy (13/25), and subjects without HIV disease (13/27). PMID:15608525

  9. Resveratrol Suppresses PAI-1 Gene Expression in a Human In Vitro Model of Inflamed Adipose Tissue

    Ivana Zagotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels are associated with a number of pathophysiological complications; among them is obesity. Resveratrol was proposed to improve obesity-related health problems, but the effect of resveratrol on PAI-1 gene expression in obesity is not completely understood. In this study, we used SGBS adipocytes and a model of human adipose tissue inflammation to examine the effects of resveratrol on the production of PAI-1. Treatment of SGBS adipocytes with resveratrol reduced PAI-1 mRNA and protein in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Further experiments showed that obesity-associated inflammatory conditions lead to the upregulation of PAI-1 gene expression which was antagonized by resveratrol. Although signaling via PI3K, Sirt1, AMPK, ROS, and Nrf2 appeared to play a significant role in the modulation of PAI-1 gene expression under noninflammatory conditions, those signaling components were not involved in mediating the resveratrol effects on PAI-1 production under inflammatory conditions. Instead, we demonstrate that the resveratrol effects on PAI-1 induction under inflammatory conditions were mediated via inhibition of the NFκB pathway. Together, resveratrol can act as NFκB inhibitor in adipocytes and thus the subsequently reduced PAI-1 expression in inflamed adipose tissue might provide a new insight towards novel treatment options of obesity.

  10. Lack of TRPV2 impairs thermogenesis in mouse brown adipose tissue.

    Sun, Wuping; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Zhou, Yiming; Kim, Minji; Takayama, Yasunori; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Kawada, Teruo; Iwata, Yuko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a major site for mammalian non-shivering thermogenesis, could be a target for prevention and treatment of human obesity. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel, plays vital roles in the regulation of various cellular functions. Here, we show that TRPV2 is expressed in brown adipocytes and that mRNA levels of thermogenic genes are reduced in both cultured brown adipocytes and BAT from TRPV2 knockout (TRPV2KO) mice. The induction of thermogenic genes in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation is also decreased in TRPV2KO brown adipocytes and suppressed by reduced intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in wild-type brown adipocytes. In addition, TRPV2KO mice have more white adipose tissue and larger brown adipocytes and show cold intolerance, and lower BAT temperature increases in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Furthermore, TRPV2KO mice have increased body weight and fat upon high-fat-diet treatment. Based on these findings, we conclude that TRPV2 has a role in BAT thermogenesis and could be a target for human obesity therapy. PMID:26882545

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Rat Epicardial Versus Epididymal Adipose Tissue

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sSome investigation has indicated that adipose-derived stem cells possess different surface epitopes and differentiation potential according to the localization of fat pad from which the cells were derived. In the present study proliferation capacity and aging of such cells were explored.Materials and MethodsAdherent cells were isolated from the collagenase digests of adipose tissues excised from rat epicardial and epididymal regions and propagated with several subcultures. The cells were then investigated whether or not they were able to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose cell lineages. Studied cells from two adipose tissues were also compared with respect to their in vitro proliferation capacity. The presence of senescent cells in the culture was determined and compared using senescence-associated (SA ß-galactosidase staining method. ResultsSuccessful differentiations of the cells were indicative of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs identity. Epicardial adipose-derived cells tended to have a short population doubling time (45±9.6 hr than the epididymal adipose-derived stem cells (69±16 hr, P< 0.05. Colonogenic activity and the growth curve characteristics were all better in the culture of stem cells derived from epicardial compared to epididymal adipose tissue. Comparatively more percentage of senescent cells was present at the cultures derived from epididymal adipose tissue (P< 0.05.ConclusionOur data emphasize on the differences existed between the stem cells derived from adipose depots of different anatomical sites in terms of their proliferative capacity and in vitro aging. Such data can help understand varying results reported by different laboratories involved in adipose stem cell investigations.

  12. Adipocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a mediator of adipose tissue growth.

    Levine, J. A.; Jensen, M.D.; Eberhardt, N L; O'Brien, T.

    1998-01-01

    Adipose tissue growth results from de novo adipocyte recruitment (hyperplasia) and increased size of preexisting adipocytes. Adipocyte hyperplasia accounts for the severalfold increase in adipose tissue mass that occurs throughout life, yet the mechanism of adipocyte hyperplasia is unknown. We studied the potential of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) to mediate adipocyte hyperplasia because of the profound effects MCSF exerts on pluripotent cell recruitment and differentiation in o...

  13. Differential co-expression analysis of obesity-associated networks in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    Walley, A J; Jacobson, P.; Falchi, M.; Bottolo, L.; Andersson, J.C.; Petretto, E; Bonnefond, A.; Vaillant, E; Lecoeur, C; Vatin, V.; Jernas, M; Balding, D; Petteni, M.; Park, Y S; Aitman, T

    2011-01-01

    Objective To use a unique obesity-discordant sib-pair study design to combine differential expression analysis, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) mapping, and a co-expression regulatory network approach in subcutaneous human adipose tissue to identify genes relevant to the obese state. Study design Genome-wide transcript expression in subcutaneous human adipose tissue was measured using Affymetrix U133+2.0 microarrays and genomewide genotyping data was obtained using an Applied Biosy...

  14. Proteome differences associated with fat accumulation in bovine subcutaneous adipose tissues

    Basarb John A; Dodson Michael V; Basu Urmila; Zhao Yong; Guan Le

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The fat components of red meat products have been of interest to researchers due to the health aspects of excess fat consumption by humans. We hypothesized that differences in protein expression have an impact on adipose tissue formation during beef cattle development and growth. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the differences in the discernable proteome of subcutaneous adipose tissues of 35 beef crossbred steers [Charolais × Red Angus (CHAR) (n = 13) and Hereford × ...

  15. Influence of different dietary fats on triacylglycerol deposition in rat adipose tissue

    Perona, Javier S.; Portillo, María Puy; Macarulla, M. Teresa; Tueros, Ana I.; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina

    2000-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization from adipose tissue is selective and depends on fatty acid (FA) chain length, unsaturation and positional isomerism. The present study was performed to determine the influence of dietary fat on the composition of TAG stored in rat perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues. These results may provide information on the susceptibility of stored TAG to hydrolysis and further mobilization, and may help to establish an interrelations...

  16. Gene expression profiling reveals distinct features of various porcine adipose tissues

    Zhou, Chaowei; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Jideng; Jiang, Anan; Tang, Guoqing; Mai, Miaomiao; Zhu, Li; Bai, Lin; Li, Mingzhou; Li, Xuewei

    2013-01-01

    Background The excessive accumulation of body fat is a major risk factor to develop a variety of metabolic diseases. To investigate the systematic association between the differences in gene expression profiling and adipose deposition, we used pig as a model, and measured the gene expression profiling of six variant adipose tissues in male and females from three pig breeds which display distinct fat level. Results We identified various differential expressed genes among breeds, tissues and be...

  17. Dietary Fructose Activates Insulin Signaling and Inflammation in Adipose Tissue: Modulatory Role of Resveratrol

    Mehmet Bilgehan Pektas; Halit Bugra Koca; Gokhan Sadi; Fatma Akar

    2016-01-01

    The effects of high-fructose diet on adipose tissue insulin signaling and inflammatory process have been poorly documented. In this study, we examined the influences of long-term fructose intake and resveratrol supplementation on the expression of genes involved in insulin signaling and the levels of inflammatory cytokines and sex hormones in the white adipose tissues of male and female rats. Consumption of high-fructose diet for 24 weeks increased the expression of genes involved in insulin ...

  18. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    Azeez, Odunayo Ibraheem; Meintjes, Roy; Chamunorwa, Joseph Panashe

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link ...

  19. Detection of embryonic stem cell markers in adult human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Sarasa Bharati Arumugam; Omana A Trentz; Devi Arikketh; Vijayalakshmi Senthinathan; Barry Rosario; P. V. A Mohandas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bone marrow transplantation is already an established therapy, which is now widely used in medicine to treat leukemia, lymphoma, and several inherited blood disorders. The culture of multilineage cells from easily available adipose tissue is another source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, and is referred to as adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). While ADSCs are being used to treat various conditions, some lacuna exists regarding the specific proteins in these. It was ...

  20. Isolation, culturing and characterization of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells: a simple technique

    NİYAZ, Mehmet; Özer Aylin GÜRPINAR; GÜNAYDIN, Serdar; Onur, Mehmet Ali

    2012-01-01

    In this study, our aim was to develop a new simple technique for isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue. For this purpose, mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from rat adipose tissue by using the primary explant culture technique. When the cells became confluent, they were passaged 4 times by using the standard trypsinization method with trypsin/EDTA solution. Cells at second passage were characterized by using immunofluorescence staining against CD13 and CD29 markers. The r...

  1. Adipose tissue stem cells meet preadipocyte commitment: going back to the future[S

    Cawthorn, William P; Erica L. Scheller; MacDougald, Ormond A.

    2012-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is perhaps the most plastic organ in the body, capable of regeneration following surgical removal and massive expansion or contraction in response to altered energy balance. Research conducted for over 70 years has investigated adipose tissue plasticity on a cellular level, spurred on by the increasing burden that obesity and associated diseases are placing on public health globally. This work has identified committed preadipocytes in the stromal vascular fraction o...

  2. Adipose tissue dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. Ex vitro, in vivo and clinical studies

    Kranendonk, M.E.G.

    2014-01-01

    While the obesity epidemic develops at an alarming rate, scientifically we are still far behind with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic actions. In this thesis, we aimed to explore current and novel pathways in adipose tissue dysfunction, as a result of obesity, and investigated how they might contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular disease. In chapter 2, current knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking abdominal adipose tissue to obesity-related metabolic dysfunction is review...

  3. IEX-1 deficiency induces browning of white adipose tissue and resists diet-induced obesity

    Mohd. Shahid; Ammar A. Javed; David Chandra; Haley E. Ramsey; Dilip Shah; Khan, Mohammed F.; Liping Zhao; Mei X. Wu

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. However, the primary mediators that affect energy homeostasis remain ill defined. Here, we report an unexpected role for immediate early response gene X-1 (IEX-1), a downstream target of NF-κB, in energy metabolism. We found that IEX-1 expression was highly induced in white adipose tissue (WAT) in both epidydmal and subcutaneous depots but not in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice fe...

  4. Stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase protects against obesity by recruiting brown adipose tissue

    Hoffmann, Linda S.; Etzrodt, Jennifer; Willkomm, Lena; Sanyal, Abhishek; Scheja, Ludger; Fischer, Alexander W.C.; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Bloch, Wilhelm; Friebe, Andreas; Heeren, Joerg; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by a positive energy balance and expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts energy to produce heat. Here we show that a small molecule stimulator (BAY 41-8543) of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP), protects against diet-induced weight gain, induces weight loss in established obesity, and also improves the diabetic phenotype. Mechanistically, the haeme-dependent sGC stimu...

  5. Evidence for the ectopic synthesis of melanin in human adipose tissue

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Huff, Tom; Valencia, Julio C.; Younossi, Zobair; Chandhoke, Vikas; Hearing, Vincent J.; Baranova, Ancha

    2009-01-01

    Melanin is a common pigment in animals. In humans, melanin is produced in melanocytes, in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, in the inner ear, and in the central nervous system. Previously, we noted that human adipose tissue expresses several melanogenesis-related genes. In the current study, we confirmed the expression of melanogenesis-related mRNAs and proteins in human adipose tissue using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. TYR mRNA signals were also...

  6. Estrogens increase expression of bone morphogenetic protein 8b in brown adipose tissue of mice

    Grefhorst, Aldo; van den Beukel, Johanna C; van Houten, E Leonie AF; Steenbergen, Jacobie; Visser, Jenny A.; Themmen, Axel PN

    2015-01-01

    Background In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. Several studies showed that females have more active BAT. Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families are expressed in BAT and are involved in BAT activity. We hypothesized that differential expression of BMPs and FGFs might contribute to sex differences in BAT activity. Methods We investigated the expression of BMPs and FG...

  7. FGF21 regulates PGC-1α and browning of white adipose tissues in adaptive thermogenesis

    Fisher, ffolliott M.; Kleiner, Sandra; Douris, Nicholas; Fox, Elliott C.; Mepani, Rina J.; Verdeguer, Francisco; Wu, Jun; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can protect against hypothermia and obesity by using lipids to produce heat. In this study, Spiegelman and colleagues studied FGF21 control of thermogenesis in mice. The authors used gain- and loss-of-function experiments to demonstrate that FGF21 induces a brown fat phenotype in white adipose tissues. In addition, they found that FGF21 is required for the adaptive thermogenic response of mice by increasing PGC-1α protein levels, independent of its transcription. Th...

  8. Exercise protects against obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction via promoting perivascular adipose tissue browning

    Zhong, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have reached epidemics worldwide. Obesity represents the independent risk factor for a serious of diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Exercise is one of the most efficient ways to prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular diseases. But the detailed mechanism is still poorly understood. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is the adipose tissue surrounding the blood vessels. Emerging evidence has shown that PVAT plays an active role in modulating vascular functi...

  9. Role of hypoxia in obesity-induced disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue

    Yin, Jun; Gao, Zhanguo; He, Qing; Zhou, Dequan; Guo, ZengKui; Ye, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that adipose tissue hypoxia (ATH) may contribute to endocrine dysfunction in adipose tissue of obese mice. In this study, we examined hypoxia's effects on metabolism in adipocytes. We determined the dynamic relationship of ATH and adiposity in ob/ob mice. The interstitial oxygen pressure (Po2) was monitored in the epididymal fat pads for ATH. During weight gain from 39.5 to 55.5 g, Po2 declined from 34.8 to 20.1 mmHg, which are 40–60% lower than those in the lean mice. ...

  10. Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions by refractive-index measurements

    Yanina, I. Yu.; Popov, A. P.; Bykov, A. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions were studied in vitro using an Abbe refractometer. The 1-2-mm thick porcine fat tissues slices were used in the experiments. The observed change in the tissue was associated with several phase transitions of lipid components of the adipose tissue. It was found that overall heating of a sample from the room to higher temperature led to more pronounced and tissue changes in refractive index if other experimental conditions were kept constant. We observed an abrupt change in the refractive index in the temperature range of 37-60 °C.

  11. Deletion of PPARγ in adipose tissues of mice protects against high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance

    Jones, Julie R.; Barrick, Cordelia; Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Lindner, Jill; Blondeau, Bertrand; FUJIMOTO, Yuka; Shiota, Masakazu; Kesterson, Robert A.; Kahn, Barbara B.; Magnuson, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a crucial role in adipocyte differentiation, glucose metabolism, and other physiological processes. To further explore the role of PPARγ in adipose tissues, we used a Cre/loxP strategy to generate adipose-specific PPARγ knockout mice. These animals exhibited marked abnormalities in the formation and function of both brown and white adipose tissues. When fed a high-fat diet, adipose-specific PPARγ knockout mice displayed diminished wei...

  12. Adipogenic differentiation of scaffold-bound human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASC) for soft tissue engineering

    Adipose tissue engineering, instead of tissue substitution, often uses autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASC). These cells are known to improve graft integration and to support neovascularization of scaffolds when seeded onto biomaterials. In this study we thought to engineer adipose tissue using scaffold-bound hASC, since they can be differentiated into the adipocyte cell lineage and used for soft tissue regeneration. We show here by microscopy and gene expression of the peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor gene (PPARγ2) that hASC growing on polypropylene fibrous scaffolds as well as on three-dimensional nonwoven scaffolds can be turned into adipose tissue within 19 days. Freshly isolated hASC displayed a higher differentiation potential than hASC cultured for eight passages. In addition, we proved a modified alginate microcapsule to directly induce adipogenic differentiation of incorporated hASC. The results may help to improve long-term success of adipose tissue regeneration, especially for large-scale soft tissue defects, and support the development of cell–scaffold combinations which can be shaped individually and directly induce the adipogenic differentiation of incorporated hASC at the site of implantation. (paper)

  13. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams Brahman calves from Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( Brahman cattle than in three-fourths Angus cattle. Additionally, several differences were observed in i.m. adipose tissue that were

  14. The "Big Bang" in obese fat: Events initiating obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.

    Wensveen, Felix M; Valentić, Sonja; Šestan, Marko; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Polić, Bojan

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is associated with the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which is an important underlying cause of insulin resistance and progression to diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Although the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in disease development is established, the initiating events leading to immune cell activation remain elusive. Lean adipose tissue is predominantly populated with regulatory cells, such as eosinophils and type 2 innate lymphocytes. These cells maintain tissue homeostasis through the excretion of type 2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which keep adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in an anti-inflammatory, M2-like state. Diet-induced obesity is associated with the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of type 1 inflammatory responses in VAT, characterized by IFN-γ. A key event is a shift of ATMs toward an M1 phenotype. Recent studies show that obesity-induced adipocyte hypertrophy results in upregulated surface expression of stress markers. Adipose stress is detected by local sentinels, such as NK cells and CD8(+) T cells, which produce IFN-γ, driving M1 ATM polarization. A rapid accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in VAT follows, leading to inflammation. In this review, we provide an overview of events leading to adipose tissue inflammation, with a special focus on adipose homeostasis and the obesity-induced loss of homeostasis which marks the initiation of VAT inflammation. PMID:26220361

  15. Transgenic mice overexpressing the beta 1-adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue are resistant to obesity.

    Soloveva, V; Graves, R A; Rasenick, M M; Spiegelman, B M; Ross, S R

    1997-01-01

    The ratio of alpha- to beta-receptors is thought to regulate the lipolytic index of adipose depots. To determine whether increasing the activity of the beta 1-adrenergic receptor (AR) in adipose tissue would affect the lipolytic rate or the development of this tissue, we used the enhancer-promoter region of the adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) gene to direct expression of the human beta 1 AR cDNA to adipose tissue. Expression of the transgene was seen only in brown and white adipose tissue. Adipocytes from transgenic mice were more responsive to beta AR agonists than were adipocytes from nontransgenic mice, both in terms of cAMP production and lipolytic rates. Transgenic animals were partially resistant to diet-induced obesity. They had smaller adipose tissue depots than their nontransgenic littermates, reflecting decreased lipid accumulation in their adipocytes. In addition to increasing the lipolytic rate, overexpression of the beta 1 AR induced the abundant appearance of brown fat cells in subcutaneous white adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that the beta 1 AR is involved in both stimulation of lipolysis and the proliferation of brown fat cells in the context of the whole organism. Moreover, it appears that it is the overall beta AR activity, rather than the particular subtype, that controls these phenomena. PMID:8994185

  16. Gender and Obesity Specific MicroRNA Expression in Adipose Tissue from Lean and Obese Pigs.

    Mentzel, Caroline M Junker; Anthon, Christian; Jacobsen, Mette J; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Bruun, Camilla S; Jørgensen, Claus B; Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a complex condition that increases the risk of life threatening diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Studying the gene regulation of obesity is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the obesity derived diseases and may lead to better intervention and treatment plans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs regulating target mRNA by binding to their 3'UTR. They are involved in numerous biological processes and diseases, including obesity. In this study we use a mixed breed pig model designed for obesity studies to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue by RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Both male and female pigs are included to explore gender differences. The RNAseq study shows that the most highly expressed miRNAs are in accordance with comparable studies in pigs and humans. A total of six miRNAs are differentially expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue between the lean and obese group of pigs, and in addition gender specific significant differential expression is observed for a number of miRNAs. The differentially expressed miRNAs have been verified using qPCR. The results of these studies in general confirm the trends found by RNAseq. Mir-9 and mir-124a are significantly differentially expressed with large fold changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue between lean and obese pigs. Mir-9 is more highly expressed in the obese pigs with a fold change of 10 and a p-value < 0.001. Mir-124a is more highly expressed in the obese pigs with a fold change of 114 and a p-value < 0.001. In addition, mir-124a is significantly higher expressed in abdominal adipose tissue in male pigs with a fold change of 119 and a p-value < 0.05. Both miRNAs are also significantly higher expressed in the liver of obese male pigs where mir-124a has a fold change of 12 and mir-9 has a fold change of 1.6, both with p-values < 0.05. PMID:26222688

  17. Gender and Obesity Specific MicroRNA Expression in Adipose Tissue from Lean and Obese Pigs.

    Caroline M Junker Mentzel

    Full Text Available Obesity is a complex condition that increases the risk of life threatening diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Studying the gene regulation of obesity is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the obesity derived diseases and may lead to better intervention and treatment plans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs regulating target mRNA by binding to their 3'UTR. They are involved in numerous biological processes and diseases, including obesity. In this study we use a mixed breed pig model designed for obesity studies to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue by RNA sequencing (RNAseq. Both male and female pigs are included to explore gender differences. The RNAseq study shows that the most highly expressed miRNAs are in accordance with comparable studies in pigs and humans. A total of six miRNAs are differentially expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue between the lean and obese group of pigs, and in addition gender specific significant differential expression is observed for a number of miRNAs. The differentially expressed miRNAs have been verified using qPCR. The results of these studies in general confirm the trends found by RNAseq. Mir-9 and mir-124a are significantly differentially expressed with large fold changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue between lean and obese pigs. Mir-9 is more highly expressed in the obese pigs with a fold change of 10 and a p-value < 0.001. Mir-124a is more highly expressed in the obese pigs with a fold change of 114 and a p-value < 0.001. In addition, mir-124a is significantly higher expressed in abdominal adipose tissue in male pigs with a fold change of 119 and a p-value < 0.05. Both miRNAs are also significantly higher expressed in the liver of obese male pigs where mir-124a has a fold change of 12 and mir-9 has a fold change of 1.6, both with p-values < 0.05.

  18. Hypoxia-inducible factor 3A gene expression and methylation in adipose tissue is related to adipose tissue dysfunction.

    Pfeiffer, Susanne; Krüger, Jacqueline; Maierhofer, Anna; Böttcher, Yvonne; Klöting, Nora; El Hajj, Nady; Schleinitz, Dorit; Schön, Michael R; Dietrich, Arne; Fasshauer, Mathias; Lohmann, Tobias; Dreßler, Miriam; Stumvoll, Michael; Haaf, Thomas; Blüher, Matthias; Kovacs, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a genome-wide analysis identified DNA methylation of the HIF3A (hypoxia-inducible factor 3A) as strongest correlate of BMI. Here we tested the hypothesis that HIF3A mRNA expression and CpG-sites methylation in adipose tissue (AT) and genetic variants in HIF3A are related to parameters of AT distribution and function. In paired samples of subcutaneous AT (SAT) and visceral AT (VAT) from 603 individuals, we measured HIF3A mRNA expression and analyzed its correlation with obesity and related traits. In subgroups of individuals, we investigated the effects on HIF3A genetic variants on its AT expression (N = 603) and methylation of CpG-sites (N = 87). HIF3A expression was significantly higher in SAT compared to VAT and correlated with obesity and parameters of AT dysfunction (including CRP and leucocytes count). HIF3A methylation at cg22891070 was significantly higher in VAT compared to SAT and correlated with BMI, abdominal SAT and VAT area. Rs8102595 showed a nominal significant association with AT HIF3A methylation levels as well as with obesity and fat distribution. HIF3A expression and methylation in AT are fat depot specific, related to obesity and AT dysfunction. Our data support the hypothesis that HIF pathways may play an important role in the development of AT dysfunction in obesity. PMID:27346320

  19. Lipocalin 2, a Regulator of Retinoid Homeostasis and Retinoid-mediated Thermogenic Activation in Adipose Tissue.

    Guo, Hong; Foncea, Rocio; O'Byrne, Sheila M; Jiang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Deis, Jessica A; Blaner, William S; Bernlohr, David A; Chen, Xiaoli

    2016-05-20

    We have recently characterized the role of lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) as a new adipose-derived cytokine in the regulation of adaptive thermogenesis via a non-adrenergic pathway. Herein, we explored a potential non-adrenergic mechanism by which Lcn2 regulates thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. We found that Lcn2 is a retinoic acid target gene, and retinoic acid concurrently stimulated UCP1 and Lcn2 expression in adipocytes. Lcn2 KO mice exhibited a blunted effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on body weight and fat mass, lipid metabolism, and retinoic acid signaling pathway activation in adipose tissue under the high fat diet-induced obese condition. We further demonstrated that Lcn2 is required for the full action of ATRA on the induction of UCP1 and PGC-1α expression in brown adipocytes and the restoration of cold intolerance in Lcn2 KO mice. Interestingly, we discovered that Lcn2 KO mice have decreased levels of retinoic acid and retinol in adipose tissue. The protein levels of STRA6 responsible for retinol uptake were significantly decreased in adipose tissue. The retinol transporter RBP4 was increased in adipose tissue but decreased in the circulation, suggesting the impairment of RBP4 secretion in Lcn2 KO adipose tissue. Moreover, Lcn2 deficiency abolished the ATRA effect on RBP4 expression in adipocytes. All the data suggest that the decreased retinoid level and action are associated with impaired retinol transport and storage in adipose tissue in Lcn2 KO mice. We conclude that Lcn2 plays a critical role in regulating metabolic homeostasis of retinoids and retinoid-mediated thermogenesis in adipose tissue. PMID:27008859

  20. Porcine adipose-derived stem cells from buccal fat pad and subcutaneous adipose tissue for future preclinical studies in oral surgery

    Niada, S; L.M. Ferreira; Arrigoni, E.; Addis, A.; M. Campagnol; E. Broccaioli; Brini, A T

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are progenitor cells used in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Despite subcutaneous adipose tissue being more abundant, the buccal fat pad (BFP) is easily accessible for dentists and maxillofacial surgeons. For this reason, considering the need for preclinical study and the swine as an optimal animal model in tissue engineering applications, we compared the features of porcine ASCs (pASCs) from both tissue-harvesting sites. Metho...

  1. Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression

    Andersen Monica

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-α gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression.

  2. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. - Highlights: • Visceral adipose tissue express higher pref-1 mRNA than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length in visceral adipose tissue is longer than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length of adipose tissue is not associated with adipocyte size. • Pref-1 mRNA is negatively correlated with intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size

  3. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues

    Yamada, Tomoya, E-mail: toyamada@affrc.go.jp; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-07

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. - Highlights: • Visceral adipose tissue express higher pref-1 mRNA than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length in visceral adipose tissue is longer than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length of adipose tissue is not associated with adipocyte size. • Pref-1 mRNA is negatively correlated with intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size.

  4. Control of brown adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism by PPARγ

    William T. Festuccia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT non-shivering thermogenesis impacts energy homeostasis in rodents and humans. Mitochondrial UCP1 in brown fat cells produce heat by dissipating the energy generated by the oxidation of fatty acids and glucose. In addition to thermogenesis and despite its small relative size, sympathetically activated BAT constitutes an important glucose, fatty acid and triacylglycerol-clearing organ, and such function could potentially be used to alleviate dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. To date, chronic sympathetic innervation and PPARγ activation are the only recognized inducers of BAT recruitment. Here, we review the major differences between these two inducers of BAT recruitment in the regulation of lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, lipid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis, glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis. Whereas BAT recruitment through sympathetic drive translates into functional thermogenic activity, PPARγ-mediated recruitment is associated with a reduction in sympathetic activity leading to increased lipid storage in brown adipocytes. The promising therapeutic role of brown adipose tissue in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemic and hyperglycaemic conditions are also discussed.

  5. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  6. Epicardial adipose tissue in patients with heart failure

    Michaely Henrik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT and its relationship with left ventricular (LV parameters assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF and healthy controls. Background EAT is the true visceral fat deposited around the heart which generates various bioactive molecules. Previous studies found that EAT is related to left ventricular mass (LVM in healthy subjects. Further studies showed a constant EAT to myocardial mass ratio in normal, ischemic and hypertrophied hearts. Methods CMR was performed in 66 patients with CHF due to ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM, or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM and 32 healthy controls. Ventricular volumes, dimensions and LV function were assessed. The amount of EAT was determined volumetrically and expressed as mass indexed to body surface area. Additionally, the EAT/LVM and the EAT/left ventricular remodelling index (LVRI ratios were calculated. Results Patients with CHF had less indexed EAT mass than controls (22 ± 5 g/m2 versus 34 ± 4 g/m2, p 2 versus 23 ± 6 g/m2, p = 0.14. Linear regression analysis showed that with increasing LV end-diastolic diameter (LV-EDD (r = 0.42, p = 0.0004 and LV end-diastolic mass (LV-EDM (r = 0.59, p Conclusion Patients with CHF revealed significantly reduced amounts of EAT. An increase in LVM is significantly related to an increase in EAT in both patients with CHF and controls. However, different from previous reports the EAT/LVEDM-ratio in patients with CHF was significantly reduced compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the LV function correlated best with the indexed EAT/LVRI ratio in CHF patients. Metabolic abnormalities and/or anatomic alterations due to disturbed cardiac function and geometry seem to play a key role and are a possible explanation for these findings.

  7. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

    Alexey A. Tinkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and methods. A total of 48 adult female Wistar rats were used in the present study. Rats were fed either control (10% of fat or high fat diet (31.6% of fat. Adipose tissue zinc content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Rats’ serum was examined for adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum glucose and apolipoprotein spectrum were also evaluated. Results. High fat feeding resulted in a significant 34% decrease in adipose tissue zinc content in comparison to the control values. Fat pad zinc levels were significantly inversely associated with morphometric param- eters, circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and HOMA-IR values. At the same time,      a significant correlation with apolipoprotein A1 concentration was observed. Conclusion. Generally, the obtained data indicate that (1 high fat feeding results in decreased adipose tis- sue zinc content; (2 adipose tissue zinc content is tightly associated with excessive adiposity, inflammation, insulin resistance and potentially atherogenic changes.

  8. Adipogenic role of alternatively activated macrophages in β-adrenergic remodeling of white adipose tissue.

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sang-Nam; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Granneman, James G

    2016-01-01

    De novo brown adipogenesis involves the proliferation and differentiation of progenitors, yet the mechanisms that guide these events in vivo are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that treatment with a β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) agonist triggers brown/beige adipogenesis in gonadal white adipose tissue following adipocyte death and clearance by tissue macrophages. The close physical relationship between adipocyte progenitors and tissue macrophages suggested that the macrophages that clear dying adipocytes might generate proadipogenic factors. Flow cytometric analysis of macrophages from mice treated with CL 316,243 identified a subpopulation that contained elevated lipid and expressed CD44. Lipidomic analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorting-isolated macrophages demonstrated that CD44+ macrophages contained four- to five-fold higher levels of the endogenous peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligands 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE), and 13-HODE compared with CD44- macrophages. Gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that ADRB3 agonist treatment upregulated expression of ALOX15, the lipoxygenase responsible for generating 9-HODE and 13-HODE. Using an in vitro model of adipocyte efferocytosis, we found that IL-4-primed tissue macrophages accumulated lipid from dying fat cells and upregulated expression of Alox15. Furthermore, treatment of differentiating adipocytes with 9-HODE and 13-HODE potentiated brown/beige adipogenesis. Collectively, these data indicate that noninflammatory removal of adipocyte remnants and coordinated generation of PPARγ ligands by M2 macrophages provides localized adipogenic signals to support de novo brown/beige adipogenesis. PMID:26538237

  9. Tadalafil reduces visceral adipose tissue accumulation by promoting preadipocytes differentiation towards a metabolically healthy phenotype: Studies in rabbits.

    Maneschi, Elena; Cellai, Ilaria; Aversa, Antonio; Mello, Tommaso; Filippi, Sandra; Comeglio, Paolo; Bani, Daniele; Guasti, Daniele; Sarchielli, Erica; Salvatore, Giulia; Morelli, Annamaria; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Corcetto, Francesca; Corno, Chiara; Francomano, Davide; Galli, Andrea; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Lenzi, Andrea; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario; Vignozzi, Linda

    2016-03-15

    Development of metabolically healthy adipocytes within dysfunctional adipose tissue may represent an attractive way to counteract metabolic syndrome (MetS). In an experimental animal model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS, in vivo, long- and short-term tadalafil treatments were able to reduce visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation and hypertriglyceridemia, and to induce the expression in VAT of the brown fat-specific marker, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). VAT preadipocytes (PAD), isolated from the tadalafil-treated HFD rabbits, showed: i) a multilocular morphology; ii) an increased expression of brown fat-specific genes (such as UCP1 and CIDEA); iii) improved mitochondrial structure and dynamic and reduced superoxide production; iv) improved insulin sensitivity. Similar effects were obtained after in vitro tadalafil treatment in HFD rPAD. In conclusion, tadalafil counteracted HFD-associated VAT alterations, by restoring insulin-sensitivity and prompting preadipocytes differentiation towards a metabolically healthy phenotype. PMID:26805634

  10. α-Tocopherol adipose tissue stores are depleted after burn injury in pediatric patients123

    Leonard, Scott W; Traber, Daniel L; Traber, Lillian D; Gallagher, James; Bobe, Gerd; Jeschke, Marc G; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: We previously showed that thermal injury depletes plasma vitamin E in pediatric burn patients; however, plasma changes may reflect immediate alterations in vitamin E nutriture. Adipose tissue α-tocopherol concentrations are generally accepted to reflect long-term vitamin E status. Objective: To test the hypothesis that thermal injury depletes body stores of vitamin E, α-tocopherol concentrations were measured in adipose tissue samples. Design: Pediatric patients (n = 8) were followed up to 1 y after burn injury. Surgically obtained samples were collected at various intervals and stored at −80°C in a biorepository. α- and γ-Tocopherols, cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured in the same tissue aliquot. Results: During the first week after injury, adipose tissue α-tocopherol concentrations were within the expected normal range of 199 ± 40 nmol/g adipose tissue but were substantially lower at weeks 2 and 3 (133 ± 13 and 109 ± 8 nmol/g adipose tissue, respectively). Individual rates of decrease, estimated by linear regression, showed that adipose tissue α-tocopherol decreased by an average of 6.1 ± 0.6 nmol/g daily. During the first month after injury, adipose tissue triglyceride concentrations also decreased, whereas no changes in cholesterol concentrations occurred. Conclusions: These data emphasize that the burn injury experienced by these pediatric patients altered their metabolism such that vitamin E status diminished during the month after injury. Further studies are needed to evaluate the mechanism and consequences of the observed vitamin E depletion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00675714. PMID:20881067

  11. Impaired adipose tissue expandability and lipogenic capacities as ones of the main causes of metabolic disorders.

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is considered a major health problem. However, mechanisms involved and its comorbidities are not elucidated. Recent theories concerning the causes of obesity have focused on a limit to the functional capacity of adipose tissue, comparing it with other vital organs. This assumption has been the central point of interest in our laboratory. We proposed that the failure of adipose tissue is initiated by the difficulty of this tissue to increase its cellularity due to excess in fat contribution, owing to genetic or environmental factors. Nevertheless, why the adipose tissue reduces its capacity to make new adipocytes via mesenchymal cells of the stroma has not yet been elucidated. Thus, we suggest that this tissue ceases fulfilling its main function, the storage of excess fat, thereby affecting some of the key factors involved in lipogenesis, some of which are reviewed in this paper (PPARγ, ROR1, FASN, SCD1, Rab18, BrCa1, ZAG, and FABP4). On the other hand, mechanisms involved in adipose tissue expandability are also impaired, predominating hypertrophy via an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in adipogenesis and angiogenesis. However, adipose tissue failure is only part of this great orchestra, only a chapter of this nightmare. PMID:25922847

  12. Adipose tissue metabolism in humans determined by vein catheterization and microdialysis techniques

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    A technique for catheterization of a vein draining abdominal subcutaneous tissue and a microdialysis technique that allows measurements of intercellular water concentrations in adipose tissue in humans have recently been described. In the present study, we compare the two techniques during an oral...... glucose load. In addition a technique using microdialysis for measurement of tissue oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions is described. Microdialysis and vein catheterization were performed in the same region on the abdomen, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured by the local 133Xe...... washout method. The results show that subcutaneous adipose tissue gas tensions are on level with gas tensions measured in abdominal venous blood. Comparison of metabolite concentrations measured in the venous blood and venous blood concentrations calculated from microdialysis data shows that there is good...

  13. Genetic disruption of uncoupling protein 1 in mice renders brown adipose tissue a significant source of FGF21 secretion

    Susanne Keipert

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Here we show that the genetic ablation of UCP1 increases FGF21 gene expression in adipose tissue. The removal of adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis renders BAT a significant source of endogenous FGF21 under thermal stress. Thus, the thermogenic competence of BAT is not a requirement for FGF21 secretion. Notably, high endogenous FGF21 levels in UCP1-deficient models and subjects may confound pharmacological FGF21 treatments.

  14. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda; Kastrup, Jens; Simonsen, Ulf; Zachar, Vladimir; Fink, Trine

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxi...... (1% and 5% oxygen) culture and trypsinization would augment ASC expression of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines and increase the angiogenic potential of ASC-conditioned media....

  15. Loss of vitamin D receptor signaling from the mammary epithelium or adipose tissue alters pubertal glandular development

    Johnson, Abby L.; Zinser, Glendon M.; Waltz, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) signaling within the mammary gland regulates various postnatal stages of glandular development, including puberty, pregnancy, involution, and tumorigenesis. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D3 treatment induces cell-autonomous growth inhibition and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Furthermore, mammary adipose tissue serves as a depot for vitamin D3 storage, and both epithelial cells and adipocytes are capable of bioactivating vitamin D3...

  16. Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO is regulated in white and brown adipose tissue by obesity.

    Misty M Thompson

    Full Text Available Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO is an outer-mitochondrial membrane transporter which has many functions including participation in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, production of cellular energy, and is the rate-limiting step in the uptake of cholesterol. TSPO expression is dysregulated during disease pathologies involving changes in tissue energy demands such as cancer, and is up-regulated in activated macrophages during the inflammatory response. Obesity is associated with decreased energy expenditure, mitochondrial dysfunction, and chronic low-grade inflammation which collectively contribute to the development of the Metabolic Syndrome. Therefore, we hypothesized that dysregulation of TSPO in adipose tissue may be a feature of disease pathology in obesity. Radioligand binding studies revealed a significant reduction in TSPO ligand binding sites in mitochondrial extracts from both white (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT in mouse models of obesity (diet-induced and genetic compared to control animals. We also confirmed a reduction in TSPO gene expression in whole tissue extracts from WAT and BAT. Immunohistochemistry in WAT confirmed TSPO expression in adipocytes but also revealed high-levels of TSPO expression in WAT macrophages in obese animals. No changes in TSPO expression were observed in WAT or BAT after a 17 hour fast or 4 hour cold exposure. Treatment of mice with the TSPO ligand PK11195 resulted in regulation of metabolic genes in WAT. Together, these results suggest a potential role for TSPO in mediating adipose tissue homeostasis.

  17. Adipose tissue glycogen accumulation is associated with obesity-linked inflammation in humans

    Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victòria; Ejarque, Miriam; Serena, Carolina; Duran, Xavier; Montori-Grau, Marta; Rodríguez, Miguel Angel; Yanes, Oscar; Núñez-Roa, Catalina; Roche, Kelly; Puthanveetil, Prasanth; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Saez, Enrique; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M.; Gómez-Foix, Anna Ma; Saltiel, Alan R.; Vendrell, Joan; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Glycogen metabolism has emerged as a mediator in the control of energy homeostasis and studies in murine models reveal that adipose tissue might contain glycogen stores. Here we investigated the physio(patho)logical role of glycogen in human adipose tissue in the context of obesity and insulin resistance. Methods We studied glucose metabolic flux of hypoxic human adipoctyes by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based metabolic approaches. Glycogen synthesis and glycogen content in response to hypoxia was analyzed in human adipocytes and macrophages. To explore the metabolic effects of enforced glycogen deposition in adipocytes and macrophages, we overexpressed PTG, the only glycogen-associated regulatory subunit (PP1-GTS) reported in murine adipocytes. Adipose tissue gene expression analysis was performed on wild type and homozygous PTG KO male mice. Finally, glycogen metabolism gene expression and glycogen accumulation was analyzed in adipose tissue, mature adipocytes and resident macrophages from lean and obese subjects with different degrees of insulin resistance in 2 independent cohorts. Results We show that hypoxia modulates glucose metabolic flux in human adipocytes and macrophages and promotes glycogenesis. Enforced glycogen deposition by overexpression of PTG re-orients adipocyte secretion to a pro-inflammatory response linked to insulin resistance and monocyte/lymphocyte migration. Furthermore, glycogen accumulation is associated with inhibition of mTORC1 signaling and increased basal autophagy flux, correlating with greater leptin release in glycogen-loaded adipocytes. PTG-KO mice have reduced expression of key inflammatory genes in adipose tissue and PTG overexpression in M0 macrophages induces a pro-inflammatory and glycolytic M1 phenotype. Increased glycogen synthase expression correlates with glycogen deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese patients. Glycogen content in subcutaneous mature adipocytes is associated

  18. The effect of exercise training on hormone-sensitive lipase in rat intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Langfort, J;

    2001-01-01

    1. Adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis in adipose tissue may increase with training. The rate-limiting step in adipose tissue lipolysis is catalysed by the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). We studied the effect of exercise training on the activity of the total and the activated form of HSL......, referred to as HSL (DG) and HSL (TG), respectively, and on the concentration of HSL protein in retroperitoneal (RE) and mesenteric (ME) adipose tissue, and in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles in rats. 2. Rats (weighing 96 +/- 1 g, mean +/- S.E.M.) were either swim trained (T, 18 weeks......, n = 12) or sedentary (S, n = 12). Then RE and ME adipose tissue and the EDL and soleus muscles were incubated for 20 min with 4.4 microM adrenaline. 3. HSL enzyme activities in adipose tissue were higher in T compared with S rats. Furthermore, in RE adipose tissue, training also doubled HSL protein...

  19. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne;

    2007-01-01

    metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to compare 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in different fat depots (visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, and subcutaneous gluteal) in lean and obese men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional study design was used for healthy patients undergoing minor...... women had lower 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with men (62% lower, p < 0.01), whereas no significant difference was found between obese men and women. 11Beta-HSD1 mRNA in human adipose tissue was higher in obese subjects compared with lean subjects in both women and...... men and in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. No difference in mRNA expression of 11beta-HSD1 between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue or between subcutaneous adipose tissue from different depots was found. CONCLUSIONS: 11Beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue is increased in obesity in both...

  20. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E;

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI...... (HP/HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic...

  1. Changes of Adipose Tissue Morphology and Composition during Late Pregnancy and Early Lactation in Dairy Cows.

    Ákos Kenéz

    Full Text Available Dairy cows mobilize large amounts of body fat during early lactation to overcome negative energy balance which typically arises in this period. As an adaptation process, adipose tissues of cows undergo extensive remodeling during late pregnancy and early lactation. The objective of the present study was to characterize this remodeling to get a better understanding of adaptation processes in adipose tissues, affected by changing metabolic conditions including lipid mobilization and refilling as a function of energy status. This was done by determining adipocyte size in histological sections of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue biopsy samples collected from German Holstein cows at 42 days prepartum, and 1, 21, and 100 days postpartum. Characterization of cell size changes was extended by the analysis of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content per gram tissue, and β-actin protein expression in the same samples. In both adipose tissue depots cell size was becoming smaller during the course of the study, suggesting a decrease in cellular triacylglycerol content. Results of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content, and β-actin protein expression could only partially explain the observed differences in cell size. The retroperitoneal adipose tissue exhibited a greater extent of time-related differences in cell size, DNA, and protein content, suggesting greater dynamics and metabolic flexibility for this abdominal depot compared to the investigated subcutaneous depot.

  2. Scavenger Receptor CD36 Expression Contributes to Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Cell Death in Diet-Induced Obesity

    Lei CAI; Wang, Zhen; Ji, Ailing; Meyer, Jason M.; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The enlarged adipose tissue in obesity is characterized by inflammation, including the recruitment and infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the scavenger receptor CD36 in high fat diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation and cell death. Experimental Approach Obesity and adipose tissue inflammation was compared in CD36 deficient (CD36 KO) mice and wild type (WT) mice fed a high fat diet (60% kcal fat) for ...

  3. Pro-Inflammatory CD11c+CD206+ Adipose Tissue Macrophages Are Associated With Insulin Resistance in Human Obesity

    Wentworth, John M.; Naselli, Gaetano; Brown, Wendy A.; Doyle, Lisa; Phipson, Belinda; Smyth, Gordon K.; Wabitsch, Martin; O'Brien, Paul E.; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome have been causally linked to adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in mice with diet-induced obesity. We aimed to characterize macrophage phenotype and function in human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in relation to insulin resistance in obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adipose tissue was obtained from lean and obese women undergoing bariatric surgery. Metabolic markers were measured in fasting serum and ATMs c...

  4. Human Allogeneic Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induce CD8+ Cytotoxic T Cell Reactivity

    Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Reinders, Marlies E.; Franquesa, Marcella; Engela, Anja U; Korevaar, Sander S; Roelofs, Helene; Genever, Paul G; IJzermans, Jan NM; Betjes, Michiel GH; Baan, Carla C; Weimar, Willem; Hoogduijn, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction For clinical applications, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) can be isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue of autologous or allogeneic origin. Allogeneic cell usage has advantages but may harbor the risk of sensitization against foreign HLA. Therefore, we evaluated whether bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSC are capable of inducing HLA-specific alloreactivity. Methods MSC were isolated from healthy human Bone Marrow (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue (ASC) donors. Peripheral ...

  5. Scavenger Receptor CD36 Expression Contributes to Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Cell Death in Diet-Induced Obesity

    Lei Cai; Zhen Wang; Ailing Ji; Meyer, Jason M.; Deneys R. van der Westhuyzen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The enlarged adipose tissue in obesity is characterized by inflammation, including the recruitment and infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the scavenger receptor CD36 in high fat diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation and cell death. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Obesity and adipose tissue inflammation was compared in CD36 deficient (CD36 KO) mice and wild type (WT) mice fed a high fat diet (60% kcal fat) fo...

  6. Differential gene expression profile in pig adipose tissue treated with/without clenbuterol

    Deng Xue M; Guo Wei; Liu Qiu Y; He Qiang; Zhang Jin; Zhang Wei W; Hu Xiao X; Li Ning

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Clenbuterol, a beta-agonist, can dramatically reduce pig adipose accumulation at high dosages. However, it has been banned in pig production because people who eat pig products treated with clenbuterol can be poisoned by the clenbuterol residues. To understand the molecular mechanism for this fat reduction, cDNA microarray, real-time PCR, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectra were used to study the differential gene expression profiles of pig adipose tissues tre...

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Rat Epicardial Versus Epididymal Adipose Tissue

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad; Soura Mardpour; Marzieh Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s)Some investigation has indicated that adipose-derived stem cells possess different surface epitopes and differentiation potential according to the localization of fat pad from which the cells were derived. In the present study proliferation capacity and aging of such cells were explored.Materials and MethodsAdherent cells were isolated from the collagenase digests of adipose tissues excised from rat epicardial and epididymal regions and propagated with several subcultures. The cel...

  8. Sex differences in human adipose tissues – the biology of pear shape

    Karastergiou Kalypso; Smith Steven R; Greenberg Andrew S; Fried Susan K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Women have more body fat than men, but in contrast to the deleterious metabolic consequences of the central obesity typical of men, the pear-shaped body fat distribution of many women is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk. To understand the mechanisms regulating adiposity and adipose tissue distribution in men and women, significant research attention has focused on comparing adipocyte morphological and metabolic properties, as well as the capacity of preadipocytes derived fr...

  9. Early B-cell Factor 1 Regulates Adipocyte Morphology and Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue

    Gao, Hui; Mejhert, Niklas; Fretz, Jackie A.; Arner, Erik; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Ehrlund, Anna; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Gong, Xiaowei; Strömblad, Staffan; Douagi, Iyadh; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Dahlman, Ingrid; Daub, Carsten O.; Rydén, Mikael; Horowitz, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) morphology characterized by hypertrophy (i.e. fewer but larger adipocytes) associates with increased adipose inflammation, lipolysis, insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. However, the causal relationships and the mechanisms controlling WAT morphology are unclear. Herein, we identified EBF1 as an adipocyte-expressed transcription factor with decreased expression/activity in WAT hypertrophy. In human adipocytes, the regulatory targets of EBF1 were enriched for gen...

  10. Significance of adipose tissue characteristics for development of metabolic complications in obesity

    Andersson, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is closely related to development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Intrinsic properties of adipose tissue are also of great importance for obesity related comorbidity. The aim of this thesis was to gain further knowledge of adipose depot specific effects of how fat cell size and lipolysis, as well as removal of a large portion of the visceral fat depot, affect metabolic risk. Methods: All subjects were from a cohort of 81 obese women undergoing gastric bypass ...

  11. Genetic Analysis of Brown Adipose Tissue, Obesity and Growth in Mice

    Saxton, A. M.; Eisen, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The hypothesis developed from single-gene mutant obese rodents that brown adipose tissue (BAT), through its thermogenic ability, is an important factor in the development of obesity, was tested in a randombred population of mice in which degree of adiposity is polygenically determined. Additive direct genetic parameters for measures of body size, lean, fatness and BAT at 6 wk of age were estimated under control and high-fat postweaning dietary regimens. Heritabilities were generally similar f...

  12. Myostatin Inhibition in Muscle, but Not Adipose Tissue, Decreases Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity

    Guo, Tingqing; Jou, William; Chanturiya, Tatyana; Portas, Jennifer; Gavrilova, Oksana; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn−/− mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn−/− mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscl...

  13. An orexinergic projection from perifornical hypothalamus to raphe pallidus increases rat brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Madden, Christopher J.; Tupone, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulatory cold-defense and, through its metabolic consumption of energy reserves to produce heat, can affect the long-term regulation of adiposity. An orexinergic pathway from the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PeF/LH) to the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa) has been demonstrated to increase the gain of the excitatory drives to medullary sympathetic premotor neurons controlling BAT sympathetic outflow...

  14. Circulating Blood Monocyte Subclasses and Lipid-Laden Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Obesity.

    Tal Pecht

    Full Text Available Visceral adipose tissue foam cells are increased in human obesity, and were implicated in adipose dysfunction and increased cardio-metabolic risk. In the circulation, non-classical monocytes (NCM are elevated in obesity and associate with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that circulating NCM correlate and/or are functionally linked to visceral adipose tissue foam cells in obesity, potentially providing an approach to estimate visceral adipose tissue status in the non-surgical obese patient.We preformed ex-vivo functional studies utilizing sorted monocyte subclasses from healthy donors. Moreover, we assessed circulating blood monocyte subclasses and visceral fat adipose tissue macrophage (ATM lipid content by flow-cytometry in paired blood and omental-fat samples collected from patients (n = 65 undergoing elective abdominal surgery.Ex-vivo, NCM and NCM-derived macrophages exhibited lower lipid accumulation capacity compared to classical or intermediate monocytes/-derived macrophages. Moreover, of the three subclasses, NCM exhibited the lowest migration towards adipose tissue conditioned-media. In a cohort of n = 65, increased %NCM associated with higher BMI (r = 0.250,p<0.05 and ATM lipid content (r = 0.303,p<0.05. Among patients with BMI≥25Kg/m2, linear regression models adjusted for age, sex or BMI revealed that NCM independently associate with ATM lipid content, particularly in men.Collectively, although circulating blood NCM are unlikely direct functional precursor cells for adipose tissue foam cells, their increased percentage in the circulation may clinically reflect higher lipid content in visceral ATMs.

  15. Global gene expression profiling of brown to white adipose tissue transformation in sheep reveals novel transcriptional components linked to adipose remodeling

    Basse, Astrid L.; Dixen, Karen; Yadav, Rachita;

    2015-01-01

    time course study of the perirenal adipose depot. We observed changes in tissue morphology, gene expression and metabolism within the first two weeks of postnatal life consistent with the expected transition from BAT to WAT. The transformation was characterized by massively decreased mitochondrial......, including NR1H3, MYC, KLF4, ESR1, RELA and BCL6, which were linked to the overall changes in gene expression during the adipose tissue remodeling. Finally, the perirenal adipose tissue expressed both brown and brite/beige adipocyte marker genes at birth, the expression of which changed substantially over...

  16. Ontogenesis of muscle and adipose tissues and their interactions in ruminants and other species.

    Bonnet, M; Cassar-Malek, I; Chilliard, Y; Picard, B

    2010-07-01

    The lean-to-fat ratio, that is, the relative masses of muscle and adipose tissue, is a criterion for the yield and quality of bovine carcasses and meat. This review describes the interactions between muscle and adipose tissue (AT) that may regulate the dynamic balance between the number and size of muscle v. adipose cells. Muscle and adipose tissue in cattle grow by an increase in the number of cells (hyperplasia), mainly during foetal life. The total number of muscle fibres is set by the end of the second trimester of gestation. By contrast, the number of adipocytes is never set. Number of adipocytes increases mainly before birth until 1 year of age, depending on the anatomical location of the adipose tissue. Hyperplasia concerns brown pre-adipocytes during foetal life and white pre-adipocytes from a few weeks after birth. A decrease in the number of secondary myofibres and an increase in adiposity in lambs born from mothers severely underfed during early pregnancy suggest a balance in the commitment of a common progenitor into the myogenic or adipogenic lineages, or a reciprocal regulation of the commitment of two distinct progenitors. The developmental origin of white adipocytes is a subject of debate. Molecular and histological data suggested a possible transdifferentiation of brown into white adipocytes, but this hypothesis has now been challenged by the characterization of distinct precursor cells for brown and white adipocytes in mice. Increased nutrient storage in fully differentiated muscle fibres and adipocytes, resulting in cell enlargement (hypertrophy), is thought to be the main mechanism, whereby muscle and fat masses increase in growing cattle. Competition or prioritization between adipose and muscle cells for the uptake and metabolism of nutrients is suggested, besides the successive waves of growth of muscle v. adipose tissue, by the inhibited or delayed adipose tissue growth in bovine genotypes exhibiting strong muscular development. This

  17. An autoradiographic study of new fat cell formation in adipose tissue in adult mice during malnutrition and refeeding

    The renewal of adipose cells in adult mice has been autoradiographically studied. The number of adipose cells was diminished by eighty percent during malnutrition and the same number of adipose cells proliferated during the refeeding stage. The results of our study showed that adipose tissue, which had previously been believed to be stable in cell number, has the capacity for cell proliferation according to changes in nutritional status. (author)

  18. Chromosome localization analysis of genes strongly expressed in human visceral adipose tissue.

    Yang, Yi-Sheng; Song, Huai-Dong; Shi, Wen-Jing; Hu, Ren-Ming; Han, Ze-Guang; Chen, Jia-Lun

    2002-06-01

    To understand fully the physiologic functions of visceral adipose tissue and to provide a basis for the identification of novel genes related to obesity and insulin resistance, the gene expression profiling of human visceral adipose tissue was established by using cDNA array. The characterization and chromosome localization of 400 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) strongly expressed in visceral adipose tissue were analyzed by searching PubMed, UniGene, the Human Genome Draft Database, and Location Data Base. Two hundred eighty-nine clones were classified into known genes among the 400 ESTs strongly expressed in the tissue. Among them, proteina; and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit, polypeptide 2 (p85beta), were also localized in the concentrated regions, which may provide clues to identifying novel genes closely related to adipocyte function with potential pathophysiologic implications. PMID:12166625

  19. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A;

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations: the...... forearm, the thigh and the abdomen. The subjects were given a meal consisting of white bread, jam, honey and apple juice (about 2300 kJ). The meal induced a twofold increase in blood flow in the examined tissues. Propranolol abolished the flow increase in the thigh and the abdomen and reduced it in the...

  20. The potential role of inhibitor of differentiation-3 in human adipose tissue remodeling and metabolic health

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Vestergaard, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic health in obesity is known to differ among individuals, and the distribution of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in this regard. Adipose tissue expansion is dependent on new blood vessel formation in order to prevent hypoxia and inflammation in...... the tissue. Regulation of angiogenesis in SAT and VAT in response to diet is therefore crucial for the metabolic outcome in obesity. Knowledge about the underlying genetic mechanisms determining metabolic health in obesity is very limited. We aimed to review the literature of the inhibitor of...

  1. Anatomical and Functional Assessment of Brown Adipose Tissue by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Chen, Y. Iris; Cypess, Aaron M.; Sass, Christina A.; Brownell, Anna-Liisa; Jokivarsi, Kimmo T.; Kahn, C. Ronald; Kwong, Kenneth K.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the primary tissue responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals. The amount of BAT and its level of activation help regulate the utilization of excessive calories for thermogenesis as opposed to storage in white adipose tissue (WAT) which would lead to weight gain. Over the past several years, BAT activity in vivo has been primarily assessed by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan using 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG)...

  2. A combined transcriptomics and lipidomics analysis of subcutaneous, epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissue reveals marked functional differences

    Caesar, R.; Manieri, M.; Kelder, T.; Boekschoten, M.; Evelo, C.; Müller, M.; Kooistra, T.; Cinti, S.; Kleemann, R.; Drevon, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Depot-dependent differences in adipose tissue physiology may reflect specialized functions and local interactions between adipocytes and surrounding tissues. We combined time-resolved microarray analyses of mesenteric- (MWAT), subcutaneous- (SWAT) and epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT) during high-fat

  3. The Effect of Marine Derived n-3 Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Function

    Marijana Todorčević

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue function is key determinant of metabolic health, with specific nutrients being suggested to play a role in tissue metabolism. One such group of nutrients are the n-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3. Results from studies where human, animal and cellular models have been utilised to investigate the effects of EPA and/or DHA on white adipose tissue/adipocytes suggest anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects. We review here evidence for these effects, specifically focusing on studies that provide some insight into metabolic pathways or processes. Of note, limited work has been undertaken investigating the effects of EPA and DHA on white adipose tissue in humans whilst more work has been undertaken using animal and cellular models. Taken together it would appear that EPA and DHA have a positive effect on lowering lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis and decreasing inflammation, all of which would be beneficial for adipose tissue biology. What remains to be elucidated is the duration and dose required to see a favourable effect of EPA and DHA in vivo in humans, across a range of adiposity.

  4. OXIDATIVE STRESS: ITS ROLE IN INSULIN SECRETION, HORMONE RECEPTION BY ADIPOCYTES AND LIPOLYSIS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE

    V. V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the pathogenetic components of many diseases during which generation of reactive oxigen species increases and the capacity of the antioxidant protection system diminishes. In the research of the last decades special attention has been given to adipose tissue, production of adipokines by it and their role in development of immunoresistance associated with formation of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes.Search for methods of therapeutic correction of adipokine secretion disorders, their influence on metabolism of separate cells and the organism on the whole as well as development of new approaches to correction of disorders in cell sensitivity to insulin are extremely topical nowadays. Systematization and consolidation of accumulated data allow to determine the strategies of further research more accurately; as a result, we have attempted to summarize and analyze the accumulated data on the role of adipose tissue in oxidative stress development.On the basis of literature data and the results of the personal investigations, the role of adipose tissue in forming oxidative stress in diabetes has been analyzed in the article. Brief description of adipose tissue was given as a secretory organ regulating metabolic processes in adipocytes and influencing functions of various organs and systems of the body. Mechanisms of disorder in insulin secretion as well as development of insulin sesistance in type I diabetes were described along with the contribution of lipolysis in adipose tissue to these processes.

  5. Estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized rats: can resistance training re-establish angiogenesis in visceral adipose tissue?

    do Valle Gomes-Gatto, Camila; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Stotzer, Uliana Sbeguen; Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda Cury; de Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on angiogenesis markers of visceral adipose tissue in ovariectomized rats. METHOD: Adult Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group): sham-sedentary, ovariectomized sedentary, sham-resistance training and ovariectomized resistance training. The rats were allowed to climb a 1.1-m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails and the weights were progressively increased. Sessions were performed three times per week for 10 weeks. Visceral adipose tissue angiogenesis and morphology were analyzed by histology. VEGF-A mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Ovariectomy resulted in higher body mass (p=0.0003), adipocyte hypertrophy (p=0.0003), decreased VEGF-A mRNA (p=0.0004) and protein levels (p=0.0009), and decreased micro-vascular density (p=0.0181) in the visceral adipose tissue of the rats. Resistance training for 10 weeks was not able to attenuate the reduced angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of the ovariectomized rats. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the resistance training program used in this study could not ameliorate low angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of ovariectomized rats.

  6. Allele compensation in tip60+/- mice rescues white adipose tissue function in vivo.

    Yuan Gao

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy homestasis. The amount of adipose tissue is largely determined by adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis, a process that is regulated by the concerted actions of multiple transcription factors and cofactors. Based on in vitro studies in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human primary preadipocytes, the transcriptional cofactor and acetyltransferase Tip60 was recently identified as an essential adipogenic factor. We therefore investigated the role of Tip60 on adipocyte differentiation and function, and possible consequences on energy homeostasis, in vivo. Because homozygous inactivation results in early embryonic lethality, Tip60+/- mice were used. Heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 had no effect on body weight, despite slightly higher food intake by Tip60+/- mice. No major effects of heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 were observed on adipose tissue and liver, and Tip60+/- displayed normal glucose tolerance, both on a low fat and a high fat diet. While Tip60 mRNA was reduced to 50% in adipose tissue, the protein levels were unaltered, suggesting compensation by the intact allele. These findings indicate that the in vivo role of Tip60 in adipocyte differentiation and function cannot be properly addressed in Tip60+/- mice, but requires the generation of adipose tissue-specific knock out animals or specific knock-in mice.

  7. Adipose tissue depot specific differences of PLIN protein content in endurance trained rats.

    Ramos, Sofhia V; Turnbull, Patrick C; MacPherson, Rebecca E K

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is classified as either white (WAT) or brown (BAT) and differs not only by anatomical location but also in function. WAT is the main source of stored energy and releases fatty acids in times of energy demand, whereas BAT plays a role in regulating non-shivering thermogenesis and oxidizes fatty acids released from the lipid droplet. The PLIN family of proteins has recently emerged as being integral in the regulation of fatty acid storage and release in adipose tissue. Previous work has demonstrated that PLIN protein content varies among adipose tissue depots, however an examination of endurance training-induced depot specific changes in PLIN protein expression has yet to be done. Male Sprague-dawley rats (n = 10) underwent 8-weeks of progressive treadmill training (18-25 m/min for 30-60 min at 10% incline) or remained sedentary as control. Following training, under isoflurane induced anesthesia epidydmal (eWAT), inguinal subcutaneous (iWAT) and intrascapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) was excised, and plasma was collected. Endurance training resulted in an increase in BAT PLIN5 and iWAT PLIN3 content, while there was no difference in PLIN protein content in endurance trained eWAT. Interestingly, endurance training resulted in a robust increase in ATGL and CGI-58 in eWAT alone. Together these results suggest the potential of a depot specific function of PLIN3 and PLIN5 in adipose tissue in response to endurance training. PMID:27386161

  8. Omega-3-derived mediators counteract obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.

    Titos, Esther; Clària, Joan

    2013-12-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue has been recognized as a key step in the development of obesity-associated complications. In obesity, the accumulation of infiltrating macrophages in adipose tissue and their phenotypic switch to M1-type dysregulate inflammatory adipokine production leading to obesity-linked insulin resistance. Resolvins are potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediators endogenously generated from omega-3 fatty acids that act as "stop-signals" of the inflammatory response promoting the resolution of inflammation. Recently, a deficit in the production of these endogenous anti-inflammatory signals has been demonstrated in obese adipose tissue. The restoration of their levels by either exogenous administration of these mediators or feeding omega-3-enriched diets, improves the inflammatory status of adipose tissue and ameliorates metabolic dysfunction. Here, we review the current knowledge on the role of these endogenous autacoids in the resolution of adipose tissue inflammation with special emphasis on their functional actions on macrophages. PMID:23707933

  9. Persistent organic pollutants meet adipose tissue hypoxia: does cross-talk contribute to inflammation during obesity?

    Myre, M; Imbeault, P

    2014-01-01

    Lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate in lipid-rich tissues such as human adipose tissue. This is particularly problematic in individuals with excess adiposity, a physiological state that may be additionally characterized by local adipose tissue hypoxia. Hypoxic patches occur when oxygen diffusion is insufficient to reach all hypertrophic adipocytes. POPs and hypoxia independently contribute to the development of adipose tissue-specific and systemic inflammation often associated with obesity. Inflammation is induced by increased proinflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, as well as reduced adiponectin release, an anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing adipokine. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the cellular response to some pollutants, while hypoxia responses occur through the oxygen-sensitive transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1. There is some overlap between the two signalling pathways since both require a common subunit called the AhR nuclear translocator. As such, it is unclear how adipocytes respond to simultaneous POP and hypoxia exposure. This brief review explores the independent contribution of POPs and adipose tissue hypoxia as factors underlying the inflammatory response from adipocytes during obesity. It also highlights that the combined effect of POPs and hypoxia through the AhR and HIF-1 signalling pathways remains to be tested. PMID:23998203

  10. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  11. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth ho...

  12. Adipose tissue expression of IL-18 and HIV-associated lipodystrophy

    Lindegaard, B.; Hansen, A.B.; Pilegaard, Henriette; Keller, P.; Gerstoft, J.; Pedersen, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    IL-18 is an inducer of apoptosis/tissue injury. IL-18 messenger RNA expression was examined in adipose tissue (AT) obtained from HIV patients with lipodystrophy, without lipodystrophy and healthy controls. IL-18 mRNA was expressed in AT at increased levels in lipodystrophy-positive compared with...

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS IN THE ADIPOSE TISSUES OF THE GENERAL POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES

    Hexabromobiphenyl has been identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in pooled extracts of adipose tissue samples collected from the general population of the conterminous United States. Mass spectra derived from tissue extracts subjected to gel permeation chroma...

  14. Microdialysis of glucose in subcutaneous adipose tissue up to 3 weeks in healthy volunteers

    Wientjes, K.J C; Vonk, P; Vonk-van Klei, Y; Schoonen, A.J M; Kossen, N.W F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To measure possible changes in dialysate glucose concentrations over time, to validate the diffusional model for glucose transport from tissue to the probe, and to evaluate the actual glucose concentration in adipose tissue. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Glucose concentrations in the sub

  15. Two-photon excited fluorescence of intrinsic fluorophores enables label-free assessment of adipose tissue function

    Alonzo, Carlo Amadeo; Karaliota, Sevasti; Pouli, Dimitra; Liu, Zhiyi; Karalis, Katia P.; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for evaluating adipose tissue function are destructive or have low spatial resolution. These limit our ability to assess dynamic changes and heterogeneous responses that occur in healthy or diseased subjects, or during treatment. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence enables functional imaging of adipocyte metabolism with subcellular resolution. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence from intracellular metabolic co-factors and lipid droplets can distinguish the functional states of excised white, brown, and cold-induced beige fat. Similar optical changes are identified when white and brown fat are assessed in vivo. Therefore, these studies establish the potential of non-invasive, high resolution, endogenous contrast, two-photon imaging to identify distinct adipose tissue types, monitor their functional state, and characterize heterogeneity of induced responses. PMID:27491409

  16. Targeted Overexpression of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase in Adipose Tissue Increases Fat Deposition but Protects against Diet-induced Insulin Resistance and Inflammatory Responses*

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Xu, Hang; Halim, Vera; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Huan; Fan, Yang-Yi; Ong, Kuok Teong; Woo, Shih-Lung; Chapkin, Robert S.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Chen, Yanming; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer; Wei, Lai; Wu, Chaodong

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates the dissociation of fat deposition, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. As a regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (iPFK2, encoded by PFKFB3) protects against diet-induced adipose tissue inflammatory response and systemic insulin resistance independently of adiposity. Using aP2-PFKFB3 transgenic (Tg) mice, we explored the ability of targeted adipocyte PFKFB3/iPFK2 overexpression to modulate diet-induced inflammatory responses and insulin resistance arising from fat deposition in both adipose and liver tissues. Compared with wild-type littermates (controls) on a high fat diet (HFD), Tg mice exhibited increased adiposity, decreased adipose inflammatory response, and improved insulin sensitivity. In a parallel pattern, HFD-fed Tg mice showed increased hepatic steatosis, decreased liver inflammatory response, and improved liver insulin sensitivity compared with controls. In both adipose and liver tissues, increased fat deposition was associated with lipid profile alterations characterized by an increase in palmitoleate. Additionally, plasma lipid profiles also displayed an increase in palmitoleate in HFD-Tg mice compared with controls. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, overexpression of PFKFB3/iPFK2 recapitulated metabolic and inflammatory changes observed in adipose tissue of Tg mice. Upon treatment with conditioned medium from iPFK2-overexpressing adipocytes, mouse primary hepatocytes displayed metabolic and inflammatory responses that were similar to those observed in livers of Tg mice. Together, these data demonstrate a unique role for PFKFB3/iPFK2 in adipocytes with regard to diet-induced inflammatory responses in both adipose and liver tissues. PMID:22556414

  17. Clofibrate causes an upregulation of PPAR-{alpha} target genes but does not alter expression of SREBP target genes in liver and adipose tissue of pigs.

    Luci, Sebastian; Giemsa, Beatrice; Kluge, Holger; Eder, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of clofibrate treatment on expression of target genes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and various genes of the lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue of pigs. An experiment with 18 pigs was performed in which pigs were fed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 5 g clofibrate/kg for 28 days. Pigs treated with clofibrate had heavier livers, moderately increased mRNA concentrations of various PPAR-alpha target genes in liver and adipose tissue, a higher concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and markedly lower concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma and lipoproteins than control pigs (P liver and adipose tissue and mRNA concentrations of apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and C-III in the liver were not different between both groups of pigs. In conclusion, this study shows that clofibrate treatment activates PPAR-alpha in liver and adipose tissue and has a strong hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effect in pigs. The finding that mRNA concentrations of some proteins responsible for the hypolipidemic action of fibrates in humans were not altered suggests that there were certain differences in the mode of action compared with humans. It is also shown that PPAR-alpha activation by clofibrate does not affect hepatic expression of SREBP target genes involved in synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol homeostasis in liver and adipose tissue of pigs. PMID:17363680

  18. Do adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate Parkinson's disease in rat model?

    Ahmed, Hh; Salem, Am; Atta, Hm; Ghazy, Ma; Aglan, Ha

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder in middle-aged and elderly people. This study aimed to elucidate the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in management of PD in ovariectomized rat model. MSCs were excised from adipose tissue of both the omentum and the inguinal fat pad of male rats, grown, and propagated in culture; then characterized morphologically; and by the detection of surface markers gene expression. In this study, 40 ovariectomized animals were classified into 5 groups; group 1 was ovariectomized control, groups 2 to 5 were subcutaneously administered with rotenone for 14 days after 1 month of ovariectomy for induction of PD. Group 2 was left untreated; groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Sinemet(®), Cerebrolysin(®), and a single dose of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADMSCs), respectively. Y-chromosome gene (sry) was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in brain tissue of the female rats. Serum transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Brain dopamine level was assayed fluorometrically, while brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression was detected by semiquantitative real-time PCR. The PD group showed significant increase in serum TGF-β and MCP-1 levels associated with significant decrease in serum BDNF, brain dopamine, and brain TH gene expression levels. In contrast, all treatments produce significant decrease in serum TGF-β and MCP-1 levels in concomitant with significant increase in serum BDNF, brain dopamine, and brain TH gene expression levels. In conclusion, the observed improvements in the studied biomarkers due to ADMSCs infusion might be attributed to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and neurotrophic effects. PMID:24567299

  19. Adipose Tissue-Specific Deletion of 12/15-Lipoxygenase Protects Mice from the Consequences of a High-Fat Diet

    Banumathi K. Cole

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adipose tissue. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LO generates proinflammatory lipid mediators, which induce inflammation in adipose tissue. Therefore we investigated the role of 12/15-LO activity in mouse white adipose tissue in promoting obesity-induced local and systemic inflammatory consequences. We generated a mouse model for fat-specific deletion of 12/15-LO, aP2-Cre; 12/15-LOloxP/loxP, which we call ad-12/15-LO mice, and placed wild-type controls and ad-12/15-LO mice on a high-fat diet for 16 weeks and examined obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. High-fat diet-fed ad-12/15-LO exhibited improved fasting glucose levels and glucose metabolism, and epididymal adipose tissue from these mice exhibited reduced inflammation and macrophage infiltration compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, fat-specific deletion of 12/15-LO led to decreased peripheral pancreatic islet inflammation with enlarged pancreatic islets when mice were fed the high-fat diet compared to wild-type mice. These results suggest an interesting crosstalk between 12/15-LO expression in adipose tissue and inflammation in pancreatic islets. Therefore, deletion of 12/15-LO in adipose tissue can offer local and systemic protection from obesity-induced consequences, and blocking 12/15-LO activity in adipose tissue may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Metabolic characteristics and therapeutic potential of brown and ‘beige’ adipose tissues

    Ekaterina Olegovna Koksharova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Diabetes Federation, 10.9 million people have diabetes mellitus (DM in Russia; however, only up to 4 million are registered. In addition, 11.9 million people have impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose levels [1].One of the significant risk factors for type 2 DM (T2DM is obesity, which increases insulin resistance (IR. IR is the major pathogenetic link to T2DM.According to current concepts, there are three types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT and ‘beige’, of which the last two types have a thermogenic function. Some research results have revealed the main stages in the development of adipocytes; however, there is no general consensus regarding the development of ‘beige’ adipocytes. Furthermore, the biology of BAT and ‘beige’ adipose tissue is currently being intensively investigated, and some key transcription factors, signalling pathways and hormones that promote the development and activation of these tissues have been identified. The most discussed hormones are irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21, which have established positive effects on BAT and ‘beige’ adipose tissue with regard to carbohydrate, lipid and energy metabolism. The primary imaging techniques used to investigate BAT are PET-CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.With respect to the current obesity epidemic and associated diseases, including T2DM, there is a growing interest in investigating adipogenesis and the possibility of altering this process. BAT and ‘beige’ adipose tissue may be targets for developing drugs directed against obesity and T2DM.