WorldWideScience

Sample records for adipocyte extracellular matrix

  1. ADAM12 induces actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix reorganization during early adipocyte differentiation by regulating beta1 integrin function

    Kawaguchi, Nobuko; Sundberg, Christina; Kveiborg, Marie;

    2003-01-01

    Changes in cell shape are a morphological hallmark of differentiation. In this study we report that the expression of ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, dramatically affects cell morphology in preadipocytes, changing them from a flattened, fibroblastic appearance to a more rounded shape. We...... early adipocyte differentiation....

  2. Extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles.

    Rodgers, R J; Irving-Rodgers, H F; van Wezel, I L

    2000-05-25

    A lot is known about the control of the development of ovarian follicles by growth factors and hormones, but less is known about the roles of extracellular matrix in the control of follicular growth and development. In this review we focus on the specialized extracellular matrix of the basal laminas that are present in ovarian follicles. These include the follicular basal lamina itself, the Call-Exner bodies of the membrana granulosa, the subendothelial and arteriole smooth muscle basal laminas in the theca, and the basal lamina-like material of the thecal matrix. We discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition, that many of its components are produced by the granulosa cells, and that the follicular basal laminas of different follicles have different ultrastructural appearances, linked to the shape of the aligning granulosa cells. All these studies suggest that the follicular basal lamina is extremely dynamic during follicular development. PMID:10963877

  3. The Evolution of Extracellular Matrix

    Özbek, Suat; Balasubramanian, Prakash G.; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Tucker, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a perspective on the molecular evolution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in metazoa that draws on research publications and data from sequenced genomes and expressed sequence tag libraries. ECM components do not function in isolation, and the biological ECM system or “adhesome” also depends on posttranslational processing enzymes, cell surface receptors, and extracellular proteases. We focus principally on the adhesome of internal tissues and discuss its origins at the dawn of the metazoa and the expansion of complexity that occurred in the chordate lineage. The analyses demonstrate very high conservation of a core adhesome that apparently evolved in a major wave of innovation in conjunction with the origin of metazoa. Integrin, CD36, and certain domains predate the metazoa, and some ECM-related proteins are identified in choanoflagellates as predicted sequences. Modern deuterostomes and vertebrates have many novelties and elaborations of ECM as a result of domain shuffling, domain innovations and gene family expansions. Knowledge of the evolution of metazoan ECM is important for understanding how it is built as a system, its roles in normal tissues and disease processes, and has relevance for tissue engineering, the development of artificial organs, and the goals of synthetic biology. PMID:21160071

  4. Proteases decode the extracellular matrix cryptome.

    Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Vallet, Sylvain D

    2016-03-01

    The extracellular matrix is comprised of 1100 core-matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins and of glycosaminoglycans. This structural scaffold contributes to the organization and mechanical properties of tissues and modulates cell behavior. The extracellular matrix is dynamic and undergoes constant remodeling, which leads to diseases if uncontrolled. Bioactive fragments, called matricryptins, are released from the extracellular proteins by limited proteolysis and have biological activities on their own. They regulate numerous physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis, cancer, diabetes, wound healing, fibrosis and infectious diseases and either improve or worsen the course of diseases depending on the matricryptins and on the molecular and biological contexts. Several protease families release matricryptins from core-matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins both in vitro and in vivo. The major proteases, which decrypt the extracellular matrix, are zinc metalloproteinases of the metzincin superfamily (matrixins, adamalysins and astacins), cysteine proteinases and serine proteases. Some matricryptins act as enzyme inhibitors, further connecting protease and matricryptin fates and providing intricate regulation of major physiopathological processes such as angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. They strengthen the role of the extracellular matrix as a key player in tissue failure and core-matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins as important therapeutic targets. PMID:26382969

  5. Disruption of cell-matrix interactions by heparin enhances mesenchymal progenitor adipocyte differentiation

    Differentiation of marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitors to either the osteoblast or adipocyte lineage is reciprocally regulated. Factors that promote osteoblastogenesis inhibit adipogenesis, while adipogenic factors are inhibitory to osteoblast differentiation. Heparin, a soluble glycosaminoglycan, inhibits bone formation in vivo and osteoblast cell differentiation and function in vitro, and has been shown to promote adipocyte differentiation. To elucidate the role that heparin plays in the adipogenic induction of murine mesenchymal progenitors, we studied immortalized marrow stromal cells (IM-MSC), the MSC cell line, ST2, and 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes. Heparin alone was not sufficient to induce adipogenesis, but enhanced the induction under a variety of adipogenic cocktails. This effect was both dose- and time-dependent. Heparin showed a positive effect at concentrations > 0. 1 μg/ml when applied before day 3 during the induction course. Heparin's effect on adipogenesis was independent of cell proliferation, cell density, and extracellular lipid. This effect is likely related to the unique structure of heparin because another polyanionic glycosaminoglycan, dextran sulfate, did not promote adipogenic differentiation. Heparin treatment altered morphology and adhesion characteristics of progenitor cells, resulting in cell rounding and aggregation. As well, heparin counteracted the known inhibitory effect of fibronectin on adipogenesis and decreased basal focal adhesion kinase and paxillin phosphorylation. We conclude that heparin-mediated disruption of cell-matrix adhesion enhances adipogenic potential

  6. Decellularized musculofascial extracellular matrix for tissue engineering

    Wang, Lina; Johnson, Joshua A; Chang, David W.; Zhang, Qixu

    2013-01-01

    Ideal scaffolds that represent native extracellular matrix (ECM) properties of musculofascial tissues have great importance in musculofascial tissue engineering. However, detailed characterization of musculofascial tissues’ ECM (particularly, of fascia) from large animals is still lacking. In this study, we developed a decellularization protocol for processing pig composite musculofascial tissues. Decellularized muscle (D-muscle) and decellularized fascia (D-fascia), which are two important c...

  7. Extracellular Matrix Turnover and Outflow Resistance

    Kate E Keller; Mini, Aga; Bradley, John M.; Kelley, Mary J.; Acott, Ted S.

    2008-01-01

    Normal homeostatic adjustment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) involves remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the trabecular meshwork (TM). This entails sensing elevated IOP, releasing numerous activated proteinases to degrade existing ECM and concurrent biosynthesis of replacement ECM components. To increase or decrease IOP, the quantity, physical properties and/or organization of new components should be somewhat different from those replaced in order to modify outflow resistan...

  8. Airway and Extracellular Matrix Mechanics in COPD

    Bidan, Cécile M.; Veldsink, Annemiek C.; Meurs, Herman; Gosens, Reinoud

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common lung diseases worldwide, and is characterized by airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible with treatment. Even though airflow obstruction is caused by airway smooth muscle contraction, the extent of airway narrowing depends on a range of other structural and functional determinants that impact on active and passive tissue mechanics. Cells and extracellular matrix in the airway and parenchymal compartments respond b...

  9. Extracellular matrix component signaling in cancer

    Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Leitinger, Birgit; Gullberg, Donald;

    2016-01-01

    Cell responses to the extracellular matrix depend on specific signaling events. These are important from early development, through differentiation and tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance, and disease pathogenesis. Signaling not only regulates cell adhesion cytoskeletal organization and...... motility but also provides survival and proliferation cues. The major classes of cell surface receptors for matrix macromols. are the integrins, discoidin domain receptors, and transmembrane proteoglycans such as syndecans and CD44. Cells respond not only to specific ligands, such as collagen, fibronectin......, or basement membrane glycoproteins, but also in terms of matrix rigidity. This can regulate the release and subsequent biol. activity of matrix-bound growth factors, for example, transforming growth factor-β. In the environment of tumors, there may be changes in cell populations and their receptor...

  10. Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer

    Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-06-01

    It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

  11. Extracellular matrix of the developing ovarian follicle.

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2006-09-01

    There are many different types of extracellular matrices in the different follicle compartments. These have different roles in follicle development and atresia, and they change in composition during these processes. This review focuses on basal lamina matrix in particular, and considers follicular fluid, the newly identified focimatrix, and thecal matrices. When follicles commence growing, the follicular basal lamina changes in its composition from containing all six alpha chains of type IV collagen to only alpha1 and alpha2. Perlecan and nidogen-1 and -2 subsequently become components of the follicular basal lamina, and there is an increase in the amount of laminin chains alpha1, beta2, and gamma1, in the bovine at least. Late in follicular development and on atresia some follicles contain laminin alpha2. On atresia the follicular basal lamina is not degraded, as occurs in ovulation, but can be breached by cells from the thecal layer when it is not aligned by granulosa cells. A novel type of basal lamina-like matrix, called focimatrix (abbreviated from focal intraepithelial matrix), develops between the cells of the membrana granulosa as aggregates of basal lamina material. It does not envelop cells and so cannot perform functions of basal lamina as currently understood. It is hypothesized that focimatrix assists or initiates depolarization of the membrana granulosa necessary for the transformation into luteal cells. The largest osmotically active molecules in follicular fluid are hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, including versican and inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor. It has been suggested that these might be responsible for the formation of follicular fluid by creating an osmotic gradient across the follicular wall. The formation, development, and then either ovulation or regression of follicles requires considerable tissue remodeling, cellular replication, and specialization. The expectation of researchers is that extracellular matrix will be

  12. Mapping proteolytic cancer cell-extracellular matrix interfaces.

    Wolf, K.A.; Friedl, P.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    For cancer progression and metastatic dissemination, cancer cells migrate and penetrate through extracellular tissues. Cancer invasion is frequently facilitated by proteolytic processing of components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The cellular regions mediating proteolysis are diverse and depen

  13. Extracellular matrix motion and early morphogenesis.

    Loganathan, Rajprasad; Rongish, Brenda J; Smith, Christopher M; Filla, Michael B; Czirok, Andras; Bénazéraf, Bertrand; Little, Charles D

    2016-06-15

    For over a century, embryologists who studied cellular motion in early amniotes generally assumed that morphogenetic movement reflected migration relative to a static extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold. However, as we discuss in this Review, recent investigations reveal that the ECM is also moving during morphogenesis. Time-lapse studies show how convective tissue displacement patterns, as visualized by ECM markers, contribute to morphogenesis and organogenesis. Computational image analysis distinguishes between cell-autonomous (active) displacements and convection caused by large-scale (composite) tissue movements. Modern quantification of large-scale 'total' cellular motion and the accompanying ECM motion in the embryo demonstrates that a dynamic ECM is required for generation of the emergent motion patterns that drive amniote morphogenesis. PMID:27302396

  14. Extracellular Matrix Molecules Facilitating Vascular Biointegration

    Martin K.C. Ng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials.

  15. Hyaluronic acid changes of the extracellular matrix in colon carcinoma

    Arab MR.; Allahyari A.; Sargolzaie Aval F.; Rafighdoost H; Karimi M

    2007-01-01

    Background: The extracellular matrix is a complex three-dimensional network of proteins and glycosaminoglycans, which have important roles in cellular physiology and cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Any changes in the extracellular matrix of tumors may be implicated in cellular transformation and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to identify changes in the hyaluronic acid of the stroma of colonic carcinoma.Methods: Paraffin blocks of 30 patients with colon carc...

  16. Increased extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ lead to adipocyte accumulation in bone marrow stromal cells by different mechanisms

    Mesenchymal stem cells found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are the common progenitors for both adipocyte and osteoblast. An increase in marrow adipogenesis is associated with age-related osteopenia and anemia. Both extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o and [Ca2+]i) are versatile signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of cell functions, including proliferation and differentiation. We have recently reported that upon treatment of BMSCs with insulin and dexamethasone, both high [Ca2+]o and high [Ca2+]i enhanced adipocyte accumulation, which suggested that increases in [Ca2+]o caused by bone resorption may accelerate adipocyte accumulation in aging and diabetic patients. In this study, we used primary mouse BMSCs to investigate the mechanisms by which high [Ca2+]o and high [Ca2+]i may enhance adipocyte accumulation. In the process of adipocyte accumulation, two important keys are adipocyte differentiation and the proliferation of BMSCs, which have the potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Use of MTT assay and real-time RT-PCR revealed that high [Ca2+]i (ionomycin)-dependent adipocyte accumulation is caused by enhanced proliferation of BMSCs but not enhanced differentiation into adipocytes. Using fura-2 fluorescence-based approaches, we showed that high [Ca2+]o (addition of CaCl2) leads to increases in [Ca2+]i. Flow cytometric methods revealed that high [Ca2+]o suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK independently of intracellular Ca2+. The inhibition of ERK by U0126 and PD0325901 enhanced the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes. These data suggest that increased extracellular Ca2+ provides the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes by the suppression of ERK activity independently of increased intracellular Ca2+, which results in BMSC proliferation. - Highlights: • Both high [Ca2+]o and high [Ca2+]i enhanced adipocyte accumulation in BMSCs. • High [Ca2+]i enhanced the proliferation of BMSCs but not adipocyte differentiation

  17. Increased extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} lead to adipocyte accumulation in bone marrow stromal cells by different mechanisms

    Hashimoto, Ryota, E-mail: hryota@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Katoh, Youichi, E-mail: katoyo@juntendo-urayasu.jp [Juntendo University Faculty of International Liberal Arts, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yuki [Juntendo University Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Takasu 2-5-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0023 (Japan); Itoh, Seigo; Daida, Hiroyuki [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nakazato, Yuji [Center for Environmental Research, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Okada, Takao [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2015-02-20

    Mesenchymal stem cells found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are the common progenitors for both adipocyte and osteoblast. An increase in marrow adipogenesis is associated with age-related osteopenia and anemia. Both extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) are versatile signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of cell functions, including proliferation and differentiation. We have recently reported that upon treatment of BMSCs with insulin and dexamethasone, both high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} enhanced adipocyte accumulation, which suggested that increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} caused by bone resorption may accelerate adipocyte accumulation in aging and diabetic patients. In this study, we used primary mouse BMSCs to investigate the mechanisms by which high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} may enhance adipocyte accumulation. In the process of adipocyte accumulation, two important keys are adipocyte differentiation and the proliferation of BMSCs, which have the potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Use of MTT assay and real-time RT-PCR revealed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} (ionomycin)-dependent adipocyte accumulation is caused by enhanced proliferation of BMSCs but not enhanced differentiation into adipocytes. Using fura-2 fluorescence-based approaches, we showed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} (addition of CaCl{sub 2}) leads to increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Flow cytometric methods revealed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK independently of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The inhibition of ERK by U0126 and PD0325901 enhanced the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes. These data suggest that increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+} provides the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes by the suppression of ERK activity independently of increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, which results in BMSC proliferation. - Highlights:

  18. Enhanced accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow stromal cells in the presence of increased extracellular and intracellular [Ca2+

    Highlights: ► High [Ca2+]o enhances adipocyte accumulation in the presence of adipogenic inducers. ► High [Ca2+]o enhances both proliferation and adipocyte differentiation in BMSCs. ► High [Ca2+]o induces an increase in [Ca2+]o in BMSCs. ► An intracellular Ca2+ chelator suppresses the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation. ► Controlling [Ca2+]o may govern the balance of adipocyte and osteoblast development. -- Abstract: The bone marrow stroma contains osteoblasts and adipocytes that have a common precursor: the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Local bone marrow Ca2+ levels can reach high concentrations due to bone resorption, which is one of the notable features of the bone marrow stroma. Here, we describe the effects of high [Ca2+]o on the accumulation of adipocytes in the bone marrow stroma. Using primary mouse BMSCs, we evaluated the level of adipocyte accumulation by measuring Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. High [Ca2+]o enhanced the accumulation of adipocytes following treatment with both insulin and dexamethasone together but not in the absence of this treatment. This enhanced accumulation was the result of both the accelerated proliferation of BMSCs and their differentiation into adipocytes. Using the fura-2 method, we also showed that high [Ca2+]o induces an increase in [Ca2+]i. An intracellular Ca2+ chelator suppressed the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation due to increased [Ca2+]o in BMSCs. These data suggest a new role for extracellular Ca2+ in the bone marrow stroma: increased [Ca2+]o induces an increase in [Ca2+]i levels, which in turn enhances the accumulation of adipocytes under certain conditions.

  19. Tumorigenic potential of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer.

    Zucker, S; Hymowitz, M; Rollo, E E; Mann, R; Conner, C E; Cao, J; Foda, H D; Tompkins, D C; Toole, B P

    2001-06-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a glycoprotein present on the cancer cell plasma membrane, enhances fibroblast synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The demonstration that peritumoral fibroblasts synthesize most of the MMPs in human tumors rather than the cancer cells themselves has ignited interest in the role of EMMPRIN in tumor dissemination. In this report we have demonstrated a role for EMMPRIN in cancer progression. Human MDA-MB-436 breast cancer cells, which are tumorigenic but slow growing in vivo, were transfected with EMMPRIN cDNA and injected orthotopically into mammary tissue of female NCr nu/nu mice. Green fluorescent protein was used to visualize metastases. In three experiments, breast cancer cell clones transfected with EMMPRIN cDNA were considerably more tumorigenic and invasive than plasmid-transfected cancer cells. Increased gelatinase A and gelatinase B expression (demonstrated by in situ hybridization and gelatin substrate zymography) was demonstrated in EMMPRIN-enhanced tumors. In contrast to de novo breast cancers in humans, human tumors transplanted into mice elicited minimal stromal or inflammatory cell reactions. Based on these experimental studies and our previous demonstration that EMMPRIN is prominently displayed in human cancer tissue, we propose that EMMPRIN plays an important role in cancer progression by increasing synthesis of MMPs. PMID:11395366

  20. Roles of extracellular matrix in follicular development.

    Rodgers, R J; van Wezel, I L; Irving-Rodgers, H F; Lavranos, T C; Irvine, C M; Krupa, M

    1999-01-01

    The cellular biology and changes in the extracellular matrix of ovarian follicles during their development are reviewed. During growth of the bovine ovarian follicle the follicular basal lamina doubles 19 times in surface area. It changes in composition, having collagen IV alpha 1-26 and laminin alpha 1, beta 2 and gamma 1 at the primordial stage, and collagen IV alpha 1 and alpha 2, reduced amounts of alpha 3-alpha 5, and a higher content of laminin alpha 1, beta 2 and gamma 1 at the antral stage. In atretic antral follicles laminin alpha 2 was also detected. The follicular epithelium also changes from one layer to many layers during follicular growth. It is clear that not all granulosal cells have equal potential to divide, and we have evidence that the granulosal cells arise from a population of stem cells. This finding has important ramifications and supports the concept that different follicular growth factors can act on different subsets of granulosal cells. In antral follicles, the replication of cells occurs in the middle layers of the membrana granulosa, with older granulosal cells towards the antrum and towards the basal lamina. The basal cells in the membrana granulosa have also been observed to vary in shape between follicies. In smaller antral follicles, they were either columnar or rounded, and in follicles > 5 mm the cells were all rounded. The reasons for these changes in matrix and cell shapes are discussed in relation to follicular development. PMID:10692866

  1. Biochemistry of the extracellular matrix of Volvox.

    Sumper, M; Hallmann, A

    1998-01-01

    The volvocine algae range in complexity from unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular organisms in the genus Volvox. The transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in the Volvocales is a recent event in evolution. Thus, these organisms provide a unique opportunity for exploring the development of a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) from the cell wall of a unicellular ancestor. The ECM of Volvox is divided into four main zones: The flagellar, boundary, cellular, and deep zones. Each zone is defined by ultrastructure and by characteristic ECM glycoproteins. Volvox ECM is modified under developmental control or in response to external stimuli, like the sex-inducing pheromone or stress factors. The structures of more than 10 ECM glycoproteins from a single species of Volvox are now known in molecular detail and are compared to other algal and plant cell wall/ECM glycoproteins. Although usually classified as hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, the striking feature of all algal ECM glycoproteins is a modular composition. Rod-shaped hydroxyproline-rich modules are combined with hydroxyproline-free domains that meet the multiple functional requirements of a complex ECM. The algal ECM provides another example of the combinatorial advantage of shuffling modules that is so evident in the evolution of the metazoan ECMs. PMID:9496634

  2. Characterisation of adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicles released pre- and post-adipogenesis

    Katherine D. Connolly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are submicron vesicles released from many cell types, including adipocytes. EVs are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-driven cardiovascular disease, although the characteristics of adipocyte-derived EVs are not well described. We sought to define the characteristics of adipocyte-derived EVs before and after adipogenesis, hypothesising that adipogenesis would affect EV structure, molecular composition and function. Using 3T3-L1 cells, EVs were harvested at day 0 and day 15 of differentiation. EV and cell preparations were visualised by electron microscopy and EVs quantified by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA. EVs were then assessed for annexin V positivity using flow cytometry; lipid and phospholipid composition using 2D thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography; and vesicular protein content by an immuno-phenotyping assay. Pre-adipogenic cells are connected via a network of protrusions and EVs at both time points display classic EV morphology. EV concentration is elevated prior to adipogenesis, particularly in exosomes and small microvesicles. Parent cells contain higher proportions of phosphatidylserine (PS and show higher annexin V binding. Both cells and EVs contain an increased proportion of arachidonic acid at day 0. PREF-1 was increased at day 0 whilst adiponectin was higher at day 15 indicating EV protein content reflects the stage of adipogenesis of the cell. Our data suggest that EV production is higher in cells before adipogenesis, particularly in vesicles <300 nm. Cells at this time point possess a greater proportion of PS (required for EV generation whilst corresponding EVs are enriched in signalling fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, and markers of adipogenesis, such as PREF-1 and PPARγ.

  3. The extracellular matrix of plants: Molecular, cellular and developmental biology

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A symposium entitled ``The Extracellular Matrix of Plants: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology was held in Tamarron, Colorado, March 15--21, 1996. The following topics were explored in addresses by 43 speakers: structure and biochemistry of cell walls; biochemistry, molecular biology and biosynthesis of lignin; secretory pathway and synthesis of glycoproteins; biosynthesis of matrix polysaccharides, callose and cellulose; role of the extracellular matrix in plant growth and development; plant cell walls in symbiosis and pathogenesis.

  4. Lung extracellular matrix and redox regulation.

    Watson, Walter H; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Roman, Jesse

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis affects millions worldwide and, even though there has been a significant investment in understanding the processes involved in wound healing and maladaptive repair, a complete understanding of the mechanisms responsible for lung fibrogenesis eludes us, and interventions capable of reversing or halting disease progression are not available. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the excessive expression and uncontrolled deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in erosion of the tissue structure. Initially considered an 'end-stage' process elicited after injury, these events are now considered pathogenic and are believed to contribute to the course of the disease. By interacting with integrins capable of signal transduction and by influencing tissue mechanics, ECM proteins modulate processes ranging from cell adhesion and migration to differentiation and growth factor expression. In doing so, ECM proteins help orchestrate complex developmental processes and maintain tissue homeostasis. However, poorly controlled deposition of ECM proteins promotes inflammation, fibroproliferation, and aberrant differentiation of cells, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, atherosclerosis and cancer. Considering their vital functions, ECM proteins are the target of investigation, and oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions have emerged as important regulators of the ECM. Oxidative stress invariably accompanies lung disease and promotes ECM expression directly or through the overproduction of pro-fibrotic growth factors, while affecting integrin binding and activation. In vitro and in vivo investigations point to redox reactions as targets for intervention in pulmonary fibrosis and related disorders, but studies in humans have been disappointing probably due to the narrow impact of the interventions tested, and our poor understanding of the factors that regulate these complex reactions. This review is not meant to

  5. Lung extracellular matrix and redox regulation

    Walter H. Watson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis affects millions worldwide and, even though there has been a significant investment in understanding the processes involved in wound healing and maladaptive repair, a complete understanding of the mechanisms responsible for lung fibrogenesis eludes us, and interventions capable of reversing or halting disease progression are not available. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the excessive expression and uncontrolled deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins resulting in erosion of the tissue structure. Initially considered an ‘end-stage’ process elicited after injury, these events are now considered pathogenic and are believed to contribute to the course of the disease. By interacting with integrins capable of signal transduction and by influencing tissue mechanics, ECM proteins modulate processes ranging from cell adhesion and migration to differentiation and growth factor expression. In doing so, ECM proteins help orchestrate complex developmental processes and maintain tissue homeostasis. However, poorly controlled deposition of ECM proteins promotes inflammation, fibroproliferation, and aberrant differentiation of cells, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, atherosclerosis and cancer. Considering their vital functions, ECM proteins are the target of investigation, and oxidation–reduction (redox reactions have emerged as important regulators of the ECM. Oxidative stress invariably accompanies lung disease and promotes ECM expression directly or through the overproduction of pro-fibrotic growth factors, while affecting integrin binding and activation. In vitro and in vivo investigations point to redox reactions as targets for intervention in pulmonary fibrosis and related disorders, but studies in humans have been disappointing probably due to the narrow impact of the interventions tested, and our poor understanding of the factors that regulate these complex reactions. This

  6. Effects of ionizing radiation on extracellular matrix

    Mohamed, F. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX44QL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.mohamed@ex.ac.uk; Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU72XH (United Kingdom); Winlove, C.P. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX44QL (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-21

    The extracellular matrix is a ubiquitous and important component of tissues. We investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physical properties of its principal macromolecular components, pericardial collagen, ligament elastin and hyaluronan, a representative glycosaminoglycan. Samples were exposed to X-rays from an electron linear accelerator in the range of 10-100 Gy to cover the range of irradiation exposure during radiotherapy. A uniaxial mechanical testing protocol was used to characterize the fibrous proteins. For pericardial tissue the major change was an increase in the elastic modulus in the toe region of the curve ({<=}20% strain), from 23{+-}18 kPa for controls to 57{+-}22 kPa at a dose of 10 Gy (p=0.01, {alpha}=0.05). At larger strain ({>=}20% strain), the elastic modulus in the linear region decreased from 1.92{+-}0.70 MPa for control pericardium tissue to 1.31{+-}0.56 MPa (p=0.01, {alpha}=0.05) for 10 Gy X-irradiated sample. Similar observations have been made previously on tendon collagen at larger strains. For elastin, the stress-strain relationship was linear up to 30% strain, but the elastic modulus decreased significantly with irradiation (controls 626{+-}65 kPa, irradiated 474{+-}121 kPa (p=0.02, {alpha}=0.05), at 10 Gy X-irradiation). The results suggest that for collagen the primary effect of irradiation is generation of additional cross-links, while for elastin chain scissions are important. The viscosity of HA (at 1.25% w/v and 0.125% w/v) was measured by both cone and plate and capillary viscometry, the former providing measurement at uniform shear rate and the latter providing a more sensitive indication of changes at low viscosity. Both techniques revealed a dose-dependent reduction in viscosity (from 3400{+-}194 cP for controls to 1500{+-}88 cP at a shear rate of 2 s{sup -1} and dose of 75 Gy), again suggesting depolymerization.

  7. The Interaction of Thrombospondins with Extracellular Matrix Proteins

    Tan, Kemin; Lawler, Jack William

    2009-01-01

    The thrombospondins (TSPs) are a family of five matricellular proteins that appear to function as adapter molecules to guide extracellular matrix synthesis and tissue remodeling in a variety of normal and disease settings. Various TSPs have been shown to bind to fibronectin, laminin, matrilins, collagens and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The importance of TSP-1 in this context is underscored by the fact that it is rapidly deposited at the sites of tissue damage by platelets. An a...

  8. Streptococcus mutans-derived extracellular matrix in cariogenic oral biofilms

    Klein, Marlise I.; Hwang, Geelsu; Santos, Paulo H. S.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Koo, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are highly structured microbial communities that are enmeshed in a self-produced extracellular matrix. Within the complex oral microbiome, Streptococcus mutans is a major producer of extracellular polymeric substances including exopolysaccharides (EPS), eDNA, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). EPS produced by S. mutans-derived exoenzymes promote local accumulation of microbes on the teeth, while forming a spatially heterogeneous and diffusion-limiting matrix that protects embedded bacteria...

  9. Streptococcus mutans-derived extracellular matrix in cariogenic oral biofilms

    Marlise eKlein; Geelsu eHwang; Paulo eSantos; Osvaldo eCampanella; Hyun eKoo

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are highly structured microbial communities that are enmeshed in a self-produced extracellular matrix. Within the complex oral microbiome, Streptococcus mutans is a major producer of extracellular polymeric substances including exopolysaccharides (EPS), eDNA and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). EPS produced by S. mutans-derived exoenzymes promote local accumulation of microbes on the teeth, while forming a spatially heterogeneous and diffusion-limiting matrix that protects embedded bacteria....

  10. Fragmentation of extracellular matrix by hypochlorous acid

    Woods, Alan A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    /chloramide decomposition, with copper and iron ions being effective catalysts, and decreased by compounds which scavenge chloramines/chloramides, or species derived from them. The effect of such matrix modifications on cellular behaviour is poorly understood, though it is known that changes in matrix materials can have...

  11. The extracellular matrix modulates the hallmarks of cancer.

    Pickup, Michael W; Mouw, Janna K; Weaver, Valerie M

    2014-12-01

    The extracellular matrix regulates tissue development and homeostasis, and its dysregulation contributes to neoplastic progression. The extracellular matrix serves not only as the scaffold upon which tissues are organized but provides critical biochemical and biomechanical cues that direct cell growth, survival, migration and differentiation and modulate vascular development and immune function. Thus, while genetic modifications in tumor cells undoubtedly initiate and drive malignancy, cancer progresses within a dynamically evolving extracellular matrix that modulates virtually every behavioral facet of the tumor cells and cancer-associated stromal cells. Hanahan and Weinberg defined the hallmarks of cancer to encompass key biological capabilities that are acquired and essential for the development, growth and dissemination of all human cancers. These capabilities include sustained proliferation, evasion of growth suppression, death resistance, replicative immortality, induced angiogenesis, initiation of invasion, dysregulation of cellular energetics, avoidance of immune destruction and chronic inflammation. Here, we argue that biophysical and biochemical cues from the tumor-associated extracellular matrix influence each of these cancer hallmarks and are therefore critical for malignancy. We suggest that the success of cancer prevention and therapy programs requires an intimate understanding of the reciprocal feedback between the evolving extracellular matrix, the tumor cells and its cancer-associated cellular stroma. PMID:25381661

  12. Basic Components of Connective Tissues and Extracellular Matrix

    Halper, Jaroslava; Kjær, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Collagens are the most abundant components of the extracellular matrix and many types of soft tissues. Elastin is another major component of certain soft tissues, such as arterial walls and ligaments. Many other molecules, though lower in quantity, function as essential components...... network. Laminins contribute to the structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and modulate cellular functions such as adhesion, differentiation, migration, stability of phenotype, and resistance towards apoptosis. Though the primary role of fibrinogen is in clot formation, after conversion to fibrin...... by thrombin, it also binds to a variety of compounds, particularly to various growth factors, and as such fibrinogen is a player in cardiovascular and extracellular matrix physiology. Elastin, an insoluble polymer of the monomeric soluble precursor tropoelastin, is the main component of elastic fibers...

  13. Vitamin A Deficiency and Alterations in the Extracellular Matrix

    Teresa Barber

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A or retinol which is the natural precursor of several biologically active metabolites can be considered the most multifunctional vitamin in mammals. Its deficiency is currently, along with protein malnutrition, the most serious and common nutritional disorder worldwide. It is necessary for normal embryonic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis, and exerts important effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These actions are produced mainly by regulating the expression of a variety of proteins through transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Extracellular matrix proteins are among those whose synthesis is known to be modulated by vitamin A. Retinoic acid, the main biologically active form of vitamin A, influences the expression of collagens, laminins, entactin, fibronectin, elastin and proteoglycans, which are the major components of the extracellular matrix. Consequently, the structure and macromolecular composition of this extracellular compartment is profoundly altered as a result of vitamin A deficiency. As cell behavior, differentiation and apoptosis, and tissue mechanics are influenced by the extracellular matrix, its modifications potentially compromise organ function and may lead to disease. This review focuses on the effects of lack of vitamin A in the extracellular matrix of several organs and discusses possible molecular mechanisms and pathologic implications.

  14. Tuberculosis Immunopathology: The Neglected Role of Extracellular Matrix Destruction

    Elkington, Paul T.; D'Armiento, Jeanine M; Friedland, Jon S

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix in the lung must be destroyed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis— the agent that causes tuberculosis (TB)—to spread. The current paradigm proposes that this destruction occurs as a result of the action of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, immune cells, and lipids that mediate TB-associated necrosis in the lung. However, this view neglects the fact that lung matrix can only be degraded by proteases. We propose an original conceptual framework of TB immunopathology th...

  15. Streptococcus mutans-derived extracellular matrix in cariogenic oral biofilms.

    Klein, Marlise I; Hwang, Geelsu; Santos, Paulo H S; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Koo, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are highly structured microbial communities that are enmeshed in a self-produced extracellular matrix. Within the complex oral microbiome, Streptococcus mutans is a major producer of extracellular polymeric substances including exopolysaccharides (EPS), eDNA, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). EPS produced by S. mutans-derived exoenzymes promote local accumulation of microbes on the teeth, while forming a spatially heterogeneous and diffusion-limiting matrix that protects embedded bacteria. The EPS-rich matrix provides mechanical stability/cohesiveness and facilitates the creation of highly acidic microenvironments, which are critical for the pathogenesis of dental caries. In parallel, S. mutans also releases eDNA and LTA, which can contribute with matrix development. eDNA enhances EPS (glucan) synthesis locally, increasing the adhesion of S. mutans to saliva-coated apatitic surfaces and the assembly of highly cohesive biofilms. eDNA and other extracellular substances, acting in concert with EPS, may impact the functional properties of the matrix and the virulence of cariogenic biofilms. Enhanced understanding about the assembly principles of the matrix may lead to efficacious approaches to control biofilm-related diseases. PMID:25763359

  16. Streptococcus mutans-derived extracellular matrix in cariogenic oral biofilms

    Marlise eKlein

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are highly structured microbial communities that are enmeshed in a self-produced extracellular matrix. Within the complex oral microbiome, Streptococcus mutans is a major producer of extracellular polymeric substances including exopolysaccharides (EPS, eDNA and lipoteichoic acid (LTA. EPS produced by S. mutans-derived exoenzymes promote local accumulation of microbes on the teeth, while forming a spatially heterogeneous and diffusion-limiting matrix that protects embedded bacteria. The EPS-rich matrix provides mechanical stability/cohesiveness and facilitates the creation of highly acidic microenvironments, which are critical for the pathogenesis of dental caries. In parallel, S. mutans also releases eDNA and LTA, which can contribute with matrix development. eDNA enhances EPS (glucan synthesis locally, increasing the adhesion of S. mutans to saliva-coated apatitic surfaces and the assembly of highly cohesive biofilms. eDNA and other extracellular substances, acting in concert with EPS, may impact the functional properties of the matrix and the virulence of cariogenic biofilms. Enhanced understanding about the assembly principles of the matrix may lead to efficacious approaches to control biofilm-related diseases.

  17. Extracellular DNA as matrix component in microbial biofilms

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2010-01-01

    to various persistent infections in humans and animals, and to a variety of complications in industry, where solid–water interfaces occur. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation is necessary for creating strategies to control biofilms. Recent studies have shown that......Bacteria in nature primarily live in surface-associated communities commonly known as biofilms. Because bacteria in biofilms, in many cases, display tolerance to host immune systems, antibiotics, and biocides, they are often difficult or impossible to eradicate. Biofilm formation, therefore, leads...... extracellular DNA is an important component of the extracellular matrix of microbial biofilms. The present chapter is focussed on extracellular DNA as matrix component in biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an example from the Gram-negative bacteria, and Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as examples...

  18. A Look inside the Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms Extracellular Matrix

    Angelo Colagiorgi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen able to persist in food industry and is responsible for a severe illness called listeriosis. The ability of L. monocytogenes to persist in environments is due to its capacity to form biofilms that are a sessile community of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS’s. In this review, we summarized recent efforts performed in order to better characterize the polymeric substances that compose the extracellular matrix (ECM of L. monocytogenes biofilms. EPS extraction and analysis led to the identification of polysaccharides, proteins, extracellular DNA, and other molecules within the listerial ECM. All this knowledge will be useful for increasing food protection, suggesting effective strategies for the minimization of persistence of L. monocytogenes in food industry environments.

  19. Extracellular matrix alterations in human corneas with bullous keratopathy

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J; Couchman, J R; Wu, R R; Ninomiya, Y; Sado, Y; Maguen, E; Nesburn, A B; Kenney, M C

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE. To uncover abnormalities of extracellular matrix (ECM) distribution in human corneas with pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy (PBK/ABK). METHODS. Indirect immunofluorescence with antibodies to 27 ECM components was used on frozen sections of 14 normal and 20 PBK/ABK corneas...

  20. The Role of Extracellular Matrix Quality in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Kristensen, Jacob Hull; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Genovese, Federica; Johnson, Simon; Svensson, Birte; Jacobsen, Susanne; Hägglund, Per; Leeming, Diana Julie

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) quality in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis (PF). In PF, the highly ordered structure of collagens and elastin within the ECM of the lung is severely disrupted and lacks its original tissue quality. Discussions about the ECM have...

  1. Stroma and extracellular matrix proteins in canine tumours

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, studies on temporal and spatial changes in stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in canine gastrointestinal (GIT) tumours and canine transmissible venereal (CTVT) tumours are described. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic transformation of fibroblasts to myofib

  2. Proteomic analysis of the extracellular matrix in idiopathic pes equinovarus

    Ošťádal, M.; Eckhardt, Adam; Herget, J.; Mikšík, Ivan; Dungl, P.; Chomiak, J.; Frydrychová, M.; Burian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 401, 1-2 (2015), s. 133-139. ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : collagens * extracellular matrix * pes equinovarus * proteomics Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 2.393, year: 2014

  3. AMPK Activation by Metformin Suppresses Abnormal Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Adipose Tissue and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

    Luo, Ting; Nocon, Allison; Fry, Jessica; Sherban, Alex; Rui, Xianliang; Jiang, Bingbing; Xu, X Julia; Han, Jingyan; Yan, Yun; Yang, Qin; Li, Qifu; Zang, Mengwei

    2016-08-01

    Fibrosis is emerging as a hallmark of metabolically dysregulated white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity. Although adipose tissue fibrosis impairs adipocyte plasticity, little is known about how aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling of WAT is initiated during the development of obesity. Here we show that treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin inhibits excessive ECM deposition in WAT of ob/ob mice and mice with diet-induced obesity, as evidenced by decreased collagen deposition surrounding adipocytes and expression of fibrotic genes including the collagen cross-linking regulator LOX Inhibition of interstitial fibrosis by metformin is likely attributable to the activation of AMPK and the suppression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad3 signaling, leading to enhanced systemic insulin sensitivity. The ability of metformin to repress TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis is abolished by the dominant negative AMPK in primary cells from the stromal vascular fraction. TGF-β1-induced insulin resistance is suppressed by AMPK agonists and the constitutively active AMPK in 3T3L1 adipocytes. In omental fat depots of obese humans, interstitial fibrosis is also associated with AMPK inactivation, TGF-β1/Smad3 induction, aberrant ECM production, myofibroblast activation, and adipocyte apoptosis. Collectively, integrated AMPK activation and TGF-β1/Smad3 inhibition may provide a potential therapeutic approach to maintain ECM flexibility and combat chronically uncontrolled adipose tissue expansion in obesity. PMID:27207538

  4. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  5. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    Wilschut, Karlijn J. [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands); Haagsman, Henk P. [Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelen, Bernard A.J., E-mail: b.a.j.roelen@uu.nl [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  6. Gene evolution and functions of extracellular matrix proteins in teeth

    Yoshizaki, Keigo; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) not only provides physical support for tissues, but it is also critical for tissue development, homeostasis and disease. Over 300 ECM molecules have been defined as comprising the “core matrisome” in mammals through the analysis of whole genome sequences. During tooth development, the structure and functions of the ECM dynamically change. In the early stages, basement membranes (BMs) separate two cell layers of the dental epithelium and the mesenchyme. Later in ...

  7. Extracellular matrix synthesis in vascular disease: hypertension, and atherosclerosis

    Ponticos, M.; Smith, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) within the vascular network provides both a structural and regulatory role. The ECM is a dynamic composite of multiple proteins that form structures connecting cells within the network. Blood vessels are distended by blood pressure and, therefore, require ECM components with elasticity yet with enough tensile strength to resist rupture. The ECM is involved in conducting mechanical signals to cells. Most importantly, ECM regulates cellular function through chemical s...

  8. The extracellular matrix as a cell survival factor.

    Meredith, J E; Fazeli, B; Schwartz, M A

    1993-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) or apoptosis is a naturally occurring cell suicide pathway induced in a variety of cell types. In many cases, PCD is induced by the withdrawal of specific hormones or growth factors that function as survival factors. In this study, we have investigated the potential role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as a cell survival factor. Our results indicate that in the absence of any ECM interactions, human endothelial cells rapidly undergo PCD, as determined by cell mor...

  9. Structure and Function of the Stratum Corneum Extracellular Matrix

    Elias, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) extracellular matrix (ECM) is enriched in lipids that are organized into lamellar bilayers, whose molecular architecture is now known. Although these bilayers are important for the permeability barrier, the ECM contains not only lipids but also enzymes, structural proteins, and antimicrobial peptides that impact barrier function. Yet, how such diverse components affect barrier function remains largely unknown. Static models of the epidermis may not do justice to the E...

  10. Tendon Extracellular Matrix Alterations in Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    Sardone, Francesca; Traina, Francesco; Bondi, Alice; Merlini, Luciano; Santi, Spartaco; Maraldi, Nadir Mario; Faldini, Cesare; Sabatelli, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Collagen VI (COLVI) is a non-fibrillar collagen expressed in skeletal muscle and most connective tissues. Mutations in COLVI genes cause two major clinical forms, Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). In addition to congenital muscle weakness, patients affected by COLVI myopathies show axial and proximal joint contractures and distal joint hypermobility, which suggest the involvement of the tendon function. We examined a peroneal tendon biopsy and tenocyte culture of a 15-year-old patient affected by UCMD with compound heterozygous COL6A2 mutations. In patient’s tendon biopsy, we found striking morphological alterations of tendon fibrils, consisting in irregular profiles and reduced mean diameter. The organization of the pericellular matrix of tenocytes, the primary site of collagen fibril assembly, was severely affected, as determined by immunoelectron microscopy, which showed an abnormal accumulation of COLVI and altered distribution of collagen I (COLI) and fibronectin (FBN). In patient’s tenocyte culture, COLVI web formation and cell surface association were severely impaired; large aggregates of COLVI, which matched with COLI labeling, were frequently detected in the extracellular matrix. In addition, metalloproteinase MMP-2, an extracellular matrix-regulating enzyme, was increased in the conditioned medium of patient’s tenocytes, as determined by gelatin zymography and western blot. Altogether, these data indicate that COLVI deficiency may influence the organization of UCMD tendon matrix, resulting in dysfunctional fibrillogenesis. The alterations of tendon matrix may contribute to the complex pathogenesis of COLVI related myopathies. PMID:27375477

  11. Tendon Extracellular Matrix Alterations in Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy.

    Sardone, Francesca; Traina, Francesco; Bondi, Alice; Merlini, Luciano; Santi, Spartaco; Maraldi, Nadir Mario; Faldini, Cesare; Sabatelli, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Collagen VI (COLVI) is a non-fibrillar collagen expressed in skeletal muscle and most connective tissues. Mutations in COLVI genes cause two major clinical forms, Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). In addition to congenital muscle weakness, patients affected by COLVI myopathies show axial and proximal joint contractures and distal joint hypermobility, which suggest the involvement of the tendon function. We examined a peroneal tendon biopsy and tenocyte culture of a 15-year-old patient affected by UCMD with compound heterozygous COL6A2 mutations. In patient's tendon biopsy, we found striking morphological alterations of tendon fibrils, consisting in irregular profiles and reduced mean diameter. The organization of the pericellular matrix of tenocytes, the primary site of collagen fibril assembly, was severely affected, as determined by immunoelectron microscopy, which showed an abnormal accumulation of COLVI and altered distribution of collagen I (COLI) and fibronectin (FBN). In patient's tenocyte culture, COLVI web formation and cell surface association were severely impaired; large aggregates of COLVI, which matched with COLI labeling, were frequently detected in the extracellular matrix. In addition, metalloproteinase MMP-2, an extracellular matrix-regulating enzyme, was increased in the conditioned medium of patient's tenocytes, as determined by gelatin zymography and western blot. Altogether, these data indicate that COLVI deficiency may influence the organization of UCMD tendon matrix, resulting in dysfunctional fibrillogenesis. The alterations of tendon matrix may contribute to the complex pathogenesis of COLVI related myopathies. PMID:27375477

  12. Incorporation of Tenascin-C into the Extracellular Matrix by Periostin Underlies an Extracellular Meshwork Architecture*

    Kii, Isao; Nishiyama, Takashi; Li, Minqi; Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Saito, Mitsuru; Amizuka, Norio; Kudo, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) underlies a complicated multicellular architecture that is subjected to significant forces from mechanical environment. Although various components of the ECM have been enumerated, mechanisms that evolve the sophisticated ECM architecture remain to be addressed. Here we show that periostin, a matricellular protein, promotes incorporation of tenascin-C into the ECM and organizes a meshwork architecture of the ECM. We found that both periostin null mice and tenascin-C...

  13. Hyaluronic acid changes of the extracellular matrix in colon carcinoma

    Arab MR.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The extracellular matrix is a complex three-dimensional network of proteins and glycosaminoglycans, which have important roles in cellular physiology and cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Any changes in the extracellular matrix of tumors may be implicated in cellular transformation and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to identify changes in the hyaluronic acid of the stroma of colonic carcinoma.Methods: Paraffin blocks of 30 patients with colon carcinoma (10 patients at each histological grade were chosen from the pathology file of Khatam-Al-Anbia Hospital in Zahedan, Iran. Tissue sections (5-6 micrometers thick were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the alcian blue critical electrolyte concentration histochemical technique at pH=5.8. The intensity of the staining in each section was graded as 1, 2 or 3, referring to low, moderate or severe staining reactivities, respectively. Statistical data was analyzed with nonparametric tests by SPSS (ver. 10 and histopathological reports were prepared.Results: The results of this study showed that there is a good correlation between histopathological grading and staining intensity of tumoral stroma for hyaluronic acid (p<0.005. Analysis using the Mann Whitney test revealed significant differences between staining grades 1 and 3 and grades 2 and 3 (p<0.005 and p<0.002, respectively, although there was no significant difference between staining grades 1 and 2 for hyaluronic acid.Conclusions: The difference in staining intensity of the stroma in colon carcinoma is a result of different amounts of hyaluronic acid in stroma, indicating that increased levels of hyaluronic acid are associated with the invasion and metastasis of neoplastic cells.

  14. Extracellular matrix adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to exercise

    Kjaer, Michael; Magnusson, Peter; Krogsgaard, Michael;

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues enables linking to other tissues, and plays a key role in force transmission and tissue structure maintenance in tendons, ligaments, bone and muscle. ECM turnover is influenced by physical activity, and both collagen synthesis and metalloprotease...... regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated pathways, and glucose uptake is regulated by specific pathways in tendons that differ from those in skeletal muscle. Chronic loading in the form of physical training leads both to increased collagen turnover as well as to some degree of net collagen synthesis...

  15. Studies on extracellular matrix components that promote neurite outgrowth

    There are several factors that, when bound to culture substrata, stimulate outgrowth from particular classes of neurons. Of these, fibronectin and laminin are known components of the extracellular matrix in vivo. One group of factors is derived from cultured cells, and, when attached to a substratum, these factors promote profuse and rapid neurite outgrowth. When tested on sympathetic neurons, neurite outgrowth is seen even in the absence of nerve growth factor. The properties of these factors are discussed in this paper. 53 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Streptococcus pyogenes degrades extracellular matrix in chondrocytes via MMP-13

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of human diseases, including bacterial arthritis. The pathogenesis of arthritis is characterized by synovial proliferation and the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We report here that GAS strain JRS4 invaded a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 and induced the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas an isogenic mutant of JRS4 lacking a fibronectin-binding protein, SAM1, failed to invade the chondrocytes or degrade the ECM. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was strongly elevated during the infection with GAS. A reporter assay revealed that the activation of the AP-1 transcription factor and the phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinase participated in MMP-13 expression. These results suggest that MMP-13 plays an important role in the destruction of infected joints during the development of septic arthritis

  17. The design of reversible hydrogels to capture extracellular matrix dynamics

    Rosales, Adrianne M.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2016-02-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic environment that constantly provides physical and chemical cues to embedded cells. Much progress has been made in engineering hydrogels that can mimic the ECM, but hydrogel properties are, in general, static. To recapitulate the dynamic nature of the ECM, many reversible chemistries have been incorporated into hydrogels to regulate cell spreading, biochemical ligand presentation and matrix mechanics. For example, emerging trends include the use of molecular photoswitches or biomolecule hybridization to control polymer chain conformation, thereby enabling the modulation of the hydrogel between two states on demand. In addition, many non-covalent, dynamic chemical bonds have found increasing use as hydrogel crosslinkers or tethers for cell signalling molecules. These reversible chemistries will provide greater temporal control of adhered cell behaviour, and they allow for more advanced in vitro models and tissue-engineering scaffolds to direct cell fate.

  18. Regulation of pituitary hormones and cell proliferation by components of the extracellular matrix

    M. Paez-Pereda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is a three-dimensional network of proteins, glycosaminoglycans and other macromolecules. It has a structural support function as well as a role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The extracellular matrix conveys signals through membrane receptors called integrins and plays an important role in pituitary physiology and tumorigenesis. There is a differential expression of extracellular matrix components and integrins during the pituitary development in the embryo and during tumorigenesis in the adult. Different extracellular matrix components regulate adrenocorticotropin at the level of the proopiomelanocortin gene transcription. The extracellular matrix also controls the proliferation of adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumor cells. On the other hand, laminin regulates the production of prolactin. Laminin has a dynamic pattern of expression during prolactinoma development with lower levels in the early pituitary hyperplasia and a strong reduction in fully grown prolactinomas. Therefore, the expression of extracellular matrix components plays a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix affects pituitary cell proliferation. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is very high in all types of human pituitary adenomas. Matrix metalloproteinase secreted by pituitary cells can release growth factors from the extracellular matrix that, in turn, control pituitary cell proliferation and hormone secretion. In summary, the differential expression of extracellular matrix components, integrins and matrix metalloproteinase contributes to the control of pituitary hormone production and cell proliferation during tumorigenesis.

  19. Extracellular matrix of the bovine ovarian membrana granulosa.

    Rodgers, R J; Irving Rodgers, H F

    2002-05-31

    Much is known about the control of the development of ovarian follicles by growth factors and hormones. The study of extracellular matrix in the ovary, though, is a relatively new area. To date much research has focused on identifying the matrix components present, and more recently, its production and the physiological roles. In this review we focus on the changes that occur in the follicular basal lamina from primordial follicles through to ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum, the changes that occur during follicular atresia, and we discuss our observations of a novel matrix which forms in the membrana granulosa. The follicular basal lamina changes considerably during follicular development in its expression pattern of type IV collagens. Of the laminin chains examined, there appears only to be an increase in amount, except for laminin alpha2. It is expressed only in a small proportion of healthy antral follicles and in the majority of atretic antral follicles. Call-Exner bodies have the same composition as the basal lamina, except they do not contain laminin alpha2, even when the follicular basal lamina does. The novel matrix that develops within the membrana granulosa is similar in composition to Call-Exner bodies which occur predominantly in preantral follicles, except that it is far more common in large antral follicles, does not induce polarization of the surrounding granulosa cells, and does not contain follicular fluid-like material as the Call-Exner bodies of some species do. The expression of this matrix occurs prior to and during the time when granulosa cells express steroidogenic enzymes. It does not exist in corpora lutea. In addition large luteal cells, derived from granulosa cells, do not appear to have a basal lamina. These findings suggest that the maturational changes in the membrana granulosa are accompanied by changes in the matrix. PMID:12044919

  20. The Extracellular Matrix in Photosynthetic Mats: A Cyanobacterial Gingerbread House

    Stuart, R.; Stannard, W.; Bebout, B.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Mayali, X.; Weber, P. K.; Lipton, M. S.; Lee, J.; Everroad, R. C.; Thelen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hypersaline laminated cyanobacterial mats are excellent model systems for investigating photoautotrophic contributions to biogeochemical cycling on a millimeter scale. These self-sustaining ecosystems are characterized by steep physiochemical gradients that fluctuate dramatically on hour timescales, providing a dynamic environment to study microbial response. However, elucidating the distribution of energy from light absorption into biomass requires a complete understanding of the various constituents of the mat. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which can be composed of proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and DNA are a major component of these mats and may function in the redistribution of nutrients and metabolites within the community. To test this notion, we established a model mat-building culture for comparison with the phylogenetically diverse natural mat communities. In these two systems we determined how proteins and glycans in the matrix changed as a function of light and tracked nutrient flow from the matrix. Using mass spectrometry metaproteomics analysis, we found homologous proteins in both field and culture extracellular matrix that point to cyanobacterial turnover of amino acids, inorganic nutrients, carbohydrates and nucleic acids from the EPS. Other abundant functions identified included oxidative stress response from both the cyanobacteria and heterotrophs and cyanobacterial structural proteins that may play a role in mat cohesion. Several degradative enzymes also varied in abundance in the EPS in response to light availability, suggesting active secretion. To further test cyanobacterial EPS turnover, we generated isotopically-labeled EPS and used NanoSIMS to trace uptake of this labeled EPS. Our findings suggest Cyanobacteria may facilitate nutrient transfer to other groups, as well as uptake of their own products through degradation of EPS components. This work provides evidence for the essential roles of EPS for storage, structural

  1. Enhanced accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow stromal cells in the presence of increased extracellular and intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}

    Hashimoto, Ryota, E-mail: hryota@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Katoh, Youichi, E-mail: katoyo@juntendo-urayasu.jp [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Nakamura, Kyoko [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Itoh, Seigo [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Iesaki, Takafumi [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Daida, Hiroyuki [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nakazato, Yuji [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Okada, Takao [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhances adipocyte accumulation in the presence of adipogenic inducers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhances both proliferation and adipocyte differentiation in BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} in BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An intracellular Ca{sup 2+} chelator suppresses the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlling [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} may govern the balance of adipocyte and osteoblast development. -- Abstract: The bone marrow stroma contains osteoblasts and adipocytes that have a common precursor: the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Local bone marrow Ca{sup 2+} levels can reach high concentrations due to bone resorption, which is one of the notable features of the bone marrow stroma. Here, we describe the effects of high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} on the accumulation of adipocytes in the bone marrow stroma. Using primary mouse BMSCs, we evaluated the level of adipocyte accumulation by measuring Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhanced the accumulation of adipocytes following treatment with both insulin and dexamethasone together but not in the absence of this treatment. This enhanced accumulation was the result of both the accelerated proliferation of BMSCs and their differentiation into adipocytes. Using the fura-2 method, we also showed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. An intracellular Ca{sup 2+} chelator suppressed the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation due to increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} in BMSCs. These data suggest a new role for extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in the bone marrow stroma: increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} levels, which in turn enhances the accumulation of

  2. Cell stiffness, contractile stress and the role of extracellular matrix

    An, Steven S., E-mail: san@jhsph.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Kim, Jina [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Ahn, Kwangmi [Division of Biostatistics, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Trepat, Xavier [CIBER, Enfermedades Respiratorias, 07110 Bunyola (Spain); Drake, Kenneth J. [Division of Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kumar, Sarvesh; Ling, Guoyu; Purington, Carolyn; Rangasamy, Tirumalai; Kensler, Thomas W.; Mitzner, Wayne [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fredberg, Jeffrey J. [Division of Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Biswal, Shyam [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Here we have assessed the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and rigidity on mechanical properties of the human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. Cell stiffness and contractile stress showed appreciable changes from the most relaxed state to the most contracted state: we refer to the maximal range of these changes as the cell contractile scope. The contractile scope was least when the cell was adherent upon collagen V, followed by collagen IV, laminin, and collagen I, and greatest for fibronectin. Regardless of ECM composition, upon adherence to increasingly rigid substrates, the ASM cell positively regulated expression of antioxidant genes in the glutathione pathway and heme oxygenase, and disruption of a redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf2), culminated in greater contractile scope. These findings provide biophysical evidence that ECM differentially modulates muscle contractility and, for the first time, demonstrate a link between muscle contractility and Nrf2-directed responses.

  3. Extracellular matrix bioscaffolds in tissue remodeling and morphogenesis.

    Swinehart, Ilea T; Badylak, Stephen F

    2016-03-01

    During normal morphogenesis the extracellular matrix (ECM) influences cell motility, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Tissue engineers have attempted to harness the cell signaling potential of ECM to promote the functional reconstruction, if not regeneration, of injured or missing adult tissues that otherwise heal by the formation of scar tissue. ECM bioscaffolds, derived from decellularized tissues, have been used to promote the formation of site appropriate, functional tissues in many clinical applications including skeletal muscle, fibrocartilage, lower urinary tract, and esophageal reconstruction, among others. These scaffolds function by the release or exposure of growth factors and cryptic peptides, modulation of the immune response, and recruitment of progenitor cells. Herein, we describe this process of ECM induced constructive remodeling and examine similarities to normal tissue morphogenesis. PMID:26699796

  4. Accelerated extracellular matrix turnover during exacerbations of COPD

    Sand, Jannie M B; Knox, Alan J; Lange, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute significantly to disease progression. However, the effect on tissue structure and turnover is not well described. There is an urgent clinical need for biomarkers of disease activity associated with disease...... progression. Extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover reflects activity in tissues and consequently assessment of ECM turnover may serve as biomarkers of disease activity. We hypothesized that the turnover of lung ECM proteins were altered during exacerbations of COPD. METHODS: 69 patients with COPD hospitalised...... elevated levels of circulating fragments of structural proteins, which may serve as markers of disease activity. This suggests that patients with COPD have accelerated ECM turnover during exacerbations which may be related to disease progression....

  5. Targeting the extracellular matrix to disrupt cancer progression

    Freja Albjerg Venning

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multi-step process, with each step involving intricate cross-talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM. Many ECM proteins are significantly de-regulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  6. Cardiac extracellular matrix proteomics: Challenges, techniques, and clinical implications.

    Chang, Chia Wei; Dalgliesh, Ailsa J; López, Javier E; Griffiths, Leigh G

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) has emerged as a dynamic tissue component, providing not only structural support, but also functionally participating in a wide range of signaling events during development, injury, and disease remodeling. Investigation of dynamic changes in cardiac ECM proteome is challenging due to the relative insolubility of ECM proteins, which results from their macromolecular nature, extensive post-translational modification (PTM), and tendency to form protein complexes. Finally, the relative abundance of cellular and mitochondrial proteins in cardiac tissue further complicates cardiac ECM proteomic approaches. Recent developments of various techniques to enrich and analyze ECM proteins are playing a major role in overcoming these challenges. Application of cardiac ECM proteomics in disease tissues can further provide spatial and temporal information relevant to disease diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and engineering of therapeutic candidates for cardiac repair and regeneration. PMID:26200932

  7. Cell stiffness, contractile stress and the role of extracellular matrix

    Here we have assessed the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and rigidity on mechanical properties of the human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. Cell stiffness and contractile stress showed appreciable changes from the most relaxed state to the most contracted state: we refer to the maximal range of these changes as the cell contractile scope. The contractile scope was least when the cell was adherent upon collagen V, followed by collagen IV, laminin, and collagen I, and greatest for fibronectin. Regardless of ECM composition, upon adherence to increasingly rigid substrates, the ASM cell positively regulated expression of antioxidant genes in the glutathione pathway and heme oxygenase, and disruption of a redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf2), culminated in greater contractile scope. These findings provide biophysical evidence that ECM differentially modulates muscle contractility and, for the first time, demonstrate a link between muscle contractility and Nrf2-directed responses.

  8. Biocompatibility of Compounds of Extracellular Matrix and Thermally Reversible Hydrogel

    2007-01-01

    A new scaffold material composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) and thermal sensitive hydrogel (HG), and evaluated its biocompatibility were investigated. We cultured bladder smooth muscle cells with this compound material, and then observed with phase contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to assess the cell growth and morphology. The cell adhesion and proliferation were detected with MTT assay and cell count. Results show the ECM/HG compounds appeared as a net-like and red-stained construction with enough meshes and without any cellular fragments. 6 h after implantation, cells were observed adhere on the compounds and extend spurious along the fibers 12 h later. Under SEM even some ECM was observed to be secreted. MTT assay shows there was obvious statistic difference among 3 groups (P<0.05).ECM/HG compound materials show a good biocompatibility, which confirms that it would be an ideal tissue engineering scaffolds.

  9. ADAMTS: a novel family of extracellular matrix proteases.

    Tang, B L

    2001-01-01

    ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs) is a novel family of extracellular proteases found in both mammals and invertebrates. Members of the family may be distinguished from the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family members based on the multiple copies of thrombospondin 1-like repeats they carry. With at least nine members in mammals alone, the ADAMTS family members are predicted by their structural domains to be extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins with a wide range of activities and functions distinct from members of the ADAM family that are largely anchored on the cell surface. ADAMTS2 is a procollagen N-proteinase, and the mutations of its gene are responsible for Human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VII C and bovine dermatosparaxis. ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 are aggrecanases implicated in the degradation of cartilage aggrecan in arthritic diseases. Other members of the ADAMTS family have also been implicated in roles during embryonic development and angiogenesis. Current and future studies on this emerging group of ECM proteases may provide important insights into developmental or pathological processes involving ECM remodeling. PMID:11167130

  10. Extracellular Matrix Stiffness Regulates Osteogenic Differentiation through MAPK Activation.

    Jun-Ha Hwang

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation is regulated by the extracellular matrix (ECM through activation of intracellular signaling mediators. The stiffness of the ECM was shown to be an important regulatory factor for MSC differentiation, and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ was identified as an effector protein for MSC differentiation. However, the detailed underlying mechanism regarding the role of ECM stiffness and TAZ in MSC differentiation is not yet fully understood. In this report, we showed that ECM stiffness regulates MSC fate through ERK or JNK activation. Specifically, a stiff hydrogel matrix stimulates osteogenic differentiation concomitant with increased nuclear localization of TAZ, but inhibits adipogenic differentiation. ERK and JNK activity was significantly increased in cells cultured on a stiff hydrogel. TAZ activation was induced by ERK or JNK activation on a stiff hydrogel because exposure to an ERK or JNK inhibitor significantly decreased the nuclear localization of TAZ, indicating that ECM stiffness-induced ERK or JNK activation is important for TAZ-driven osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that ECM stiffness regulates MSC differentiation through ERK or JNK activation.

  11. Extracellular Matrix Modulation: Optimizing Skin Care and Rejuvenation Procedures.

    Widgerow, Alan D; Fabi, Sabrina G; Palestine, Roberta F; Rivkin, Alexander; Ortiz, Arisa; Bucay, Vivian W; Chiu, Annie; Naga, Lina; Emer, Jason; Chasan, Paul E

    2016-04-01

    Normal aging and photoaging of the skin are chronic processes that progress gradually. The extracellular matrix (ECM), constituting over 70% of the skin, is the central hub for repair and regeneration of the skin. As such, the ECM is the area where changes related to photodamage are most evident. Degradation of the ECM with fragmentation of proteins significantly affects cross talk and signaling between cells, the matrix, and its constituents. The accumulation of collagen fragments, amorphous elastin agglutinations, and abnormal cross-linkages between the collagen fragments impedes the ECM from its normal repair and regenerative capacity, which manifests as wrinkled, non-elastic skin. Similar to how the chronic wound healing process requires wound bed preparation before therapeutic intervention, treatment of chronic aging of the skin would likely benefit from a "skin bed preparation" to optimize the outcome of rejuvenation procedures and skin maintenance programs. This involves introducing agents that can combat stress-induced oxidation, proteasome dysfunction, and non-enzymatic cross linkages involved in glycation end products, to collectively modulate this damaged ECM, and upregulate neocollagenesis and elastin production. Agents of particular interest are matrikines, peptides originating from the fragmentation of matrix proteins that exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Peptides of this type (tripeptide and hexapeptide) are incorporated in ALASTIN™ Skin Nectar with TriHex™ technology (ALASTIN Skincare, Inc., Carlsbad, CA), which is designed to target ECM modulation with a goal of optimizing results following invasive and non-invasive dermal rejuvenating procedures. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(Suppl 4):s63-s71. PMID:27050707

  12. A novel assay for extracellular matrix remodeling associated with liver fibrosis

    Barascuk, N; Veidal, S S; Larsen, L;

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and increased matrix-metalloprotease (MMPs) activity are hallmarks of fibrosis. We developed an ELISA for quantification of MMP-9 derived collagen type III (CO3) degradation.......Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and increased matrix-metalloprotease (MMPs) activity are hallmarks of fibrosis. We developed an ELISA for quantification of MMP-9 derived collagen type III (CO3) degradation....

  13. DMPD: Fragments of extracellular matrix as mediators of inflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 18243041 Fragments of extracellular matrix as mediators of inflammation. Adair-Kirk...l) Show Fragments of extracellular matrix as mediators of inflammation. PubmedID 18243041 Title Fragments of extrace... TL, Senior RM. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40(6-7):1101-10. Epub 2007 Dec 24. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csm

  14. Astrocytes as a source for Extracellular matrix molecules and cytokines

    Stefan eWiese

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research of the past 25 years has shown that astrocytes do more than participating and building up the blood brain barrier and detoxify the active synapse by reuptake of neurotransmitters and ions. Indeed, astrocytes express neurotransmitter receptors and, as a consequence, respond to stimuli. Deeper knowledge of the differentiation processes during development of the central nervous system (CNS might help explaining and even help treating neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and psychiatric disorders in which astrocytes have been shown to play a role. Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes develop from a multipotent stem cell that prior to this has produced primarily neuronal precursor cells. This switch towards the more astroglial differentiation is regulated by a change in receptor composition on the cell surface and responsiveness of the respective trophic factors Fibroblast growth factor (FGF and Epidermal growth factor (EGF. The glial precursor cell is driven into the astroglial direction by signaling molecules like Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs, and EGF. However, the early astrocytes influence their environment not only by releasing and responding to diverse soluble factors but also express a wide range of extracellular matrix (ECM molecules, in particular proteoglycans of the lectican family and tenascins. Lately these ECM molecules have been shown to participate in glial development. In this regard, especially the matrix protein Tenascin C (Tnc proved to be an important regulator of astrocyte precursor cell proliferation and migration during spinal cord development. On the other hand, ECM molecules expressed by reactive astrocytes are also known to act mostly in an inhibitory fashion under pathophysiological conditions. In this regard, we further summarize recent data concerning the role of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and Tnc under pathological

  15. Extracellular matrix turnover in coronary artery ectasia patients.

    Liu, Ruifeng; Chen, Lianfeng; Wu, Wei; Chen, Houzao; Zhang, Shuyang

    2016-03-01

    Dysregulation of the metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) may contribute to coronary artery ectasia (CAE). This study evaluated the turnover of main ECM components and related proteolytic enzymes activities. In this study, thirty patients with CAE, 30 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 30 subjects with normal coronary arteries (Control) were selected. The following circulating ECM metabolism markers were measured: soluble elastin (sElastin), collagen type I cross-linked telopeptides (ICTP), procollagen type I carboxy terminal peptide (PICP), protocollagen III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), and procollagen a1(III) C-terminal propeptide (PIIICP). Serum total elastase activity and total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were also determined. The level of sElastin was higher in the CAE group than in the CAD and Control groups (P1 = 0.009, P2 = 0.000). There was no difference in ICTP (P = 0.168) or PIIICP (P = 0.079) among the three groups. PICP was significantly elevated in CAE (P1 = 0.001, P2 = 0.002). PIIINP was also significantly increased in CAE (P1 = 0.002, P2 = 0.007). Total elastase activity was higher in the CAE group than in the other two groups (P1 = 0.006, P2 = 0.022). Total MMP activity was significantly higher in the CAE group than the Control group (P2 = 0.013) but not higher than the CAD group (P1 = 0.477). In conclusion, within CAE patients the main changes in ECM metabolism were increased degradation of elastin fibres and the transition of collagen from type III to type I. Elastase and MMPs appear to be associated with this kind of ECM turnover. PMID:25576491

  16. Biocompatibility Evaluation of Vessel Extracellular Matrix as a Matrix for Urethral Reconstruction

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of vessel extracellular matrix (VECM) from rabbit and to discuss the feasibility of vessel extracellular matrix as a matrix for urethral reconstruction. Primary cultured bladder smooth muscle cells isolated from New Zealand rabbits were implanted on VECM .The effects of VECM on rabbit bladder smooth muscle cells (RBSMCs) metabolic activity,attachment, proliferation were monitored in vitro with the aid of an inverted light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The cell viability was monitored by MTT(methythiazolye tetrazolium bromide) after 1, 3,5 days seeding. The in vivo tissue response to VECM was investigated by implanting them into the subcutaneous of rabbits. VECM exhibited a nontoxic and bioactive effect on RBSMCs. RBSMCs could be attached to and proliferated on VECM and maintained their morphologies. MTT assay showed RBSMCs cultured with the extracts of VECM were not significantly different from those of negative controls. In vivo, VECM demonstrated a favorable tissue compatibility without tissue necrosis, fibrosis and other abnormal response. VECM exhibited nontoxic and bioactive effects on RBSMC. It is a suitable material for urethral reconstruction.

  17. Collagens and proteoglycans of the corneal extracellular matrix

    Y.M. Michelacci

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is a curved and transparent structure that provides the initial focusing of a light image into the eye. It consists of a central stroma that constitutes 90% of the corneal depth, covered anteriorly with epithelium and posteriorly with endothelium. Its transparency is the result of the regular spacing of collagen fibers with remarkably uniform diameter and interfibrillar space. Corneal collagen is composed of heterotypic fibrils consisting of type I and type V collagen molecules. The cornea also contains unusually high amounts of type VI collagen, which form microfibrillar structures, FACIT collagens (XII and XIV, and other nonfibrillar collagens (XIII and XVIII. FACIT collagens and other molecules, such as leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans, play important roles in modifying the structure and function of collagen fibrils.Proteoglycans are macromolecules composed of a protein core with covalently linked glycosaminoglycan side chains. Four leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans are present in the extracellular matrix of corneal stroma: decorin, lumican, mimecan and keratocan. The first is a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan, and the other three are keratan sulfate proteoglycans. Experimental evidence indicates that the keratan sulfate proteoglycans are involved in the regulation of collagen fibril diameter, and dermatan sulfate proteoglycan participates in the control of interfibrillar spacing and in the lamellar adhesion properties of corneal collagens. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are minor components of the cornea, and are synthesized mainly by epithelial cells. The effect of injuries on proteoglycan synthesis is discussed.

  18. The extracellular matrix in multiple sclerosis: an update

    Sobel R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM molecules play important roles in the pathobiology of the major human central nervous system (CNS inflammatory/demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS. This mini-review highlights some recent work on CNS endothelial cell interactions with vascular basement membrane ECM as part of the cellular immune response, and roles for white matter ECM molecules in demyelination and remyelination in MS lesions. Recent basic and clinical investigations of MS emphasize axonal injury, not only in chronic MS plaques, but also in acute lesions; progressive axonal degeneration in normal-appearing white matter also may contribute to brain and spinal cord atrophy in MS patients. Remodeling of the interstitial white matter ECM molecules that affect axon regeneration, however, is incompletely characterized. Our ongoing immunohistochemical studies demonstrate enhanced ECM versican, a neurite and axon growth-inhibiting white matter ECM proteoglycan, and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans at the edges of inflammatory MS lesions. This suggests that enhanced proteoglycan deposition in the ECM and axonal growth inhibition may occur early and are involved in expansion of active lesions. Decreased ECM proteoglycans and their phagocytosis by macrophages along with myelin in plaque centers imply that there is "injury" to the ECM itself. These results indicate that white matter ECM proteoglycan alterations are integral to MS pathology at all disease stages and that they contribute to a CNS ECM that is inhospitable to axon regrowth/regeneration.

  19. Extracellular matrix stiffness dictates Wnt expression through integrin pathway.

    Du, Jing; Zu, Yan; Li, Jing; Du, Shuyuan; Xu, Yipu; Zhang, Lang; Jiang, Li; Wang, Zhao; Chien, Shu; Yang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness plays a significant role in regulating the phenotypes and behaviors of many cell types. However, the mechanism underlying the sensing of mechanical cues and subsequent elasticity-triggered pathways remains largely unknown. We observed that stiff ECM significantly enhanced the expression level of several members of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in both bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and primary chondrocytes. The activation of β-catenin by stiff ECM is not dependent on Wnt signals but is elevated by the activation of integrin/ focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway. The accumulated β-catenin then bound to the wnt1 promoter region to up-regulate the gene transcription, thus constituting a positive feedback of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. With the amplifying effect of positive feedback, this integrin-activated β-catenin/Wnt pathway plays significant roles in mediating the enhancement of Wnt signal on stiff ECM and contributes to the regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and primary chondrocyte phenotype maintenance. The present integrin-regulated Wnt1 expression and signaling contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cell behaviors by ECM elasticity. PMID:26854061

  20. Enhanced invasion of metastatic cancer cells via extracellular matrix interface.

    Jiangrui Zhu

    Full Text Available Cancer cell invasion is a major component of metastasis and is responsible for extensive cell diffusion into and major destruction of tissues. Cells exhibit complex invasion modes, including a variety of collective behaviors. This phenomenon results in the structural heterogeneity of the extracellular matrix (ECM in tissues. Here, we systematically investigated the environmental heterogeneity facilitating tumor cell invasion via a combination of in vitro cell migration experiments and computer simulations. Specifically, we constructed an ECM microenvironment in a microfabricated biochip and successfully created a three-dimensional (3D funnel-like matrigel interface inside. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the interface was at the interior defects of the nano-scale molecular anisotropic orientation and the localized structural density variations in the matrigel. Our results, particularly the correlation of the collective migration pattern with the geometric features of the funnel-like interface, indicate that this heterogeneous in vitro ECM structure strongly guides and promotes aggressive cell invasion in the rigid matrigel space. A cellular automaton model was proposed based on our experimental observations, and the associated quantitative analysis indicated that cell invasion was initiated and controlled by several mechanisms, including microenvironment heterogeneity, long-range cell-cell homotype and gradient-driven directional cellular migration. Our work shows the feasibility of constructing a complex and heterogeneous in vitro 3D ECM microenvironment that mimics the in vivo environment. Moreover, our results indicate that ECM heterogeneity is essential in controlling collective cell invasive behaviors and therefore determining metastasis efficiency.

  1. Cellular and extracellular matrix modulation of corneal stromal opacity.

    Torricelli, Andre A M; Wilson, Steven E

    2014-12-01

    Stromal transparency is a critical factor contributing to normal function of the visual system. Corneal injury, surgery, disease and infection elicit complex wound healing responses that serve to protect against insults and maintain the integrity of the cornea, and subsequently to restore corneal structure and transparency. However, in some cases these processes result in prolonged loss of corneal transparency and resulting diminished vision. Corneal opacity is mediated by the complex actions of many cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines produced by the epithelial cells, stromal cells, bone marrow-derived cells, lacrimal tissues, and nerves. Myofibroblasts, and the disorganized extracellular matrix produced by these cells, are critical determinants of the level and persistence of stromal opacity after corneal injury. Decreases in corneal crystallins in myofibroblasts and corneal fibroblasts contribute to cellular opacity in the stroma. Regeneration of a fully functional epithelial basement membrane (BM) appears to have a critical role in the maintenance of corneal stromal transparency after mild injuries and recovery of transparency when opacity is generated after severe injuries. The epithelial BM likely has a regulatory function whereby it modulates epithelium-derived growth factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF) β and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) that drive the development and persistence of myofibroblasts from precursor cells. The purpose of this article is to review the factors involved in the maintenance of corneal transparency and to highlight the mechanisms involved in the appearance, persistency and regression of corneal opacity after stromal injury. PMID:25281830

  2. Inflammatory Alterations of the Extracellular Matrix in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Iijima, Junko [Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-Ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Konno, Kenjiro [Department of Animal Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-Ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Itano, Naoki, E-mail: itanon@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-Ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2011-08-09

    Complex interactions between cancer cells and host stromal cells result in the formation of the “tumor microenvironment”, where inflammatory alterations involve the infiltration of tumor-associated fibroblasts and inflammatory leukocytes that contribute to the acquisition of malignant characteristics, such as increased cancer cell proliferation, invasiveness, metastasis, angiogenesis, and avoidance of adaptive immunity. The microenvironment of a solid tumor is comprised not only of cellular compartments, but also of bioactive substances, including cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM can act as a scaffold for cell migration, a reservoir for cytokines and growth factors, and a signal through receptor binding. During inflammation, ECM components and their degraded fragments act directly and indirectly as inflammatory stimuli in certain cases and regulate the functions of inflammatory and immune cells. One such ECM component, hyaluronan, has recently been implicated to modulate innate immune cell function through pattern recognition toll-like receptors and accelerate the recruitment and activation of tumor-associated macrophages in inflamed cancers. Here, we will summarize the molecular mechanism linking inflammation with ECM remodeling in the tumor microenvironment, with a particular emphasis on the role of hyaluronan in controlling the inflammatory response.

  3. Extracellular matrix, biotensegrity and tumor microenvironment. An update and overview.

    Noguera, R; Nieto, O A; Tadeo, I; Fariñas, F; Alvaro, T

    2012-06-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) constitutes a three-dimensional network that surrounds all cells, organs and tissues in the body. It forms a biophysical filter for protection, nutrition and cell innervation, as well as the medium for facilitating immune response, angiogenesis, fibrosis and tissue regeneration. It is the mechanism by which mechanical forces are transmitted to the basement membrane which, through the integrins, supports the tensegrity system and activates the epigenetic mechanisms of the cell. A review and update on current knowledge on this topic reveals how disturbance of the ECM leads to a loss of efficient filtering, nutrition, elimination, and cell denervation functions, in addition to loss of regeneration capacity and disorders in mechanotransduction. Furthermore, such disturbance results in a loss of substrate, and with it the ability to provide a proper immune response against tumor, toxic and infectious agents. Reciprocal communication between ECM stromal and parenchymatous cells directs gene expression. The oncogenic capacity of the stroma derives from the associated cells as well as from the tumor cells, the angiogenic microenvironment and from an alteration in tensegrity; all of which are dependent on the ECM. It has been shown that the malignant phenotype is reversible by correction of the altered cues of the ECM. PMID:22473691

  4. Biglycan fragmentation in pathologies associated with extracellular matrix remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases

    Genovese, Federica; Barascuk, Natasha; Larsen, Lise Skakkebæk; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Li, Yili; Zheng, Qinlong; Wang, Jianxia; Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Leeming, Diana Julie; Karsdal, Morten Asser

    2013-01-01

    The proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) is involved in collagen fibril assembly and its fragmentation is likely to be associated with collagen turnover during the pathogenesis of diseases which involve dysregulated extracellular matrix remodeling (ECMR), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and liver fibrosis....... The scope of the present study was to develop a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of a MMP-9 and MMP-12-generated biglycan neo-epitope and to test its biological validity in a rat model of RA and in two rat models of liver fibrosis, chosen as models of ECMR....

  5. The role of cell-extracellular matrix interactions in glomerular injury.

    Borza, Corina M; Pozzi, Ambra

    2012-05-15

    Glomerulosclerosis is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix within the glomeruli of the kidney, glomerular cell death, and subsequent loss of functional glomeruli. While in physiological situations the levels of extracellular matrix components are kept constant by a tight balance between formation and degradation, in the case of injury that results in fibrosis there is increased matrix deposition relative to its breakdown. Multiple factors control matrix synthesis and degradation, thus contributing to the development of glomerulosclerosis. This review focuses primarily on the role of cell-matrix interactions, which play a critical role in governing glomerular cell cues in both healthy and diseased kidneys. Cell-extracellular matrix interactions are made possible by various cellular receptors including integrins, discoidin domain receptors, and dystroglycan. Upon binding to a selective extracellular matrix protein, these receptors activate intracellular signaling pathways that can either downregulate or upregulate matrix synthesis and deposition. This, together with the observation that changes in the expression levels of matrix receptors have been documented in glomerular disease, clearly emphasizes the contribution of cell-matrix interactions in glomerular injury. Understanding the molecular mechanisms whereby extracellular matrix receptors regulate matrix homeostasis in the course of glomerular injury is therefore critical for devising more effective therapies to treat and ideally prevent glomerulosclerosis. PMID:22417893

  6. Extracellular matrix remodelling in response to venous hypertension: proteomics of human varicose veins

    Barallobre-Barreiro, Javier; Oklu, Rahmi; Lynch, Marc; Fava, Marika; Baig, Ferheen; Yin, Xiaoke; Barwari, Temo; Potier, David N.; Albadawi, Hassan; Jahangiri, Marjan; Porter, Karen E; Watkins, Michael T.; Misra, Sanjay; Stoughton, Julianne; Mayr, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Aims Extracellular matrix remodelling has been implicated in a number of vascular conditions, including venous hypertension and varicose veins. However, to date, no systematic analysis of matrix remodelling in human veins has been performed. Methods and results To understand the consequences of venous hypertension, normal and varicose veins were evaluated using proteomics approaches targeting the extracellular matrix. Varicose saphenous veins removed during phlebectomy and normal saphenous ve...

  7. Differential expression of extracellular matrix components in the Fallopian tubes throughout the menstrual cycle

    Diaz Patricia S; Solar Paula A; Juica Natalia E; Orihuela Pedro A; Cardenas Hugo; Christodoulides Myron; Vargas Renato; Velasquez Luis A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background One of the unique characteristics of the female genital tract is the extensive tissue remodeling observed throughout the menstrual cycle. Multiple components of the extracellular matrix take part in this tissue rebuilding; however, the individual components involved have not been identified. Methods In the present study, the expression of extracellular matrix proteins and selected matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities in Fallopian tubes (FT) throughout the menstrual cy...

  8. The cytoprotective capacity of processed human cardiac extracellular matrix.

    Kappler, Benjamin; Anic, Petra; Becker, Matthias; Bader, Andreas; Klose, Kristin; Klein, Oliver; Oberwallner, Barbara; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Falk, Volkmar; Stamm, Christof

    2016-07-01

    Freshly isolated human cardiac extracellular matrix sheets (cECM) have been shown to support stem cell proliferation and tissue-specific lineage commitment. We now developed a protocol for standardized production of durable, bio-functional hcECM microparticles and corresponding hydrogel, and tested its cytoprotective effects on contractile cells subjected to ischemia-like conditions. Human ventricular myocardium was decellularized by a 3-step protocol, including Tris/EDTA, SDS and serum incubation (cECM). Following snap-freezing and lyophilization, microparticles were created and characterized by laser diffraction, dynamic image analysis (DIA), and mass spectrometry. Moreover, cECM hydrogel was produced by pepsin digestion. Baseline cell-support characteristics were determined using murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes, and the cytoprotective effects of ECM products were tested under hypoxia and glucose/serum deprivation. In cECM, glycoproteins (thrombospondin 1, fibronectin, collagens and nidogen-1) and proteoglycans (dermatopontin, lumican and mimecan) were preserved, but residual intracellular and blood-borne proteins were also detected. The median particle feret diameter was 66 μm (15-157 μm) by laser diffraction, and 57 μm (20-182 μm) by DIA with crystal violet staining. HL-1 cells displayed enhanced metabolic activity (39 ± 12 %, P human myocardium can be processed to yield standardized durable microparticles that exert specific cytoprotective effects on cardiomyocyte-like cells. The use of processed cECM may help to optimize future clinical-grade myocardial tissue engineering approaches. PMID:27272902

  9. Glia and extracellular matrix changes affect extracellular diffusion and volume transmission in the brain in health and disease

    Vargová, Lýdia; Syková, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, S1 (2011), S38. ISSN 0894-1491. [European meeting on Glial Cells in Health and Disease /10./. 13.09.2011-17.09.2011, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : diffusion * extracellular matrix * extrasynaptic transmission Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  10. Adaptive evolution of the matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein in mammals

    Machado João

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE belongs to a family of small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs that play a key role in skeleton development, particularly in mineralization, phosphate regulation and osteogenesis. MEPE associated disorders cause various physiological effects, such as loss of bone mass, tumors and disruption of renal function (hypophosphatemia. The study of this developmental gene from an evolutionary perspective could provide valuable insights on the adaptive diversification of morphological phenotypes in vertebrates. Results Here we studied the adaptive evolution of the MEPE gene in 26 Eutherian mammals and three birds. The comparative genomic analyses revealed a high degree of evolutionary conservation of some coding and non-coding regions of the MEPE gene across mammals indicating a possible regulatory or functional role likely related with mineralization and/or phosphate regulation. However, the majority of the coding region had a fast evolutionary rate, particularly within the largest exon (1467 bp. Rodentia and Scandentia had distinct substitution rates with an increased accumulation of both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations compared with other mammalian lineages. Characteristics of the gene (e.g. biochemical, evolutionary rate, and intronic conservation differed greatly among lineages of the eight mammalian orders. We identified 20 sites with significant positive selection signatures (codon and protein level outside the main regulatory motifs (dentonin and ASARM suggestive of an adaptive role. Conversely, we find three sites under selection in the signal peptide and one in the ASARM motif that were supported by at least one selection model. The MEPE protein tends to accumulate amino acids promoting disorder and potential phosphorylation targets. Conclusion MEPE shows a high number of selection signatures, revealing the crucial role of positive selection in the

  11. Putative functions of extracellular matrix glycoproteins in secondary palate morphogenesis.

    d'Amaro, Rocca; Scheidegger, Rolf; Blumer, Susan; Pazera, Pawel; Katsaros, Christos; Graf, Daniel; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Cleft palate is a common birth defect in humans. Elevation and fusion of paired palatal shelves are coordinated by growth and transcription factors, and mutations in these can cause malformations. Among the effector genes for growth factor signaling are extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins. These provide substrates for cell adhesion (e.g., fibronectin, tenascins), but also regulate growth factor availability (e.g., fibrillins). Cleft palate in Bmp7 null mouse embryos is caused by a delay in palatal shelf elevation. In contrast, palatal shelves of Tgf-β3 knockout mice elevate normally, but a cleft develops due to their failure to fuse. However, nothing is known about a possible functional interaction between specific ECM proteins and Tgf-β/Bmp family members in palatogenesis. To start addressing this question, we studied the mRNA and protein distribution of relevant ECM components during secondary palate development, and compared it to growth factor expression in wildtypewild type and mutant mice. We found that fibrillin-2 (but not fibrillin-1) mRNA appeared in the mesenchyme of elevated palatal shelves adjacent to the midline epithelial cells, which were positive for Tgf-β3 mRNA. Moreover, midline epithelial cells started expressing fibronectin upon contact of the two palatal shelves. These findings support the hypothesis that fibrillin-2 and fibronectin are involved in regulating the activity of Tgf-β3 at the fusing midline. In addition, we observed that tenascin-W (but not tenascin-C) was misexpressed in palatal shelves of Bmp7-deficient mouse embryos. In contrast to tenascin-C, tenascin-W secretion was strongly induced by Bmp7 in embryonic cranial fibroblasts in vitro. These results are consistent with a putative function for tenascin-W as a target of Bmp7 signaling during palate elevation. Our results indicate that distinct ECM proteins are important for morphogenesis of the secondary palate, both as downstream effectors and as regulators of Tgf

  12. Extracellular matrix remodelling in response to venous hypertension: proteomics of human varicose veins

    Barallobre-Barreiro, Javier; Oklu, Rahmi; Lynch, Marc; Fava, Marika; Baig, Ferheen; Yin, Xiaoke; Barwari, Temo; Potier, David N.; Albadawi, Hassan; Jahangiri, Marjan; Porter, Karen E.; Watkins, Michael T.; Misra, Sanjay; Stoughton, Julianne; Mayr, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Aims Extracellular matrix remodelling has been implicated in a number of vascular conditions, including venous hypertension and varicose veins. However, to date, no systematic analysis of matrix remodelling in human veins has been performed. Methods and results To understand the consequences of venous hypertension, normal and varicose veins were evaluated using proteomics approaches targeting the extracellular matrix. Varicose saphenous veins removed during phlebectomy and normal saphenous veins obtained during coronary artery bypass surgery were collected for proteomics analysis. Extracellular matrix proteins were enriched from venous tissues. The proteomics analysis revealed the presence of >150 extracellular matrix proteins, of which 48 had not been previously detected in venous tissue. Extracellular matrix remodelling in varicose veins was characterized by a loss of aggrecan and several small leucine-rich proteoglycans and a compensatory increase in collagen I and laminins. Gene expression analysis of the same tissues suggested that the remodelling process associated with venous hypertension predominantly occurs at the protein rather than the transcript level. The loss of aggrecan in varicose veins was paralleled by a reduced expression of aggrecanases. Chymase and tryptase β1 were among the up-regulated proteases. The effect of these serine proteases on the venous extracellular matrix was further explored by incubating normal saphenous veins with recombinant enzymes. Proteomics analysis revealed extensive extracellular matrix degradation after digestion with tryptase β1. In comparison, chymase was less potent and degraded predominantly basement membrane-associated proteins. Conclusion The present proteomics study provides unprecedented insights into the expression and degradation of structural and regulatory components of the vascular extracellular matrix in varicosis. PMID:27068509

  13. The Effects of Extracellular Matrix on Tissue Engineering Construction of Cartilage in Vitro

    YU Li; LI Fa-tao; TANG Ming-qiao; YAN Wei-qun

    2006-01-01

    The effects of various cartilage extracellular matrix on the construction of rabbit growth plate cartilage tissue in vitro were studied. The results show that collagen, proteoglycan and hyaluronic acid can promote the growth of cultured chondrocytes but the effects of various cartilage extracellular matrix(ECM)on chondrocyte differentiation are different. Collagen can promote the hypertrophy of chondrocytes while proteoglycan and hyaluronic acid inhibit the transition of mature chondrocytes into hypertrophied chondrocytes.

  14. Modulation of Network Activity in Dissociated Hippocampal Cultures by Enzymatic Digestion of Extracellular Matrix

    Mukhina I.V.; Vedunova М.V.; Sakharnova Т.А.; Dityatev А.E.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of extracellular matrix in spontaneous neuronal network activity, we used microelectrode array technology and enzymatic treatment of hippocampal culture with hyaluronidase, which digests the major component of extracellular matrix, hyaluronic acid. Studies were performed using hippocampal cells that were dissociated from embryonic С57ВL6 mice (E18) and plated on microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Our findings revealed that hyaluronidase promoted seizure-like activity during...

  15. Fibulin-1 is a marker for arterial extracellular matrix alterations in type 2 diabetes

    Cangemi, Claudia; Skov, Vibe; Poulsen, Michael Kjaer;

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix alterations are important elements in the arterial changes seen in diabetes, being associated with increased vascular stiffness and the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, no biomarkers for diabetes-related arterial changes have been defined.......Extracellular matrix alterations are important elements in the arterial changes seen in diabetes, being associated with increased vascular stiffness and the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, no biomarkers for diabetes-related arterial changes have been defined....

  16. Quantitative analysis and comparative regional investigation of the extracellular matrix of the porcine temporomandibular joint disc

    Detamore, Michael S.; Orfanos, John G.; Almarza, Alejandro J.; French, Margaret M.; Wong, Mark E.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of the extracellular matrix of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc is crucial to advancing efforts in tissue engineering the disc. However, the current literature is incomplete and often contradictory in its attempts to describe the nature of the TMJ disc matrix. The aim of this study was to identify the variation of key matrix components along the three axes of the porcine disc using ELISAs to quantify these matrix components, immunohistochemistry to identify their region...

  17. Extracellular Matrix components regulate cellular polarity and tissue structure in the developing and mature Retina

    Shweta Varshney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While genetic networks and other intrinsic mechanisms regulate much of retinal development, interactions with the extracellular environment shape these networks and modify their output. The present review has focused on the role of one family of extracellular matrix molecules and their signaling pathways in retinal development. In addition to their effects on the developing retina, laminins play a role in maintaining Müller cell polarity and compartmentalization, thereby contributing to retinal homeostasis. This article which is intended for the clinical audience, reviews the fundamentals of retinal development, extracellular matrix organization and the role of laminins in retinal development. The role of laminin in cortical development is also briefly discussed.

  18. Astrocytes and extracellular matrix in extrasynaptic volume transmission

    Vargová, Lýdia; Syková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 369, č. 1654 (2014). ISSN 0962-8436 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11867S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : extracellular space * diffusion * astrocytes Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 7.055, year: 2014

  19. Molecular Control of Vascular Tube Morphogenesis and Stabilization: Regulation by Extracellular Matrix, Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Endothelial Cell-Pericyte Interactions

    Davis, George E.; Stratman, Amber N.; Sacharidou, Anastasia

    Recent studies have revealed a critical role for both extracellular matrices and matrix metalloproteinases in the molecular control of vascular morphogenesis and stabilization in three-dimensional (3D) tissue environments. Key interactions involve endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes, which coassemble to affect vessel formation, remodeling, and stabilization events during development and postnatal life. EC-pericyte interactions control extracellular matrix remodeling events including vascular basement membrane matrix assembly, a necessary step for endothelial tube maturation and stabilization. ECs form tube networks in 3D extracellular matrices in a manner dependent on integrins, membrane-type metalloproteinases, and the Rho GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac1. Recent work has defined an EC lumen signaling complex of proteins composed of these proteins that controls 3D matrix-specific signaling events required for these processes. The EC tube formation process results in the creation of a network of proteolytically generated vascular guidance tunnels. These tunnels are physical matrix spaces that regulate vascular tube remodeling and represent matrix conduits into which pericytes are recruited to allow dynamic cell-cell interactions with ECs. These dynamic EC-pericyte interactions induce vascular basement membrane matrix deposition, leading to vessel maturation and stabilization.

  20. Control of extracellular matrix assembly by syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    Klass, C M; Couchman, J R; Woods, A

    transfected with full length (S2) or truncated syndecan-2 lacking the C-terminal 14 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain (S2deltaS). No differences in the amount of matrix assembly were noted with S2 cells, but those expressing S2deltaS could not assemble laminin or fibronectin into a fibrillar matrix. The...... loss of matrix formation was not caused by a failure to synthesize or externalize ECM components as determined by metabolic labeling or due to differences in surface expression of alpha5 or beta1 integrin. The matrix assembly defect was at the cell surface, since S2deltaS cells also lost the ability to...

  1. Pivotal role of matrix metalloproteinase 13 in extracellular matrix turnover in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Takwi Nkyimbeng

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a fatal disease characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs in lung fibrosis. METHODS: MMP and TIMP expression, collagenolytic activity and collagen content was assessed in IPF (n=16 versus donor (n=6 lung homogenates and accomplished by in-situ-zymography for gelatinolytic and collagenolytic activities, combined with MMP antigen detection. Role of MMP13 was assessed employing the bleomycin model of lung fibrosis in MMP-13(-/- versus wild-type mice. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In IPF, MMPs-1, 2, 7, 9 and 13, but not MMP-8, were significantly upregulated, whereas none of the TIMPs (1-4 were significantly altered. Collagen content was slightly increased and collagenolytic activity was most prominent in the airways and co-localized with MMP-13. We observed an exaggerated early inflammatory response and an augmented lung fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged MMP-13(-/- versus wild-type mice, with elevated lung collagen content 28d after bleomycin challenge in the MMP-13(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that i collagen deposition in IPF lungs is not primarily due to excessive TIMP production, but rather due to overwhelming ECM production in face of an overall increased, but spatially imbalanced collagenolytic activity, ii preferential distribution of collagenolytic activity, largely MMP-13, in the airways offers an explanation for the development of honeycomb cysts and iii despite an overall increase in inflammatory cell content the presence of MMP-13 seems to limit the overall extent of ECM deposition in lung fibrosis.

  2. Preoperative radiotherapy and extracellular matrix remodeling in rectal mucosa and tumour matrix metalloproteinases and plasminogen components

    Background. Preoperative radiotherapy reduces recurrence but increases postoperative morbidity. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of radiotherapy in rectal mucosa and rectal tumour extracellular matrix (ECM) by studying enzymes and growth factors involved in ECM remodeling. Materials and methods. Twenty patients with short-term preoperative radiotherapy and 12 control patients without radiotherapy were studied. Biopsies from rectal mucosa and tumour were collected prior to radiotherapy and at surgery. Tissue MMP-1, -2, -9, TIMP-1, uPA, PAI-1, TGF-β1 and calprotectin were determined by ELISA. Biopsies from irradiated and non-irradiated peritoneal areas were also analysed. Results. Radiotherapy increased the tissue levels of MMP-2 and PAI-1 in both the rectal mucosa and tumours while calprotectin and uPA showed an increase only in the mucosa after irradiation. The increase of calprotectin was due to an influx of inflammatory cells as revealed by immunohistochemistry. Prior to irradiation, the tumour tissues had increased levels of MMP-1, -2, -9, total TGF-β1, uPA, PAI-1 and calprotectin compared to mucosa, while TIMP-1 and the active TGF-β1 fraction showed no statistical difference. Conclusions. This study indicates a radiation-induced effect on selected ECM remodeling proteases. This reaction may be responsible for early and late morbidity. Interference of this response might reduce these consequences

  3. Preoperative radiotherapy and extracellular matrix remodeling in rectal mucosa and tumour matrix metalloproteinases and plasminogen components

    Angenete, Eva; Oeresland, Tom; Falk, Peter; Breimer, Michael; Ivarsson, Marie-Louise (Dept. of Surgery, Inst. of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Hultborn, Ragnar (Dept. of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Sahlgrenska, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    Background. Preoperative radiotherapy reduces recurrence but increases postoperative morbidity. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of radiotherapy in rectal mucosa and rectal tumour extracellular matrix (ECM) by studying enzymes and growth factors involved in ECM remodeling. Materials and methods. Twenty patients with short-term preoperative radiotherapy and 12 control patients without radiotherapy were studied. Biopsies from rectal mucosa and tumour were collected prior to radiotherapy and at surgery. Tissue MMP-1, -2, -9, TIMP-1, uPA, PAI-1, TGF-beta1 and calprotectin were determined by ELISA. Biopsies from irradiated and non-irradiated peritoneal areas were also analysed. Results. Radiotherapy increased the tissue levels of MMP-2 and PAI-1 in both the rectal mucosa and tumours while calprotectin and uPA showed an increase only in the mucosa after irradiation. The increase of calprotectin was due to an influx of inflammatory cells as revealed by immunohistochemistry. Prior to irradiation, the tumour tissues had increased levels of MMP-1, -2, -9, total TGF-beta1, uPA, PAI-1 and calprotectin compared to mucosa, while TIMP-1 and the active TGF-beta1 fraction showed no statistical difference. Conclusions. This study indicates a radiation-induced effect on selected ECM remodeling proteases. This reaction may be responsible for early and late morbidity. Interference of this response might reduce these consequences.

  4. Extracellular superoxide dismutase attenuates release of pulmonary hyaluronan from the extracellular matrix following bleomycin exposure

    Zelko, Igor N.; Folz, Rodney J

    2010-01-01

    The major pulmonary antioxidant enzyme involved in the protection of the lung interstitium from oxidative stress is extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD). It has been previously shown that EC-SOD knockout mice are more susceptible to bleomycin induced lung injury, however, the molecular mechanism(s) remains unclear. We report here that bleomycin-induced lung damage, in EC-SOD KO mice, is associated with increased hyaluronan release into alveolar fluid. Analysis of hyaluronan synthase ge...

  5. Soil organic matter and the extracellular microbial matrix show contrasting responses to C and N availability

    Redmile-Gordon, M.A.; Evershed, R.P.; Hirsch, P R; White, R.P.; Goulding, K.W.T.

    2015-01-01

    An emerging paradigm in soil science suggests microbes can perform ‘N mining’ from recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM) in conditions of low N availability. However, this requires the production of extracellular structures rich in N (including enzymes and structural components) and thus defies stoichiometric expectation. We set out to extract newly synthesised peptides from the extracellular matrix in soil and compare the amino acid (AA) profiles, N incorporation and AA dynamics in response...

  6. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2000-06-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function.

  7. Depressed immune surveillance against cancer: role of deficient T cell: extracellular matrix interactions.

    Górski, A; Castronovo, V; Stepień-Sopniewska, B; Grieb, P; Ryba, M; Mrowiec, T; Korczak-Kowalska, G; Wierzbicki, P; Matysiak, W; Dybowska, B

    1994-07-01

    Although T cells infiltrate malignant tumors, the local immune response is usually inefficient and tumors escape destruction. While extracellular matrix proteins strongly costimulate T cell responses in normal individuals, our studies indicate that peripheral blood T cells from cancer patients and tumor infiltrating cells respond poorly or are resistant to stimulative signals mediated by collagen I and IV and fibronectin. Moreover, the adhesive properties of cancer T cells are markedly depressed. Those functional deficiencies are paralleled by variable deficits in integrin and non-integrin T cell receptors for extracellular matrix. Immunotherapy with BCG causes a dramatic but transient increase in T cell: ECM interactions. PMID:7827959

  8. Presence of extracellular DNA in the Candida albicans biofilm matrix and its contribution to biofilms

    Martins, M.; Uppuluri, Priya; Thomas, Derek P.; Cleary, Ian A.; Henriques, Mariana; Lopez-Ribot, José L.; Oliveira, Rosário

    2009-01-01

    DNA has been described as a structural component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in bacterial biofilms. In Candida albicans, there is a scarce knowledge concerning the contribution of extracellular DNA (eDNA) to biofilm matrix and overall structure. This work examined the presence and quantified the amount of eDNA in C. albicans biofilm ECM and the effect of DNase treatment and the addition of exogenous DNA on C. albicans biofilm development as indicators of a role for eDNA in biofilm devel...

  9. Degenerated human intervertebral discs contain autoantibodies against extracellular matrix proteins

    S Capossela

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs is associated with back pain and elevated levels of inflammatory cells. It has been hypothesised that discogenic pain is a direct result of vascular and neural ingrowth along annulus fissures, which may expose the avascular nucleus pulposus (NP to the systemic circulation and induce an autoimmune reaction. In this study, we confirmed our previous observation of antibodies in human degenerated and post-traumatic IVDs cultured in vitro. We hypothesised that the presence of antibodies was due to an autoimmune reaction against specific proteins of the disc. Furthermore we identified antigens which possibly trigger an autoimmune response in degenerative disc diseases. We demonstrated that degenerated and post-traumatic IVDs contain IgG antibodies against typical extracellular proteins of the disc, particularly proteins of the NP. We identified IgGs against collagen type II and aggrecan, confirming an autoimmune reaction against the normally immune privileged NP. We also found specific IgGs against collagens types I and V, but not against collagen type III. In conclusion, this study confirmed the association between disc degeneration and autoimmunity, and may open the avenue for future studies on developing prognostic, diagnostic and therapy-monitoring markers for degenerative disc diseases.

  10. Printing three-dimensional tissue analogues with decellularized extracellular matrix bioink

    Pati, Falguni; Jang, Jinah; Ha, Dong-Heon; Won Kim, Sung; Rhie, Jong-Won; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Deok-Ho; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2014-06-01

    The ability to print and pattern all the components that make up a tissue (cells and matrix materials) in three dimensions to generate structures similar to tissues is an exciting prospect of bioprinting. However, the majority of the matrix materials used so far for bioprinting cannot represent the complexity of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) and thus are unable to reconstitute the intrinsic cellular morphologies and functions. Here, we develop a method for the bioprinting of cell-laden constructs with novel decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) bioink capable of providing an optimized microenvironment conducive to the growth of three-dimensional structured tissue. We show the versatility and flexibility of the developed bioprinting process using tissue-specific dECM bioinks, including adipose, cartilage and heart tissues, capable of providing crucial cues for cells engraftment, survival and long-term function. We achieve high cell viability and functionality of the printed dECM structures using our bioprinting method.

  11. Impact of changes in extracellular matrix in the lumbar degenerative disc

    David, G; Ciurea, AV; Mitrica, M; A.Mohan

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the clinical, biochemical, hystochemical and immunologic aspects of the intervertebral disk, along with its molecular biology, justifies the object of our study on the extracellular matrix modifications in lumbar disk hernias and their impact on patient quality of life. Material and method: the research lot was composed of 50 patients, aged between 18 and 73, who have undergone lumbar disk hernia surgery. MMP–9 (metalloproteinase–9) and TIMP–1 (tissue inhibitor of matrix met...

  12. Extracellular matrix of smooth muscle cells: interaction of collagen type V with heparan sulfate proteoglycan

    Gay, S.; Hoeoek, M.; Gay, R.E.; Magargal, W.W.; Reynertson, R.H.

    1986-03-05

    Alteration in the extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells may play a role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently the authors have initiated studies on the structural organization of the extracellular matrix produced by cultured smooth muscle cells. Immunohisotological examination of this matrix using well-characterized mono- and polyclonal antibodies showed a partial codistribution of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans with a number of different matrix components including collagen types I, III, IV, V and VI, laminin and fibronectin. Subsequent binding studies between isolated matrix proteins and HS showed that the polysaccharide interacts strongly with type V collagen and to a lesser extent with fibronectin as well as collagen types III and VI. The interaction between type V and HS was readily inhibited by heparin and highly sulfated HS but not be dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate or HS with a low sulfate content. Furthermore, (/sup 35/S)-HS proteoglycans isolated from cultured smooth muscle cells could be adsorbed on a column of sepharose conjugated with native type V collagen and eluted in a salt gradient. Hence, the interaction between type V and HS may play a major part in stabilizing the extracellular matrix of the vessel wall.

  13. Extracellular matrix of smooth muscle cells: interaction of collagen type V with heparan sulfate proteoglycan

    Alteration in the extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells may play a role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently the authors have initiated studies on the structural organization of the extracellular matrix produced by cultured smooth muscle cells. Immunohisotological examination of this matrix using well-characterized mono- and polyclonal antibodies showed a partial codistribution of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans with a number of different matrix components including collagen types I, III, IV, V and VI, laminin and fibronectin. Subsequent binding studies between isolated matrix proteins and HS showed that the polysaccharide interacts strongly with type V collagen and to a lesser extent with fibronectin as well as collagen types III and VI. The interaction between type V and HS was readily inhibited by heparin and highly sulfated HS but not be dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate or HS with a low sulfate content. Furthermore, [35S]-HS proteoglycans isolated from cultured smooth muscle cells could be adsorbed on a column of sepharose conjugated with native type V collagen and eluted in a salt gradient. Hence, the interaction between type V and HS may play a major part in stabilizing the extracellular matrix of the vessel wall

  14. Cyclopamine disrupts tumor extracellular matrix and improves the distribution and efficacy of nanotherapeutics in pancreatic cancer.

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Ting; Shen, Shun; She, Xiaojian; Tuo, Yanyan; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2016-10-01

    The dense extracellular matrix in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma dramatically reduces the penetration and efficacy of nanotherapeutics. Disruption of the tumor extracellular matrix may help improve the distribution and efficacy of nanotherapeutics in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we tested whether cyclopamine, a special inhibitor of the hedgehog signaling pathway with powerful anti-fibrotic activity, could promote the penetration and efficacy of nanotherapeutics in pancreatic cancer. It was shown that cyclopamine disrupted tumor extracellular fibronectins, decompressed tumor blood vessels, and improved tumor perfusion. Furthermore, cyclopamine improved the accumulation and intratumoral distribution of i.v.-administered fluorescence indicator-labeled nanoparticles. Finally, cyclopamine also significantly improved the tumor growth inhibition effect of i.v.-injected nanotherapeutics in pancreatic tumor xenograft mouse models. Thus, cyclopamine may have great potential to improve the therapeutic effects of nanomedicine in patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:27376555

  15. Within tumors, interactions between T cells and tumor cells are impeded by the extracellular matrix

    Salmon, Hélène; Donnadieu, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    In principle, T cells can recognize and kill cancer cells. However, tumors have the ability to escape T cell attack. By imaging the dynamic behavior of T cells in human lung tumor explants, we have recently established the importance of the extracellular matrix in limiting access of T cells to tumor cells.

  16. Topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein in non-healing venous ulcers

    Burçin Abud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Treatment of chronic venous ulcers of the lower extremity is still an important difficulty. The principal treatment of these ulcers includes compression therapy, local wound care and surgery. Unresponsiveness to these standard treatments is a frequent situation with negative effects on life quality and reductions in personal productivity. Therefore, there is a need for new applications to increase the effectiveness of treatment in treatment-resistant cases. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated the results of topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein in resistant venous ulcers. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the records of patients with treatment-resistant venous ulceration who were treated with amelogenin extracellular matrix protein between June 2011 and December 2012.. Results: 26 patients (21 male and 5 female with a total number of 28 ulcers (24 patients with 1 ulcer, 2 patients with two ulcers were evaluated. The patients were treated with topically applied amelogenin extracellular matrix protein and regional four bandage compression. Bandages were changed weekly. Each cure continued for six weeks. In fourteen patients (15 ulcers, we observed a complete healing by the end of the first cure. In another twelve cases (13 ulcers, the same period resulted with a reduction in wound diameter. We continued to the second cure for these patients. By the end of the second cure, complete healing was achieved in five cases (6 ulcers. Conclusion: Topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein may be considered as an effective therapeutic choice for refractory venous ulcers.

  17. Connective tissue growth factor induces extracellular matrix in asthmatic airway smooth muscle

    Johnson, Peter R A; Burgess, Janette K; Ge, Qi; Poniris, Maree; Boustany, Sarah; Twigg, Stephen M; Black, Judith L

    2006-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and connective tissue growth factor may be implicated in extracellular matrix protein deposition in asthma. We have recently reported that TGF-beta increased connective tissue growth factor expression in airway smooth muscle cells isolated from patients with ast

  18. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX IN ACUTE GALACTOSAMINE HEPATITIS IN RATS

    JONKER, AM; DIJKHUIS, FWJ; BOES, A; HARDONK, MJ

    1992-01-01

    A single injection of D-galactosamine hydrochloride induces acute self-limiting liver disease in rats that morphologically resembles drug-induced hepatitis in human beings. In this immunohistochemical study we examined the localization and expression of the hepatic extracellular matrix components fi

  19. Separation Anxiety: Detachment from the Extracellular Matrix Induces Metabolic Changes that Can Stimulate Tumorigenesis

    Magdalena A. Cichon; Derek C. Radisky

    2010-01-01

    @@ One of the earliest stages of tumor progression involves the ability of cells to survive and proliferate when not attached to the extracellular matrix (ECM). New research using a physiologically relevant breast cancer model reveals how separation from the ECM stimulates metabolic changes characteristic of developing tumors.

  20. Extracellular matrix formation enhances the ability of Streptococcus pneumoniae to cause invasive disease.

    Claudia Trappetti

    Full Text Available During infection, pneumococci exist mainly in sessile biofilms rather than in planktonic form, except during sepsis. However, relatively little is known about how biofilms contribute to pneumococcal pathogenesis. Here, we carried out a biofilm assay on opaque and transparent variants of a clinical serotype 19F strain WCH159. After 4 days incubation, scanning electron microscopy revealed that opaque biofilm bacteria produced an extracellular matrix, whereas the transparent variant did not. The opaque biofilm-derived bacteria translocated from the nasopharynx to the lungs and brain of mice, and showed 100-fold greater in vitro adherence to A549 cells than transparent bacteria. Microarray analysis of planktonic and sessile bacteria from transparent and opaque variants showed differential gene expression in two operons: the lic operon, which is involved in choline uptake, and in the two-component system, ciaRH. Mutants of these genes did not form an extracellular matrix, could not translocate from the nasopharynx to the lungs or the brain, and adhered poorly to A549 cells. We conclude that only the opaque phenotype is able to form extracellular matrix, and that the lic operon and ciaRH contribute to this process. We propose that during infection, extracellular matrix formation enhances the ability of pneumococci to cause invasive disease.

  1. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...

  2. Macrophage-mediated proteolytic remodeling of the extracellular matrix in atherosclerosis results in neoepitopes

    Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Barascuk, Natasha; Register, Thomas; Karsdal, Morten A

    2010-01-01

    almost all stages of atherosclerosis, by both initiating atherosclerotic plaques and degrading them through the secretion of proteolytic enzymes leading to rupture. This review summarizes the literature on the role of macrophages and their proteolytic activity on proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM...

  3. Physicomechanical properties of the extracellular matrix of a demineralized bone

    Kirilova, I. A.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Nikolaev, S. V.; Podorozhnaya, V. T.; Uvarkin, P. V.; Ratushnyak, A. S.; Chebodaeva, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the results of a study of physicomechanical properties of a demineralized bone matrix of human cancellous and compact bones. A demineralized cancellous bone was shown to have the best characteristics of a porous system for colonization of matrices by cells. The ultimate stress and elasticity modulus of samples of demineralized femoral heads isolated in primary hip replacement was demonstrated to vary in wide ranges. The elasticity modulus ranged from 50 to 250 MPa, and the tensile strength varied from 1.1 to 5.5 MPa. Microhardness measurements by the recovered indentation method were not possible because of the viscoelastic properties of a bone material. To study the piezoelectric properties of samples, a measuring system was developed that comprised a measuring chamber with contact electrodes, a system for controlled sample loading, an amplifier-converter unit, and signal recording and processing software. The measurement results were used to determine the dependence of the signal amplitude on the dynamic deformation characteristics. The findings are discussed in terms of the relationship between the mechanical and electrical properties and the structure of the organic bone component.

  4. Neoplastic extracellular matrix environment promotes cancer invasion in vitro.

    Sundquist, Elias; Renko, Outi; Salo, Sirpa; Magga, Johanna; Cervigne, Nilva K; Nyberg, Pia; Risteli, Juha; Sormunen, Raija; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Zandonadi, Flávia; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Coletta, Ricardo D; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Salo, Tuula

    2016-06-10

    The invasion of carcinoma cells is a crucial feature in carcinogenesis. The penetration efficiency not only depends on the cancer cells, but also on the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Our group has developed a 3D invasion assay based on human uterine leiomyoma tissue. Here we tested whether human, porcine, mouse or rat hearts as well as porcine tongue tissues could be similarly used to study carcinoma cell invasion in vitro. Three invasive human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-3, SCC-25 and SCC-15), melanoma (G-361) and ductal breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cell lines, and co-cultures of HSC-3 and carcinoma-associated or normal oral fibroblasts were assayed. Myoma tissue, both native and lyophilized, promoted invasion and growth of the cancer cells. However, the healthy heart or tongue matrices were unable to induce the invasion of any type of cancer cells tested. Moreover, when studied in more detail, small molecular weight fragments derived from heart tissue rinsing media inhibited HSC-3 horizontal migration. Proteome analysis of myoma rinsing media, on the other hand, revealed migration enhancing factors. These results highlight the important role of matrix composition for cancer invasion studies in vitro and further demonstrate the unique properties of human myoma organotypic model. PMID:27090016

  5. Extracellular Matrix Remodeling of the Umbilical Cord in Pre-eclampsia as a Risk Factor for Fetal Hypertension

    Lech Romanowicz; Zofia Galewska

    2011-01-01

    The human umbilical cord forms a connection between the placenta and the foetus. It is composed of two arteries and one vein surrounded by Wharton's jelly. Pre-eclampsia is accompanied by extensive remodeling of extracellular matrix of umbilical cord. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are engaged in degradation of extracellular matrix proteins and activation/inactivation of certain cytokines and enzymes. These enzymes will probably play a central role in the release of matrix-embedded cytokine...

  6. Local fluid transfer regulation in heart extracellular matrix.

    McGee, Maria P; Morykwas, Michael J; Jordan, James E; Wang, Rui; Argenta, Louis C

    2016-06-01

    The interstitial myocardial matrix is a complex and dynamic structure that adapts to local fluctuations in pressure and actively contributes to the heart's fluid exchange and hydration. However, classical physiologic models tend to treat it as a passive conduit for water and solute, perhaps because local interstitial regulatory mechanisms are not easily accessible to experiment in vivo. Here, we examined the interstitial contribution to the fluid-driving pressure ex vivo. Interstitial hydration potentials were determined from influx/efflux rates measured in explants from healthy and ischemia-reperfusion-injured pigs during colloid osmotic pressure titrations. Adaptive responses were further explored by isolating myocardial fibroblasts and measuring their contractile responses to water activity changes in vitro. Results show hydration potentials between 5 and 60 mmHg in healthy myocardia and shifts in excess of 200 mmHg in edematous myocardia after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Further, rates of fluid transfer were temperature-dependent, and in collagen gel contraction assays, myocardial fibroblasts tended to preserve the micro-environment's hydration volume by slowing fluid efflux rates at pressures above 40 mmHg. Our studies quantify components of the fluid-driving forces in the heart interstitium that the classical Starling's equation does not explicitly consider. Measured hydration potentials in healthy myocardia and shifts with edema are larger than predicted from the known values of hydrostatic and colloid osmotic interstitial fluid pressures. Together with fibroblast responses in vitro, they are consistent with regulatory mechanisms that add local biological controls to classic fluid-balance models. PMID:26961911

  7. Inhibiting extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer maybe beneficial for diminishing the atherosclerotic plaque instability

    Xie S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and local thrombosis activation in the artery cause acute serious incidents such as acute coronary syndrome and stroke. The exact mechanism of plaque rupture remains unclear but excessive degradation of the extracellular matrix scaffold by matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs has been implicated as one of the major molecular mechanisms in this process. Convincing evidence is available to prove that extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN induces MMP expression and is involved in the inflammatory responses in the artery wall. The inflammation and MMPs have been shown to play a critical role for atherosclerotic lesion development and progression. More recent data showed that increased EMMPRIN expression was associated with vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we speculate that EMMPRIN may be pivotal for atherosclerotic plaque instability, and hence inhibition of EMMPRIN expression could be a promising approach for the prevention or treatment of atheroma instability.

  8. Dynamics of protein secretion during adipocyte differentiation.

    Ojima, Koichi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Muroya, Susumu; Nishimura, Takanori

    2016-08-01

    The major functions of adipocytes include both lipid storage and the production of secretory factors. However, the type of proteins released from mouse 3T3-L1 cells during adipocyte differentiation remains poorly understood. We examined the dynamics of secreted proteins during adipocyte differentiation using mass spectrometry (MS) combined with an iTRAQ (®) labeling method that enables the simultaneous analysis of relative protein expression levels. A total of 215 proteins were identified and quantified from approximately 10 000 MS/MS spectra. Of these, approximately 38% were categorized as secreted proteins based on gene ontology classification. Adipokine secretion levels were increased with the progression of differentiation. By contrast, levels of fibril collagen components, such as subunits of type I and III collagens, were decreased during differentiation. Basement membrane components attained their peak levels at day 4 when small lipid droplets accumulated in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Simultaneously, peak levels of collagen microfibril components that comprise type V and VI collagen subunits were also observed. Our data demonstrated that extracellular matrix components were predominantly released during the early and middle stages of adipocyte differentiation, with a subsequent increase in the secretion of adipokines. This suggests that 3T3-L1 cells secrete adipokines after their ECM is constructed during adipocyte differentiation. PMID:27516960

  9. Biotensegrity of the extracellular matrix: physiology, dynamic mechanical balance and implications in oncology and mechanotherapy.

    Irene eTadeo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cells have the capacity to convert mechanical stimuli into chemical changes. This process is based on the tensegrity principle, a mechanism of tensional integrity. To date, this principle has been demonstrated to act in physiological processes such as mechanotransduction and mechanosensing at different scales (from cell sensing through integrins to molecular mechanical interventions or even localized massage. The process involves intra- and extracellular components, including the participation of extracellular matrix and microtubules that act as compression structures, and actin filaments, which act as tension structures. The nucleus itself has its own tensegrity system which is implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Despite present advances, only the tip of the iceberg has so far been uncovered regarding the role of extracellular matrix compounds in influencing biotensegrity in pathological processes. Groups of cells, together with the surrounding ground substance, are subject to different and specific forces which certainly influence biological processes. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the role of extracellular matrix elements in determining biotensegrity in malignant processes, and describe their implication in therapeutic response, resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy, and subsequent tumor progression. Original data based on the study of neuroblastic tumors will be provided.

  10. Differential expression of extracellular matrix components in the Fallopian tubes throughout the menstrual cycle

    Diaz Patricia S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the unique characteristics of the female genital tract is the extensive tissue remodeling observed throughout the menstrual cycle. Multiple components of the extracellular matrix take part in this tissue rebuilding; however, the individual components involved have not been identified. Methods In the present study, the expression of extracellular matrix proteins and selected matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activities in Fallopian tubes (FT throughout the menstrual cycle were examined by PCR array, immunocytochemistry, zymography and bioinformatics. Results Of the eighty-four genes analyzed, eighty-three were expressed in the FT during at least one stage of the menstrual cycle. We observed a significant increase (>/=2-fold in ADAMTS1, ADAMTS13, COL7A1, MMP3, MMP9, PECAM1, and THBS3 in the periovulatory phase compared to the follicular phase. Meanwhile, we observed a significant decrease (>/= 2-fold in COL7A1, ICAM1, ITGA8, MMP16, MMP9, CLEC3B, SELE and TIMP2 in the lutheal phase compared to the periovulatory phase. Immunocytochemistry showed that MMP-3 and MMP-9 were localized in the endosalpinx during all phases of the menstrual cycle. Gelatin zymograms detected non-cycle-dependent protease activity. Conclusions Several extracellular matrix components were regulated throughout the menstrual cycle in a cyclic pattern, suggesting a possible steroid regulation and a role in tissue remodeling and FT functions.

  11. Neuronal growth cones and regeneration:gridlock within the extracellular matrix

    Diane M. Snow

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a diverse composition of glycoproteins and proteoglycans found in all cellular systems. The extracellular matrix, abundant in the mammalian central nervous system, is temporally and spatially regulated and is a dynamic“living”entity that is reshaped and redesigned on a continuous basis in response to changing needs. Some modifications are adaptive and some are maladaptive. It is the maladaptive responses that pose a significant threat to successful axonal regeneration and/or sprouting following traumatic and spinal cord injuries, and has been the focus of a myriad of research laboratories for many years. This review focuses largely on the extracellular matrix component, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, with certain com-parisons to heparan sulfate proteoglycans, which tend to serve opposite functions in the central nervous system. Although about equally as well characterized as some of the other proteoglycans such as hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate proteoglycan, chon-droitin sulfate proteoglycans are the most widely researched and discussed proteoglycans in the ifeld of axonal injury and regen-eration. Four laboratories discuss various aspects of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and proteoglycans in general with respect to their structure and function (Beller and Snow), the recent discovery of speciifc chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan receptors and what this may mean for increased advancements in the ifeld (Shen), extracellular matrix degradation by matrix metallopro-teinases, which sculpt and resculpt to provide support for out-growth, synapse formation, and synapse stability (Phillips et al.), and the perilesion microenvironment with respect to immune system function in response to proteoglycans and central nervous system injuries (Jakeman et al.).

  12. Designer Extracellular Matrix Based on DNA-Peptide Networks Generated by Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Finke, Alexander; Bußkamp, Holger; Manea, Marilena; Marx, Andreas

    2016-08-16

    Cell proliferation and differentiation in multicellular organisms are partially regulated by signaling from the extracellular matrix. The ability to mimic an extracellular matrix would allow particular cell types to be specifically recognized, which is central to tissue engineering. We present a new functional DNA-based material with cell-adhesion properties. It is generated by using covalently branched DNA as primers in PCR. These primers were functionalized by click chemistry with the cyclic peptide c(RGDfK), a peptide that is known to predominantly bind to αvβ3 integrins, which are found on endothelial cells and fibroblasts, for example. As a covalent coating of surfaces, this DNA-based material shows cell-repellent properties in its unfunctionalized state and gains adhesiveness towards specific target cells when functionalized with c(RGDfK). These cells remain viable and can be released under mild conditions by DNase I treatment. PMID:27410200

  13. Immunohistochemical study of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components in the notochord and notochordal sheath of amphioxus

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A major cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins of the amphioxus notochordal cells and sheath were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. The three-layered amphioxus notochordal sheath strongly expressed fish collagen type I in its outer and middle layers, while in the innermost layer expression did not occur. The amphioxus notochordal sheath was reactive to applied anti-human antibodies for intermediate filament proteins such as cytokeratins, desmin and vimentin, as well as to microtubule components (ß-tubulin, particularly in the area close to the epipharyngeal groove. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was expressed in some notochordal cells and in the area of the notochordal attachment to the sheath. Thus muscular nature of notochordal cells was shown by immunohistochemistry in tissue section. Our results confirm that genes encoding intermediate filament proteins, microtubules and microfilaments are highly conserved during evolution. Collagen type I was proven to be the key extracellular matrix protein that forms the amphioxus notochordal sheath.

  14. Regulation of Extracellular Matrix Remodeling Proteins by Osteoblasts in Titanium Nanoparticle-Induced Aseptic Loosening Model.

    Xie, Jing; Hou, Yanhua; Fu, Na; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Li, Guo; Peng, Qiang; Lin, Yunfeng

    2015-10-01

    Titanium (Ti)-wear particles, formed at the bone-implant interface, are responsible for aseptic loosening, which is a main cause of total joint replacement failure. There have been many studies on Ti particle-induced function changes in mono-cultured osteoblasts and synovial cells. However, little is known on extracellular matrix remodeling displayed by osteoblasts when in coexistence with Synovial cells. To further mimic the bone-implant interface environment, we firstly established a nanoscaled-Ti particle-induced aseptic loosening system by co-culturing osteoblasts and Synovial cells. We then explored the impact of the Synovial cells on Ti particle-engulfed osteoblasts in the mimicked flamed niche. The matrix metalloproteinases and lysyl oxidases expression levels, two protein families which are critical in osseointegration, were examined under induction by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. It was found that the co-culture between the osteoblasts and Synovial cells markedly increased the migration and proliferation of the osteoblasts, even in the Ti-particle engulfed osteoblasts. Importantly, the Ti-particle engulfed osteoblasts, induced by TNF-alpha after the co-culture, enhanced the release of the matrix metalloproteinases and reduced the expressions of lysyl oxidases. The regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling at the protein level was further assessed by investigations on gene expression of the matrix metalloproteinases and lysyl oxidases, which also suggested that the regulation started at the genetic level. Our research work has therefore revealed the critical role of multi cell-type interactions in the extracellular matrix remodeling within the peri-prosthetic tissues, which provides new insights on aseptic loosening and brings new clues about incomplete osseointegration between the implantation materials and their surrounding bones. PMID:26502645

  15. A finite dissipative theory of temporary interfibrillar bridges in the extracellular matrix of ligaments and tendons

    Ciarletta, P.; Ben Amar, M

    2008-01-01

    The structural integrity and the biomechanical characteristics of ligaments and tendons result from the interactions between collagenous and non-collagenous proteins (e.g. proteoglycans, PGs) in the extracellular matrix. In this paper, a dissipative theory of temporary interfibrillar bridges in the anisotropic network of collagen type I, embedded in a ground substance, is derived. The glycosaminoglycan chains of decorin are assumed to mediate interactions between fibrils, behaving as viscous ...

  16. Cellular Localization, Invasion, and Turnover Are Differently Influenced by Healthy and Tumor-Derived Extracellular Matrix

    Genovese, Luca; Zawada, Lidia; Tosoni, Antonella; Ferri, Angelita; Zerbi, Pietro; Allevi, Raffaele; Nebuloni, Manuela; Alfano, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between tumor cells and the microenvironment has been recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer biology. To assess the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the modulation of tissue homeostasis and tumorigenesis, we developed a protocol for the purification of tissue-derived ECM using mucosae from healthy human colon, perilesional area, and colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Matched specimens were collected from the left colon of patients undergoing CRC resection surgery. ECMs were ...

  17. Cellular and extracellular matrix changes in anterior cruciate ligaments during human knee aging and osteoarthritis

    Hasegawa, Akihiko; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Asahara, Hiroshi; Koziol, James; Lotz, Martin K

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) degeneration is observed in most osteoarthritis (OA)-affected knee joints. However, the specific spatial and temporal relations of these changes and their association with extracellular matrix (ECM) degeneration are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the patterns and relations of aging-related and OA-associated changes in ACL cells and the ECM. Methods Human knee joints from 80 donors (age 23 through 94) were obta...

  18. Nanoscale Viscoelasticity of Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Soft Tissues: a Multiscale Approach

    Miri, Amir K.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc; Javid, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    We propose that the bulk viscoelasticity of soft tissues results from two length-scale-dependent mechanisms: the time-dependent response of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) at the nanometer scale and the biophysical interactions between the ECM solid structure and interstitial fluid at the micrometer scale. The latter was modeled using the poroelasticity theory with an assumption of free motion of the interstitial fluid within the porous ECM structure. Following a recent study (Heris, H.K....

  19. Anchorage of collagen-tailed acetylcholinesterase to the extracellular matrix is mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    1985-01-01

    Heparan sulfate and heparin, two sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), extracted collagen-tailed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the electric organ of Discopyge tschudii. The effect of heparan sulfate and heparin was abolished by protamine; other GAGs could not extract the esterase. The solubilization of the asymmetric AChE apparently occurs through the formation of a soluble AChE-GAG complex of 30S. Heparitinase treatment but not chondroitinase ABC treatment ...

  20. The extracellular matrix component WIF-1 is expressed during, and can modulate, retinal development

    Hunter, Dale D.; Zhang, Minlei; Ferguson, Jill W.; Koch, Manuel; Brunken, William J.

    2004-01-01

    We have shown previously that components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) modulate neuronal development. Here, we searched for additional ECM elements that might play roles in retinal histogenesis and identified a secreted glycoprotein that is heavily expressed in the retina. This molecule, named by others Wnt Inhibitory Factor-1 (WIF-1), is expressed during and after the period of rod photoreceptor morphogenesis in the mouse. We show that a potential WIF-1 ligand, Wnt4, as well as a potenti...

  1. Induction of Extracellular Matrix-Remodeling Genes by the Senescence-Associated Protein APA-1

    Benanti, Jennifer A.; Williams, Dawnnica K.; Robinson, Kristin L; Ozer, Harvey L.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2002-01-01

    Human fibroblasts undergo cellular senescence after a finite number of divisions, in response to the erosion of telomeres. In addition to being terminally arrested in the cell cycle, senescent fibroblasts express genes that are normally induced upon wounding, including genes that remodel the extracellular matrix. We have identified the novel zinc finger protein APA-1, whose expression increased in senescent human fibroblasts independent of telomere shortening. Extended passage, telomerase-imm...

  2. Influence of Cartilage Extracellular Matrix Molecules on Cell Phenotype and Neocartilage Formation

    Grogan, Shawn P.; Chen, Xian; Sovani, Sujata; Taniguchi, Noboru; Colwell, Clifford W.; Lotz, Martin K; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between chondrocytes and the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for maintaining the cartilage's role as a low-friction and load-bearing tissue. In this study, we examined the influence of cartilage zone-specific ECM on human articular chondrocytes (HAC) in two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) environments. Two culture systems were used. SYSTEM 1: HAC were cultured on cell-culture plates that had been precoated with the following ECM molecules for 7 days: decor...

  3. The effect on the extracellular matrix of the deep fascia in response to leg lengthening

    Wei Yi-Yong; Wu Zi-Xiang; Li Xin-Kui; Wang Hai-Qiang; Luo Zhuo-Jing

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Whereas the alterations of diverse tissues in cellular and molecular levels have been investigated during leg lengthening via microscopy and biochemical studies, little is known about the response of deep fascia. This study aims to investigate the changes of the extracellular matrix in deep fascia in response to leg lengthening. Methods Animal model of leg lengthening was established in New Zealand white rabbits. Distraction was initiated at a rate of 1 mm/day and 2 mm/day...

  4. Extracellular Matrix Scaffold Technology for Bioartificial Pancreas Engineering: State of the Art and Future Challenges

    Salvatori, Marcus; Katari, Ravi; Patel, Timil; Peloso, Andrea; Mugweru, Jon; Owusu, Kofi; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Emergent technologies in regenerative medicine may soon overcome the limitations of conventional diabetes therapies. Collaborative efforts across the subfields of stem cell technology, islet encapsulation, and biomaterial carriers seek to produce a bioengineered pancreas capable of restoring endocrine function in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. These technologies rely on a robust understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the supportive 3-dimensional network of proteins necess...

  5. Discrete Element Framework for Modelling Extracellular Matrix, Deformable Cells and Subcellular Components

    Gardiner, Bruce S.; Wong, Kelvin K. L.; Joldes, Grand R.; Rich, Addison J.; Tan, Chin Wee; Burgess, Antony W.; Smith, David W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for modelling biological tissues based on discrete particles. Cell components (e.g. cell membranes, cell cytoskeleton, cell nucleus) and extracellular matrix (e.g. collagen) are represented using collections of particles. Simple particle to particle interaction laws are used to simulate and control complex physical interaction types (e.g. cell-cell adhesion via cadherins, integrin basement membrane attachment, cytoskeletal mechanical properties). Particles may ...

  6. Macromolecularly crowded in vitro microenvironments accelerate the production of extracellular matrix-rich supramolecular assemblies

    Kumar, Pramod; Satyam, Abhigyan; Fan, Xingliang; Rodriguez, Brian J.; et al

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies based on the principles of tissue engineering by self-assembly put forward the notion that functional regeneration can be achieved by utilising the inherent capacity of cells to create highly sophisticated supramolecular assemblies. However, in dilute ex vivo microenvironments, prolonged culture time is required to develop an extracellular matrix-rich implantable device. Herein, we assessed the influence of macromolecular crowding, a biophysical phenomenon that regulate...

  7. Activated ras Prevents Downregulation of Bcl-XL Triggered by Detachment from the Extracellular Matrix

    Rosen, Kirill; RAK, Janusz; Leung, Thomas; Dean, Nicholas M.; Kerbel, Robert S.; Filmus, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    Detachment of epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix (ECM) results in a form of apoptosis often referred to as anoikis. Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by oncogenic ras leads to resistance to anoikis, and this resistance is required for the full manifestation of the malignant phenotype. Previously, we demonstrated that ras-induced inhibition of anoikis in intestinal epithelial cells results, in part, from the ras-induced constitutive downregulation of Bak, a pro-apoptoti...

  8. Study of Glycosaminoglycans of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) in Pulp of Developing Tooth

    Kermany T; AR. Varasteh; Nicravesh MR; oradi M

    2000-01-01

    Mesenchymal- epithelial interactions during embryogenesis have been shown to be important in the fetal development of many organs. Identification of molecules that modulate these interactions is key to our understanding of the pathological conditions. The major groups of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules characterized are glycosaminoglycans that candidate for morphogenesis and differentiation of ceils and tissues. In this study the molecules of ECM were considered in tooth development, pre...

  9. Immunohistochemical evidence of rapid extracellular matrix remodeling after iron-particle irradiation of mouse mammary gland

    Ehrhart, E. J.; Gillette, E. L.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chaterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    High-LET radiation has unique physical and biological properties compared to sparsely ionizing radiation. Recent studies demonstrate that sparsely ionizing radiation rapidly alters the pattern of extracellular matrix expression in several tissues, but little is known about the effect of heavy-ion radiation. This study investigates densely ionizing radiation-induced changes in extracellular matrix localization in the mammary glands of adult female BALB/c mice after whole-body irradiation with 0.8 Gy 600 MeV iron particles. The basement membrane and interstitial extracellular matrix proteins of the mammary gland stroma were mapped with respect to time postirradiation using immunofluorescence. Collagen III was induced in the adipose stroma within 1 day, continued to increase through day 9 and was resolved by day 14. Immunoreactive tenascin was induced in the epithelium by day 1, was evident at the epithelial-stromal interface by day 5-9 and persisted as a condensed layer beneath the basement membrane through day 14. These findings parallel similar changes induced by gamma irradiation but demonstrate different onset and chronicity. In contrast, the integrity of epithelial basement membrane, which was unaffected by sparsely ionizing radiation, was disrupted by iron-particle irradiation. Laminin immunoreactivity was mildly irregular at 1 h postirradiation and showed discontinuities and thickening from days 1 to 9. Continuity was restored by day 14. Thus high-LET radiation, like sparsely ionizing radiation, induces rapid-remodeling of the stromal extracellular matrix but also appears to alter the integrity of the epithelial basement membrane, which is an important regulator of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

  10. Matrix Extracellular Phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) Is a New Bone Renal Hormone and Vascularization Modulator

    David, Valentin; Martin, Aline; Hedge, Anne-Marie; Rowe, Peter S N

    2009-01-01

    Increased matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) expression occurs in several phosphate and bone-mineral metabolic disorders. To resolve whether MEPE plays a role, we created a murine model overexpressing MEPE protein (MEPE tgn) in bone. MEPE tgn mice displayed a growth and mineralization defect with altered bone-renal vascularization that persisted to adulthood. The growth mineralization defect was due to a decrease in bone remodeling, and MEPE tgn mice were resistant to diet-induce...

  11. Antibacterial Activity within Degradation Products of Biological Scaffolds Composed of Extracellular Matrix

    BRENNAN, ELLEN P.; Reing, Janet; CHEW, DOUGLAS; MYERS-IRVIN, JULIE M.; YOUNG, E.J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2006-01-01

    Biological scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to be resistant to deliberate bacterial contamination in preclinical in vivo studies. The present study evaluated the degradation products resulting from the acid digestion of ECM scaffolds for antibacterial effects against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ECM scaffolds were derived from porcine urinary bladder (UBM-ECM) and liver (L-ECM). These biological scaffolds were digested wit...

  12. Ca2+ channel blockers modulate metabolism of collagens within the extracellular matrix.

    Roth, M; Eickelberg, O.; Kohler, E.; Erne, P; Block, L H

    1996-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an intricate network composed of an array of macromolecules capable of regulating the functional responsiveness of cells. Its composition greatly varies among different types of tissue, and dysregulation of its metabolism may contribute to vascular remodeling during the pathogenesis of various diseases, including atherosclerosis. In view of their antiatherosclerotic effects, the role of Ca2+ channel blockers in the metabolism of ECM was examined. Nanomolar co...

  13. Bral1: "Superglue" for the extracellular matrix in the brain white matter.

    Cicanič, Michal; Syková, Eva; Vargová, Lýdia

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2012), s. 596-599. ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/09/1597; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : extracellular matrix * link proteins * signal transmission Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.152, year: 2012

  14. Fibroblast growth factor-2 regulates human cardiac myofibroblast-mediated extracellular matrix remodeling

    Svystonyuk, Daniyil A; Ngu, Janet MC; Mewhort, Holly EM; Lipon, Brodie D; Teng, Guoqi; Guzzardi, David G; Malik, Getanshu; Belke, Darrell D.; Fedak, Paul WM

    2015-01-01

    Background Tissue fibrosis and chamber remodeling is a hallmark of the failing heart and the final common pathway for heart failure of diverse etiologies. Sustained elevation of pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFβ1) induces cardiac myofibroblast-mediated fibrosis and progressive structural tissue remodeling. Objectives We examined the effects of low molecular weight fibroblast growth factor (LMW-FGF-2) on human cardiac myofibroblast-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM)...

  15. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF A SYNTHETIC EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX ON IMMORTALIZED VOCAL FOLD FIBROBLASTS IN 3D CULTURE

    Chen, Xia; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to promote wound repair and induce tissue regeneration, an engineered hyaluronan (HA) hydrogel – Carbylan GSX, which contains di(thiopropionyl) bishydrazide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA-DTPH), di(thiopropionyl) bishydrazide-modified gelatin (Gtn-DTPH) and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), has been developed for extracellular matrix (ECM) defects of the superficial and middle layers of the lamina propria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of Carbylan...

  16. Investigating the Robustness and Diagnostic Potential of Extracellular Matrix Remodelling Biomarkers in Alkaptonuria

    Genovese, F; Siebuhr, A. S.; Musa, K.; Gallagher, J.A.; Milan, A. M.; Karsdal, M.A.; Rovensky, J; Bay-Jensen, A. C.; Ranganath, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: Alkaptonuria (AKU) clinical manifestations resemble severe arthritis. The Suitability of Nitisinone in Alkaptonuria 1 (SONIA 1) study is a dose-finding trial for nitisinone treatment of AKU patients. We tested a panel of serum and urinary biomarkers reflecting extracellular matrix remodelling (ECMR) of cartilage, bone and connective tissue in SONIA 1 patients to identify non-invasive and diagnostic biomarkers of tissue turnover in AKU.

  17. Bromelain Surface Modification Increases the Diffusion of Silica Nanoparticles in the Tumor Extracellular Matrix

    Parodi, Alessandro; Haddix, Seth G.; Taghipour, Nima; Scaria, Shilpa; Taraballi, Francesca; Cevenini, Armando; Yazdi, Iman K.; Corbo, Claudia; Palomba, Roberto; Khaled, Sm Z.; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Brown, Brandon S.; Isenhart, Lucas; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    Tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) represents a major obstacle to the diffusion of therapeutics and drug delivery systems in cancer parenchyma. This biological barrier limits the efficacy of promising therapeutic approaches including the delivery of siRNA or agents intended for thermoablation. After extravasation due to the enhanced penetration and retention effect of tumor vasculature, typical nanotherapeutics are unable to reach the nonvascularized and anoxic regions deep within cancer parenc...

  18. Extracellular matrix formation in self-assembled minimalistic bioactive hydrogels based on aromatic peptide amphiphiles

    ZHOU, MI; Ulijn, Rein V.; Gough, Julie E

    2014-01-01

    The hitherto inconsistency in clinical performance for engineered skin drives the current development of novel cell-scaffolding materials; one challenge is to only extract essential characteristics from the complex native ECM (extracellular matrix) and incorporate them into a scaffold with minimal complexity to support normal cell functions. This study involved small-molecule-based bioactive hydrogels produced by the co-assembly of two aromatic peptide amphiphiles: Fmoc-FF (Fluorenylmethoxyca...

  19. About hyaluronan in the hypertrophic heart : studies on coordinated regulation of extracellular matrix signalling

    Hellman, Urban

    2010-01-01

    Background. Myocardial hypertrophy is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Independent of underlying disease, the cardiac muscle strives in different ways to compensate for an increased workload. This remodelling of the heart includes changes in the extracellular matrix which will affect systolic and diastolic cardiac function. Furthermore, signal transduction, molecular diffusion and microcirculation will be affected in the hypertrophic process. One important extracellul...

  20. Muscle Extracellular Matrix Applies a Transverse Stress on Fibers With Axial Strain

    Smith, Lucas R.; Gerace-Fowler, Lewis; Lieber, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely assumed that skeletal muscle contraction is isovolumic. This assumption has been verified at the single fiber and at the myofibril level. Model development and mechanical analyses often exploit this assumption when investigating skeletal muscle and evaluating muscle mechanical properties. This communication describes a method whereby individual muscle fibers and bundles of fibers, which include their constituent extracellular matrix (ECM), were tested to define the change in volu...

  1. Of Extracellular Matrix, Scaffolds, and Signaling: Tissue Architecture Regulates Development, Homeostasis, and Cancer

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-01-01

    The microenvironment influences gene expression so that the behavior of a cell is largely determined by its interactions with the extracellular matrix, neighboring cells, and soluble local and systemic cues. We describe the essential roles of context and organ structure in directing mammary gland development and differentiated function and in determining the response to oncogenic insults, including mutations. We expand on the concept of “dynamic reciprocity” to present an integrated view of d...

  2. Extracellular matrix alterations in cardiomyopathy: The possible crucial role in the dilative form

    Kapelko, Valeri I

    2001-01-01

    The collagen network, part of the myocardial extracellular matrix (EM), and other EM proteins transmit mechanical forces generated by cardiomyocytes to cardiac cavities. Network rearrangement and enlargement – fibrosis – is an essential component of cardiac remodelling at various pathological stages. In particular, similarly abundant fibrosis occurs in dilated, hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy, and it is unclear how this relates to respective changes in ventricular cavities and siz...

  3. A collagen-binding EGFR antibody fragment targeting tumors with a collagen-rich extracellular matrix

    Hui Liang; Xiaoran Li; Bin Wang; Bing Chen; Yannan Zhao; Jie Sun; Yan Zhuang; Jiajia Shi; He Shen; Zhijun Zhang; Jianwu Dai

    2016-01-01

    Many tumors over-express collagen, which constitutes the physical scaffold of tumor microenvironment. Collagen has been considered to be a target for cancer therapy. The collagen-binding domain (CBD) is a short peptide, which could bind to collagen and achieve the sustained release of CBD-fused proteins in collagen scaffold. Here, a collagen-binding EGFR antibody fragment was designed and expressed for targeting the collagen-rich extracellular matrix in tumors. The antibody fragment (Fab) of ...

  4. Immunohistochemical study of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components in the notochord and notochordal sheath of amphioxus

    Bočina, Ivana; Saraga-Babić, Mirna

    2006-01-01

    A major cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins of the amphioxus notochordal cells and sheath were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. The three-layered amphioxus notochordal sheath strongly expressed fish collagen type I in its outer and middle layers, while in the innermost layer expression did not occur. The amphioxus notochordal sheath was reactive to applied anti-human antibodies for intermediate filament proteins such as cytokeratins, desmin and vimentin, as well as to mi...

  5. Porous, Ventricular Extracellular Matrix-Derived Foams as a Platform for Cardiac Cell Culture

    Russo, Valerio; Omidi, Ehsan; Samani, Abbas; Hamilton, Andrew; Flynn, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To more closely mimic the native cellular microenvironment, 3D scaffolds derived from the extracellular matrix (ECM) are being developed as alternatives to conventional 2D culture systems. In the present study, we established methods to fabricate nonchemically cross-linked 3D porous foams derived entirely from decellularized porcine left ventricle (DLV) for use as an in vitro cardiac cell culture platform. Furthermore, we explored the effects of physically preprocessing the DLV throu...

  6. Targeting Inflammatory Cytokines and Extracellular Matrix Composition to Promote Wound Regeneration

    Zgheib, Carlos; Xu, Junwang; Liechty, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Delayed wound healing is one of the most challenging complications of several diseases, including diabetes. There is a vast interest in finding efficient treatments that promote scarless wound healing. The ability of the fetus to regenerate skin wounds after injury has generated much interest in the fetus as a model of regeneration. In this review, we evaluate the role and differential regulation of inflammation, extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, and mechanical stress in d...

  7. The ECM-Cell Interaction of Cartilage Extracellular Matrix on Chondrocytes

    Yue Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM is composed primarily of the network type II collagen (COLII and an interlocking mesh of fibrous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs, hyaluronic acid (HA, and chondroitin sulfate (CS. Articular cartilage ECM plays a crucial role in regulating chondrocyte metabolism and functions, such as organized cytoskeleton through integrin-mediated signaling via cell-matrix interaction. Cell signaling through integrins regulates several chondrocyte functions, including differentiation, metabolism, matrix remodeling, responses to mechanical stimulation, and cell survival. The major signaling pathways that regulate chondrogenesis have been identified as wnt signal, nitric oxide (NO signal, protein kinase C (PKC, and retinoic acid (RA signal. Integrins are a large family of molecules that are central regulators in multicellular biology. They orchestrate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesive interactions from embryonic development to mature tissue function. In this review, we emphasize the signaling molecule effect and the biomechanics effect of cartilage ECM on chondrogenesis.

  8. Quantitation and relative distribution of extracellular matrix in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm

    The relationship between adherence of bacteria to foreign bodies and their deposition of extracellular matrix was examined on glass and suture material. To quantitate bacterial adherence, uptake of [3H]thymidine into bacterial DNA was analyzed. Corresponding amounts of extracellular matrix were measured by a new technique using [14C]glucose incorporation. This study shows that [14C]glucose preferentially labeled bacterial strains in proportion to biofilm production. The ratio of 3H14C in high biofilm producers was 0.9 and in low producers it was 3.7. Radioactive identification of organisms as high and low producers was confirmed by electron microscopy. The results presented here show that production and accumulation of biofilm over time is a stable characteristic in different strains of S. epidermidis. The use of ratios reflecting radiolabeling of bacteria and biofilm by [3H]thymidine and [14C]glucose, respectively, is a quantitative yet simple technique to assess extracellular matrix of different strains of S. epidermidis

  9. N-terminal specific conjugation of extracellular matrix proteins to 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde functionalized polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    Lee, Jessica P; Kassianidou, Elena; MacDonald, James I; Francis, Matthew B; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels have been used extensively to study cell responses to the mechanical and biochemical properties of extracellular matrix substrates. A key step in fabricating these substrates is the conjugation of cell adhesion proteins to the polyacrylamide surfaces, which typically involves nonspecifically anchoring these proteins via side-chain functional groups. This can result in a loss of presentation control and altered bioactivity. Here, we describe a new functionalization strategy in which we anchor full-length extracellular matrix proteins to polyacrylamide substrates using 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, which can be co-polymerized into polyacrylamide gels and used to immobilize proteins by their N-termini. This one-step reaction proceeds under mild aqueous conditions and does not require additional reagents. We demonstrate that these substrates can readily conjugate to various extracellular matrix proteins, as well as promote cell adhesion and spreading. Notably, this chemistry supports the assembly and cellular remodeling of large collagen fibers, which is not observed using conventional side-chain amine-conjugation chemistry. PMID:27348850

  10. Extracellular matrix interacts with interferon α protein: Retention and display of cytotoxicity

    We have been investigating the efficacy of an intratumoral interferon (IFN)-α gene transfer against solid cancers, and found that when the gene is transduced into the subcutaneous tumors, IFN-α concentration is markedly increased in the injected tumor but not in the serum. To explain this effective confinement of IFN-α to target tissues, we hypothesized that the extracellular matrix in the tumors interacts with IFN-α. In this study, a solid-phase-binding assay and immunoprecipitation demonstrated that the IFN-α binds directly to matrix proteins. Immunohistochemical staining showed a co-localization of IFN-α with pericellular fibronectin. In addition, matrix-bound IFN-α protein transduced intracellular signaling and potentiated its cytotoxic activity, suggesting that the retention of IFN-α protein on extracellular matrix is likely to play a role in its in vivo biological activity. The data suggest a therapeutic advantage of the intratumoral IFN-α gene transfer over the conventional parenteral therapy both in the safety and efficacy

  11. Analysis of the interaction of extracellular matrix and phenotype of bladder cancer cells

    The extracellular matrix has a major effect upon the malignant properties of bladder cancer cells both in vitro in 3-dimensional culture and in vivo. Comparing gene expression of several bladder cancer cells lines grown under permissive and suppressive conditions in 3-dimensional growth on cancer-derived and normal-derived basement membrane gels respectively and on plastic in conventional tissue culture provides a model system for investigating the interaction of malignancy and extracellular matrix. Understanding how the extracellular matrix affects the phenotype of bladder cancer cells may provide important clues to identify new markers or targets for therapy. Five bladder cancer cell lines and one immortalized, but non-tumorigenic, urothelial line were grown on Matrigel, a cancer-derived ECM, on SISgel, a normal-derived ECM, and on plastic, where the only ECM is derived from the cells themselves. The transcriptomes were analyzed on an array of 1186 well-annotated cancer derived cDNAs containing most of the major pathways for malignancy. Hypervariable genes expressing more variability across cell lines than a set expressing technical variability were analyzed further. Expression values were clustered, and to identify genes most likely to represent biological factors, statistically over-represented ontologies and transcriptional regulatory elements were identified. Approximately 400 of the 1186 total genes were expressed 2 SD above background. Approximately 100 genes were hypervariable in cells grown on each ECM, but the pattern was different in each case. A core of 20 were identified as hypervariable under all 3 growth conditions, and 33 were hypervariable on both SISgel and Matrigel, but not on plastic. Clustering of the hypervariable genes showed very different patterns for the same 6 cell types on the different ECM. Even when loss of cell cycle regulation was identified, different genes were involved, depending on the ECM. Under the most permissive conditions

  12. Host-Parasite Interaction: Parasite-Derived and -Induced Proteases That Degrade Human Extracellular Matrix

    Carolina Piña-Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic protozoa are among the most important pathogens worldwide. Diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and trypanosomiasis affect millions of people. Humans are constantly threatened by infections caused by these pathogens. Parasites engage a plethora of surface and secreted molecules to attach to and enter mammalian cells. The secretion of lytic enzymes by parasites into host organs mediates critical interactions because of the invasion and destruction of interstitial tissues, enabling parasite migration to other sites within the hosts. Extracellular matrix is a complex, cross-linked structure that holds cells together in an organized assembly and that forms the basement membrane lining (basal lamina. The extracellular matrix represents a major barrier to parasites. Therefore, the evolution of mechanisms for connective-tissue degradation may be of great importance for parasite survival. Recent advances have been achieved in our understanding of the biochemistry and molecular biology of proteases from parasitic protozoa. The focus of this paper is to discuss the role of protozoan parasitic proteases in the degradation of host ECM proteins and the participation of these molecules as virulence factors. We divide the paper into two sections, extracellular and intracellular protozoa.

  13. Extracellular matrix is a source of mitogenically active platelet-derived growth factor.

    Field, S L; Khachigian, L M; Sleigh, M J; Yang, G; Vandermark, S E; Hogg, P J; Chesterman, C N

    1996-08-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a chemotactic and mitogenic agent for fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and plays a key role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. PDGF is produced by a number of normal and transformed cell types and occurs as homo- or heterodimers of A and B polypeptide chains. Using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with various forms of PDGF, we have previously shown that PDGF A(s) (short splice version) is secreted, PDGF A(l) (long splice version) predominantly extracellular matrix-associated, and PDGF B divided between medium, cells, and matrix. In the present study we have demonstrated the mitogenic activity of matrix-localized PDGF in artificial and more physiologically relevant models by culturing Balb/c-3T3 cells (3T3), human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF), and rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) on extracellular matrix (ECM) laid down by PDGF-expressing CHO cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). These cells responded to the local growth stimulus of PDGF-containing CHO ECM and HUVEC ECM. We showed that 3T3 cells required proteolytic activity to utilize matrix-localized PDGF, as aprotinin and epsilon-ACA inhibited growth and 3T3 cells were shown to possess plasminogen activator activity. HFF and SMC did not appear to require proteolytic activity (including metalloproteinase and serine protease activity) as a prerequisite for mitogenesis but were able to access immobilized PDGF by contact with the matrix. An understanding of the mechanisms whereby the utilization of stored PDGF is controlled in situations of excessive cellular proliferation will aid in the development of therapy for these conditions. PMID:8707868

  14. Decellularization of porcine skeletal muscle extracellular matrix for the formulation of a matrix hydrogel: a preliminary study.

    Fu, Yuehe; Fan, Xuejiao; Tian, Chunxiang; Luo, Jingcong; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Li; Qin, Tingwu; Lv, Qing

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels are used as scaffolds to facilitate the repair and reconstruction of tissues. This study aimed to optimize the decellularization process of porcine skeletal muscle ECM and to formulate a matrix hydrogel scaffold. Five multi-step methods (methods A-E) were used to generate acellular ECM from porcine skeletal muscle [rinsing in SDS, trypsin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Triton X-100 and/or sodium deoxycholate at 4-37°C]. The resulting ECM was evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin, 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and DNA quantification. Acellular matrix was dissolved in pepsin and gelled at 37°C. Hydrogel response to temperature was observed in vivo and in vitro. ECM components were assessed by Masson, Sirius red, and alcian blue staining, and total protein content. Acellular porcine skeletal muscle exhibited a uniform translucent white appearance. No intact nuclear residue was detected by haematoxylin and eosin staining, while DAPI staining showed a few nuclei in the matrixes produced by methods B, C, and D. Method A generated a gel that was too thin for gelation. However, the matrix obtained by rinsing in 0.2% trypsin/0.1% EDTA, 0.5% Triton X-100, and 1% Triton X-100/0.2% sodium deoxycholate was nuclei-free and produced a viscous solution that formed a structurally stable white jelly-like hydrogel. The residual DNA content of this solution was 49.37 ± 0.72 ng/mg, significantly less than in fresh skeletal muscle, and decreased to 19.22 ± 0.85 ng/mg after gelation (P < 0.05). The acellular matrix was rich in collagen and glycosaminoglycan, with a total protein concentration of 64.8 ± 6.9%. An acellular ECM hydrogel from porcine skeletal muscle was efficiently produced. PMID:26781342

  15. MODULATION OF OSTEOGENIC PROPERTIES OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER/EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX COMPOSITE SCAFFOLDS GENERATED WITH A FLOW PERFUSION BIOREACTOR

    Liao, Jiehong; Guo, Xuan; Nelson, Dan; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, composite scaffolds consisting of both synthetic and natural components with controllable properties were generated by incorporating mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) and electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microfiber scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on PCL scaffolds under flow perfusion conditions with culture medium supplemented with dexamethasone to investigate the effect of culture duration on mineralized extracellular matrix deposition. MSCs d...

  16. Spatial relationship of lectin-labelled extracellular matrix and glutamine synthetase-immunoreactive astrocytes in rat cortical forebrain regions.

    Derouiche, A.; Härtig, W.; Brauer, K; Brückner, G.

    1996-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteoglycans have previously been revealed by immunocytochemical and lectin-histochemical methods as distinct perineuronal nets in the microenvironment of different types of neurons, but also as a diffuse stain throughout the neuropil in region-dependent patterns. Ultrastructural investigations of perineuronal nets in subcortical regions have demonstrated glycan components in the close vicinity of astrocyte processes, suggesting that the extracellular matrix contributes ...

  17. Visualization of extracellular matrix components within sectioned Salmonella biofilms on the surface of human gallstones.

    Joanna M Marshall

    Full Text Available Chronic carriage of Salmonella Typhi is mediated primarily through the formation of bacterial biofilms on the surface of cholesterol gallstones. Biofilms, by definition, involve the formation of a bacterial community encased within a protective macromolecular matrix. Previous work has demonstrated the composition of the biofilm matrix to be complex and highly variable in response to altered environmental conditions. Although known to play an important role in bacterial persistence in a variety of contexts, the Salmonella biofilm matrix remains largely uncharacterized under physiological conditions. Initial attempts to study matrix components and architecture of the biofilm matrix on gallstone surfaces were hindered by the auto-fluorescence of cholesterol. In this work we describe a method for sectioning and direct visualization of extracellular matrix components of the Salmonella biofilm on the surface of human cholesterol gallstones and provide a description of the major matrix components observed therein. Confocal micrographs revealed robust biofilm formation, characterized by abundant but highly heterogeneous expression of polysaccharides such as LPS, Vi and O-antigen capsule. CsgA was not observed in the biofilm matrix and flagellar expression was tightly restricted to the biofilm-cholesterol interface. Images also revealed the presence of preexisting Enterobacteriaceae encased within the structure of the gallstone. These results demonstrate the use and feasibility of this method while highlighting the importance of studying the native architecture of the gallstone biofilm. A better understanding of the contribution of individual matrix components to the overall biofilm structure will facilitate the development of more effective and specific methods to disrupt these bacterial communities.

  18. The dynamic sclera: extracellular matrix remodeling in normal ocular growth and myopia development.

    Harper, Angelica R; Summers, Jody A

    2015-04-01

    Myopia is a common ocular condition, characterized by excessive elongation of the ocular globe. The prevalence of myopia continues to increase, particularly among highly educated groups, now exceeding 80% in some groups. In parallel with the increased prevalence of myopia, are increases in associated blinding ocular conditions including glaucoma, retinal detachment and macular degeneration, making myopia a significant global health concern. The elongation of the eye is closely related to the biomechanical properties of the sclera, which in turn are largely dependent on the composition of the scleral extracellular matrix. Therefore an understanding of the cellular and extracellular events involved in the regulation of scleral growth and remodeling during childhood and young adulthood will provide future avenues for the treatment of myopia and its associated ocular complications. PMID:25819458

  19. Hepatic non-parenchymal cells and extracellular matrix participate in oval cell-mediated liver regeneration

    Wei Zhang; Xiao-Ping Chen; Wan-Guang Zhang; Feng Zhang; Shuai Xiang; Han-Hua Dong; Lei Zhang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the interaction between nonparenchymal cells, extracellular matrix and oval cells during the restituting process of liver injury induced by partial hepatectomy (PH). METHODS: We examined the localization of oval cells, non-parenchymal cells, and the extracellular matrix components using immunohistochemical and double immunofluorescent analysis during the proliferation and differentiation of oval cells in N-2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)/PH rat model. RESULTS: By day 2 after PH, small oval cells began to proliferate around the portal area. Most of stellate cells and laminin were present along the hepatic sinusoids in the periportal area. Kupffer cells and fibronectin markedly increased in the whole hepatic lobule. From day 4 to 9, oval cells spread further into hepatic parenchyma, closely associated with stellate cells, fibronectin and laminin. Kupffer cells admixed with oval cells by day 6 and then decreased in the periportal zone. From day 12 to 15, most of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), laminin and fibronectin located around the small hepatocyte nodus, and minority of them appeared in the nodus. Kupffer cells were mainly limited in the pericentral sinusoids. After day 18, the normal liver lobule structures began to recover.CONCLUSION: Local hepatic microenvironment may participate in the oval cell-mediated liver regeneration through the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions.

  20. Selective enrichment of microRNAs in extracellular matrix vesicles produced by growth plate chondrocytes.

    Lin, Zhao; Rodriguez, Nicholas E; Zhao, Junjun; Ramey, Allison N; Hyzy, Sharon L; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2016-07-01

    Matrix vesicles (MVs) are membrane organelles found in the extracellular matrix of calcifying cells, which contain matrix processing enzymes and regulate the extracellular environment via action of these enzymes. It is unknown whether MVs are also exosomic mediators of cell-cell communication via transfer of RNA material, and specifically, microRNA (miRNA). We investigated the presence of RNA in MVs isolated from cultures of costochondral growth zone chondrocytes. Our results showed that the average yield of MV RNA was 1.93±0.78ng RNA/10(4) cells, which was approximately 0.1% of the parent cell's total RNA. MV RNA was well-protected from RNase by the lipid membrane and was highly enriched in small RNA molecules compared to cells. Moreover, coding and non-coding small RNAs in MVs were in proportions that differed from parent cells. Enrichment of specific miRNAs was consistently observed in all three miRNA detection platforms that we used, suggesting that miRNAs are selectively packaged into MVs. MV-enriched miRNAs were related to different signaling pathways associated with bone formation. This study suggests a significant role for MVs as "matrisomes" in cell-cell communication in cartilage and bone development via transfer of specific miRNAs. PMID:27080510

  1. Fibronectin distribution in the extracellular matrix in the cells grown in deuterated media

    The aim of this work is the study of the influence of deuterated water upon the synthesis and organization of fibronectin (FN) in extracellular matrices. Changes were evidenced at the level of extracellular matrix in case of embryo fibroblast cultivation in media with different concentrations of heavy water (20%, 40% and 65%). FN was identified in the extracellular matrix by means of indirect immunocytochemical technique, using a secondary antibody coupled with peroxydase. In the presence of heavy water in culture medium, the arrangement and localization of cellular FN showed changes depending on the exposure time, D2O concentration in the medium and the FN polymerization step in the extra cellular matrix in correlation with the culture stage of the monolayer. The heavy water determined a strong reduction of the FN amount released by the cells. This reduction was most evident in the 65% D2O medium following a 5 day exposure. The FN distribution after 2 day exposure in an early stage with regards to the FN network formation in a the deuterated medium presented a FN pericellular distribution arranged in aggregates. The heavy water can act upon formation of FN fibrils immediately due to solvent role in the FN polymerization process but also indirectly through metabolic processes and so upon the protein synthesis and FN cellular secretion.The FN network arrangement in the cells cultivated in deuterated media as aggregates might be the effect of solvent role played by D2O while the quantitative reduction of FN results from perturbation of protein synthesis as well from biochemical synthesis reactions

  2. Of extracellular matrix, scaffolds, and signaling: Tissuearchitectureregulates development, homeostasis, and cancer

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-03-09

    The microenvironment surrounding cells influences gene expression, such that a cell's behavior is largely determined by its interactions with the extracellular matrix, neighboring cells, and soluble cues released locally or by distant tissues. We describe the essential role of context and organ structure in directing mammary gland development and differentiated function, and in determining response to oncogenic insults including mutations. We expand on the concept of 'dynamic reciprocity' to present an integrated view of development, cancer, and aging, and posit that genes are like piano keys: while essential, it is the context that makes the music.

  3. Dynamics of extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea of mice

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Murdiyarso, Lydia S.; Bonner, Wendy M.; Sado, Yoshikazu; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi; Couchman, John R.; Sorokin, Lydia M; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the mouse being an important laboratory species, little is known about changes in its extracellular matrix (ECM) during follicle and corpora lutea formation and regression. Follicle development was induced in mice (29 days of age/experimental day 0) by injections of pregnant mare’s serum gonadotrophin on days 0 and 1 and ovulation was induced by injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin on day 2. Ovaries were collected for immunohistochemistry (n=10 per group) on days 0, 2 and 5. Ano...

  4. Combined Beta-Agonists and Corticosteroids Do Not Inhibit Extracellular Matrix Protein Production In Vitro

    Qi Ge; Poniris, Maree H; Moir, Lyn M.; Black, Judith L; Burgess, Janette K.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Persistent asthma is characterized by airway remodeling. Whereas we have previously shown that neither β 2-agonists nor corticosteroids inhibit extracellular matrix (ECM) protein release from airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, the effect of their combination is unknown and this forms the rationale for the present study. Methods. ASM cells from people with and without asthma were stimulated with TGFβ1 (1 ng/ml) with or without budesonide (10−8 M) and formoterol (10−10 and 10−8 M), a...

  5. Combined Beta-agonists and corticosteroids do not inhibit extracellular matrix protein production in vitro

    Ge, Qi; Poniris, Maree H; Moir, Lyn M.; Black, Judith L; Burgess, Janette K.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Persistent asthma is characterized by airway remodeling. Whereas we have previously shown that neither β(2)-agonists nor corticosteroids inhibit extracellular matrix (ECM) protein release from airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, the effect of their combination is unknown and this forms the rationale for the present study. Methods. ASM cells from people with and without asthma were stimulated with TGFβ1 (1 ng/ml) with or without budesonide (10(-8) M) and formoterol (10(-10) and 10(-8...

  6. Extracellular matrix molecules play diverse roles in the growth and guidance of central nervous system axons

    M.A. Pires-Neto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Axon growth and guidance represent complex biological processes in which probably intervene diverse sets of molecular cues that allow for the appropriate wiring of the central nervous system (CNS. The extracellular matrix (ECM represents a major contributor of molecular signals either diffusible or membrane-bound that may regulate different stages of neural development. Some of the brain ECM molecules form tridimensional structures (tunnels and boundaries that appear during time- and space-regulated events, possibly playing relevant roles in the control of axon elongation and pathfinding. This short review focuses mainly on the recognized roles played by proteoglycans, laminin, fibronectin and tenascin in axonal development during ontogenesis.

  7. Endothelial cells seeded and sheared on extracellular matrix proteins-coated vascular prostheses

    Chlupáč, Jaroslav; Filová, Elena; Riedel, Tomáš; Brynda, Eduard; Remy-Zolghadri, M.; Bareille, R.; Fernandez, P.; Daculsi, R.; Bordenave, L.; Bačáková, Lucie

    Amsterdam: Marathon International, 2008. ---. [World Biomaterials Congress /8./. 28.05.2008-01.06.2008, Amsterdam] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011301; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4050202; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500110564 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400500507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : spo2 * endothelial cells * stear stress * extracellular matrix prostheses Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  8. Enhanced cell attachment using a novel cell culture surface presenting functional domains from extracellular matrix proteins

    Cooke, M. J.; Phillips, S R; Shah, D. S. H.; Athey, D.; Lakey, J H; Przyborski, S A

    2008-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the creation and maintenance of a realistic environment for cell growth in vitro, e.g. the consistency of the growth medium, the addition of supplements, and the surface on which the cells grow. The nature of the surface on which cells are cultured plays an important role in their ability to attach, proliferate, migrate and function. Components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are often used to coat glass or plastic surfaces to enhance cell attachment in vitro. Fra...

  9. Thrombopoietin/TGF-β1 Loop Regulates Megakaryocyte Extracellular Matrix Component Synthesis.

    Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian A; Gruppi, Cristian; Malara, Alessandro; Gianelli, Umberto; Celesti, Giuseppe; Anselmo, Achille; Laghi, Luigi; Vercellino, Marco; Visai, Livia; Iurlo, Alessandra; Moratti, Remigio; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Balduini, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) components initiate crucial biochemical and biomechanical cues that are required for bone marrow homeostasis. In our research, we prove that a peri-cellular matrix composed primarily of type III and type IV collagens, and fibronectin surrounds human megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. The data we collected support the hypothesis that bone marrow megakaryocytes possess a complete mechanism to synthesize the ECM components, and that thrombopoietin is a pivotal regulator of this new function inducing transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) release and consequent activation of the downstream pathways, both in vitro and in vivo. This activation results in a dose dependent increase of ECM component synthesis by megakaryocytes, which is reverted upon incubation with JAK and TGF-β1 receptor specific inhibitors. These data are pivotal for understanding the central role of megakaryocytes in creating their own regulatory niche within the bone marrow environment. Stem Cells 2016;34:1123-1133. PMID:26748484

  10. Embryonic lung morphogenesis in organ culture: experimental evidence for a proteoglycan function in the extracellular matrix

    Spooner, B. S.; Bassett, K. E.; Spooner, B. S. Jr

    1993-01-01

    The lung rudiment, isolated from mid-gestation (11 day) mouse embryos, can undergo morphogenesis in organ culture. Observation of living rudiments, in culture, reveals both growth and ongoing bronchiolar branching activity. To detect proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis, and deposition in the extracellular matrix, rudiments were metabolically labeled with radioactive sulfate, then fixed, embedded, sectioned and processed for autoradiography. The sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) types, composing the carbohydrate component of the proteoglycans, were evaluated by selective GAG degradative approaches that showed chondroitin sulfate PG principally associated with the interstitial matrix, and heparan sulfate PG principally associated with the basement membrane. Experiments using the proteoglycan biosynthesis disrupter, beta-xyloside, suggest that when chondroitin sulfate PG deposition into the ECM is perturbed, branching morphogenesis is compromised.

  11. Levels of Circulating MMCN-151, a Degradation Product of Mimecan, Reflect Pathological Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

    Barascuk, N; Vassiliadis, E; Zheng, Qiuju; Wang, Yu; Wang, W; Larsen, L; Rasmussen, L M; Karsdal, M A

    2011-01-01

    Arterial extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is one of the major hallmarks of atherosclerosis. Mimecan, also known as osteoglycin has been implicated in the integrity of the ECM. This study assessed the validity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...

  12. Brevican-containing perineuronal nets of extracellular matrix in dissociated hippocampal primary cultures.

    John, Nora; Krügel, Hans; Frischknecht, Renato; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Schultz, Christian; Kreutz, Michael R; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Seidenbecher, Constanze I

    2006-04-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNN) are specialized extracellular matrix structures enwrapping CNS neurons, which are important regulators for neuronal and synaptic functions. Brevican, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is an integral component of PNN. Here, we have investigated the appearance of these structures in hippocampal primary cultures. The expression profile of brevican in mixed cultures resembles the in vivo pattern with a strong upregulation of all isoforms during the second and 3rd weeks in culture. Brevican is primarily synthesized by co-cultured glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-)-positive astrocytes and co-assembles with its interaction partners in PNN-like structures on neuronal somata and neurites as identified by counterstaining with the PNN marker Vicia villosa lectin. Both excitatory and inhibitory synapses are embedded into PNN. Furthermore, axon initial segments are strongly covered by a dense brevican coat. Altogether, we show that mature primary cultures can form PNN, and that basic features of these extracellular matrix structures may be studied in vitro. PMID:16503162

  13. Science of Hyaluronic Acid Beyond Filling: Fibroblasts and Their Response to the Extracellular Matrix.

    Landau, Marina; Fagien, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Loss of viscoelasticity is one of the primarily signs of skin aging, followed by appearance of visible wrinkles. Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based fillers are widely used to fill wrinkles and compensate for volume loss. Recent clinical observations demonstrate persistence of the filling effect longer than the biological availability of the filler. Stimulation of new collagen by cross-linked HA and up-regulation of elastin have been suggested as possible explanation to this observation and have been supported experimentally. Cross-linked HA substitutes for fragmented collagen in restoring extracellular matrix required for normal activity of fibroblasts, such as collagen and elastin production. To restore extracellular matrix efficiently, serial monthly treatments are required. Boosting of facial and nonfacial skin through fibroblast activation is a new indication for HA-based products. Injectable HA has also been recently registered in Europe as agents specific for the improvement of skin quality (Restylane Skinboosters). Further explanation of the possible mechanisms supported by long-term clinical examples is presented herein. PMID:26441098

  14. Heparanase isoform expression and extracellular matrix remodeling in intervertebral disc degenerative disease

    Luciano Miller Reis Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the molecules involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and to identify and quantify heparanase isoforms present in herniated and degenerative discs. INTRODUCTION: Heparanase is an endo-beta-glucuronidase that specifically acts upon the heparan sulfate chains of proteoglycans. However, heparanase expression in degenerative intervertebral discs has not yet been evaluated. Notably, previous studies demonstrated a correlation between changes in the heparan sulfate proteoglycan pattern and the degenerative process associated with intervertebral discs. METHODS: Twenty-nine samples of intervertebral degenerative discs, 23 samples of herniated discs and 12 samples of non-degenerative discs were analyzed. The expression of both heparanase isoforms (heparanase-1 and heparanase-2 was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Heparanase-1 and heparanase-2 expression levels were significantly higher in the herniated and degenerative discs in comparison to the control tissues, suggesting a possible role of these proteins in the intervertebral degenerative process. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of heparanase isoforms in the degenerative intervertebral discs and the herniated discs suggests a potential role of both proteins in the mediation of inflammatory processes and in extracellular matrix remodeling. The heparanase-2 isoform may be involved in normal metabolic processes, as evidenced by its higher expression in the control intervertebral discs relative to the expression of heparanase-1.

  15. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  16. In the presence of danger:the extracellular matrix defensive response to central nervous system injury

    Lyn B. Jakeman; Kent E. Williams; Bryan Brautigam

    2014-01-01

    Glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to formation of the extracellular matrix, which provides adhesive sites, signaling molecules, and a diffusion barrier to enhance efifcient neurotransmission and axon potential propagation. In the normal adult CNS, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is relatively stable except in selected regions characterized by dynamic remodel-ing. However, after trauma such as a spinal cord injury or cortical contusion, the lesion epicenter becomes a focus of acute neuroinlfammation. The activation of the surrounding glial cells leads to a dramatic change in the composition of the ECM at the edges of the lesion, creating a perile-sion environment dominated by growth inhibitory molecules and restoration of the peripheral/central nervous system border. An advantage of this response is to limit the invasion of damaging cells and diffusion of toxic molecules into the spared tissue regions, but this occurs at the cost of inhibiting migration of endogenous repair cells and preventing axonal regrowth. The following review was prepared by reading and discussing over 200 research articles in the ifeld published in PubMed and selecting those with signiifcant impact and/or controversial points. This article highlights structural and functional features of the normal adult CNS ECM and then focuses on the reactions of glial cells and changes in the perilesion border that occur following spinal cord or contusive brain injury. Current research strategies directed at modifying the inhibitory perile-sion microenvironment without eliminating the protective functions of glial cell activation are discussed.

  17. Amyloid β-Protein as a Substrate Interacts with Extracellular Matrix to Promote Neurite Outgrowth

    Koo, Edward H.; Park, Lisa; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1993-05-01

    Progressive deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in brain parenchyma and blood vessels is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer disease. Recent evidence suggests that addition of solubilized synthetic Aβ to medium may produce toxic or trophic effects on cultured hippocampal neurons. Because soluble Aβ may not accumulate in significant quantities in brain, we asked whether immobilized Aβ peptide as a substrate alters neurite outgrowth from cultured rat peripheral sensory neurons. This paradigm may closely mimic the conditions in Alzheimer disease brain tissue, in which neurites contact insoluble, extracellular aggregates of β-amyloid. We detected no detrimental effects of Aβ substrate on neurite outgrowth. Rather, Aβ in combination with low doses of laminin or fibronectin enhanced neurite out-growth from these neuronal explants. Our results suggest that insoluble Aβ in the cerebral neuropil may serve as a neurite-promoting matrix, perhaps explaining the apparent regenerative response of neurites observed around amyloid plaques in Alzheimer disease. Moreover, in concert with the recent discovery of Aβ production by cultured neurons, our data suggest that Aβ plays a normal physiological role in brain by complexing with the extracellular matrix.

  18. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN and its related extracellular matrix degrading enzymes in the endometrium during estrous cycle and early gestation in cattle

    Hosoe Misa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN regulates several biological functions involving the modulation of cell behaviors via cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. According to its diverse functions, we hypothesized that EMMPRIN may play an important role in endometrial remodeling and establishment of pregnancy in cow. Methods In this study, endometrial tissues from the cyclic cows during before ovulation, after ovulation and middle of estrous cycle; and pregnant endometrial tissues from Day 19 to 35 of gestation have been used. Expression of mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR, qPCR and in situ hybridization whereas protein expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Results EMMPRIN mRNA was expressed in both cyclic and pregnant endometrium and significantly higher in the endometrium at Day 35 of gestation than the cyclic endometrium. In Western blot analysis, an approximately 65 kDa band was detected in the endometrium, and approximately 51 kDa in the cultured bovine epithelial cells and BT-1 cells, respectively. Both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry data showed that EMMPRIN was primarily expressed in luminal and glandular epithelium with strong staining on Day 19 conceptus. At Day 19 of gestation, expression of EMMPRIN mRNA on luminal epithelium was decreased than that observed at middle of estrous cycle, however, on Day 30 of gestation, slightly increased expression was found at the site of placentation. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-14 mRNA were mainly detected in stroma and their expression also decreased at Day 19 of gestation however it was also expressed at the site of placentation at Day 30 of gestation as observed for EMMPRIN. Expression of MMP-1 or -9 mRNA was very low and was below the detection limit in the cyclic and pregnant endometrium. Conclusion EMMPRIN from the luminal epithelium may regulate the expression of stromal MMP-2 and -14

  19. Naturally Occurring Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds for Dermal Regeneration: Do They Really Need Cells?

    A. M. Eweida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pronounced effect of extracellular matrix (ECM scaffolds in supporting tissue regeneration is related mainly to their maintained 3D structure and their bioactive components. These decellularized matrix scaffolds could be revitalized before grafting via adding stem cells, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes to promote wound healing. We reviewed the online published literature in the last five years for the studies that performed ECM revitalization and discussed the results of these studies and the related literature. Eighteen articles met the search criteria. Twelve studies included adding cells to acellular dermal matrix (ADM, 3 studies were on small intestinal mucosa (SIS, one study was on urinary bladder matrix (UBM, one study was on amniotic membrane, and one study included both SIS and ADM loaded constructs. We believe that, in chronic and difficult-to-heal wounds, revitalizing the ECM scaffolds would be beneficial to overcome the defective host tissue interaction. This belief still has to be verified by high quality randomised clinical trials, which are still lacking in literature.

  20. Preparation of a three-dimensional extracellular matrix by decellularization of rabbit livers

    Gustavo A. Nari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrix. Methods: a combination of physical, chemical (Triton X-100 and SDS and enzymatic agents to decellularize rabbit livers was used. After 68 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and biochemical (DNA quantification studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using macroscopic staining, which revealed a correct conservation of bile and vascular trees. A microscopic observation corroborated these macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin staining showing no cells or nuclear material and the presence of a portal triad. Wilde's staining demonstrated the conservation of reticulin fibers in the decellularized matrix. In addition, scanning electron microscopy revealed a preserved Glisson's capsule and a decellularized matrix, with the DNA quantification being less than 10 % in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally, the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 96 hours. Conclusions: the proposed decellularization protocol was correct, and was verified by an absence of cells. The hepatic matrix had preserved vascular and bile ducts with a suitable three-dimensional architecture permitting further cell seeding.

  1. An investigation of the influence of extracellular matrix anisotropy and cell–matrix interactions on tissue architecture

    Dyson, R. J.

    2015-09-02

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Mechanical interactions between cells and the fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) in which they reside play a key role in tissue development. Mechanical cues from the environment (such as stress, strain and fibre orientation) regulate a range of cell behaviours, including proliferation, differentiation and motility. In turn, the ECM structure is affected by cells exerting forces on the matrix which result in deformation and fibre realignment. In this paper we develop a mathematical model to investigate this mechanical feedback between cells and the ECM. We consider a three-phase mixture of collagen, culture medium and cells, and formulate a system of partial differential equations which represents conservation of mass and momentum for each phase. This modelling framework takes into account the anisotropic mechanical properties of the collagen gel arising from its fibrous microstructure. We also propose a cell–collagen interaction force which depends upon fibre orientation and collagen density. We use a combination of numerical and analytical techniques to study the influence of cell–ECM interactions on pattern formation in tissues. Our results illustrate the wide range of structures which may be formed, and how those that emerge depend upon the importance of cell–ECM interactions.

  2. An investigation of the influence of extracellular matrix anisotropy and cell-matrix interactions on tissue architecture.

    Dyson, R J; Green, J E F; Whiteley, J P; Byrne, H M

    2016-06-01

    Mechanical interactions between cells and the fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) in which they reside play a key role in tissue development. Mechanical cues from the environment (such as stress, strain and fibre orientation) regulate a range of cell behaviours, including proliferation, differentiation and motility. In turn, the ECM structure is affected by cells exerting forces on the matrix which result in deformation and fibre realignment. In this paper we develop a mathematical model to investigate this mechanical feedback between cells and the ECM. We consider a three-phase mixture of collagen, culture medium and cells, and formulate a system of partial differential equations which represents conservation of mass and momentum for each phase. This modelling framework takes into account the anisotropic mechanical properties of the collagen gel arising from its fibrous microstructure. We also propose a cell-collagen interaction force which depends upon fibre orientation and collagen density. We use a combination of numerical and analytical techniques to study the influence of cell-ECM interactions on pattern formation in tissues. Our results illustrate the wide range of structures which may be formed, and how those that emerge depend upon the importance of cell-ECM interactions. PMID:26328534

  3. Biological functionality of extracellular matrix-ornamented three-dimensional printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    Kumar, A; Nune, K C; Misra, R D K

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is considered an ideally suitable method to fabricate patient specific implantable devices. The approach enabled to produce a porous scaffold with tailored physical, mechanical, and biological properties because of the flexibility to tune the scaffold architecture. The objective of the study described was to elucidate the determining role of cell-laid extracellular matrix (ECM) in impacting biological response. In this regard, to mimic the natural ECM environment or the attributes of the native tissue, a natural ECM analogue surface was produced on the 3D printed and sintered hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold surface by the mineralized ECM of the osteoblast. This involved the growth of osteoblast on 3D printed scaffolds, followed by differentiation to deposit the mineralized ECM on the biomaterial surface. The cells were removed from the mineralized matrix using freeze-thaw cycles to obtain a decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) on the biomaterial surface. Subsequently, seeding of osteoblast on dECM-ornamented HA scaffolds led to 3D growth with enhanced expression of prominent proteins, actin and vinculin. Based on preliminary observations of present study, it was underscored that HA scaffolds-ornamented with dECM provided an optimized microenvironment conducive to the growth of 3D structural tissue and favorably promoted biological functionality because of the availability of an environment that promoted cell-cell and cell-scaffold interaction. The primary advantage of dECM is that it enabled constructive remodeling and promoted the formation of tissue in lieu of less functional tissue. The study opens-up a new path for printing of 3D structures suitable to treat segmental bone defects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1343-1351, 2016. PMID:26799466

  4. Extracellular matrix biomimicry for the creation of investigational and therapeutic devices.

    Pellowe, Amanda S; Gonzalez, Anjelica L

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a web of fibrous proteins that serves as a scaffold for tissues and organs, and is important for maintaining homeostasis and facilitating cellular adhesion. Integrin transmembrane receptors are the primary adhesion molecules that anchor cells to the ECM, thus integrating cells with their microenvironments. Integrins play a critical role in facilitating cell-matrix interactions and promoting signal transduction, both from the cell to the ECM and vice versa, ultimately mediating cell behavior. For this reason, many advanced biomaterials employ biomimicry by replicating the form and function of fibrous ECM proteins. The ECM also acts as a reservoir for small molecules and growth factors, wherein fibrous proteins directly bind and present these bioactive moieties that facilitate cell activity. Therefore biomimicry can be enhanced by incorporating small molecules into ECM-like substrates. Biomimetic ECM materials have served as invaluable research tools for studying interactions between cells and the surrounding ECM, revealing that cell-matrix signaling is driven by mechanical forces, integrin engagement, and small molecules. Mimicking pathological ECMs has also elucidated disease specific cell behaviors. For example, biomimetic tumor microenvironments have been used to induce metastatic cell behaviors, and have thereby shown promise for in vitro cancer drug testing and targeting. Further, ECM-like substrates have been successfully employed for autologous cell recolonization for tissue engineering and wound healing. As we continue to learn more about the mechanical and biochemical characteristics of the ECM, these properties can be harnessed to develop new biomaterials, biomedical devices, and therapeutics. PMID:26053111

  5. The extracellular matrix of hydra is a porous sheet and contains type IV collagen.

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Aufschnaiter, Roland; Li, Li; Sarras, Michael P; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Abrahamson, Dale R; Sado, Yoshikazu; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2008-01-01

    Hydra, as an early diploblastic metazoan, has a well-defined extracellular matrix (ECM) called mesoglea. It is organized in a tri-laminar pattern with one centrally located interstitial matrix that contains type I collagen and two sub-epithelial zones that resemble a basal lamina containing laminin and possibly type IV collagen. This study used monoclonal antibodies to the three hydra mesoglea components (type I, type IV collagens and laminin) and immunofluorescent staining to visualize hydra mesoglea structure and the relationship between these mesoglea components. In addition, hydra mesoglea was isolated free of cells and studied with immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our results show that type IV collagen co-localizes with laminin in the basal lamina whereas type I collagen forms a grid pattern of fibers in the interstitial matrix. The isolated mesoglea can maintain its structural stability without epithelial cell attachment. Hydra mesoglea is porous with multiple trans-mesoglea pores ranging from 0.5 to 1 microm in diameter and about six pores per 100 microm(2) in density. We think these trans-mesoglea pores provide a structural base for epithelial cells on both sides to form multiple trans-mesoglea cell-cell contacts. Based on these findings, we propose a new model of hydra mesoglea structure. PMID:18602803

  6. The extracellular matrix of hydra is a porous sheet and contains type IV collagen

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Aufschnaiter, Roland; Li, Li; Sarras, Michael P.; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Abrahamson, Dale R.; Sado, Yoshikazu; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2008-01-01

    Hydra, as an early diploblastic metazoan, has a well defined extracellular matrix (ECM) called-mesoglea. It is organized in a tri-laminar pattern with one centrally located interstitial matrix that contains type I collagen and two sub-epithelial zones that resemble a basal lamina containing laminin and possibly type IV collagen. This study used monoclonal antibodies to the three hydra mesoglea components (type I, type IV collagens and laminin) and immunofluorescent staining to visualize hydra mesoglea structure and the relationship between these mesoglea components. In addition, hydra mesoglea was isolated free of cells and studied with immunofluorescence and SEM. Our results show that type IV collagen co-localizes with laminin in the basal lamina whereas type I collagen forms a grid pattern of fibers in the interstitial matrix. The isolated-mesoglea can maintain its structural stability without epithelial cell attachment. Hydra mesogleais porous with multiple trans-mesoglea pores ranging from 0.5 to 1 µm in diameter and about 6 pores per 100 µm2 in density. We think these trans-mesoglea pores provide a structural base for epithelial cells on both sides to form multiple trans-mesoglea cell-cell contacts. Based on these findings, we propose a new model of hydra mesoglea structure. PMID:18602803

  7. The pherophorins: common, versatile building blocks in the evolution of extracellular matrix architecture in Volvocales.

    Hallmann, Armin

    2006-01-01

    Green algae of the order Volvocales provide an unrivalled opportunity for exploring the transition from unicellularity to multicellularity. They range from unicells, like Chlamydomonas, through homocytic colonial forms with increasing cooperation of individual cells, like Gonium or Pandorina, to heterocytic multicellular forms with different cell types and a complete division of labour, like Volvox. A fundamental requirement for the evolution of multicellularity is the development of a complex, multifunctional extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM has many functions, which can change under developmental control or as a result of environmental factors. Here molecular data from 15 novel proteins are presented. These proteins have been identified in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Gonium pectorale, Pandorina morum and Volvox carteri, and all belong to a single protein family, the pherophorins. Pherophorin-V1 is shown to be a glycoprotein localized to the 'cellular zone' of the V. carteri ECM. Pherophorin-V1 and -V2 mRNAs are strongly induced not only by the sex inducer, which triggers sexual development at extremely low concentrations, but also by mechanical wounding. Like the extensins of higher plants, which are also developmentally controlled or sometimes inducible by wounding, the pherophorins contain a (hydroxy-)proline-rich (HR) rod-like domain and are abundant within the extracellular compartment. In contrast to most extensins, pherophorins have additional globular A and B domains on both ends of the HR domains. Therefore pherophorins most closely resemble a particular class of higher plant extensin, the solanaceous lectins (e.g. potato lectin), suggesting multivalent carbohydrate-binding functions are present within the A and B domains and are responsible for cross-linking. Our results suggest that pherophorins are used as the building blocks for the extracellular scaffold throughout the Volvocales, with the characteristic mesh sizes in different ECM structures being

  8. Alterations in Cell-Extracellular Matrix Interactions during Progression of Cancers

    Rajeswari Jinka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer progression is a multistep process during which normal cells exhibit molecular changes that culminate into the highly malignant and metastatic phenotype, observed in cancerous tissues. The initiation of cell transformation is generally associated with genetic alterations in normal cells that lead to the loss of intercellular- and/or extracellular-matrix- (ECM- mediated cell adhesion. Transformed cells undergo rapid multiplication and generate more modifications in adhesion and motility-related molecules which allow them to escape from the original site and acquire invasive characteristics. Integrins, which are multifunctional adhesion receptors, and are present, on normal as well as transformed cells, assist the cells undergoing tumor progression in creating the appropriate environment for their survival, growth, and invasion. In this paper, we have briefly discussed the role of ECM proteins and integrins during cancer progression and described some unique conditions where adhesion-related changes could induce genetic mutations in anchorage-independent tumor model systems.

  9. The Role of Structural Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    Andrea Brunner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM plays a key role in the modulation of cancer cell invasion. In urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UC the role of ECM proteins has been widely studied. The mechanisms, which are involved in the development of invasion, progression and generalization, are complex, depending on the interaction of ECM proteins with each other as well as with cancer cells. The following review will focus on the pathogenetic role and prognostic value of structural proteins, such as laminins, collagens, fi bronectin (FN, tenascin (Tn-C and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 in UC. In addition, the role of integrins mediating the interaction of ECM molecules and cancer cells will be addressed, since integrin-mediated FN, Tn-C and TSP1 interactions seem to play an important role during tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis.

  10. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging....... Structural changes include an increase in the collagen concentration, a change in the elastic fiber system, and an increase in fat infiltration of skeletal muscle. Biochemical changes include a decreased turnover of collagen with potential accumulation of enzymatically mediated collagen cross-links and a...... buildup of advanced glycation end-product cross-links. Altered mechanotransduction, poorer activation of satellite cells, poorer chemotactic and delayed inflammatory responses, and a change in modulators of the ECM are important cellular changes. It is possible that the structural and biochemical changes...

  11. Decellularized extracellular matrix microparticles as a vehicle for cellular delivery in a model of anastomosis healing.

    Hoganson, David M; Owens, Gwen E; Meppelink, Amanda M; Bassett, Erik K; Bowley, Chris M; Hinkel, Cameron J; Finkelstein, Eric B; Goldman, Scott M; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2016-07-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) materials from animal and human sources have become important materials for soft tissue repair. Microparticles of ECM materials have increased surface area and exposed binding sites compared to sheet materials. Decellularized porcine peritoneum was mechanically dissociated into 200 µm microparticles, seeded with fibroblasts and cultured in a low gravity rotating bioreactor. The cells avidly attached and maintained excellent viability on the microparticles. When the seeded microparticles were placed in a collagen gel, the cells quickly migrated off the microparticles and through the gel. Cells from seeded microparticles migrated to and across an in vitro anastomosis model, increasing the tensile strength of the model. Cell seeded microparticles of ECM material have potential for paracrine and cellular delivery therapies when delivered in a gel carrier. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1728-1735, 2016. PMID:26946064

  12. Extracellular matrix-inspired growth factor delivery systems for bone regeneration

    Martino, Mikaël M. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Immunology Frontier Research Center; Briquez, Priscilla S. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. of Bioengineering; Maruyama, Kenta [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Immunology Frontier Research Center; Hubbell, Jeffrey A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. of Bioengineering; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Inst. for Molecular Engineering; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-04-17

    Growth factors are very promising molecules to enhance bone regeneration. However, their translation to clinical use has been seriously limited, facing issues related to safety and cost-effectiveness. These problems derive from the vastly supra-physiological doses of growth factor used without optimized delivery systems. Therefore, these issues have motivated the development of new delivery systems allowing better control of the spatio-temporal release and signaling of growth factors. Because the extracellular matrix (ECM) naturally plays a fundamental role in coordinating growth factor activity in vivo, a number of novel delivery systems have been inspired by the growth factor regulatory function of the ECM. After introducing the role of growth factors during the bone regeneration process, this review exposes different issues that growth factor-based therapies have encountered in the clinic and highlights recent delivery approaches based on the natural interaction between growth factor and the ECM.

  13. Cell-mediated fibre recruitment drives extracellular matrix mechanosensing in engineered fibrillar microenvironments

    Baker, Brendon M.; Trappmann, Britta; Wang, William Y.; Sakar, Mahmut S.; Kim, Iris L.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Burdick, Jason A.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate how cells sense stiffness in settings structurally similar to native extracellular matrices, we designed a synthetic fibrous material with tunable mechanics and user-defined architecture. In contrast to flat hydrogel surfaces, these fibrous materials recapitulated cell-matrix interactions observed with collagen matrices including stellate cell morphologies, cell-mediated realignment of fibres, and bulk contraction of the material. Increasing the stiffness of flat hydrogel surfaces induced mesenchymal stem cell spreading and proliferation; however, increasing fibre stiffness instead suppressed spreading and proliferation for certain network architectures. Lower fibre stiffness permitted active cellular forces to recruit nearby fibres, dynamically increasing ligand density at the cell surface and promoting the formation of focal adhesions and related signalling. These studies demonstrate a departure from the well-described relationship between material stiffness and spreading established with hydrogel surfaces, and introduce fibre recruitment as a previously undescribed mechanism by which cells probe and respond to mechanics in fibrillar matrices.

  14. Bromelain surface modification increases the diffusion of silica nanoparticles in the tumor extracellular matrix.

    Parodi, Alessandro; Haddix, Seth G; Taghipour, Nima; Scaria, Shilpa; Taraballi, Francesca; Cevenini, Armando; Yazdi, Iman K; Corbo, Claudia; Palomba, Roberto; Khaled, Sm Z; Martinez, Jonathan O; Brown, Brandon S; Isenhart, Lucas; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2014-10-28

    Tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) represents a major obstacle to the diffusion of therapeutics and drug delivery systems in cancer parenchyma. This biological barrier limits the efficacy of promising therapeutic approaches including the delivery of siRNA or agents intended for thermoablation. After extravasation due to the enhanced penetration and retention effect of tumor vasculature, typical nanotherapeutics are unable to reach the nonvascularized and anoxic regions deep within cancer parenchyma. Here, we developed a simple method to provide mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with a proteolytic surface. To this extent, we chose to conjugate MSN to Bromelain (Br-MSN), a crude enzymatic complex, purified from pineapple stems, that belongs to the peptidase papain family. This surface modification increased particle uptake in endothelial, macrophage, and cancer cell lines with minimal impact on cellular viability. Most importantly Br-MSN showed an increased ability to digest and diffuse in tumor ECM in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25119793

  15. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    Kragstrup, T W; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    . Structural changes include an increase in the collagen concentration, a change in the elastic fiber system, and an increase in fat infiltration of skeletal muscle. Biochemical changes include a decreased turnover of collagen with potential accumulation of enzymatically mediated collagen cross......The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging...... in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the increased stiffness and impairment in force generated by the contracting muscle fibers seen with aging. The cellular interactions provide and potentially coordinate an adaptation to mechanical loading and ensure successful regeneration after muscle injury. Some...

  16. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol-collagen-hydroxyapatite nanofibers: a biomimetic extracellular matrix for osteoblastic cells

    Song, Wei; Markel, David C.; Wang, Sunxi; Shi, Tong; Mao, Guangzhao; Ren, Weiping

    2012-03-01

    The failure of prosthesis after total joint replacement is due to the lack of early implant osseointegration. In this study polyvinyl alcohol-collagen-hydroxyapatite (PVA-Col-HA) electrospun nanofibrous meshes were fabricated as a biomimetic bone-like extracellular matrix for the modification of orthopedic prosthetic surfaces. In order to reinforce the PVA nanofibers, HA nanorods and Type I collagen were incorporated into the nanofibers. We investigated the morphology, biodegradability, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the prepared nanofibers. Our results showed these inorganic-organic blended nanofibers to be degradable in vitro. The encapsulated nano-HA and collagen interacted with the PVA content, reinforcing the hydrolytic resistance and mechanical properties of nanofibers that provided longer lasting stability. The encapsulated nano-HA and collagen also enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of murine bone cells (MC3T3) in vitro. We propose the PVA-Col-HA nanofibers might be promising modifying materials on implant surfaces for orthopedic applications.

  17. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol–collagen–hydroxyapatite nanofibers: a biomimetic extracellular matrix for osteoblastic cells

    The failure of prosthesis after total joint replacement is due to the lack of early implant osseointegration. In this study polyvinyl alcohol–collagen–hydroxyapatite (PVA-Col-HA) electrospun nanofibrous meshes were fabricated as a biomimetic bone-like extracellular matrix for the modification of orthopedic prosthetic surfaces. In order to reinforce the PVA nanofibers, HA nanorods and Type I collagen were incorporated into the nanofibers. We investigated the morphology, biodegradability, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the prepared nanofibers. Our results showed these inorganic–organic blended nanofibers to be degradable in vitro. The encapsulated nano-HA and collagen interacted with the PVA content, reinforcing the hydrolytic resistance and mechanical properties of nanofibers that provided longer lasting stability. The encapsulated nano-HA and collagen also enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of murine bone cells (MC3T3) in vitro. We propose the PVA-Col-HA nanofibers might be promising modifying materials on implant surfaces for orthopedic applications. (paper)

  18. A potential role for glia-derived extracellular matrix remodeling in postinjury epilepsy.

    Kim, Soo Young; Porter, Brenda E; Friedman, Alon; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Head trauma and vascular injuries are known risk factors for acquired epilepsy. The sequence of events that lead from the initial injury to the development of epilepsy involves complex plastic changes and circuit rewiring. In-depth, comprehensive understanding of the epileptogenic process is critical for the identification of disease-modifying targets. Here we review the complex interactions of cellular and extracellular components that may promote epileptogenesis, with an emphasis on the role of astrocytes. Emerging evidence demonstrates that astrocytes promptly respond to brain damage and play a critical role in the development of postinjury epilepsy. Astrocytes have been shown to regulate extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which can affect plasticity and stability of synapses and, in turn, contribute to the epileptogenic process. From these separate lines of evidence, we present a hypothesis suggesting a possible role for astrocyte-regulated remodeling of ECM and perineuronal nets, a specialized ECM structure around fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons, in the development and progression of posttraumatic epilepsies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27265805

  19. Extracellular Matrix-Regulated Gene Expression RequiresCooperation of SWI/SNF and Transcription Factors

    Xu, Ren; Spencer, Virginia A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-05-25

    Extracellular cues play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific genes, but whether and how these signals lead to chromatin remodeling is not understood and subject to debate. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and mammary-specific genes as models, we show here that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and prolactin cooperate to induce histone acetylation and binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex to the {beta}- and ?-casein promoters. Introduction of a dominant negative Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF complex, significantly reduced both {beta}- and ?-casein expression, suggesting that SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling is required for transcription of mammary-specific genes. ChIP analyses demonstrated that the ATPase activity of SWI/SNF is necessary for recruitment of RNA transcriptional machinery, but not for binding of transcription factors or for histone acetylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses showed that the SWI/SNF complex is associated with STAT5, C/EBP{beta}, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Thus, ECM- and prolactin-regulated transcription of the mammary-specific casein genes requires the concerted action of chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors.

  20. Biotensegrity of the extracellular matrix: physiology, dynamic mechanical balance, and implications in oncology and mechanotherapy.

    Tadeo, Irene; Berbegall, Ana P; Escudero, Luis M; Alvaro, Tomás; Noguera, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Cells have the capacity to convert mechanical stimuli into chemical changes. This process is based on the tensegrity principle, a mechanism of tensional integrity. To date, this principle has been demonstrated to act in physiological processes such as mechanotransduction and mechanosensing at different scales (from cell sensing through integrins to molecular mechanical interventions or even localized massage). The process involves intra- and extracellular components, including the participation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and microtubules that act as compression structures, and actin filaments which act as tension structures. The nucleus itself has its own tensegrity system which is implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Despite present advances, only the tip of the iceberg has so far been uncovered regarding the role of ECM compounds in influencing biotensegrity in pathological processes. Groups of cells, together with the surrounding ground substance, are subject to different and specific forces that certainly influence biological processes. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the role of ECM elements in determining biotensegrity in malignant processes and describe their implication in therapeutic response, resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy, and subsequent tumor progression. Original data based on the study of neuroblastic tumors will be provided. PMID:24624363

  1. Extracellular matrix assembly in extreme acidic eukaryotic biofilms and their possible implications in heavy metal adsorption

    To evaluate the importance of the extracellular matrix in relation to heavy metal binding capacity in extreme acidic environments, the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) composition of 12 biofilms isolated from Rio Tinto (SW, Spain) was analyzed. Each biofilm was composed mainly by one or two species of eukaryotes, although other microorganisms were present. EPS ranged from 130 to 439 mg g-1 biofilm dry weight, representing between 15% and the 40% of the total biofilm dry weight (DW). Statistically significant differences (p -1 dry weight; 10% to 30% of the total biofilm dry weight. Capsular EPS ranged from 50 to 318 mg g-1 dry weight; 5% to 30% of the total biofilm dry weight. Seven of the 12 biofilms showed higher amounts of capsular than colloidal EPS (p -1 biofilm dry weight, reaching up to 16% of the total composition. In general, the heavy metal composition of the EPS extracted from the biofilms closely resembled the metal composition of the water from which the biofilms were collected

  2. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better

  3. Association of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans of Schwann cells with extracellular matrix proteins.

    Carey, D J; Crumbling, D M; Stahl, R C; Evans, D M

    1990-11-25

    The terminal differentiation of Schwann cells is dependent on contact with basement membrane. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in mediating Schwann cell responses to extracellular matrix contact. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-releasable cell surface HSPGs purified from cultures of neonatal rat Schwann cells were subjected to affinity chromatography on immobilized laminin and fibronectin. Binding of the HSPG to both affinity matrices was observed. The strength of the association, however, was sensitive to the ionic strength of the buffer. In 0.1 M Tris-HCl, HSPG binding was essentially irreversible whereas in physiological ionic strength buffer (e.g. 0.142 M NaCl, 10 mM Tris), weaker binding was detected as a delay in elution of the HSPG from the affinity columns. Further studies of HSPG-laminin binding suggested that the binding was mediated by the glycosaminoglycan chains of the proteoglycans. Results of equilibrium gel filtration chromatography provided additional evidence for a reversible association of the HSPG and laminin with a Kd of approximately 1 x 10(-6) M. When Schwann cells were plated on plastic dishes coated with laminin, the cells attached and extended long slender processes. Inclusion of heparin, but not chondroitin sulfate, in the assay medium resulted in partial inhibition of process extension, but at concentrations of heparin which were higher than that needed to disrupt laminin-HSPG association in vitro. Addition of anti-integrin receptor antibodies resulted in more extensive inhibition of laminin-dependent process extension. Anti-integrin antibodies plus heparin essentially totally inhibited laminin-dependent process extension. These results demonstrate that cell surface HSPGs are capable of reversible association with extracellular matrix molecules and suggest that HSPG-laminin interactions play a role in laminin-dependent Schwann cell spreading. PMID

  4. Nitrotyrosine immunostaining correlates with increased extracellular matrix: evidence of postplacental hypoxia.

    Stanek, J; Eis, A L; Myatt, L

    2001-04-01

    Nitrotyrosine residues (NT), an index of oxidative stress arising from peroxynitrite formation and action, are found in placental vasculature of pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia (PE) or pregestational insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). This study correlates conventional placental pathology with NT immunostaining in 20 cases of perinatal mortality (13 stillbirths and seven cases of neonatal mortality) associated with PE, IDDM, amniotic fluid infection syndrome (AFIS), or from fetal/neonatal demise not related to these conditions (congenital anomalies) (n = five/group). Patients with PE have more decidual arteriolopathy and Tenney-Parker change, while patients with IDDM and ascending infection have more villous cytotrophoblastic hyperplasia. Archival paraffin-embedded placental sections were immunostained for NT for correlation with clinical features and H&E histological findings. The intensity of immunostaining for NT varied from absent (n = 7) to 1+ (n = 5) or 2+ (n = 8). All eight placentae with 2+ staining showed increased villous extracellular matrix (ECM), compared to none of five with 1+ staining and two of seven with no staining (chi2 = 14.3, P = 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of stem villi with luminal vascular abnormalities (5.7 vs 10 vs 35.7 per cent, F = 2.3, P = 0.1). Our data show that increased production of reactive oxygen species by placental tissue may be associated with increased extracellular matrix, itself produced by fibroblasts under the influence of oxygen. NT immunostaining may therefore help differentiate those cases of perinatal morbidity/mortality associated with post-placental hypoxia provided that the secondary impact of intrauterine fetal death can be excluded by future studies. PMID:11312630

  5. Gene expression in human hippocampus from cocaine abusers identifies genes which regulate extracellular matrix remodeling.

    Deborah C Mash

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of cocaine abuse on brain structure and function are blamed for the inability of most addicts to remain abstinent. Part of the difficulty in preventing relapse is the persisting memory of the intense euphoria or cocaine "rush". Most abused drugs and alcohol induce neuroplastic changes in brain pathways subserving emotion and cognition. Such changes may account for the consolidation and structural reconfiguration of synaptic connections with exposure to cocaine. Adaptive hippocampal plasticity could be related to specific patterns of gene expression with chronic cocaine abuse. Here, we compare gene expression profiles in the human hippocampus from cocaine addicts and age-matched drug-free control subjects. Cocaine abusers had 151 gene transcripts upregulated, while 91 gene transcripts were downregulated. Topping the list of cocaine-regulated transcripts was RECK in the human hippocampus (FC = 2.0; p<0.05. RECK is a membrane-anchored MMP inhibitor that is implicated in the coordinated regulation of extracellular matrix integrity and angiogenesis. In keeping with elevated RECK expression, active MMP9 protein levels were decreased in the hippocampus from cocaine abusers. Pathway analysis identified other genes regulated by cocaine that code for proteins involved in the remodeling of the cytomatrix and synaptic connections and the inhibition of blood vessel proliferation (PCDH8, LAMB1, ITGB6, CTGF and EphB4. The observed microarray phenotype in the human hippocampus identified RECK and other region-specific genes that may promote long-lasting structural changes with repeated cocaine abuse. Extracellular matrix remodeling in the hippocampus may be a persisting effect of chronic abuse that contributes to the compulsive and relapsing nature of cocaine addiction.

  6. Three-dimensional culture of human meniscal cells: Extracellular matrix and proteoglycan production

    Norton H James

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The meniscus is a complex tissue whose cell biology has only recently begun to be explored. Published models rely upon initial culture in the presence of added growth factors. The aim of this study was to test a three-dimensional (3D collagen sponge microenvironment (without added growth factors for its ability to provide a microenvironment supportive for meniscal cell extracellular matrix (ECM production, and to test the responsiveness of cells cultured in this manner to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Methods Experimental studies were approved prospectively by the authors' Human Subjects Institutional Review Board. Human meniscal cells were isolated from surgical specimens, established in monolayer culture, seeded into a 3D scaffold, and cell morphology and extracellular matrix components (ECM evaluated either under control condition or with addition of TGF-β. Outcome variables were evaluation of cultured cell morphology, quantitative measurement of total sulfated proteoglycan production, and immunohistochemical study of the ECM components chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, and types I and II collagen. Result and Conclusion Meniscal cells attached well within the 3D microenvironment and expanded with culture time. The 3D microenvironment was permissive for production of chondroitin sulfate, types I and II collagen, and to a lesser degree keratan sulfate. This microenvironment was also permissive for growth factor responsiveness, as indicated by a significant increase in proteoglycan production when cells were exposed to TGF-β (2.48 μg/ml ± 1.00, mean ± S.D., vs control levels of 1.58 ± 0.79, p

  7. Calcium Sensing Receptor Promotes Cardiac Fibroblast Proliferation and Extracellular Matrix Secretion

    Xinying Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR acts as a G protein coupled receptor that mediates the increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The expression of CaR has been confirmed in various cell types, including cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, neurons and vascular endothelial cells. However, whether CaR is expressed and functions in cardiac fibroblasts has remained unknown. The present study investigated whether CaR played a role in cardiac fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM secretion, both in cultured rat neonatal cardiac fibroblasts and in a model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol (ISO. Methods and Results: Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed the presence of CaR in cardiac fibroblasts. Calcium and calindol, a specific activator of CaR, elevated the intracellular calcium concentration in cardiac fibroblasts. Pretreatment of cardiac fibroblasts with calhex231, a specific inhibitor of CaR, U73122 and 2-APB attenuated the calindol- and extracellular calcium-induced increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i. Cardiac fibroblast proliferation and migration were assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, cell count and the cell scratch assay. ECM production was detected by expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -9 (MMP-3 and -9. Activation of CaR promoted cardiac fibroblast proliferation and migration and ECM secretion. More importantly, calhex231, suppressed cardiac fibroblast proliferation and migration and MMP-3 and -9 expression. To further investigate the effect of CaR on cardiac fibrosis, a model of ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy was established. Pretreatment with calhex231 prevented cardiac fibrosis and decreased the expression of MMP-3 and -9 expression. Conclusions: Our results are the first report that CaR plays an important role in Ca2+ signaling involved in cardiac fibrosis through the phospholipase C- inositol 3

  8. Acortatarin A inhibits high glucose-induced extracellular matrix production in mesangial cells

    ZHAO Zhi-fang; ZHOU Li-li; CHEN Xia; CHENG Yong-xian; HOU Fan-fan; NIE Jing

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease.Various treatment regimens and combinations of therapies provide only partial renoprotection.Therefore new approaches are needed to retard the progression of DN.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of a novel spiroalkaloid from Acorus tatarinowii named acortatarin A (AcorA) in inhibiting high glucose-induced extracellular matrix accumulation in mesangial cells (MCs).Methods The cytotoxity of AcorA on MCs was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.The expression of fibronectin and collagen Ⅳ was examined by real time PCR and western blotting.The expression of p22phox and p47phox was detected by western blot.The interaction between p22phox and p47phox was examined by co-immunoprecipitation.The phosphorylation of p47phox was examined by immunoprecipitation.The phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) α,PKCβ,phospholiase C gamma (PLCγ1),and the p85 subunit of PI3K was determined by Western blotting.Results AcorA significantly inhibited high glucose-induced activation of NADPH oxidase,a ROS-generating enzyme,by increasing phosphorylation of p47phox and enhancing interaction between p22phox and p47phox.Preincubation of AcorA with MCs inhibited high glucose-induced collagen Ⅳ and fibronectin production in a dose-dependent manner.Moreover,AcorA attenuated high glucose enhanced phosphorylation of PKCα,PKCβ,PLCγ1,and the p85 subunit of PI3K.Conclusion AcorA inhibits high glucose-induced extracellular matrix production via blocking NADPH oxidase activation.

  9. Tailoring the properties of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix using carbodiimide cross-linking.

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Modulation of properties of extracellular matrix (ECM) based scaffolds is key for their application in the clinical setting. In the present study, cross-linking was used as a tool for tailoring the properties of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM). CEM was cross-linked with varying cross-linking concentrations of N,N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N\\'-ethyl carbodiimide (EDC) in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Shrink temperature measurements and ATR-FT-IR spectra were used to determine the degree of cross-linking. The effect of cross-linking on degradation was tested using the collagenase assay. Uniaxial tensile properties and the ability to support fibroblasts were also evaluated as a function of cross-linking. Shrink temperature increased from 59 degrees C for non-cross-linked CEM to 78 degrees C for the highest EDC cross-linking concentration, while IR peak area ratios for the free -NH(2) group at 3290 cm(-1) to that of the amide I band at 1635 cm(-1) decreased with increasing EDC cross-linking concentration. Collagenase assay demonstrated that degradation rates for CEM can be tailored. EDC concentrations 0 to 0.0033 mmol\\/mg CEM were the cross-linking concentration range in which CEM showed varied susceptibility to collagenase degradation. Furthermore, cross-linking concentrations up to 0.1 mmol EDC\\/mg CEM did not have statistically significant effect on the uniaxial tensile strength, as well as morphology, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts on CEM. In conclusion, the degradation rates of CEM can be tailored using EDC-cross-linking, while maintaining the mechanical properties and the ability of CEM to support cells.

  10. Co-transfection of decorin and interleukin-10 modulates pro-fibrotic extracellular matrix gene expression in human tenocyte culture

    Abbah, Sunny A.; Thomas, Dilip; Browne, Shane; O'Brien, Timothy; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I.

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix synthesis and remodelling are driven by increased activity of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). In tendon tissue repair, increased activity of TGF-β1 leads to progressive fibrosis. Decorin (DCN) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) antagonise pathological collagen synthesis by exerting a neutralising effect via downregulation of TGF-β1. Herein, we report that the delivery of DCN and IL-10 transgenes from a collagen hydrogel system supresses the constitutive expression of TGF-β1 and a range of pro-fibrotic extracellular matrix genes.

  11. Physical, Spatial, and Molecular Aspects of Extracellular Matrix of In Vivo Niches and Artificial Scaffolds Relevant to Stem Cells Research.

    Akhmanova, Maria; Osidak, Egor; Domogatsky, Sergey; Rodin, Sergey; Domogatskaya, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix can influence stem cell choices, such as self-renewal, quiescence, migration, proliferation, phenotype maintenance, differentiation, or apoptosis. Three aspects of extracellular matrix were extensively studied during the last decade: physical properties, spatial presentation of adhesive epitopes, and molecular complexity. Over 15 different parameters have been shown to influence stem cell choices. Physical aspects include stiffness (or elasticity), viscoelasticity, pore size, porosity, amplitude and frequency of static and dynamic deformations applied to the matrix. Spatial aspects include scaffold dimensionality (2D or 3D) and thickness; cell polarity; area, shape, and microscale topography of cell adhesion surface; epitope concentration, epitope clustering characteristics (number of epitopes per cluster, spacing between epitopes within cluster, spacing between separate clusters, cluster patterns, and level of disorder in epitope arrangement), and nanotopography. Biochemical characteristics of natural extracellular matrix molecules regard diversity and structural complexity of matrix molecules, affinity and specificity of epitope interaction with cell receptors, role of non-affinity domains, complexity of supramolecular organization, and co-signaling by growth factors or matrix epitopes. Synergy between several matrix aspects enables stem cells to retain their function in vivo and may be a key to generation of long-term, robust, and effective in vitro stem cell culture systems. PMID:26351461

  12. Physical, Spatial, and Molecular Aspects of Extracellular Matrix of In Vivo Niches and Artificial Scaffolds Relevant to Stem Cells Research

    Maria Akhmanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix can influence stem cell choices, such as self-renewal, quiescence, migration, proliferation, phenotype maintenance, differentiation, or apoptosis. Three aspects of extracellular matrix were extensively studied during the last decade: physical properties, spatial presentation of adhesive epitopes, and molecular complexity. Over 15 different parameters have been shown to influence stem cell choices. Physical aspects include stiffness (or elasticity, viscoelasticity, pore size, porosity, amplitude and frequency of static and dynamic deformations applied to the matrix. Spatial aspects include scaffold dimensionality (2D or 3D and thickness; cell polarity; area, shape, and microscale topography of cell adhesion surface; epitope concentration, epitope clustering characteristics (number of epitopes per cluster, spacing between epitopes within cluster, spacing between separate clusters, cluster patterns, and level of disorder in epitope arrangement, and nanotopography. Biochemical characteristics of natural extracellular matrix molecules regard diversity and structural complexity of matrix molecules, affinity and specificity of epitope interaction with cell receptors, role of non-affinity domains, complexity of supramolecular organization, and co-signaling by growth factors or matrix epitopes. Synergy between several matrix aspects enables stem cells to retain their function in vivo and may be a key to generation of long-term, robust, and effective in vitro stem cell culture systems.

  13. Extracellular matrix and growth factor engineering for controlled angiogenesis in regenerative medicine.

    Martino, Mikael M.; Brkic, Sime; Bovo, Emmanuela; Burger, Maximilian; Schaefer, Dirk J.; Wolff, Thomas; Gurke, Lorenz; Briquez, Priscilla S.; Larsson, Hans M.; Gianni-Barrera, Roberto; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Banfi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Blood vessel growth plays a key role in regenerative medicine, both to restore blood supply to ischemic tissues and to ensure rapid vascularization of clinical-size tissue-engineered grafts. For example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the master regulator of physiological blood vessel growth and is one of the main molecular targets of therapeutic angiogenesis approaches. However, angiogenesis is a complex process and there is a need to develop rational therapeutic strategies based on a firm understanding of basic vascular biology principles, as evidenced by the disappointing results of initial clinical trials of angiogenic factor delivery. In particular, the spatial localization of angiogenic signals in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to ensure the proper assembly and maturation of new vascular structures. Here, we discuss the therapeutic implications of matrix interactions of angiogenic factors, with a special emphasis on VEGF, as well as provide an overview of current approaches, based on protein and biomaterial engineering that mimic the regulatory functions of ECM to optimize the signaling microenvironment of vascular growth factors.

  14. Genetic Background is a Key Determinant of Glomerular Extracellular Matrix Composition and Organization.

    Randles, Michael J; Woolf, Adrian S; Huang, Jennifer L; Byron, Adam; Humphries, Jonathan D; Price, Karen L; Kolatsi-Joannou, Maria; Collinson, Sophie; Denny, Thomas; Knight, David; Mironov, Aleksandr; Starborg, Toby; Korstanje, Ron; Humphries, Martin J; Long, David A; Lennon, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    Glomerular disease often features altered histologic patterns of extracellular matrix (ECM). Despite this, the potential complexities of the glomerular ECM in both health and disease are poorly understood. To explore whether genetic background and sex determine glomerular ECM composition, we investigated two mouse strains, FVB and B6, using RNA microarrays of isolated glomeruli combined with proteomic glomerular ECM analyses. These studies, undertaken in healthy young adult animals, revealed unique strain- and sex-dependent glomerular ECM signatures, which correlated with variations in levels of albuminuria and known predisposition to progressive nephropathy. Among the variation, we observed changes in netrin 4, fibroblast growth factor 2, tenascin C, collagen 1, meprin 1-α, and meprin 1-β. Differences in protein abundance were validated by quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, and the collective differences were not explained by mutations in known ECM or glomerular disease genes. Within the distinct signatures, we discovered a core set of structural ECM proteins that form multiple protein-protein interactions and are conserved from mouse to man. Furthermore, we found striking ultrastructural changes in glomerular basement membranes in FVB mice. Pathway analysis of merged transcriptomic and proteomic datasets identified potential ECM regulatory pathways involving inhibition of matrix metalloproteases, liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, notch, and cyclin-dependent kinase 5. These pathways may therefore alter ECM and confer susceptibility to disease. PMID:25896609

  15. A protein involved in the assembly of an extracellular calcium storage matrix.

    Glazer, Lilah; Shechter, Assaf; Tom, Moshe; Yudkovski, Yana; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu David; Pamuru, Ramachandra Reddy; Khalaila, Isam; Bentov, Shmuel; Berman, Amir; Sagi, Amir

    2010-04-23

    Gastroliths, the calcium storage organs of crustaceans, consist of chitin-protein-mineral complexes in which the mineral component is stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate. To date, only three proteins, GAP 65, gastrolith matrix protein (GAMP), and orchestin, have been identified in gastroliths. Here, we report a novel protein, GAP 10, isolated from the gastrolith of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus and specifically expressed in its gastrolith disc. The encoding gene was cloned by partial sequencing of the protein extracted from the gastrolith matrix. Based on an assembled microarray cDNA chip, GAP 10 transcripts were found to be highly (12-fold) up-regulated in premolt gastrolith disc and significantly down-regulated in the hypodermis at the same molt stage. The deduced protein sequence of GAP 10 lacks chitin-binding domains and does not show homology to known proteins in the GenBank data base. It does, however, have an amino acid composition that has similarity to proteins extracted from invertebrate and ascidian-calcified extracellular matrices. The GAP 10 sequence contains a predicted signal peptide and predicted phosphorylation sites. In addition, the protein is phosphorylated and exhibits calcium-binding ability. Repeated daily injections of GAP 10 double strand RNA to premolt C. quadricarinatus resulted in a prolonged premolt stage and in the development of gastroliths with irregularly rough surfaces. These findings suggest that GAP 10 may be involved in the assembly of the gastrolith chitin-protein-mineral complex, particularly in the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate. PMID:20150428

  16. Study of extracellular matrix in vocal fold biomechanics using a two-phase model.

    Miri, Amir K; Li, Nicole Y K; Avazmohammadi, Reza; Thibeault, Susan L; Mongrain, Rosaire; Mongeau, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the vocal fold tissue consists primarily of fibrous and interstitial proteins. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of selective enzymatic digestion of two ECM proteins, namely elastin and versican, on the elasticity of rabbit vocal fold tissue. Quasi-static, sinusoidal, uniaxial tensile tests were performed. The data were analyzed within the framework of a model of the ECM as a two-phase composite material consisting of collagen fibrils as the reinforcing fibers and noncollagenous ECM proteins as the matrix. To validate the two-phase model, the regression parameters for the fibers' volume fraction and shear modulus in a different animal model were compared with corresponding published data. The proposed model was then used to analyze rabbit vocal fold tissues. The mean value and the standard deviation of the fiber volume fraction were found to be 8.49 ± 3.75 % for the control samples (n = 4), 0.59 ± 1.13 % after elastin removal (n = 4), and 8.22 ± 1.06 % after versican removal (n = 4). The results suggest that elastin removal may lead to a reduction in tissue stiffness, through counteracting the reinforcement of collagen fibrils. PMID:24792897

  17. Assembly of fibronectin into the extracellular matrix of early and late passage human skin fibroblasts

    The specific binding of soluble 125I-human plasma fibronectin (125I-HFN-P) to confluent cultures of early and late passage human skin fibroblasts was investigated. Previous studies HFN-P bound to fibroblast cell layers indicated that HNF-P was present in the cultures in two separate pools, distinguishable on the basis of their solubility in 1% deoxycholate. Examination of the kinetics of 125I-HFN-P binding to Pool I of early and late passage cultures revealed that both cultures required 2-4 h to approach steady-state conditions. Other kinetic studies showed that the rates of low of 125I-HFN-P from either Pool I or Pool II were similar for both cultures. Further, Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of Pool I binding sites with apparent dissociation constants (K/sub d/) of 5.3 x 10-8M (early passage) and 4.2 x 10-8M (late passage). These results indicate that early and late passage cultures of human fibroblasts exhibit differences in the number of cell surface biding sites for soluble fibronectin, and in the extent to which they incorporate soluble fibronectin into the extracellular matrix. Parameters which affect the fibronectin matrix assembly system of human skin fibroblasts were also examined. In addition, several monoclonal anti-fibronectin antibodies were characterized and developed as experimental probes for fibronectin structure and function

  18. Buckling Reduces eNOS Production and Stimulates Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Arteries in Organ Culture.

    Xiao, Yangming; Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao

    2016-09-01

    Artery buckling alters the fluid shear stress and wall stress in the artery but its temporal effect on vascular wall remodeling is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the early effect of artery buckling on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and extracellular matrix remodeling. Bilateral porcine carotid arteries were maintained in an ex vivo organ culture system with and without buckling while under the same physiological pressure and flow rate for 3-7 days. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, fibronectin, elastin, collagen I, III and IV, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), and eNOS were determined using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that MMP-2 expression level was significantly higher in buckled arteries than in the controls and higher at the inner curve than at the outer curve of buckled arteries, while collagen IV content showed an opposite trend, suggesting that artery buckling increased MMP-2 expression and collagen IV degradation in a site-specific fashion. However, no differences for MMP-9, fibronectin, elastin, collagen I, III, and TIMP-2 were observed among the outer and inner curve sides of buckled arteries and straight controls. Additionally, eNOS expression was significantly decreased in buckled arteries. These results suggest that artery buckling triggers uneven wall remodeling that could lead to development of tortuous arteries. PMID:26913855

  19. Abnormal osteopontin and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein localization, and odontoblast differentiation, in X-linked hypophosphatemic teeth.

    Salmon, B; Bardet, C; Coyac, B R; Baroukh, B; Naji, J; Rowe, P S; Opsahl Vital, S; Linglart, A; Mckee, M D; Chaussain, C

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in phosphate-regulating gene (PHEX) lead to X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a genetic disease characterized by impaired mineralization in bones and teeth. In human XLH tooth dentin, calcospherites that would normally merge as part of the mineralization process are separated by unmineralized interglobular spaces where fragments of matrix proteins accumulate. Here, we immunolocalized osteopontin (OPN) in human XLH teeth, in a three-dimensional XLH human dental pulp stem cell-collagen scaffold culture model and in a rat tooth injury repair model treated with acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif peptides (ASARM). In parallel, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) immunolocalization and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were assessed in XLH teeth. OPN was expressed by odontoblasts in the XLH models, and localized to the abnormal calcospherites of XLH tooth dentin. In addition, ALP activity and MEPE localization were abnormal in human XLH teeth, with MEPE showing an accumulation in the unmineralized interglobular spaces in dentin. Furthermore, XLH odontoblasts failed to form a well-polarized odontoblast layer. These data suggest that both MEPE and OPN are involved in impaired tooth mineralization associated with XLH, possibly through different effects on the mineralization process. PMID:25158186

  20. αII-spectrin regulates invadosome stability and extracellular matrix degradation.

    Aurélie Ponceau

    Full Text Available Invadosomes are actin-rich adhesion structures involved in tissue invasion and extracellular matrix (ECM remodelling. αII-Spectrin, an ubiquitous scaffolding component of the membrane skeleton and a partner of actin regulators (ABI1, VASP and WASL, accumulates highly and specifically in the invadosomes of multiple cell types, such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs expressing SrcY527F, the constitutively active form of Src or activated HMEC-1 endothelial cells. FRAP and live-imaging analysis revealed that αII-spectrin is a highly dynamic component of invadosomes as actin present in the structures core. Knockdown of αII-spectrin expression destabilizes invadosomes and reduces the ability of the remaining invadosomes to digest the ECM and to promote invasion. The ECM degradation defect observed in spectrin-depleted-cells is associated with highly dynamic and unstable invadosome rings. Moreover, FRAP measurement showed the specific involvement of αII-spectrin in the regulation of the mobile/immobile β3-integrin ratio in invadosomes. Our findings suggest that spectrin could regulate invadosome function and maturation by modulating integrin mobility in the membrane, allowing the normal processes of adhesion, invasion and matrix degradation. Altogether, these data highlight a new function for spectrins in the stability of invadosomes and the coupling between actin regulation and ECM degradation.

  1. Photobiomodulation on human annulus fibrosus cells during the intervertebral disk degeneration: extracellular matrix-modifying enzymes.

    Hwang, Min Ho; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Yoo, Chang Min; Shin, Jae Hee; Nam, Hyo Geun; Jeong, Jin Su; Kim, Joo Han; Lee, Kwang Ho; Choi, Hyuk

    2016-05-01

    Destruction of extracellular matrix (ECM) leads to degeneration of the intervertebral disk (IVD), which is a major contributor to many spine disorders. IVD degeneration is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), which are secreted by immune cells, including macrophages and neutrophils. The cytokines modulate ECM-modifying enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in human annulus fibrosus (AF) cells. The resulting imbalance in catabolic and anabolic enzymes can cause generalized back, neck, and low back pain (LBP). Photobiomodulation (PBM) is known to regulate inflammatory responses and wound healing. The aim of this study was to mimic the degenerative IVD microenvironment, and to investigate the effect of a variety of PBM conditions (wavelength: 635, 525, and 470 nm; energy density: 16, 32, and 64 J/cm(2)) on the production of ECM-modifying-enzymes by AF cells under degenerative conditions induced by macrophage-conditioned medium (MCM), which contains pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-β secreted by macrophage during the development of intervertebral disk inflammation. We showed that the MCM-stimulated AF cells express imbalanced ratios of TIMPs (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) and MMPs (MMP-1 and MMP-3). PBM selectively modulated the production of ECM-modifying enzymes in AF cells. These results suggest that PBM can be a therapeutic tool for degenerative IVD disorders. PMID:26987527

  2. [Theodor Huzella and the initiation of research on the interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix].

    Robert, Ladislas; Labat-Robert, Jacqueline; Michel Robert, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between cells and the surrounding "biomatrix", mediated by receptors as integrins or the elastin receptor is the most important topic in up to date research on connective tissues. Looking for the origin of this concept, one finds the pioneering work of Theodor Huzella, professor of histology-embryology at the Medical University of Budapest during pre-world war II decades. Using time-laps micro-cinematography in reflected light, he visualized the important role of connective tissue fibers, prepared in his laboratory, for the oriented migration of normal and malignant cells. His theoretical explanations, attributing an "active" role to the elasticity of the argyrophilic fibrous network in the coordination of cell societies, can now be reinterpreted in the light of recent work on the mechanotransduction of "messages" from the extracellular matrix to the cell inside. We propose a succinct review of Huzella's work and theories reinterpreted in the light of up-to-date knowledge on cell-matrix interactions. PMID:22748046

  3. Bone marrow derived cell-seeded extracellular matrix: A novel biomaterial in the field of wound management

    V. Remya; Naveen Kumar; Sharma, A. K.; Mathew, Dayamon D.; Mamta Negi; S.K. Maiti; Sameer Shrivastava; S. Sonal; KURADE, N.P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Extensive or irreversible damage to the skin often requires additional skin substitutes for reconstruction. Biomaterials have become critical components in the development of effective new medical therapies for wound care. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a cell matrix construct (bone marrow-derived cells (BMdc) seeded extracellular matrix [ECM]) was used as a biological substitute for the repair of full-thickness skin wound. ECM was developed by decellularizing fish swim ...

  4. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of extracellular matrix changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Usha Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, including its progression from dysplasia to carcinoma, "field effects", genetic changes in tumor associated mucosa (TAM and effect of matrix metalloproteinases in breaking down of matrix proteins to facilitate invasion, has been well documented. However, what remains to be done is to extrapolate this knowledge to improve patient care. Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the extracellular matrix (ECM changes with the routine histochemical stains available to most histopathologists. Materials and Methods: The study includes 72 cases of OSCC in which the tumor and adjacent normal appearing areas were sampled to study the ECM changes with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E and Verhoeff′s-Van Gieson elastic stain (VVG. Results: Basophilic fragmentation of collagen (H and E and clumped short elastic fibers (VVG were seen in 12 (16.7% cases. Of the remaining cases, 18 (25% had a dense lymphocytic infiltrate and had no demonstrable elastic fibers. Those cases with H and E changes were further studied and compared with normal mucosa for ultrastructural changes. The ultrastructural study demonstrated an increase in oxytalan, elaunin and elastic fibers and decrease in collagen fibers with some transformation changes associated with OSCCs and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Changes in transformation of collagen to elastic fibers and also the loss of both the fibers in areas of lymphocytic infiltration possibly indicate degradation of ECM fibers by factors released from the lymphocytes or tumor cells and the limiting effect on the tumor by ECM remodeling.

  5. Constructing Human Skin Equivalents on Porcine Acellular Peritoneum Extracellular Matrix for In Vitro Irritation Testing.

    Tsai, Pei-Chin; Zhang, Zheng; Florek, Charles; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2016-01-01

    The irritancy of topical products has to be investigated to ensure the safety and compliance. Although several reconstructed human epidermal models have been adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to replace in vivo animal irritation testing, these models are based on a single cell type and lack dermal components, which may be insufficient to reflect all of the components of irritation. In our study, we investigated the use of acellular porcine peritoneum extracellular matrix as a substrate to construct full-thickness human skin equivalents (HSEs) for use as irritation screening tool. The acellular peritoneum matrix (APM) exhibited excellent skin cell attachment (>80%) and proliferation for human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). APM-HSEs based on coculture of HDF and HaCaT were prepared. Increased HDF seeding density up to 5 × 10(4)/cm(2) resulted in APM-HSEs with a thicker and more organized epidermis. The epidermis of APM-HSEs expressed keratin 15, a keratinocyte proliferation marker, and involucrin, a differentiation marker, respectively. To assess the use of APM-HSEs for irritation testing, six proficiency chemicals, including three nonirritants (phosphate-buffered saline, polyethylene glycol 400, and isopropanol) and three irritants (1-bromohexane, heptanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) were applied. The APM-HSEs were able to discriminate nonirritants from irritants based on the viability. Levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in these treatment groups further assisted the irritancy ranking. In conclusion, we have developed partially differentiated full-thickness APM-HSEs based on acellular porcine peritoneum matrix, and these APM-HSEs demonstrated utility as an in vitro irritation screening tool. PMID:26415037

  6. Cell-extracellular matrix interactions regulate neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    Rao Mahendra S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions of cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM are critical for the establishment and maintenance of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. However, the ECM is a complex mixture of matrix molecules; little is known about the role of ECM components in human embryonic stem cell (hESC differentiation into neural progenitors and neurons. Results A reproducible protocol was used to generate highly homogenous neural progenitors or a mixed population of neural progenitors and neurons from hESCs. This defined adherent culture system allowed us to examine the effect of ECM molecules on neural differentiation of hESCs. hESC-derived differentiating embryoid bodies were plated on Poly-D-Lysine (PDL, PDL/fibronectin, PDL/laminin, type I collagen and Matrigel, and cultured in neural differentiation medium. We found that the five substrates instructed neural progenitors followed by neuronal differentiation to differing degrees. Glia did not appear until 4 weeks later. Neural progenitor and neuronal generation and neurite outgrowth were significantly greater on laminin and laminin-rich Matrigel substrates than on other 3 substrates. Laminin stimulated hESC-derived neural progenitor expansion and neurite outgrowth in a dose-dependent manner. The laminin-induced neural progenitor expansion was partially blocked by the antibody against integrin α6 or β1 subunit. Conclusion We defined laminin as a key ECM molecule to enhance neural progenitor generation, expansion and differentiation into neurons from hESCs. The cell-laminin interactions involve α6β1 integrin receptors implicating a possible role of laminin/α6β1 integrin signaling in directed neural differentiation of hESCs. Since laminin acts in concert with other ECM molecules in vivo, evaluating cellular responses to the composition of the ECM is essential to clarify further the role of cell-matrix interactions in neural derivation of hESCs.

  7. Extracellular matrix remodeling of the testes through the male reproductive cycle in Teleostei fish.

    Santana, Julio Cesar de Oliveira; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2014-12-01

    During the fish reproductive cycle, testes undergo morphological changes related to germinal epithelium and remodeling of extracellular matrix components (ECM). ECM is degraded mainly by action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Due to the natural renewal of ECM in fish testes, we choose Pimelodus maculatus to study remodeling of ECM throughout reproductive cycle, using picrosirius (to identify type I, II, III collagen) and reticulin (type III collagen), and to immunolocalize MT1-MMP (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase) and MMP-2 in testis cells. Testes were classified in four reproductive phases: regenerating, development, spawning capable and regressing. Picrosirius and reticulin demonstrated a differential distribution of total collagen fibers during the reproductive cycle. Immunohistochemistry showed MT1-MMP only in acidophilic granulocyte cells mainly inside blood vessels, in connective tissue of capsule close to the germinal compartment, and also infiltrated in interstitial connective tissue. MMP-2 was detected in fibroblast and endothelial cells of interstitial and capsule blood vessels, in epithelial cells of capsule, and in acidophilic granulocyte cells at same description for MT1-MMP. The fish testes ECM were remodeled throughout reproductive cycle in according to morphophysiological alterations. During reproductive season (spawning capable), the interstitium increased in total collagen fibers (type I, II, III). After spermiation period (regression and regenerating), the amount of collagen fibers decreased in response to action of MMPs on collagen degradation and other interstitial components (not assessed in this study). MMPs seem to be indispensable components for natural cyclic events of ECM remodeling of fish testes and for guarantee tissue homeostasis throughout reproductive cycle. PMID:25142725

  8. Organization of the expanded cumulus-extracellular matrix in preovulatory follicles: arole for inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor.

    Nagyová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2015), s. 37-45. ISSN 1210-0668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/05/0960 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cumulus expansion * cumulus-extracellular matrix * hyaluronan Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  9. Molecular constituents of the extracellular matrix in rat liver mounting a hepatic progenitor cell response for tissue repair

    Vestentoft, Peter Siig; Jelnes, Peter; Andersen, Jesper Bøje; Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Jørgensen, Tenna; Rasmussen, Morten; Lange, Jette Bornholdt; Grøvdal, Lene Melsæther; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Vogel, Lotte; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Bisgaard, Hanne Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Tissue repair in the adult mammalian liver occurs in two distinct processes, referred to as the first and second tiers of defense. We undertook to characterize the changes in molecular constituents of the extracellular matrix when hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) respond in a second tier of defense...... to liver injury....

  10. The Extracellular Protease Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Is Activated by Inhibitory Avoidance Learning and Required for Long-Term Memory

    Nagy, Vanja; Bozdagi, Ozlem; Huntley, George W.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellularly acting proteolytic enzymes with well-recognized roles in plasticity and remodeling of synaptic circuits during brain development and following brain injury. However, it is now becoming increasingly apparent that MMPs also function in normal, nonpathological synaptic plasticity of the…

  11. Age and SPARC Change the Extracellular Matrix Composition of the Left Ventricle

    Lisandra E. de Castro Brás

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a collagen-binding matricellular protein, has been implicated in procollagen processing and deposition. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and SPARC-dependent changes in protein composition of the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM. We studied 6 groups of mice (n=4/group: young (4-5 months old, middle-aged (11-12 m.o., and old (18–29 m.o. C57BL/6J wild type (WT and SPARC null. The left ventricle (LV was decellularized to enrich for ECM proteins. Protein extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE, digested in-gel, and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Relative quantification was performed by spectral counting, and changes in specific proteins were validated by immunoblotting. We identified 321 proteins, of which 44 proteins were extracellular proteins. Of these proteins, collagen III levels were lower in the old null mice compared to WT, suggestive of a role for SPARC in collagen deposition. Additionally, fibrillin showed a significant increase in the null middle-aged group, suggestive of increased microfibril deposition in the absence of SPARC. Collagen VI increased with age in both genotypes (>3-fold, while collagen IV showed increased age-associated levels only in the WT animals (4-fold, P<0.05. These changes may explain the previously reported age-associated increases in LV stiffness. In summary, our data suggest SPARC is a possible therapeutic target for aging induced LV dysfunction.

  12. Role of adipocyte-derived lipoprotein lipase in adipocyte hypertrophy

    Orlando Robert A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major portion of available fatty acids for adipocyte uptake is derived from lipoprotein lipase (LPL-mediated hydrolysis of circulating lipoprotein particles. In vivo studies aimed at identifying the precise role of adipocyte-derived LPL in fat storage function of adipose tissue have been unable to provide conclusive evidence due to compensatory mechanisms that activate endogenous fatty acid synthesis. To address this gap in knowledge, we have measured the effect of reducing adipocyte LPL expression on intracellular lipid accumulation using a well-established cultured model of adipocyte differentiation. Methods siRNA specific for mouse LPL was transfected into 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Expression of LPL was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity was measured by colorimetric detection following substrate (p-nitrophenyl butyrate hydrolysis. Apolipoprotein CII and CIII expression ratios were also measured by qRT-PCR. Intracellular lipid accumulation was quantified by Nile Red staining. Results During differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, LPL mRNA expression increases 6-fold resulting in a 2-fold increase in cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity. Parallel to this increase in LPL expression, we found that intracellular lipids increased ~10-fold demonstrating a direct correlation between adipocyte-derived LPL expression and lipid storage. We next reduced LPL expression in adipocytes using siRNA transfections to directly quantify the contributions of adipocyte-derived LPL to lipid storage, This treatment reduced LPL mRNA expression and cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity to ~50% of non-treated controls while intracellular lipid levels were reduced by 80%. Exogenous addition of purified LPL (to restore extracellular lipolytic activity or palmitate (as a source of free fatty acids to siRNA-treated cells restored intracellular lipid levels to those measured for non

  13. INCREASE OF GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS AND METALLOPROTEINASES 2 AND 9 IN LIVER EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX ON EARLY STAGES OF EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS

    Pedro Luiz Rodrigues GUEDES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Cholestasis produces hepatocellular injury, leukocyte infiltration, ductular cells proliferation and fibrosis of liver parenchyma by extracellular matrix replacement. Objective Analyze bile duct ligation effect upon glycosaminoglycans content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs activities. Methods Animals (6-8 weeks; n = 40 were euthanized 2, 7 or 14 days after bile duct ligation or Sham-surgery. Disease evolution was analyzed by body and liver weight, seric direct bilirubin, globulins, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (Alk-P, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, tissue myeloperoxidase and MMP-9, pro MMP-2 and MMP-2 activities, histopathology and glycosaminoglycans content. Results Cholestasis caused cellular damage with elevation of globulins, GGT, Alk-P, ALT, AST. There was neutrophil infiltration observed by the increasing of myeloperoxidase activity on 7 (P = 0.0064 and 14 (P = 0.0002 groups which leads to the magnification of tissue injuries. Bile duct ligation increased pro-MMP-2 (P = 0.0667, MMP-2 (P = 0.0003 and MMP-9 (P<0.0001 activities on 14 days indicating matrix remodeling and establishment of inflammatory process. Bile duct ligation animals showed an increasing on dermatan sulfate and/or heparan sulfate content reflecting extracellular matrix production and growing mitosis due to parenchyma depletion. Conclusions Cholestasis led to many changes on rats’ liver parenchyma, as so as on its extracellular matrix, with major alterations on MMPs activities and glycosaminoglycans content.

  14. Development of a bovine decellularized extracellular matrix-biomaterial for nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Sedaghatpour, Dillon D; Laudier, Damien M; Hecht, Andrew C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Iatridis, James C

    2016-05-01

    Painful intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a common cause for spinal surgery. There is a clinical need to develop injectable biomaterials capable of promoting IVD regeneration, yet many available biomaterials do not mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM) or promote matrix production. This study aimed to develop a decellularized injectable bovine ECM material that maintains structural and compositional features of native tissue and promotes nucleus pulposus (NP) cell (NPC) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adaption. Injectable decellularized ECM constructs were created using 3 NP tissue decellularization methods (con.A: sodium deoxycholate, con.B: sodium deoxycholate & sodium dodecyl sulfate, con.C: sodium deoxycholate, sodium dodecyl sulfate & TritonX-100) and evaluated for protein, microstructure, and for cell adaptation in 21 day human NPC and MSC culture experiments. Con.A was most efficient at DNA depletion, preserved best collagen microstructure and content, and maintained the highest glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. NPCs in decellularized constructs of con.A&B demonstrated newly synthesized GAG production, which was apparent from "halos" of GAG staining surrounding seeded NPCs. Con.A also promoted MSC adaption with high cell viability and ECM production. The injectable decellularized NP biomaterial that used sodium deoxycholate without additional decellularization steps maintained native NP tissue structure and composition closest to natural ECM and promoted cellular adaptation of NP cells and MSCs. This natural decellularized biomaterial warrants further investigation for its potential as an injectable cell seeded supplement to augment NP replacement biomaterials and deliver NPCs or MSCs. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:876-888, 2016. PMID:26509556

  15. Bone Regeneration Using Hydroxyapatite Sponge Scaffolds with In Vivo Deposited Extracellular Matrix.

    Ventura, Reiza Dolendo; Padalhin, Andrew Reyes; Min, Young-Ki; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2015-11-01

    There is currently an increased interest in studying the extracellular matrix (ECM) and its potential applications for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The ECM plays an important role by providing adhesive substrates to cells during migration, morphogenesis, differentiation, and homeostasis by signaling biochemical and biomechanical cues to cells. In this study, the ECM was incorporated into hydroxyapatite by implanting sponge replica scaffolds in subcutaneous pockets in rats, and the implants were tested for bone regeneration potential. The resulting scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, DNA and RNA quantification, tissue staining, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, compressive strength testing, porosity, and pore size distribution analysis using bare scaffolds as a control reference. Biocompatibility was assessed using MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and in vivo studies were carried out by implanting decellularized scaffolds in 11 mm radial defects in New Zealand rabbits for 4 and 8 weeks to determine the effect of the in vivo deposited ECM. Material characterization indicated that a 2-week decellularized scaffold was the best among the samples, with an evenly distributed ECM visible on hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections, a compressive strength of 2.53 ± 0.68 MPa, a porosity of 58.08 ± 3.32% and a pore size distribution range of 10-150 μm. In vivo results showed no severe inflammation, with increased cell infiltration followed by dense matrix deposition after 4 weeks and new bone formation at 8 weeks. The results indicate that incorporation of an in vivo deposited ECM into ceramic scaffolds can potentially improve bone regeneration. PMID:26228909

  16. Genes responsible for vaginal extracellular matrix metabolism are modulated by women's reproductive cycle and menopause

    Oksana Shynlova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To analyze the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM biogenesis and remodeling in vaginal tissue of women with clinically normal pelvic floor support (defined as controls according to the phase of menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Materials and Methods This study examined the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs, and the Lysyl oxidase (LOX family genes in the anterior vaginal wall of Caucasian women by real-time RT-PCR. Initially, mRNA expression was assessed in premenopausal controls in the secretory (group 1, n = 10 vs. proliferative (group 2, n = 8 phase of menstrual cycle. In addition, we compared premenopausal controls in the proliferative phase (group 2 vs. postmenopausal controls (group 3, n = 5. Finally, we analyzed postmenopausal controls (group 3 vs. postmenopausal women with advanced POP (group 4, n = 13. Results According to the phase of menstrual cycle, MMP1 was significantly reduced (p = 0.003, whereas the expression of TIMP1 and LOXL4 was significantly up-regulated during proliferative phase (both p < 0.01 when compared to the secretory phase in premenopausal control women. Regarding menopausal status/ageing, all MMPs were down-regulated, while TIMP3, TIMP4 and LOXL2 were significantly up-regulated in postmenopausal control women when compared to premenopausal controls (p = 0.005, p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, correspondingly. TIMP4 and LOXL2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in postmenopausal POP patients compared to asymptomatic postmenopausal controls (p < 0.01 for both. Conclusions Our results indicate that ovarian cycle and age-related changes influence the expression of genes encoding proteins responsible for ECM metabolism in human vagina. Moreover, POP is associated with alteration in vaginal ECM components after menopause.

  17. Accumulation of Extracellular Matrix in Advanced Lesions of Canine Distemper Demyelinating Encephalitis.

    Seehusen, Frauke; Al-Azreg, Seham A; Raddatz, Barbara B; Haist, Verena; Puff, Christina; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Ulrich, Reiner; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In demyelinating diseases, changes in the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) may contribute to demyelination and failure of myelin repair and axonal sprouting, especially in chronic lesions. To characterize changes in the ECM in canine distemper demyelinating leukoencephalitis (DL), histochemical and immunohistochemical investigations of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cerebella using azan, picrosirius red and Gomori`s silver stain as well as antibodies directed against aggrecan, type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin and phosphacan showed alterations of the ECM in CDV-infected dogs. A significantly increased amount of aggrecan was detected in early and late white matter lesions. In addition, the positive signal for collagens I and IV as well as fibronectin was significantly increased in late lesions. Conversely, the expression of phosphacan was significantly decreased in early and more pronounced in late lesions compared to controls. Furthermore, a set of genes involved in ECM was extracted from a publically available microarray data set and was analyzed for differential gene expression. Gene expression of ECM molecules, their biosynthesis pathways, and pro-fibrotic factors was mildly up-regulated whereas expression of matrix remodeling enzymes was up-regulated to a relatively higher extent. Summarized, the observed findings indicate that changes in the quality and content of ECM molecules represent important, mainly post-transcriptional features in advanced canine distemper lesions. Considering the insufficiency of morphological regeneration in chronic distemper lesions, the accumulated ECM seems to play a crucial role upon regenerative processes and may explain the relatively small regenerative potential in late stages of this disease. PMID:27441688

  18. Hydroxyapatite growth induced by native extracellular matrix deposition on solid surfaces

    Pramatarova L.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems have a remarkable capability to produce perfect fine structures such as seashells, pearls, bones, teeth and corals. These structures are composites of interacting inorganic (calcium phosphate or carbonate minerals and organic counterparts. It is difficult to say with certainty which part has the primary role. For example, the growth of molluscan shell crystals is thought to be initiated from a solution by the extracellular organic matrix (ECM. According to this theory, the matrix induces nucleation of calcium containing crystals. Recently, an alternative theory has been put forward, stating that a class of granulocytic hemocytes would be directly involved in shell crystal production in oysters. In the work presented here the surface of AISI 316 stainless steel was modified by deposition of ECM proteins. The ability of the modified substrates to induce nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA from simulated body fluid (SBF was examined by a kinetic study using two methods: (1 a simple soaking process in SBF and (2 a laser-liquid-solid interaction (LLSI process which allows interaction between a scanning laser beam and a solid substrate immersed in SBF. The deposited HA layers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that a coating of stainless steel surface with native ECM proteins induced nucleation and growth of HA and facilitated its crystallization. By the process of simple soaking of the samples, irrespective of their horizontal or vertical position in the solution, HA layers were grown due to the reactive ECM-coated stainless steel surface. It was shown that the process occurring in the first stages of the growth was not only a result of the force of gravity. The application of the LLSI process strongly influenced HA formation on the ECM-modified substrates by promoting and enhancing the HA nucleation and growth through a synergistic effect

  19. Epithelial growth by rat vibrissae follicles in vitro requires mesenchymal contact via native extracellular matrix

    An in vitro assay utilizing the rat vibrissa anagen follicle as a model for studying the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMI) in hair growth is described. Through selective disruption of the epithelial-mesenchymal interface, we investigate whether the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) of the dermal papilla and basement membrane zone (BMZ) serves a crucial function in hair follicle EMI. Epithelial bulbs incubated intact within their follicular sheaths incorporate thymidine primarily into cells of the hair matrix and outer root sheath, as shown by autoradiography. However, after removal of its mesenchymal associations (dermal papilla and extrabulbar connective tissue), the epithelial bulb showed no incorporation. Neither externally added collagen (type I or IV) nor the basement membrane components in Matrigel could substitute for the growth supporting influence of native surrounding stroma. Mechanical separation of the bulb from the dermal papilla in the basement membrane zone inhibited thymidine incorporation by the epithelium even though mesenchyme was still in close proximity. Enzymatic digestion of the dermal papilla ECM and the basal lamina by Dispase, a fibronectinase and type IV collagenase, also inhibited bulb growth without evidence of cytotoxicity. These experiments suggest that direct epithelial to mesenchymal contact is required for the support of follicular epithelial growth in vitro and that specific ECM components, possibly fibronectin and/or type IV collagen, rather than diffusable factors alone, play a crucial role in the mechanism of hair follicle EMI. The in vitro system described here provides an alternative to developmental EMI models and may serve as a valuable tool for studying EMI in the adult mammalian organism

  20. Fabrication of chondroitin sulfate-chitosan composite artificial extracellular matrix for stabilization of fibroblast growth factor.

    Mi, Fwu-Long; Shyu, Shin-Shing; Peng, Chih-Kang; Wu, Yu-Bey; Sung, Hsing-Wen; Wang, Pei-Shan; Huang, Chi-Chuan

    2006-01-01

    The development of a novel, three-dimensional, macroporous artificial extracellular matrix (AECM) based on chondroitin sulfate (ChS)-chitosan (Chito) combination is reported. The composite AECM composed of ChS-Chito conjugated network was prepared by a homogenizing interpolyelectrolyte complex/covalent conjugation technique through co-crosslinked with N,N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). In contrast to EDC/NHS, two different reagents, calcium ion and glutaraldehyde, were used to react with ChS or Chito for the preparation of ChS-Chito composites containing crosslinked ChS or Chito network in the matrix. The stability and in vitro enzymatic degradability of the glutaraldehyde-, EDC/NHS-, and Ca2+ -crosslinked ChS-Chito composite AECMs were all investigated in this study. The results showed that crosslinking improved the stability of prepared ChS-Chito AECMs in physiological buffer solution (PBS) and provided superior protective effect against the enzymatic hydrolysis of ChS, compared with their non-crosslinked counterpart. Because ChS was a heparin-like glycosaminoglycan (GAG), the ChS-Chito composite AECMs appeared to promote binding efficiency for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The bFGF releasing from the ChS-Chito composite AECMs retained its biological activity as examined by the in vitro proliferation of human fibroblast, depending on the crosslinking mode for the preparation of these composite AECMs. Histological assay showed that the EDC/NHS-crosslinked ChS-Chito composite AECM, after incorporated with bFGF, was biodegradable and could result in a significantly enhanced vascularization effect and tissue penetration. These results suggest that the ChS-Chito composite AECMs fabricated in this study may be a promising approach for tissue-engineering application. PMID:16224775

  1. Extracellular Matrix Invasion in Metastases and Angiogenesis: Commentary on the Matrigel "Chemoinvasion Assay".

    Albini, Adriana

    2016-08-15

    Invasive and metastatic cells must cross the basement membrane's extracellular matrix to disseminate to distant sites. Although in the eighties the concept was well established, no easy in vitro functional assay was available. Working in Hynda Kleinman's and George Martin's laboratory at NIH (Bethesda, MD), where the reconstituted basement membrane Matrigel was discovered, I had the intuition that Matrigel coating of migration filters could represent a valid tool to mimic in vitro biological matrix barriers. The "chemoinvasion assay" using Matrigel in Boyden blind-well chambers was developed in 1985-1986 and published in Cancer Research in 1987. It was a rapid and easy tool for studying invasion, a crucial step in cancer metastasis. Since its conception, the assay has been employed for studies on the metastatic process, angiogenesis, and for the screening of drugs that are potentially able to decrease cell invasion. It was adapted to be easily employed as a routine assay and commercialized. In that historical article, we also described the use of thick layers of Matrigel for the study of morphogenesis of invasive cells, a simple and visual assay, adaptable to reproduce collective cell migration in vitro To date, in its diverse optimized variants, the chemoinvasion assay is still widely used, contributing to novel data production. In the era of precision medicine and next-generation sequencing, the cheap, fast, and reproducible chemoinvasion assay may have further developments, including possible applications in the investigations on cancer stem cells, immunity and immune modulators, applications with siRNA silencing, selection of aggressive cell populations, and phenotypes and genetic evaluations. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4595-7. ©2016 AACR.See related article by Albini A et al., Cancer Res 1987;47:3239-45Visit the Cancer Research 75(th) Anniversary timeline. PMID:27528578

  2. Dynamics of extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea of mice.

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Hummitzsch, Katja; Murdiyarso, Lydia S; Bonner, Wendy M; Sado, Yoshikazu; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi; Couchman, John R; Sorokin, Lydia M; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2010-03-01

    Despite the mouse being an important laboratory species, little is known about changes in its extracellular matrix (ECM) during follicle and corpora lutea formation and regression. Follicle development was induced in mice (29 days of age/experimental day 0) by injections of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin on days 0 and 1 and ovulation was induced by injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin on day 2. Ovaries were collected for immunohistochemistry (n=10 per group) on days 0, 2 and 5. Another group was mated and ovaries were examined on day 11 (n=7). Collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2 and perlecan were present in the follicular basal lamina of all developmental stages. Collagen type XVIII was only found in basal lamina of primordial, primary and some preantral follicles, whereas laminin alpha2 was only detected in some preantral and antral follicles. The focimatrix, a specialised matrix of the membrana granulosa, contained collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2, perlecan and collagen type XVIII. In the corpora lutea, staining was restricted to capillary sub-endothelial basal laminas containing collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2, perlecan and collagen type XVIII. Laminins alpha4 and alpha5 were not immunolocalised to any structure in the mouse ovary. The ECM composition of the mouse ovary has similarities to, but also major differences from, other species with respect to nidogens 1 and 2 and perlecan. PMID:20033213

  3. A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix

    Klotz, S.A.; Smith, R.L. (Overton Brooks VA Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possesses at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins.

  4. Changes in vascular extracellular matrix composition during decidual spiral arteriole remodeling in early human pregnancy.

    Smith, Samantha D; Choudhury, Ruhul H; Matos, Patricia; Horn, James A; Lye, Stephen J; Dunk, Caroline E; Aplin, John D; Jones, Rebecca L; Harris, Lynda K

    2016-05-01

    Uterine spiral arteriole (SA) remodeling in early pregnancy involves a coordinated series of events including decidual immune cell recruitment, vascular cell disruption and loss, and colonization by placental-derived extravillous trophoblast (EVT). During this process, decidual SA are converted from narrow, muscular vessels into dilated channels lacking vasomotor control. We hypothesized that this extensive alteration in SA architecture must require significant reorganization and/or breakdown of the vascular extracellular matrix (ECM). First trimester decidua basalis (30 specimens) was immunostained to identify spiral arterioles undergoing trophoblast-independent and -dependent phases of remodeling. Serial sections were then immunostained for a panel of ECM markers, to examine changes in vascular ECM during the remodeling process. The initial stages of SA remodeling were characterized by loss of laminin, elastin, fibrillin, collagen types III, IV and VI from the basement membrane, vascular media and/or adventitia, and surrounding decidual stromal cells. Loss of ECM correlated with disruption and disorganization of vascular smooth muscle cells, and the majority of changes occurred prior to extensive colonization of the vessel wall by EVT. The final stages of SA remodeling, characterized by the arrival of EVT, were associated with the increased mural deposition of fibronectin and fibrinoid. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal loss of ECM from the walls of remodeling decidual SA in early pregnancy. PMID:26602431

  5. Extracellular matrix scaffolding guides lumen elongation by inducing anisotropic intercellular mechanical tension.

    Li, Qiushi; Zhang, Yue; Pluchon, Perrine; Robens, Jeffrey; Herr, Keira; Mercade, Myriam; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Yu, Hanry; Viasnoff, Virgile

    2016-03-01

    The de novo formation of secretory lumens plays an important role during organogenesis. It involves the establishment of a cellular apical pole and the elongation of luminal cavities. The molecular parameters controlling cell polarization have been heavily scrutinized. In particular, signalling from the extracellular matrix (ECM) proved essential to the proper localization of the apical pole by directed protein transport. However, little is known about the regulation of the shape and the directional development of lumen into tubes. We demonstrate that the spatial scaffolding of cells by ECM can control tube shapes and can direct their elongation. We developed a minimal organ approach comprising of hepatocyte doublets cultured in artificial microniches to precisely control the spatial organization of cellular adhesions in three dimensions. This approach revealed a mechanism by which the spatial repartition of integrin-based adhesion can elicit an anisotropic intercellular mechanical stress guiding the osmotically driven elongation of lumens in the direction of minimal tension. This mechanical guidance accounts for the different morphologies of lumen in various microenvironmental conditions. PMID:26878396

  6. Nanoscale viscoelasticity of extracellular matrix proteins in soft tissues: A multiscale approach.

    Miri, Amir K; Heris, Hossein K; Mongeau, Luc; Javid, Farhad

    2014-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the bulk viscoelasticity of soft tissues is determined by two length-scale-dependent mechanisms: the time-dependent response of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins at the nanometer scale and the biophysical interactions between the ECM solid structure and interstitial fluid at the micrometer scale. The latter is governed by poroelasticity theory assuming free motion of the interstitial fluid within the porous ECM structure. In a recent study (Heris, H.K., Miri, A.K., Tripathy, U., Barthelat, F., Mongeau, L., 2013. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.), atomic force microscopy was used to measure the response of porcine vocal folds to a creep loading and a 50-nm sinusoidal oscillation. A constitutive model was calibrated and verified using a finite element model to accurately predict the nanoscale viscoelastic moduli of ECM. A generally good correlation was obtained between the predicted variation of the viscoelastic moduli with depth and that of hyaluronic acids in vocal fold tissue. We conclude that hyaluronic acids may regulate vocal fold viscoelasticity. The proposed methodology offers a characterization tool for biomaterials used in vocal fold augmentations. PMID:24317493

  7. Detecting cell-adhesive sites in extracellular matrix using force spectroscopy mapping

    The cell microenvironment is composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), which contains specific binding sites that allow the cell to adhere to its surroundings. Cells employ focal adhesion proteins, which must be able to resist a variety of forces to bind to ECM. Current techniques for detecting the spatial arrangement of these adhesions, however, have limited resolution and those that detect adhesive forces lack sufficient spatial characterization or resolution. Using a unique application of force spectroscopy, we demonstrate here the ability to determine local changes in the adhesive property of a fibronectin substrate down to the resolution of the fibronectin antibody-functionalized tip diameter, ∼ 20 nm. To verify the detection capabilities of force spectroscopy mapping (FSM), changes in loading rate and temperature were used to alter the bond dynamics and change the adhesion force. Microcontact printing was also used to pattern fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated fibronectin in order to mimic the discontinuous adhesion domains of native ECM. Fluorescent detection was used to identify the pattern while FSM was used to map cell adhesion sites in registry with the initial fluorescent image. The results show that FSM can be used to detect the adhesion domains at high resolution and may subsequently be applied to native ECM with randomly distributed cell adhesion sites.

  8. Localization of extracellular matrix components in developing mouse salivary glands by confocal microscopy

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in developing organisms is well established. Proteoglycans and interstitial collagens are required for the growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation of epithelial organs and the distribution of these molecules has been described. However, much less is known about other ECM macromolecules in developing epithelial organs. We used confocal microscopy to examine the distribution of laminin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, fibronectin, and collagen types I, IV, and V, in mouse embryonic salivary glands. Organ rudiments were isolated from gestational day 13 mouse embryos and cultured for 24, 48, or 72 hours. Whole mounts were stained by indirect immunofluorescence and then examined using a Zeiss Laser Scan Microscope. We found that each ECM component examined had a distinct distribution and that the distribution of some molecules varied with culture time. Laminin was mainly restricted to the basement membrane. BM-1 proteoglycan was concentrated in the basement membrane and also formed a fine network throughout the mesenchyme. Type IV collagen was mainly located in the basement membrane of the epithelium, but it was also present throughout the mesenchyme. Type V collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at 24 hours, but at 48 hours was principally located in the basement membrane. Type I collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at all culture times, and accumulated in the clefts and particularly at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface as time in culture increased. Fibronectin was observed throughout the mesenchyme at all times.

  9. Polo-like Kinase I is involved in Invasion through Extracellular Matrix

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-04-02

    Polo-like kinase 1, PLK1, has important functions in maintaining genome stability and is involved in regulation of mitosis. PLK1 is up regulated in many invasive carcinomas. We asked whether it may also play a role in acquisition of invasiveness, a crucial step in transition to malignancy. In a model of metaplastic basal-like breast carcinoma progression, we found that PLK1 expression is necessary but not sufficient to induce invasiveness through laminin-rich extracellular matrix. PLK1 mediates invasion via Vimentin and {beta}1 integrin, both of which are necessary. We observed that PLK1 phosphorylates Vimentin on serine 82, which in turn regulates cell surface levels of {beta}1 integrin. We found PLK1 to be also highly expressed in pre-invasive in situ carcinomas of the breast. These results support a role for the involvement of PLK1 in the invasion process and point to this pathway as a potential therapeutic target for pre-invasive and invasive breast carcinoma treatment.

  10. Study of Glycosaminoglycans of Extracellular Matrix (ECM in Pulp of Developing Tooth

    Kermany T

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal- epithelial interactions during embryogenesis have been shown to be important in the fetal development of many organs. Identification of molecules that modulate these interactions is key to our understanding of the pathological conditions. The major groups of extracellular matrix (ECM molecules characterized are glycosaminoglycans that candidate for morphogenesis and differentiation of ceils and tissues. In this study the molecules of ECM were considered in tooth development, pregnant female mice of balb-c were stained (vaginal plug=0 day and embryos (E12-E19 and newborns (PN1-PN9 were collected. Tissues were fixed, processed embedded and sectioned. Sections were stained with the following methods: Alcian Blue (pH=l, PAS-Alcian Blue (pH=2.5, Aician Blue(pH=5.8 prepared with for MgCL2 concentrations (CEC1- CEC4 and toluidin Blue. Non- parametric statistical test (Kruskall- Wallis showed significant difference between groups from the point of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, carboxylated and sulfated glycosaminoglycan in pulp. It seems that the synthesis and secretion of components of ECM is important in morphogenic events and followed by a spatiotemporal pattern and developmentally regulated.

  11. Extracellular matrix control of mammary gland morphogenesis and tumorigenesis: insights from imaging

    Ghajar, Cyrus M; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-10-23

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), once thought to solely provide physical support to a tissue, is a key component of a cell's microenvironment responsible for directing cell fate and maintaining tissue specificity. It stands to reason, then, that changes in the ECM itself or in how signals from the ECM are presented to or interpreted by cells can disrupt tissue organization; the latter is a necessary step for malignant progression. In this review, we elaborate on this concept using the mammary gland as an example. We describe how the ECM directs mammary gland formation and function, and discuss how a cell's inability to interpret these signals - whether as a result of genetic insults or physicochemical alterations in the ECM - disorganizes the gland and promotes malignancy. By restoring context and forcing cells to properly interpret these native signals, aberrant behavior can be quelled and organization re-established. Traditional imaging approaches have been a key complement to the standard biochemical, molecular, and cell biology approaches used in these studies. Utilizing imaging modalities with enhanced spatial resolution in live tissues may uncover additional means by which the ECM regulates tissue structure, on different length scales, through its pericellular organization (short-scale) and by biasing morphogenic and morphostatic gradients (long-scale).

  12. The extracellular matrix modulates H2O2 degradation and redox signaling in endothelial cells

    Bagulho, Ana; Vilas-Boas, Filipe; Pena, Andreia; Peneda, Catarina; Santos, Filipa C.; Jerónimo, Ana; de Almeida, Rodrigo F.M.; Real, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The molecular processes that are crucial for cell function, such as proliferation, migration and survival, are regulated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Although environmental cues, such as growth factors, regulate redox signaling, it was still unknown whether the ECM, a component of the cell microenvironment, had a function in this process. Here, we showed that the extracellular matrix (ECM) differently regulated H2O2 consumption by endothelial cells and that this effect was not general for all types of cells. The analysis of biophysical properties of the endothelial cell membrane suggested that this modification in H2O2 consumption rates was not due to altered membrane permeability. Instead, we found that the ECM regulated GPx activity, a known H2O2 scavenger. Finally, we showed that the extent of PTEN oxidation was dependent on the ECM, indicating that the ECM was able to modulate H2O2-dependent protein oxidation. Thus, our results unraveled a new mechanism by which the ECM regulates endothelial cell function by altering redox balance. These results pinpoint the ECM as an important component of redox-signaling. PMID:26409032

  13. Immobilization of extracellular matrix on polymeric materials by carbon-negative-ion implantation

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sommani, Piyanuch; Muto, Takashi; Utagawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Shun; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2005-08-01

    Effects of ion implantation into polystyrene (PS), silicone rubber (SR) and poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) have been investigated for immobilization of extracellular matrix. Carbon negative ions were implanted into PS and SR sheets at various energies between 5-30 keV and various doses between 1.0 × 1014-1.0 × 1016 ions/cm2. Contact angles of pure water on C-implanted surfaces of PS and SR were decreased as increase in ion energy and in dose due to formation of functional groups such as OH and C-O. Selective attachment of nerve cells was observed on C-implanted them at 10 keV and 3 × 1015 ions/cm2 after in vitro cell culture of nerve cells of PC-12 h. Neurite outgrowth also extended over the implanted area. After dipping in a serum medium and in a fibronectin solution for 2 h, the detection of N 1s electrons by X-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) revealed a significant distinction of protein adhesion on the implanted area. Thus, immobilization of proteins on surface is used for considering the selective cell-attachment. For PLA, the selective attachment of cells and protein depended on the implantation conditions.

  14. Mitral valve prolapse is associated with altered extracellular matrix gene expression patterns.

    Greenhouse, David G; Murphy, Alison; Mignatti, Paolo; Zavadil, Jiri; Galloway, Aubrey C; Balsam, Leora B

    2016-07-15

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the leading indication for isolated mitral valve surgery in the United States. Disorganization of collagens and glycosaminoglycans in the valvular extracellular matrix (ECM) are histological hallmarks of MVP. We performed a transcriptome analysis to study the alterations in ECM-related gene expression in humans with sporadic MVP. Mitral valve specimens were obtained from individuals undergoing valve repair for MVP (n=7 patients) and from non-beating heart-tissue donors (n=3 controls). Purified RNA was subjected to whole-transcriptome microarray analysis. Microarray results were validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Gene ontology enrichment analysis was performed. 2046 unique genes showed significant differential expression (false discovery rate Functional annotation clustering calculated enrichment of ECM-related ontology groups (enrichment score=4.1). ECM-related gene expression is significantly altered in MVP. Our study is consistent with the histologically observed alterations in collagen and mucopolysaccharide profiles of myxomatous mitral valves. Furthermore, whole-transcriptome analyses suggest dysregulation of multiple pathways, including TGF-beta signaling. PMID:27063507

  15. Cell-Derived Extracellular Matrix: Basic Characteristics and Current Applications in Orthopedic Tissue Engineering.

    Zhang, Weixiang; Zhu, Yun; Li, Jia; Guo, Quanyi; Peng, Jiang; Liu, Shichen; Yang, Jianhua; Wang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic and intricate microenvironment with excellent biophysical, biomechanical, and biochemical properties, which can directly or indirectly regulate cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and differentiation, as well as plays key roles in homeostasis and regeneration of tissues and organs. The ECM has attracted a great deal of attention with the rapid development of tissue engineering in the field of regenerative medicine. Tissue-derived ECM scaffolds (also referred to as decellularized tissues and whole organs) are considered a promising therapy for the repair of musculoskeletal defects, including those that are widely used in orthopedics, although there are a few shortcomings. Similar to tissue-derived ECM scaffolds, cell-derived ECM scaffolds also have highly advantageous biophysical and biochemical properties, in particular their ability to be produced in vitro from a number of different cell types. Furthermore, cell-derived ECM scaffolds more closely resemble native ECM microenvironments. The products of cell-derived ECM have a wide range of biomedical applications; these include reagents for cell culture substrates and biomaterials for scaffolds, hybrid scaffolds, and living cell sheet coculture systems. Although cell-derived ECM has only just begun to be investigated, it has great potential as a novel approach for cell-based tissue repair in orthopedic tissue engineering. This review summarizes and analyzes the various types of cell-derived ECM products applied in cartilage, bone, and nerve tissue engineering in vitro or in vivo and discusses future directions for investigation of cell-derived ECM. PMID:26671674

  16. Extracellular matrix in tumours as a source of additional neoplastic lesions - a review

    Madej Janusz A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog. Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST, which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna, currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.

  17. Extracellular matrix formation in self-assembled minimalistic bioactive hydrogels based on aromatic peptide amphiphiles.

    Zhou, Mi; Ulijn, Rein V; Gough, Julie E

    2014-01-01

    The hitherto inconsistency in clinical performance for engineered skin drives the current development of novel cell-scaffolding materials; one challenge is to only extract essential characteristics from the complex native ECM (extracellular matrix) and incorporate them into a scaffold with minimal complexity to support normal cell functions. This study involved small-molecule-based bioactive hydrogels produced by the co-assembly of two aromatic peptide amphiphiles: Fmoc-FF (Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine) and Fmoc-RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid). Three-dimensionally cultured human dermal fibroblasts deposited dense ECM networks including fibronectin and collagen I within the hydrogels in a 14-day culture. The fibroblasts organized the fibrous ECM and contracted the gel without differentiating into myofibroblasts. The stiffness of the cell-gel constructs increased dramatically due to ECM formation and gel contraction. This created an economical biomimetic model-scaffold to further understand skin reconstruction in vitro and supplied a design pathway to create versatile cell-scaffolds with varied bioactivities and simplicity. PMID:24812581

  18. Role of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    ZHANG Chun; ZHU Zhonghua; LIU Jianshe; YANG Xiao; FU Ling; DENG Anguo

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in renal tubular cells induced by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and to explore the role of CTGF in the degradation of renal extracellular matrix (ECM), a human proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HKC) was cultured in vitro. Cationic lipid-mediated CTGF antisense ODN was transfected into HKC. After HKC were stimulated with TGF-β1 (5 μg/L), the mRNA level of PAI-1 was detected by RT-PCR. Intracellular PAI-1 protein synthesis was assessed by flow cytometry. The secreted PAI-1 in the media was determined by Western blot. The results showed that TGF-β1 could induce tubular CTGF and PAI-1 mRNA expression. The PAI-1 mRNA expression induced by TGF-β1 was significantly inhibited by CTGF antisense ODN. CTGF antisense ODN also inhibited intracellular PAI-1 protein synthesis and lowered the levels of PAI-1 protein secreted into the media. It was concluded that CTGF might play a crucial role in the degradation of excessive ECM during tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and blocking the biological effect of CTGF may be a novel way in preventing renal fibrosis.

  19. Cartilage-derived extracellular matrix extract promotes chondrocytic phenotype in three-dimensional tissue culture.

    Youngstrom, Daniel W; Cakstina, Inese; Jakobsons, Eriks

    2016-05-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising regenerative therapy for cartilage degeneration. However, obtaining sufficient numbers of cells for this purpose is a challenge, due a lack of autologous donor tissue and the difficulty of culturing chondrocytes in vitro. Tissue engineering strategies that induce or maintain chondrocytic phenotype may solve these problems by (1) broadening the range of available donor tissue, and (2) facilitating the expansion of these cells while controlling phenotypic drift. In this study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cartilage-derived cells (CDCs) were cultured on composite hydrogels containing agarose and homogenized cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM). MSCs cultured on agarose-ECM scaffolds did not show significant signs of chondrogenic differentiation in the absence of additional cues. However, CDCs cultured on agarose-ECM scaffolds proliferated more rapidly than their ECM-free counterparts and MSCs, while retaining chondrocytic morphology. These results were corroborated via expression of cartilage marker genes: in autologous constructs, SOX 9 expression was upregulated by 12.6 ± 5.3-fold, and COL II was upregulated by 2.0 ± 0.3-fold. Agarose-ECM composite hydrogels are therefore useful for expanding partially differentiated CDCs for applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:25707441

  20. Development and characterization of a naturally derived lung extracellular matrix hydrogel.

    Pouliot, Robert A; Link, Patrick A; Mikhaiel, Nabil S; Schneck, Matthew B; Valentine, Michael S; Kamga Gninzeko, Franck J; Herbert, Joseph A; Sakagami, Masahiro; Heise, Rebecca L

    2016-08-01

    The complexity and rapid clearance mechanisms of lung tissue make it difficult to develop effective treatments for many chronic pathologies. We are investigating lung derived extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels as a novel approach for delivery of cellular therapies to the pulmonary system. The main objectives of this study include effective decellularization of porcine lung tissue, development of a hydrogel from the porcine ECM, and characterization of the material's composition, mechanical properties, and ability to support cellular growth. Our evaluation of the decellularized tissue indicated successful removal of cellular material and immunogenic remnants in the ECM. The self-assembly of the lung ECM hydrogel was rapid, reaching maximum modulus values within 3 min at 37°C. Rheological characterization showed the lung ECM hydrogel to have a concentration dependent storage modulus between 15 and 60 Pa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our novel ECM derived hydrogel and measure its ability to support 3D culture of MSCs in vitro and in vivo delivery of MSCs. Our in vitro experiments using human mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated our novel ECM hydrogel's ability to enhance cellular attachment and viability. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated that rat MSC delivery in pre-gel solution significantly increased cell retention in the lung over 24 h in an emphysema rat model. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1922-1935, 2016. PMID:27012815

  1. iTRAQ proteomic analysis of extracellular matrix remodeling in aortic valve disease.

    Martin-Rojas, Tatiana; Mourino-Alvarez, Laura; Alonso-Orgaz, Sergio; Rosello-Lleti, Esther; Calvo, Enrique; Lopez-Almodovar, Luis Fernando; Rivera, Miguel; Padial, Luis R; Lopez, Juan Antonio; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Barderas, Maria G

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common worldwide cause of valve replacement. The aortic valve is a thin, complex, layered connective tissue with compartmentalized extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by specialized cell types, which directs blood flow in one direction through the heart. There is evidence suggesting remodeling of such ECM during aortic stenosis development. Thus, a better characterization of the role of ECM proteins in this disease would increase our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Aortic valve samples were collected from 18 patients which underwent aortic valve replacement (50% males, mean age of 74 years) and 18 normal control valves were obtained from necropsies (40% males, mean age of 69 years). The proteome of the samples was analyzed by 2D-LC MS/MS iTRAQ methodology. The results showed an altered expression of 13 ECM proteins of which 3 (biglycan, periostin, prolargin) were validated by Western blotting and/or SRM analyses. These findings are substantiated by our previous results demonstrating differential ECM protein expression. The present study has demonstrated a differential ECM protein pattern in individuals with AS, therefore supporting previous evidence of a dynamic ECM remodeling in human aortic valves during AS development. PMID:26620461

  2. Autonomous Extracellular Matrix Remodeling Controls a Progressive Adaptation in Muscle Stem Cell Regenerative Capacity during Development

    Matthew Timothy Tierney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Muscle stem cells (MuSCs exhibit distinct behavior during successive phases of developmental myogenesis. However, how their transition to adulthood is regulated is poorly understood. Here, we show that fetal MuSCs resist progenitor specification and exhibit altered division dynamics, intrinsic features that are progressively lost postnatally. After transplantation, fetal MuSCs expand more efficiently and contribute to muscle repair. Conversely, niche colonization efficiency increases in adulthood, indicating a balance between muscle growth and stem cell pool repopulation. Gene expression profiling identified several extracellular matrix (ECM molecules preferentially expressed in fetal MuSCs, including tenascin-C, fibronectin, and collagen VI. Loss-of-function experiments confirmed their essential and stage-specific role in regulating MuSC function. Finally, fetal-derived paracrine factors were able to enhance adult MuSC regenerative potential. Together, these findings demonstrate that MuSCs change the way in which they remodel their microenvironment to direct stem cell behavior and support the unique demands of muscle development or repair.

  3. A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix

    Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possesses at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins

  4. Biocompatibility of pure titanium modified by human endothelial cell-derived extracellular matrix

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) used to modify biomaterial surface is a promising method for improving cardiovascular material hemocompatibility. In the present work, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are cultured and native ECM is obtained on pure titanium surface. Fourier infrared spectrum (FTIR) test proves the existence of amide I and amide II band on the modified titanium surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) further confirms the chemical composition and binding types of the ECM proteins on the titanium substrate. The results of light microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) exhibit the morphology of HUVEC derived ECM. There are higher water contact angles on the ECM modified samples. Furthermore, some ECM components, including fibronectin (FN), laminin (LN) and type IV collagen (IV-COL) are presented on ECM-covered titanium surface by immunofluorescence staining. The biological behavior of cultured HUVECs and adherent platelets on different samples are investigated by in vitro HUVECs culture and platelet adhesion. Cells exhibit better morphology and their proliferation ability greatly improve on the ECM-covered titanium. At the same time, the platelet adhesion and spreading are inhibited on ECM-covered titanium surface. These investigations demonstrate that ECM produced by HUVECs cannot only improve adhesion and proliferation ability of endothelial cell but also inhibit adhesion and activation of platelets. Thus, the approach described here may provide a basis for preparation of modified surface in cardiovascular implants application.

  5. Autoradiographic and lectin histochemical localization of the extracellular matrix in early developed chic hen

    The present study was performed to investigate the developmental occurrence and distribution of sialogycocojugates (SGCs) in chicken embryos. 18 h rs up to 5 days of incubation. Incorporation of the sialic acid precursor, N- [3H] acetyimannosamine (N-[3H]- Acm), for 7 h rs before sampling led to an intensive labeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the following structures: the noto chordal sheath, the optic vesicle- lens rudiment interface, the area between dermatome and ectoderm, the basement membrane of the neural tube, the amnion and the endocardium. The 2 days (2d), 2.5d and 3d embryos, which were subjected to the radioactive precursor from the beginning of incubation, showed no radioactive labeling in the ECM of the noto chordal sheath (but not other regions). This indicates a high turnover rate of silo glycoproteins (SGPs) of the noto chordal ECM. The presence of SGPs in the ECM was confirmed in parallel paraffin sections using lectin fluorescence histochemistry. The presence of SGPs was further verified by the increase in SWGA-, PNA - binding sites as well as the decrease in WGA- binding sites after digestion with neuraminidase enzyme. The transient occurrence of these SGPs may indicate a significant functional role of these SGCs in induction of neighboring tissues. (authors). 36 refs., 5 figs. 2 table

  6. Amine functionalization of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix with generation 1 PAMAM dendrimer.

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-02-01

    A method to functionalize cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) with free amine groups was established in an attempt to improve its potential for tethering of bioactive molecules. CEM was incorporated with Generation-1 polyamidoamine (G1 PAMAM) dendrimer by using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N\\'-ethylcarbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide cross-linking system. The nature of incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer was evaluated using shrink temperature measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) assessment, ninhydrin assay, and swellability. The effects of PAMAM incorporation on mechanical and degradation properties of CEM were evaluated using a uniaxial mechanical test and collagenase degradation assay, respectively. Ninhydrin assay and FTIR assessment confirmed the presence of increasing free amine groups with increasing quantity of PAMAM in dendrimer-incorporated CEM (DENCEM) scaffolds. The amount of dendrimer used was found to be critical in controlling scaffold degradation, shrink temperature, and free amine content. Cell culture studies showed that fibroblasts seeded on DENCEM maintained their metabolic activity and ability to proliferate in vitro. In addition, fluorescence cell staining and scanning electron microscopy analysis of cell-seeded DENCEM showed preservation of normal fibroblast morphology and phenotype.

  7. Effect of Extracellular Matrix Membrane on Bone Formation in a Rabbit Tibial Defect Model

    Kim, Sungtae; Kim, Se Won; Lee, Jong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Absorbable extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane has recently been used as a barrier membrane (BM) in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Absorbable BMs are mostly based on collagen, which is more biocompatible than synthetic materials. However, implanted absorbable BMs can be rapidly degraded by enzymes in vivo. In a previous study, to delay degradation time, collagen fibers were treated with cross-linking agents. These compounds prevented the enzymatic degradation of BMs. However, cross-linked BMs can exhibit delayed tissue integration. In addition, the remaining cross-linker could induce inflammation. Here, we attempted to overcome these problems using a natural ECM membrane. The membrane consisted of freshly harvested porcine pericardium that was stripped from cells and immunoreagents by a cleaning process. Acellular porcine pericardium (APP) showed a bilayer structure with a smooth upper surface and a significantly coarser bottom layer. APP is an ECM with a thin layer (0.18–0.35 mm) but with excellent mechanical properties. Tensile strength of APP was 14.15 ± 2.24 MPa. In in vivo experiments, APP was transplanted into rabbit tibia. The biocompatible material was retained for up to 3 months without the need for cross-linking. Therefore, we conclude that APP could support osteogenesis as a BM for up to 3 months. PMID:27047963

  8. Composition of the Extracellular Matrix of Lymphatic Novel Threadlike Structures: Is It Keratin?

    Hyub Huh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lumen of novel threadlike structures (NTSs is enclosed by a single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM. We hypothesized that collagen may be a component of the ECM associated with lymphatic NTSs. Methods. Six female New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized, and the NTS structures within lymphatic vessels were identified by contrast-enhanced stereomicroscopy or alcian blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens were stained with acridine orange, YOYO-1, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI. The structural and molecular composition of the ECM was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and proteomic analysis. Results. The lymph vessel wall was stained red by DiI, and rod-shaped nuclei were stained green by YOYO-1. The area surrounding the NTS was also stained red and contained green rod-shaped nuclei. TEM images showed that the NTS consisted of many ECM fibers and the ECM fibers appeared to be ~100 nm in diameter and had narrowly spaced striated bands. Proteomic analysis of the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM identified 4 proteins: keratin 10, cytokeratin 3, cytokeratin 12, and soluble adenylyl cyclase. Conclusion. The TEM study suggested that the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM did not contain collagen. This was confirmed by proteomic analysis, which showed that keratin was the major component of the ECM.

  9. Improved endothelialization of titanium vascular implants by extracellular matrix secreted from endothelial cells.

    Tu, Qiufen; Zhao, Yuancong; Xue, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2010-12-01

    A variety of metals have been widely used in construction of cardiovascular implants (CVIs), such as artificial heart valves, ventricular pumps, and vascular stents. Although great effects have been put into rigorous anticoagulation, late thrombosis still occurred due to inferior blood and cell compatibility. Natural endothelium is popularly regarded as the only substance that has long-term anticoagulant ability. So, establishment of a compact endothelial cell (EC) monolayer on CVIs surface is a guarantee for their long-term potency. In the work described here, titanium (Ti) disks were coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) directly secreted by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), so as to help ECs proliferate and migrate and to improve their endothelialization in vivo. Deposition of ECM on Ti disks was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The surface topography and wettability of the Ti disks significantly changed after ECM deposition. Most importantly, it was found that ECM deposition inhibited platelet adhesion, stimulated EC proliferation, increased EC migration speed in vitro, and eventually accelerated the re-cellularization speed of Ti disks in vivo. These important results render it reasonable and feasible to modify CVIs with ECM secreted from ECs for improving their long-term potency. PMID:20666613

  10. The Use of Natural Polymers in Tissue Engineering: A Focus on Electrospun Extracellular Matrix Analogues

    Gary L. Bowlin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural polymers such as collagens, elastin, and fibrinogen make up much of the body’s native extracellular matrix (ECM. This ECM provides structure and mechanical integrity to tissues, as well as communicating with the cellular components it supports to help facilitate and regulate daily cellular processes and wound healing. An ideal tissue engineering scaffold would not only replicate the structure of this ECM, but would also replicate the many functions that the ECM performs. In the past decade, the process of electrospinning has proven effective in creating non-woven ECM analogue scaffolds of micro to nanoscale diameter fibers from an array of synthetic and natural polymers. The ability of this fabrication technique to utilize the aforementioned natural polymers to create tissue engineering scaffolds has yielded promising results, both in vitro and in vivo, due in part to the enhanced bioactivity afforded by materials normally found within the human body. This review will present the process of electrospinning and describe the use of natural polymers in the creation of bioactive ECM analogues in tissue engineering.

  11. Platelet-tumor cell interaction with the subendothelial extracellular matrix: relationship to cancer metastasis

    Dissemination of neoplastic cells within the body involves invasion of blood vessels by tumor cells. This requires adhesion of blood-borne cells to the luminal surface of the vascular endothelium, invasion through the endothelial cell layer and local dissolution of the subendothelial basement membrane. The authors studied the interaction of platelets and tumor cells with cultured vascular endothelial cells and their secreted basement membrane-like extracellular matrix (ECM). Interaction of platelets with this ECM was associated with platelet activation, aggregation and degradation of heparan sulfate in the ECM by means of the platelet heparitinase. Biochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have demonstrated that platelets may detect even minor gaps between adjacent endothelial cells and degrade the ECM heparan sulfate. Platelets were also shown to recruit lymphoma cells into minor gaps in the vascular endothelium. It is suggested that the platelet heparitinase is involved in the impairment of the integrity of the vessel wall and thus play a role in tumor cell metastasis. (Auth.)

  12. The Extracellular Matrix Protein Brevican Limits Time-Dependent Enhancement of Cocaine Conditioned Place Preference.

    Lubbers, Bart R; Matos, Mariana R; Horn, Annemarie; Visser, Esther; Van der Loo, Rolinka C; Gouwenberg, Yvonne; Meerhoff, Gideon F; Frischknecht, Renato; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Smit, August B; Spijker, Sabine; van den Oever, Michel C

    2016-06-01

    Cocaine-associated environmental cues sustain relapse vulnerability by reactivating long-lasting memories of cocaine reward. During periods of abstinence, responding to cocaine cues can time-dependently intensify a phenomenon referred to as 'incubation of cocaine craving'. Here, we investigated the role of the extracellular matrix protein brevican in recent (1 day after training) and remote (3 weeks after training) expression of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP). Wild-type and Brevican heterozygous knock-out mice, which express brevican at ~50% of wild-type levels, received three cocaine-context pairings using a relatively low dose of cocaine (5 mg/kg). In a drug-free CPP test, heterozygous mice showed enhanced preference for the cocaine-associated context at the remote time point compared with the recent time point. This progressive increase was not observed in wild-type mice and it did not generalize to contextual-fear memory. Virally mediated overexpression of brevican levels in the hippocampus, but not medial prefrontal cortex, of heterozygous mice prevented the progressive increase in cocaine CPP, but only when overexpression was induced before conditioning. Post-conditioning overexpression of brevican did not affect remote cocaine CPP, suggesting that brevican limited the increase in remote CPP by altering neuro-adaptive mechanisms during cocaine conditioning. We provide causal evidence that hippocampal brevican levels control time-dependent enhancement of cocaine CPP during abstinence, pointing to a novel substrate that regulates incubation of responding to cocaine-associated cues. PMID:26711251

  13. Binding of a cementum attachment protein to extracellular matrix components and to dental surfaces

    Cementum proteins (CP) have been shown to mediate cell attachment. Among these, a 55 kDa protein was isolated. The purpose of the present study was to assess the capacity of CP to bind to non-demineralized and demineralized root surfaces and to support cell attachment to dentin. CP were prepared by sequential extraction of bovine cementum with 25 mM EDTA, 0.5 M acetic acid followed by 4 M guanidine HCl. The latter was subjected to ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-3SW column and eluted stepwise with a 0-0.5 M NaCl gradient. CP were labelled with 125I and the capacity of 125I-CP to bind to mineralized and partially demineralized dentin, synthetic hydroxyapatite, collagen, fibronectin and fibrillar collagen-fibronectin cimplex was assessed. It was found that CP bind specifically to mineralized dentin and synthetic hydroxyapatite but not to demineralized dentin. The specific binding was 60% of the total binding. SDS-PAGE analysis of the proteins bound to dentin indicated that the main bound protein had a molecular weight of 55 kDa. CP exhibited high affinity for fibronectin (kD = 1.56 x 10-10 M) and fibronectincollagen complex, but their binding to either molecular or fibrillar collagen was negligible. It is suggested that CP may play an important role in the attachment of cells of the periodontium to cementum extracellular matrix during homeostasis and regeneration. (au)

  14. Stromal fibroblasts mediate extracellular matrix remodeling and invasion of scirrhous gastric carcinoma cells.

    Hideki Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Scirrhous gastric carcinoma (SGC has the worst prognosis of all gastric cancers, owing to its rapid expansion by invasion and frequent peritoneal dissemination. Due to the increased proliferation of stromal fibroblasts (SFs that occurs within SGC lesions and the peritoneal metastatic sites, SFs have been proposed to support the progression of this disease. However, the biological and molecular basis and the pathological role of the intercellular interaction between SGC cells and SFs remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of SFs in the invasion of the extracellular matrix (ECM by SGC cells. When SGC cells were cocultured with SFs derived from SGC tissue on three-dimensional (3D Matrigel, they were attracted together to form large cellular aggregates that invaded within the Matrigel. Time-lapse imaging revealed that this process was associated with extensive contraction and remodeling of the ECM. Immunofluorescence and biochemical analysis showed that SGC cells stimulate phosphorylation of myosin light chain and actomyosin-mediated mechanical remodeling of the ECM by SFs. By utilizing this assay system for inhibitor library screening, we have identified several inhibitors that potently suppress the cooperation between SGC cells and SFs to form the invasive structures. Among them, a Src inhibitor dasatinib impaired the interaction between SGC cells and SFs both in vitro and in vivo and effectively blocked peritoneal dissemination of SGC cells. These results indicate that SFs mediate mechanical remodeling of the ECM by SGC cells, thereby promoting invasion and peritoneal dissemination of SGC.

  15. Functional characterization of detergent-decellularized equine tendon extracellular matrix for tissue engineering applications.

    Daniel W Youngstrom

    Full Text Available Natural extracellular matrix provides a number of distinct advantages for engineering replacement orthopedic tissue due to its intrinsic functional properties. The goal of this study was to optimize a biologically derived scaffold for tendon tissue engineering using equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons. We investigated changes in scaffold composition and ultrastructure in response to several mechanical, detergent and enzymatic decellularization protocols using microscopic techniques and a panel of biochemical assays to evaluate total protein, collagen, glycosaminoglycan, and deoxyribonucleic acid content. Biocompatibility was also assessed with static mesenchymal stem cell (MSC culture. Implementation of a combination of freeze/thaw cycles, incubation in 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, trypsinization, treatment with DNase-I, and ethanol sterilization produced a non-cytotoxic biomaterial free of appreciable residual cellular debris with no significant modification of biomechanical properties. These decellularized tendon scaffolds (DTS are suitable for complex tissue engineering applications, as they provide a clean slate for cell culture while maintaining native three-dimensional architecture.

  16. Machine learning approaches for discrimination of Extracellular Matrix proteins using hybrid feature space.

    Ali, Farman; Hayat, Maqsood

    2016-08-21

    Extracellular Matrix (ECM) proteins are the vital type of proteins that are secreted by resident cells. ECM proteins perform several significant functions including adhesion, differentiation, cell migration and proliferation. In addition, ECM proteins regulate angiogenesis process, embryonic development, tumor growth and gene expression. Due to tremendous biological significance of the ECM proteins and rapidly increases of protein sequences in databases, it is indispensable to introduce a new high throughput computation model that can accurately identify ECM proteins. Various traditional models have been developed, but they are laborious and tedious. In this work, an effective and high throughput computational classification model is proposed for discrimination of ECM proteins. In this model, protein sequences are formulated using amino acid composition, pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) and di-peptide composition (DPC) techniques. Further, various combination of feature extraction techniques are fused to form hybrid feature spaces. Several classifiers were employed. Among these classifiers, K-Nearest Neighbor obtained outstanding performance in combination with the hybrid feature space of PseAAC and DPC. The obtained accuracy of our proposed model is 96.76%, which the highest success rate has been reported in the literature so far. PMID:27179459

  17. Transchromosomic cell model of Down syndrome shows aberrant migration, adhesion and proteome response to extracellular matrix

    Cotter Finbarr E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21, is the most common genetic birth defect. Congenital heart defects (CHD are seen in 40% of DS children, and >50% of all atrioventricular canal defects in infancy are caused by trisomy 21, but the causative genes remain unknown. Results Here we show that aberrant adhesion and proliferation of DS cells can be reproduced using a transchromosomic model of DS (mouse fibroblasts bearing supernumerary HSA21. We also demonstrate a deacrease of cell migration in transchromosomic cells independently of their adhesion properties. We show that cell-autonomous proteome response to the presence of Collagen VI in extracellular matrix is strongly affected by trisomy 21. Conclusion This set of experiments establishes a new model system for genetic dissection of the specific HSA21 gene-overdose contributions to aberrant cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and specific proteome response to collagen VI, cellular phenotypes linked to the pathogenesis of CHD.

  18. Proteomic profiling of the extracellular matrix (slime sheath) of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Huber, Robert J; O'Day, Danton H

    2015-10-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum has historically served as a model system for cell and developmental biology, but recently it has gained increasing attention as a model for the study of human diseases. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of this eukaryotic microbe serves multiple essential functions during development. It not only provides structural integrity to the moving multicellular pseudoplasmodium, or slug, it also provides components that regulate cell motility and differentiation. An LC/MS/MS analysis of slug ECM revealed the presence of a large number of proteins in two wild-type strains, NC4 and WS380B. GO annotation identified a large number of proteins involved in some form of binding (e.g. protein, polysaccharide, cellulose, carbohydrate, ATP, cAMP, ion, lipid, vitamin), as well as proteins that modulate metabolic processes, cell movement, and multicellular development. In addition, this proteomic analysis identified numerous expected (e.g. EcmA, EcmD, discoidin I, discoidin II), as well as unexpected (e.g. ribosomal and nuclear proteins) components. These topics are discussed in terms of the structure and function of the ECM during the development of this model amoebozoan and their relevance to ongoing biomedical research. PMID:26152465

  19. Effects of natural cartilaginous extracellular matrix on chondrogenic potential for cartilage cell transplantation.

    Yang, W; Lee, S; Jo, Y H; Lee, K M; Nemeno, J G; Nam, B M; Kim, B Y; Jang, I J; Kim, H N; Takebe, T; Lee, J I

    2014-05-01

    Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) has been established to contribute cartilage regeneration over the past years; however, many obstacles need to be overcome. Recently, newer ACT technique involves cotransplantation of chondrocytes and biomaterial. Although various proposed intelligent biomaterials exist, many of them remain insufficient and controversial. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) to the proliferation rate and differentiation on the chondrocytes. We first derived a natural ECM sheet from 10-μm-thick frozen sections of porcine knee cartilages. We then cultured the chondrocytes derived from a rabbit's knee on a dish precoated with the natural ECM. Then we assessed differentiation and chondrogenic potential of the cells compared with those grown in untreated culture dishes. We characterized the gene expression of chondrogenic markers, such as collagen type II, SOX-9, and aggrecan, as well as the level of ECM protein with the use of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The cells cultured with the ECM sheet showed highest chondrogenic potential and differentiation. Therefore, we can induce good chondrogenesis by with the use of a natural ECM sheet on the culture dish. The readily available and easy-to-handle thin ECM sheets create an environment that promotes efficient cartilage regeneration. Our data suggest that this natural ECM scaffold improved the chondrogenic differentiation of the cells in vitro by providing a favorable microenvironment. PMID:24815172

  20. Decreased Neointimal Extracellular Matrix Formation in RAGE-Knockout Mice After Microvascular Denudation

    Purpose: To evaluate in vivo the role of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycated end products) in the development of restenosis and neointimal proliferation in RAGE-deficient knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Sixteen WT and 15 RAGE-deficient mice underwent microvascular denudation of the common femoral artery under general anaesthesia. Contralateral arteries underwent a sham operation and served as controls. Four weeks after the intervention, all animals were killed, and paraformaldehyde-fixed specimens of the femoral artery were analysed with different stains (hematoxylin and eosin and Elastica van Gieson) and several different types of immunostaining (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, α-actin, collagen, von Willebrand factor, RAGE). Luminal area, area of the neointima, and area of the media were measured in all specimens. In addition, colony-formation assays were performed, and collagen production by WT smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and RAGE-KO SMCs was determined. For statistical analysis, P 2 [n = 15) in the WT group compared with only 8.4 (*1000 μm2 [n = 16]) in the RAGE-KO group. RAGE-KO SMCs showed significantly decreased proliferation activity and production of extracellular matrix protein. Conclusion: RAGE may be shown to play a considerable role in the formation of neointima leading to restenosis after vascular injury.

  1. The critical role of the cellular thiol homeostasis in cadmium perturbation of the lung extracellular matrix

    Cadmium (Cd) inhalation can result in emphysema. Cd exposure of rat lung fibroblasts (RFL6) enhanced levels of metal scavenging thiols, e.g., metallothionein (MT) and glutathione (GSH), and the heavy chain of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), a key enzyme for GSH biosynthesis, concomitant with downregulation of lysyl oxidase (LO), a copper-dependent enzyme for crosslinking collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cd downregulation of LO in treated cells was closely accompanied by suppression of synthesis of collagen, a major structure component of the lung ECM. Using rats intratracheally instilled with cadmium chloride (30 μg, once a week) as an animal model, we further demonstrated that although 2-week Cd instillation induced a non-significant change in the lung LO activity and collagen synthesis, 4- and 6-week Cd instillation resulted in a steady decrease in the lung LO and collagen expression. The lung MT and total GSH levels were both upregulated upon the long-term Cd exposure. Emphysematous lesions were generated in lungs of 6-week Cd-dosed rats. Increases of cellular thiols by transfection of cells with MT-II expression vectors or treatment of cells with GSH monoethyl ester, a GSH delivery system, markedly inhibited LO mRNA levels and catalytic activities in the cell model. Thus, Cd upregulation of cellular thiols may be a critical cellular event facilitating downregulation of LO, a potential mechanism for Cd-induced emphysema.

  2. Ingression Progression Complexes Control Extracellular Matrix Remodelling during Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Arcones, Irene; Sacristan, Carlos; Filali-Mouncef, Yasmina; Roncero, Cesar; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells must coordinate contraction of the actomyosin ring at the division site together with ingression of the plasma membrane and remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to support cytokinesis, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In eukaryotes, glycosyltransferases that synthesise ECM polysaccharides are emerging as key factors during cytokinesis. The budding yeast chitin synthase Chs2 makes the primary septum, a special layer of the ECM, which is an essential process during cell division. Here we isolated a group of actomyosin ring components that form complexes together with Chs2 at the cleavage site at the end of the cell cycle, which we named ‘ingression progression complexes’ (IPCs). In addition to type II myosin, the IQGAP protein Iqg1 and Chs2, IPCs contain the F-BAR protein Hof1, and the cytokinesis regulators Inn1 and Cyk3. We describe the molecular mechanism by which chitin synthase is activated by direct association of the C2 domain of Inn1, and the transglutaminase-like domain of Cyk3, with the catalytic domain of Chs2. We used an experimental system to find a previously unanticipated role for the C-terminus of Inn1 in preventing the untimely activation of Chs2 at the cleavage site until Cyk3 releases the block on Chs2 activity during late mitosis. These findings support a model for the co-ordinated regulation of cell division in budding yeast, in which IPCs play a central role. PMID:26891268

  3. Biomineralization of a Self-Assembled Extracellular Matrix for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Understanding how biomineralization occurs in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone cells is crucial to the understanding of bone formation and the development of a successfully engineered bone tissue scaffold. It is still unclear how ECM mechanical properties affect protein-mineral interactions in early stages of bone mineralization. We investigated the longitudinal mineralization properties of MC3T3-E1 cells and the elastic modulus of their ECM using shear modulation force microscopy, synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The elastic modulus of the ECM fibers underwent significant changes for the mineralizing cells, which were not observed in the nonmineralizing cells. On substrates conducive to ECM network production, the elastic modulus of mineralizing cells increased at time points corresponding to mineral production, whereas that of the nonmineralizing cells did not vary over time. The presence of hydroxyapatite in mineralizing cells and the absence thereof in the nonmineralizing ones were confirmed by GIXD, and CLSM showed that a restructuring of actin occurred only for mineral-producing cells. These results show that the correct and complete development of the ECM network is required for osteoblasts to mineralize. This in turn requires a suitably prepared synthetic substrate for bone development to succeed in vitro.

  4. Regulation of functional cytodifferentiation and histogenesis in mammary epithelial cells: Role of the extracellular matrix

    Primary mammary epithelial cells provide a versatile system for the study of hormone and extracellular matrix (ECM) influences on tissue-specific gene expression. The authors have characterized the formation of aveolarlike morphogenesis and mammary-specific functional differentiation that occur when these cells are cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane (EHS). Cells cultured on EHS exhibit many ultrastructural and biochemical features indicative of polarized and functionally differentiated mammary epithelium in vivo. The increased expression and specific vectorial secretion of milk proteins into lumina formed in culture are accompanied by large increases in milk protein mRNA expression. However, when individual ECM components are tested, smaller increases in milk protein mRNA are measured on heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) and laminin, and these responses are not associated with full functional cytodifferentiation or histotypic configuration. This indicates that multiple levels of regulation are involved in mammary-specific gene expression, and that in addition to individual ligand requirements cooperative interactions between various ECM molecules and cells are necessary for functional differentiation in culture. They have also shown that endogenous production of ECM molecules and changes in cell geometry are correlated with changes in functional and histogenic gene expression. They have previously proposed a model of cell-ECM interactions that is consistent with these data

  5. Ameloblastin, an Extracellular Matrix Protein, Affects Long Bone Growth and Mineralization.

    Lu, Xuanyu; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Evans, Carla A; Diekwisch, Thomas Gh; Luan, Xianghong

    2016-06-01

    Matrix molecules such as the enamel-related calcium-binding phosphoprotein ameloblastin (AMBN) are expressed in multiple tissues, including teeth, bones, and cartilage. Here we have asked whether AMBN is of functional importance for timely long bone development and, if so, how it exerts its function related to osteogenesis. Adolescent AMBN-deficient mice (AMBN(Δ5-6) ) suffered from a 33% to 38% reduction in femur length and an 8.4% shorter trunk spinal column when compared with WT controls, whereas there was no difference between adult animals. On a cellular level, AMBN truncation resulted in a shortened growth plate and a 41% to 49% reduction in the number of proliferating tibia chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) isolated from AMBN mutant mice displayed defects in proliferation and differentiation potential as well as cytoskeleton organization. Osteogenesis-related growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and BMP7, were also significantly (46% to 73%) reduced in AMBN-deficient BMSCs. Addition of exogenous AMBN restored cytoskeleton structures in AMBN mutant BMSCs and resulted in a dramatic 400% to 600% increase in BMP2, BMP7, and Col1A expression. Block of RhoA diminished the effect of AMBN on osteogenic growth factor and matrix protein gene expression. Addition of exogenous BMP7 and IGF1 rescued the proliferation and differentiation potential of AMBN-deficient BMSCs. Confirming the effects of AMBN on long bone growth, back-crossing of mutant mice with full-length AMBN overexpressors resulted in a complete rescue of AMBN(Δ5-6) bone defects. Together, these data indicate that AMBN affects extracellular matrix production and cell adhesion properties in the long bone growth plate, resulting in altered cytoskeletal dynamics, increased osteogenesis-related gene expression, as well as osteoblast and chondrocyte proliferation. We propose that AMBN facilitates rapid long bone growth and an important growth spurt during the

  6. Monocytes increase human cardiac myofibroblast-mediated extracellular matrix remodeling through TGF-β1.

    Mewhort, Holly E M; Lipon, Brodie D; Svystonyuk, Daniyil A; Teng, Guoqi; Guzzardi, David G; Silva, Claudia; Yong, V Wee; Fedak, Paul W M

    2016-03-15

    Following myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac myofibroblasts remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM), preventing mechanical complications. However, prolonged myofibroblast activity leads to dysregulation of the ECM, maladaptive remodeling, fibrosis, and heart failure (HF). Chronic inflammation is believed to drive persistent myofibroblast activity; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We assessed the influence of peripheral blood monocytes on human cardiac myofibroblast activity in a three-dimensional (3D) ECM microenvironment. Human cardiac myofibroblasts isolated from surgical biopsies of the right atrium and left ventricle were seeded into 3D collagen matrices. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy human donors and cocultured with myofibroblasts. Monocytes increased myofibroblast activity measured by collagen gel contraction (baseline: 57.6 ± 5.9% vs. coculture: 65.2 ± 7.1% contraction; P < 0.01) and increased local ECM remodeling quantified by confocal microscopy. Under coculture conditions that allow indirect cellular interaction via paracrine factors but prevent direct cell-cell contact, monocytes had minimal effects on myofibroblast activity (17.9 ± 11.1% vs. 6.4 ± 7.0% increase, respectively; P < 0.01). When cells were cultured under direct contact conditions, multiplex analysis of the coculture media revealed an increase in the paracrine factors TGF-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 compared with baseline (122.9 ± 10.1 pg/ml and 3,496.0 ± 190.4 pg/ml, respectively, vs. 21.5 ± 16.3 pg/ml and 183.3 ± 43.9 pg/ml; P < 0.001). TGF-β blockade abolished the monocyte-induced increase in cardiac myofibroblast activity. These data suggest that direct cell-cell interaction between monocytes and cardiac myofibroblasts stimulates TGF-β-mediated myofibroblast activity and increases remodeling of local matrix. Peripheral blood monocyte interaction with human cardiac myofibroblasts stimulates myofibroblast activity through release of TGF-β1

  7. Abnormal secretion or extracellular matrix incorporation of fibrillin by dermal fibroblasts from patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms

    Milewicz, D.; Cao, S.; Cosselli, J. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Abnormal synthesis, secretion, and extracellular matrix incorporation of fibrillin is observed in the majority of fibroblast cell strains obtained from individuals with the Marfan syndrome (>85%). These fibrillin protein abnormalities are due to mutations in the FBN1 gene. We have screened fibroblast cell strains from patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) without skeletal or ocular features of the Marfan syndrome for defects in fibrillin synthesis or processing. Dermal fibroblasts obtained from biopsies were pulse labeled with [{sup 35}S]cysteine for 30 minutes and then chased for 0, 4, and 20 hours. The media, cell lysate and extracellular matrix were harvested separately, then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. We selected fibroblasts from 17 TAA patients to study based on the development of a TAA at a young age or a family history of TAAs. Cells from 3 patients synthesized and secreted fibrillin normally, but did not incorporate the fibrillin in the extracellular matrix. None of the cell strains were found to have diminished synthesis of fibrillin when compared with control cells. We were unable to detect abnormalities in the synthesis, secretion, or matrix incorporation of fibrillin by cells from 9 of the 17 patients. These results indicate that fibrillin protein defects are found in a significant number of patients with TAAs who are young or have a family history of TAAs. Analysis of the FBN1 gene for mutations in these patients with fibrillin protein defects will determine if the observed protein abnormalities are the result of FBN1 gene mutations.

  8. Optimization of Liver Decellularization Maintains Extracellular Matrix Micro-Architecture and Composition Predisposing to Effective Cell Seeding

    Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Georgiades, Fanourios; Smith, Holly; Milan, Anna; Shangaris, Panicos; Urbani, Luca; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P.; Lombardi, Benedetta; Mazza, Giuseppe; Hagen, Charlotte; Sebire, Neil J.; Turmaine, Mark; Eaton, Simon; Olivo, Alessandro; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka; Pinzani, Massimo; Gissen, Paul; De Coppi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic tissue engineering using decellularized scaffolds is a potential therapeutic alternative to conventional transplantation. However, scaffolds are usually obtained using decellularization protocols that destroy the extracellular matrix (ECM) and hamper clinical translation. We aim to develop a decellularization technique that reliably maintains hepatic microarchitecture and ECM components. Isolated rat livers were decellularized by detergent-enzymatic technique with (EDTA-DET) or without EDTA (DET). Histology, DNA quantification and proteomics confirmed decellularization with further DNA reduction with the addition of EDTA. Quantification, histology, immunostaining, and proteomics demonstrated preservation of extracellular matrix components in both scaffolds with a higher amount of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in the EDTA-DET scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray phase contrast imaging showed microarchitecture preservation, with EDTA-DET scaffolds more tightly packed. DET scaffold seeding with a hepatocellular cell line demonstrated complete repopulation in 14 days, with cells proliferating at that time. Decellularization using DET preserves microarchitecture and extracellular matrix components whilst allowing for cell growth for up to 14 days. Addition of EDTA creates a denser, more compact matrix. Transplantation of the scaffolds and scaling up of the methodology are the next steps for successful hepatic tissue engineering. PMID:27159223

  9. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Yang Wang; Zheng-wei Li; Min Luo; Ya-jun Li; Ke-qiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some re-spects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the poly-lactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve ifbers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylac-tic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is ben-eifcial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was found with the

  10. Degradation of extracellular matrix by larvae of Schistosoma mansoni. II. Degradation by newly transformed and developing schistosomula

    Keene, W.E.; Jeong, K.H.; McKerrow, J.H.; Werb, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni to degrade an extracellular connective tissue matrix synthesized by rat vascular smooth muscle cells in culture was investigated. Six to 12% of the total matrix was degraded by schistosomula from the time of transformation from cercariae to adult development in vitro. Most matrix degradation occurred during the first 24 hours of incubation and was dependent on the number of schistosomula and the type of medium in which they were incubated. The use of proteinase inhibitors indicated that schistosomula activity was distinctly different from that of cercariae. Newly transformed schistosomula expressed one activity that was similar in inhibition characteristics to that of cercarial preacetabular gland secretions and another activity that was unique to schistosomula. From 1 day after transformation to adulthood, the schistosomula-derived activity was the predominant activity detected. Schistosomula degraded a smaller percentage of the total matrix than did cercariae and showed a different substrate profile. Schistosomula degraded glycoprotein components of extracellular matrix but showed little or no activity against elastin or collagen. Matrix-degrading activity was also detected in schistosomula-conditioned medium. Sedimentation of the activity and lack of permeability through filter barriers suggest that the enzyme may be initially associated with membrane and then sloughed with membrane fragments. Since the schistosomula-derived activity initially overlaps with cercarial preacetabular gland proteolytic activity, the two activities may act in concert to facilitate skin penetration by newly transformed schistosomula. However, schistosomula activity probably serves some, as yet undetermined, function later in development.

  11. Human VE-Cadherin Fusion Protein as an Artificial Extracellular Matrix Enhancing the Proliferation and Differentiation Functions of Endothelial Cell.

    Xu, Ke; Shuai, Qizhi; Li, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Chao; Cao, Lei; Hu, Feifei; Akaike, Toshihiro; Wang, Jian-Xi; Gu, Zhongwei; Yang, Jun

    2016-03-14

    In an attempt to enhance endothelial cell capture and promote the vascularization of engineered tissue, we biosynthesized and characterized the recombinant fusion protein consisting of human vascular endothelial-cadherin extracellular domain and immunoglobulin IgG Fc region (hVE-cad-Fc) to serve as a bioartificial extracellular matrix. The hVE-cad-Fc protein naturally formed homodimers and was used to construct hVE-cad-Fc matrix by stably adsorbing on polystyrene plates. Atomic force microscop assay showed uniform hVE-cad-Fc distribution with nanorod topography. The hVE-cad-Fc matrix markedly promoted human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) adhesion and proliferation with fibroblastoid morphology. Additionally, the hVE-cad-Fc matrix improved HUVECs migration, vWF expression, and NO release, which are closely related to vascularization. Furthermore, the hVE-cad-Fc matrix activated endogenous VE-cadherin/β-catenin proteins and effectively triggered the intracellular signals such as F-actin stress fiber, p-FAK, AKT, and Bcl-2. Taken together, hVE-cad-Fc could be a promising bioartificial matrix to promote vascularization in tissue engineering. PMID:26859785

  12. Early Change of Extracellular Matrix and Diastolic Parameters in Metabolic Syndrome

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. It is not clear whether myocardial changes showed in this syndrome, such as diastolic dysfunction, are due to the systemic effects of the syndrome, or to specific myocardial effects. Compare diastolic function, biomarkers representing extracellular matrix activity (ECM), inflammation and cardiac hemodynamic stress in patients with the MS and healthy controls. MS patients (n = 76) and healthy controls (n=30) were submitted to a clinical assessment, echocardiographic study, and measurement of plasma levels of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1), ultrasensitive-reactive-C-Protein (us-CRP), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). MS group showed lower E' wave (10.1 ± 3.0 cm/s vs 11.9 ± 2.6 cm/s, p = 0.005), increased A wave (63.4 ± 14.1 cm/s vs. 53.1 ± 8.9 cm/s; p < 0.001), E/E' ratio (8.0 ± 2.2 vs. 6.3 ± 1.2; p < 0.001), MMP9 (502.9 ± 237.1 ng / mL vs. 330.4±162.7 ng/mL; p < 0.001), us-CRP (p = 0.001) and HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), but no difference for TIMP1 or NT-proBNP levels. In a multivariable analysis, only MMP9 was independently associated with MS. MS patients showed differences for echocardiographic measures of diastolic function, ECM activity, us-CRP and HOMA-IR when compared to controls. However, only MMP9 was independently associated with the MS. These findings suggest that there are early effects on ECM activity, which cannot be tracked by routine echocardiographic measures of diastolic function

  13. Up-regulated expression of extracellular matrix remodeling genes in phagocytically challenged trabecular meshwork cells.

    Kristine M Porter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cells in the trabecular meshwork (TM, the tissue responsible for draining aqueous humor out of the eye, are known to be highly phagocytic. Phagocytic function in TM cells is thought to play an important role in the normal functioning of the outflow pathway. Dysfunction of phagocytosis could lead to abnormalities of outflow resistance and increased intraocular pressure (IOP. However, the molecular mechanisms triggered by phagocytosis in TM cells are completely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression profile analysis of human TM cells phagocytically challenged to E. coli or pigment under physiological and oxidative stress environment were performed using Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 array and analyzed with Genespring GX. Despite the differential biological response elicited by E. coli and pigment particles, a number of genes, including MMP1, MMP3, TNFSF11, DIO2, KYNU, and KCCN2 showed differential expression with both phagocytic ligands in all conditions. Data was confirmed by qPCR in both human and porcine TM cells. Metacore pathway analysis and the usage of recombinant adenovirus encoding the dominant negative mutant of IkB identified NF-κB as a transcription factor mediating the up-regulation of at least MMP1 and MMP3 in TM cells with phagocytosis. In-gel zymography demonstrated increased collagenolytic and caseinolytic activities in the culture media of TM cells challenge to E. coli. In addition, collagenolytic I activity was further confirmed using the self-quenched fluorescent substrate DQ-Collagen I. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report for the first time the differential gene expression profile of TM cells phagocytically challenged with either E. coli or pigment. Our data indicate a potential role of phagocytosis in outflow pathway tissue homeostasis through the up-regulation and/or proteolytic activation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes.

  14. Mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular matrix influences gene expression of chondrocytes

    Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) has recently gained a lot of interest as an instructive biomaterial for regenerative medicine applications. In this study, the ability of adult human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)-derived ECM to rescue the phenotype of osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes and to further stimulate the differentiation of healthy (HL) chondrocytes was evaluated. ECMs were prepared by decellularizing hMSCs cultured in basic medium (BM) and chondrogenic medium (CM). The obtained ECM was then combined with a polymeric solution of Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) dissolved in 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) and electrospun meshes were fabricated. Electrospun ECM scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and picrosirius red staining was used to confirm the presence of collagen. OA and HL chondrocytes were cultured on scaffolds containing hMSC ECM in BM or CM and compared to PCL electrospun scaffolds without ECM. Metabolic activity and chondrogenic gene expression were assessed by Alamar blue assay and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis, respectively. The ECM presence resulted in a significant difference in chondrocyte metabolic activity compared to PCL scaffolds alone. HL chondrocytes cultured for 21 days in chondrogenic medium on electrospun scaffolds containing hMSC ECM from BM showed a significant increase in collagen II and aggrecan expression compared to hMSC ECM from CM and PCL scaffolds without ECM incorporation. No significant influence of hMSC ECM presence on the chondrogenic signature of OA chondrocytes was found. The influence of decellularized hMSC ECM on HL chondrocytes suggests that hMSC-derived ECM scaffolds are promising candidates for cartilage tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  15. Absence of K-Ras Reduces Proliferation and Migration But Increases Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Fibroblasts.

    Muñoz-Félix, José M; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Cuesta, Cristina; Eleno, Nélida; Crespo, Piero; López-Novoa, José M; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The involvement of Ras-GTPases in the development of renal fibrosis has been addressed in the last decade. We have previously shown that H- and N-Ras isoforms participate in the regulation of fibrosis. Herein, we assessed the role of K-Ras in cellular processes involved in the development of fibrosis: proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins synthesis. K-Ras knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (K-ras(-/-) ) stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibited reduced proliferation and impaired mobility than wild-type fibroblasts. Moreover, an increase on ECM production was observed in K-Ras KO fibroblasts in basal conditions. The absence of K-Ras was accompanied by reduced Ras activation and ERK phosphorylation, and increased AKT phosphorylation, but no differences were observed in TGF-β1-induced Smad signaling. The MEK inhibitor U0126 decreased cell proliferation independently of the presence of K-ras but reduced migration and ECM proteins expression only in wild-type fibroblasts, while the PI3K-AKT inhibitor LY294002 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and ECM synthesis in both types of fibroblasts. Thus, our data unveil that K-Ras and its downstream effector pathways distinctively regulate key biological processes in the development of fibrosis. Moreover, we show that K-Ras may be a crucial mediator in TGF-β1-mediated effects in this cell type. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2224-2235, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26873620

  16. Mutations in the collagen XII gene define a new form of extracellular matrix-related myopathy.

    Hicks, Debbie; Farsani, Golara Torabi; Laval, Steven; Collins, James; Sarkozy, Anna; Martoni, Elena; Shah, Ashoke; Zou, Yaqun; Koch, Manuel; Bönnemann, Carsten G; Roberts, Mark; Lochmüller, Hanns; Bushby, Kate; Straub, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Bethlem myopathy (BM) [MIM 158810] is a slowly progressive muscle disease characterized by contractures and proximal weakness, which can be caused by mutations in one of the collagen VI genes (COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3). However, there may be additional causal genes to identify as in ∼50% of BM cases no mutations in the COL6 genes are identified. In a cohort of -24 patients with a BM-like phenotype, we first sequenced 12 candidate genes based on their function, including genes for known binding partners of collagen VI, and those enzymes involved in its correct post-translational modification, assembly and secretion. Proceeding to whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified mutations in the COL12A1 gene, a member of the FACIT collagens (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) in five individuals from two families. Both families showed dominant inheritance with a clinical phenotype resembling classical BM. Family 1 had a single-base substitution that led to the replacement of one glycine residue in the triple-helical domain, breaking the Gly-X-Y repeating pattern, and Family 2 had a missense mutation, which created a mutant protein with an unpaired cysteine residue. Abnormality at the protein level was confirmed in both families by the intracellular retention of collagen XII in patient dermal fibroblasts. The mutation in Family 2 leads to the up-regulation of genes associated with the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway and swollen, dysmorphic rough-ER. We conclude that the spectrum of causative genes in extracellular matrix (ECM)-related myopathies be extended to include COL12A1. PMID:24334769

  17. Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects

    Desai, Jayashree [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shannon, Mark E. [Applied Biosystems; Johnson, Mahlon D. [University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine; Ruff, David W. [Applied Biosystems; Hughes, Lori A [ORNL; Kerley, Marilyn K [ORNL; Carpenter, D A [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Rinchik, Eugene M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-b1 (PKC-b1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell16R, a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell16R has a T!A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell16R mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell16R mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

  18. Decreased Neointimal Extracellular Matrix Formation in RAGE-Knockout Mice After Microvascular Denudation

    Groezinger, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.groezinger@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Schmehl, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.schmehl@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Bantleon, Ruediger, E-mail: ruediger.bantleon@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Kehlbach, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.kehlbach@uni-tuebingen.de [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Mehra, Tarun, E-mail: tarun.mehra@med.uni-tuebingen.de [University of Tuebingen, Department of Dermatology (Germany); Claussen, Claus, E-mail: gerd.groezinger@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Wiesinger, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.wiesinger@med.uni-tuebingen.de [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate in vivo the role of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycated end products) in the development of restenosis and neointimal proliferation in RAGE-deficient knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Sixteen WT and 15 RAGE-deficient mice underwent microvascular denudation of the common femoral artery under general anaesthesia. Contralateral arteries underwent a sham operation and served as controls. Four weeks after the intervention, all animals were killed, and paraformaldehyde-fixed specimens of the femoral artery were analysed with different stains (hematoxylin and eosin and Elastica van Gieson) and several different types of immunostaining (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, {alpha}-actin, collagen, von Willebrand factor, RAGE). Luminal area, area of the neointima, and area of the media were measured in all specimens. In addition, colony-formation assays were performed, and collagen production by WT smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and RAGE-KO SMCs was determined. For statistical analysis, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Four weeks after denudation, WT mice showed a 49.6% loss of luminal area compared with 14.9% loss of luminal area in RAGE-deficient mice (sham = 0% loss) (P < 0.001). The neointima was 18.2 (*1000 {mu}m{sup 2} [n = 15) in the WT group compared with only 8.4 (*1000 {mu}m{sup 2} [n = 16]) in the RAGE-KO group. RAGE-KO SMCs showed significantly decreased proliferation activity and production of extracellular matrix protein. Conclusion: RAGE may be shown to play a considerable role in the formation of neointima leading to restenosis after vascular injury.

  19. Non-destructive analysis of extracellular matrix development in cardiovascular tissue-engineered constructs.

    Tuemen, M; Nguyen, D V A; Raffius, J; Flanagan, T C; Dietrich, M; Frese, J; Schmitz-Rode, T; Jockenhoevel, S

    2013-05-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, there is an increasing demand for non-destructive methods to quantify the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as collagens, elastin or sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) in vitro as a quality control before clinical use. In this study, procollagen I carboxyterminal peptide (PICP), procollagen III aminoterminal peptide (PIIINP), tropoelastin and sGAGs are investigated for their potential use as non-destructive markers in culture medium of statically cultivated cell-seeded fibrin gels. Measurement of PICP as marker for type I collagen synthesis, and PIIINP as marker of type III collagen turnover, correlated well with the hydroxyproline content of the fibrin gels, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. The measurement of tropoelastin as marker of elastin synthesis correlated with the amount of elastin retained in fibrin gels with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.99. sGAGs were retained in fibrin gels, but were not detectable in culture medium at any time of measurement. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential of PICP and tropoelastin as non-destructive culture medium markers for collagen and elastin synthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study in cardiovascular tissue engineering investigating the whole of here proposed biomarkers of ECM synthesis to monitor the maturation process of developing tissue non-invasively, but for comprehensive assessment of ECM development, these biomarkers need to be investigated in further studies, employing dynamic cultivation conditions and more complex tissue constructs. PMID:23307024

  20. Disassembling bacterial extracellular matrix with DNase-coated nanoparticles to enhance antibiotic delivery in biofilm infections.

    Baelo, Aida; Levato, Riccardo; Julián, Esther; Crespo, Anna; Astola, José; Gavaldà, Joan; Engel, Elisabeth; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel Angel; Torrents, Eduard

    2015-07-10

    Infections caused by biofilm-forming bacteria are a major threat to hospitalized patients and the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. There is an urgent necessity for novel therapeutic approaches, since current antibiotic delivery fails to eliminate biofilm-protected bacteria. In this study, ciprofloxacin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles, which were functionalized with DNase I, were fabricated using a green-solvent based method and their antibiofilm activity was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Such nanoparticles constitute a paradigm shift in biofilm treatment, since, besides releasing ciprofloxacin in a controlled fashion, they are able to target and disassemble the biofilm by degrading the extracellular DNA that stabilize the biofilm matrix. These carriers were compared with free-soluble ciprofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin encapsulated in untreated and poly(lysine)-coated nanoparticles. DNase I-activated nanoparticles were not only able to prevent biofilm formation from planktonic bacteria, but they also successfully reduced established biofilm mass, size and living cell density, as observed in a dynamic environment in a flow cell biofilm assay. Moreover, repeated administration over three days of DNase I-coated nanoparticles encapsulating ciprofloxacin was able to reduce by 95% and then eradicate more than 99.8% of established biofilm, outperforming all the other nanoparticle formulations and the free-drug tested in this study. These promising results, together with minimal cytotoxicity as tested on J774 macrophages, allow obtaining novel antimicrobial nanoparticles, as well as provide clues to design the next generation of drug delivery devices to treat persistent bacterial infections. PMID:25913364

  1. Role of the extracellular matrix in variations of invasive pathways in lung cancers

    Sá, V.K. de [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, L.; Gomes, A.; Alarcão, A.; Silva, M.R.; Couceiro, P.; Sousa, V. [Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Soares, F.A. [Hospital A.C. Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Capelozzi, V.L. [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-11

    Among the most common features of highly invasive tumors, such as lung adenocarcinomas (AD) and squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC), is the massive degradation of the extracellular matrix. The remarkable qualitative and quantitative modifications of hyaluronidases (HAases), hyaluronan synthases (HAS), E-cadherin adhesion molecules, and the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) may favor invasion, cellular motility, and proliferation. We examined HAase proteins (Hyal), HAS, E-cadherin, and TGF-β profiles in lung AD subtypes and SqCC obtained from smokers and non-smokers. Fifty-six patients, median age 64 years, who underwent lobectomy for AD (N = 31) and SqCC (N = 25) were included in the study. HAS-1, -2 and -3, and Hyal-1 and -3 were significantly more expressed by tumor cells than normal and stroma cells (P < 0.01). When stratified according to histologic types, HAS-3 and Hyal-1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in tumor cells of AD (P = 0.01) and stroma of SqCC (P = 0.002), respectively. Tobacco history in patients with AD was significantly associated with increased HAS-3 immunoreactivity in tumor cells (P < 0.01). Stroma cells of SqCC from non-smokers presented a significant association with HAS-3 (P < 0.01). Hyal, HAS, E-cadherin, and TGF-β modulate a different tumor-induced invasive pathway in lung AD subgroups and SqCC. HAases in resected AD and SqCC were strongly related to the prognosis. Therefore, our findings suggest that strategies aimed at preventing high HAS-3 and Hyal-1 synthesis, or local responses to low TGF-β and E-cadherin, may have a greater impact in lung cancer prognosis.

  2. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    Tashiro, Kanae [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shishido, Mayumi [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Fujimoto, Keiko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirota, Yuko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshitaka, E-mail: tanakay@bioc.phar.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility.

  3. CADM1 controls actin cytoskeleton assembly and regulates extracellular matrix adhesion in human mast cells.

    Elena P Moiseeva

    Full Text Available CADM1 is a major receptor for the adhesion of mast cells (MCs to fibroblasts, human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs and neurons. It also regulates E-cadherin and alpha6beta4 integrin in other cell types. Here we investigated a role for CADM1 in MC adhesion to both cells and extracellular matrix (ECM. Downregulation of CADM1 in the human MC line HMC-1 resulted not only in reduced adhesion to HASMCs, but also reduced adhesion to their ECM. Time-course studies in the presence of EDTA to inhibit integrins demonstrated that CADM1 provided fast initial adhesion to HASMCs and assisted with slower adhesion to ECM. CADM1 downregulation, but not antibody-dependent CADM1 inhibition, reduced MC adhesion to ECM, suggesting indirect regulation of ECM adhesion. To investigate potential mechanisms, phosphotyrosine signalling and polymerisation of actin filaments, essential for integrin-mediated adhesion, were examined. Modulation of CADM1 expression positively correlated with surface KIT levels and polymerisation of cortical F-actin in HMC-1 cells. It also influenced phosphotyrosine signalling and KIT tyrosine autophosphorylation. CADM1 accounted for 46% of surface KIT levels and 31% of F-actin in HMC-1 cells. CADM1 downregulation resulted in elongation of cortical actin filaments in both HMC-1 cells and human lung MCs and increased cell rigidity of HMC-1 cells. Collectively these data suggest that CADM1 is a key adhesion receptor, which regulates MC net adhesion, both directly through CADM1-dependent adhesion, and indirectly through the regulation of other adhesion receptors. The latter is likely to occur via docking of KIT and polymerisation of cortical F-actin. Here we propose a stepwise model of adhesion with CADM1 as a driving force for net MC adhesion.

  4. Role of the extracellular matrix in variations of invasive pathways in lung cancers

    Among the most common features of highly invasive tumors, such as lung adenocarcinomas (AD) and squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC), is the massive degradation of the extracellular matrix. The remarkable qualitative and quantitative modifications of hyaluronidases (HAases), hyaluronan synthases (HAS), E-cadherin adhesion molecules, and the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) may favor invasion, cellular motility, and proliferation. We examined HAase proteins (Hyal), HAS, E-cadherin, and TGF-β profiles in lung AD subtypes and SqCC obtained from smokers and non-smokers. Fifty-six patients, median age 64 years, who underwent lobectomy for AD (N = 31) and SqCC (N = 25) were included in the study. HAS-1, -2 and -3, and Hyal-1 and -3 were significantly more expressed by tumor cells than normal and stroma cells (P < 0.01). When stratified according to histologic types, HAS-3 and Hyal-1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in tumor cells of AD (P = 0.01) and stroma of SqCC (P = 0.002), respectively. Tobacco history in patients with AD was significantly associated with increased HAS-3 immunoreactivity in tumor cells (P < 0.01). Stroma cells of SqCC from non-smokers presented a significant association with HAS-3 (P < 0.01). Hyal, HAS, E-cadherin, and TGF-β modulate a different tumor-induced invasive pathway in lung AD subgroups and SqCC. HAases in resected AD and SqCC were strongly related to the prognosis. Therefore, our findings suggest that strategies aimed at preventing high HAS-3 and Hyal-1 synthesis, or local responses to low TGF-β and E-cadherin, may have a greater impact in lung cancer prognosis

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Seeding of Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosal Extracellular Matrix for Cardiovascular Applications

    Chang, Chia Wei; Petrie, Tye; Clark, Alycia; Lin, Xin; Sondergaard, Claus S.; Griffiths, Leigh G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the translational potential of a novel combined construct using an FDA-approved decellularized porcine small intestinal submucosa extracellular matrix (SIS-ECM) seeded with human or porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cardiovascular indications. With the emerging success of individual component in various clinical applications, the combination of SIS-ECM with MSCs could provide additional therapeutic potential compared to individual components alone for cardiovascular repair. We tested the in vitro effects of MSC-seeding on SIS-ECM on resultant construct structure/function properties and MSC phenotypes. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of porcine MSCs to modulate recipient graft-specific response towards SIS-ECM in a porcine cardiac patch in vivo model. Specifically, we determined: 1) in vitro loading-capacity of human MSCs on SIS-ECM, 2) effect of cell seeding on SIS-ECM structure, compositions and mechanical properties, 3) effect of SIS-ECM seeding on human MSC phenotypes and differentiation potential, and 4) optimal orientation and dose of porcine MSCs seeded SIS-ECM for an in vivo cardiac application. In this study, histological structure, biochemical compositions and mechanical properties of the FDA-approved SIS-ECM biomaterial were retained following MSCs repopulation in vitro. Similarly, the cellular phenotypes and differentiation potential of MSCs were preserved following seeding on SIS-ECM. In a porcine in vivo patch study, the presence of porcine MSCs on SIS-ECM significantly reduced adaptive T cell response regardless of cell dose and orientation compared to SIS-ECM alone. These findings substantiate the clinical translational potential of combined SIS-ECM seeded with MSCs as a promising therapeutic candidate for cardiac applications. PMID:27070546

  6. Alterations of the extracellular matrix in ovarian cancer studied by Second Harmonic Generation imaging microscopy

    Campagnola Paul J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM has been implicated in ovarian cancer, and we hypothesize that these alterations may provide a better optical marker of early disease than currently available imaging/screening methods and that understanding their physical manifestations will provide insight into invasion. Methods For this investigation we use Second Harmonic Generation (SHG imaging microcopy to study changes in the structure of the ovarian ECM in human normal and malignant ex vivo biopsies. This method directly visualizes the type I collagen in the ECM and provides quantitative metrics of the fibrillar assembly. To quantify these changes in collagen morphology we utilized an integrated approach combining 3D SHG imaging measurements and bulk optical parameter measurements in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental data to extract tissue structural properties. Results We find the SHG emission attributes (directionality and relative intensity and bulk optical parameters, both of which are related to the tissue structure, are significantly different in the tumors in a manner that is consistent with the change in collagen assembly. The normal and malignant tissues have highly different collagen fiber assemblies, where collectively, our findings show that the malignant ovaries are characterized by lower cell density, denser collagen, as well as higher regularity at both the fibril and fiber levels. This further suggests that the assembly in cancer may be comprised of newly synthesized collagen as opposed to modification of existing collagen. Conclusions Due to the large structural changes in tissue assembly and the SHG sensitivity to these collagen alterations, quantitative discrimination is achieved using small patient data sets. Ultimately these measurements may be developed as intrinsic biomarkers for use in clinical applications.

  7. Extracellular matrix protein in calcified endoskeleton: a potential additive for crystal growth and design

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  8. Simulated weightlessness changes the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix proteins in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Infanger, Manfred; Kossmehl, Peter; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Bauer, Johann; Kossmehl-Zorn, Stephanie; Cogoli, Augusto; Curcio, Francesco; Oksche, Alexander; Wehland, Markus; Kreutz, Reinhold; Paul, Martin; Grimm, Daniela

    2006-05-01

    Studies of astronauts, experimental animals, and cells have shown that, after spaceflights, the function of the thyroid is altered by low-gravity conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein synthesis of papillary thyroid cancer cells grown under zero g. We investigated alterations of ONCO-DG 1 cells exposed to simulated microgravity on a three-dimensional random-positioning machine (clinostat) for 30 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 120 h (n=6, each group). ONCO-DG 1 cells grown under microgravity exhibited early alterations of the cytoskeleton and formed multicellular spheroids. The cytoskeleton was disintegrated, and nuclei showed morphological signs of apoptosis after 30 min. At this time, vimentin was increased. Vimentin and cytokeratin were highly disorganized, and microtubules (alpha-tubulin) did not display their typical radial array. After 48 h, the cytoskeletal changes were nearly reversed. The formation of multicellular spheroids continued. In parallel, the accumulation of ECM components, such as collagen types I and III, fibronectin, chondroitin sulfate, osteopontin, and CD44, increased. The levels of both transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta(1)) and TGF-beta receptor type II proteins were elevated from 24 h until 120 h clinorotation. Gene expression of TGF-beta(1) was clearly enhanced during culture under zero g. The amount of E-cadherin was enhanced time-dependently. We suggest that simulated weightlessness rapidly affects the cytoskeleton of papillary thyroid carcinoma cells and increases the amount of ECM proteins in a time-dependent manner. PMID:16432709

  9. The extracellular matrix of Volvox: a comparative study and proposed system of nomenclature.

    Kirk, D L; Birchem, R; King, N

    1986-02-01

    The structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of representatives of all four sections of the genus Volvox was examined by a combination of light- and electron-microscopic methods. On the basis of these observations, plus published descriptions of aspects of ECM organization in other members of the order Volvocales, a system of nomenclature is proposed, to facilitate discussion of comparative morphology and phylogeny of the ECM in the order. In this system the ECM is divided into four main zones: the flagellar zone (FZ), which consists of attachments to and specializations of the ECM around the flagella; the boundary zone (BZ), which consists of portions of the ECM that (except in periflagellar regions) are continuous over the surface of the organism and are not structurally continuous with deeper layers; the cellular zone (CZ), which consists of specializations, other than those of the FZ, around individual cells; and the deep zone (DZ), which consists of components that fill the central region of the organism, internal to CZ. An empirically based set of hierarchical subdivisions of these zones is then proposed that permits specific identification of most morphologically distinct ECM components. The fact that not all zones and subzones are present in all members of the order means that this system permits identification of those ECM structures that have been gained or lost during Volvocalean evolution. Species-specific differences in the structure of virtually all aspects of the ECM were seen among the Volvox species examined in this study. However, the fact that such differences cannot always be used as diagnostic characters for the four divisions of the genus was demonstrated by the observation that in certain ECM features two members of the same division (V. carteri f. nagariensis and V. carteri f. weismannia) differ markedly in structure from one another, with one member of the pair resembling a member of another division. Thus many details of ECM

  10. In vivo xenogeneic scaffold fate is determined by residual antigenicity and extracellular matrix preservation.

    Wong, Maelene L; Wong, Janelle L; Vapniarsky, Natalia; Griffiths, Leigh G

    2016-06-01

    The immunological potential of animal-derived tissues and organs is the critical hurdle to increasing their clinical implementation. Glutaraldehyde-fixation cross-links proteins in xenogeneic tissues (e.g., bovine pericardium) to delay immune rejection, but also compromises the regenerative potential of the resultant biomaterial. Unfixed xenogeneic biomaterials in which xenoantigenicity has been ameliorated and native extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture has been maintained have the potential to overcome limitations of current clinically utilized glutaraldehyde-fixed biomaterials. The objective of this work was to determine how residual antigenicity and ECM architecture preservation modulate recipient immune and regenerative responses towards unfixed bovine pericardium (BP) ECM scaffolds. Disruption of ECM architecture during scaffold generation, with either SDS-decellularization or glutaraldehyde-fixation, stimulated recipient foreign body response and resultant fibrotic encapsulation following leporine subpannicular implantation. Conversely, BP scaffolds subjected to stepwise removal of hydrophilic and lipophilic antigens using amidosulfobetaine-14 (ASB-14) maintained native ECM architecture and thereby avoided fibrotic encapsulation. Removal of hydrophilic and lipophilic antigens significantly decreased local and systemic graft-specific, adaptive immune responses and subsequent calcification of BP scaffolds compared to scaffolds undergoing hydrophile removal only. Critically, removal of antigenic components and preservation of ECM architecture with ASB-14 promoted full-thickness recipient non-immune cellular repopulation of the BP scaffold. Further, unlike clinically utilized fixed BP, ASB-14-treated scaffolds fostered rapid intimal and medial vessel wall regeneration in a porcine carotid patch angioplasty model. This work highlights the importance of residual antigenicity and ECM architecture preservation in modulating recipient immune and regenerative

  11. Colony Organization in the Green Alga Botryococcus braunii is Specified by a Complex Extracellular Matrix

    Weiss, Taylor [Texas A& M University; Roth, Robyn [Washington University of St. Louis; Goodson, Carrie [Washington University of St. Louis; Vithda, Stanislav [Texas A& M University; Black, Ian [University of Georgia; Azadi, Parastoo [University of Georgia; Rusch, Jannette [Washington University of St. Louis; Holzenburg, Andreas [Texas A& M University; Devarenne, Timothy [Texas A& M University; Goodenough, Ursula [Washington University of St. Louis

    2012-01-01

    Botryococcus braunii is a colonial green alga whose cells associate via a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) and produce prodigious amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be readily converted into conventional combustion engine fuels. We used quickfreeze deep-etch electron microscopy and biochemical/histochemical analysis to elucidate many new features of B. braunii cell/ colony organization and composition. Intracellular lipid bodies associate with the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but show no evidence of being secreted. The ER displays striking fenestrations and forms a continuous subcortical system in direct contact with the cell membrane. The ECM has three distinct components. (i) Each cell is surrounded by a fibrous β-1, 4- and/or β-1, 3-glucan-containing cell wall. (ii) The intracolonial ECM space is filled with a cross-linked hydrocarbon network permeated with liquid hydrocarbons. (iii) Colonies are enclosed in a retaining wall festooned with a fibrillar sheath dominated by arabinose-galactose polysaccharides, which sequesters ECM liquid hydrocarbons. Each cell apex associates with the retaining wall and contributes to its synthesis. Retaining-wall domains also form "drapes" between cells, with some folding in on themselves and penetrating the hydrocarbon interior of a mother colony, partitioning it into daughter colonies. We propose that retaining- wall components are synthesized in the apical Golgi apparatus, delivered to apical ER fenestrations, and assembled on the surfaces of apical cell walls, where a proteinaceous granular layer apparently participates in fibril morphogenesis. We further propose that hydrocarbons are produced by the nonapical ER, directly delivered to the contiguous cell membrane, and pass across the nonapical cell wall into the hydrocarbon-based ECM.

  12. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility

  13. Porous, Ventricular Extracellular Matrix-Derived Foams as a Platform for Cardiac Cell Culture.

    Russo, Valerio; Omidi, Ehsan; Samani, Abbas; Hamilton, Andrew; Flynn, Lauren E

    2015-01-01

    To more closely mimic the native cellular microenvironment, 3D scaffolds derived from the extracellular matrix (ECM) are being developed as alternatives to conventional 2D culture systems. In the present study, we established methods to fabricate nonchemically cross-linked 3D porous foams derived entirely from decellularized porcine left ventricle (DLV) for use as an in vitro cardiac cell culture platform. Furthermore, we explored the effects of physically preprocessing the DLV through mechanical mincing versus cryomilling, as well as varying the ECM concentration on the structure, composition, and physical properties of the foams. Our results indicate that the less highly processed minced foams had a more cohesive and complex network of ECM components, enhanced mechanical properties, and improved stability under simulated culturing conditions. To validate the DLV foams, a proof-of-concept study was conducted to explore the early cardiomyogenic differentiation of pericardial fat adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (pfASCs) on the minced DLV foams relative to purified collagen I gel controls. Differentiation was induced using a modified cardiomyogenic medium (MCM) or through stimulation with 5-azacytidine (5-aza), and cardiomyocyte marker expression was characterized by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicate that early markers of cardiomyogenic differentiation were significantly enhanced on the DLV foams cultured in MCM, suggesting a synergistic effect of the cardiac ECM-derived scaffolds and the culture medium on the induction of pfASC differentiation. Furthermore, in analyzing the response in the noninduced control groups, the foams were observed to provide a mildly inductive microenvironment for pfASC cardiomyogenesis, supporting the rationale for using tissue-specific ECM as a substrate for cardiac cell culture applications. PMID:26487982

  14. Temporal and Molecular Analyses of Cardiac Extracellular Matrix Remodeling following Pressure Overload in Adiponectin Deficient Mice.

    Keith Dadson

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, circulating levels of which are reduced in obesity and diabetes, mediates cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling in response to pressure overload (PO. Here, we performed a detailed temporal analysis of progressive cardiac ECM remodelling in adiponectin knockout (AdKO and wild-type (WT mice at 3 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the induction of mild PO via minimally invasive transverse aortic banding. We first observed that myocardial adiponectin gene expression was reduced after 4 weeks of PO, whereas increased adiponectin levels were detected in cardiac homogenates at this time despite decreased circulating levels of adiponectin. Scanning electron microscopy and Masson's trichrome staining showed collagen accumulation increased in response to 2 and 4 weeks of PO in WT mice, while fibrosis in AdKO mice was notably absent after 2 weeks but highly apparent after 4 weeks of PO. Time and intensity of fibroblast appearance after PO was not significantly different between AdKO and WT animals. Gene array analysis indicated that MMP2, TIMP2, collagen 1α1 and collagen 1α3 were induced after 2 weeks of PO in WT but not AdKO mice. After 4 weeks MMP8 was induced in both genotypes, MMP9 only in WT mice and MMP1α only in AdKO mice. Direct stimulation of primary cardiac fibroblasts with adiponectin induced a transient increase in total collagen detected by picrosirius red staining and collagen III levels synthesis, as well as enhanced MMP2 activity detected via gelatin zymography. Adiponectin also enhanced fibroblast migration and attenuated angiotensin-II induced differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype. In conclusion, these data indicate that increased myocardial bioavailability of adiponectin mediates ECM remodeling following PO and that adiponectin deficiency delays these effects.

  15. The extracellular matrix of porcine mature oocytes: Origin, composition and presumptive roles

    Pivko Juraj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extracellular matrix (ECM of porcine mature oocytes was revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM after treatment with tannic acid and ruthenium red. Present in the perivitelline space (PVS and on the surface of the zona pellucida (ZP, it appeared to be composed of thin filaments and granules at the interconnections of the filaments, which were interpreted respectively as hyaluronic acid chains and bound proteoglycans. In order to determine whether this material is produced by the corona cells (the same ECM was found also on the surface of the zona pellucida and between cumulus cells or by the oocyte itself, the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans was checked by autoradiography on semi-thin and thin sections observed by light and electron microscopy. Immature oocytes within or without cumulus cells, were incubated with L [3H-] fucose or L [3H-] glucosamine – precursors respectively of glycoproteins and hyaluronic acid or hyaluronan (HA bound to proteoglycans – for various times (with or without chase and at different stages during in vitro maturation. In the first case, incorporation was found in both cumulus cells and ooplasm (notably in the Golgi area for 3H-fucose and labeled material accumulated in the ECM of the PVS and of the ZP surface. Labeling in the PVS with both precursors was maximum between metaphase I (MI and metaphase II (MII and was partially extracted by hyaluronidase but not by neuraminidase. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycoprotein synthesis, significantly decreased the amount of 3H-fucose labeled molecules in the PVS and increased the incidence of polyspermic penetration during subsequent in vivo fertilization. Since cumulus-free oocytes also secreted 3H-glucosamine containing compounds, both oocyte and cumulus cells probably contribute to the production of the ECM found in the PVS of mature oocytes. ECM and particularly its HA moiety present on both sides of the ZP may constitute a

  16. Early Change of Extracellular Matrix and Diastolic Parameters in Metabolic Syndrome

    Santos, Angela B. S., E-mail: angelabssantos@yahoo.com.br [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Junges, Mauricio; Silvello, Daiane; Macari, Adriana; Araújo, Bruno S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Seligman, Beatriz G. [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Duncan, Bruce B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rohde, Luis Eduardo P.; Clausell, Nadine; Foppa, Murilo [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. It is not clear whether myocardial changes showed in this syndrome, such as diastolic dysfunction, are due to the systemic effects of the syndrome, or to specific myocardial effects. Compare diastolic function, biomarkers representing extracellular matrix activity (ECM), inflammation and cardiac hemodynamic stress in patients with the MS and healthy controls. MS patients (n = 76) and healthy controls (n=30) were submitted to a clinical assessment, echocardiographic study, and measurement of plasma levels of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1), ultrasensitive-reactive-C-Protein (us-CRP), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). MS group showed lower E' wave (10.1 ± 3.0 cm/s vs 11.9 ± 2.6 cm/s, p = 0.005), increased A wave (63.4 ± 14.1 cm/s vs. 53.1 ± 8.9 cm/s; p < 0.001), E/E' ratio (8.0 ± 2.2 vs. 6.3 ± 1.2; p < 0.001), MMP9 (502.9 ± 237.1 ng / mL vs. 330.4±162.7 ng/mL; p < 0.001), us-CRP (p = 0.001) and HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), but no difference for TIMP1 or NT-proBNP levels. In a multivariable analysis, only MMP9 was independently associated with MS. MS patients showed differences for echocardiographic measures of diastolic function, ECM activity, us-CRP and HOMA-IR when compared to controls. However, only MMP9 was independently associated with the MS. These findings suggest that there are early effects on ECM activity, which cannot be tracked by routine echocardiographic measures of diastolic function.

  17. Increasing extracellular matrix collagen level and MMP activity induces cyst development in polycystic kidney disease

    Liu Bin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD kidneys exhibit increased extracellular matrix (ECM collagen expression and metalloproteinases (MMPs activity. We investigated the role of these increases on cystic disease progression in PKD kidneys. Methods We examined the role of type I collagen (collagen I and membrane bound type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP on cyst development using both in vitro 3 dimensional (3D collagen gel culture and in vivo PCK rat model of PKD. Results We found that collagen concentration is critical in controlling the morphogenesis of MDCK cells cultured in 3D gels. MDCK cells did not form 3D structures at collagen I concentrations lower than 1 mg/ml but began forming tubules when the concentration reaches 1 mg/ml. Significantly, these cells began to form cyst when collagen I concentration reached to 1.2 mg/ml, and the ratios of cyst to tubule structures increased as the collagen I concentration increased. These cells exclusively formed cyst structures at a collagen I concentration of 1.8 mg/ml or higher. Overexpression of MT1-MMP in MDCK cells significantly induced cyst growth in 3D collagen gel culture. Conversely, inhibition of MMPs activity with doxycycline, a FDA approved pan-MMPs inhibitor, dramatically slowed cyst growth. More importantly, the treatment of PCK rats with doxycycline significantly decreased renal tubule cell proliferation and markedly inhibited the cystic disease progression. Conclusions Our data suggest that increased collagen expression and MMP activity in PKD kidneys may induce cyst formation and expansion. Our findings also suggest that MMPs may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human PKD.

  18. Fate of distal lung epithelium cultured in a decellularized lung extracellular matrix.

    Calle, Elizabeth A; Mendez, Julio J; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Leiby, Katherine L; Bove, Peter F; Herzog, Erica L; Sundaram, Sumati; Niklason, Laura E

    2015-06-01

    Type II cells are the defenders of the alveolus. They produce surfactant to prevent alveolar collapse, they actively transport water to prevent filling of the air sacs that would otherwise prevent gas exchange, and they differentiate to type I epithelial cells. They are an indispensable component of functional lung tissue. To understand the functionality of type II cells in isolation, we sought to track their fate in decellularized matrices and to assess their ability to contribute to barrier function by differentiation to type I alveolar epithelial cells. Rat type II cells were isolated from neonatal rat lungs by labeling with the RTII-70 surface marker and separation using a magnetic column. This produced a population of ∼50% RTII-70-positive cells accompanied by few type I epithelial cells or α-actin-positive mesenchymal cells. This population was seeded into decellularized rat lung matrices and cultured for 1 or 7 days. Culture in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium +10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) resulted in reduced expression of epithelial markers and increased expression of mesenchymal markers. By 7 days, no epithelial markers were visible by immunostaining; nearly all cells were α-actin positive. Gene expression for the mesenchymal markers, α-actin, vimentin, and TGF-βR, was significantly upregulated on day 1 (p=0.0005, 0.0005, and 2.342E-5, respectively). Transcript levels of α-actin and TGF-βR remained high at 7 days (p=1.364E-10 and 0.0002). Interestingly, human type II cells cultured under the same conditions showed a similar trend in the loss of epithelial markers, but did not display high expression of mesenchymal markers. Rat cells additionally showed the ability to produce and degrade the basement membrane and extracellular matrix components, such as fibronectin, collagen IV, and collagen I. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed significant increases in expression of the fibronectin and matrix

  19. Plasma concentrations of extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 are related to cardiovascular risk markers in chronic kidney disease and diabetes

    Scholze, Alexandra; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Sidelmann, Johannes J;

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fibulin-1 is one of a few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1 was determined in subjects with chronic ...... the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease observed in chronic kidney disease and diabetes.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fibulin-1 is one of a few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1 was determined in subjects with chronic...... kidney disease (n = 32; median age 62.5, inter-quartile range 51 -- 73 years) and 60 age-matched control subjects. Among kidney disease patients serological biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (fibrinogen, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein) were measured. Arterial applanation tonometry was used...

  20. Chinese Yellow Wine Inhibit Production of Homocysteine-induced Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 in Cultured Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Regular consumption of moderate amounts of Chinese yellow wine is associated with a reduced risk of coronary disease.Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that participate in extracellular matrix degradation have been involved in atherosclerotic plaque growth and instability. The present research aimed to study the effects of Chinese yellow wine on the production of homocysteineinduced extracellular MMP-2 in cultured rats' vascular smooth muscle cells. Methods The effects of different homocysteine levels (0-1000 μmol/l) on MMP-2 production, and the effects of Chinese yellow wine with low alcohol concentrations (12-19% ) on homocysteine-induced MMP-2 in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were examined using gelatin zymography and western blotting. The changes of MMP-2 under various treatments for 12h, 24h and 48 h were further compared. Results Homocysteine (50-1000 μmol/l) increased the production of MMP-2 significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Increased production of MMP-2 induced by homocysteine was reduced by extracellularly added Chinese yellow wine.Production of MMP-2 under various treatments for 48 h increased more than 12 h and 24 h. Conclusions Extracellularly added Chinese yellow wine decreased homocysteine-induced MMP-2 secretion. The inhibitory effect of yellow wine on the activation of MMP-2 might contribute to their beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  1. Extracellular Matrix Signaling from the Cellular Membrane Skeleton to the Nuclear Skeleton: A Model of Gene Regulation

    Lelièvre, Sophie; Weaver, Valerie M.; Bissell, Mina J.

    1996-01-01

    It is well established that cells must interact with their microenvironment and that such interaction is crucial for coordinated function and homeostasis. However, how cells receive and integrate external signals leading to gene regulation is far from understood. It is now appreciated that two classes of cooperative signals are implicated: a soluble class including hormones and growth factors and a class of insoluble signals emanating from the extracellular matrix (ECM) directly through conta...

  2. The Int-2/Fgf-3 oncogene product is secreted and associates with extracellular matrix: implications for cell transformation.

    Kiefer, P; Peters, G.; Dickson, C

    1991-01-01

    NIH3T3 cells transformed by mouse Int-2/Fgf-3 cDNA express a series of Int-2-related products representing discrete stages of processing and glycosylation. We confirm that in at least two highly transformed clonal lines, Int-2 products acquire further modifications and are efficiently secreted into the culture medium. Secreted proteins become associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix and can be displaced by addition of soluble glycosaminoglycans, specifically heparin, heparan ...

  3. Sox9 is required for precursor cell expansion and extracellular matrix organization during mouse heart valve development

    Lincoln, Joy; Kist, Ralf; Scherer, Gerd; Yutzey, Katherine E.

    2007-01-01

    Heart valve structures derived from mesenchymal cells of the endocardial cushions (EC) are composed of highly organized cell lineages and extracellular matrix. Sox9 is a transcription factor required for both early and late stages of cartilage formation that is also expressed in the developing valves of the heart. The requirements for Sox9 function during valvulogenesis and adult valve homeostasis in mice were examined by conditional inactivation of Sox9 using Tie2-cre and Col2a1-cre transgen...

  4. The Extracellular Matrix Protein Artichoke Is Required for Integrity of Ciliated Mechanosensory and Chemosensory Organs in Drosophila Embryos

    Andrés, Marta; Turiégano, Enrique; Göpfert, Martin C.; Canal, Inmaculada; Torroja, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Sensory cilia are often encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). In Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrates, this ECM is thought to be directly involved in ciliary mechanosensing by coupling external forces to the ciliary membrane. Drosophila mechano- and chemosensory cilia are both associated with an ECM, indicating that the ECM may have additional roles that go beyond mechanosensory cilium function. Here, we identify Artichoke (ATK), an evolutionarily conse...

  5. Establishment and characterization of intraperitoneal xenograft models by co-injection of human tumor cells and extracellular matrix gel

    Yao, Yuqin; Zhou, Yongjun; SU, XIAOLAN; Dai, Lei; Yu, Lin; Deng, Hongxin; Gou, Lantu; YANG, JINLIANG

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a feasible intraperitoneal (i.p.) xenograft model in nude mice is a good strategy to evaluate the antitumor effect of drugs in vivo. However, the manipulation of human cancer cells in establishing a stable peritoneal carcinomatosis model in nude mice is problematic. In the present study, the ovarian and colorectal peritoneal tumor models were successfully established in nude mice by co-injection of human tumor cells and extracellular matrix gel. In ovarian tumor models, the mean ...

  6. Combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix and adipose-derived stem cells for adipose tissue engineering

    Wang, Lina; Johnson, Joshua A.; Zhang, Qixu; Elisabeth K. Beahm

    2013-01-01

    Repair of soft-tissue defects resulting from lumpectomy or mastectomy has become an important rehabilitation process for breast cancer patients. This study aimed to provide an adipose tissue engineering platform for soft-tissue defect repair by combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix (hDAM) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). To derive hDAM, incised human adipose tissues underwent a decellularization process. Effective cell removal and lipid removal were p...

  7. Comprehensive Profiling of Cartilage Extracellular Matrix Formation and Maturation Using Sequential Extraction and Label-free Quantitative Proteomics*

    Wilson, Richard; Diseberg, Anders F.; Gordon, Lavinia; Zivkovic, Snezana; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Mackie, Eleanor J.; Gorman, Jeffrey J.; Bateman, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage is indispensable for joint function but has limited capacity for self-repair. Engineering of neocartilage in vitro is therefore a major target for autologous cartilage repair in arthritis. Previous analysis of neocartilage has targeted cellular organization and specific molecular components. However, the complexity of extracellular matrix (ECM) development in neocartilage has not been investigated by proteomics. To redress this, we developed a mouse neocartilage culture sy...

  8. Extracellular Matrix Remodeling by Dynamic Strain in a Three-Dimensional Tissue-Engineered Human Airway Wall Model

    Choe, Melanie M.; Sporn, Peter H. S.; Swartz, Melody A.

    2006-01-01

    Airway wall remodeling is a hallmark of asthma, characterized by subepithelial thickening and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Mechanical stress due to hyperresponsive smooth muscle cells may contribute to this remodeling, but its relevance in a three-dimensional environment (where the ECM plays an important role in modulating stresses felt by cells) is unclear. To characterize the effects of dynamic compression in ECM remodeling in a physiologically relevant three-dimensional environme...

  9. Expression of extracellular matrix proteoglycans perlecan and decorin in carbon-tetrachloride-injured rat liver and in isolated liver cells.

    Gallai, M.; Kovalszky, I.; Knittel, T.; Neubauer, K; Armbrust, T.; Ramadori, G.

    1996-01-01

    Proteoglycans are important components of the extracellular matrix. They are involved in liver regeneration as well as in liver fibrosis. The distribution and cellular source of proteoglycans under normal as well as pathological conditions is still under debate. Localization of decorin and perlecan was studied in normal, acutely damaged, and cirrhotic liver by histochemistry. Furthermore, their synthesis was analyzed in different liver cell populations isolated from normal rat liver. In norma...

  10. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Yang Wang; Zheng-wei Li; Min Luo; Ya-jun Li; Ke-qiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem ...

  11. Accumulation of Extracellular Matrix and Developmental Dysregulation in the Pancreas by Transgenic Production of Transforming Growth Factor-β1

    Lee, Myung-Shik; Gu, Danling; Feng, Lili; Curriden, Scott; Arnush, Marc; Krahl, Troy; Gurushanthaiah, Deepak; Wilson, Curtis; Loskutoff, David L.; Fox, Howard; Sarvetnick, Nora

    1995-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the pancreatic β-islet cells directed by human insulin promoter were produced to study in vivo effects of TGF-β1. Fibroblast proliferation and abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix were observed from birth onward, finally replacing almost all the exocrine pancreas. Cellular infiltrates comprising macrophages and neutrophils were also observed. Plasminogen activator inhibitor was induced in the transgenic pancreas as we...

  12. A Novel Compound Rasatiol Isolated from Raphanus sativus Has a Potential to Enhance Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Dermal Fibroblasts

    Roh, Seok-Seon; Park, Seung-Bae; Park, Seong-Mo; Choi, Byoung Wook; Lee, Min-Ho; Hwang, Yul-Lye; Kim, Chang Hun; Jeong, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Background The fibrous proteins of extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by dermal fibroblast contributes to the maintenance of connective tissue integrity. Objective This study is carried out to identify the bioactive ingredient from natural products that enhances ECM production in dermal fibroblasts. Methods Bioassay-directed fractionation was used to isolate the active ingredient from natural extracts. The effects of rasatiol (isolated from Raphanus sativus) on ECM production in primary cult...

  13. Decellularized Extracellular Matrix as an In Vitro Model to Study the Comprehensive Roles of the ECM in Stem Cell Differentiation

    Takashi Hoshiba; Guoping Chen; Chiho Endo; Hiroka Maruyama; Miyuki Wakui; Eri Nemoto; Naoki Kawazoe; Masaru Tanaka

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are a promising cell source for regenerative medicine. Stem cell differentiation must be regulated for applications in regenerative medicine. Stem cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM) in vivo. The ECM is composed of many types of proteins and glycosaminoglycans that assemble into a complex structure. The assembly of ECM molecules influences stem cell differentiation through orchestrated intracellular signaling activated by many ECM molecules. Therefore, it is importan...

  14. Differential Gene Regulation under Altered Gravity Conditions in Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells: Relationship between the Extracellular Matrix and the Cytoskeleton

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Pietsch, Jessica; Grosse, Jirka; Wehland, Markus; Schulz, Herbert; Saar, Katrin; Hübner, Norbert; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Braun, Markus; van Loon, Jack; Vagt, Nicole; EGLI, Marcel; Richter, Peter; Einspanier, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, and cytoskeletal proteins form a dynamic network interacting with signalling molecules as an adaptive response to altered gravity. An important issue is the exact differentiation between real microgravity responses of the cells or cellular reactions to hypergravity and/or vibrations. To determine the effects of real microgravity on human cells, we used four DLR parabolic flight campaigns and focused on the effects of short-term microgravity (...

  15. Effects of myenteric denervation on extracellular matrix fibers and mast cell distribution in normal stomach and gastric lesions

    Estofolete Cássia F; Botelho-Machado Carla; Taboga Sebastião R; Zucoloto Sérgio; Polli-Lopes Ana; Gil Cristiane D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study the effect of myenteric denervation induced by benzalconium chloride (BAC) on distribution of fibrillar components of extracellular matrix (ECM) and inflammatory cells was investigated in gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Rats were divided in four experimental groups: non-denervated (I) and denervated stomach (II) without MNNG treatment; non-denervated (III) and denervated stomachs (IV) treated with MNNG. For histo...

  16. Extracellular matrix and hormones transcriptionally regulate bovine beta-casein 5' sequences in stably transfected mouse mammary cells.

    Schmidhauser, C; Bissell, M.J.; Myers, C A; Casperson, G F

    1990-01-01

    Milk protein regulation involves synergistic action of lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix (ECM). It is well established that substratum has a dramatic effect on morphology and function of mammary cells. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the ECM- and hormone-dependent gene expression, however, have not been resolved. To address this question, a subpopulation (designated CID 9) of the mouse mammary epithelial cell strain COMMA-1D has been developed in which more than 35% of the c...

  17. Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized and devitalized biodegradable polymer and extracellular matrix hybrid constructs

    Thibault, Richard A.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Kasper, F. Kurtis

    2013-01-01

    Devitalization and demineralization processing of biodegradable polymer and extracellular matrix (ECM) hybrid constructs was explored for the effect on the retention of ECM components and construct osteogenicity. Hybrid constructs were generated by seeding osteogenically pre-differentiated rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) onto electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) fiber meshes and culturing in osteogenic medium for 12 or 16 days within a flow perfusion bioreactor to create an ECM coating. The res...

  18. Targeting of EMILIN-1 and EMILIN-2 to Fibrillin Microfibrils Facilitates their Incorporation into the Extracellular Matrix.

    Schiavinato, Alvise; Keene, Douglas R; Wohl, Alexander P; Corallo, Diana; Colombatti, Alfonso; Wagener, Raimund; Paulsson, Mats; Bonaldo, Paolo; Sengle, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    Elastin microfibril interface-located proteins (EMILINs) 1 and 2 belong to a family of structurally related extracellular glycoproteins with unique functions in the extracellular space, such as modulation of pro-transforming growth factor-β processing, activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and regulation of Hedgehog and Wnt ligand bioavailability. However, little is known about how EMILINs may exert their extracellular functions. We therefore investigated the spatiotemporal localization and deposition of EMILIN-1 and -2 within the extracellular space. By using immunoelectron and immunofluorescence microscopy together with biochemical extraction, we showed that EMILIN-1 and -2 are targeted to fibrillin microfibrils in the skin. In addition, during skin wound healing and in vitro matrix fiber assembly by primary dermal fibroblasts, EMILIN-1 and -2 are deposited on and coregulated with fibrillin. Analysis of wounds and mouse embryonic fibroblast cultures showed that EMILIN-1 and -2 network formation also requires the presence of fibronectin. Disruption of microfibrils in fibrillin-1-deficient mice leads to fragmentation of the EMILIN-1 and -2 networks, suggesting an involvement of EMILINs in fibrillin-related skin disorders. The addition of EMILINs to the ligand repertoire of fibrillin strengthens the concept of fibrillin microfibrils as extracellular scaffolds integrating cellular force transmission and growth factor bioactivity. PMID:26945878

  19. Illustration of extensive extracellular matrix at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche

    Minuth Will W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates to treat diseased renal parenchyma. However, implanted stem/progenitor cells are exposed to a harmful atmosphere of degenerating parenchyma. To minimize hampering effects after an implantation investigations are in progress to administer these cells within an artificial polyester interstitum supporting survival. Learning from nature the renal stem/progenitor cell niche appears as a valuable model. At this site epithelial stem/progenitor cells within the collecting duct ampulla face mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Both cell types do not have close contact but are separated by a wide interstitium. Methods To analyze extracellular matrix in this particular interstitium, special contrasting for transmission electron microscopy was performed. Kidneys of neonatal rabbits were fixed in solutions containing glutaraldehyde (GA or in combination with cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red and tannic acid. Results GA revealed a basal lamina at the ampulla and a bright but inconspicuously looking interstitial space. In contrast, GA containing cupromeronic blue exhibits numerous proteoglycan braces lining from the ampulla towards the interstitial space. GA containing ruthenium red or tannic acid demonstrates clouds of extracellular matrix protruding from the basal lamina of the ampulla to the surface of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Conclusions The actual data show that the interstitium between epithelial and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells contains much more and up to date unknown extracellular matrix than earlier observed by classical GA fixation.

  20. Extracellular matrix components in peripheral nerve repair:how to affect neural cellular response and nerve regeneration?

    Alba C de Luca; Stephanie P Lacour; Wassim Raffoul; Pietro G di Summa

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a serious problem affecting signiifcantly patients’ life. Autografts are the“gold standard” used to repair the injury gap, however, only 50% of patients fully recover from the trauma. Artiifcial conduits are a valid alternative to repairing peripheral nerve. They aim at conifning the nerve environment throughout the regeneration process, and providing guidance to axon outgrowth. Biocompatible materials have been carefully designed to reduce inlfamma-tion and scar tissue formation, but modiifcations of the inner lumen are still required in order to optimise the scaffolds. Biomicking the native neural tissue with extracellular matrix ifllers or coatings showed great promises in repairing longer gaps and extending cell survival. In addition, extracellular matrix molecules provide a platform to further bind growth factors that can be released in the system over time. Alternatively, conduit ifllers can be used for cell transplantation at the injury site, reducing the lag time required for endogenous Schwann cells to proliferate and take part in the regeneration process. This review provides an overview on the importance of ex-tracellular matrix molecules in peripheral nerve repair.

  1. The central role of vascular extracellular matrix and basement membrane remodeling in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: the matrix preloaded

    Tyagi Suresh C

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The vascular endothelial basement membrane and extra cellular matrix is a compilation of different macromolecules organized by physical entanglements, opposing ionic charges, chemical covalent bonding, and cross-linking into a biomechanically active polymer. These matrices provide a gel-like form and scaffolding structure with regional tensile strength provided by collagens, elasticity by elastins, adhesiveness by structural glycoproteins, compressibility by proteoglycans – hyaluronans, and communicability by a family of integrins, which exchanges information between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix of vascular tissues. Each component of the extracellular matrix and specifically the capillary basement membrane possesses unique structural properties and interactions with one another, which determine the separate and combined roles in the multiple diabetic complications or diabetic opathies. Metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their parallel companion (atheroscleropathy are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities and chronic injurious stimuli. The adaptable quality of a matrix or form genetically preloaded with the necessary information to communicate and respond to an ever-changing environment, which supports the interstitium, capillary and arterial vessel wall is individually examined.

  2. Bone marrow derived cell-seeded extracellular matrix: A novel biomaterial in the field of wound management

    V. Remya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Extensive or irreversible damage to the skin often requires additional skin substitutes for reconstruction. Biomaterials have become critical components in the development of effective new medical therapies for wound care. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a cell matrix construct (bone marrow-derived cells (BMdc seeded extracellular matrix [ECM] was used as a biological substitute for the repair of full-thickness skin wound. ECM was developed by decellularizing fish swim bladder (FSB. Goat bone marrow-derived cells (G-BMdc were seeded over this decellularized matrix. Efficacy of this cell matrix construct in wound repair was tested by implanting it over 20 mm2 × 20 mm2 size fullthickness skin wound created over the dorsum of rat. The study was conducted in 16 clinically healthy adult rats of either sex. The animals were randomly divided into 2 equal groups of 8 animals each. In Group I, animal’s wounds were repaired with a cellular FSB matrix. In Group II, wounds were repaired with G-BMdc seeded a cellular FSB matrix. Immune response and efficacy of healing were analyzed. Results: Quality of healing and immuno tolerance to the biological substitute was significantly better in Group II than Group I. Conclusion: Seeding with BMdc increases the wound healing potency and modulates the immune response to a significantly negligible level. The BMdc seeded acellular FSB matrix was found to be a novel biomaterial for wound management.

  3. Optical Measurement of Micromechanics and Structure in a 3D Fibrin Extracellular Matrix

    Kotlarchyk, Maxwell Aaron

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, a significant number of studies have focused on linking substrate mechanics to cell function using standard methodologies to characterize the bulk properties of the hydrogel substrates. However, current understanding of the correlations between the microstructural mechanical properties of hydrogels and cell function in 3D is poor, in part because of a lack of appropriate techniques. Methods for tuning extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanics in 3D cell culture that rely on increasing the concentration of either protein or cross-linking molecules fail to control important parameters such as pore size, ligand density, and molecular diffusivity. Alternatively, ECM stiffness can be modulated independently from protein concentration by mechanically loading the ECM. We have developed an optical tweezers-based microrheology system to investigate the fundamental role of ECM mechanical properties in determining cellular behavior. Further, this thesis outlines the development of a novel device for generating stiffness gradients in naturally derived ECMs, where stiffness is tuned by inducing strain, while local structure and mechanical properties are directly determined by laser tweezers-based passive and active microrheology respectively. Hydrogel substrates polymerized within 35 mm diameter Petri dishes are strained non-uniformly by the precise rotation of an embedded cylindrical post, and exhibit a position-dependent stiffness with little to no modulation of local mesh geometry. Here we present microrheological studies in the context of fibrin hydrogels. Microrheology and confocal imaging were used to directly measure local changes in micromechanics and structure respectively in unstrained hydrogels of increasing fibrinogen concentration, as well as in our strain gradient device, in which the concentration of fibrinogen is held constant. Orbital particle tracking, and raster image correlation analysis are used to quantify changes in fibrin mechanics on the

  4. Heterogeneous Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in 3D Extracellular Matrix Composites

    Jung, Jangwook P.; Bache-Wiig, Meredith K.; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Ogle, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are structural elements of tissue and also potent signaling molecules. Previously, our laboratory showed that ECM of 2D coatings can trigger differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into mesodermal lineages in an ECM-specific manner over 14 days, in some cases comparable to chemical induction. To test whether a similar effect was possible in a 3D, tissue-like environment, we designed a synthetic-natural biomaterial composite. The composite can present whole-molecule ECM proteins to cells, even those that do not spontaneously form hydrogels ex vivo, in 3D. To this end, we entrapped collagen type I, laminin-111, or fibronectin in ECM composites with MSCs and directly compared markers of mesodermal differentiation including cardiomyogenic (ACTC1), osteogenic (SPP1), adipogenic (PPARG), and chondrogenic (SOX9) in 2D versus 3D. We found the 3D condition largely mimicked the 2D condition such that the addition of type I collagen was the most potent inducer of differentiation to all lineages tested. One notable difference between 2D and 3D was pronounced adipogenic differentiation in 3D especially in the presence of exogenous collagen type I. In particular, PPARG gene expression was significantly increased ∼16-fold relative to chemical induction, in 3D and not in 2D. Unexpectedly, 3D engagement of ECM proteins also altered immunomodulatory function of MSCs in that expression of IL-6 gene was elevated relative to basal levels in 2D. In fact, levels of IL-6 gene expression in 3D composites containing exogenously supplied collagen type I or fibronectin were statistically similar to levels attained in 2D with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulation and these levels were sustained over a 2-week period. Thus, this novel biomaterial platform allowed us to compare the biochemical impact of whole-molecule ECM proteins in 2D versus 3D indicating enhanced adipogenic differentiation and IL-6 expression

  5. Secretion and Reversible Assembly of Extracellular-like Matrix by Enzyme-Active Colloidosome-Based Protocells.

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Khrongkhwan; Li, Mei; Davis, Sean A; Mann, Stephen

    2016-03-29

    The secretion and reversible assembly of an extracellular-like matrix by enzyme-active inorganic protocells (colloidosomes) is described. Addition of N-fluorenyl-methoxycarbonyl-tyrosine-(O)-phosphate to an aqueous suspension of alkaline phosphatase-containing colloidosomes results in molecular uptake and dephosphorylation to produce a time-dependent sequence of supramolecular hydrogel motifs (outer membrane wall, cytoskeletal-like interior and extra-protocellular matrix) that are integrated and remodelled within the microcapsule architecture and surrounding environment. Heat-induced disassembly of the extra-protocellular matrix followed by cooling produces colloidosomes with a densely packed hydrogel interior. These procedures are exploited for the fabrication of nested colloidosomes with spatially delineated regions of hydrogelation. PMID:26981922

  6. PRDM14 Promotes the Migration of Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Through Extracellular Matrix Degradation in vitro

    Hong-Xia Bi; Han-Bing Shi; Ting Zhang; Ge Cui

    2015-01-01

    Background:As a novel molecular markerof non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),PRDI-BF1 and RIZ homology domain containing protein 14 (PRDM 14) is over-expressed in NSCLC tumor tissues.Extracellular matrix degradation mediated by the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) is one of the most important mechanism in lung cancer metastasis.This study aimed to determine if PRDM 14 promoted the migration of NSCLC cells through extracellular matrix degradation mediated by change of MMP/TIMP expression.Methods:The expression of PRDM14 was down-regulated in human cell line A 549 after transfection with lentiviral vector-mediated short-hairpin ribonucleic acids (shRNAs) which targeted the PRDM 14 promoter.Cellular migration ofshRNA-infected cells was detected by a scratch wound healing assay and transwell cell migration assay.Expression levels of MMP1,MMP2,TIMP1,and TIMP2 were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results:Migration ofPRDM 14-shRNA-infected cells was significantly inhibited relative to control cells as measured by the scratch wound healing (P < 0.05) and transwell cell migration assays (P < 0.01).The expression of MMP1 in A549 cells infected by PRDM14-shRNA was down-regulated significantly (P < 0.01),whereas the expression of TIMPl and TIMP2 was up-regulated significantly (P < 0.01).Conclusions:PRDM 14 accelerates A549 cells migration in vitro through extracellular matrix degradation.PRDM 14 is considered as a potential therapeutic target in metastatic NSCLC.

  7. Microfabrication of extracellular matrix structures using multipohoton-excited photochemistry: Application to modeling ovarian tissue in vitro

    Ajeti, Visar

    The extracellular matrix plays a crucial role in tissue development, differentiation and homeostasis by providing the necessary biophysical and biochemical cues for the cells. In tumors, the composition and the structure of the microenvironment is thought to be manipulated by the cancers cells to support proliferative growth and enhanced migration as means of facilitated metastasis. Current in vitro tools to address these mechanistic events in tumor progression are lacking in part due to the difficulty in recapitulating the complexity of the composition and nanoarchitecture of the tumor microenvironment. In this thesis, we explore the feasibility of multiphoton-excited photochemistry as a fabrication tool for generating in vitro scaffolds that are highly repeatable, biologically relevant and relatively affordable in a research setting. The power of this technique lays in the capabilities of crosslinking whole extracellular matrix proteins in three dimensions (3D) to recreate key topographical features of the tissue with sub-micron resolution and high fidelity. The technological developments we present here enable direct translation of matrix topographies by using the high resolution image data of the tissue samples as a fabrication template. To this effect, we have applied the fabrication technique to generate gradients of crosslinked proteins as means of studying the role of haptotaxis in ovarian and breast cancers. Our findings show that cancer cells modulate their migration velocity and persistence in response to the changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we have examined structural features of the stroma in relation to cancer migration dynamics. We find that by recreating highly aligned nanoarchitectural features prevalent in cancer stroma, we see permissive and enhanced cell migration with cell morphologies similar to in vivo. We believe multiphoton fabrication to be an enabling tool in the next generation of tissue scaffolding

  8. PRDM14 Promotes the Migration of Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Through Extracellular Matrix Degradation in vitro

    Hong-Xia Bi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a novel molecular markerof non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, PRDI-BF1 and RIZ homology domain containing protein 14 (PRDM14 is over-expressed in NSCLC tumor tissues. Extracellular matrix degradation mediated by the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs is one of the most important mechanism in lung cancer metastasis. This study aimed to determine if PRDM14 promoted the migration of NSCLC cells through extracellular matrix degradation mediated by change of MMP/TIMP expression. Methods: The expression of PRDM14 was down-regulated in human cell line A 549 after transfection with lentiviral vector-mediated short-hairpin ribonucleic acids (shRNAs which targeted the PRDM14 promoter. Cellular migration of shRNA-infected cells was detected by a scratch wound healing assay and transwell cell migration assay. Expression levels of MMP1, MMP2, TIMP1, and TIMP2 were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: Migration of PRDM14-shRNA-infected cells was significantly inhibited relative to control cells as measured by the scratch wound healing (P < 0.05 and transwell cell migration assays (P < 0.01. The expression of MMP1 in A549 cells infected by PRDM14-shRNA was down-regulated significantly (P < 0.01, whereas the expression of TIMP1 and TIMP2 was up-regulated significantly (P < 0.01. Conclusions: PRDM14 accelerates A549 cells migration in vitro through extracellular matrix degradation. PRDM14 is considered as a potential therapeutic target in metastatic NSCLC.

  9. Tissue-specific calibration of extracellular matrix material properties by transforming growth factor-β and Runx2 in bone is required for hearing

    Chang, Jolie L; Brauer, Delia S.; Johnson, Jacob; Chen, Carol G.; Akil, Omar; Balooch, Guive; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Chin, Emily N.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Butcher, Kristin; Ritchie, Robert O.; Schneider, Richard A; Lalwani, Anil; Derynck, Rik; Marshall, Grayson W.

    2010-01-01

    By investigating the role of bone quality in hearing, this study provides evidence that signaling pathways and lineage-specific transcription factors cooperate to define the tissue-specific and functionally essential material properties of the extracellular matrix.

  10. Changes in the extracellular matrix and glycosaminoglycan synthesis during the initiation of regeneration in adult newt forelimbs

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the distal tissues in a newt limb stump is completely reorganized in the 2-3-week period following amputation. In view of numerous in vitro studies showing that extracellular material influences cellular migration and proliferation, it is likely that the changes in the limb's ECM are important activities in the process leading to regeneration of such limbs. Using biochemical, autoradiographic, and histochemical techniques we studied temporal and spatial differences in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during the early, nerve-dependent phase of limb regeneration. Hyaluronic acid synthesis began with the onset of tissue dedifferentiation, became maximal within 1 weeks, and continued throughout the period of active cell proliferation. Chondroitin sulfate synthesis began somewhat later, increased steadily, and reached very high levels during chondrogenesis. During the first 10 days after amputation, distributions of sulfated and nonsulfated GAGs were both uniform throughout dedifferentiating tissues, except for a heavier localization near the bone. Since nerves are necessary to promote the regenerative process, we examined the neural influence on synthesis and accumulation of extracellular GAGs. Denervation decreased GAG production in all parts of the limb stump by approximately 50%. Newt dorsal root ganglia and brain-derived fibroblast growth factor each produced twofold stimulation of GAG synthesis in cultured 7-day regenerates. The latter effect was primarily on synthesis of hyaluronic acid. The results indicate that the trophic action of nerves on amphibian limb regeneration includes a positive influence on synthesis and extracellular accumulation of GAGs

  11. Changes in the extracellular matrix and glycosaminoglycan synthesis during the initiation of regeneration in adult newt forelimbs

    Mescher, A.L.; Munaim, S.I.

    1986-04-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the distal tissues in a newt limb stump is completely reorganized in the 2-3-week period following amputation. In view of numerous in vitro studies showing that extracellular material influences cellular migration and proliferation, it is likely that the changes in the limb's ECM are important activities in the process leading to regeneration of such limbs. Using biochemical, autoradiographic, and histochemical techniques we studied temporal and spatial differences in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during the early, nerve-dependent phase of limb regeneration. Hyaluronic acid synthesis began with the onset of tissue dedifferentiation, became maximal within 1 weeks, and continued throughout the period of active cell proliferation. Chondroitin sulfate synthesis began somewhat later, increased steadily, and reached very high levels during chondrogenesis. During the first 10 days after amputation, distributions of sulfated and nonsulfated GAGs were both uniform throughout dedifferentiating tissues, except for a heavier localization near the bone. Since nerves are necessary to promote the regenerative process, we examined the neural influence on synthesis and accumulation of extracellular GAGs. Denervation decreased GAG production in all parts of the limb stump by approximately 50%. Newt dorsal root ganglia and brain-derived fibroblast growth factor each produced twofold stimulation of GAG synthesis in cultured 7-day regenerates. The latter effect was primarily on synthesis of hyaluronic acid. The results indicate that the trophic action of nerves on amphibian limb regeneration includes a positive influence on synthesis and extracellular accumulation of GAGs.

  12. Cell adhesion to agrin presented as a nanopatterned substrate is consistent with an interaction with the extracellular matrix and not transmembrane adhesion molecules

    Wolfram Tobias; Spatz Joachim P; Burgess Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Molecular spacing is important for cell adhesion in a number of ways, ranging from the ordered arrangement of matrix polymers extracellularly, to steric hindrance of adhesion/signaling complexes intracellularly. This has been demonstrated using nanopatterned RGD peptides, a canonical extracellular matrix ligand for integrin interactions. Cell adhesion was greatly reduced when the RGD-coated nanoparticles were separated by more than 60 nm, indicating a sharp spacing-depende...

  13. Shell Extracts from the Marine Bivalve Pecten maximus Regulate the Synthesis of Extracellular Matrix in Primary Cultured Human Skin Fibroblasts

    Latire, Thomas; Legendre, Florence; Bigot, Nicolas; Carduner, Ludovic; Kellouche, Sabrina; Bouyoucef, Mouloud; Carreiras, Franck; Marin, Frédéric; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Galéra, Philippe; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Mollusc shells are composed of more than 95% calcium carbonate and less than 5% of an organic matrix consisting mostly of proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides. Previous studies have elucidated the biological activities of the shell matrices from bivalve molluscs on skin, especially on the expression of the extracellular matrix components of fibroblasts. In this work, we have investigated the potential biological activities of shell matrix components extracted from the shell of the scallop Pecten maximus on human fibroblasts in primary culture. Firstly, we demonstrated that shell matrix components had different effects on general cellular activities. Secondly, we have shown that the shell matrix components stimulate the synthesis of type I and III collagens, as well as that of sulphated GAGs. The increased expression of type I collagen is likely mediated by the recruitment of transactivating factors (Sp1, Sp3 and human c-Krox) in the −112/−61 bp COL1A1 promoter region. Finally, contrarily to what was obtained in previous works, we demonstrated that the scallop shell extracts have only a small effect on cell migration during in vitro wound tests and have no effect on cell proliferation. Thus, our research emphasizes the potential use of shell matrix of Pecten maximus for dermo-cosmetic applications. PMID:24949635

  14. Actin-associated protein palladin promotes tumor cell invasion by linking extracellular matrix degradation to cell cytoskeleton

    von Nandelstadh, Pernilla; Gucciardo, Erika; Lohi, Jouko; Li, Rui; Sugiyama, Nami; Carpen, Olli; Lehti, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    Basal-like breast carcinomas, characterized by unfavorable prognosis and frequent metastases, are associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. During this process, cancer cells undergo cytoskeletal reorganization and up-regulate membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP; MMP14), which functions in actin-based pseudopods to drive invasion by extracellular matrix degradation. However, the mechanisms that couple matrix proteolysis to the actin cytoskeleton in cell invasion have remained unclear. On the basis of a yeast two-hybrid screen for the MT1-MMP cytoplasmic tail-binding proteins, we identify here a novel Src-regulated protein interaction between the dynamic cytoskeletal scaffold protein palladin and MT1-MMP. These proteins were coexpressed in invasive human basal-like breast carcinomas and corresponding cell lines, where they were associated in the same matrix contacting and degrading membrane complexes. The silencing and overexpression of the 90-kDa palladin isoform revealed the functional importance of the interaction with MT1-MMP in pericellular matrix degradation and mesenchymal tumor cell invasion, whereas in MT1-MMP–negative cells, palladin overexpression was insufficient for invasion. Moreover, this invasion was inhibited in a dominant-negative manner by an immunoglobulin domain–containing palladin fragment lacking the dynamic scaffold and Src-binding domains. These results identify a novel protein interaction that links matrix degradation to cytoskeletal dynamics and migration signaling in mesenchymal cell invasion. PMID:24989798

  15. Functions of the conserved thrombospondin carboxy-terminal cassette in cell-extracellular matrix interactions and signaling.

    Adams, Josephine C

    2004-06-01

    Thrombospondins (TSPs) are extracellular, multidomain, calcium-binding glycoproteins that function at cell surfaces, in extracellular matrix (ECM) and as bridging molecules in cell-cell interactions. TSPs are multifunctional and modulate cell behavior during development, wound-healing, immune response, tumor growth and in the homeostasis of adult tissues. TSPs are assembled as oligomers that are composed of homologous polypeptides. In all the TSP polypeptides, the most highly-conserved region is the carboxyl-region, which contains a characteristic set of domains comprising EGF domains, TSP type 3 repeats and a globular carboxy-terminal domain. This large region is termed here the thrombospondin carboxy-terminal cassette (TSP-CTC). The strong conservation of the TSP-CTC suggests that it may mediate ancestral functions that are shared by all TSPs. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the TSP-CTC and areas of future interest. PMID:15094125

  16. Extracellular matrix of cultured glial cells: Selective expression of chondroitin 4-sulfate by type-2 astrocytes and their progenitors

    We have studied the extracellular matrix composition of cultured glial cells by immunocytochemistry with different monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Double immunofluorescence experiments and metabolic labeling with [3H]glucosamine performed in different types of cerebellar and cortical cultures showed that bipotential progenitors for type-2 astrocytes and for oligodendrocytes synthesize chondroitin sulfate (CS) and deposit this proteoglycan in their extracellular matrix. The distribution of the various [3H]glucosamine-labeled glycosaminoglycans between the intracellular and the extracellular space was different. CS was present both within the cells and in the culture medium, although in different amounts. Bi-potential progenitors became also O4-positive during their development in vitro. At the stage of O4-positivity they were still stained with antibodies against CS. However, when the progenitor cells were maintained in serum-free medium and differentiated into Gal-C-positive oligodendrocytes, they became CS-negative. In the presence of fetal calf serum in the culture medium, the bipotential progenitors differentiated into GFAP-positive type-2 astrocytes. These cells still expressed CS: their Golgi area and their surface were stained with anti-CS antibodies. Staining with monoclonal antibodies specific for different types of CS (4-sulfate, 6-sulfate, and unsulfated) revealed that both bipotential progenitors and type-2 astrocytes synthesized only chondroitin 4-sulfate. Type-1 astrocytes were negative for both the polyclonal and the monoclonal anti-CS antibodies. Finally, type-2 astrocytes and their progenitors were weakly stained with anti-laminin antibodies and unstained with anti-fibronectin. Type-1 astrocytes were positive for both anti-laminin and anti-fibronectin antibodies and appeared to secrete fibronectin in the extracellular space

  17. Thrombospondin-1 expression in urothelial carcinoma: prognostic significance and association with p53 alterations, tumour angiogenesis and extracellular matrix components

    Michael MM

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1 is an extracellular matrix component glycoprotein, which is known to be a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and may be important in cancer invasiveness. We examined the TSP-1 expression in correlation with conventional clinicopathological parameters to clarify its prognostic significance in bladder cancer. In addition, the possible correlation of TSP-1 expression with microvessel count, VEGF expression, p53 expression as well as with the expression of the extracellular matrix components was studied to explore its implication in vascularization and tumour stroma remodeling. Methods The immunohistochemical expression of TSP-1 in tumour cells and in the tumour stroma was studied in 148 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded urothelial cell carcinoma tissue samples. Results TSP-1 was detected in perivascular tissue, at the epithelial-stromal junction, in the stroma and in tumour cells in the majority of the cases. In tumour cells, low TSP-1 expression was observed in 43% of the cases, moderate and high in 7%, while 50% showed absence of TSP expression. A higher TSP-1 immunoreactivity in well and moderately differentiated tumours compared to poorly differentiated was noted. PT1 tumours showed decreased TSP-1 expression in comparison to pTa and pT2–4 tumours. Increased tumour cell TSP-1 expression was related to increased microvessel density. In the tumour stroma, 37% of the cases showed small amount of TSP-1 expression, 7.5% moderate and high, while 55% of the cases showed absence of TSP-1 stromal immunoreactivity. Stromal TSP-1 expression was inversely correlated with tumour stage and tumour size. This expression was also positively correlated with microvessel density, VEGF expression and extracellular matrix components tenascin and fibronectin. Using univariate and multivariate analysis we didn't find any significant correlation of TSP-1 expression in superficial tumours in both tumour cells and tumour stroma

  18. Thrombospondin-1 expression in urothelial carcinoma: prognostic significance and association with p53 alterations, tumour angiogenesis and extracellular matrix components

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an extracellular matrix component glycoprotein, which is known to be a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and may be important in cancer invasiveness. We examined the TSP-1 expression in correlation with conventional clinicopathological parameters to clarify its prognostic significance in bladder cancer. In addition, the possible correlation of TSP-1 expression with microvessel count, VEGF expression, p53 expression as well as with the expression of the extracellular matrix components was studied to explore its implication in vascularization and tumour stroma remodeling. The immunohistochemical expression of TSP-1 in tumour cells and in the tumour stroma was studied in 148 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded urothelial cell carcinoma tissue samples. TSP-1 was detected in perivascular tissue, at the epithelial-stromal junction, in the stroma and in tumour cells in the majority of the cases. In tumour cells, low TSP-1 expression was observed in 43% of the cases, moderate and high in 7%, while 50% showed absence of TSP expression. A higher TSP-1 immunoreactivity in well and moderately differentiated tumours compared to poorly differentiated was noted. PT1 tumours showed decreased TSP-1 expression in comparison to pTa and pT2–4 tumours. Increased tumour cell TSP-1 expression was related to increased microvessel density. In the tumour stroma, 37% of the cases showed small amount of TSP-1 expression, 7.5% moderate and high, while 55% of the cases showed absence of TSP-1 stromal immunoreactivity. Stromal TSP-1 expression was inversely correlated with tumour stage and tumour size. This expression was also positively correlated with microvessel density, VEGF expression and extracellular matrix components tenascin and fibronectin. Using univariate and multivariate analysis we didn't find any significant correlation of TSP-1 expression in superficial tumours in both tumour cells and tumour stroma in terns of the risk of recurrence and disease

  19. Extracellular matrix contains insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5: potentiation of the effects of IGF-I

    1993-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been shown to serve as carrier proteins for the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and to modulate their biologic effects. Since extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to be a reservoir for IGF-I and IGF-II, we examined the ECM of cultured human fetal fibroblasts and found that IGFBP-5 was incorporated intact into ECM, while mostly inert proteolytic fragments were found in the medium. In contrast, two other forms of IGFBP that are s...

  20. Extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 plasma levels are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease

    Scholze, Alexandra

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Fibulin-1 is one of the few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1...... was determined in patients with chronic kidney disease (n=32; median age, 63 years; inter-quartile range, 51 to 73 years). Serological biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (fibrinogen, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein) were measured. Arterial applanation tonometry was used to determine...... observed in chronic kidney disease....

  1. Buttressing staples with cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) reinforces staple lines in an ex vivo peristaltic inflation model.

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2008-11-01

    Staple line leakage and bleeding are the most common problems associated with the use of surgical staplers for gastrointestinal resection and anastomotic procedures. These complications can be reduced by reinforcing the staple lines with buttressing materials. The current study reports the potential use of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) in non-crosslinked (NCEM) and crosslinked (XCEM) forms, and compares their mechanical performance with clinically available buttress materials [small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and bovine pericardium (BP)] in an ex vivo small intestine model.

  2. The effect of acute and long-term physical activity on extracellular matrix and serglycin in human skeletal muscle

    Hjorth, Marit; Norheim, Frode; Meen, Astri Jeanette; Pourteymour, Shirin; Lee, Sindre; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, Jørgen; Birkeland, Kåre I; Martinov, Vladimir Nikolkaev; Langleite, Torgrim Mikal; Eckardt, Kristin; Drevon, Christian A.; Kolset, Svein Olav

    2015-01-01

    Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM), including regulation of proteoglycans in skeletal muscle can be important for physiological adaptation to exercise. To investigate the effects of acute and long-term exercise on the expression of ECM-related genes and proteoglycans in particular, 26 middle-aged, sedentary men underwent a 12 weeks supervised endurance and strength training intervention and two acute, 45 min bicycle tests (70% VO2max), one at baseline and one after 12 weeks of training....

  3. The extracellular matrix of Gadus morhua muscle contains types III, V, VI and IV collagens in addition to type I

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Lawson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Confocal microscopy and immuno‐histochemistry were used to examine collagens in the extracellular matrix of cod Gadus morhua swimming muscle. In addition to the well known presence of type I fibrous collagen, types III and VI were also found in the myocommata and the endomysium. The beaded collagen......, type VI, was found in the endomysium and the network forming collagen, type IV, was found in the basement membrane. This is the first report of type V collagen in cod muscle and of types II, IV and VI in the muscle of a teleost....

  4. Porcine incisional hernia model: Evaluation of biologically derived intact extracellular matrix repairs

    Monteiro, Gary A; Delossantos, Aubrey I.; Rodriguez, Neil L.; Patel, Paarun; Franz, Michael G.; Wagner, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    We compared fascial wounds repaired with non-cross-linked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix versus primary closure in a large-animal hernia model. Incisional hernias were created in Yucatan pigs and repaired after 3 weeks via open technique with suture-only primary closure or intraperitoneally placed porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix. Progressive changes in mechanical and biological properties of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix and repair sites were assessed. Porcin...

  5. AFM Imaging of RGD Presenting Synthetic Extracellular Matrix using Gold Nanoparticles

    Cell-interactive polymers have been widely used as synthetic extracellular matrices (sECM) to regulate cell function and promote tissue regeneration. Although it is known that adhesion ligand density and distribution influence the proliferation and differentiation of various cell types, currently a...

  6. Expression of the human apoE2 isoform in adipocytes: altered cellular processing and impaired adipocyte lipogenesis

    Huang, Zhi H.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Mazzone, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    Expression of apoE in adipocytes has been shown to have an important role in modulating adipocyte triglyceride (TG) metabolism and gene expression that is independent of circulating and extracellular apoE. The impact of adipocyte expression of common human apoE isoforms was evaluated using adipocytes harvested from human apoE2, -3, and -4 knock-in mice. Expression of the apoE2 isoform was associated with an increase in adipocyte apoE gene expression and apoE synthesis. Newly synthesized apoE2...

  7. Human ovarian tumor cell interactions with extracellular matrix: development of a model to study tumor cell invasion

    In order to investigate the mechanisms involved in ovarian carcinoma cell implantation and the associated tumor cell-host interactions, a model system was developed employing a mesothelial cell line grown on bovine corneal endothelial cell extracellular matrix (ECM), in an attempt to reconstruct the mesothelium in vitro. Morphologic alterations of the reconstructed mesothelium induced by OCC were observed using immunohistochemical staining, light and electron microscopy. A relationship was observed between extracellular β-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity and (1) the ability of OCC to morphologically degrade ECM; (2) the capacity of OCC to degrade [3H]-glucosamine radiolabelled ECM. The rate of accumulation of extracellular hexosaminidase in cell free-conditioned medium was progressive and closely paralleled the rate of OCC mediated release of [3H]-glucosamine from ECM. Purified hexosaminidase (placental and/or OCC) was observed to directly hydrolzye [3H]-glucosamine radiolabelled structurally intact ECM (up to 70% radiolabel) and resulted in the cumulative release of free [3H]-N-acetylglucosamine

  8. Formation of atypical podosomes in extravillous trophoblasts regulates extracellular matrix degradation

    Patel, Anand; Dash, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout pregnancy the cytotrophoblast, the stem cell of the placenta, gives rise to the differentiated forms of trophoblasts. The two main cell lineages are the syncytiotrophoblast and the invading extravillous trophoblast. A successful pregnancy requires extravillous trophoblasts to migrate and invade through the decidua and then remodel the maternal spiral arteries. Many invasive cells use specialised cellular structures called invadopodia or podosomes in order to degrade extracellular m...

  9. Extracellular matrix of the central nervous system: from neglect to challenge

    Zimmermann, D R; Dours-Zimmermann, M

    2008-01-01

    The basic concept, that specialized extracellular matrices rich in hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (aggrecan, versican, neurocan, brevican, phosphacan), link proteins and tenascins (Tn-R, Tn-C) can regulate cellular migration and axonal growth and thus, actively participate in the development and maturation of the nervous system, has in recent years gained rapidly expanding experimental support. The swift assembly and remodeling of these matrices have been associated with axonal...

  10. Surface controlled biomimetic coating of polycaprolactone nanofiber meshes to be used as bone extracellular matrix analogues

    J.V. Araújo; Martins, Albino; Leonor, I. B.; Pinho, Elisabete D.; Reis, R.L.; Neves, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop novel electrospun nanofiber meshes coated with a biomimetic calcium phosphate (BCP) layer that mimics the extracellular microenvironment found in the human bone structure. Poly(!-caprolactone) (PCL) was selected because of its well-known medical applications, its biodegradability, biocompatibility and its susceptibility to partial hydrolysis by a straightforward alkaline treatment. The deposition of a calcium phosphate layer, similar to the i...

  11. Precision-Cut Kidney Slices as a Tool to Understand the Dynamics of Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Renal Fibrosis

    Genovese, Federica; Kàrpàti, Zsolt S.; Nielsen, Signe H.; Karsdal, Morten A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to set up an ex vivo model for renal interstitial fibrosis in order to investigate the extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover profile in the fibrotic kidney. We induced kidney fibrosis in fourteen 12-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery of the right ureter. The left kidney (contralateral) was used as internal control. Six rats were sham operated and used as the control group. Rats were terminated two weeks after the surgery; the kidneys were excised and precision-cut kidney slices (PCKSs) were cultured for five days in serum-free medium. Markers of collagen type I formation (P1NP), collagen type I and III degradation (C1M and C3M), and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) were measured in the PCKS supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. P1NP, C1M, C3M, and α-SMA were increased up to 2- to 13-fold in supernatants of tissue slices from the UUO-ligated kidneys compared with the contralateral kidneys (P < 0.001) and with the kidneys of sham-operated animals (P < 0.0001). The markers could also reflect the level of fibrosis in different animals. The UUO PCKS ex vivo model provides a valuable translational tool for investigating the extracellular matrix remodeling associated with renal interstitial fibrosis.

  12. EcmPred: Prediction of extracellular matrix proteins based on random forest with maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tissues of multicellular organisms. It consists of secreted macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Malfunctions of ECM proteins lead to severe disorders such as marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, numerous chondrodysplasias, and skin diseases. In this work, we report a random forest approach, EcmPred, for the prediction of ECM proteins from protein sequences. EcmPred was trained on a dataset containing 300 ECM and 300 non-ECM and tested on a dataset containing 145 ECM and 4187 non-ECM proteins. EcmPred achieved 83% accuracy on the training and 77% on the test dataset. EcmPred predicted 15 out of 20 experimentally verified ECM proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome, we predicted novel ECM proteins validated with gene ontology and InterPro. The dataset and standalone version of the EcmPred software is available at http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/Extracellular_matrix_proteins/EcmPred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Altered expression of mitochondrial and extracellular matrix genes in the heart of human fetuses with chromosome 21 trisomy

    Olla Carlo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Down syndrome phenotype has been attributed to overexpression of chromosome 21 (Hsa21 genes. However, the expression profile of Hsa21 genes in trisomic human subjects as well as their effects on genes located on different chromosomes are largely unknown. Using oligonucleotide microarrays we compared the gene expression profiles of hearts of human fetuses with and without Hsa21 trisomy. Results Approximately half of the 15,000 genes examined (87 of the 168 genes on Hsa21 were expressed in the heart at 18–22 weeks of gestation. Hsa21 gene expression was globally upregulated 1.5 fold in trisomic samples. However, not all genes were equally dysregulated and 25 genes were not upregulated at all. Genes located on other chromosomes were also significantly dysregulated. Functional class scoring and gene set enrichment analyses of 473 genes, differentially expressed between trisomic and non-trisomic hearts, revealed downregulation of genes encoding mitochondrial enzymes and upregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins. There were no significant differences between trisomic fetuses with and without heart defects. Conclusion We conclude that dosage-dependent upregulation of Hsa21 genes causes dysregulation of the genes responsible for mitochondrial function and for the extracellular matrix organization in the fetal heart of trisomic subjects. These alterations might be harbingers of the heart defects associated with Hsa21 trisomy, which could be based on elusive mechanisms involving genetic variability, environmental factors and/or stochastic events.

  14. Angiogenesis in vestibular schwannomas: expression of extracellular matrix factors MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1

    Møller, Martin Nue; Werther, Kim; Nalla, Amarnadh;

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potent mediators of tumor angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that vestibular schwannoma VEGF expression correlates with tumor growth pattern, whereas knowledge on the expression of MMPs is lacking. This study...

  15. Helium ion microscopy of enamel crystallites and extracellular tooth enamel matrix

    Felicitas B Bidlack

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An unresolved problem in tooth enamel studies has been to analyze simultaneously and with sufficient spatial resolution both mineral and organic phases in their three dimensional (3D organization in a given specimen. This study aims to address this need using high-resolution imaging to analyze the 3D structural organization of the enamel matrix, especially amelogenin, in relation to forming enamel crystals. Chemically fixed hemi-mandibles from wild type mice were embedded in LR White acrylic resin, polished and briefly etched to expose the organic matrix in developing tooth enamel. Full-length amelogenin was labeled with specific antibodies and 10 nm immuno-gold. This allowed us to use and compare two different high-resolution imaging techniques for the analysis of uncoated samples. Helium ion microscopy (HIM was applied to study the spatial organization of organic and mineral structures, while field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM in various modes, including backscattered electron detection, allowed us to discern the gold-labeled proteins. Wild type enamel in late secretory to early maturation stage reveals adjacent to ameloblasts a lengthwise parallel alignment of the enamel matrix proteins, including full-length amelogenin proteins, which then transitions into a more heterogeneous appearance with increasing distance from the mineralization front. The matrix adjacent to crystal bundles forms a smooth and lacey sheath, whereas between enamel prisms it is organized into spherical components that are interspersed with rod-shaped protein. These findings highlight first, that the heterogeneous organization of the enamel matrix can be visualized in mineralized en bloc samples. Second, our results illustrate that the combination of these techniques is a powerful approach to elucidate the 3D structural organization of organic matrix molecules in mineralizing tissue in nanometer resolution.

  16. DNA builds and strengthens the extracellular matrix in Myxococcus xanthus biofilms by interacting with exopolysaccharides.

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available One intriguing discovery in modern microbiology is the extensive presence of extracellular DNA (eDNA within biofilms of various bacterial species. Although several biological functions have been suggested for eDNA, including involvement in biofilm formation, the detailed mechanism of eDNA integration into biofilm architecture is still poorly understood. In the biofilms formed by Myxococcus xanthus, a Gram-negative soil bacterium with complex morphogenesis and social behaviors, DNA was found within both extracted and native extracellular matrices (ECM. Further examination revealed that these eDNA molecules formed well organized structures that were similar in appearance to the organization of exopolysaccharides (EPS in ECM. Biochemical and image analyses confirmed that eDNA bound to and colocalized with EPS within the ECM of starvation biofilms and fruiting bodies. In addition, ECM containing eDNA exhibited greater physical strength and biological stress resistance compared to DNase I treated ECM. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that DNA interacts with EPS and strengthens biofilm structures in M. xanthus.

  17. Extracellular matrix of adipogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells reveals a network of collagen filaments, mostly interwoven by hexagonal structural units.

    Ullah, Mujib; Sittinger, Michael; Ringe, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is the non-cellular component of tissues, which not only provides biological shelter but also takes part in the cellular decisions for diverse functions. Every tissue has an ECM with unique composition and topology that governs the process of determination, differentiation, proliferation, migration and regeneration of cells. Little is known about the structural organization of matrix especially of MSC-derived adipogenic ECM. Here, we particularly focus on the composition and architecture of the fat ECM to understand the cellular behavior on functional bases. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were adipogenically differentiated, then, were transferred to adipogenic propagation medium, whereas they started the release of lipid droplets leaving bare network of ECM. Microarray analysis was performed, to indentify the molecular machinery of matrix. Adipogenesis was verified by Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets and by qPCR of adipogenic marker genes PPARG and FABP4. Antibody staining demonstrated the presence of collagen type I, II and IV filaments, while alkaline phosphatase activity verified the ossified nature of these filaments. In the adipogenic matrix, the hexagonal structures were abundant followed by octagonal structures, whereas they interwoven in a crisscross manner. Regarding molecular machinery of adipogenic ECM, the bioinformatics analysis revealed the upregulated expression of COL4A1, ITGA7, ITGA7, SDC2, ICAM3, ADAMTS9, TIMP4, GPC1, GPC4 and downregulated expression of COL14A1, ADAMTS5, TIMP2, TIMP3, BGN, LAMA3, ITGA2, ITGA4, ITGB1, ITGB8, CLDN11. Moreover, genes associated with integrins, glycoproteins, laminins, fibronectins, cadherins, selectins and linked signaling pathways were found. Knowledge of the interactive-language between cells and matrix could be beneficial for the artificial designing of biomaterials and bioscaffolds. PMID:23851162

  18. FAP-overexpressing fibroblasts produce an extracellular matrix that enhances invasive velocity and directionality of pancreatic cancer cells

    Alterations towards a permissive stromal microenvironment provide important cues for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this study, Fibroblast activation protein (FAP), a serine protease selectively produced by tumor-associated fibroblasts in over 90% of epithelial tumors, was used as a platform for studying tumor-stromal interactions. We tested the hypothesis that FAP enzymatic activity locally modifies stromal ECM (extracellular matrix) components thus facilitating the formation of a permissive microenvironment promoting tumor invasion in human pancreatic cancer. We generated a tetracycline-inducible FAP overexpressing fibroblastic cell line to synthesize an in vivo-like 3-dimensional (3D) matrix system which was utilized as a stromal landscape for studying matrix-induced cancer cell behaviors. A FAP-dependent topographical and compositional alteration of the ECM was characterized by measuring the relative orientation angles of fibronectin fibers and by Western blot analyses. The role of FAP in the matrix-induced permissive tumor behavior was assessed in Panc-1 cells in assorted matrices by time-lapse acquisition assays. Also, FAP+ matrix-induced regulatory molecules in cancer cells were determined by Western blot analyses. We observed that FAP remodels the ECM through modulating protein levels, as well as through increasing levels of fibronectin and collagen fiber organization. FAP-dependent architectural/compositional alterations of the ECM promote tumor invasion along characteristic parallel fiber orientations, as demonstrated by enhanced directionality and velocity of pancreatic cancer cells on FAP+ matrices. This phenotype can be reversed by inhibition of FAP enzymatic activity during matrix production resulting in the disorganization of the ECM and impeded tumor invasion. We also report that the FAP+ matrix-induced tumor invasion phenotype is β1-integrin/FAK mediated. Cancer cell invasiveness can be affected by alterations in the tumor

  19. Human macrophages primed with angiogenic factors show dynamic plasticity, irrespective of extracellular matrix components

    Ploeger, Diana T. A.; van Putten, Sander M.; Koerts, Jasper A.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are important in inflammation as well as in tissue repair processes. They can be activated by various stimuli and classified into two major groups: M1 (classically activated) or M2 (alternatively activated). Inflammation, angiogenesis and matrix remodeling play a major role in tissue rep

  20. The Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Extracellular Matrix Synthesis and Degradation in a Rabbit Model of Disc Degeneration

    Guo-fu Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at determining if the electroacupuncture (EA is able to protect degenerated disc in vivo. New Zealand white rabbits (n=40 were used for the study. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups. EA intervention was applied to one of the four groups. Magnetic resonance imaging and Pfirrmann’s classification were obtained for each group to evaluate EA treatment on the intervertebral disc degeneration. Discs were analyzed using immunofluorescence for the labeling of collagens 1 and 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1. For protein expression analysis, western blot was used for biglycan and decorin. Outcomes indicated that EA intervention decreased the grades compared with the compressed disc. Immunofluorescence analysis showed a significant increase of collagens 1 and 2, TIMP-1, and BMP-2 positive cells, in contrast to MMP-13 after EA treatment for 28 days. The protein expression showed a sign of regeneration that decorin and biglycan were upregulated. It was concluded that EA contributed to the extracellular matrix (ECM anabolic processes and increased the ECM components. MMPs and their inhibitors involved in the mechanism of EA intervention on ECM decreased disc. It kept a dynamic balance between ECM synthesis and degradation.

  1. Artificial extracellular matrix for embryonic stem cell cultures: a new frontier of nanobiomaterials

    Nanobiomaterials can play a central role in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering by facilitating cellular behavior and function, such as those where extracellular matrices (ECMs) direct embryonic stem (ES) cell morphogenesis, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, controlling ES cell proliferation and differentiation using matrices from natural sources is still challenging due to complex and heterogeneous culture conditions. Moreover, the systemic investigation of the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation to lineage specific cells depends on the use of defined and stress-free culture conditions. Both goals can be achieved by the development of biomaterial design targeting ECM or growth factors for ES cell culture. This targeted application will benefit from expansion of ES cells for transplantation, as well as the production of a specific differentiated cell type either by controlling the differentiation in a very specific pathway or by elimination of undesirable cell types. (topical review)

  2. A mouse 3T6 fibroblast cell culture model for the study of normal and protein-engineered collagen synthesis and deposition into the extracellular matrix.

    Lamandé, S R; Bateman, J F

    1993-07-01

    Mouse 3T6 fibroblasts deposited an organized collagenous extracellular matrix during long-term culture in the presence of ascorbic acid. The matrix produced by the cells had a similar distribution of collagen types as the mouse dermal matrix, comprising predominantly type I with smaller amounts of types III and V collagens. By day 8 of culture more than 70% of the collagen in the 3T6 matrix was involved in covalent crosslinkages and required pepsin digestion for extraction. Incorporation of NaB3H4 into reducible crosslinks and aldehydes directly demonstrated the involvement of the alpha 1 (I)CB6 and alpha 2(I)CB3.5 in crosslinks. The pattern of reducible crosslinks in the in vitro 3T6 matrix was similar to that in mouse skin suggesting a comparable fibril organization. Processing of procollagen to collagen occurred efficiently throughout the culture period and the rate of collagen production was unaltered during 15 days of culture, indicating that the development of a collagenous matrix does not directly play a role in procollagen processing or biosynthetic regulation. The existence of a preformed matrix did however, increase the efficiency with which newly synthesised collagen was incorporated into the pericellular matrix. At day 0, when there was no measurable matrix present, 29% of the collagen synthesised was deposited, while by day 15, 88% of the collagen was laid down in the matrix. The development of this 3T6 culture system, where collagen is efficiently incorporated into an organized extracellular matrix, will facilitate detailed studies on matrix organization and regulation and provide a system in which protein-engineered mutant collagens can be expressed to determine their effects on the production of a functional extracellular matrix. PMID:8412990

  3. Immunofluorescence localization of dissociation supernatant and extracellular matrix components in Lytechinus pictus sectioned embryos. M.S. Thesis

    Garciaflack, Ana Leticia

    1988-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence was used to localize specific extracellular components in embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus. Hyalin and S2 (a group of components found in the disaggregation supernatant from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus blastulae) were uniformly present at all stages (unfertilized up to 32 hr) except hyalin could not be detected at the 12 hour early blastula stage. Laminin was found in 16 cell, 32 cell, 6 hour, 18 hour, 24 hour, and 32 hour stages, with especially bright fluorescence at 18 hours. Collagen I was present at all stages (freshly fertilized up to 32 hour) except little was detected at 12 hours. Fibronectin was uniformly present in blastocoelar fibers stained with anto-collagen I and anti-fibronectin. These results were compared with those for S. purpuratus to produce an overview of the localization of specific extracellular matrix components during development of two species of sea urchins. The results set the stage for future studies that will examine the function of these components at the various developmental stages.

  4. Detection of HOCl-mediated protein oxidation products in the extracellular matrix of human atherosclerotic plaques

    Woods, Alan A; Linton, Stuart M; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    83-96% of the total oxidized protein side-chain products detected in these plaques. Oxidation of matrix components extracted from healthy artery tissue, and model proteins, with reagent HOCl is shown to give rise to a similar pattern of products to those detected in advanced human lesions. The......Oxidation is believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. Oxidized lipids, sterols and proteins have been detected in early, intermediate and advanced human lesions at elevated levels. The spectrum of oxidized side-chain products detected on proteins from homogenates of advanced human lesions has...... material obtained from advanced human atherosclerotic lesions are shown to contain elevated levels of oxidized amino acids [3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), di-tyrosine, 2-hydroxyphenylalanine ( o-Tyr)] when compared with healthy (human and pig) arterial tissue. These matrix-derived materials account for...

  5. Influence of substrate curvature on osteoblast orientation and extracellular matrix deposition

    Pilia, Marcello; Guda, Teja; Shiels, Stefanie M.; Appleford, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of microchannel diameter in hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates on osteoblast behavior were investigated in this study. Microchannels of 100, 250 and 500 μm diameter were created on hydroxyapatite disks. The changes in osteoblast precursor growth, differentiation, extra cellular matrix (ECM) secretion and cell attachment/orientation were investigated as a function of microchannel diameter. Results Curvature did not impact cellular differentiation, however organized cellular...

  6. An extracellular matrix, calmodulin-binding protein from Dictyostelium with EGF-like repeats that enhance cell motility.

    Suarez, Andres; Huber, Robert J; Myre, Michael A; O'Day, Danton H

    2011-07-01

    CyrA is a novel cysteine-rich protein with four EGFL repeats that was isolated using the calmodulin (CaM) binding overlay technique (CaMBOT), suggesting it is a CaM-binding protein (CaMBP). The full-length 63kDa cyrA is cleaved into two major C-terminal fragments, cyrA-C45 and cyrA-C40. A putative CaM-binding domain was detected and both CaM-agarose binding and CaM immunoprecipitation verified that cyrA-C45 and cyrA-C40 each bind to CaM in both a Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent manner. cyrA-C45 was present continuously throughout growth and development but was secreted at high levels during the multicellular slug stage of Dictyostelium development. At this time, cyrA localizes to the extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM purification verified the presence of cyrA-C45. An 18 amino acid peptide (DdEGFL1) from the first EGFL repeat sequence of cyrA (EGFL1) that is present in both cyrA-C45 and -C40 enhances both random cell motility and cAMP-mediated chemotaxis. Here we reveal that the dose-dependent enhancement of motility by DdEGFL1 is related to the time of cell starvation. Addition of DdEGFL1 also inhibits cyrA proteolysis. The status of cyrA as an extracellular CaMBP was further clarified by the demonstration that CaM is secreted during development. Antagonism of CaM with W7 resulted in enhanced cyrA proteolysis suggesting a functional role for extracellular CaM in protecting CaMBPs from proteolysis. cyrA is the first extracellular CaMBP identified in Dictyostelium and since it is an ECM protein with EGF-like repeats that enhance cell motility and it likely also represents the first matricellular protein identified in a lower eukaryote. PMID:21402150

  7. Extracellular Polysaccharides Matrix - An Often Forgotten Virulence Factor in Oral Biofilm Research

    Hyun Koo; Jin Xiao; Marlise I. Klein

    2009-01-01

    @@ Oral diseases related to dental biofilms continue to afflict the majority of the world's population. Among them, dental caries continues to be the single most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease (Marsh, 2003; Dye et al., 2007). Dental caries results from the interaction of specific bacteria with constituents of the diet within a dental biofilm known as plaque (Bowen, 2002). Sucrose is considered to be the "arch criminal" from the dietary aspect because it serves as a substrate for synthesis of extracellular (EPS) and intracellular (IPS) polysaccharides in dental biofilm and is also fermentable (Bowen, 2002). However, it is important to emphasize that additional sugars and starch can certainly contribute to the pathogenesis (Bowen et al., 1980; Firestone et al., 1982; Thurnheer et al., 2008). Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), a member of the oral microbial community, is generally regarded as the primary microbial culprit although additional microorganisms may be involved (Hamada and Slade, 1980; Loesche, 1986; Beighton, 2005). This bacterium (i) effectively utilizes dietary sucrose (and possibly starch) to synthesize large amounts of EPS through glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) and a fructosyltransferase (Ftfs), (ii) adheres tenaciously to glucan-coated surfaces, and (iii) is also acidogenic and acid-tolerant, which are critical virulence properties involved in the pathogenesis of dental caries.

  8. Expression of Modulators of Extracellular Matrix Structure After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    Haslauer, Carla M; Proffen, Benedikt L.; Johnson, Victor M; Murray, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to heal after injury declines within the first two weeks after ACL rupture. To begin to explore the mechanism behind this finding, we quantified the expression of genes for collagen I and III, decorin, tenascin-C, and α smooth muscle actin, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and -13 gene expression within multiple tissues of the knee joint after ACL injury in a large animal model over a two week post-injury period. Gene expression o...

  9. Dynamics of extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea of mice

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Hummitzsch, Katja; Murdiyarso, Lydia S;

    2009-01-01

    and antral follicles. The focimatrix, a specialised matrix of the membrana granulosa, contained collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2, perlecan and collagen type XVIII. In the corpora lutea, staining was restricted to capillary sub-endothelial basal...... alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2 and perlecan were present in the follicular basal lamina of all developmental stages. Collagen type XVIII was only found in basal lamina of primordial, primary and some preantral follicles, whereas laminin alpha2 was only detected in some preantral...

  10. α2 Integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 act sequentially to induce differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into odontoblast-like cells

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Kawai, Rie; Hase, Naoko; Hiyama, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Kondo, Ayami [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan); Nakata, Kazuhiko [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Mogi, Makio, E-mail: makio@dpc.agu.ac.jp [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that interleukin 1β acts via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 to regulate cell proliferation and suppress apoptosis in α2 integrin-positive odontoblast-like cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we characterize the signal cascade underpinning odontoblastic differentiation in mouse ES cells. The expression of α2 integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (Emmprin), and MMP-3 mRNA and protein were all potently increased during odontoblastic differentiation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) disruption of the expression of these effectors potently suppressed the expression of the odontoblastic biomarkers dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1 and alkaline phosphatase, and blocked odontoblast calcification. Our siRNA, western blot and blocking antibody analyses revealed a unique sequential cascade involving α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 that drives ES cell differentiation into odontoblasts. This cascade requires the interaction between α2 integrin and Emmprin and is potentiated by exogenous MMP-3. Finally, although odontoblast-like cells potently express α2, α6, αV, β1, and β3, integrins, we confirmed that β1 integrin acts as the trigger for ES cell differentiation, apparently in complex with α2 integrin. These results demonstrate a unique and unanticipated role for an α2 integrin-, Emmprin-, and MMP-3-mediated signaling cascade in driving mouse ES cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Odontoblast differentiation requires activation of α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3. • α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 form a sequential signaling cascade. • β1 integrin acts a specific trigger for odontoblast differentiation. • The role of these effectors is highly novel and unanticipated.

  11. α2 Integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 act sequentially to induce differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into odontoblast-like cells

    We previously reported that interleukin 1β acts via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 to regulate cell proliferation and suppress apoptosis in α2 integrin-positive odontoblast-like cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we characterize the signal cascade underpinning odontoblastic differentiation in mouse ES cells. The expression of α2 integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (Emmprin), and MMP-3 mRNA and protein were all potently increased during odontoblastic differentiation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) disruption of the expression of these effectors potently suppressed the expression of the odontoblastic biomarkers dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1 and alkaline phosphatase, and blocked odontoblast calcification. Our siRNA, western blot and blocking antibody analyses revealed a unique sequential cascade involving α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 that drives ES cell differentiation into odontoblasts. This cascade requires the interaction between α2 integrin and Emmprin and is potentiated by exogenous MMP-3. Finally, although odontoblast-like cells potently express α2, α6, αV, β1, and β3, integrins, we confirmed that β1 integrin acts as the trigger for ES cell differentiation, apparently in complex with α2 integrin. These results demonstrate a unique and unanticipated role for an α2 integrin-, Emmprin-, and MMP-3-mediated signaling cascade in driving mouse ES cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Odontoblast differentiation requires activation of α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3. • α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 form a sequential signaling cascade. • β1 integrin acts a specific trigger for odontoblast differentiation. • The role of these effectors is highly novel and unanticipated

  12. Quantitative analysis of secretome from adipocytes regulated by insulin

    Hu Zhou; Yuanyuan Xiao; Rongxia Li; Shangyu Hong; Sujun Li; Lianshui Wang; Rong Zeng; Kan Liao

    2009-01-01

    Adipocyte is not only a central player involved in storage and release of energy, but also in regulation of energy metabolism in other organs via secretion of pep-tides and proteins. During the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, adipocytes are subjected to the increased levels of insulin, which may have a major impact on the secretion of adipokines. We have undertaken cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag (clCAT) and label-free quantitation approaches to identify and quantify secretory factors that are differen-tially secreted by 3T3-LI adipocytes with or without insulin treatment. Combination of clCAT and label-free results, there are 317 proteins predicted or annotated as secretory proteins. Among these secretory proteins, 179 proteins and 53 proteins were significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. A total of 77 reported adipokines were quantified in our study, such as adiponectin, cathepsin D, cystatin C, resistin, and transferrin. Western blot analysis of these adipo-kines confirmed the quantitative results from mass spectrometry, and revealed individualized secreting pat-terns of these proteins by increasing insulin dose. In addition, 240 proteins were newly identified and quanti-fied as secreted proteins from 3T3-L1 adipocytes in our study, most of which were up-regulated upon insulin treatment. Further comprehensive bioinformatics analysis revealed that the secretory proteins in extra-cellular matrix-receptor interaction pathway and glycan structure degradation pathway were significantly up-regulated by insulin stimulation.

  13. Tissue phenotype depends on reciprocal interactions between the extracellular matrix and the structural organization of the nucleus

    Lelie' vre, S.A.; Weaver, V.M.; Nickerson, J.A.; Larabell, C.A.; Bhaumik, A.; Petersen, O.W.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-08-14

    What determines the nuclear organization within a cell and whether this organization itself can impose cellular function within a tissue remains unknown. To explore the relationship between nuclear organization and tissue architecture and function, we used a model of human mammary epithelial cell acinar morphogenesis. When cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane (rBM), HMT-3522 cells form polarized and growth-arrested tissue-like acini with a central lumen and deposit an endogenous BM. We show that rBM-induced morphogenesis is accompanied by relocalization of the nuclear matrix proteins NuMA, splicing factor SRm160, and cell cycle regulator Rb. These proteins had distinct distribution patterns specific for proliferation, growth arrest, and acini formation, whereas the distribution of the nuclear lamina protein, lamin B, remained unchanged. NuMA relocalized to foci, which coalesced into larger assemblies as morphogenesis progressed. Perturbation of histone acetylation in the acini by trichostatin A treatment altered chromatin structure, disrupted NuMA foci, and induced cell proliferation. Moreover, treatment of transiently permeabilized acini with a NuMA antibody led to the disruption of NuMA foci, alteration of histone acetylation, activation of metalloproteases, and breakdown of the endogenous BM. These results experimentally demonstrate a dynamic interaction between the extracellular matrix, nuclear organization, and tissue phenotype. They further show that rather than passively ref lecting changes in gene expression, nuclear organization itself can modulate the cellular and tissue phenotype.

  14. Skip Regulates TGF-β1-Induced Extracellular Matrix Degrading Proteases Expression in Human PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Victor Villar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether Ski-interacting protein (SKIP regulates TGF-β1-stimulated expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and uPA Inhibitor (PAI-1 in the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell model. Materials and Methods. PC-3 prostate cancer cell line was used. The role of SKIP was evaluated using synthetic small interference RNA (siRNA compounds. The expression of uPA, MMP-9, and PAI-1 was evaluated by zymography assays, RT-PCR, and promoter transactivation analysis. Results. In PC-3 cells TGF-β1 treatment stimulated uPA, PAI-1, and MMP-9 expressions. The knockdown of SKIP in PC-3 cells enhanced the basal level of uPA, and TGF-β1 treatment inhibited uPA production. Both PAI-1 and MMP-9 production levels were increased in response to TGF-β1. The ectopic expression of SKIP inhibited both TGF-β1-induced uPA and MMP-9 promoter transactivation, while PAI-1 promoter response to the factor was unaffected. Conclusions. SKIP regulates the expression of uPA, PAI-1, and MMP-9 stimulated by TGF-β1 in PC-3 cells. Thus, SKIP is implicated in the regulation of extracellular matrix degradation and can therefore be suggested as a novel therapeutic target in prostate cancer treatment.

  15. The multicellular morphotypes of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli produce cellulose as the second component of the extracellular matrix.

    Zogaj, X; Nimtz, M; Rohde, M; Bokranz, W; Römling, U

    2001-03-01

    Production of cellulose has been thought to be restricted to a few bacterial species such as the model organism Acetobacter xylinus. We show by enzymatic analysis and mass spectrometry that, besides thin aggregative fimbriae, the second component of the extracellular matrix of the multicellular morphotype (rdar) of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli is cellulose. The bcsA, bcsB, bcsZ and bcsC genes responsible for cellulose biosynthesis are not regulated by AgfD, the positive transcriptional regulator of the rdar morphotype. Transcription of the bcs genes was not co-expressed with the rdar morphotype under any of the environmental conditions examined. However, cellulose biosynthesis was turned on by the sole expression of adrA, a gene encoding a putative transmembrane protein regulated by agfD, indicating a novel pathway for the activation of cellulose synthesis. The co-expression of cellulose and thin aggregative fimbriae leads to the formation of a highly hydrophobic network with tightly packed cells aligned in parallel in a rigid matrix. As the production of cellulose would now appear to be a property widely distributed among bacteria, the function of the cellulose polymer in bacteria will have to be considered in a new light. PMID:11260463

  16. The hyaluronan and proteoglycan link proteins: Organizers of the brain extracellular matrix and key molecules for neuronal function and plasticity.

    Oohashi, Toshitaka; Edamatsu, Midori; Bekku, Yoko; Carulli, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    The hyaluronan and proteoglycanbinding link protein (Hapln) is a key molecule in the formation and control of hyaluronan-based condensed perineuronal matrix in the adult brain. This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the role of Haplns in the formation and control of two distinct types of perineuronal matrices, one for "classical" PNN and the other for the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) at the node of Ranvier in the central nervous system (CNS). We introduce the structural components of each ECM organization including the basic concept of supramolecular structure named "HLT model". We furthermore summarize the developmental and physiological role of perineuronal ECMs from the studies of Haplns and related molecules. Finally, we also discuss the potential mechanism modulating PNNs in the adult CNS. This layer of organized matrices may exert a direct effect via core protein or sugar moiety from the structure or by acting as a binding site for biologically active molecules, which are important for neuronal plasticity and saltatory conduction. PMID:26387938

  17. RhoA determines lineage fate of mesenchymal stem cells by modulating CTGF–VEGF complex in extracellular matrix

    Li, Changjun; Zhen, Gehua; Chai, Yu; Xie, Liang; Crane, Janet L.; Farber, Emily; Farber, Charles R.; Luo, Xianghang; Gao, Peisong; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) participate in the repair/remodelling of many tissues, where MSCs commit to different lineages dependent on the cues in the local microenvironment. Here we show that TGFβ-activated RhoA/ROCK signalling functions as a molecular switch regarding the fate of MSCs in arterial repair/remodelling after injury. MSCs differentiate into myofibroblasts when RhoA/ROCK is turned on, endothelial cells when turned off. The former is pathophysiologic resulting in intimal hyperplasia, whereas the latter is physiological leading to endothelial repair. Further analysis revealed that MSC RhoA activation promotes formation of an extracellular matrix (ECM) complex consisting of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Inactivation of RhoA/ROCK in MSCs induces matrix metalloproteinase-3-mediated CTGF cleavage, resulting in VEGF release and MSC endothelial differentiation. Our findings uncover a novel mechanism by which cell–ECM interactions determine stem cell lineage specificity and offer additional molecular targets to manipulate MSC-involved tissue repair/regeneration. PMID:27126736

  18. Promotion of Hepatic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Decellularized Cell-Deposited Extracellular Matrix

    Hongliang He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between stem cells and extracellular matrix (ECM are requisite for inducing lineage-specific differentiation and maintaining biological functions of mesenchymal stem cells by providing a composite set of chemical and structural signals. Here we investigated if cell-deposited ECM mimicked in vivo liver's stem cell microenvironment and facilitated hepatogenic maturation. Decellularization process preserved the fibrillar microstructure and a mix of matrix proteins in cell-deposited ECM, such as type I collagen, type III collagen, fibronectin, and laminin that were identical to those found in native liver. Compared with the cells on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs cultured on cell-deposited ECM showed a spindle-like shape, a robust proliferative capacity, and a suppressed level of intracellular reactive oxygen species, accompanied with upregulation of two superoxide dismutases. Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from BM-MSCs on ECM were determined with a more intensive staining of glycogen storage, an elevated level of urea biosynthesis, and higher expressions of hepatocyte-specific genes in contrast to those on TCPS. These results demonstrate that cell-deposited ECM can be an effective method to facilitate hepatic maturation of BM-MSCs and promote stem-cell-based liver regenerative medicine.

  19. (Prorenin receptor triggers distinct angiotensin II-independent extracellular matrix remodeling and deterioration of cardiac function.

    Anne-Mari Moilanen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activation of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS plays a key pathophysiological role in heart failure in patients with hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, the function of (prorenin receptor ((PRR is not yet solved. We determined here the direct functional and structural effects of (PRR in the heart. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (PRR was overexpressed by using adenovirus-mediated gene delivery in normal adult rat hearts up to 2 weeks. (PRR gene delivery into the anterior wall of the left ventricle decreased ejection fraction (P<0.01, fractional shortening (P<0.01, and intraventricular septum diastolic and systolic thickness, associated with approximately 2-fold increase in left ventricular (PRR protein levels at 2 weeks. To test whether the worsening of cardiac function and structure by (PRR gene overexpression was mediated by angiotensin II (Ang II, we infused an AT(1 receptor blocker losartan via osmotic minipumps. Remarkably, cardiac function deteriorated in losartan-treated (PRR overexpressing animals as well. Intramyocardial (PRR gene delivery also resulted in Ang II-independent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase1/2 phosphorylation and myocardial fibrosis, and the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor genes. In contrast, activation of heat shock protein 27 phosphorylation and apoptotic cell death by (PRR gene delivery was Ang II-dependent. Finally, (PRR overexpression significantly increased direct protein-protein interaction between (PRR and promyelocytic zinc-finger protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate for the first time that (PRR triggers distinct Ang II-independent myocardial fibrosis and deterioration of cardiac function in normal adult heart and identify (PRR as a novel therapeutic target to optimize RAS blockade in failing hearts.

  20. Lipid-soluble cigarette smoking particles induce expression of inflammatory and extracellular-matrix-related genes in rat cerebral arteries

    Petter Vikman

    2009-04-01

    -2 and Elk-1 in parallel with enhanced extracellular-matrix-related gene transcription and increased AT1 receptor expression in the cerebral arteries, which are key events in stroke pathogenesis.Keywords: cigarette smoking, vascular inflammation, signal transduction, extracellular matrix, MMP, stroke

  1. Novel insights into the function and dynamics of extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis

    Karsdal, Morten A; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Genovese, Federica;

    2015-01-01

    essential information needed for maintenance of a sophisticated structure anchoring the cells and sustaining normal function of tissues. Therefore, the matrix itself may be considered as a paracrine/endocrine entity, with more complex functions than previously appreciated. The aims of this review are to 1......) explore key structural and functional components of the ECM as exemplified by monogenetic disorders leading to severe pathologies, 2) discuss selected pathological posttranslational modifications of ECM proteins resulting in altered functional (signaling) properties from the original structural proteins...... their posttranslational modifications often harbor multiple domains with different signaling potential, in particular when modified during inflammation or wound healing. This signaling by the ECM should be considered a paracrine/endocrine function, as it affects cell phenotype, function, fate, and...

  2. A novel transcriptional enhancer is involved in the prolactin- and extracellular matrix-dependent regulation of beta-casein gene expression.

    Schmidhauser, C; Casperson, G F; Myers, C A; Sanzo, K T; Bolten, S; Bissell, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix (ECM) act synergistically to regulate beta-casein expression in culture. We have developed a functional subpopulation of the mouse mammary epithelial cell strain COMMA-1D (designated CID 9), which expresses high level of beta-casein, forms alveolar-like structures when plated onto the EHS tumor-derived matrix, and secretes beta-casein unidirectionally into a lumen. We have further shown that ECM- and prolactin-dependent regulations of beta-casein o...

  3. Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation in Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Vitro

    Kevin Dzobo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs represent an area being intensively researched for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. MSCs may provide the opportunity to treat diseases and injuries that currently have limited therapeutic options, as well as enhance present strategies for tissue repair. The cellular environment has a significant role in cellular development and differentiation through cell–matrix interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of adipose-derived MSCs (ad-MSCs in the context of a cell-derived matrix so as to model the in vivo physiological microenvironment. The fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix (fd-ECM did not affect ad-MSC morphology, but reduced ad-MSC proliferation. Ad-MSCs cultured on fd-ECM displayed decreased expression of integrins α2 and β1 and subsequently lost their multipotency over time, as shown by the decrease in CD44, Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG gene expression. The fd-ECM induced chondrogenic differentiation in ad-MSCs compared to control ad-MSCs. Loss of function studies, through the use of siRNA and a mutant Notch1 construct, revealed that ECM-mediated ad-MSCs chondrogenesis requires Notch1 and β-catenin signaling. The fd-ECM also showed anti-senescence effects on ad-MSCs. The fd-ECM is a promising approach for inducing chondrogenesis in ad-MSCs and chondrogenic differentiated ad-MSCs could be used in stem cell therapy procedures.

  4. Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation in Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Vitro.

    Dzobo, Kevin; Turnley, Taegyn; Wishart, Andrew; Rowe, Arielle; Kallmeyer, Karlien; van Vollenstee, Fiona A; Thomford, Nicholas E; Dandara, Collet; Chopera, Denis; Pepper, Michael S; Parker, M Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) represent an area being intensively researched for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. MSCs may provide the opportunity to treat diseases and injuries that currently have limited therapeutic options, as well as enhance present strategies for tissue repair. The cellular environment has a significant role in cellular development and differentiation through cell-matrix interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of adipose-derived MSCs (ad-MSCs) in the context of a cell-derived matrix so as to model the in vivo physiological microenvironment. The fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix (fd-ECM) did not affect ad-MSC morphology, but reduced ad-MSC proliferation. Ad-MSCs cultured on fd-ECM displayed decreased expression of integrins α2 and β1 and subsequently lost their multipotency over time, as shown by the decrease in CD44, Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), SOX2, and NANOG gene expression. The fd-ECM induced chondrogenic differentiation in ad-MSCs compared to control ad-MSCs. Loss of function studies, through the use of siRNA and a mutant Notch1 construct, revealed that ECM-mediated ad-MSCs chondrogenesis requires Notch1 and β-catenin signaling. The fd-ECM also showed anti-senescence effects on ad-MSCs. The fd-ECM is a promising approach for inducing chondrogenesis in ad-MSCs and chondrogenic differentiated ad-MSCs could be used in stem cell therapy procedures. PMID:27527147

  5. Heparin-induced conformational changes of fibronectin within the extracellular matrix promote hMSC osteogenic differentiation.

    Li, Bojun; Lin, Zhe; Mitsi, Maria; Zhang, Yang; Vogel, Viola

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests important roles of extracellular matrix (ECM) in regulating stem cell fate. This knowledge can be exploited in tissue engineering applications for the design of ECM scaffolds appropriate to direct stem cell differentiation. By probing the conformation of fibronectin (Fn) using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we show here that heparin treatment of the fibroblast-derived ECM scaffolds resulted in more extended conformations of fibrillar Fn in ECM. Since heparin is a highly negatively charged molecule while fibronectin contains segments of positively charged modules, including FnIII13, electrostatic interactions between Fn and heparin might interfere with residual quaternary structure in relaxed fibronectin fibers thereby opening up buried sites. The conformation of modules FnIII12-14 in particular, which contain one of the heparin binding sites as well as binding sites for many growth factors, may be activated by heparin, resulting in alterations in growth factor binding to Fn. Indeed, upregulated osteogenic differentiation was observed when hMSCs were seeded on ECM scaffolds that had been treated with heparin and were subsequently chemically fixed. In contrast, either rigidifying relaxed fibers by fixation alone, or heparin treatment without fixation had no effect. We hypothesize that fibronectin's conformations within the ECM are activated by heparin such as to coordinate with other factors to upregulate hMSC osteogenic differentiation. Thus, the conformational changes of fibronectin within the ECM could serve as a 'converter' to tune hMSC differentiation in extracellular matrices. This knowledge could also be exploited to promote osteogenic stem cell differentiation on biomedical surfaces. PMID:26214191

  6. Dextran sulphate crowding and sodium deoxycholate lysis of primary breast fibroblast cells achieve extracellular matrix deposition and decellularization for breast cancer stem cell culture

    Aroem Naruni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Lingkungan mikro yaitu sel stromal dam matriks ekstraseluler saat ini dinyatakansebagai kontributor dalam perkembangan tumor. Beberapa penelitian telah mengembangkan matriksekstraseluler yang mendukung perkembangan sel in vitro. Matriks ekstraseluler adalah suatu komplekssusunan supramolekuler dari berbagai macam glycoprotein dan proteoglycan. Matriks ekstraselulermenyediakan integritas jaringan, bertindak sebagai scaffold alami tempat sel melekat dan berinteraksiserta berperan sebagai reservoir pertumbuhan sel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan deposisidan deselularisasi yang optimal pada matriks ekstraseluler.Metode: Dalam penelitian ini, kami mengembangkan cells crowder untuk meningkatkan deposit matriksekstraseluler dari kultur sel primer fibroblast payudara yang diperoleh dari spesimen hasil operasimammoplasty. Dextran 500 kDa ditambahkan dalam media kultur DMEM lengkap yang telah ditambahkan0.5% FBS dan 100μM L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Setelah tujuh hari, sel dilisis dengan menggunakanSodium Deoxycolate (DOC.Hasil: Deposisi matriks ekstraseluler dan proses deselulerisasi dari sel primer fibroblas payudara dapatterdeteksi dengan menggunakan antibodi Rabbit anti human fibronectin yang selanjutnya ditambahkandengan anti rabbit IgG yang telah dikonjugasi dengan Alexa Fluor 488.Kesimpulan: Penambahan dextran sulfat dan prosesing lysis dengan sodium deoxycolate dapatmeningkatkan deposisi dan menghasilkan deselularisasi matriks ekstraseluler. (Health Science Journalof Indonesia 2015;6:43-7Kata kunci: matriks ekstra selular, kanker mammae, stem cell, sel fibroblast AbstractBackground: The microenvironment including stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM is now consideredan active contributor to tumor progression. Certain studies have developed ECM which supports a suitable cellulargrowth in vitro. The ECM is a complex supramolecular assembly of a variety of glycoproteins and proteoglycans.Extracellular

  7. Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering with Natural Extracellular Matrix-Derived Biphasic Composite Scaffolds.

    Baoshan Xu

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has provided an alternative therapeutic possibility for degenerative disc diseases. However, we lack an ideal scaffold for IVD tissue engineering. The goal of this study is to fabricate a novel biomimetic biphasic scaffold for IVD tissue engineering and evaluate the feasibility of developing tissue-engineered IVD in vitro and in vivo. In present study we developed a novel integrated biphasic IVD scaffold using a simple freeze-drying and cross-linking technique of pig bone matrix gelatin (BMG for the outer annulus fibrosus (AF phase and pig acellular cartilage ECM (ACECM for the inner nucleus pulposus (NP phase. Histology and SEM results indicated no residual cells remaining in the scaffold that featured an interconnected porous microstructure (pore size of AF and NP phase 401.4 ± 13.1 μm and 231.6 ± 57.2 μm, respectively. PKH26-labeled AF and NP cells were seeded into the scaffold and cultured in vitro. SEM confirmed that seeded cells could anchor onto the scaffold. Live/dead staining showed that live cells (green fluorescence were distributed in the scaffold, with no dead cells (red fluorescence being found. The cell-scaffold constructs were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice and cultured for 6 weeks in vivo. IVD-like tissue formed in nude mice as confirmed by histology. Cells in hybrid constructs originated from PKH26-labeled cells, as confirmed by in vivo fluorescence imaging system. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the feasibility of developing a tissue-engineered IVD in vivo with a BMG- and ACECM-derived integrated AF-NP biphasic scaffold. As well, PKH26 fluorescent labeling with in vivo fluorescent imaging can be used to track cells and analyse cell--scaffold constructs in vivo.

  8. Differential expression of extracellular matrix genes in glenohumeral capsule of shoulder instability patients.

    Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Cohen, Carina; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2016-07-01

    Anterior shoulder instability is a common orthopedic problem. After a traumatic shoulder dislocation, patients present a plastic deformation of the capsule. The shoulder instability biology remains poorly understood. We evaluated the expression of genes that encode the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), fibronectin 1 (FN1), tenascin C (TNC) and tenascin XB (TNXB) in the glenohumeral capsule of anterior shoulder instability patients and controls. Moreover, we investigated the associations between gene expression and clinical parameters. The gene expression was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in the antero-inferior (macroscopically injured region), antero-superior and posterior regions of the capsule of 29 patients with shoulder instability and 8 controls. COMP expression was reduced and FN1 and TNC expression was increased in the antero-inferior capsule region of cases compared to controls (p shoulder instability patients (p = 0.022). COMP expression was reduced in the antero-inferior region compared to the posterior region of shoulder instability patients (p = 0.007). In the antero-inferior region, FN1 expression was increased in the capsule of patients with more than one year of symptoms (p = 0.003) and with recurrent dislocations (p = 0.004) compared with controls. FN1 and TNXB expression was correlated with the duration of symptoms in the posterior region (p shoulder instability patients. Dislocation episodes modify FN1, TNC and TNXB expression in the injured tissue. COMP altered expression may be associated with capsule integrity after shoulder dislocation, particularly in the macroscopically injured portion. PMID:27093129

  9. Alteration of proteoglycan metabolism during the differentiation of 3T3- L1 fibroblasts into adipocytes

    1991-01-01

    3T3-L1 fibroblasts were induced to differentiate to 3T3-L1 adipocytes by dexamethasone, isobutyl-methylxanthine, and insulin. To study how differentiation affects extracellular matrix production, the accumulation of proteoglycans was studied by labeling the 3T3-L1 cells with [35S]sulphate for 24 h. The labeled proteoglycans were isolated from the medium and cell layer extracts by anion-exchange chromatography. They were then taken to gel filtration chromatography on Superose 6 before or after...

  10. Tenascin-C in the extracellular matrix promotes the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenesis-defective endothelial cells

    Alves, Tercia Rodrigues [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Laboratorio de Biologia da Celula Endotelial e da Angiogenese (LabAngio), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho da Fonseca, Anna Carolina [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nunes, Sara Santana; Oliveira da Silva, Aline [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Laboratorio de Biologia da Celula Endotelial e da Angiogenese (LabAngio), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dubois, Luiz Gustavo Feijo; Faria, Jane; Kahn, Suzana Assad [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Viana, Nathan Bessa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Laboratorio de Pincas Oticas, Coordenacao de Programas de Estudos Avancados, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marcondes, Jorge [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Servico de Neurocirurgia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Legrand, Chantal [Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Universite Paris-Diderot, Paris 7, INSERM U553, Paris (France); Moura-Neto, Vivaldo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); and others

    2011-09-10

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains important cues for tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. The matricellular protein tenascin-C (TN-C) is overexpressed in remodeling tissues and cancer. In the present work, we studied the effect of different ECM-which exhibited a significant diversity in their TN-C content-in endothelial survival, proliferation and tubulogenic differentiation: autologous (endothelial) ECM devoid of TN-C, but bearing large amounts of FN; fibroblast ECM, bearing both high TN-C and FN contents; and finally, glioma-derived matrices, usually poor in FN, but very rich in TN-C. HUVECs initially adhered to the immobilized matrix produced by U373 MG glioma cells, but significantly detached and died by anoikis (50 to 80%) after 24 h, as compared with cells incubated with endothelial and fibroblast matrices. Surviving endothelial cells (20 to 50%) became up to 6-fold more proliferative and formed 74-97% less tube-like structures in vitro than cells grown on non-tumoral matrices. An antibody against the EGF-like repeats of tenascin-C (TN-C) partially rescued cells from the tubulogenic defect, indicating that this molecule is responsible for the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenic defective endothelial cells. Interestingly, by using defined substrata, in conditions that mimic glioma and normal cell ECM composition, we observed that fibronectin (FN) modulates the TN-C-induced selection of endothelial cells. Our data show that TN-C is able to modulate endothelial branching morphogenesis in vitro and, since it is prevalent in matrices of injured and tumor tissues, also suggest a role for this protein in vascular morphogenesis, in these physiological contexts.

  11. Tenascin-C in the extracellular matrix promotes the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenesis-defective endothelial cells

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains important cues for tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. The matricellular protein tenascin-C (TN-C) is overexpressed in remodeling tissues and cancer. In the present work, we studied the effect of different ECM-which exhibited a significant diversity in their TN-C content-in endothelial survival, proliferation and tubulogenic differentiation: autologous (endothelial) ECM devoid of TN-C, but bearing large amounts of FN; fibroblast ECM, bearing both high TN-C and FN contents; and finally, glioma-derived matrices, usually poor in FN, but very rich in TN-C. HUVECs initially adhered to the immobilized matrix produced by U373 MG glioma cells, but significantly detached and died by anoikis (50 to 80%) after 24 h, as compared with cells incubated with endothelial and fibroblast matrices. Surviving endothelial cells (20 to 50%) became up to 6-fold more proliferative and formed 74-97% less tube-like structures in vitro than cells grown on non-tumoral matrices. An antibody against the EGF-like repeats of tenascin-C (TN-C) partially rescued cells from the tubulogenic defect, indicating that this molecule is responsible for the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenic defective endothelial cells. Interestingly, by using defined substrata, in conditions that mimic glioma and normal cell ECM composition, we observed that fibronectin (FN) modulates the TN-C-induced selection of endothelial cells. Our data show that TN-C is able to modulate endothelial branching morphogenesis in vitro and, since it is prevalent in matrices of injured and tumor tissues, also suggest a role for this protein in vascular morphogenesis, in these physiological contexts.

  12. Modeling extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations in ovarian cancer by multiphoton excited fabrication of stromal models (Conference Presentation)

    Campagnola, Paul J.; Ajeti, Visar; Lara, Jorge; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Patankar, Mansh

    2016-04-01

    A profound remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs in human ovarian cancer but it unknown how this affects tumor growth, where this understanding could lead to better diagnostics and therapeutic approaches. We investigate the role of these ECM alterations by using multiphoton excited (MPE) polymerization to fabricate biomimetic models to investigate operative cell-matrix interactions in invasion/metastasis. First, we create nano/microstructured gradients mimicking the basal lamina to study adhesion/migration dynamics of ovarian cancer cells of differing metastatic potential. We find a strong haptotactic response that depends on both contact guidance and ECM binding cues. While we found enhanced migration for more invasive cells, the specifics of alignment and directed migration also depend on cell polarity. We further use MPE fabrication to create collagen scaffolds with complex, 3D submicron morphology. The stromal scaffold designs are derived directly from "blueprints" based on SHG images of normal, high risk, and malignant ovarian tissues. The models are seeded with different cancer cell lines and this allows decoupling of the roles of cell characteristics (metastatic potential) and ECM structure and composition (normal vs cancer) on adhesion/migration dynamics. We found the malignant stroma structure promotes enhanced migration and proliferation and also cytoskeletal alignment. Creating synthetic models based on fibers patterns further allows decoupling the topographic roles of the fibers themselves vs their alignment within the tissue. These models cannot be synthesized by other conventional fabrication methods and we suggest the MPE image-based fabrication method will enable a variety of studies in cancer biology.

  13. Degradation of extracellular matrix by larvae of Schistosoma mansoni. I. Degradation by cercariae as a model for initial parasite invasion of host

    McKerrow, J.H.; Keene, W.E.; Jeong, K.H.; Werb, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni to degrade a model extracellular connective tissue matrix produced by rat vascular smooth muscle cells in culture was investigated. In this model, connective tissue macromolecules are present in the interactive framework that characterizes their structure in vivo. Cercariae were stimulated to degrade the matrix by skin lipid or linoleic acid. At the maximally stimulating concentration of linoleic acid (25 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/), 68% of the total matrix was degraded, including 57% of the glycoprotein, 79% of the elastin, and 8% of the collagen. Degradation of matrix was inhibited by ..cap alpha../sub 1/-proteinase inhibitor and soybean trypsin inhibitor. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid inhibited degradation by unstimulated but not linoleic acid-stimulated cercariae. Preacetabular gland secretions collected from cercariae also degraded the matrix with an activity 86% of that of live cercariae. Preacetabular gland proteolytic activity was also inhibited by ..cap alpha../sub 1/-proteinase inhibitor, soybean trypsin inhibitor, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The similar characteristics of matrix degradation by both live cercariae and cercarial preacetabular gland secretions support the idea that a proteinase secreted from cercarial preacetabular glands facilitates invasion of skin and connective tissue by these larvae. Degradation of elastin and glycoprotein constituentes of extracellular matrix is probably essential for skin penetration.

  14. BMP7 enhances the effect of BMSCs on extracellular matrix remodeling in a rabbit model of intervertebral disc degeneration.

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Nan-Xiang; Wang, Mo-Nan; Xie, Huan-Xin; Cao, Yan-Hui; Sun, Li-Hua; Tian, Jun; Chen, Hua-Jiang; Yan, Jing-Long

    2016-05-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) provide stability and flexibility to the spinal column; however, IVDs, and in particular the nucleus pulposus (NP), undergo a degenerative process characterized by changes in the disc extracellular matrix (ECM), decreased cell viability, and reduced synthesis of proteoglycan and type II collagen. Here, we investigated the efficacy and feasibility of stem cell therapy using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) over-expressing bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) to promote ECM remodeling of degenerated IVDs. Lentivirus-mediated BMP7 over-expression induced differentiation of BMSCs into an NP phenotype, as indicated by expression of the NP markers collagen type II, aggrecan, SOX9 and keratins 8 and 19, increased the content of glycosaminoglycan, and up-regulated β-1,3-glucuronosyl transferase 1, a regulator of chondroitin sulfate synthesis in NP cells. These effects were suppressed by Smad1 silencing, indicating that the effect of BMP7 on ECM remodeling was mediated by the Smad pathway. In vivo analysis in a rabbit model of disc degeneration showed that implantation of BMSCs over-expressing BMP7 promoted cell differentiation and proliferation in the NP, as well as their own survival, and these effects were mediated by the Smad pathway. The results of the present study indicate the beneficial effects of BMP7 on restoring ECM homeostasis in NP cells, and suggest potential strategies for improving cell therapy for the treatment of disc diseases. PMID:26929154

  15. The extracellular matrix protein artichoke is required for integrity of ciliated mechanosensory and chemosensory organs in Drosophila embryos.

    Andrés, Marta; Turiégano, Enrique; Göpfert, Martin C; Canal, Inmaculada; Torroja, Laura

    2014-04-01

    Sensory cilia are often encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). In Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrates, this ECM is thought to be directly involved in ciliary mechanosensing by coupling external forces to the ciliary membrane. Drosophila mechano- and chemosensory cilia are both associated with an ECM, indicating that the ECM may have additional roles that go beyond mechanosensory cilium function. Here, we identify Artichoke (ATK), an evolutionarily conserved leucine-rich repeat ECM protein that is required for normal morphogenesis and function of ciliated sensilla in Drosophila. atk is transiently expressed in accessory cells in all ciliated sensory organs during their late embryonic development. Antibody stainings show ATK protein in the ECM that surrounds sensory cilia. Loss of ATK protein in atk null mutants leads to cilium deformation and disorientation in chordotonal organs, apparently without uncoupling the cilia from the ECM, and consequently to locomotion defects. Moreover, impaired chemotaxis in atk mutant larvae suggests that, based on ATK protein localization, the ECM is also crucial for the correct assembly of chemosensory receptors. In addition to defining a novel ECM component, our findings show the importance of ECM integrity for the proper morphogenesis of ciliated organs in different sensory modalities. PMID:24496014

  16. Integrin-mediated adhesion of human mesenchymal stem cells to extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed to polymer surfaces

    In vitro, degradable aliphatic polyesters are widely used as cell carriers for bone tissue engineering, despite their lack of biological cues. Their biological active surface is rather determined by an adsorbed layer of proteins from the surrounding media. Initial cell fate, including adhesion and proliferation, which are key properties for efficient cell carriers, is determined by the adsorbed layer of proteins. Herein we have investigated the ability of human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSC) to adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibronectin and vitronectin which are present in plasma and serum. hBMSC expressed integrins for collagens, laminins, fibronectin and vitronectin. Accordingly, hBMSC strongly adhered to these purified ECM proteins by using the corresponding integrins. Although purified fibronectin and vitronectin adsorbed to aliphatic polyesters to a lower extent than to cell culture polystyrene, these low levels were sufficient to mediate adhesion of hBMSC. It was found that plasma- and serum-coated polystyrene adsorbed significant levels of both fibronectin and vitronectin, and fibronectin was identified as the major adhesive component of plasma for hBMSC; however, aliphatic polyesters adsorbed minimal levels of fibronectin under similar conditions resulting in impaired cell adhesion. Altogether, the results suggest that the efficiency of aliphatic polyesters cell carriers could be improved by increasing their ability to adsorb fibronectin. (paper)

  17. Cathepsin B is up-regulated and mediates extracellular matrix degradation in trabecular meshwork cells following phagocytic challenge.

    Kristine Porter

    Full Text Available Cells in the trabecular meshwork (TM, a tissue responsible for draining aqueous humor out of the eye, are known to be highly phagocytic. Phagocytic activity in TM cells is thought to play an important role in outflow pathway physiology. However, the molecular mechanisms triggered by phagocytosis in TM cells are unknown. Here we investigated the effects of chronic phagocytic stress on lysosomal function using different phagocytic ligands (E. coli, carboxylated beads, collagen I-coated beads, and pigment. Lysotracker red co-localization and electron micrographs showed the maturation of E. coli- and collagen I-coated beads-containing phagosomes into phagolysosomes. Maturation of phagosomes into phagolysosomes was not observed with carboxylated beads or pigment particles. In addition, phagocytosis of E. coli and collagen I-coated beads led to increased lysosomal mass, and the specific up-regulation and activity of cathepsin B (CTSB. Higher levels of membrane-bound and secreted CTSB were also detected. Moreover, in vivo zymography showed the intralysosomal degradation of ECM components associated with active CTSB, as well as an overall increased gelatinolytic activity in phagocytically challenged TM cells. This increased gelatinolytic activity with phagocytosis was partially blocked with an intracellular CTSB inhibitor. Altogether, these results suggest a potential role of phagocytosis in outflow pathway tissue homeostasis through the up-regulation and/or proteolytic activation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes.

  18. Tumour-stromal interactions: Reciprocal regulation of extracellular matrix proteins and ovarian steroid activity in the mammary gland

    Despite the critical importance of ovarian steroids in the treatment of breast cancer, little is known about the acquisition or loss of estrogen and progesterone responsiveness in either the normal or neoplastic mammary gland. This review focuses on the interactions among mammary stroma-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, integrins and ovarian hormone-dependent proliferation in normal and neoplastic mammary cells both in vivo and in vitro. In vitro studies show that fibronectin is required for progesterone-induced proliferation of normal mammary epithelial cells and that specific ECM proteins also regulate interactions between growth factors and ovarian hormones. Studies with human breast cancer cell lines have shown that laminin inhibits estrogen-induced proliferation and estrogen-response-element-mediated transcription in vitro and also inhibits estrogen-induced proliferation in vivo. Reciprocally, ovarian steroids regulate the expression of ECM proteins and their cellular receptors, integrins, during mammary gland development in vivo. The fibronectin-specific integrin, α5β1 is regulated by ovarian steroids and its expression is positively correlated with developmental stages of peak proliferation. These studies suggest that the coordinated regulation of ovarian hormone responsiveness and ECM/integrin expression may be critical to normal mammary gland development and breast cancer growth and progression

  19. Novel Function of Extracellular Matrix Protein 1 in Suppressing Th17 Cell Development in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Su, Pan; Chen, Sheng; Zheng, Yu Han; Zhou, Hai Yan; Yan, Cheng Hua; Yu, Fang; Zhang, Ya Guang; He, Lan; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Yanming; Wu, Lei; Wu, Xiaoai; Yu, Bingke; Ma, Li Yan; Yang, Zhiru; Wang, Jianhua; Zhao, Guixian; Zhu, Jinfang; Wu, Zhi-Ying; Sun, Bing

    2016-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS characterized by demyelination and axonal damage. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model for human MS. Although Th17 cells are important for disease induction, Th2 cells are inhibitory in this process. In this article, we report the effect of a Th2 cell product, extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), on the differentiation of Th17 cells and the development of EAE. Our results demonstrated that ECM1 administration from day 1 to day 7 following the EAE induction could ameliorate the Th17 cell responses and EAE development in vivo. Further study of the mechanism revealed that ECM1 could interact with αv integrin on dendritic cells and block the αv integrin-mediated activation of latent TGF-β, resulting in an inhibition of Th17 cell differentiation at an early stage of EAE induction. Furthermore, overexpression of ECM1 in vivo significantly inhibited the Th17 cell response and EAE induction in ECM1 transgenic mice. Overall, our work has identified a novel function of ECM1 in inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation in the EAE model, suggesting that ECM1 may have the potential to be used in clinical applications for understanding the pathogenesis of MS and its diagnosis. PMID:27316685

  20. Extracellular matrix composition and rigidity regulate invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D pancreatic tumor models

    Cramer, Gwendolyn; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Jafari, Seyedehrojin; Jones, Dustin P.; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and mechanical compliance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to serve as regulators of tumor growth and invasive behavior. These effects may be particularly relevant in tumors of the pancreas, noted for a profound desmoplastic reaction and an abundance of stroma rich in ECM. In view of recent progress in the clinical implementation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for pancreatic tumors, in this report we examine how ECM composition and rheological properties impact upon invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D multicellular pancreatic tumor spheroids in ECM environments with characterized rheological properties. Tumor spheroids were cultured initially in attachment-free conditions to form millimeter-sized spheroids that were transplanted into reconstituted ECM microenvironments (Matrigel and Type I Collagen) that were characterized using bulk oscillatory shear rheology. Analysis of growth behavior shows that the soft collagen ECM promoted growth and extensive invasion and this microenvironment was used in subsequent assessment of PDT and chemotherapy response. Evaluation of treatment response revealed that primary tumor nodule growth is inhibited more effectively with PDT, while verteporfin PDT response is significantly enhanced in the ECM-infiltrating populations that are non-responsive to oxaliplatin chemotherapy. This finding is potentially significant, suggesting the potential for PDT to target these clinically problematic invasive populations that are associated with aggressive metastatic progression and chemoresistance. Experiments to further validate and identify the mechanistic basis of this observation are ongoing.

  1. Effect of intramuscular injections of DL-α-tocopheryl acetate on growth performance and extracellular matrix of growing lambs.

    Maiorano, G; Wilkanowska, A; Tavaniello, S; Di Memmo, D; De Marzo, D; Gambacorta, M

    2015-12-01

    The effect of intramuscular injections of vitamin E on growth, carcass traits, intramuscular collagen (IMC) characteristics and decorin of growing lambs was studied. A total of 24 15-day-old Ile de France suckling male lambs were divided into two groups and weekly intramuscular injections of DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (control group, 0 IU; Vitamin E treatment, 150 IU) were given until the lambs were 64 days old. Lambs were individually weighted at 15, 29, 43, 57 days of age and at slaughter (71 days old). Dry matter intake and average daily weight gain were recorded. Hot and cold carcass weights were recorded and dressing percentages were calculated after dressing and chilling (2°C to 4°C for 24 h). Carcass shrink losses were calculated as well. Longissimus muscle (LM) pH and area were measured. The pelvic limb was removed and its percentage was calculated based on cold carcass weight. IMC and decorin analyses were assessed on LM and semimembranosus muscle (SM). DL-α-tocopheryl acetate treatment reduced (PIMC content. In addition, vitamin E did not influence growth, carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass shrink losses and area of LM but decreased (PIMC characteristics between the muscles (P<0.01) were apparent. Multiple intramuscular injections of DL-α-tocopheryl acetate influence extracellular matrix in lambs, which could affect meat tenderness. PMID:26245298

  2. Disrupted Endothelial Cell Layer and Exposed Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promote Capture of Late Outgrowth Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

    Zhao, Jing; Mitrofan, Claudia-Gabriela; Appleby, Sarah L; Morrell, Nicholas W; Lever, Andrew M L

    2016-01-01

    Late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (LO-EPC) possess a high proliferative potential, differentiate into vascular endothelial cells (EC), and form networks, suggesting they play a role in vascular repair. However, due to their scarcity in the circulation there is a requirement for ex vivo expansion before they could provide a practical cell therapy and it is currently unclear if they would home and engraft to an injury site. Using an in vitro flow system we studied LO-EPC under simulated injury conditions including EC activation, ischaemia, disrupted EC integrity, and exposed basement membrane. Perfused LO-EPC adhered to discontinuous EC paracellularly at junctional regions between adjacent cells under shear stress 0.7 dyn/cm(2). The interaction was not adhesion molecule-dependent and not enhanced by EC activation. LO-EPC expressed high levels of the VE-Cadherin which may explain these findings. Ischaemia reperfusion injury decreased the interaction with LO-EPC due to cell retraction. LO-EPC interacted with exposed extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibronectin and vitronectin. The interaction was mediated by integrins α5β3, αvβ1, and αvβ3. This study has demonstrated that an injured local environment presents sufficient adhesive signals to capture flow perfused LO-EPC in vitro and that LO-EPC have properties consistent with their potential role in vascular repair. PMID:27413378

  3. Decreased expression of extracellular matrix proteins and trophic factors in the amygdala complex of depressed mice after chronic immobilization stress

    Jung Soonwoong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amygdala plays an essential role in controlling emotional behaviors and has numerous connections to other brain regions. The functional role of the amygdala has been highlighted by various studies of stress-induced behavioral changes. Here we investigated gene expression changes in the amygdala in the chronic immobilization stress (CIS-induced depression model. Results Eight genes were decreased in the amygdala of CIS mice, including genes for neurotrophic factors and extracellular matrix proteins. Among these, osteoglycin, fibromodulin, insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (Igfbp2 were further analyzed for histological expression changes. The expression of osteoglycin and fibromodulin simultaneously decreased in the medial, basolateral, and central amygdala regions. However, Igf2 and Igfbp2 decreased specifically in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Interestingly, this decrease was found only in the amygdala of mice showing higher immobility, but not in mice displaying lower immobility, although the CIS regimen was the same for both groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the responsiveness of the amygdala may play a role in the sensitivity of CIS-induced behavioral changes in mice.

  4. Differential gene regulation under altered gravity conditions in follicular thyroid cancer cells: relationship between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Pietsch, Jessica; Grosse, Jirka; Wehland, Markus; Schulz, Herbert; Saar, Katrin; Hübner, Norbert; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Braun, Markus; van Loon, Jack; Vagt, Nicole; Egli, Marcel; Richter, Peter; Einspanier, Ralf; Sharbati, Soroush; Baltz, Theo; Infanger, Manfred; Ma, Xiao; Grimm, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, and cytoskeletal proteins form a dynamic network interacting with signalling molecules as an adaptive response to altered gravity. An important issue is the exact differentiation between real microgravity responses of the cells or cellular reactions to hypergravity and/or vibrations. To determine the effects of real microgravity on human cells, we used four DLR parabolic flight campaigns and focused on the effects of short-term microgravity (22 s), hypergravity (1.8 g), and vibrations on ML-1 thyroid cancer cells. No signs of apoptosis or necrosis were detectable. Gene array analysis revealed 2,430 significantly changed transcripts. After 22 s microgravity, the F-actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton was altered, and ACTB and KRT80 mRNAs were significantly upregulated after the first and thirty-first parabolas. The COL4A5 mRNA was downregulated under microgravity, whereas OPN and FN were significantly upregulated. Hypergravity and vibrations did not change ACTB, KRT-80 or COL4A5 mRNA. MTSS1 and LIMA1 mRNAs were downregulated/slightly upregulated under microgravity, upregulated in hypergravity and unchanged by vibrations. These data indicate that the graviresponse of ML-1 cells occurred very early, within the first few seconds. Downregulated MTSS1 and upregulated LIMA1 may be an adaptive mechanism of human cells for stabilizing the cytoskeleton under microgravity conditions. PMID:21865726

  5. Staurosporine and extracellular matrix proteins mediate the conversion of small cell lung carcinoma cells into a neuron-like phenotype.

    Tamara Murmann

    Full Text Available Small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs represent highly aggressive tumors with an overall five-year survival rate in the range of 5 to 10%. Here, we show that four out of five SCLC cell lines reversibly develop a neuron-like phenotype on extracellular matrix constituents such as fibronectin, laminin or thrombospondin upon staurosporine treatment in an RGD/integrin-mediated manner. Neurite-like processes extend rapidly with an average speed of 10 µm per hour. Depending on the cell line, staurosporine treatment affects either cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase or induction of polyploidy. Neuron-like conversion, although not accompanied by alterations in the expression pattern of a panel of neuroendocrine genes, leads to changes in protein expression as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. It is likely that SCLC cells already harbour the complete molecular repertoire to convert into a neuron-like phenotype. More extensive studies are needed to evaluate whether the conversion potential of SCLC cells is suitable for therapeutic interventions.

  6. Decreased synthesis of extracellular matrix components by chondrocytes cultured in scorbutic guinea pig serum plus vitamin C

    Oyamada, I.; Bird, T.A.; Peterkofsky, B.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have previously shown that cartilage collagen (col) and proteoglycan (PG) syntheses decreased coordinately in guinea pig (GP) receiving a vitamin C deficient (C-def) diet for more than 2 weeks. The defects were related to the fasting state induced during the 3rd and 4th weeks of scurvy, rather than to the role of ascorbate in proline (pro) hydroxylation. These results and the generalized effect on col synthesis suggested the involvement of humoral factors. Sera from normal (NGPS) and scorbutic (SGPS) GP supported growth of BALB 3T3 cells under conditions where EGF plus insulin (or IGF I) were required, for up to 2 weeks after initiation of the C-def diet. Thereafter activity was lost from SGPS. The ability of NGPS and 4-week-SGPS, both with added ascorbate, to maintain normal rates of col and PG syntheses in cultured chick embryo chondrocytes was measured by incorporation of (/sup 14/C)pro into collagenase digestible protein and (/sup 35/S)sulfate into PG. Although pro hydroxylation and col secretion were normal in cells cultured with SGPS for 2 days, col and PG synthetic rates were decreased to 40-50% of rates in cells cultured in NGPS, with no change in the types of col and PG synthesized. These results provide evidence that depletion of growth factors during the fasting stage of scurvy may cause decreased synthesis of extracellular matrix components.

  7. Effects of cell-attachment and extracellular matrix on bone formation in vivo in collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    Max M Villa

    Full Text Available Cell-based tissue engineering can be used to replace missing or damaged bone, but the optimal methods for delivering therapeutic cells to a bony defect have not yet been established. Using transgenic reporter cells as a donor source, two different collagen-hydroxyapatite (HA scaffolds, and a critical-size calvarial defect model, we investigated the effect of a cell-attachment period prior to implantation, with or without an extracellular matrix-based seeding suspension, on cell engraftment and osteogenesis. When quantitatively compared, the in-house scaffold implanted immediately had a higher mean radiopacity than in-house scaffolds incubated overnight. Both scaffold types implanted immediately had significantly higher area fractions of donor cells, while the in-house collagen-HA scaffolds implanted immediately had higher area fractions of the mineralization label compared with groups incubated overnight. When the cell loading was compared in vitro for each delivery method using the in-house scaffold, immediate loading led to higher numbers of delivered cells. Immediate loading may be preferable in order to ensure robust bone formation in vivo. The use of a secondary ECM carrier improved the distribution of donor cells only when a pre-attachment period was applied. These results have improved our understanding of cell delivery to bony defects in the context of in vivo outcomes.

  8. Microarray analysis of extracellular matrix genes expression in myocardium of mouse with Coxsackie virus B3 myocarditis

    张召才; 李双杰; 杨英珍; 陈瑞珍; 葛均波; 陈灏珠

    2004-01-01

    Background Extracellular matrix (ECM) orchestrates cell behaviour including growth, death, apoptosis, adhesion, migration, and invasion by activating several signalling pathways. Certain components of ECM, such as integrins, may act as receptors or co-receptors of enterovirus. ECM-activated gene expressions in myocardium of viral heart disease including myocarditis and partial cardiomyopathy remain elusive. This study was to investigate the expression of ECM-activated genes in myocardium of mouse with viral myocarditis. Methods BALB/c mice were infected with Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) to establish an animal model of myocarditis. Uninfected mice were also prepared and served as controls. Specific mRNA expression pattern in myocarditic mouse heart was analysed by an in-house cDNA microarray containing 8192 genes. Overexpressed ECM genes were selected and subsequently confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Results Nine ECM genes were isolated, from the array of 8192 genes, as overexpressed genes in hearts of myocarditic mice in comparison with controls. Subsequent Northern blot analysis confirmed that four of the nine genes were highly expressed. Expression of these four genes, Fin15, Ilk, Lamr1 and ADAMTS-1, has not been reported previously to be induced by Coxsackie virus. Conclusion CVB3-induced myocarditis is associated with gene expression profiles of certain ECM components.

  9. The effect of synthesized RGD peptide on the secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) by the hepatic stellate cell

    Objective: To study the effect of RGD peptide on the secretion of extracellular matrix by primary hepatic stellate cells. Methods: The RGD peptide was synthesized by chemical method. HSCs were isolated from SD rat by in situ perfusion of liver and cultured for 48 hours. The culture was divided into 4 parts: 1)Control (no agent added) 2) TGF β1 added ( TGF β1 5ng/ml), 3)RGD added (RGD 100 μg/ml), 4)Combined agents added (TGF β1 5ng/ ml and RGD 100 μg/ml). Afterwards , they were further cultured for 3 days. The levels of ECM in the culture supernatant were detected with radioimmunoassay. Results: The levels of HA, LN and PC III in the parts with TGF β1 and combined agent were significantly higher than those in the control, while the levels in culture with RGD remained unchanged. The levels of LN and PCIII in the culture with combined agents were significantly lower than those in the culture with TGF β1. Conclusion: RGD peptide could decrease the levels of LN and PCIII in HSCs culture, suggesting inhibition of secretion of ECM by primary HSCs. The probable mechanism involved might be a competitive combination with integrin. (authors)

  10. Changes in extracellular matrix (ECM and ECM-associated proteins in the metastatic progression of prostate cancer

    Sikes Robert A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prostate cancer (PCa is no exception to the multi-step process of metastasis. As PCa progresses, changes occur within the microenvironments of both the malignant cells and their targeted site of metastasis, enabling the necessary responses that result in successful translocation. The majority of patients with progressing prostate cancers develop skeletal metastases. Despite advancing efforts in early detection and management, there remains no effective, long-term cure for metastatic PCa. Therefore, the elucidation of the mechanism of PCa metastasis and preferential establishment of lesions in bone is an intensive area of investigation that promises to generate new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review will survey what is currently know concerning PCa interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM and the roles of factors within the tumor and ECM microenvironments that contribute to metastasis. These will be discussed within the context of changes in expression and functional heterodimerization patterns of integrins, changes in ECM expression and reorganization by proteases facilitating invasion. In this context we also provide a brief summary of how growth factors (GFs, cytokines and regulatory signaling pathways favor PCa metastasis to bone.

  11. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy

    Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition.

  12. Extracellular S100A4(mts1) stimulates invasive growth of mouse endothelial cells and modulates MMP-13 matrix metalloproteinase activity

    Schmidt-Hansen, Birgitte; Ornås, Dorte; Grigorian, Mariam;

    2004-01-01

    transcriptional modulation of genes involved in the proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Treatment of SVEC 4-10 with the S100A4 protein leads to the transcriptional activation of collagenase 3 (MMP-13) mRNA followed by subsequent release of the protein from the cells. Beta-casein zymography...... demonstrates enhancement of proteolytic activity associated with MMP-13. This observation indicates that extracellular S100A4 stimulates the production of ECM degrading enzymes from endothelial cells, thereby stimulating the remodeling of ECM. This could explain the angiogenic and metastasis...

  13. Fabrication method, structure, mechanical, and biological properties of decellularized extracellular matrix for replacement of wide bone tissue defects.

    Anisimova, N Y; Kiselevsky, M V; Sukhorukova, I V; Shvindina, N V; Shtansky, D V

    2015-09-01

    The present paper was focused on the development of a new method of decellularized extracellular matrix (DECM) fabrication via a chemical treatment of a native bone tissue. Particular attention was paid to the influence of chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of native bones, sterility, and biological performance in vivo using the syngeneic heterotopic and orthotopic implantation models. The obtained data indicated that after a chemical decellularization treatment in 4% aqueous sodium chlorite, no noticeable signs of the erosion of compact cortical bone surface or destruction of trabeculae of spongy bone in spinal channel were observed. The histological studies showed that the chemical treatment resulted in the decellularization of both bone and cartilage tissues. The DECM samples demonstrated no signs of chemical and biological degradation in vivo. Thorough structural characterization revealed that after decellularization, the mineral frame retained its integrity with the organic phase; however clotting and destruction of organic molecules and fibers were observed. FTIR studies revealed several structural changes associated with the destruction of organic molecules, although all organic components typical of intact bone were preserved. The decellularization-induced structural changes in the collagen constituent resulted changed the deformation under compression mechanism: from the major fracture by crack propagation throughout the sample to the predominantly brittle fracture. Although the mechanical properties of radius bones subjected to decellularization were observed to degrade, the mechanical properties of ulna bones in compression and humerus bones in bending remained unchanged. The compressive strength of both the intact and decellularized ulna bones was 125-130 MPa and the flexural strength of humerus bones was 156 and 145 MPa for the intact and decellularized samples, respectively. These results open new avenues for the use of DECM samples as

  14. Extracellular matrix-blood composite injection reduces post-traumatic osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament injury in the rat.

    Proffen, Benedikt L; Sieker, Jakob T; Murray, Martha M; Akelman, Matthew R; Chin, Kaitlyn E; Perrone, Gabriel S; Patel, Tarpit K; Fleming, Braden C

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if an injection of a novel extracellular matrix scaffold and blood composite (EMBC) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury would have a mitigating effect on post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) development in rat knees. Lewis rats underwent unilateral ACL transection and were divided into three groups as follows: (1) no further treatment (ACLT; n = 10); (2) an intra-articular injection of EMBC on day 0 (INJ0; n = 11); and (3) an intra-articular injection of EMBC on day 14 (INJ14; n = 11). Ten additional animals received capsulotomy only (n = 10, SHAM group). The OARSI histology scoring of the tibial cartilage and micro-CT of the tibial epiphysis were performed after 35 days. The ratio of intact/treated hind limb forces during gait was determined using a variable resistor walkway. The OARSI cartilage degradation sum score and total degeneration width were significantly greater in the ACLT group when compared to the INJ0 (p = 0.031, and p = 0.005) and INJ14 (p = 0.022 and p = 0.04) group. Weight bearing on the operated limb only decreased significantly in the ACLT group (p = 0.048). In the rat ACL transection model, early or delayed injection of EMBC ameliorated the significant decrease in weight bearing and cartilage degradation seen in knees subjected to ACL transection without injection. The results indicate that the injection of EMBC may slow the process of PTOA following ACL injury and may provide a promising treatment for PTOA. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:995-1003, 2016. PMID:26629963

  15. Parenteral and enteral feeding in preterm piglets differently affects extracellular matrix proteins, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis in the small intestine.

    Oste, Marijke; De Vos, Maartje; Van Haver, Els; Van Brantegem, Leen; Thymann, Thomas; Sangild, Per; Weyns, Andre; Van Ginneken, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The preterm intestine is immature and responds differently to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and enteral nutrition, compared with the term intestine. We hypothesised that in preterms, diet composition and feeding route affect mucosal morphology, enterocyte mitosis and apoptosis, and the distribution of laminin-1, fibronectin and collagen IV (extracellular matrix proteins (ECMP)). Preterm piglets (93.5 % of gestation) were delivered via caesarean section and birth weight-matched allocated to one of the four experimental groups: the piglets were either euthanised immediately after delivery, after 3 d of TPN or after 2 d enteral feeding with colostrum or milk formula, following 3 d of TPN. We combined immunohistochemistry, image analysis and stereological measurements to describe the intestinal mucosal layer. No significant changes occurred after 3 d of TPN. Feeding colostrum or milk replacer for 2 d after TPN was associated with an increased crypt depth. Only enteral feeding with colostrum resulted in an increased villus height and mitotic index. Neither TPN nor enteral feeding changed the distribution pattern of ECMP or the occurrence of bifid crypts. The immature distribution pattern of ECMP in TPN-fed piglets, coupled with unchanged enterocyte mitosis and apoptosis indices, illustrates that feeding preterm pigs 3 d TPN does not lead to mucosal atrophy. Despite the invariable distribution of ECMP, colostrum was associated with crypt hyperplasia resulting in an increased villus height. These data illustrate that some mechanisms regulating cell turnover are immature in preterms and may in part explain the abnormal gut responses to TPN and enteral feeding in prematurely born pigs. PMID:20887647

  16. Transcriptomic Changes in Osteoblasts Following Endothelial Cell-Cocultivation Suggest a Role of Extracellular Matrix in Cellular Interaction.

    Lampert, Florian M; Simunovic, Filip; Finkenzeller, Günter; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Stark, G Björn; Winninger, Oscar; Steiner, Dominik

    2016-08-01

    Vascularization is important for bone development, fracture healing and engineering of artificial bone tissue. In the context of bone tissue engineering, it was shown that coimplantation of human primary umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human osteoblasts (hOBs) results in the formation of functional blood vessels and enhanced bone regeneration. Implanted endothelial cells do not only contribute to blood vessel formation, but also support proliferation, cell survival and osteogenic differentiation of coimplanted hOBs. These effects are partially mediated by direct heterotypic cell contacts. In a previous report we could show that cocultivated hOBs strongly increase the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) formation in HUVECs, suggesting that ECM may be involved in the intercellular communication between hOBs and HUVECs. The present study aimed at investigating whether comparable changes occur in hOBs. We therefore performed a microarray analysis of hOBs cultivated in direct contact with HUVECs, revealing 1,004 differentially expressed genes. The differentially expressed genes could be assigned to the functional clusters ECM, proliferation, apoptosis and osteogenic differentiation. The microarray data could be confirmed by performing quantitative real time RT-PCR on selected genes. Furthermore, we could show that the ECM produced by HUVECs increased the expression of the osteogenic differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in hOBs. In summary, our data demonstrate that HUVECs provoke complex changes in gene expression patterns in cocultivated hOBs and that ECM plays and important role in this interaction. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1869-1879, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26754918

  17. The Effect of Bioceramic Composite Extracellular Matrixes Used to Repair Bone Deficiency on Relevant Blood Biochemical Indices

    2007-01-01

    At the base of experimental animal model construction of bone defect in New Zealand rabbit, the promoting repair effect of bioactive ceramics on bone defect as well as its machanism was studied through testing body mineral elements, enzymes related to bone morphogenetic proteins and some biochemical indexes. Refering to some documents, materials of TCP, CHA and HA were combined and TCP/BMP/ TCP-β1 and CHA/BMP/ TCP-β1, HA/BMP/ TCP-β1 composite materials were made. All kinds of them were implanted into the radial defect site of rabbit, respectively. The chosen blood indexes (Ca, P, ALP, GGT, AST, ALT, TPA, BUN and Cr) were tested by colorimetry, speed rate and bromocresol green testing methods. No abnormal effects were found in any animal after operation. Serum concentrations of Ca, P and ALP were increased with the length of time in all groups of the three kinds of composite material, mixed material and pure materials. The increases in composite material groups were more significant ( P <0.05). Comparison of the three kinds of material showed TCP > CHA > HA. There was a tendency of increased TPA and decreased BUN with the length of time. There was no significant difference between the composite material groups and pure material group (P >0.05). The three kinds of bioactive ceramics composed of extracellular matrix could increase the serum concentrations of Ca and P and activity of ALP after being implanted into defect bone and showed some repairing capacity. This provided a new area of machanism study of bone defect repair by biomaterials.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Fibroblasts Reveals a Disease Extracellular Matrix Signature and Key Molecular Regulators.

    Sonia Paco

    Full Text Available Collagen VI related myopathies encompass a range of phenotypes with involvement of skeletal muscle, skin and other connective tissues. They represent a severe and relatively common form of congenital disease for which there is no treatment. Collagen VI in skeletal muscle and skin is produced by fibroblasts.In order to gain insight into the consequences of collagen VI mutations and identify key disease pathways we performed global gene expression analysis of dermal fibroblasts from patients with Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy with and without vitamin C treatment. The expression data were integrated using a range of systems biology tools. Results were validated by real-time PCR, western blotting and functional assays.We found significant changes in the expression levels of almost 600 genes between collagen VI deficient and control fibroblasts. Highly regulated genes included extracellular matrix components and surface receptors, including integrins, indicating a shift in the interaction between the cell and its environment. This was accompanied by a significant increase in fibroblasts adhesion to laminin. The observed changes in gene expression profiling may be under the control of two miRNAs, miR-30c and miR-181a, which we found elevated in tissue and serum from patients and which could represent novel biomarkers for muscular dystrophy. Finally, the response to vitamin C of collagen VI mutated fibroblasts significantly differed from healthy fibroblasts. Vitamin C treatment was able to revert the expression of some key genes to levels found in control cells raising the possibility of a beneficial effect of vitamin C as a modulator of some of the pathological aspects of collagen VI related diseases.

  19. A photoactivatable nanopatterned substrate for analyzing collective cell migration with precisely tuned cell-extracellular matrix ligand interactions.

    Yoshihisa Shimizu

    Full Text Available Collective cell migration is involved in many biological and pathological processes. Various factors have been shown to regulate the decision to migrate collectively or individually, but the impact of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM interactions is still debated. Here, we developed a method for analyzing collective cell migration by precisely tuning the interactions between cells and ECM ligands. Gold nanoparticles are arrayed on a glass substrate with a defined nanometer spacing by block copolymer micellar nanolithography (BCML, and photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol (Mw  =  12 kDa, PEG12K and a cyclic RGD peptide, as an ECM ligand, are immobilized on this substrate. The remaining glass regions are passivated with PEG2K-silane to make cells interact with the surface via the nanoperiodically presented cyclic RGD ligands upon the photocleavage of PEG12K. On this nanostructured substrate, HeLa cells are first patterned in photo-illuminated regions, and cell migration is induced by a second photocleavage of the surrounding PEG12K. The HeLa cells gradually lose their cell-cell contacts and become disconnected on the nanopatterned substrate with 10-nm particles and 57-nm spacing, in contrast to their behavior on the homogenous substrate. Interestingly, the relationship between the observed migration collectivity and the cell-ECM ligand interactions is the opposite of that expected based on conventional soft matter models. It is likely that the reduced phosphorylation at tyrosine-861 of focal adhesion kinase (FAK on the nanopatterned surface is responsible for this unique migration behavior. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the presented method in understanding the process of determining collective and non-collective migration features in defined micro- and nano-environments and resolving the crosstalk between cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesions.

  20. Biophysical characterization of the olfactomedin domain of myocilin, an extracellular matrix protein implicated in inherited forms of glaucoma.

    Susan D Orwig

    Full Text Available Myocilin is an eye protein found in the trabecular extracellular matrix (TEM, within the anatomic region that controls fluid flow. Variants of myocilin, localized to its olfactomedin (OLF domain, have been linked to inherited forms of glaucoma, a disease associated with elevated intraocular pressure. OLF domains have also been implicated in psychiatric diseases and cancers by their involvement in signaling, neuronal growth, and development. However, molecular characterization of OLFs has been hampered by challenges in recombinant expression, a hurdle we have recently overcome for the myocilin OLF domain (myoc-OLF. Here, we report the first detailed solution biophysical characterization of myoc-OLF to gain insight into its structure and function. Myoc-OLF is stable in the presence of glycosaminoglycans, as well as in a wide pH range in buffers with functional groups reminiscent of such glycosaminoglycans. Circular dichroism (CD reveals significant β-sheet and β-turn secondary structure. Unexpectedly, the CD signature is reminiscent of α-chymotrypsin as well as another ocular protein family, the βγ-crystallins. At neutral pH, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and CD melts indicate a highly cooperative transition with a melting temperature of ∼55 °C. Limited proteolysis combined with mass spectrometry reveals that the compact core structural domain of OLF consists of approximately residues 238-461, which retains the single disulfide bond and is as stable as the full myoc-OLF construct. The data presented here inform new testable hypotheses for interactions with specific TEM components, and will assist in design of therapeutic agents for myocilin glaucoma.

  1. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecules in Fetal-Origin Amniotic Epithelial Cells of Preeclamptic Pregnancy.

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Yu, Ji Hea; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Ah Leum; Jo, Mi Hyun; Kim, MinGi; Cho, Sung-Rae; Kim, Young-Han

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a common disease that can occur during human pregnancy and is a leading cause of both maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Inadequate trophoblast invasion and deficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries are associated with preeclampsia (PE). The development of this syndrome is thought to be related to multiple factors. Recently, we isolated patient-specific human amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) from the placentas of 3 women with normal pregnancy and 3 with preeclamptic pregnancy. Since the characteristics of human AECs in PE are different from those in normal pregnancy, we sought to confirm the genes differentially expressed between preeclamptic pregnancy and normal pregnancy. Therefore, we performed transcriptome analysis to investigate the candidate genes associated with the possible pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Pathway analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) online resource. In this study, we selected a total of 12 pathways and focused on extracellular matrix-related and biological adhesion molecules. Using RT-PCR array and real-time PCR, we confirmed that COL16A1, ITGB2, and LAMA3 were significantly up-regulated, but ITGA1, ITGA3, ITGA6, MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP11 were significantly down-regulated in preeclamptic fetal origin cells. Taken together, we suggest that the genes and pathways identified here may be responsible for the occurrence and development of PE, and controlling their expression may play a role in communication with fetal-maternal placenta to keep normal pregnancy. PMID:27218821

  2. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecules in Fetal-Origin Amniotic Epithelial Cells of Preeclamptic Pregnancy.

    Myung-Sun Kim

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a common disease that can occur during human pregnancy and is a leading cause of both maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Inadequate trophoblast invasion and deficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries are associated with preeclampsia (PE. The development of this syndrome is thought to be related to multiple factors. Recently, we isolated patient-specific human amniotic epithelial cells (AECs from the placentas of 3 women with normal pregnancy and 3 with preeclamptic pregnancy. Since the characteristics of human AECs in PE are different from those in normal pregnancy, we sought to confirm the genes differentially expressed between preeclamptic pregnancy and normal pregnancy. Therefore, we performed transcriptome analysis to investigate the candidate genes associated with the possible pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Pathway analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG online resource. In this study, we selected a total of 12 pathways and focused on extracellular matrix-related and biological adhesion molecules. Using RT-PCR array and real-time PCR, we confirmed that COL16A1, ITGB2, and LAMA3 were significantly up-regulated, but ITGA1, ITGA3, ITGA6, MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP11 were significantly down-regulated in preeclamptic fetal origin cells. Taken together, we suggest that the genes and pathways identified here may be responsible for the occurrence and development of PE, and controlling their expression may play a role in communication with fetal-maternal placenta to keep normal pregnancy.

  3. The SYT-SSX fusion protein and histological epithelial differentiation in synovial sarcoma: relationship with extracellular matrix remodeling.

    Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) tumor cells, which have the chromosomal translocation t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2), have an inherently greater propensity for epithelial differentiation than other mesenchymal tumors, especially spindle cell sarcomas. This is caused by de-repression of the transcription of E-cadherin by SYT-SSX1 and SYT-SSX2, which dissociate Snail or Slug, respectively, from the E-cadherin promoter. However, a subset of SS with SYT-SSX1 loses E-cadherin expression despite adequate de-repression because of mutations in E-cadherin, resulting in monophasic histology. The ratio of the expression levels of SYT-SSX1 and Snail is also associated with E-cadherin expression: the lower the SYT-SSX1/Snail ratio, the lower the level of E-cadherin expression, and vice versa, thus affecting tumor histology. In addition, Wnt signal activation caused by mutation of β-catenin, APC, or Axin 1 and 2 is associated with monophasic histology. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix is also important. Only cells that survive all of these steps can finally exhibit biphasic histology. On the other hand, the SYT-SSX2 fusion has a weaker de-repression effect on the E-cadherin promoter than does SYT-SSX1, so it is difficult for SYT-SSX2-expressing tumors to achieve sufficient capacity for epithelial differentiation to form glandular structures. This review provides an interesting model for this epithelial differentiation that shows a possible mechanism for the aberrant mesenchymal to epithelial transition of SS and suggests that it might better be considered an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. PMID:24228088

  4. The failing human heart is characterized by decreased numbers of telocytes as result of apoptosis and altered extracellular matrix composition

    Richter, Manfred; Kostin, Sawa

    2015-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of interstitial cells only recently described. This study aimed at characterizing and quantifying TCs and telopodes (Tps) in normal and diseased hearts. We have been suggested that TCs are influenced by the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. We used transmission electron microscopy and c-kit immunolabelling to identify and quantify TCs in explanted human hearts with heart failure (HF) because of dilated, ischemic or inflammatory cardiomyopathy. LV myectomy samples from patients with aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction and samples from donor hearts which could not be used for transplantation served as controls. Quantitative immunoconfocal analysis revealed that 1 mm2 of the normal myocardium contains 14.9 ± 3.4 TCs and 41.6 ± 5.9 Tps. As compared with the control group, the number of TCs and Tps in HF decreased more than twofold. There were no differences between HF and control in the number of Ki67-positive TCs. In contrast, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling-positive TCs increased threefold in diseased hearts as compared to control. Significant inverse correlations were found between the amount of mature fibrillar collagen type I and the number of TCs (r = −0.84; P < 0.01) and Tps (r = −0.85; P < 0.01). The levels of degraded collagens showed a significant positive relationship with the TCs numbers. It is concluded that in HF the number of TCs are decreased because of higher rates of TCs apoptosis. Moreover, our results indicate that a close relationship exists between TCs and the ECM protein composition such that the number of TCs and Tps correlates negatively with the amount of mature fibrillar collagens and correlates positively with degraded collagens. PMID:26311501

  5. The failing human heart is characterized by decreased numbers of telocytes as result of apoptosis and altered extracellular matrix composition.

    Richter, Manfred; Kostin, Sawa

    2015-11-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of interstitial cells only recently described. This study aimed at characterizing and quantifying TCs and telopodes (Tps) in normal and diseased hearts. We have been suggested that TCs are influenced by the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. We used transmission electron microscopy and c-kit immunolabelling to identify and quantify TCs in explanted human hearts with heart failure (HF) because of dilated, ischemic or inflammatory cardiomyopathy. LV myectomy samples from patients with aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction and samples from donor hearts which could not be used for transplantation served as controls. Quantitative immunoconfocal analysis revealed that 1 mm(2) of the normal myocardium contains 14.9 ± 3.4 TCs and 41.6 ± 5.9 Tps. As compared with the control group, the number of TCs and Tps in HF decreased more than twofold. There were no differences between HF and control in the number of Ki67-positive TCs. In contrast, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling-positive TCs increased threefold in diseased hearts as compared to control. Significant inverse correlations were found between the amount of mature fibrillar collagen type I and the number of TCs (r = -0.84; P < 0.01) and Tps (r = -0.85; P < 0.01). The levels of degraded collagens showed a significant positive relationship with the TCs numbers. It is concluded that in HF the number of TCs are decreased because of higher rates of TCs apoptosis. Moreover, our results indicate that a close relationship exists between TCs and the ECM protein composition such that the number of TCs and Tps correlates negatively with the amount of mature fibrillar collagens and correlates positively with degraded collagens. PMID:26311501

  6. Comparison of the effects of semicarbazide and β-aminopropionitrile on the arterial extracellular matrix in the Brown Norway rat

    To investigate a putative role for semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) in arterial extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, we compared arteries of growing Brown Norway (BN) rats after chronic administration of semicarbazide (SCZ) and β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), two inhibitors with different properties and relative specificities for SSAO and lysyl oxidase (LOX). The BN model is particularly well adapted to evaluating effects of toxic compounds on the arterial elastic network. We measured aortic LOX and SSAO activities and quantified several ECM parameters. After a pilot study comparing doses previously studied and testing for additivity, we studied low and high equimolar doses of SCZ and BAPN. Both compounds similarly inhibited LOX, whereas SCZ inhibited SSAO far more effectively than BAPN. Both decreased carotid wall rupture pressure, increased tail tendon collagen solubility, decreased aortic insoluble elastin (% dry weight) and dose-dependently increased defects in the internal elastic lamina of abdominal aorta, iliac and renal arteries. Our results suggest that either these effects are mediated by LOX inhibition, SCZ being slightly more effective than BAPN in our conditions, or SSAO acts similarly to and in synergy with LOX on ECM, the greater SCZ effect reflecting the simultaneous inhibition of both enzymes. However, the high SCZ dose increased aortic collagen and ECM proteins other than insoluble elastin markedly more than did equimolar BAPN, possibly revealing a specific effect of SSAO inhibition. To discriminate between the two above possibilities, and to demonstrate unequivocally a specific effect of SSAO inhibition on ECM formation or organization, we must await availability of more specific inhibitors.

  7. Involvement of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β in fibrosis through extracellular matrix protein production after ischemic stroke.

    Makihara, Noriko; Arimura, Koichi; Ago, Tetsuro; Tachibana, Masaki; Nishimura, Ataru; Nakamura, Kuniyuki; Matsuo, Ryu; Wakisaka, Yoshinobu; Kuroda, Junya; Sugimori, Hiroshi; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-02-01

    Fibrosis is concomitant with repair processes following injuries in the central nervous system (CNS). Pericytes are considered as an origin of fibrosis-forming cells in the CNS. Here, we examined whether platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ), a well-known indispensable molecule for migration, proliferation, and survival of pericytes, was involved in the production of extracellular matrix proteins, fibronectin and collagen type I, which is crucial for fibrosis after ischemic stroke. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated induction of PDGFRβ expression in vascular cells of peri-infarct areas at 3-7days in a mouse stroke model. The PDGFRβ-expressing cells extended from peri-infarct areas toward the ischemic core after day 7 while expressing fibronectin and collagen type I in the infarct areas. In contrast, desmin and α-smooth muscle actin, markers of pericytes, were only expressed in vascular cells. In PDGFRβ heterozygous knockout mice, the expression of fibronectin and collagen type I was attenuated at both mRNA and protein levels with an enlargement of the infarct volume after ischemic stroke compared with that in wild-type littermates. In cultured brain pericytes, the expression of PDGF-B, PDGFRβ, fibronectin, and collagen type I, but not desmin, was significantly increased by serum depletion (SD). The SD-induced upregulation of fibronectin and collagen type I was suppressed by SU11652, an inhibitor of PDGFRβ, while PDGF-B further increased the SD-induced upregulation. In conclusion, the expression level of PDGFRβ may be a crucial determinant of fibrosis after ischemic stroke. Moreover, PDGFRβ signaling participates in the production of fibronectin and collagen type I after ischemic stroke. PMID:25510317

  8. Staphylococcus aureus manganese transport protein C (MntC is an extracellular matrix- and plasminogen-binding protein.

    Natália Salazar

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus--particularly nosocomial infections--represent a great concern. Usually, the early stage of pathogenesis consists on asymptomatic nasopharynx colonization, which could result in dissemination to other mucosal niches or invasion of sterile sites, such as blood. This pathogenic route depends on scavenging of nutrients as well as binding to and disrupting extracellular matrix (ECM. Manganese transport protein C (MntC, a conserved manganese-binding protein, takes part in this infectious scenario as an ion-scavenging factor and surprisingly as an ECM and coagulation cascade binding protein, as revealed in this work. This study showed a marked ability of MntC to bind to several ECM and coagulation cascade components, including laminin, collagen type IV, cellular and plasma fibronectin, plasminogen and fibrinogen by ELISA. The MntC binding to plasminogen appears to be related to the presence of surface-exposed lysines, since previous incubation with an analogue of lysine residue, ε-aminocaproic acid, or increasing ionic strength affected the interaction between MntC and plasminogen. MntC-bound plasminogen was converted to active plasmin in the presence of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA. The newly released plasmin, in turn, acted in the cleavage of the α and β chains of fibrinogen. In conclusion, we describe a novel function for MntC that may help staphylococcal mucosal colonization and establishment of invasive disease, through the interaction with ECM and coagulation cascade host proteins. These data suggest that this potential virulence factor could be an adequate candidate to compose an anti-staphylococcal human vaccine formulation.

  9. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) Proteolysis of the Extracellular Loop of Voltage-gated Sodium Channels and Potential Alterations in Pain Signaling.

    Remacle, Albert G; Kumar, Sonu; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Cieplak, Piotr; Hullugundi, Swathi; Dolkas, Jennifer; Shubayev, Veronica I; Strongin, Alex Y

    2015-09-18

    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) or congenital analgesia is a rare monogenic hereditary condition. This disorder is characterized by the inability to perceive any form of pain. Nonsense mutations in Nav.1.7, the main pain signaling voltage-gated sodium channel, lead to its truncations and, consequently, to the inactivation of the channel functionality. However, a non-truncating homozygously inherited missense mutation in a Bedouin family with CIP (Nav1.7-R907Q) has also been reported. Based on our currently acquired in-depth knowledge of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) cleavage preferences, we developed the specialized software that predicts the presence of the MMP cleavage sites in the peptide sequences. According to our in silico predictions, the peptide sequence of the exposed extracellular unstructured region linking the S5-S6 transmembrane segments in the DII domain of the human Nav1.7 sodium channel is highly sensitive to MMP-9 proteolysis. Intriguingly, the CIP R907Q mutation overlaps with the predicted MMP-9 cleavage site sequence. Using MMP-9 proteolysis of the wild-type, CIP, and control peptides followed by mass spectrometry of the digests, we demonstrated that the mutant sequence is severalfold more sensitive to MMP-9 proteolysis relative to the wild type. Because of the substantial level of sequence homology among sodium channels, our data also implicate MMP proteolysis in regulating the cell surface levels of the Nav1.7, Nav1.6, and Nav1.8 channels, but not Nav1.9. It is likely that the aberrantly accelerated MMP-9 proteolysis during neurogenesis is a biochemical rational for the functional inactivation in Nav1.7 and that the enhanced cleavage of the Nav1.7-R907Q mutant is a cause of CIP in the Bedouin family. PMID:26283785

  10. Cleavage of extracellular matrix in periodontitis: gingipains differentially affect cell adhesion activities of fibronectin and tenascin-C.

    Ruggiero, Sabrina; Cosgarea, Raluca; Potempa, Jan; Potempa, Barbara; Eick, Sigrun; Chiquet, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Gingipains are cysteine proteases that represent major virulence factors of the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Gingipains are reported to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) of periodontal tissues, leading to tissue destruction and apoptosis. The exact mechanism is not known, however. Fibronectin and tenascin-C are pericellular ECM glycoproteins present in periodontal tissues. Whereas fibronectin mediates fibroblast adhesion, tenascin-C binds to fibronectin and inhibits its cell-spreading activity. Using purified proteins in vitro, we asked whether fibronectin and tenascin-C are cleaved by gingipains at clinically relevant concentrations, and how fragmentation by the bacterial proteases affects their biological activity in cell adhesion. Fibronectin was cleaved into distinct fragments by all three gingipains; however, only arginine-specific HRgpA and RgpB but not lysine-specific Kgp destroyed its cell-spreading activity. This result was confirmed with recombinant cell-binding domain of fibronectin. Of the two major tenascin-C splice variants, the large but not the small was a substrate for gingipains, indicating that cleavage occurred primarily in the alternatively spliced domain. Surprisingly, cleavage of large tenascin-C variant by all three gingipains generated fragments with increased anti-adhesive activity towards intact fibronectin. Fibronectin and tenascin-C fragments were detected in gingival crevicular fluid of a subset of periodontitis patients. We conclude that cleavage by gingipains directly affects the biological activity of both fibronectin and tenascin-C in a manner that might lead to increased cell detachment and loss during periodontal disease. PMID:23313574

  11. Comprehensive profiling of cartilage extracellular matrix formation and maturation using sequential extraction and label-free quantitative proteomics.

    Wilson, Richard; Diseberg, Anders F; Gordon, Lavinia; Zivkovic, Snezana; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Mackie, Eleanor J; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Bateman, John F

    2010-06-01

    Articular cartilage is indispensable for joint function but has limited capacity for self-repair. Engineering of neocartilage in vitro is therefore a major target for autologous cartilage repair in arthritis. Previous analysis of neocartilage has targeted cellular organization and specific molecular components. However, the complexity of extracellular matrix (ECM) development in neocartilage has not been investigated by proteomics. To redress this, we developed a mouse neocartilage culture system that produces a cartilaginous ECM. Differential analysis of the tissue proteome of 3-week neocartilage and 3-day postnatal mouse cartilage using solubility-based protein fractionation targeted components involved in neocartilage development, including ECM maturation. Initially, SDS-PAGE analysis of sequential extracts revealed the transition in protein solubility from a high proportion of readily soluble (NaCl-extracted) proteins in juvenile cartilage to a high proportion of poorly soluble (guanidine hydrochloride-extracted) proteins in neocartilage. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap) and statistical analysis were then used to filter three significant protein groups: proteins enriched according to extraction condition, proteins differentially abundant between juvenile cartilage and neocartilage, and proteins with differential solubility properties between the two tissue types. Classification of proteins differentially abundant between NaCl and guanidine hydrochloride extracts (n = 403) using bioinformatics revealed effective partitioning of readily soluble components from subunits of larger protein complexes. Proteins significantly enriched in neocartilage (n = 78) included proteins previously not reported or with unknown function in cartilage (integrin-binding protein DEL1; coiled-coil domain-containing protein 80; emilin-1 and pigment epithelium derived factor). Proteins with differential extractability between juvenile cartilage and neocartilage

  12. The role of microbial-produced extracellular polymeric matrix in the formation and survival of biological soil crusts

    Rossi, Federico; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are complex communities commonly constituting organo-mineral layers in arid and semiarid environment having a major influence on these ecosystems (Belnap and Lange, 2001). They have high tolerance towards a-biotic stresses and fluctuations in moisture, illumination, salinity and nutrients. The plasticity exhibited by BSCs is hugely contributed by the presence of the extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) that is synthesized by crustal organisms, notably cyanobacteria and microalgae. This polysaccharidic net plays key roles in biofilm relations with the surrounding constrained environment. Notably, EPM concurs in coping with water scarcity, freezing and salt stress; increases biolayers stability against erosion, and is involved in nutrient provision (Rossi and De Philippis, 2015). We conducted several investigations in a research area located in the Inner Mongolian desert (Inner Mongolia, China) where BSCs were induced over different sites through inoculation-based techniques performed in different years. Our studies were aimed at determining the role of EPM in BSC development and survival in such a hyper-arid system. This presentation will report the results concerning the role of EPM in water capture from non-rainfall sources, water maintenance at the topsoil, and in water infiltrability, the latter being a factor with important ecological implications. In additions we investigated the role of the matrix as a source of carbon for the crustal heterotrophs. Furthermore, EPM was extracted with methods optimized in our lab, aiming at removing tightly bound fractions and loosely bound fractions from BSCs having different ages. The fractions were analyzed in terms of monosaccharidic composition, and molecular weight (MW) distribution. We show how the relative amounts of uronic acids increase in the EPM with the age of the crusts, implying advantages for the community-water relations. In addition, we observed significant differences in MW

  13. Immunohistochemical evaluation of fibrillar components of the extracellular matrix of transversalis fascia and anterior abdominal rectus sheath in men with inguinal hernia

    Rogério De Oliveira Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the role of fibrillar extracellular matrix components in the pathogenesis of inguinal hernias. METHODS: samples of the transverse fascia and of the anterior sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle were collected from 40 men aged between 20 and 60 years with type II and IIIA Nyhus inguinal hernia and from 10 fresh male cadavers (controls without hernia in the same age range. The staining technique was immunohistochemistry for collagen I, collagen III and elastic fibers; quantification of fibrillar components was performed with an image analysis processing software. RESULTS: no statistically significant differences were found in the amount of elastic fibers, collagen I and collagen III, and the ratio of collagen I / III among patients with inguinal hernia when compared with subjects without hernia. CONCLUSION: the amount of fibrillar extracellular matrix components did not change in patients with and without inguinal hernia.

  14. Serum, liver, and lung levels of the major extracellular matrix components at the early stage of BCG-induced granulomatosis depending on the infection route.

    Kim, L B; Shkurupy, V A; Putyatina, A N

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on the model of mouse BCG-induced granulomatous showed that the content of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the liver and lungs are changed at the early stages of inflammation (days 3 and 30 postinfection) before cell destruction in the organs begins. This is related to degradation of extracellular matrix structures. Their high content in the blood and interstitium probably contributes to the formation of granulomas, fibroblast proliferation and organ fibrosis. These processes depend on the infection route that determines different conditions for generalization of the inflammation process. Intravenous method of vaccine injection is preferable to use when designing the experiments simulating tuberculosis granulomatosis, especially for the analysis of its early stages. PMID:25573360

  15. AB173. Fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix formation in the 3D fiber-deposited polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold for tunica albuginea replacement

    Lee, Hyun-Suk; Park, Jinju; Lee, Mina; Yu, Ho Song; Yim, Sang Un; Park, Su A.; Park, Kwangsung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of growth factors fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix formation in the 3D fiber-deposited polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold fabricated by 3D printing technique for tissue engineering applications of tunica albuginea. Methods PCL scaffold was fabricated by 3D bioprinting system. For in vitro cell study, scaffolds were seeded with human fibroblast cell at 5×105 cells and were cultured for up to 2 weeks. Cell survival and cell proliferation were monitored b...

  16. Reduction of Inflammatory Responses and Enhancement of Extracellular Matrix Formation by Vanillin-Incorporated Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) Scaffolds

    Lee, Yujung; Kwon, JeongIl; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Dongwon

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major components of vanilla, a commonly used flavoring agent and preservative and is known to exert potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this work, vanillin-incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films and scaffolds were fabricated to evaluate the effects of vanillin on the inflammatory responses and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation in vitro and in vivo. The incorporation of vanillin to PLGA films induced hydrophilic nature, resulting i...

  17. Biological and bactericidal properties of Ag-doped bioactive glass in a natural extracellular matrix hydrogel with potential application in dentistry

    Y-Y Wang; X Chatzistavrou; D Faulk; Badylak, S; Zheng, L; S. Papagerakis; Ge, L.; H. Liu; Papagerakis, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the fabrication and evaluation of a novel bioactive and bactericidal material, which could have applications in dentistry by supporting tissue regeneration and killing oral bacteria. Our hypothesis was that a new scaffold for pulp-dentin tissue engineering with enhanced antibacterial activity could be obtained by associating extracellular matrix derived from porcine bladder with an antibacterial bioactive glass. Our study combines in vitro approaches and ectopic impl...

  18. Amelogenin, an extracellular matrix protein, in the treatment of venous leg ulcers and other hard-to-heal wounds: experimental and clinical evidence

    Romanelli, M.; Dini, V.; Vowden, P.;

    2008-01-01

    Amelogenins are extracellular matrix proteins that, under physiological conditions, self-assemble into globular aggregates up to micron-sizes. Studies with periodontal fibroblasts indicate that attachment to these structures increases the endogenous secretion of multiple growth factors and cell p...... amelogenin therapy demonstrated in the RCT are being repeated in "real life" situations and that amelogenin therapy may also have a role to play in the treatment of other wound types such as diabetic foot ulcers Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  19. Reversal of TGF-β1 stimulation of α-smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix components by cyclic AMP in Dupuytren's - derived fibroblasts

    Johnson Sandra; Baratz Mark E; Gallo Phillip H; Satish Latha; Kathju Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Myofibroblasts, a derived subset of fibroblasts especially important in scar formation and wound contraction, have been found at elevated levels in affected Dupuytren's tissues. Transformation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is characterized by expression of alpha- smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and increased production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, both events of relevance to connective tissue remodeling. We propose that increasing the activation of the cyclic A...

  20. On the role of type IX collagen in the extracellular matrix of cartilage: type IX collagen is localized to intersections of collagen fibrils

    1986-01-01

    The tissue distribution of type II and type IX collagen in 17-d-old chicken embryo was studied by immunofluorescence using polyclonal antibodies against type II collagen and a peptic fragment of type IX collagen (HMW), respectively. Both proteins were found only in cartilage where they were co-distributed. They occurred uniformly throughout the extracellular matrix, i.e., without distinction between pericellular, territorial, and interterritorial matrices. Tissues that undergo endochondral bo...

  1. AB173. Fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix formation in the 3D fiber-deposited polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold for tunica albuginea replacement

    Lee, Hyun-Suk; Park, Jinju; Lee, Mina; Yu, Ho Song; Yim, Sang Un; Park, Su A.; Park, Kwangsung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of growth factors fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix formation in the 3D fiber-deposited polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold fabricated by 3D printing technique for tissue engineering applications of tunica albuginea. Methods PCL scaffold was fabricated by 3D bioprinting system. For in vitro cell study, scaffolds were seeded with human fibroblast cell at 5×105 cells and were cultured for up to 2 weeks. Cell survival and cell proliferation were monitored by EZ-cytox assay. The effect of growth factors on the extracellular matrix formation was evaluated by fastin elastin assay and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Results SEM images showed the surface morphology of PCL scaffolds. Human fibroblasts were grown on 3D PCL scaffolds in the presence/absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1). bFGF or TGF-β1 stimulated proliferation of fibroblasts and also increased collagen and elastin formation in vitro study. Conclusions This study shows that bFGF or TGF-β1 modulates the fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix formation in the 3D PCL scaffold.

  2. The matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 cleaves laminin receptor at two distinct sites between the transmembrane domain and laminin binding sequence within the extracellular domain

    Tosikazu AMANO; Olivia KWAK; Liezhen FU; Anastasia MARSHAK; Yun-Bo SHI

    2005-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) stromelysin-3 (ST3) has long been implicated to play an important role in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. However,like other MMPs, the molecular basis of ST3 function in vivo remains unclear due to the lack of information on its physiological substrates. Furthermore, ST3 has only weak activities toward all tested ECM proteins. Using thyroid hormone-dependent Xenopus laevis metamorphosis as a model, we demonstrated previously that ST3 is important for apoptosis and tissue morphogenesis during intestinal remodeling. Here, we used yeast two-hybrid screen with mRNAs from metamorphosing tadpoles to identify potential substrate of ST3 during development. We thus isolated the 37 kd laminin receptor precursor (LR). We showed that LR binds to ST3 in vitro and can be cleaved by ST3 at two sites,distinct from where other MMPs cleave. Through peptide sequencing, we determined that the two cleavage sites are in the extracellular domain between the transmembrane domain and laminin binding sequence. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these cleavage sites are conserved in human LR. These results together with high levels of human LR and ST3 expression in carcinomas suggest that LR is a likely in vivo substrate of ST3 and that its cleavage by ST3 may alter cell-extracellular matrix interaction, thus, playing a role in mediating the effects of ST3 on cell fate and behavior observed during development and pathogenesis.

  3. IKKα/CHUK regulates extracellular matrix remodeling independent of its kinase activity to facilitate articular chondrocyte differentiation.

    Eleonora Olivotto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The non-canonical NF-κB activating kinase IKKα, encoded by CHUK (conserved-helix-loop-helix-ubiquitous-kinase, has been reported to modulate pro- or anti- inflammatory responses, cellular survival and cellular differentiation. Here, we have investigated the mechanism of action of IKKα as a novel effector of human and murine chondrocyte extracellular matrix (ECM homeostasis and differentiation towards hypertrophy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IKKα expression was ablated in primary human osteoarthritic (OA chondrocytes and in immature murine articular chondrocytes (iMACs derived from IKKα(f/f:CreERT2 mice by retroviral-mediated stable shRNA transduction and Cre recombinase-dependent Lox P site recombination, respectively. MMP-10 was identified as a major target of IKKα in chondrocytes by mRNA profiling, quantitative RT-PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. ECM integrity, as assessed by type II collagen (COL2 deposition and the lack of MMP-dependent COL2 degradation products, was enhanced by IKKα ablation in mice. MMP-13 and total collagenase activities were significantly reduced, while TIMP-3 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 protein levels were enhanced in IKKα-deficient chondrocytes. IKKα deficiency suppressed chondrocyte differentiation, as shown by the quantitative inhibition of.Alizarin red staining and the reduced expression of multiple chondrocyte differentiation effectors, including Runx2, Col10a1 and Vegfa,. Importantly, the differentiation of IKKα-deficient chondrocytes was rescued by a kinase-dead IKKα protein mutant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: IKKα acts independent of its kinase activity to help drive chondrocyte differentiation towards a hypertrophic-like state. IKKα positively modulates ECM remodeling via multiple downstream targets (including MMP-10 and TIMP-3 at the mRNA and post-transcriptional levels, respectively to maintain maximal MMP-13 activity, which is required for ECM

  4. Neoplastic and stromal cells contribute to an extracellular matrix gene expression profile defining a breast cancer subtype likely to progress.

    Tiziana Triulzi

    Full Text Available We recently showed that differential expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes delineates four subgroups of breast carcinomas (ECM1, -2, -3- and -4 with different clinical outcome. To further investigate the characteristics of ECM signature and its impact on tumor progression, we conducted unsupervised clustering analyses in 6 additional independent datasets of invasive breast tumors from different platforms for a total of 643 samples. Use of four different clustering algorithms identified ECM3 tumors as an independent group in all datasets tested. ECM3 showed a homogeneous gene pattern, consisting of 58 genes encoding 43 structural ECM proteins. From 26 to 41% of the cases were ECM3-enriched, and analysis of datasets relevant to gene expression in neoplastic or corresponding stromal cells showed that both stromal and breast carcinoma cells can coordinately express ECM3 genes. In in vitro experiments, β-estradiol induced ECM3 gene production in ER-positive breast carcinoma cell lines, whereas TGFβ induced upregulation of the genes leading to ECM3 gene classification, especially in ER-negative breast carcinoma cells and in fibroblasts. Multivariate analysis of distant metastasis-free survival in untreated breast tumor patients revealed a significant interaction between ECM3 and histological grade (p = 0.001. Cox models, estimated separately in grade I-II and grade III tumors, indicated a highly significant association between ECM3 and worse survival probability only in grade III tumors (HR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.3-7.0, p = 0.0098. Gene Set Enrichment analysis of ECM3 compared to non-ECM3 tumors revealed significant enrichment of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT genes in both grade I-II and grade III subsets of ECM3 tumors. Thus, ECM3 is a robust cluster that identifies breast carcinomas with EMT features but with accelerated metastatic potential only in the undifferentiated (grade III phenotype. These findings support the

  5. In vitro cartilage production using an extracellular matrix-derived scaffold and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    ZHAO Yan-hong; YANG Qiang; XIA Qun; PENG Jiang; LU Shi-bi; GUO Quan-yi; MA Xin-long

    2013-01-01

    Background Cartilage repair is a challenging research area because of the limited healing capacity of adult articular cartilage.We had previously developed a natural,human cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived scaffold for in vivo cartilage tissue engineering in nude mice.However,before these scaffolds can be used in clinical applications in vivo,the in vitro effects should be further explored.Methods We produced cartilage in vitro using a natural cartilage ECM-derived scaffold.The scaffolds were fabricated by combining a decellularization procedure with a freeze-drying technique and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),micro-computed tomography (micro-CT),histological staining,cytotoxicity assay,biochemical and biomechanical analysis.After being chondrogenically induced,the induction results of BMSCs were analyzed by histology and Immunohisto-chemistry.The attachment and viability assessment of the cells on scaffolds were analyzed using SEM and LIVE/DEAD staining.Cell-scaffold constructs cultured in vitro for 1 week and 3 weeks were analyzed using histological and immunohistochemical methods.Results SEM and micro-CT revealed a 3-D interconnected porous structure.The majority of the cartilage ECM was found in the scaffold following the removal of cellular debris,and stained positive for safranin O and collagen Ⅱ.Viability staining indicated no cytotoxic effects of the scaffold.Biochemical analysis showed that collagen content was (708.2±44.7)μg/mg,with GAG (254.7±25.9) μg/mg.Mechanical testing showed the compression moduli (E) were (1.226±0.288) and (0.052±0.007) MPa in dry and wet conditions,respectively.Isolated canine bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) were induced down a chondrogenic pathway,labeled with PKH26,and seeded onto the scaffold.Immunofluorescent staining of the cell-scaffold constructs indicated that chondrocyte-like cells were derived from seeded BMSCs and excreted ECM.The cell-scaffold constructs contained

  6. Ability of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex to repair photoaged skin by stimulation of biomarkers in human extracellular matrix

    McCook JP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available John P McCook,1 Thomas J Stephens,2 Lily I Jiang,2 Robert M Law,3 Vincent Gotz4 1Discovery Partners LLC, Frisco, 2Thomas J. Stephens & Associates, Inc., Richardson, 3ProPath, Dallas, TX, 4MDRejuvena, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To examine the effect of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex on the expression of biomarkers of photoaged dermal extracellular matrix indicative of skin repair.Patients and methods: Following a previously published 12-day clinical assessment model, skin biopsy samples from the forearms of four healthy females with signs of photoaged skin were obtained and samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for key biomarkers of aging skin after each subject was treated with a test material consisting of a gel containing a liposomal dispersion of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex 0.05%, a positive control of tretinoin cream 0.025%, and an untreated negative control.Results: There was a statistically significantly greater amount of fibrillin/amyloid P and epidermal mucins found for skin treated with the test material containing 0.05% sodium copper chlorophyllin complex and the reference control tretinoin 0.025% cream compared to the negative control (untreated site. Expression of procollagen 1 and dermal mucin also showed a greater presence in the samples treated with the test material and the reference control compared to the negative control, though the differences were not statistically significant. No adverse events were observed or reported by the subjects during the course of the study.Conclusion: The results of this human biopsy study suggest that both retinoids and sodium copper chlorophyllin complex have beneficial effects on biomarkers of photoaged skin. Products containing both sodium copper chlorophyllin complex and retinols may provide a dual approach to reversing age-related decreases in hyaluronic acid (HA in the skin: inhibition of the breakdown of HA via sodium copper chlorophyllin complex by inhibition

  7. Modest elevation in BNP in asymptomatic hypertensive patients reflects sub-clinical cardiac remodeling, inflammation and extracellular matrix changes.

    Phelan, Dermot

    2012-11-01

    In asymptomatic subjects B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes even at levels well below contemporary thresholds used for the diagnosis of heart failure. The mechanisms behind these observations are unclear. We examined the hypothesis that in an asymptomatic hypertensive population BNP would be associated with sub-clinical evidence of cardiac remodeling, inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations. We performed transthoracic echocardiography and sampled coronary sinus (CS) and peripheral serum from patients with low (n = 14) and high BNP (n = 27). Peripheral BNP was closely associated with CS levels (r = 0.92, p<0.001). CS BNP correlated significantly with CS levels of markers of collagen type I and III turnover including: PINP (r = 0.44, p = 0.008), CITP (r = 0.35, p = 0.03) and PIIINP (r = 0.35, p = 0.001), and with CS levels of inflammatory cytokines including: TNF-α (r = 0.49, p = 0.002), IL-6 (r = 0.35, p = 0.04), and IL-8 (r = 0.54, p<0.001). The high BNP group had greater CS expression of fibro-inflammatory biomarkers including: CITP (3.8±0.7 versus 5.1±1.9, p = 0.007), TNF-α (3.2±0.5 versus 3.7±1.1, p = 003), IL-6 (1.9±1.3 versus 3.4±2.7, p = 0.02) and hsCRP (1.2±1.1 versus 2.4±1.1, p = 0.04), and greater left ventricular mass index (97±20 versus 118±26 g\\/m(2), p = 0.03) and left atrial volume index (18±2 versus 21±4, p = 0.008). Our data provide insight into the mechanisms behind the observed negative prognostic impact of modest elevations in BNP and suggest that in an asymptomatic hypertensive cohort a peripheral BNP measurement may be a useful marker of an early, sub-clinical pathological process characterized by cardiac remodeling, inflammation and ECM alterations.

  8. Modest elevation in BNP in asymptomatic hypertensive patients reflects sub-clinical cardiac remodeling, inflammation and extracellular matrix changes.

    Dermot Phelan

    Full Text Available In asymptomatic subjects B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes even at levels well below contemporary thresholds used for the diagnosis of heart failure. The mechanisms behind these observations are unclear. We examined the hypothesis that in an asymptomatic hypertensive population BNP would be associated with sub-clinical evidence of cardiac remodeling, inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM alterations. We performed transthoracic echocardiography and sampled coronary sinus (CS and peripheral serum from patients with low (n = 14 and high BNP (n = 27. Peripheral BNP was closely associated with CS levels (r = 0.92, p<0.001. CS BNP correlated significantly with CS levels of markers of collagen type I and III turnover including: PINP (r = 0.44, p = 0.008, CITP (r = 0.35, p = 0.03 and PIIINP (r = 0.35, p = 0.001, and with CS levels of inflammatory cytokines including: TNF-α (r = 0.49, p = 0.002, IL-6 (r = 0.35, p = 0.04, and IL-8 (r = 0.54, p<0.001. The high BNP group had greater CS expression of fibro-inflammatory biomarkers including: CITP (3.8±0.7 versus 5.1±1.9, p = 0.007, TNF-α (3.2±0.5 versus 3.7±1.1, p = 003, IL-6 (1.9±1.3 versus 3.4±2.7, p = 0.02 and hsCRP (1.2±1.1 versus 2.4±1.1, p = 0.04, and greater left ventricular mass index (97±20 versus 118±26 g/m(2, p = 0.03 and left atrial volume index (18±2 versus 21±4, p = 0.008. Our data provide insight into the mechanisms behind the observed negative prognostic impact of modest elevations in BNP and suggest that in an asymptomatic hypertensive cohort a peripheral BNP measurement may be a useful marker of an early, sub-clinical pathological process characterized by cardiac remodeling, inflammation and ECM alterations.

  9. Cell adhesion to agrin presented as a nanopatterned substrate is consistent with an interaction with the extracellular matrix and not transmembrane adhesion molecules

    Wolfram Tobias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular spacing is important for cell adhesion in a number of ways, ranging from the ordered arrangement of matrix polymers extracellularly, to steric hindrance of adhesion/signaling complexes intracellularly. This has been demonstrated using nanopatterned RGD peptides, a canonical extracellular matrix ligand for integrin interactions. Cell adhesion was greatly reduced when the RGD-coated nanoparticles were separated by more than 60 nm, indicating a sharp spacing-dependent threshold for this form of cell adhesion. Results Here we show a similar dependence of cell adhesion on the spacing of agrin, a protein that exists as both a secreted, matrix-bound form and a type-2 transmembrane form in vivo. Agrin was presented as a substrate for cell adhesion assays by anchoring recombinant protein to gold nanoparticles that were arrayed at tunable distances onto glass coverslips. Cells adhered well to nanopatterned agrin, and when presented as uniformly coated substrates, adhesion to agrin was comparable to other well-studied adhesion molecules, including N-Cadherin. Adhesion of both mouse primary cortical neurons and rat B35 neuroblastoma cells showed a spacing-dependent threshold, with a sharp drop in adhesion when the space between agrin-coated nanoparticles increased from 60 to 90 nm. In contrast, adhesion to N-Cadherin decreased gradually over the entire range of distances tested (uniform, 30, 60, 90, and 160 nm. The spacing of the agrin nanopattern also influenced cell motility, and peptide competition suggested adhesion was partially integrin dependent. Finally, differences in cell adhesion to C-terminal agrin fragments of different lengths were detected using nanopatterned substrates, and these differences were not evident using uniformly coated substrates. Conclusion These results suggest nanopatterned substrates may provide a physiological presentation of adhesive substrates, and are consistent with cells adhering to agrin

  10. Magnesium inhibits the calcification of the extracellular matrix in tendon-derived stem cells via the ATP-P2R and mitochondrial pathways.

    Yue, Jiaji; Jin, Shanzi; Li, Yaqiang; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Wenwei; Yang, Chunxi; Du, Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Tendon calcification has been widely regarded by researchers to result from the osteogenic differentiation of Tendon-Derived Stem Cells (TDSCs) and ectopic mineralization caused by the calcification of cellular matrix. Recent studies have revealed a correlation between the Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) balance and the degeneration or calcification of tendon tissues. Furthermore, the ATP-P2X/P2Y receptor pathway has been shown to play a decisive role in the process of calcification, with calcium exportation from mitochondria and calcium oscillations potentially representing the cohesive signal produced by this pathway. Our previous study demonstrated that matrix calcification is inhibited by magnesium. In this study, we examined the effects of extracellular Mg(2+) on the deposition of calcium phosphate matrix and cellular pathways in TDSCs. The suppression of the export of calcium from mitochondria has also been detected. We found that a high concentration of extracellular Mg(2+) ([Mg(2+)]e) inhibited the mineralization of the extracellular matrix in TDSCs and that 100 μM ATP reversed this inhibitory effect in vitro. In addition, the spontaneous release of ATP was inhibited by high [Mg(2+)]e levels. A high [Mg(2+)]e suppressed the expression of P2X4, P2X5 and P2X7 and activated the expression of P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4 and P2Y14. The interaction between Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) is therefore contradictory, Mg(2+) inhibits mitochondrial calcium concentrations, meanwhile it reverses the opening of mPTP that is induced by Ca(2+). JC-1 staining verified the protective effect of Mg(2+) on mitochondrial membrane potential and the decrease induced by Ca(2+). Taken together, these results indicate that high [Mg(2+)]e interferes with the expression of P2 receptors, resulting in decreased extracellular mineralization. The balance between Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) influences mitochondrial calcium exportation and provides another explanation for the mechanism underlying matrix calcification in TDSCs. PMID

  11. Down regulation of NO signaling in Trypanosoma cruzi upon parasite-extracellular matrix interaction: changes in protein modification by nitrosylation and nitration.

    Milton Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion of the Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes, the causative agent of Chagas' disease in humans, to components of the extracellular matrix (ECM is an important step in host cell invasion. The signaling events triggered in the parasite upon binding to ECM are less explored and, to our knowledge, there is no data available regarding •NO signaling.Trypomastigotes were incubated with ECM for different periods of time. Nitrated and S-nitrosylated proteins were analyzed by Western blotting using anti-nitrotyrosine and S-nitrosyl cysteine antibodies. At 2 h incubation time, a decrease in NO synthase activity, •NO, citrulline, arginine and cGMP concentrations, as well as the protein modifications levels have been observed in the parasite. The modified proteins were enriched by immunoprecipitation with anti-nitrotyrosine antibodies (nitrated proteins or by the biotin switch method (S-nitrosylated proteins and identified by MS/MS. The presence of both modifications was confirmed in proteins of interest by immunoblotting or immunoprecipitation.For the first time it was shown that T. cruzi proteins are amenable to modifications by S-nitrosylation and nitration. When T. cruzi trypomastigotes are incubated with the extracellular matrix there is a general down regulation of these reactions, including a decrease in both NOS activity and cGMP concentration. Notwithstanding, some specific proteins, such as enolase or histones had, at least, their nitration levels increased. This suggests that post-translational modifications of T. cruzi proteins are not only a reflex of NOS activity, implying other mechanisms that circumvent a relatively low synthesis of •NO. In conclusion, the extracellular matrix, a cell surrounding layer of macromolecules that have to be trespassed by the parasite in order to be internalized into host cells, contributes to the modification of •NO signaling in the parasite, probably an essential move for the ensuing invasion step.

  12. Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes in 3D Collagen I culture: an in vitro physiological environment for the study of extracellular matrix and host cell interactions

    Debora B. Petropolis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis is the causative agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, an important neglected tropical disease. Once Leishmania amazonensis is inoculated into the human host, promastigotes are exposed to the extracellular matrix (ECM of the dermis. However, little is known about the interaction between the ECM and Leishmania promastigotes. In this study we established L. amazonensis promastigote culture in a three-dimensional (3D environment mainly composed of Collagen I (COL I. This 3D culture recreates in vitro some aspects of the human host infection site, enabling the study of the interaction mechanisms of L. amazonensis with the host ECM. Promastigotes exhibited “freeze and run” migration in the 3D COL I matrix, which is completely different from the conventional in vitro swimming mode of migration. Moreover, L. amazonensis promastigotes were able to invade, migrate inside, and remodel the 3D COL I matrix. Promastigote trans-matrix invasion and the freeze and run migration mode were also observed when macrophages were present in the matrix. At least two classes of proteases, metallo- and cysteine proteases, are involved in the 3D COL I matrix degradation caused by Leishmania. Treatment with a mixture of protease inhibitors significantly reduced promastigote invasion and migration through this matrix. Together our results demonstrate that L. amazonensis promastigotes release proteases and actively remodel their 3D environment, facilitating their migration. This raises the possibility that promastigotes actively interact with their 3D environment during the search for their cellular “home”—macrophages. Supporting this hypothesis, promastigotes migrated faster than macrophages in a novel 3D co-culture model.

  13. Modulation of extracellular matrix by nutritional hepatotrophic factors in thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in the rat

    R.R. Guerra; M.R. Trotta; O.M. Parra; J.L. Avanzo; Bateman, A.; T.P.A. Aloia; Dagli, M.L.Z.; F.J. Hernandez-Blazquez

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional substances associated to some hormones enhance liver regeneration when injected intraperitoneally, being denominated hepatotrophic factors (HF). Here we verified if a solution of HF (glucose, vitamins, salts, amino acids, glucagon, insulin, and triiodothyronine) can revert liver cirrhosis and how some extracellular matrices are affected. Cirrhosis was induced for 14 weeks in 45 female Wistar rats (200 mg) by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (200 mg/kg). Twenty-five rats...

  14. M2 tumour-associated macrophages contribute to tumour progression via legumain remodelling the extracellular matrix in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Shen, Long; Li, Honghao; Shi, Yuzhi; Wang, Dekun; Gong, Junbo; Xun, Jing; Zhou, Sifan; Xiang, Rong; Tan, Xiaoyue

    2016-01-01

    Effects of M2 tumour-associated macrophages on the pathogenesis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are still controversial. Our data showed that the number of CD163-positive M2 macrophages correlated negatively with DLBCL prognosis. Macrophage depletion by clodronate liposomes significantly suppressed tumour growth in a xenograft mouse model of DLBCL using OCI-Ly3 cells. Moreover, M2 polarization of macrophages induced legumain expression in U937 cells. Exogenous legumain promoted degradation of fibronectin and collagen I, which was abolished by administration of a legumain inhibitor RR-11a. Overexpression of legumain in Raw 264.7 cells also induced tube formation of endothelial cells in matrigel. In the xenograft mouse model of DLBCL, decreased fibronectin and collagen I, as well as increased legumain expression and angiogenesis were found at the late stage tumours compared with early stage tumours. Co-localization of legumain and fibronectin was observed in the extracellular matrix of tumour tissues. Administration of the legumain inhibitor to the xenograft DLBCL model suppressed tumour growth, angiogenesis and collagen deposition compared with the control. Taken together, our results suggest that M2 tumour-associated macrophages affect degradation of the extracellular matrix and angiogenesis via overexpression of legumain, and therefore play an active role in the progression of DLBCL. PMID:27464733

  15. Mechanoregulatory tumor-stroma crosstalk in pancreatic cancer: Measurements of the effects of extracellular matrix mechanics on tumor growth behavior, and vice-versa, to inform therapeutics

    Celli, Jonathan; Jones, Dustin; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Cramer, Gwendolyn; Hanna, William; Caide, Andrew; Jafari, Seyedehrojin

    The rheological properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to play key roles in regulating tumor growth behavior through mechanotranduction pathways. The role of the mechanical microenvironment may be particularly important tumors of the pancreas, noted for an abundance of rigid fibrotic stroma, implicated in therapeutic resistance. At the same time, cancer cells and their stromal partners (e.g. tumor associated fibroblasts) continually alter the mechanical microenvironment in response to extracellular physical and biochemical cues as part of a two-way mechanoregulatory dialog. Here, we describe experimental studies using 3D pancreatic cell cultures with customized mechanical properties, combined with optical microrheology to provide insight into tumor-driven matrix remodeling. Quantitative microscopy provides measurements of phenotypic changes accompanying systematic variation of ECM composition in collagen and laminin-rich basement membrane admixtures, while analysis of the trajectories of passive tracer particles embedded in ECM report dynamic changes in heterogeneity, microstructure and local shear modulus accompanying both ECM stiffening (fibrosis) processes, and ECM degradation near invading cells. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Cancer Institute, R00CA155045 (PI: Celli).

  16. Normal number of CGG repeats in the FMR-1 gene and abnormal incorporation of fibrillin into the extracellular matrix in Lujan Syndrome

    Greenhaw, G.A.; Stone, C.; Milewicz, D. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Lujan syndrome is an X-linked condition that includes mild-to-moderate mental retardation, poor social integration, normal secondary sexual development with normal testicular size, generalized hypotonia, hypernasal voice and dolichostenomelia. Major cardiac complications and lens dislocation have not been reported although severe myopia may occur. All reported cases have had negative cytogenetic screening for fra(X) syndrome but establishing this constellation of findings as a distinctive entity has been difficult. We report 4 males in two sibships with clinical findings consistent with Lujan syndrome, normal karyotypes, negative cytogenetic screening for fra(X) syndrome and a normal number of CGG repeats in the FMR-1 gene. Dermal fibroblasts explanted from one of the affected males were used to study fibrillin synthesis secretion and extracellular matrix incorporation into microfibrils. Cells from the affected individual showed normal synthesis and secretion of fibrillin when compared to control cells, but the fibrillin was not incorporated into the extracellular matrix. These results suggest the presence of a gene on the X chromosome which may play a role in microfibril assembly and when deficient may disrupt the incorporation of fibrillin into microfibrils. This may be important not only in normal body morphogenesis but also in the development/function of the brain. More affected individuals are needed to investigate these findings further.

  17. Adipocytes Secrete Leukotrienes

    Mothe-Satney, Isabelle; Filloux, Chantal; Amghar, Hind; Pons, Catherine; Bourlier, Virginie; Galitzky, Jean; Paul A. Grimaldi; Féral, Chloé C.; Bouloumié, Anne; Obberghen, Emmanuel Van; Neels, Jaap G.

    2012-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are potent proinflammatory mediators, and many important aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses are regulated by LTs. Key members of the LT synthesis pathway are overexpressed in adipose tissue (AT) during obesity, resulting in increased LT levels in this tissue. We observed that several mouse adipocyte cell lines and primary adipocytes from mice and humans both can secrete large amounts of LTs. Furthermore, this production increases with a high-fat diet (HFD) and ...

  18. Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Hydrogel Scaffolds Derived from Decellularized Bone Extracellular Matrix and Collagen Type I.

    Francesco Paduano

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs on hydrogel scaffolds derived from bone extracellular matrix (bECM in comparison to those seeded on collagen I (Col-I, one of the main components of dental pulp ECM.DPSCs isolated from human third molars were characterized for surface marker expression and odontogenic potential prior to seeding into bECM or Col-I hydrogel scaffolds. The cells were then seeded onto bECM and Col-I hydrogel scaffolds and cultured under basal conditions or with odontogenic and growth factor (GF supplements. DPSCs cultivated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS with and without supplements were used as controls. Gene expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP, dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1 and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and mineral deposition was observed by Von Kossa staining.When DPSCs were cultured on bECM hydrogels, the mRNA expression levels of DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE genes were significantly upregulated with respect to those cultured on Col-I scaffolds or TCPS in the absence of extra odontogenic inducers. In addition, more mineral deposition was observed on bECM hydrogel scaffolds as demonstrated by Von Kossa staining. Moreover, DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE mRNA expressions of DPSCs cultured on bECM hydrogels were further upregulated by the addition of GFs or osteo/odontogenic medium compared to Col-I treated cells in the same culture conditions.These results demonstrate the potential of the bECM hydrogel scaffolds to stimulate odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs.

  19. Determination of the substrate repertoire of ADAMTS2, 3, and 14 significantly broadens their functions and identifies extracellular matrix organization and TGF-β signaling as primary targets.

    Bekhouche, Mourad; Leduc, Cedric; Dupont, Laura; Janssen, Lauriane; Delolme, Frederic; Vadon-Le Goff, Sandrine; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Baiwir, Dominique; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Dubail, Johanne; De Pauw, Edwin; Nusgens, Betty; Hulmes, David J S; Moali, Catherine; Colige, Alain

    2016-05-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motif (ADAMTS)2, 3, and 14 are collectively named procollagen N-proteinases (pNPs) because of their specific ability to cleave the aminopropeptide of fibrillar procollagens. Several reports also indicate that they could be involved in other biological processes, such as blood coagulation, development, and male fertility, but the potential substrates associated with these activities remain unknown. Using the recently described N-terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrate approach, we analyzed the secretomes of human fibroblasts and identified 8, 17, and 22 candidate substrates for ADAMTS2, 3, and 14, respectively. Among these newly identified substrates, many are components of the extracellular matrix and/or proteins related to cell signaling such as latent TGF-β binding protein 1, TGF-β RIII, and dickkopf-related protein 3. Candidate substrates for the 3 ADAMTS have been biochemically validated in different contexts, and the implication of ADAMTS2 in the control of TGF-β activity has been further demonstrated in human fibroblasts. Finally, the cleavage site specificity was assessed showing a clear and unique preference for nonpolar or slightly hydrophobic amino acids. This work shows that the activities of the pNPs extend far beyond the classically reported processing of the aminopropeptide of fibrillar collagens and that they should now be considered as multilevel regulators of matrix deposition and remodeling.-Bekhouche, M., Leduc, C., Dupont, L., Janssen, L., Delolme, F., Vadon-Le Goff, S., Smargiasso, N., Baiwir, D., Mazzucchelli, G., Zanella-Cleon, I., Dubail, J., De Pauw, E., Nusgens, B., Hulmes, D. J. S., Moali, C., Colige, A. Determination of the substrate repertoire of ADAMTS2, 3, and 14 significantly broadens their functions and identifies extracellular matrix organization and TGF-β signaling as primary targets. PMID:26740262

  20. Acellular human glans extracellular matrix as a scaffold for tissue engineering: in vitro cell support and biocompatibility

    Egydio, Fernanda M.; Freitas, Luiz G.; Sayeg, Kleber; Laks, Marcus; Oliveira, Andréia S.; Almeida, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Diseases of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant damage. Current reconstructive techniques are limited by tissue availability and compatibility. This study aims to assess if the decellularized human glans can be used as a biomaterial for penile reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Samples of the glans matrices were descellularized. We evaluate the presence of collagen type I and III, and elastic fibers. Biocompatibility assays were performed to assess the cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic interactions between the acellular matrix and 3T3 cells. The matrices were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells and were assessed for viability and integration of these cells. Biomechanical tests in native tissue, descellularized matrix and seeded matrix were performed to characterize their biomechanical properties. Results: The tissue architecture of the decellularized matrix of human glans was preserved as well as the maintenance of the biomechanical and biological properties. The analyzes of glans seeded with mesenchymal stem cells revealed the integration of these cells to the matrices, and its viability during two weeks “in vitro”. Conclusion: The decellularization process did not alter the biological and biomechanical characteristics of the human glans. When these matrices were seeded they were able to maintain the cells integrity and vitality. PMID:26689526