Sample records for adhesionvia template-driven mineralization

  1. Preparation of pHEMA-CP composites with high interfacial adhesionvia template-driven mineralization

    Song, Jie; Saiz, Eduardo; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.


    We report a template-driven nucleation and mineral growth process for the high-affinity integration of calcium phosphate (CP) with a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogel scaffold. A mineralization technique was developed that exposes carboxylate groups on the surface of crosslinked pHEMA, promoting high-affinity nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate on the surface along with extensive calcification of the hydrogel interior. External factors such as the heating rate, the agitation of the mineral stock solution and the duration of the process that affect the outcome of the mineralization were investigated. This template-driven mineralization technique provides an efficient approach toward bonelike composites with high mineral-hydrogel interfacial adhesion strength.

  2. MyProLang - My Programming Language: A Template-Driven Automatic Natural Programming Language

    Bassil, Youssef


    Modern computer programming languages are governed by complex syntactic rules. They are unlike natural languages; they require extensive manual work and a significant amount of learning and practicing for an individual to become skilled at and to write correct programs. Computer programming is a difficult, complicated, unfamiliar, non-automated, and a challenging discipline for everyone; especially, for students, new programmers and end-users. This paper proposes a new programming language and an environment for writing computer applications based on source-code generation. It is mainly a template-driven automatic natural imperative programming language called MyProLang. It harnesses GUI templates to generate proprietary natural language source-code, instead of having computer programmers write the code manually. MyProLang is a blend of five elements. A proprietary natural programming language with unsophisticated grammatical rules and expressive syntax; automation templates that automate the generation of in...

  3. Minerals

    Vaquero, M. P.


    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  4. Template Driven Code Generator for HLA Middleware

    Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.; Huiskamp, W.


    HLA is the accepted standard for simulation interoperability. However, the HLA services and the API that is provided for these services are relatively complex from the user point of view. Since the early days of HLA, federate developers have attempted to simplify their task by using middleware that

  5. A Template-Driven Gene Selection Procedure *

    Knowlton, Nicholas; Dozmorov, Igor; Kyker, Kimberly D.; Saban, Ricardo; Cadwell, Craig; Centola, Michael B; Hurst, Robert E.


    The hierarchical clustering and statistical techniques usually used to analyze microarray data do not inherently represent the underlying biology. Herein we present a hybrid approach involving characteristics of both supervised and unsupervised learning. This approach is based on template matching in which the interaction of the variables of inherent malignancy and the ability to express the malignant phenotype are modelled. Immortalized normal urothelial cells and bladder cancer cells of dif...

  6. Mineral resources

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.


    The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved

  7. Mineral Quantification.


    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  8. Mineral Resources

    Ababsa, Myriam


    Jordan’s natural resources are very limited: water is scarce, there is little arable land and the country has few sources of energy (fig. I.11). Jordan’s mineral industry has a long history: flint was used in prehistoric times and early copper mining started in Wadi Faynan during the Chalcolithic Period. The following is a brief presentation of Jordan’s resources. Mining and investments will be studied in Part 3. Figure I.11 — Jordan Mineral Resources. NRA 2012 Phosphates The Jordanian Natur...

  9. Hydrothermal minerals

    Nath, B.N.

    ridge system, sulfide minerals crystallize from the hot water directly onto the volcanic rocks surrounding the hydrothermal vent leading to the formation of hollow, chimney like sulfide structure through which the hot water continues to flow... systems, which are in turn an integral component of global mid-ocean ridge system. Hydrothermal systems are composed of convection cells in the crust and upper mantle through which seawater freely circulates reacting with magmatic material, which...

  10. Laboratory of minerals purification

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  11. Mineral Spectroscopy Server

    Rossman, George R.


    This server provides information about mineralogy and is primarily dedicated to providing information about color in minerals and access to data on Mineral Absorption Spectra in the visible and infrared regions of the spectrum and Raman spectra of minerals. Most data on the server were obtained in the Caltech mineral spectroscopy labs. Other types of spectroscopic data on minerals are also available. Visible, near-infrared and infrared absorption spectra are available for a number of minerals...

  12. Trade in mineral resources

    Davis, Graham A.


    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  13. Clay Minerals and Health

    Abdurrahman Dalgıç; Orhan Kavak


    The aim of this study is to examine clay minerals, which take very importantplace in relationships of minerals and human health. They have high areadensity, adsorption capacity, rheological properties, chemical inertia and verylow or nontoxic effects to human health. So, they are widely used in medicaltreatments. Commercially used clay minerals are; smectit, polygrstite, caoliniteand talc. The other clay minerals are under investigations for medicaltreatments.

  14. Construction Minerals Operations

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  15. Mineral Resources Data System

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  16. Chelated minerals for poultry

    SL Vieira


    Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confu...

  17. Mineral Supply Challenges


    Faced with shortcomings in its mineral supply, it’s imperative for China to balance its desire for reserves with its current economic needs Mineral resources are the corner- stone of materials needed for China’s national economic and social development.The country even counts on its mineral resources to satisfy 90 percent of its energy demands and over 95

  18. Fissure minerals, literature review

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  19. Chelated minerals for poultry

    SL Vieira


    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  20. Metallic mineral deposits

    Crow, M J; van Leeuwen, T.M.


    This account concentrates on the the primary metallic mineral deposits and occurrences in Sumatra, in particular the recent discoveries of gold, tin and base metals. The residual and placer deposits are given less emphasis, as no significant discoveries have been made in recent years. The history of mineral exploration and discovery in Indonesia has been reviewed recently by van Leeuwen (1993, 1994), documenting the change in emphasis of mineral-based activities from western to eastern I...

  1. Radioactive minerals in Slovakia

    In this paper, there is given the review of the radioactive minerals which contain uranium and thorium and their occurrence in the Slovakia. Chemical composition of most often occurred uranium minerals of West Carpaty was confirmed with wave-dispersion, occasionally energy-dispersion-roentgen microanalysis. Their identification was confirmed by roentgen diffraction or electron diffraction. Homogeneity, occasionally heterogeneity of studied samples was verified by scanning line electron microscope. The development of the uranium mineralization is given, too

  2. Reagan issues mineral policy

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  3. Brazilian minerals annual report

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1976 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, governments incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  4. Brazilian minerals annual report

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  5. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2007

    U.S. Geological Survey


    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  6. Mineral commodity summaries 2016

    Ober, Joyce A.


    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2015 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials

  7. Luobusaite: A New Mineral

    BAI Wenji; SHI Nicheng; FANG Qingsong; LI Guowu; XIONG Ming; YANG Jingsui; RONG He


    A group of mantle minerals including about 70-80 subtypes of minerals are discovered from a podiform chromitite in Tibet, China. Recovered minerals include diamond, coesite, moissanite,wustite, Fe-silides and a new mineral, luobusaite. All of these minerals were hand-picked from heavy-mineral separates of the podiform chromitite in the mantle peridotite of an ophiolite. The grains of luobusaite are as host mineral with inclusions of native silicon or as an intergrowth with native silicon and Fe-Si phase. Luobusaite occurs as irregular grains, with 0.1-0.2 mm in size, consisting of very finegrained aggregates. The mineral is steel-grey in color, metallic luster, and opaque. The empirical formula (based on 2 for Si) is Fe0.83Si2, according to the chemical compositions of luobusaite. X-ray powder-diffraction data: orthorhombic system, space group Cmca, a = 9.874 (14) (A), b = 7.784 (5) (A), c=7.829(7) (A), Z=16.

  8. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.


    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  9. Surface miner MTS 1250

    Hoffmann, D. [MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Mining and Machinery Planning dept.


    The German manufacturer MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH has developed a new series of surface miners with capacities ranging between 500-2000 bm{sup 3}/h. The Surface Miner MTS 1250, launched at MINETIME '99, is described in this article. 1 tab., 1 photo.

  10. Mineral Wool Insulation Binders

    Kowatsch, Stefan

    Mineral wool is considered the best known insulation type among the wide variety of insulation materials. There are three types of mineral wool, and these consist of glass, stone (rock), and slag wool. The overall manufacturing processes, along with features such as specifications and characteristics for each of these types, as well as the role of the binder within the process are described.

  11. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  12. Lithium mineral waters

    Munteanu Constantin


    Full Text Available Hydrological surveys showed that Romania basement contains a variety of balneary resources located within on the surface crust. Mineral waters are spread over more than 20% of the country at different depths, with a wide range of physical, chemical and therapeutic properties depending on their genesis.Balneary resources are represented mainly by therapeutic minerals that the physicochemical properties answer the needs of medical and prophylactic maintenance, enhancement and restoration of health, work capacity and physical and mental comfort of the individual.The surface waters arising from a natural source or updated by drilling and whose physical and chemical characteristics that may exert dynamic pharmaco-therapeutic are considered therapeutic mineral waters. Mineral waters are waters that have a variable content of salts, gas, minerals, radioactive elements, which gives them therapeutic properties. In the past, name of mineral water was attributed to all shallow or groundwater mineral water that could be used for therapeutic purposes. In recent years, mineral water that could be used for therapeutic purposes have been given the name of curative water.Lithium arouses a great scientific interest because, although his structure is so simple, easy to analyze, with chemical and physical properties well established the myriad of the effects on biological systems by influencing many cellular processes and molecular and the mechanism of action are still unclear generates a mystery that modern science attempting to decipher.

  13. Mineral industry in Australia

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.)

  14. Underground mineral extraction

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.


    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  15. Taxation of unmined minerals

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  16. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008

    U.S. Geological Survey


    Each chapter of the 2008 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2007 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported reserves and reserve base information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves and reserve base reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the International Strategic Minerals

  17. Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities

    Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid; Abdel-Aziz M. Khalid


    This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the investors, either the governmental or the private sectors, refrain from investing into the mineral industry for prospecting, evaluation, and developing the mining and mineral processing technologies...

  18. Characterization of clay minerals

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  19. sequenceMiner algorithm

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  20. Law of radioactive minerals

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  1. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    ... Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Multivitamin/mineral ... Vitamin K lowers the drug's effectiveness and doctors base the medicine dose partly on the amount of ...

  2. Coastal placer minerals

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    plagioclase weathers first while quartz remains unaltered. Transport: The weathered material would be transported by natural agents such as water, wind and glaciers. Humans to a large extent (e.g., by quarrying and mining) and animals and birds... at Chavara (Kerala) and Manavalakurichi (Tamil Nadu). The IREL started production after renovating the mineral separation plants that belonged previously to the Travancore Minerals Ltd. and was jointly owned by the central and state governments of Kerala...

  3. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.


    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  4. Lithium mineral waters

    Munteanu Constantin; Munteanu Diana


    Hydrological surveys showed that Romania basement contains a variety of balneary resources located within on the surface crust. Mineral waters are spread over more than 20% of the country at different depths, with a wide range of physical, chemical and therapeutic properties depending on their genesis.Balneary resources are represented mainly by therapeutic minerals that the physicochemical properties answer the needs of medical and prophylactic maintenance, enhancement and restoration of hea...

  5. Clay Minerals: Adsorbophysical Properties

    The structure and features of surfaces of clay minerals (kaolin, montmorillonite, etc) have an important scientific and practical value. On the surface the interrelation of processes at electronic, atomic and molecular levels is realized. Availability of mineral surface to external influences opens wide scientific and technical opportunities of use of the surface phenomena, so the research of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near-surface area of clay minerals is important. After long term researches of gas-clay mineral system in physical fields the author has obtained experimental and theoretical material contributing to the creation of the surface theory of clays. A part of the researches is dedicated to studying the mechanism of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near surface area of clay mineral systems, selectivity of the surface centers to interact with gas phase molecules and adsorbophysical properties. The study of physical and chemical properties of fine clay minerals and their modification has a decisive importance for development of theory and practice of nanotechnologies: they are sorbents, membranes, ceramics and other materials with required electronic features

  6. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    U.S. Geological Survey


    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  7. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    U.S. Geological Survey


    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  8. A Template-driven Approach for Maintainable Service-oriented Information Systems Integration

    Pahl, Claus; Zhu, Yaoling; Gacitua-Decar, Veronica


    peer-reviewed Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is currently the predominant software integration framework. Web services provide the predominant platform for SOA. SOA as an integration architecture solution supports a range of application scenarios. We present a solution for the integration of business information systems based on SOA and Web services. We discuss maintainability requirements in relation to information-specific integration and architecture aspects. A template-based appro...

  9. Reprever: resolving low-copy duplicated sequences using template driven assembly.

    Kim, Sangwoo; Medvedev, Paul; Paton, Tara A; Bafna, Vineet


    Genomic sequence duplication is an important mechanism for genome evolution, often resulting in large sequence variations with implications for disease progression. Although paired-end sequencing technologies are commonly used for structural variation discovery, the discovery of novel duplicated sequences remains an unmet challenge. We analyze duplicons starting from identified high-copy number variants. Given paired-end mapped reads, and a candidate high-copy region, our tool, Reprever, identifies (a) the insertion breakpoints where the extra duplicons inserted into the donor genome and (b) the actual sequence of the duplicon. Reprever resolves ambiguous mapping signatures from existing homologs, repetitive elements and sequencing errors to identify breakpoint. At each breakpoint, Reprever reconstructs the inserted sequence using profile hidden Markov model (PHMM)-based guided assembly. In a test on 1000 artificial genomes with simulated duplication, Reprever could identify novel duplicates up to 97% of genomes within 3 bp positional and 1% sequence errors. Validation on 680 fosmid sequences identified and reconstructed eight duplicated sequences with high accuracy. We applied Reprever to reanalyzing a re-sequenced data set from the African individual NA18507 to identify >800 novel duplicates, including insertions in genes and insertions with additional variation. polymerase chain reaction followed by capillary sequencing validated both the insertion locations of the strongest predictions and their predicted sequence. PMID:23658221

  10. Localized Template-Driven Functionalization of Nanoparticles by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    Nowak, Piotr; Saggiomo, Vittorio; Salehian, Fatemeh; Colomb-Delsuc, Mathieu; Han, Yang; Otto, Sijbren


    We have developed a method for the localized functionalization of gold nanoparticles using imine-based dynamic combinatorial chemistry. By using DNA templates, amines were grafted on the aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles only if and where the nanoparticles interacted with the template molecules.

  11. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.


    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  12. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    Bushby, Jessica


    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  13. [Mineralization of heart valves].

    Pawlikowski, M; Pfitzner, R


    Mineralization (calcification) of heart valves (mitral, aortic and aortic bioprosthesis) have been analyzed using; histology, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning microscopy, atomic absorption and electron microprobe. Obtained results showed the presence of two type of mineralization. First type is represented by grains composed of hydroxyapatite containing admixture of carbonates. This mineralization is seen macroscopically. Second type of mineralization is possible to determine only using chemical methods. It is represented by biological structures containing amount of Ca, P and other elements higher then normal heart valves. This second type of the mineralization conducts to the changes of physical features of the tissue. Both types of calcification develops because of the defects of atomic structure of biological components of heart valves (mainly collagen). These defects show the presence of free atomic bindings i.e. electric potential. Because of this, they are able to react with surrounding free joints, starting calcification. Defects of biological structures of heart valves are the results of infections, mechanical destruction of the valves etc. Calcification may be stopped on different stages of its development: or as secret calcification or may pass to the stage seen as apatite grains. PMID:1342999

  14. Marine Mineral Exploration

    exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine......The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... resources was negotiated by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). A most important outcome of this conference was the establishment of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of at least 200 nautical miles for all coastal states and the recognition of a deep-sea regime. Mineral deposits...

  15. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...


    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National...

  16. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.


    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  17. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.


    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  18. Iron oxide modified minerals

    Mashlan, M.; Bartoňková, H.; Jančík, D.; Tuček, J.; Martinec, Petr


    Roč. 191, 1-3 (2009), s. 151-157. ISSN 0304-3843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Mössbauer spectroscopy * clay minerals * iron oxide * nanoparticle Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.209, year: 2007

  19. Uruguay minerals fuels

    In this report the bases for the development of the necessary works of prospection are exposed on mineral fuels of Uruguay. We have taken the set from: coal, lutitas bituminous, uranium, petroleum and disturbs. In all the cases we have talked about to the present state of the knowledge and to the works that we considered necessary to develop in each case

  20. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay

  1. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  2. Chapter 5. Origin of Mineralization

    In this chapter author deals with the origin of uranium mineralization in Slovakia. There are discussed (1) Stratiform mineralization, particularly: (A) Uranium in Ti-rare earth elements (REE)-Zr placers in sandstone, (B) uranium mineralization in sandstone with abundant organic matter, (C) Uranium mineralization in phosphatic sandstone,(D) Cu±U mineralization (copper sandstone), (E) U-Mo mineralized horizons in volcanoclastic and volcanic rocks; (2) Vein mineralization, particularly: (F) Uranium mineralization in pegmatite, (G) Mo-W-(U-Ti-REE) mineralization in granite, (H) U-REE±Au mineralization in proximity of granite, (I) U±Mo and Cu mineralization cutting the permian sequences, (J) Uranium mineralization in the Neogene volcanics; and (3) Evolution of uranium mineralization. Uraninite occurrence in pegmatite of Dubrava deposit in Nizke Tatry Mts is the oldest manifestation of the uranium mineralization in the Western Carpathians. Its origin is related to the Hercynian magmatic activity. The most important uranium mineralization occurs in the Permian sequences. The stratiform mineralization is related to sandstones with abundant organic matter of Hronicum in the Kozie Chrbty Mts. or to volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks of Gemericum and Tatricum. The low-grade Permian ores display age ranging from (270 to 240±30) Ma. The Permian low-grade mineralization wa re-mobilized during the Alpine orogeny forming ore bodies of high-grade uranium mineralization especially on northern Gemericum and Tatricum of the Povazsky Inovec Mts. Big tectonic structures in ore deposits were favourable for remobilization. The younger re-mobilized mineralization overlaps the older low grade mineralization. U-Pb isotopic dating gave 130±20 Ma in high-grade ores of Gemericum in Novoveska Huta and 100±20 in high-grade ores of Tatricum in Kalnica. The Alpine granite with dissemination U-Ti-REE mineralization displays age 101±5 Ma according to Rb-Sr dating. As reliable U-Pb dating of U

  3. Mineral processing of heavy mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia

    Mitchell, C. J.


    Processing of heavy mineral sands involves many techniques including gravity, magnetic and electrostatic separation. As part of a laboratory programme to develop effective mineral processing techniques, two mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia were processed using the standard techniques, with emphasis placed on the Carpco electrostatic separator. These sands were initially characterised mineralogically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA...

  4. Construction Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  5. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  6. Rock and mineral magnetism

    O’Reilly, W


    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  7. Cataracts in uranium miners

    The question was studied of whether or not uranium miners with a long history of work underground develop alterations of the eye lens as a result of a long-term chronic exposure to gamma radiation. Investigated were the area of opacities and the occurrence of alterations of the lens posterior pole in a group of 800 uranium miners (i.e., 1,600 eyes) with work underground longer than 10 years. As against controls, no statistical differences were found in the lens transparency. Significant differences were also not found in the extent of cataracts and the occurrence of posterior pole alterations, nor in the rate of an increased occurrence of cataracts due to age. (L.O.)

  8. Magnetic birefringence of minerals.

    Jennings, Barry R; Wilson, Stephen R; Ridler, Peter J


    The earliest reports of magnetically induced optical birefringence included data for liquids, magnetic fluids and colloidal suspensions. Recent work has shown that with relatively straightforward apparatus, when carefully designed and aligned, measurable effects can be recorded even for suspensions of relatively weak diamagnetic materials, including mineral particles. By recording the magnitude of the birefringence induced in magnetic fields of up to two Tesla, a method for the analysis of the magnetic and optical characteristics of these diamagnetic colloids is evidenced. The principles, apparatus and methodology involved are described and novel data reported for the minerals attapulgite, bentonite, hectorite, kaolinite, montmorillonite and vermiculite. Preliminary experiments using pulsed fields on vermiculite sols show that, in favourable circumstances, estimates of particle size can be made by analysing signal response rates. PMID:15571692

  9. Mineral concentration by flotation

    The variables of the pulp, the influence of flotation reagents, and the phenomena of the mineralization of air bubbles are treated in some detail besides explanations of the disaggregation of minerals. The machines used in technical flotation processes are described and the possibilities of designing flotation cycles are indicated and explained by practical examples. Measuring techniques used to monitor important process parameters are reported and reference is made to radiometric techniques presently developed and used to a growing extent. Because of the increasing tendency of flotation system control, the application of radioactive tracers proves to be an important method of investigation for fundamental research required to describe mathematically the flotation process. The steps of automation leading to process optimization are indicated and flotation systems characterized by different degree of automation are presented. (orig.)

  10. Mineral accretion in seawater

    Bozak, Ronald Richard


    By performing electrolysis in seawater a concrete-like accretion of precipitating aragonite (one crystalline form of CaCO3) and brucite (Mg(OH) 2) slowly develops onto the cathode. The accretion forms by high pH conditions caused by the reduction reactions occurring at the cathode. A solid casing of accretions over a preformed cathodic mesh has the potential for many engineering applications such as artificial reefs, sub-surface breakwaters and pipe construction. To investigate using mineral accretion as an alternative means of construction, experiments in the open coast, laboratory and ocean harbor have resulted in tables that can projected into a feasibility study. Inevitable current density variations over the cathodic framework and sensitivity to seawater hydrodynamics make accretion thickness difficult to predict and control in practice. Ideal conditions for growing a large-scale mineral accretion structure are still, clean ocean waters where low DCV power can be delivered on the order of years.

  11. Discussion on Nontraditional Mineral Resources


    In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of nontraditional mineral resources, and pro pose the major system of nontraditional mineral resources, including nontraditional resources, research methods, mining and mineral economics. Then the authors conclude that the research on nontraditional mineral resources is not only significant to satisfication the human needs in the 21st century, but also important to the development of the present geological theory.

  12. Organic or mineral fertilization

    Heeb, Anuschka


    To meet Swedish environmental goals organic farming will play an important role in the development of a sustainable and high quality food production system. However, several conflicts exist, such as the achievement of high yields without the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides and the minimization of nutrient losses. In this thesis the effect of organic fertilizers compared to mineral fertilizers on plant product quality was investigated. Tomato yield and quality aspects such as taste a...

  13. Refractory Minerals in Henan Province

    JIN Qinguo; LI Jing; LIU Jiehua; LIU Yanjun


    Henan province is very rich in refractory minerals of many varieties including silica, dolomite, graphite,pearlite, sepiolite, olivine, and sillimanite group minerals, besides the abundant reserves of fireclay and bauxite,which lay a good foundation for the development of the refractories industry of the province. The paper introduces the reserves, distribution and character of the refractory minerals in Henan province.

  14. Titanium minerals for new materials

    Kotova, O.; Ozhogina, E.; Ponaryadov, A.; Golubeva, I.


    The mineral composition of titanium minerals of modern coastal-marine placer in Stradbroke Island (Australia) and Pizhma paleoplacer in Middle Timan (Russia) has been presented. The physical features of titanium minerals and their modification methods were shown. Photocatalysts on the basis of the Pizhma leucoxene were developed for water purification.

  15. Minerals and rumen function

    The mechanisms are discussed of some clinical disorders, characteristic only of ruminants and related to the effects of abnormal mineral intake on rumen function. With particular attention to tropical conditions, consideration is given to: (a) the possible effects of phosphorus deficiency on rumen microbial activity; (b) the depression of rumen microbial synthesis in sulphur deficiency; (c) the inhibition of magnesium absorption from the forestomachs; and (d) the involvement of the rumen microorganisms in leading to copper and vitamin B12 deficiencies as a result of low intakes of cobalt. (author)

  16. Surface miner MTS 1250

    Hoffmann, D. [MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)


    The Surface Miner MTS 1250 has been developed and tested by MAN TAKRAF with technical support from MIBRAG mbH. Its technology is based on a detailed analysis of all machines on the market and constitutes an optimum combination of their advantages. The unit can either be driven by a diesel-hydraulic drive for truck operation or by an electro-mechanical/electro-hydraulic drive for beltwagon and belt conveyor operation. The new equipment design is particularly suitable for mining deposits of difficult configuration. For specific requirements, MAN TAKRAF offers tailor-made solutions with smaller or greater throughputs and with enhanced specific cutting strength. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Surface Miner MTS 1250 wurde von MAN TAKRAF mit fachlicher Unterstuetzung der MIBRAG entwickelt und erprobt. Seine Technik basiert auf einer detaillierten Analyse aller am Markt befindlichen Geraete und kombiniert deren Vorteile optimal. Mit diesel-hydraulischem Antrieb wird er in Verbindung mit Trucks eingesetzt. Mit elektro-mechanischem/elektro-hydraulischem Antrieb wird er in Kombination mit einem Spezialbrandwagen und einer Bandanlage eingesetzt. Das neue Geraetekonzept ist fuer den Abbau von schwierigen Lagerstaetten sehr gut geeignet. Selbstverstaendlich werden entsprechend den Einsatzanforderungen auch Geraete mit kleinerer oder groesserer Durchsatzleistung und mit hoeherer spezifischer Schneidleistung von MAN TAKRAF angeboten (orig.)

  17. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  18. Mineralization (calcification) of coronary arteries.

    Pawlikowski, M; Pfitzner, R; Wachowiak, J


    Mineralogical investigations of calcifications located in coronary vessels were performed on the material obtained from the endarterectomized arteries of 18 patients (15 M, 3 F, aged 36-65) during surgical revascularization procedures consisting in coronary artery bypass grafting. The samples were tested using scanning microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe and neutron activation spectroscopy. The results of analyses were calculated with the use of computer programmes. Two types of mineralization were determined: 1. secret mineralization identified as higher than normal content of elements in biological tissues, not demonstrating any mineral grains, and 2. apparent mineralization, appearing micro- and macroscopically as grains composed mainly of hydroxyapatite containing admixture of carbonate groups, i.e. a mineral identical with apatite present in bones, or as calcification of other tissues (heart valves, lungs etc.). The authors suggest that the phenomenon of mineralization should be taken into consideration in the preventive treatment of coronary atheriosclerosis. PMID:7808039

  19. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško


    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  20. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    Matthew A. Pasek; Maheen Gull


    The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat a...

  1. Minerals, markets and open access

    Mitchell, Clive


    Minerals, Markets and Open Access Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a world-leading geological survey that focuses on public-good science for government and research to understand earth and environmental processes. The BGS is the UK provider of spatial and statistical minerals information, in addition it carries out research in areas such as metallogenesis, land-use im...

  2. Mineralization by nanobacteria

    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva


    Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without

  3. Mineral fibres and health

    The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l-1, which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

  4. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals


    ... FR 80948 (December 23, 2010)]. The original comment period for Release No. 34-63547 is scheduled to... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... 1934 (the ``Exchange Act'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are...

  5. The classification of minerals deposits

    In this part of book author present the classification of minerals deposits. Deposit formation take place as a result of complicated and long geology processes in the wide temperature intervals (from 1500 digC to usual) and pressures (from usual and to tens kilobars). Deposits of minerals as other investigation objects require in definite systematization on the base of definite characteristics

  6. A Mineral Processing Field Course

    Carmody, Maurice


    This article describes a field course in Cornwall looking at mineral processing with the focus on the chemistry involved. The course was split into two parts. The first looked at tin mining based around Penzance. This involved visiting mines, hunting for mineral samples, carrying out a stream survey and visiting the Camborne School of Mines…

  7. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals


    ... (Jan. 7, 2011) (``WGC I''). \\33\\ Conflict Minerals, Release No. 34-63793 (Jan. 28, 2011) [76 FR 6110..., Release No. 34-63547 (Dec. 15, 2010) [75 FR 80948] (the ``Proposing Release''). \\5\\ Public Law 111-203... trade of conflict minerals by armed groups is helping to finance the conflict and that the...

  8. Investigating Minerals: Promoting Integrated Inquiry

    Thompson, Rudi; Carmack, Elizabeth


    "Mineral Detectives!" is one of eighteen lessons in the "Private Whys?" integrated science unit, which uses a guided inquiry investigation to teach students in grades three through five about the role of minerals in our lives. The University of North Texas developed "Private Whys?" with funding from the Copper Development Association. This lesson…

  9. Mineral exploration in South Africa

    While the level of mineral exploration in much of Africa over the last ten to fifteen years has stagnated or declines, it has risen dramatically in South Africa. This chapter reviews this growth trend along with changes in the type of minerals sought through these exploration expenditures, and then identifies factors important to these shifts over time in the level and distribution of exploration expenditures. The chapter describes certain aspects of the South African mining industry which are important for exploration and which distinguish South Africa from other mineral-producing countries. Annual exploration expenditures for South Africa are shown in millions of current and constant (1982) and in figure 5-2 for the period from 1960 to 1983. The data include exploration for nonfuel minerals as well as two mineral fuels - uranium and coal

  10. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  11. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Nocco, Priska Binz


    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  12. Mineral induction by immobilized phosphoproteins

    Saito, T.; Arsenault, A. L.; Yamauchi, M.; Kuboki, Y.; Crenshaw, M. A.


    Dentin phosphoproteins are thought to have a primary role in the deposition of mineral on the collagen of dentin. In this study we determined the type of binding between collagen and phosphoproteins necessary for mineral formation onto collagen fibrils and whether the phosphate esters are required. Bovine dentin phosphophoryn or phosvitin from egg yolk were immobilized on reconstituted skin type I collagen fibrils by adsorption or by covalent cross-linking. In some samples the ester phosphate was removed from the covalently cross-linked phosphoproteins by treatment with acid phosphatase. All samples were incubated at 37 degrees C in metastable solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. Reconstituted collagen fibrils alone did not induce mineral formation. The phosphoproteins adsorbed to the collagen fibrils desorbed when the mineralization medium was added, and mineral was not induced. The mineral induced by the cross-linked phosphoproteins was apatite, and the crystals were confined to the surface of the collagen fibrils. With decreasing medium saturation the time required for mineral induction increased. The interfacial tensions calculated for apatite formation by either phosphoprotein cross-linked to collagen were about the same as that for phosphatidic acid liposomes and hydroxyapatite. This similarity in values indicates that the nucleation potential of these highly phosphorylated surfaces is about the same. It is concluded that phosphoproteins must be irreversibly bound to collagen fibrils for the mineralization of the collagen network in solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. The phosphate esters of phosphoproteins are required for mineral induction, and the carboxylate groups are not sufficient.

  13. Dikes and mineralization in uraniferous apatite deposits

    The problem of the age relationships between dike bodies and the mineralization in deposits of uraniferous apatites in carbonate rocks is reconsidered. The post-ore history of apatite mineralization reveals a combination of polygenic mineral associations

  14. Mineral exploration in developing countries

    The chapter provides an overview and comparisons of mineral exploration in Botswana and Papua New Guinea, including selection comparisons with Australia and Canada. It describes the history of exploration in Botswana and PNG. The concluding section summarizes the findings

  15. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    in minor errors, implying that aquifer sediments containing poorly crystalline materials can be outgassed at low temperatures if the outgassing time is increased. Scanning electron microscopy of the studied minerals demonstrated that the particle size as calculated from BET data compares well with......Outgassing minerals at elevated temperatures prior to BET measurements can lead to phase changes, especially in the case of amorphous and poorly crystalline materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the BET method when low outgassing temperatures are required, selected aquifer minerals...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...

  16. US Forest Service Mineral Rights

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the subsurface estate representing mineral rights; it is collected only if the subsurface estate is...

  17. The geopolitics of mineral supply

    The vital importance of Southern- and Central Africa as far as strategic and critical minerals to the West in the form of chromium, platinum, manganese and cobalt are concerned is the topic of this article. Geopolitics and the role it plays in Southern Africa in terms of adequacy, availability and access is examined in more detail. The mineral industry makes South Africa in terms of value of annual output the third largest mineral producing country in the Western World. Soviet Union and the United States differ indefinetely as far as geopolitics concern, especially the Soviet's control of the mineral resources in Southern Africa. This article deals with this problem and concludes by asking whether a resource war is on it's way or not

  18. Clay Minerals Deposit of Halakabad (Sabzevar- Iran)

    Seyed Mohammad Hashemi


    Clay minerals are expanded in south of Sabzevar. They are identified with light color in the filed. The XRD and XRF chemical and mineralogical studies on the Clay minerals indicated that their main clay minerals are Kaolinite, Illite and Dickite. Pyrophyllite is minor clay mineral. Quartz and Sanidine non clay minerals are present with clay minerals .Ratio of Al2O3 is about 40 per cent, it is very good for industrial minerals .Volcanic rocks are origin clay minerals .Their composition are bas...

  19. Mineral of the month: magnesium

    Kramer, Deborah A.


    Magnesium, often confused with last month’s mineral of the month manganese, is valued primarily because of its light weight and high strength-to-weight ratio. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2 percent of the Earth’s crust. It is the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater, with a concentration averaging 0.13 percent. Magnesium is found in over 60 minerals, and also is recovered from seawater, wells, and lake brines and bitterns.

  20. The Zapot pegmatite mineral county

    Foord, E.E.; Soregaroli, A.E.; Gordon, H.M.


    The Zapot pegmatite is currently being mined for mineral specimens (chiefly amazonite, topaz and smoky quartz in miarolitic cavities), for gemstones (topaz and smoky quartz) and for decorative rock (amazonite). The deposit is owned and operated by Harvey Gordon Minerals of Reno, Nevada, and is the only amazonite-topaz mining operation in the state. Thousands of specimens from this operation have reached the collector market.

  1. The Location of Minerals Processing

    Moomy, R.C.


    A popular perception has arisen that the mineral production of developing countries is too often exported in unprocessed form, thereby depriving the host country of the value-added and benefiting the developed country importer. The validity of this allegation and possible explanations for the location of minerals processing is the subject of this working paper. An examination of the patterns and trends in the location of processing for aluminum, copper, iron, nickel, tin and zinc, up to the r...

  2. Outlook for mineral raw materials

    Meyerhoff, H.A.


    No better summary of the outlook for the mineral raw materials industry during the next two decades can be offered than the oft-repeated aphorism, The more things change, the more they remain the same. Each mineral commodity will pursue its own individual course, but overall, the growth and increasing sophistication of the world population will double consumption and narrow such gaps as exist between supply and demand. Sources of supply will be found over a widening geographic range and will cross an increasing number of political boundaries. Although the need for an international mineral policy is obvious, confrontation between the industrial nations of the West and the anti-colonialism and nationalism of Third World countries offers little hope of anything better than ad hoc solutions in the form of bilateral agreements or cartelization of specific commodities involving several producing nations with common interests. Japan has shown the efficacy of bilateral agreements; the International Tin Council and OPEC are examples of cartelization. Although its mineral resources make the USSR all but self-sufficient, analysis of its military and maritime programmes indicates that one of its aims is to fill the vacuum created by the lack of an international mineral policy. It is following closely a modernized formula for world domination set forth by Sir Halford Mackinder in 1904. Success would enable it to impose a mineral policy on the rest of the world, which will be well advised to ponder this possibility.

  3. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen

    Kramer, Deborah A.


    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  4. Study on mineral processing technology for abrasive minerals

    Hong, Seong Woong; Yang, Jung Il; Hwang, Seon Kook; Choi, Yeon Ho; Cho, Ken Joon; Shin, Hee Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Buyeo Materials in Buyeogun, Choongnam province is a company producing feldspar concentrate, but does not yet utilize the garnet as abrasive material and other useful heavy minerals wasted out from the process of feldspar ore. The purpose of this study is to develop technology and process for the recovery of garnet concentrate. As results, the garnet is defined as ferro manganese garnet. The optimum process for recovery of garnet concentrate is to primarily concentrate heavy minerals from tailings of feldspar processing. And secondly the heavy minerals concentrated is dried and separated garnet concentrate from other heavy minerals. At this time, the garnet concentrate is yield by 0.176%wt from 0.31%wt of heavy minerals in head ore. The garnet concentrate contains 33.35% SiO{sub 2}, 12.20% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 28.47% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.96% MnO. As for utilization of abrasive materials, a fundamental data was established on technology of grinding and classification. (author). 13 refs., 47 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Biomineralization: mineral formation by organisms

    Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve


    Organisms form many different types of minerals, with diverse shapes and sizes. These minerals fulfill a variety of functions. Inspired by the late H A Lowenstam, Steve Weiner and Lia Addadi have addressed many questions that relate to the mechanisms by which biological organisms produce these mineral phases and how their structures relate to their functions. Addadi and Weiner have explored the manner in which macromolecules extracted from mineralized tissues can interact with some crystal planes and not others, how these macromolecules can be occluded inside the forming crystals residing preferentially on specific crystal planes, and how they can induce one polymorph of calcium carbonate and not another to nucleate. Addadi and Weiner have also identified a novel strategy used by the sea urchin to form its smooth and convoluted mineralized skeletal elements. The strategy involves the initial production by cells of a highly disordered mineral precursor phase in vesicles, and then the export of this so-called amorphous phase to the site of skeletal formation, where it crystallizes. This strategy is now known to be used by many different invertebrate phyla, as well as by vertebrates to build bones and teeth. One of the major current research aims of the Weiner--Addadi group is to understand the biomineralization pathways whereby ions are extracted from the environment, are transported and deposited inside cells within vesicles, how these disordered phases are then transferred to the site of skeletal formation, and finally how the so-called amorphous phase crystallizes. Biology has clearly evolved unique strategies for forming crystalline minerals. Despite more than 300 years of research in this field, many challenging questions still remain unanswered.

  6. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  7. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  8. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin;


    We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression, for...... instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at ( implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  9. Mineral requirements of dairy sheep

    The mineral requirements of dairy sheep under semi-intensive and intensive management systems are reviewed. Basically, mineral requirements obtained with mutton breeds are supplemented with specific information obtained with dairy sheep. The daily requirements of sheep in major elements have been estimated using the factorial method, first to calculate the net requirements during maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation, and second to assess the efficiency of absorption for converting net requirements into dietary allowance. The requirements in trace elements were estimated from the results of feeding trials. The choice of values for endogenous losses and particularly the precision with which efficiency of absorption can be predicted are the main sources of error in estimates of dietary allowances, especially when efficiency of absorption is low. The net requirements in major elements are given for maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, together with the recommended coefficients of absorption. Dietary requirements in trace elements are expressed as milligram per kilogram dry matter. The requirements in all nutrients and particularly in Ca and P increase during late pregnancy, especially during lactation. The requirements during lactation mainly reflect milk composition, the level of milk yield and lactation length, but also the feed intake level. The factors related to the confinement, feeding and management of dairy breeds, which differ from those of mutton breeds, may affect their mineral requirements. Changes in husbandry practices resulting in increased production may increase the stress on the animal and therefore alter its metabolic equilibrium. Direct supplementation of the diet of dairy sheep is the cheapest and most convenient method of mineral supplementation. The cost is outweighed by the enhanced performance of sheep. Determination of the mineral composition of feedstuffs available for feeding dairy sheep indicates the type and level of mineral

  10. Geochemistry and Minerality of Wine

    Oze, C.; Horton, T. W.; Beaman, M.


    Kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and gibbsite (Al(OH)3) are capable of forming in a variety of environments including anthropogenic solutions such as wine. Here, we evaluate the geochemistry of twelve white wines in order to assess the potential relationship between kaolinite/gibbsite saturation and minerality, a common wine descriptor used to express the rock and/or soil character in the aromas and flavors of wines. Aluminum and Si concentrations ranged from 228-1,281 µg L-1 and 6,583-19,746 µg L-1, respectively, where Si and Al are the only elements to demonstrate positive covariance with minerality scores. Sulfur levels varied from 25,013-167,383 µg L-1 and show the strongest negative covariance with minerality scores. However, like all of the elements studied (Al, Si, Na, Mg, S, K, Ca, and Fe), these trends were not significantly different than random at the 95% confidence level. In contrast, the relative degrees of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation display strong positive covariance with minerality scores and these trends are not random at the greater than 95% confidence level. Overall, our tasters were able to accurately assess the degree of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation amongst the twelve wines based on the objective of assessing minerality. Although the wines were undersaturated with respect to gibbsite/kaolinite, geochemical modeling reveals that increasing the wines’ pHs from ~3.3 to 4.1-4.6 (which is achievable on the palate where saliva has a pH of 7.4) results in gibbsite/kaolinite oversaturation. By considering that minerality is a function of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation and decreasing S, the origin of minerality’s taste and chemical origin in wine with known physical standards becomes increasingly crystalline.

  11. Radon risk in ore miners

    Underground workers are exposed to various clastogenic agents. One of these agents, radon, attracts attention of recent research as it causes lung cancer in the population occupationally exposed to its various concentrations especially in mine air of uranium mines or ore mines. This paper is a pilot study in which the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes of ore mines (Nizna Slana-iron ore, Hnusta-talc ore) located in east central Slovakia were followed and related to the lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. Seventy miners volunteering after an informed consent served as donors of venous blood. Twenty healthy pro-bands, age matched with the miners, which never worked underground (mostly clerks) served as donors of control blood samples. The exposure to radon and smoking has been estimated according to working-records and personal anamnesis. The findings unequivocally showed a small but statistically significant clastogenic effect of the exposure to underground environment of the mines concerned. This study has shown also a small but significant influence of smoking, which in the subgroup of miners working underground less than 1500 shifts may have acted synergically with the underground exposure. It was concluded tat: (1) Significantly higher counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 70 miners than in an age matched control group of 20 white-collar workers were found; (2) The higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; (3) The positive dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations from the exposure to smoking was loose and it was expressed by significantly higher chromosomal aberrations counts in the group of miners working less than 1500 shifts underground; (4) A dependence of chromosomal aberrations counts from the exposure to radon could not be assessed. At relatively low numbers of pro-bands in subgroups it was not ruled out the confounding

  12. Miners take stock after Chernobyl

    Australia's uranium producers, already facing a tough market have been plunged further into the unknown following the accident at Chernobyl. The production of uranium in Australia is reviewed with emphasis on the three uranium miners -Queensland Mines, Energy Resources of Australia and Western Mining Corporation

  13. Radioactive radiation from uranium minerals

    With the aid of contamination meters and autoradiography, the intensity of the radiation emitted by uranium- and thorium-containing pieces (about 50 stages) of a mineral collection. The measuring instrument, the radiation measurements, the autoradiographic procedure, the radiation shields, and the consequences with regard to radiation protection are described. (HK)

  14. Mysterious Lava Mineral on Mars


    This graph or spectrum captured by the Moessbauer spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the presence of three different iron-bearing minerals in the soil at the rover's landing site. One of these minerals has been identified as olivine, a shiny green rock commonly found in lava on Earth. The other two have yet to be pinned down. Scientists were puzzled by the discovery of olivine because it implies the soil consists at least partially of ground up rocks that have not been weathered or chemically altered. The black line in this graph represents the original data; the three colored regions denote individual minerals and add up to equal the black line.The Moessbauer spectrometer uses two pieces of radioactive cobalt-57, each about the size of pencil erasers, to determine with a high degree of accuracy the composition and abundance of iron-bearing minerals in martian rocks and soil. It is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.'



    <正>20140786Deng Zhenping(Institute of Karst Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Guilin 541004,China);Yang Wen-qiong Application of Stripping Voltammetry with a Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Copper in a Tracer and Groundwater Tracing Experiment(Rock and Mineral Analy-

  16. Lagoa Real design - Mineral engineering

    This paper presents the works realized, in course and to realize of Lagoa Real Design, including the works for implantation of Mineral-Industrial complex with the production capacity of 1.000 ton of U sub(3) O sub(8) per year from 1988. (author)

  17. 75 FR 80947 - Conflict Minerals


    ... indirectly finance or benefit armed groups'' in the DRC countries.\\22\\ Each person must make their Conflict... or benefit'' these armed groups, the issuer may describe such products as ``DRC conflict free... Exchange Commission 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 Conflict Minerals; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register /...

  18. Estudo mineral de plantas medicinais

    Maria de Fátima Gomes Lopes


    Full Text Available Determinations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn were evaluated in five different samples of medicinal plant leaves. Atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to the metals quantification. Except for Fe in Artemisia vulgaris L, significant levels of these elements were found in all investigated plant as compared to other vegetables which are abundant concerning that mineral content.

  19. A guide to mineral safeguarding in England

    McEvoy, F.M.; Cowley, J.; Hobden, K.; Bee, E.; Hannis, S.


    A key aspect of sustainable development is the conservation and safeguarding of non-renewable resources, such as minerals, for future generations. The UK is endowed with a wide range of indigenous minerals but these natural resources are finite. With increased pressure on land-use in the UK, there is a need to ensure that these natural resources are not needlessly sterilised by other development, leaving insufficient supplies for future generations. Safeguarding will also help ensure that the planning system retains the flexibility to identify sites which have the least impact on the environment. Safeguarding is the term that encompasses the process necessary to ensure that outcome. Mineral Policy Statement 1: Planning and minerals, published in November 2006, aims to prevent unnecessary sterilisation of mineral resources by providing national policy for mineral safeguarding. The 'Guide to mineral safeguarding' is designed to complement this policy which introduces an obligation on all Mineral Planning Authorities to define Mineral Safeguarding Areas. Defining Mineral Safeguarding Areas carries no presumption that the resources will be worked. The guide provides guidance on how current mineral safeguarding policy can be complied with and puts forward a relatively simple step-by-step methodology for delineating Mineral Safeguarding Areas, together with examples of policies through which they would have effect. When linked to appropriate local planing policies, Mineral Safeguarding Areas should ensure that mineral resources are adequately and effectively considered in making land-use planning decisions. 3 annexes.

  20. Radiological hazards to uranium miners

    The purpose of the present document is to review and assess the occupational hazards to uranium miners in Canada. Amendments to regulations set the maximum permissible dose to uranium miners at 50 mSv per year. Uranium miners are exposed to radon and thoron progeny, external gamma radiation and long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides in dust. The best estimate for the lifetime risk of inhaled radon progeny is about 3 x 10-4 lung cancers per WLM for the average miner, with a range of uncertainty from about 1 -6 x 10-4 per WLM. This central value is nearly twice as high as that recommended by the ICRP in 1981. The probability of serious biological consequences following exposure to external gamma rays is currently under review but is expected to be in the range of 3 - 6 x 10-2 Sv-1. Dosimetric calculations indicate that the stochastic risks per WLM of thoron progeny are about one-third of those for radon progeny. The annual limits on intake of inhaled ore dusts recommended by the ICRP are probably too low by at least a factor of two for the type of ore and dust normally encountered in underground uranium mines in Ontario; this is due in part to the fact that the average diameter of these dusts is five times greater than the value used by the ICRP. Radiological exposures of uranium miners in Canada were reviewed. The biological impact of these exposures were compared with those of conventional accidents on the basis of the years of normal life expectancy that are lost or seriously impaired due to occupational hazards. The objectives in considering all occupational risks are to reduce the total risk from all causes and to use funds spent for health protection as effectively as possible

  1. Microprobe to closely examine minerals

    The University of South Australia will develop synchrotron-based technology that can determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples at microscopic levels. The planned multi-analysis synchrotron X-ray facility Beam-line 11 is for implementing on the Australian Synchrotron. UniSA's Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies (ACeSSS) will use Beamline 11 to shed new light on factors that constrain recoveries of copper and gold from typical copper ores. ACeSSS director Professor Andrea Gerson is working with an international team and the Australian Synchrotron on the design of Beamline 11. According to Gerson, there is scope to improve processing and/or increase recoveries in copper, gold and valueless pyrite either through separation, smelting, leaching or electro-processing. Using synchrotron technology, researchers will determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples to understand the fundamental behaviour of these materials in order to identify process and : environmental benefits. Three different strategies will be employed: tracing the movement of gold through the mineral processing chain to optimise and increase gold recovery; examining the surface layers formed when copper is leached from the mineral, chalcopyrite, to enhance the understanding of this surface layer formation and ultimately maximise cop-per recovery; and improving environmental remediation by understanding the mineralisation process during acid-rock drainage. ACeSSS will work with the minerals and environmental remediation sectors, building on the I establishment of the Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, and cementing close collaboration with UniSA's Ian Wark Research Institute. Contributions from the SA Premier's Science and Research Fund, BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, synchrotron partners Advanced Light Source (USA) and the Canadian Light Source Funding totalling $1.38m are available for

  2. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN: Industrial Mineral Data in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN is a shapefile that shows the distribution of stratigraphic data for various industrial minerals in Indiana. These data were derived...

  3. Minería de datos con Oracle Data Miner

    Fernández Ruiz, Benjamin


    La intención del proyecto es mostrar las diferentes características que ofrece Oracle en el campo de la minería de datos, con la finalidad de saber si puede ser una plataforma apta para la investigación y la educación en la universidad. En la primera parte del proyecto se estudia la aplicación “Oracle Data Miner” y como, mediante un flujo de trabajo visual e intuitivo, pueden aplicarse las distintas técnicas de minería (clasificación, regresión, clustering y asociación). Para mostrar la ej...

  4. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  5. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  6. Beneficiation of industrial minerals by air classification

    Mitchell, Clive John; Inglethorpe, Simon; Morgan, David


    Workshop handout accompanying poster which summarises the use of air classification for the beneficiation (mineral processing) of industrial minerals. Illustrated with examples of processing trials on graphite, feldspar and diatomite.

  7. Mineral operations outside the United States

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  8. ARC Code TI: sequenceMiner

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The sequenceMiner was developed to address the problem of detecting and describing anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences. sequenceMiner works...

  9. Miscellaneous Industrial Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  10. Mineral bridges in nacre revisited

    Checa, Antonio G; Willinger, Marc-Georg


    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200 nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (> 100 nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (< 60 nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  11. Reducing the extraction of minerals

    Bouzon, Marina; Govindan, Kannan; Rodriguez, Carlos Manuel Taboada


    Mass consumption and shortening product lifecycles have increased worldwide production. Consequently, more raw materials such as minerals are used, and available landfills are filling up. Companies are urged to effectively incorporate sustainability issues such as End-of-life (EOL) management and...... Policy related issues barrier category, which means that the lack of specific laws and lack of motivational legislation are still significant impediments to RL implementation in Brazil....... Reverse Logistics (RL) practices to close the loop and diminish the amount of raw materials used in their production systems. However, implementing RL implies dealing with its barriers. The purpose of this article is to focus on the recovery of EOL products that use mostly raw materials from the mining...... and minerals industry by identifying and analyzing the interactions among the barriers that hinder RL development in Brazil. First, international peer-reviewed publications were considered to select the barriers and classify them into categories. In a second moment, an empirical research was conducted...

  12. Borate Minerals and RNA Stability

    Ernesto Di Mauro


    Full Text Available The abiotic origin of genetic polymers faces two major problems: a prebiotically plausible polymerization mechanism and the maintenance of their polymerized state outside a cellular environment. The stabilizing action of borate on ribose having been reported, we have explored the possibility that borate minerals stabilize RNA. We observe that borate itself does not stabilize RNA. The analysis of a large panel of minerals tested in various physical-chemical conditions shows that in general no protection on RNA backbone is exerted, with the interesting exception of ludwigite (Mg2Fe3+BO5. Stability is a fundamental property of nucleic polymers and borate is an abundant component of the planet, hence the prebiotic interest of this analysis.

  13. Mineralization Potential of Polarized Dental Enamel

    Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi


    Background Management of human teeth has moved from a surgical to a more conservative approach of inhibiting or preventing lesion progression. Increasing enamel mineralization is crucial in this regard. A potential difficulty is the preferential mineralization of the outermost portion of the enamel that can prevent overall mineralization. We describe a strategy for increasing the mineralization potential of dental enamel. Methodology/Principal Findings Extracted human premolar teeth enamel (n...

  14. World mineral production 2004-2008

    Brown, T. J.; Bide, T.; Hannis, S.D.; Idoine, N.E.; Hetherington, L.E.; R. A. Shaw; Walters, A S; Lusty, P.A.J.; Kendall, R.


    This volume is the latest in the series World Mineral Production, published by the British Geological Survey. It comprises the most recent addition to a continuous dataset on global mineral production which stretches back to 1913. It contains production statistics, by country, for the majority of economically important mineral commodities, including ferrous and non–ferrous metals, industrial minerals and hydrocarbons. Commentary is provided detailing the characteristics, uses, production t...

  15. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system disease. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological) and their exposure levels that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumonconiosis and emphysema



    <正>20132374 Dong Yongsheng(Third Institute of Geologic Mineral Exploration and Development of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,Hohhot 010050,China);Cheng Haoyang Determination of Nb,Ta,Th,and Zr by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,31(4),2012,p.113-114,129,3tables,2refs.)Key words:X-ray fluorescence spectra,rare

  17. KNIME: the Konstanz Information Miner

    Berthold, Michael R.; Cebron, Nicholas; Dill, Fabian; Di Fatta, Giuseppe; Gabriel, Thomas R.; Georg, Florian; Meinl, Thorsten; Ohl, Peter; Sieb, Christopher; Wiswedel, Bernd


    The Konstanz Information Miner is a modular environment, which enables easy visual assembly and interactive execution of a data pipeline. It is designed as a teaching, research and collaboration platform, which enables simple integration of new algorithms and tools as well as data manipulation or visualization methods in the form of new modules or nodes. In this paper we describe some of the design aspects of the underlying architecture and briefly sketch how new nodes can be incorporated.

  18. Copper minerals under the microscope

    Hjeltström, Anna


    From many perspectives copper is a very important metal for the modern society. It can be found in everything from jewellery to electronics. For this reason it is very important for geologists to be able to develop efficient methods for identification, characterisation, extraction and processing of copper. One method for the identification of copper bearing minerals is ore microscopy which has been used in this paper along with a general introduction. Samples from the study collection of the ...

  19. Epidemiological studies of Czech miners

    Lung cancer risk from radon was analysed in three cohorts of uranium (N=4320+5628) and burnt clay (N=915) miners. The follow-up of miners was extended up to 1990. Most of the cases (708) have been observed in the oldest (S) cohort followed since 1952. The other two cohorts, 18 years younger in average with substantially lower exposures, contributed 72 cases. Therefore, the main analyses of risk from radon were based on the S cohort. The data of the S cohort were subjected to checks both as for the individual exposures of the miners and the completeness of follow-up. The present mortality analyses from other causes suggest the follow-up is correct. The general patterns of mortality from violent deaths and diseases other than lung cancer show similar features in all the three cohorts, i.e. decreasing trend with time since first exposure in the first case, and increasing trend in the second one, confirming thus the healthy worker effect, in the first 20 years. A raised mortality was observed in later periods in respiratory and circulatory diseases and also in cancers other than lung cancer, suggesting that smoking habits among miners might be more frequent than in the general population. The estimates of lung cancer risk from radon exposure were based on relative linear models, where cumulative exposures were lagged by 5 years. The linear effect of cumulative exposure was substantially modified by time since exposure, exposure rate, and age at exposure. From the estimated intercept, it can be deduced that in the absence of exposure to radon, the estimated mortality from lung cancer in the cohort is about 1.5 times higher than in the general population. (orig.)

  20. Martian rocks, minerals, and mantles

    Albee, Arden


    The variable nature of Mars was first observed almost 400 years ago and modern observations began almost 40 years ago, culminating with the flotilla of spacecraft now at or heading for Mars. We now know that the atmosphere, which produced the visible variation of Mars, has also covered it with a mantle that makes difficult any detailed investigation of the rocks and minerals of Mars.

  1. Ultrasound-Intensified Mineral Carbonation

    Santos, Rafael; François, Davy; Mertens, Gilles; Elsen, Jan; Van Gerven, Tom


    Several aspects of ultrasound-assisted mineral carbonation were investigated in this work. The objectives were to intensify the CO2 sequestration process to improve reaction kinetics and maximal conversion. Stainless steel slags, derived from the Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD) and Continuous Casting / Ladle Metallurgy (CC/LM) refining steps, were used for assessing the technical feasibility of this concept, as they are potential carbon sinks and can benefit from reduction in alkalinity (p...

  2. Cancer of lung in miners

    In the period of 1983-1994 was registered at Clinic of occupational diseases 87 cases of professional cancer of lung. Mostly /85/ of cases was related to miners, by whom act as risk factor alpha ionisation from radon. Average age group was 60.2 y, average time of exposition was 21.6 y. Epidermoid carcinoma was the most frequent type of tumor /46.5 %/ of cases/. Smoking plays a supportive role. (authors)

  3. Minerals

    ... yogurt legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils Zinc Zinc helps your immune system, which is ... peanuts legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils When people don't get enough of these ...

  4. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    Matthew A. Pasek


    Full Text Available The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat at 75 °C for about 7–8 days and showed up to 28% phosphorylation of glycerol. In contrast, the compositional requirements for the precipitation of struvite are high ammonium and phosphate concentrations, as well as a little Ca2+ dissolved in the water. Combined, these requirements suggest that it is not likely that struvite was present in excess on the early Earth to carry out phosphorylation reactions. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of struvite formation, complementing the results given by Orgel and Handschuh (1973, which were based on the kinetic effects.

  5. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably...

  6. 76 FR 44892 - Information Collection; Locatable Minerals


    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Locatable Minerals AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... approved information collection, Locatable Minerals-36 CFR part 228, subpart A. DATES: Comments must be... should be addressed to: USDA, Forest Service, Minerals and Geology Management Staff, Mail Stop 1126,...

  7. Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry

    Mitchell, Clive


    Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: Sustainability is not just about environmental protection it also concerns biodiversity, community relations, competence, employment, geodiversity, health and safety, resource efficiency, restoration and stakeholder accountability. The UK construction minerals industry aims to supply essential materials in a sustainabl...

  8. Mortality among sulfide ore miners

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains

  9. SHRIMP II analysis of minerals

    Full text: Ion microprobes are specialised mass spectrometers that allow in situ isotopic and abundance measurements of chemically complex materials with a spatial resolution of 5 to 20 micrometers. The Sensitive High mass Resolution Ion Micro-Probe (SHRIMP II), an Australian built instrument, is designed to achieve high mass resolution (>5000 MRP at the 1% level) and great sensitivity, with detection limits in the ppb range for most elements in the Periodic Table. The SHRIMP ion microprobes have revolutionised geochronology and they are primarily used for U-Th-Pb dating of zircons from geological samples. The in situ analysis capability of the SHRIMP is now recognised as the best method for obtaining highly precise ages for zircons and other accessory minerals in ancient rocks with complex geological histories. The Western Australian SHRIMP II, which is located at Curtin University, provides rapid, precise measurements of isotope ratios in minerals and glasses and has been applied to a wide variety of geological problems and to a few applied physics problems. During the last three years we have expanded the number of minerals that can be used for U-Th-Pb age dating to include titanite, rutile, apatite, badellyite, perovskite and monazite. In addition to age dating the SHRIMP can be used for isotopic tracing. SHRIMP analysis provides the spatial resolution required to study S isotopes in very complex ores from many of Australia's largest ore deposits (Mt Isa, Broken Hill, Olympic Dam). Sulphur isotope ratios can be measured with a precision of 1-2 ppm in both sulphides and sulphates. In situ S isotopic compositions of galena (PbS), sphalerite (ZnS), chalcopyrite (CuS) and pyrite (FeS) has been crucial in the development of models of ore deposition. The in situ analytical capability and the high sensitivity of the SHRIMP II has allowed measurement of, diffusion profiles of REE and other trace element in melt couples, the mineral-melt partition coefficients of these

  10. Nuclear technology and mineral recovery

    The particular aspect of nuclear technology most applicable to the mineral field, as has been pointed out by various authors, is nuclear blasting. The prime target for this nuclear blasting has usually been a large disseminated deposit of copper mineralization which, because of large dimensions, employs the nuclear devices most effectively. From the work of the AEC we know that the larger nuclear devices fragment rock for a lower energy cost per unit of ground broken than do smaller nuclear devices or chemical explosives. A mineralized deposit near the surface is usually not amenable to nuclear fragmentation, nor are the more deeply buried thin deposits. Also, one would not anticipate fragmenting a zone of excessively erratic mineralization with nuclear devices. Many of our mineralized areas would be eliminated using the above criteria, so at this point you are well aware that my self-imposed limitation is to nuclear blasting and large disseminated copper deposits. As with most other industries, copper mining faces rising costs and greater demands for its products. One of the rising cost features peculiar to extractive industries is the reliance placed on production from lower grade deposits as the higher grade deposits are depleted. As the grade or metal content of an orebody decreases more material must be handled to produce a given amount of metal. The increased volume of ore which must be handled as the grade declines requires expansion of facilities and higher capital expenditures. Expansion of facilities for mining, milling, and concentrating of the ore increases the per unit capital cost of the end product--copper. Increased copper consumption will aggravate this situation with demand for more metal, much of which will have to be obtained from lower grade deposits. As the higher grade deposits are depleted, future production will come from those deposits which cannot be exploited economically today. Most familiar of the proposed new methods for copper mining

  11. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying...

  12. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  13. Relationship between nanoscale mineral properties and calcein labeling in mineralizing bone surfaces.

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Burghammer, Manfred; Montero, Cédric; Checa, Sara; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N; Willie, Bettina M; Wagermaier, Wolfgang


    Bone's mineral properties, such as particle thickness and degree of alignment have been associated with bone quality. Bone formation, remodeling, aging of the tissue and mineral homeostasis influence mineral particle properties leading to specific patterns across bone. Scanning small angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) with synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool, which allows us to study bone's nanoscale mineral properties in a position-resolved way. We used sSAXS, fluorescence light microscopy and backscattered electron (BSE) imaging to study bone's mineral properties at the tibial midshaft of in vivo-loaded mice. By combining these techniques, we could detect local changes in mineral properties. Regions labeled with calcein fluorochrome have lower mean mineral thickness and degree of mineral alignment. We also observed thinner and less aligned mineral particles near blood vessels. We conclude that mineral properties (i) are altered by fluorochrome labeling and (ii) depend on the proximity to blood vessels. PMID:25158172

  14. Quantitative Prediction for Deep Mineral Exploration

    Zhao Pengda; Cheng Qiuming; Xia Qinglin


    On reviewing the characteristics of deep mineral exploration, this article elaborates on the necessity of employing quantitative prediction to reduce uncertainty. This is caused by complexity of mineral deposit formational environments and mineralization systems as increase of exploration depth and incompleteness of geo-information from limited direct observation. The authors wish to share the idea of "seeking difference" principle in addition to the "similar analogy" principle in deep mineral exploration, especially the focus is on the new ores in depth either in an area with discovered shallow mineral deposits or in new areas where there are no sufficient mineral deposit models to be compared. An on-going research project, involving Sn and Cu mineral deposit quantitative prediction in the Gejiu (个旧) area of Yunnan (云南) Province, China, was briefly introduced to demonstrate how the "three-component" (geoanomaly-mineralization diversity-mineral deposit spectrum) theory and non-linear methods series in conjunction with advanced GIS technology, can be applied in multi-scale and multi-task deep mineral prospecting and quantitative mineral resource assessment.

  15. The mineralization processes in teleost fish scales.

    Schönbörner, A A; Boivin, G; Baud, C A


    In Teleost fish scales, growth and mineralization are continuous. Different mineralization processes can be distinguished. The external layer of the scale is the first to be mineralized and may be classified as the initial calcifying structure of the scale. The initial calcification loci are matrix vesicles of cellular origin always observed during the formation of this layer. This mineralization process takes place progressively, closely following the elaboration of the organic matrix in the scale periphery. The outer limiting and internal layers of the scale are developed after the external layer has been formed. A mineral substance is deposited without the mediation of matrix vesicles, but in contact with the previously mineralized external layer. This type of mineralization is called subsequential. However, the mineralization of the outer limiting layer closely follows the secretion of a collagen-free organic matrix and is thus different from the mineralization of the internal layer in which the calcification front remains remote from the collagen matrix surface and corresponds to a delayed mineralization process. The isolated calcifications (Mandl's corpuscles) which develop in the unmineralized laminae of the internal layer are mineralized in the absence of matrix vesicles and without making contact with a pre-existing calcified tissue, probably by a heterogeneous nucleation of the collagen fibrils. PMID:519703

  16. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W


    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  17. The radioactivity of bottled mineral waters

    Mineral waters with increased contents of minerals (total mineralization ranging from 1000 to 4000 can also contain increased concentrations of natural radionuclides. For this reason it is necessary to monitor radioactivity of mineral and thermal springs. Hundreds of springs which are used for drinking purposes are spread in many regions all over Slovakia. In our laboratory we determined these radionuclides in mineral waters: total alpha, total beta, volume activity 222Rn, concentration of Unat, volume 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Po. From values of determined volume activities of radionuclides we calculated total effective dose from reception mineral waters. By calculation of effective dose we supposed consumption of mineral water 150 dm3.year-1 (0.4 for adults (according to UNSCEAR). Conversion factors are initiated in the regulation of Ministry of Health of Slovak Republic (MZ SR No.12/2001). (authors)

  18. The Minerals of Aureum Chaos


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation of 3-dimensional model with 5x vertical exaggeration This image of chaotic terrain in the Aureum Chaos region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0858UTC (3:58 a.m. EST) on January 24, 2008, near 3.66 degrees south latitude, 26.5 degrees west longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Aureum Chaos is a 368 kilometer (229 mile) wide area of chaotic terrain in the eastern part of Valles Marineris. The chaotic terrain is thought to have formed by collapse of the surrounding Margaritifer Terra highland region. Aureum Chaos contains heavily eroded, randomly oriented mesas, plateaus, and knobs many revealing distinct layered deposits along their slopes. These deposits may be formed from remnants of the collapsed highlands, sand carried by Martian winds, dust or volcanic ash that settled out of the atmosphere, or sediments laid down on the floor of an ancient lake. The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data cover a narrow plateau near the edge of the chaotic terrain, that stretches across from the southwest to the northeast. The lower left image, an infrared false color image, reveals the plateau and several eroded knobs of varying sizes. The plateau's layer-cake structure is similar to that of other layered outcrops in Valles Marineris. The lower right image reveals the strengths of mineral spectral features overlain on a black-and-white version of the infrared image. Areas shaded in red hold more of the mineral pyroxene, a primary component of basaltic rocks that are prevalent in the highlands. Spots of green indicate monohydrated sulfate

  19. Chapter 2. Geological setting of uranium mineralization

    Uranium mineralization in the Western Carpathians is mainly bound to the Permian sequences. The most important stratiform uranium mineralization is related either to the Permian acid volcanism of Gemericum and Tatricum, or to sandstones with abundant organic matter in Hronicum of the Kozie Chrbty Mts. Less important uranium mineralization occurs in veins and stock-works cutting the Paleozoic sequences of Gemericum and the Neogene volcanic rocks of Central Slovakia. The most important stratiform uranium-molybdenum mineralization occurs in the Permian volcanoclastic and volcanic rocks near Novoveska Huta. The important stratiform uranium mineralization occurs near Kalnica in the Permian Selec formation of Tatricum in the Povazsky Inovec Mts. The Permian acid volcanism was the important factor of primary uranium mineralization. The Permian Maluzina Formation of Hronicum contains uranium and copper mineralization in the Kozie Chrbty, Nizke Tatry and Male Karpaty Mts. The most important is the uranium mineralization in the Kozie Chrbty Mts in Vikartovce, Kravany, Svabovce and Spissky Stiavnik deposits. The Maluzina Formation is of similar character as the Kozie Chrbty Mts that continues on the northern slopes of the Nizke Tatry Mts. The stratiform uranium mineralization occurs in the lower ore-bearing horizon underlying the Kravany Beds in valleys Benkovsky Potok, Ipoltica and Nizny Chmelenec. Quartz and quartz-apatite veins with uranium mineralization occur in the eastern part of the Slovenske Rudohorie Mts. The common feature of this vein mineralization is cutting of the Early Paleozoic rocks of Gemericum in a proximity of the Gemeric granites. Quartz veins with uranium mineralization represented by uranite and brannerite are accompanied by gold in Peklisko and Zimna Voda. The oldest manifestation of uranium mineralization in the Western Carpathians is occurrence of pegmatite with uraninite in antimony deposit Dubrava in the Nizke Tatry Mts. It is related to the

  20. Leukaemia among Czech uranium miners

    The study presents recent findings in an extended cohort of miners, now including nearly 10 000 uranium and 2 000 tin miners and followed up to 1999. A total of 30 cases of leukaemia were observed among Czech uranium miners, corresponding to standardized mortality ratio of 1.5, 90% CI: 1.0-2.1. The risk is analyzed in relation to cumulated dose from radon, external gamma radiation and alpha radiation from long lived radionuclides contained in mining aerosol. Doses to red bone marrow were estimated using measurements of external gamma activities since the early 1960s and measurements of long lived radionuclides in the aerosol since the 1970s. The red bone marrow dose from inhaled long lived radionuclides is estimated by applying respiratory tract model and relevant biokinetic models. The substantial point is that the dose is cumulated even after the underground work has stopped. Another important point is the difference of the exposure by job category. By extrapolating available exposure data and applying models based on ICRP-66 and ICRP-68, individual doses were estimated using working histories, job matrix, and time since exposure. The cumulated red bone marrow dose includes external gamma radiation, dose from radon and its progeny, and committed equivalent dose from long lived alpha-emitters in dependence on the individual length of follow-up. The mean cumulated dose is 158 mSv. Among uranium miners, about 52% of the total dose is due to inhalation of uranium and its decay products with aerosol in mines, about 33% is due to gamma radiation, and some 15% of the dose is from radon and its progeny. The risk coefficient (excess relative risk per sievert) corresponding to these estimates in the present study is 3.1 (90% CI: 1.3 - 5.4). The estimated risk is subject to a considerable uncertainty, due to small numbers and the uncertainty in the estimated dose. However, the magnitude of the risk is consistent with estimates from other studies. (orig.)



    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  2. Skull melting of synthetic minerals

    Scott, S.D.; Hull, D.E.; Herrick, C.C.


    Direct high-frequency induction melting of dielectric materials in a water-cooled cage has been developed in the LASL synthetic minerals program. Molten material is contained in a skull, i.e., sintered shell, of its own composition so the traditional problems associated with refractory melt contamination are essentially eliminated. Preliminary analyses of power input, cage design, and coil geometry are discussed. Initial experimental results on the preparation of polycrystalline ingots, single crystals, and glasses are presented along with possible applications of this technique.

  3. Ultrasound-intensified mineral carbonation

    Several aspects of ultrasound-assisted mineral carbonation were investigated in this work. The objectives were to intensify the CO2 sequestration process to improve reaction kinetics and maximal conversion. Stainless steel slags, derived from the Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD) and Continuous Casting/Ladle Metallurgy (CC/LM) refining steps, were used for assessing the technical feasibility of this concept, as they are potential carbon sinks and can benefit from reduction in alkalinity (pH) by mineral carbonation. Ultrasound was applied by use of an ultrasound horn into the reaction slurry, where mineral carbonation reaction took place at 50 °C for up to 4 h; comparison was made to solely mechanically mixed process. It was found that sonication increases the reaction rate after the initial stage, and permits achieving higher carbonate conversion and lower pH. AOD slag conversion increased from 30% to 49%, and pH decreased from 10.6 to 10.1; CC slag conversion increased from 61% to 73% and pH decreased from 10.8 to 9.9. The enhancement effect of ultrasound was attributed to the removal of passivating layers (precipitated calcium carbonate and depleted silica) that surround the unreacted particle core and inhibit mass transfer. Significant particle size reduction was observed for sonicated powders, compared to particle size growth in the case of stirring-only; D[4,3] values increased without sonication by 74% and 50%, and decreased with sonication by 64% and 52%, respectively for AOD and CC slags. Considerations on scale-up of this technology, particularly with regards to energy efficiency, are also discussed. Highlights: ► Ultrasound increased CaO, AOD and CC slags mineral carbonation rates and conversions. ► Enhancement effect linked to removal of mass transfer inhibiting passivating layers. ►Carbonated particle size grew with stirring-only, and decreased with sonication. ► Lower pH of slags with greater carbonation extent can reduce heavy metal leaching

  4. Persulfate activation by naturally occurring trace minerals

    Highlights: ► Persulfate decomposition and activation by 13 trace minerals was investigated. ► Pyrite and cobaltite addition resulted in rapid persulfate decomposition. ► Pyrite promoted rapid generation of sulfate radical and hydroxyl radical. ► Most trace minerals did not decompose or activate persulfate. ► Some trace minerals inhibited persulfate decomposition and activation. - Abstract: The potential for 13 naturally occurring minerals to mediate the decomposition of persulfate and generate a range of reactive oxygen species was investigated to provide fundamental information on activation mechanisms when persulfate is used for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). Only four of the minerals (cobaltite, ilmenite, pyrite, and siderite) promoted the decomposition of persulfate more rapidly than persulfate–deionized water control systems. The other nine minerals decomposed persulfate at the same rate or more slowly than the control systems. Mineral-mediated persulfate activation was conducted with the addition of one of three probe compounds to detect the generation of reactive oxygen species: anisole (sulfate + hydroxyl radical), nitrobenzene (hydroxyl radical), and hexachloroethane (reductants and nucleophiles). The reduced mineral pyrite promoted rapid generation of sulfate + hydroxyl radical. However, the remainder of the minerals provided minimal potential for the generation of reactive oxygen species. The results of this research demonstrate that the majority of naturally occurring trace minerals do not activate persulfate to generate reactive oxygen species, and other mechanisms of activation are necessary to promote contaminant destruction in the subsurface during persulfate ISCO.

  5. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.


    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  6. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.8 Rights to minerals. (a)...

  7. Mining and minerals policy: 1976 bicentennial edition


    The report is organized into three basic parts. The first part, the Executive Summary, provides a brief description of the major topics and lists the issues and recommendations. The report then is divided into two sections. Section I, Summary, is comprised of three chapters: Increased Energy Security; Metals and Nonmetallic Minerals; and Trends and Events. Section II, Issues in Energy and Minerals Policy, is comprised of seven chapters: Federal Leasing; The Federal Role in Reducing the Fiscal Impacts of Energy Development; Availability of Federal Lands for Mineral Exploration and Development; Environmental Issues and the Mineral Industry; Developments in International Minerals Trade and Investment; Ocean Mining; and The Development of New Tools for Energy and Minerals Policy Analysis. (MCW)

  8. Genetic Types of Diamond Mineralization

    A.A.MARAKUSHEV; 桑隆康; 等


    The paper describes the proposed models of diamond formation both in meteorites and in kimberlite and lamproite bodies.metamorphic complexes and explosive-ring structures ("astroblemes"),The diamond distribution in meteorites(chondrites,iron meteorites and ureilites)is restricted to taente-kamasite phase.The diamond generation here is tied up with the first stage of evolution of the planets,This stage is characterized by high pressure of hydrogen. leading to the formation of the planet envelope,The second stage of planet evolution began with the progressive imopoverishment of their atmospheres in hydrogen due to its predominant emission into the space and to progressive development of oxidative conditions.The model appears to have proved the relict nature of diamond mineraolization in meteorites.Diamond and other high-pressure minerals(its"satellites") were crystallized without any exception in the early intratelluric stages of peridotite and eclogite-pyroxenite magma evolution just before the magma intrusion into the higher levels of the mantle and crust where diamond is not thermodynamically stable,The ultramafic intrusive bodies(bearing rich relict diamonds)in the dase of a platform paaear to be the substrata for the formation of kimberlite-lamproite magma chambers as a result of magmatic replacement.The model explains the polyfacial nature of diamondiferous eclotgites,pyroxenites and peridotites and discusses the process of inheritance of their diamond mineralization by kimberlites and lamproites.Dimond oproductivity of metamorthic complexes is originated by the inheritance of their diamonds from the above-mentioned primary diamondiferous rocks.Large diamondiferous explosive-ring structures were formed by high-energy endogenic explosion of fluid which came from the Earth's core.This high energy differs endogenic impactogenesis from explosive volcanism.It proceeds at very high temperature to create diaplectic galsses(monomineral pseudomorphs)-the product of

  9. Clay minerals and sedimentary basin history

    Merriman, Richard J.


    Clay minerals in the mud and soil that coat the Earth's surface are part of a clay cycle that breaks down and creates rock in the crust. Clays generated by surface weathering and shallow diagenetic processes are transformed into mature clay mineral assemblages in the mudrocks found in sedimentary basins. During metamorphism, the release of alkali elements and boron from clay minerals generates magmas that are subsequently weathered and recycled, representing the magma-to-mud pathway of the cl...

  10. Natural radionuclides in mineral fertilizers and farmland

    Mitrović Branislava M.; Vitorović Gordana; Andrić Velibor; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško; Grdović Svetlana; Vićentijević Mihajlo


    Contemporary agriculture production is based on use of mineral fertilizers, which however can have high activity of natural radionuclides and so cause the appearance of technologically elevated radioactivity. In order to determine the influence of mineral fertilizers application in arable land, there was used gamma spectrometric method for defining the activity of natural radionuclides (40 K, 238U, 226Ra) in imported mineral fertilizers as well as in arable...

  11. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Minerals

    Williams Melvin H


    Abstract Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace element...

  12. Inter-species variation in bone mineral

    Beckett, Sophie


    Bone is a complex heterogeneous composite material with organic and inorganic components. The inorganic component; bone mineral, is a poorly crystalline, non-stoichiometric form of calcium hydroxylapatite. A model for the general structure and composition of bone mineral has been established within the literature. However, the nature and extent of variation in bone mineral composition and structure has, to date, been poorly understood. This situation also applies to the general response of bo...

  13. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Sinovec Zlatan J.


    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  14. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    Andrea G Schwartz

    Full Text Available Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A zone (∼20 µm exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked

  15. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    Huijgen, W.J.J.


    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonate...

  16. Mineral zircon: A novel thermoluminescence geochronometer

    Van Es, HJ; Vainshtein, DI; De Meijer, RJ; den Hartog, HW; Donoghue, JF; Rozendaal, A.


    Mineral zircon contains trace amounts (typically 10-1000 ppm) of the alpha-emitters uranium and thorium, which irradiate this mineral internally. This outstanding feature of zircon turns out to be extremely useful when this mineral is applied as a thermoluminescence (TL) dating medium, because the build-up of the age-dependent luminescence is dominated by the presence of well-defined internal radioactive sources and the contributions to the dose from external radiation sources are two orders ...

  17. Needs and opportunities in mineral evolution research

    Hazen, R. M.; Bekker, A.; Bish, D. L.; Bleeker, W.; Downs, R. T.; Farquhar, J.; Ferry, J. M.; Grew, E. S.; Knoll, Andrew Herbert; Papineau, D.; Ralph, J. P.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Valley, J. W.


    Progress in understanding mineral evolution, Earth’s changing near-surface mineralogy through time, depends on the availability of detailed information on mineral localities of known ages and geologic settings. A comprehensive database including this information, employing the web site as a platform, is now being implemented. This resource will incorporate software to correlate a range of mineral occurrences and properties vs. time, and it will thus facilitate studies of the chang-...

  18. World mineral production 2003-2007

    Brown, Teresa; Hetherington, Linda; Hannis, Sarah; Bide, Tom; Benham, Antony John; Idoine, Naomi; Lusty, Paul


    World Mineral Production includes five year tables of production, by country, for the majority of economically important mineral commodities, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals, industrial minerals and hydrocarbons. Additional information has been added describing the characteristics, uses production trends, prices and industry events for 11 commodities including bauxite/alumina/aluminium, coal, copper, fluorspar, gold, iron ore, lead, nickel, platinum, uranium and zinc.

  19. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products

    Šimun Zamberlin


    Full Text Available Mineral elements occur in milk and dairy products as inorganic ions and salts, as well as part of organic molecules, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The chemical form of mineral elements is important because it determines their absorption in the intestine and their biological utilization. The mineral composition of milk is not constant because it depends on lactation phase, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this research is to point out the research results of chemical form, content and nutritional importance of individual mineral elements that are present in various milks and dairy products.

  20. Radioactive minerals, collections to be secured

    Minerals collected by private collectors or by museums (for example the Paris national museum of natural history, MNHN) can be radioactive. Therefore experts in radiation protection belonging to the IRSN intervene in the concerned premises to assess radiological risks and to propose solutions. The most radioactive minerals may be stored by the ANDRA (ANDRA packages and removes minerals) during works recommended by the IRSN and concerning storage location, coating, and indoor arrangement. Moreover a passive and active dose monitoring is implemented. The article outlines the fact that many rocks may contain uranium. Issues related to risks are evoked. Recommendations regarding mineral handing are proposed

  1. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  2. In Brief: Astronomer honored with a mineral

    Showstack, Randy


    ``I have always been very intrigued by minerals, so it is great to be one,'' commented NASA Stardust mission principal investigator and University of Washington astronomer Donald Brownlee, AGU member, after learning the International Mineralogical Association had named a new mineral in his honor. Brownleeite, a combination of manganese and silicon, is the first mineral discovered in a particle from a comet. The mineral was found inside a particle collected by a high-altitude NASA aircraft from a dust stream that entered Earth's atmosphere in 2003. A team led by NASA scientist Keiko Nakamura-Messenger found the particle and had requested that it be named for Brownlee.

  3. Mineral content of commercial pollen.

    Orzáez Villanueva, M T; Díaz Marquina, A; Bravo Serrano, R; Blaźquez Abellán, G


    Pollen is a natural product which is extending its marketing day by day, given that it is considered to be a dietetic product and it is consumed everyday by a broad sector of the Spanish population. In its composition it presents valuable nutrients, among which we can find minerals, which is the main object of this study. We have analysed sodium, potassium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in 15 pollen samples which correspond to different brands. The technique we have used is atomic absortion spectroscopy. The results show us the great potassium contribution of this natural product, with values over 400 mg/100 g, and about microelements, mainly iron and zinc, although with different results, depending on the brand which markets it, with average values of 4.01 +/- 1.00 and 3.66 +/- 1.02, respectively. PMID:11400473

  4. Shock waves data for minerals

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Johnson, Mary L.


    Shock compression of the materials of planetary interiors yields data which upon comparison with density-pressure and density-sound velocity profiles constrain internal composition and temperature. Other important applications of shock wave data and related properties are found in the impact mechanics of terrestrial planets and solid satellites. Shock wave equation of state, shock-induced dynamic yielding and phase transitions, and shock temperature are discussed. In regions where a substantial phase change in the material does not occur, the relationship between the particle velocity, U(sub p), and the shock velocity, U(sub s), is given by U(sub s) = C(sub 0) + S U(sub p), where C(sub 0) is the shock velocity at infinitesimally small particle velocity, or the ambient pressure bulk sound velocity. Numerical values for the shock wave equation of state for minerals and related materials of the solar system are provided.

  5. Mineral oil biodegradation in wetlands

    Even in remote areas there has been a constant increase in the demands on the quality of wastewater treatment. Small decentralized purification plants with helophyte beds serving as the biological step may be regarded as an alternative to centralized large-scale treatment plants. Under certain circumstances these constructed wetlands may also be used for industrial wastewater. Pollutants are degraded by microorganisms finding favourable growth conditions in the root zone. Both hydraulic performance and the development of a stable ecosystem may be ensured by certain constructive features. An investigation was carried out on the constructed wetlands of a German steel plant operating since 1984. An analysis of the chemical and microbiological parameters revealed that there was microbial degradation of mineral oil hydrocarbons. (orig.)

  6. mineral sequestration by wollastonite carbonation

    Ding, Wenjin; Fu, Liangjie; Ouyang, Jing; Yang, Huaming


    In this paper, we demonstrated a new approach to CO2 mineral sequestration using wollastonite carbonation assisted by sulfuric acid and ammonia. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance. The change in Gibbs free energy from -223 kJ/mol for the leaching reaction of wollastonite to -101 kJ/mol for the carbonation reaction indicated that these two reactions can proceed spontaneously. The leached and carbonated wollastonite showed fibrous bassanite and granular calcium carbonate, respectively, while the crystal structure of pristine wollastonite was destroyed and the majority of the Ca2+ in pristine wollastonite leached. The chemical changes in the phases were monitored during the whole process. A high carbonation rate of 91.1 % could be obtained under the action of sulfuric acid and ammonia at 30 °C at normal atmospheric pressure, indicating its potential use for CO2 sequestration.

  7. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  8. The mineralization and mechanism of the endogenetic mineral deposit in China

    In the process of mineralization, due to the difference in rank, scale and order of structures orebody, mine colomn or rich ore bag are often produced in the specific structural parts. Obviously, it is controlled by favourite structure. The important and direct control of the structure to metal endogenetic mineralization evolution are representative on the affect of pulse action of structure to the multi-stage of mineralization evolution. According to the formation environment of the mineralization, it can be classified as collision orogeny mineralization, release(extension)mineralization, slide draw-division basin mineralization and shear zone extension mineralization. Throng the discuss of endogenetic deposit in the geological evolution, structure and formation machenism, the metallogenic model was preliminary established,and the criteria for delineating favourable metallogenic area was identified. (authors)

  9. Geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral occurrences, and mineral resource assessment for the commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic map with faults, along with additional scientific information needed for mineral resource assessment (geochemical analyses, mineral occurrences, geologic...

  10. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals., Published in 1993, Arizona State Land Department.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset as of 1993. It is described as 'This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals.'. Data...

  11. Relationship between nanoscale mineral properties and calcein labeling in mineralizing bone surfaces

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Burghammer, Manfred; Montero, Cédric; Checa, Sara; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg; Willie, Bettina; Wagermaier, Wolfgang


    Bone's mineral properties, such as particle thickness and degree of alignment have been associated with bone quality. Bone formation, remodeling, aging of the tissue and mineral homeostasis influence mineral particle properties leading to specific patterns across bone. Scanning small angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) with synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool, which allows us to study bone's nanoscale mineral properties in a position-resolved way. We used sSAXS, fluorescence light microscopy ...




    Full Text Available Debido a las altas tasas de consumo de minerales y el alto crecimiento de la población humana, los recursos minerales en el planeta Tierra se encuentran en proceso de agotamiento, esta escasez crea la necesidad de encontrar nuevas alternativas para suplir las crecientes necesidades. Una alternativa adicional a la tradicional búsqueda de nuevos yacimientos en la tierra, es la búsqueda de yacimientos más allá de nuestro planeta, estos nuevos recursos se pueden buscar en la vecindad de nuestro planeta. La extracción en cuerpos de nuestro sistema solar como la Luna, Marte y el cinturón de asteroides puede proporcionar abundantes recursos energéticos como el helio 3 y minerales como el potasio, elementos de tierras raras, hierro y minerales del grupo del platino. Ahora, algunas compañías están planeando esta exploración y para los geólogos y profesionales de la minería en general, esto abre grandes posibilidades para la investigación científica, innovación tecnológica y desarrollo profesional en nuevos campos.

  13. Dehydration-induced luminescence in clay minerals

    Coyne, L. M.; Lahav, N.; Lawless, J. G.


    Reports of triboluminescent phenomena in organic crystalline materials prompted a search for related processes in clay minerals. The reported extensive mechanical distortion produced on freezing and drying of montmorillonite was particularly interesting because of studies of condensation reactions in a wet/dry cycled reaction sequence. The discovery of an unusual luminescent process in several clay minerals is reported and its characteristics are described.

  14. Current concepts in perinatal mineral metabolism.

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi


    The serum levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphate are maintained higher in the fetus than in the pregnant mother, especially in late gestation, to meet the demands of fetal bone development. In order to maintain this fetal stage-specific mineral homeostasis, the placenta plays a critical role through active transcellular mineral transport. Although the molecular mechanism of transplacental Ca transport has been well studied, little is known about the transport mechanism of phosphate and magnesium. Maternal mineral homeostasis is also altered during pregnancy to supply minerals to the fetus. In the lactating mother, osteocytic osteolysis is suggested to be involved in the supply of minerals to the baby. The levels of some calcitropic and phosphotropic (Ca- and phosphate-regulating, respectively) hormones in the fetus are also different from those in the adult. The PTH level in the fetus is lower than that in the mother and nonpregnant adult. It is suggested, however, that low fetal PTH plays an important role in fetal mineral metabolism. The concentration of PTHrP in the fetus is much higher than that of PTH and plays a critical role in perinatal Ca homeostasis. Uncovering the molecular mechanisms for fetal stage-specific mineral metabolism will lead to better management of perinatal patients with mineral abnormalities. PMID:26865750

  15. Isotope analysis of molybdenum in selected minerals

    An analytical method is described for the mass spectrometric determination of molybdenum abundance values. The results of analyses of three molybdenum mineral samples are presented and compared with the results of other authors. It is shown that the fine variations of molybdenum in natural minerals cannot be analysed with currently available mass spectrometers

  16. Intracellular transport of ions in mineralizing tissues

    This study resulted in the development of a new model for bone cell physiology and has provided the means for studying the mechanism and site of action of bone affecting hormones and vitamin metabolites and has provided new information on mechanisms of mineralization and mineralization defects

  17. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Nelson, Andrew D; Fischer, Philip R; Reed, Ann M; Wylam, Mark E


    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  18. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E


    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  19. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Andrew D. Nelson


    Full Text Available We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  20. Barrier properties of natural clay minerals

    Дудар, Т.В.; С.П. Бугера; В.М. Кадошніков; Б.П. Злобенко


     Clay minerals is a perfect material for geochemical barrier due to their high water resistivity, plasticity, high sorbing capacity, well developed surface and cheapness in extraction and processing. This work studies the peculiarities of uranium sorbtion on clay minerals on the example of bentonite and palygorskite clay from Cherkassy deposit, and clay usage as a barrier material.

  1. Mineral resources and geo-engineering

    Fathi Habashi


    Metals used in everyday life are produced from ores occurring in the Earth’s crust. Geological processes are known to concentrate minerals to form ores of economic value. Mineral processing engineers concentrate these ores by mechanical and physico-chemical methods while the extractive metallurgist extracts the metals by chemical means.

  2. Barrier properties of natural clay minerals

    Т.В. Дудар


    Full Text Available  Clay minerals is a perfect material for geochemical barrier due to their high water resistivity, plasticity, high sorbing capacity, well developed surface and cheapness in extraction and processing. This work studies the peculiarities of uranium sorbtion on clay minerals on the example of bentonite and palygorskite clay from Cherkassy deposit, and clay usage as a barrier material.

  3. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)


    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  4. Biochemical bases of mineral waters genesis

    D. D. Zhernosekov


    Full Text Available This work directs data about mineral water genesis. The accent on balneological sense is done. We suggest the criteria of biochemical processes estimation which take part in mineral water compounds creation. These criteria can be used for illustration of dependence between waters medical properties and biochemical processes of their genesis.

  5. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Virta, Robert L.


    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  6. Characterization of Mexican zeolite minerals

    50% of the Mexican territory is formed by volcanic sequences of the Pliocene type, which appear extensively in the northwest states (Sonora, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Durango) and west of Mexico (Jalisco and Nayarit), in central Mexico (Zacatecas, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Hidalgo) and south of Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca); therefore, it is to be expected that in our country big locations of natural zeolites exist in its majority of the clinoptilolite type. The present study was focused toward the characterization of two Mexican natural zeolite rocks presumably of the clinoptilolite and filipsite types, one of them comes from the state of Chihuahua and the other of a trader company of non metallic minerals, due that these materials are not characterized, its are not known their properties completely and therefore, the uses that can be given to these materials. In this investigation work it was carried out the characterization of two Mexican zeolite rocks, one coming from the Arroyo zone, municipality of La Haciendita, in the state of Chihuahua; and the other one was bought to a trader company of non metallic minerals. The two zeolites so much in their natural form as conditioned with sodium; they were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum and elementary microanalysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET), thermal gravimetric analysis. To differentiate the heulandite crystalline phase of the other clinoptilolite rock, its were carried out thermal treatments. The quantification of Al, Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe was carried out in solution, by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy and the quantity of Si was determined by gravimetry. The zeolite rocks presented for the major part the crystalline heulandite and clinoptilolite phases for the most part, and it was found that the zeolite coming from the state of Chihuahua possesses a bigger content of heulandite and the denominated filipsite it is really a zeolite

  7. Biohydrometallurgy for nonsulfidic minerals - A review

    Jain, N.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology of Delhi, New Delhi (India). Center for Energy Studies


    Bioleaching is a technology applicable to metal extraction from low-grade ores, ore beneficiation, coal beneficiation, metal detoxification, and recovery of metals from waste materials. The technology is environmentally sound and it may lower operational cost and energy requirement. Whereas leaching of sulfidic minerals using chemolithoautotrophic bacteria is the most studied and commercially exploitable aspect of mineral biotechnology today, there is a dearth of literature on the dissolution of nonsulfidic minerals. Biohydrometallurgy of nonsulfidic minerals involves the action of heterotrophic microorganisms. Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi have the potential for producing acidic metabolites that are able to solubilize oxide, silicate, carbonate and hydroxide minerals by reduction, acidolysis and complexation mechanisms. It is an important aspect of biohydrometallugy that requires development to meet future needs.

  8. Phosphorus removal by powdered minerals in wastewater

    Kato, Y.; Nakai, T.; Sato, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Murayama, K.; Hirai, M. (National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan))


    In this paper, removal of phosphate in wastewater, which is one of the main nutrients, has been investigated. Various powdered minerals were tested for whether they had abilities as adsorbents for phosphate. For experiments, solution samples of HPO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} were used. Magnetite, apatite, dolomite, cristobalite, silica, alumina, coal ash, halloysite, quartz, diatomaceous earth, kaolinite, and feldsper were used as powdered minerals. Various dosages of a powdered mineral and a reagent were added to the solutions. These were agitated using a stirrer, and after that, they were analyzed. Consequently, each mineral did not show any good removal ability for HPO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} by only themselved. Those minerals with Ca{sup 2{plus}} also did not show any good removal abilities for HPO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} only except dolomite. Dolomite with Ca{sub 2{plus}} showed a high removal rate of above 95%. 18 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Sanjay Upadhyay; Hem Chandra; Meenakashi Joshi; Deepika P Joshi


    The knowledge of elasticity of the minerals is useful for interpreting the structure and composition of the lower mantle and also in seismic studies. The purpose of the present study is to discuss a simple and straightforward method for evaluating thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperatures. We have extended the Kumar’s formulation by taking into the account the concept of anharmonicity in minerals above the Debye temperature (D). In our present study, we have investigated the thermophysical properties of two minerals (pyrope-rich garnet and MgAl2O4) under high temperatures and calculated the second-order elastic constant () and bulk modulus (T) of the above minerals, in two cases first by taking Anderson–Gruneisen parameter (T) as temperature-independent and then by treating T as temperature-dependent parameter. The results obtained when T is temperature-dependent are in close agreement with experimental data.

  10. Feldspar minerals as efficient deposition ice nuclei

    J. D. Yakobi-Hancock


    Full Text Available Mineral dusts are well known to be efficient ice nuclei, where the source of this efficiency has typically been attributed to the presence of clay minerals such as illite and kaolinite. However, the ice nucleating abilities of the more minor mineralogical components have not been as extensively examined. As a result, the deposition ice nucleation abilities of 24 atmospherically-relevant mineral samples have been studied, using a continuous flow diffusion chamber at −40.0 ± 0.3 °C. The same particle size (200 nm and particle preparation procedure were used throughout. The ice nucleation behaviour of the pure minerals is compared to that of complex mixtures, such as Arizona Test Dust (ATD and Mojave Desert Dust (MDD, and to lead iodide, which has been previously proposed for cloud seeding. Lead iodide was the most efficient ice nucleus (IN, requiring a critical relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi of 122.0 ± 2.0% to activate 0.1% of the particles. MDD (RHi 126.3 ± 3.4% and ATD (RHi 129.5 ± 5.1% have lower but comparable activity. From a set of clay minerals (kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, non-clay minerals (e.g. hematite, magnetite, calcite, cerussite, quartz, and feldspar minerals (orthoclase, plagioclase present in the atmospheric dusts it was found that the feldspar minerals (particularly orthoclase, and not the clays, were the most efficient ice nuclei. Orthoclase and plagioclase were found to have critical RHi values of 127.1 ± 6.3% and 136.2 ± 1.3%, respectively. The presence of feldspars (specifically orthoclase may play a significant role in the IN behaviour of mineral dusts despite their lower percentage in composition relative to clay minerals.

  11. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa.

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R


    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) 'cut-point' approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita(-1) day(-1). Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, 'cut-point' approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting HarvestPlus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  12. Surface mining of mineral resources

    Braeunig, H.D.


    This article outlines general advantages of surface mining technology and aspects of selecting the most suitable mining technology in surface mine projection. Heavy surface mining equipment of the TAKRAF engineering plants is recommended for efficient excavation and overburden removal up to 230,000 m/sup 3/d capacity with the largest excavator type and 440,000 m/sup 3/d capacity with the largest overburden conveyor bridge. Two major variants of surface mine technology are outlined: design of surface mines with continuous working equipment (bucket wheel or bucket chain excavators requiring up to 200 N/cm digging force for minerals and overburden and haulage by belt conveyors) or discontinuously working equipment (dragline excavators, truck transportation, etc.). The second major variant concerns overburden removal to the spoil bank, either by haulage in a semicircle around the pit or by a shortcut across the pit from the excavation to the spoil bank side (direct spoil removal method). TAKRAF equipment for surface mining operations is described with various specifications and details on its performance. (In German)

  13. 30 CFR 256.80 - Leases of other minerals.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 256.80 Section 256.80 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Section 6 Leases § 256.80 Leases of other minerals....

  14. Authigenic minerals: Biologically influenced and induced organomineralization

    Dupraz, Christophe


    Organominerals are minerals precipitated by interactions with organic matter without enzymatic control. Organomineralization of authigenic carbonate minerals depends on two key components: (1) the "carbonate alkalinity engine" impacting the calcium carbonate saturation index and (2) the organic matrix comprised of extracellular organic matter (EOM), which provides a template for carbonate nucleation. The alkalinity engine can be "intrinsic" when microbial metabolisms increase supersaturation or lower the kinetic barrier of precipitation, or "extrinsic" when the physicochemical environment creates the conditions for mineral formation. The organic matrix produced by various communities within the microbial mats is known to influence nucleation, morphology and mineralogy of minerals through binding of cations. By playing with these two key components, three types of authigenic minerals can be formed: (1) a purely physicochemical precipitation on an abiotic substrate, (2) a precipitation "influenced" by the presence of an organic matrix but resulting from a physicochemical forcing (environmentally driven), or (3) a "microbially-induced" precipitation, in which both supersaturation and organic matrix are resulting from microbial activity. In this keynote, we will review important processes involved in the precipitation of authigenic carbonate minerals in modern microbial mats and open the discussion on the potential use of authigenic carbonate minerals as biosignatures in the fossil record.

  15. 43 CFR Appendix F to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing... 2—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  16. Mineral supplementation of low quality roughages

    Mineral concentrations in low quality roughages (LQRs) are often low and availability for absorption has often been presumed to be low. However, radioisotope dilution studies have shown that the fraction of P in rice bran, wheat bran and barley straw which is available is surprisingly high (0.57-0.72). Chemical processing ought to improve the release of minerals from LQR in the rumen but possible effects of the chemicals on the absorption and retention of the released mineral make it impossible to predict net effects on the mineral status of animals. Effects of physical processing have received little attention but are probably small and not worth pursuing. Supplementation of LQRs with energy and protein may indirectly enhance Mg and Zn absorption respectively and improve intakes of minerals by increasing food intake. However, feeding LQRs will increase the faecal endogenous losses and hence maintenance requirements for P, Ca and possibly other elements. Improving the quality of LQRs by improving their digestibility may further increase both maintenance needs and negative balances by increasing food intake. Because of uncertainties in the stated mineral requirements of ruminants, in the ability of LQRs to meet those needs and in the capacity of animals to adapt to deficient diets, production responses cannot be predicted: responses to mineral supplementation in long term feeding trials are the best guide to the need to supplement. The ideal method is conservative supplementation of complete diets based on LQRs with all essential minerals at the time of treatment with energy and protein. The need to supplement may be greater in the field than in experiments because parasitic infections increase mineral requirements. (author). 46 refs, 3 tabs

  17. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Sokolović Dunja S.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  18. The DataMiner manager Web interface

    Panichi, Giancarlo; Coro, Gianpaolo


    In this document we describe the DataMiner Manager Web interface that allows interacting with the gCube DataMiner service. DataMiner is a cross-usage service that provides users and services with tools for performing data mining operations. Specifically, it offers a unique access to perform data mining and statistical operations on heterogeneous data, which may reside either at client side, in the form of comma-separated values files, or be remotely hosted, possibly in a database. The DataMin...

  19. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Kralik, M.; Taylor, B.E.; Peterman, Z.E.


    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses.

  20. World mineral exploration trends and economic issues

    The subjects and methodologies presented in this book vary from the presentation of a heretofore unavailable collection of data on worldwide mineral exploration to case studies of mineral exploration in the developing countries of Botswana and Papua New Guinea to a study of the economic productivity of base metal exploration in Australia and Canada. Some authors concentrate on particular actors or participants in the exploration process, such as major mining companies, while other focus on a particular country such as the Soviet Union, France, or South Africa. Most chapters deal with exploration for nonfuel minerals, and particularly metals, although some take in uranium and coal exploration; oil and gas exploration is specifically excluded

  1. Uranyl adsorption at clay mineral surfaces

    Roesch, N.


    This first exemplary survey of actinide adsorption at complex clay mineral surfaces, which provided new insights at the atomic level, will be extended to other pertinent adsorbates like neptunyl NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and more complex minerals like iron-substituted phyllosilicates. In this way we will check if the concepts developed so far can be applied more generally, to support the interpretation of upcoming experiments. An essential facet of these studies will be to account also for the dynamical nature of the mineral/water interface by means of exemplary dynamical simulations. (orig.)

  2. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals.

    Eberl, D D; Sacuterodonacute, J; Kralik, M; Taylor, B E; Peterman, Z E


    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses. PMID:17815598

  3. Characterization of minerals, metals and materials

    Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Bai, Chengguang; Carpenter, John; Cai, Mingdong; Firrao, Donato; Kim, Byoung-Gon


    This state-of-the-art reference contains chapters on all aspects of the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials. The title presents papers from one of the largest yearly gatherings of materials scientists in the world and thoroughly discusses the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials The scope includes current industrial applications and research and developments in the following areas:  Characterization of Ferrous Metals Characterization of Non-Ferrous Materials Characterization of Minerals and Ceramics Character

  4. Chromosomal aberrations in ore miners of Slovakia

    A pilot study was performed in which the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners in ore mines located in Central Slovakia was monitored and related to lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. The conclusions drawn from the results of the study were as follows: the counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners were significantly higher than in an age matched control group of white-collar staff; the higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; a dependence of chromosomal aberration counts on the exposure to radon could not be assessed. (A.K.)

  5. Minerals safeguarding areas for Shropshire and Telford & Wrekin

    Newsham, R.; Hough, E.; Morigi, A.N.


    Minerals Policy Statement 1: Planning and Minerals (DCLG, November 2006) requires all Mineral Planning Authorities to define Mineral Safeguarding Areas (MSA’s). This report describes work carried out by the British Geological Survey on behalf of Shropshire County Council and Telford & Wrekin Council to delineate Mineral Safeguarding Areas in Shropshire, Telford & Wrekin. The report uses the methodology outlined in “A guide to mineral safeguarding in England” (McEvoy et al., 200...

  6. Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces

    Cygan, Randall T.; Kirkpatrick, R. James


    A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation.

  7. Mineral Resource Data System: Conterminous US

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MRDS describes metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources throughout the world. Included are deposit name, location, commodity, deposit description, geologic...

  8. Effects of earthworms on nitrogen mineralization.

    Willems, J.J.G.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Blair, J.


    The influence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata) on the rate of net N mineralization was studied, both in soil with intact soil structure (partly influenced by past earthworm activity) and in columns with sieved soil

  9. Contribution to the knowledge of metamict minerals

    The used techniques in different analysis about metamict minerals, its results and conclusions. These samples went on Minas Gerais State, and they belong at the mineralogical collection of National Museum is presented. (C.M.)

  10. NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Minerals Geochemical Database was created by NGDC as a part of a project to construct a comprehensive computerized bibliography and geochemical database...

  11. Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces

    A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation

  12. Raman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy in Mineral Identification

    Kuehn, J. W.


    Raman spectroscopy is particularly useful for rapid identification of minerals and gemstones. Raman spectrometers also allow PL studies for authentication of samples and geological provenance, diamond type screening and detection of HPHT treatments.

  13. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease

    ... C, D and E. Examples of minerals are zinc, iron and copper. They help your body use ... from your food. Some phosphorus binder medications contain calcium. They can give you extra calcium if you ...

  14. Major mineral deposits of the world

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Regional locations and general geologic setting of known deposits of major nonfuel mineral commodities. Originally compiled in five parts by diverse authors,...

  15. The Minerals of Candor Chasma


    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this image of sulfate- and pyroxene-containing deposits in the Candor Chasma region of Mars at 0747 UTC (2:47 a.m. EST) on December 2, 2006, near 6.7 degrees south latitude, 75.8 degrees west longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The image is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Candor Chasma is a deep, elongated, steep-sided depression some 813 kilometers (505 miles) long. It is one of two large chasmata that make up the northern end of the Valles Marineris system. The top panel in the montage above illustrates the location of CRISM data on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). CRISM data cover an area centered on the southwestern part of Candor Chasma, where highland crust was depressed by faulting and buried by a kilometers-thick stack of layered deposits. The bottom two images are views of CRISM data. The lower left image is an infrared false color image, while at lower right is a spectral image that illustrates the distribution of sulfates in the layered deposits, the olivine and pyroxene that make up the faulted highland crust, and high-calcium pyroxene in the highland crust. The northern part of CRISM's data swath covers interior deposits formed after the canyon floor was faulted and depressed. This lighter region in the infrared image at lower left exhibits the spectral signatures of sulfates (blues) in the CRISM spectral image at lower right. The southern end of CRISM's data reveals volcanic minerals (pyroxene and olivine) that make up the older, underlying highland crust. The strongest signature comes from the common diopside-hedenbergite series of pyroxenes a group of silicate materials rich in iron, magnesium, and calcium. CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The

  16. Geochronologic studies in the Grants mineral belt

    Geologic observation coupled with radiometric age dating can be used to assess ages of ore formation and, in some cases, ages of sedimentation in the Grants mineral belt. Rb-Sr studies indicate the earliest mineralization is trend ore at Ambrosia Lake and Smith Lake, dated at 139 +- 9.5 m.y. This date is similar to that for barren-rock montmorillonite from the Jackpile sandstone (Late Jurassic): 142 +- 14 m.y.; it may be used, with caution, to indicate the minimum age of sedimentation for the Morrison Formation. Geologic evidence indicates epigenetic rather than syngenetic ore formation. Barren-rock montmorillonites from Ambrosia Lake yield a poorly defined isochron of 132 +- 26 m.y. Early formed ore at the Jackpile-Paguate mine, Laguna district, was remobilized and reprecipitated at 113 +- 7 m.y. This date is older than the range of dates for the Dakota Formation (Cretaceous) and Mancos Shale. The 113 +- 7 m.y. mid-Cretaceous date for the Jackpile-Paguate ore is consistent with geologic evidence; geologic control suggests that other ore deposits are post-Late Jurassic but pre-Dakota Formation. Based on geologic evidence, mineralization in the Dakota Formation is thought to be very young. Laramide mineralization (60 to 70 m.y.) is evidenced by the presence of some stack ore. At least one uranium deposit, located partly in oxidized ground at the main redox front of the Grants mineral belt, may represent Tertiary mineralization; the clay-mineral Rb-Sr systematics of this deposit have been severely perturbed. Younger mineralization is indicated by U-Pb dates on uranophane (9 to 10 m.y.), and Pleistocene mineralization is noted for some ore. U-Pb dates of U4+ -rich ore minerals cluster between 80 and 100 m.y., although some are as old as 140 to 150 m.y. K-Ar dates on clay minerals range from 49 to 138 m.y. The reasons for this scatter are not known, although loss of radiogenic 40Ar due to burial is probable

  17. Industrial mineral powder production in China


    The recent annual output of major industrial mineral powders in the mainland of China has been more than 100 million t, accompanied by active development of such supporting technology as comminution, classification, separation/purification, and surface modification. In particular, the present paper reviews technologies for preparing ultra-fine particles involving dry and wet processing, modification and composition, calcination of kaolin clay, and processing of spherical/acerous industrial minerals.

  18. Surface geochemistry of the clay minerals

    Sposito, Garrison; Skipper, Neal T.; Sutton, Rebecca; Park, Sung-Ho; Soper, Alan K.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.


    Clay minerals are layer type aluminosilicates that figure in terrestrial biogeochemical cycles, in the buffering capacity of the oceans, and in the containment of toxic waste materials. They are also used as lubricants in petroleum extraction and as industrial catalysts for the synthesis of many organic compounds. These applications derive fundamentally from the colloidal size and permanent structural charge of clay mineral particles, which endow them with significant ...

  19. Structure and theoretical calculations of clay minerals

    Structural and spectroscopic methods are combined to determine the full structure, including hydrogen atom positions, of dickite, which is a member of the kaolin group. Using the structural information obtained, quantum chemical calculations are performed on these kaolin group minerals. Special emphasis is laid on the relationship between the experimentally derived structure and theory. Finally, the application of quantum chemical methods to study clay minerals at several levels of approximation is reviewed

  20. Magnetic Separation of Weakly Magnatic Copper Minerals

    Agricola, J. N.M.; Top, J. L.; Fort, A. F.


    High Gradient Magnetic Separation of small (5-38 µm) weakly magnetic copper mineral particles from a copper concentrate and ore has been performed. In previous work coarser fractions of these minerals, bornite and chalcopyrite, were separated successfully. The recovery of the smaller particles in the magnetic fraction decreases but their grade increases compared to the results obtained on the larger particles. At a magnetic background field of 1.3 T the concentrate was upgraded from 72% borni...

  1. Riqueza Mineral Y Pobreza En Los Andes

    Leonith Hinojosa


    This article examines the paradox found in mineral-rich Andean countries where the sustained economic growth observed over the last decade has not provoked a corresponding decrease in poverty. The impact of the expansion of the extractive industries (mining and hydrocarbons) on these countries is addressed from the perspective of political economy, indicating that the permanence of poverty, in particular rural poverty in areas where mineral wealth is concentrated, can be explained by inconsis...

  2. Infrared Extinction Spectra of Mineral Dust Aerosol

    Kleiber, P.; Laskina, O.; Alexander, J. M.; Young, M.; Grassian, V. H.


    Mineral dust aerosol affects the atmosphere by absorbing and scattering radiation and plays an important role in the Earth's radiative budget. The effect of atmospheric dust on climate is studied by various remote sensing techniques that use measurements from narrow band IR channels of satellites to determine key atmospheric properties. Therefore, it is essential to take radiative effects of mineral dust aerosol into account to correctly process remote sensing data. As aerosols are transported through the atmosphere they undergo aging and heterogeneous chemistry. This leads to changes in their optical properties and their effects on climate. In this study we carried out spectral simulations using both Mie theory and solutions derived in the Rayleigh regime for authentic dust samples and several processed components of mineral dust. Simulations of the extinction based on Mie theory shows that it does not accurately reproduce the peak position and band shape of the prominent IR resonance features. Errors in the simulated peak position and the line shape associated with Mie theory can adversely affect determination of mineral composition based on IR satellite data. Analytic solutions for various shapes derived from Rayleigh theory offer a better fit to the major band features of the spectra, therefore the accuracy of modeling atmospheric dust properties can be improved by using these analytic solutions. It is also important to take aging of mineral dust into account. We investigated the effect of chemical processing on the optical properties. It was shown that interactions of components of mineral dust (calcite, quartz and kaolinite) with humic and organic acids cause a shift of the IR resonance bands of these minerals. It may indicate changes in shape of the particles as well as changes in hygroscopicity and, as the result, the water content in these samples. Therefore, care should be taken when modeling optical properties of aged mineral dust.

  3. Cyanobacteria as Biocatalysts for Carbonate Mineralization

    Christer Jansson; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M.; Kamennaya, Nina A.; Trent Northen


    Microbial carbonate mineralization is widespread in nature and among microorganisms, and of vast ecological and geological importance. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that trigger and control processes such as calcification, i.e., mineralization of CO2 to calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is limited and literature on cyanobacterial calcification is oftentimes bewildering and occasionally controversial. In cyanobacteria, calcification may be intimately associated with the carbon dioxide-...

  4. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    Chisholm, Andrew


    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  5. World Mineral Production 2002-06

    Hetherington, Linda; Brown, Teresa; Benham, Antony; Bide, Tom; Lusty, Paul; Hards, Vicky; Hannis, Sarah; Idoine, Naomi


    This publication includes five year tables of production, by country, for the majority of economically important mineral commodities, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals, industrial minerals and hydrocarbons. Additional information has been added describing the characteristics, uses production trends, prices and industry events for 11 commodities including bauxite/alumina/aluminium, coal, copper, fluorspar, gold, iron ore, lead, nickel, titanium, uranium and zinc. This is part ...

  6. Mineral resources in Afghanistan. Final report

    Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents the past and present status of these resources and examines alternative strategies for their exploitation. Chapter 2 provides a brief history of minerals exploration, exploitation, and planning in Afghanistan, including the roles of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet bloc, and the United States in Afghanistan's mineral sector; mineral policy in the five national plans during the years 1962-83; and sector assessments conducted by the World Bank (1978) and the US Department of Energy (1989). Chapter 3 discusses three strategies for developing the country's mineral and hydrocarbon resources. (1) a national orientation focusing on domestic needs; (2) a regional strategy that would consider markets in countries close to Afghanistan; and (3) an international strategy that would place Afghan resources on the international market

  7. Mineral oxide transformation of antimicrobial contaminants

    Guo, B.; Kendall, T. A.


    The quality of our water supply is dependent on the organic-mineral interface. Organics contain reactive groups that dissolve minerals, and release surface associated contaminants into aquifers and reservoirs. Conversely, minerals may transform organic pollutants, including antimicrobial drugs that are potentially deleterious to aquatic ecosystems or human health. Under aqueous conditions typical of soils and natural waters, the antibiotic agent sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is transformed in the presence of pyrolusite, presumably on the MnO2 surface. At least 50 percent loss of SMX was observed after 269 h, in both acidic and basic solutions (pH 3-9). Nearly 100 percent loss is recorded at pH 3 and 66 percent loss was recorded at circumneutral pH. Initial mass spectrometry of the reaction products suggests an oxidative pathway where hydroxylation and oxidation occurs at the aniline moiety and isoxazolamine ring of SMX. Concomitant increases in aqueous manganese concentrations suggest reductive transformation of the mineral surface. Ongoing electric force spectroscopy and force microscopy experiments probe potential mineral surface alteration associated with the SMX-MnO2 reaction. Coupling bulk aqueous observations and mass spectrometry with molecular-scale force microscopy should further elucidate sulfonamide reactivity as influenced by mineral surface chemistry and topography. Moreover, the observed transformation suggests manganese oxides likely play an important role in the fate of SMX in the environment.

  8. Radon daughter exposure to uranium miners

    Radon exposures to U.S. uranium miners average about 1.3 WLM per year approximately equal to 60 WLM per full working lifetime. This is intermediate between (a) the lowest exposures for which there have been excess lung cancers reported among U.S. miners (120-240 WLM) and (b) average environmental radon exposures (16 WLM), so models based on these two situations are used to estimate expected effects on present uranium miners. In Model A, the loss of life expectancy is 45 days, the SMR (standardized mortality ratio) for lung cancer is 1.10, and the SMR for all causes between ages 18 and 65 is 1.013. In Model B these are 10 days, 1.03 and 1.002 respectively. It is shown that the radon exposures to miners are similar to those to millions of Americans from environmental exposure, and that miner health risks are comparable to those of other radiation workers. Their lung cancer risk from radon is 7-50 times less than their job-related accident mortality risk, and represents 0.7-4% of their total risk in mining. Miners suffer from many diseases with SMR very much larger than that for radon-induced lung cancer. (author)

  9. Thin Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces.

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François


    Ice films formed at mineral surfaces are of widespread occurrence in nature and are involved in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial processes. In this study, we studied thin ice films at surfaces of 19 synthetic and natural mineral samples of varied structure and composition. These thin films were formed by sublimation of thicker hexagonal ice overlayers mostly produced by freezing wet pastes of mineral particles at -10 and -50 °C. Vibration spectroscopy revealed that thin ice films contained smaller populations of strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules than in hexagonal ice and liquid water. Thin ice films at the surfaces of the majority of minerals considered in this work [i.e., metal (oxy)(hydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, silicates, volcanic ash, Arizona Test Dust] produced intense O-H stretching bands at ∼3400 cm(-1), attenuated bands at ∼3200 cm(-1), and liquid-water-like bending band at ∼1640 cm(-1) irrespective of structure and composition. Illite, a nonexpandable phyllosilicate, is the only mineral that stabilized a form of ice that was strongly resilient to sublimation in temperatures as low as -50 °C. As mineral-bound thin ice films are the substrates upon which ice grows from water vapor or aqueous solutions, this study provides new constraints from which their natural occurrences can be understood. PMID:27377606

  10. Irritative symptoms and exposure to mineral wool.

    Petersen, R; Sabroe, S


    In a cross-sectional study undertaken in 1981 using a postal questionnaire, the prevalence of irritative symptoms was investigated among 2,654 Danish construction workers working with mineral wool. An evaluation was undertaken in a multivariate logit analysis of the relationship between exposure level (measured by hours of exposure to mineral wool per month) and prevalence of symptoms. The analysis controlled for the confounders of age, smoking habits, and exposure to organic solvents. With greater exposure to mineral wool, there was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of irritative symptoms from the eyes, the skin, and the upper respiratory tract. Among construction workers working with mineral wool 160-180 hours per month, two-thirds had these symptoms once a week or oftener. The occurrence was 2-3 times higher compared with the construction workers not working with mineral wool. The relationship between exposure to mineral wool and skin and mucous membrane symptoms may be explained by the irritative action of the fibers that are given off during insulation work. PMID:1831004

  11. Rheological Characterization of Bioinspired Mineralization in Hydrogels

    Regitsky, Abigail; Holten-Andersen, Niels

    With increasing amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere linked to potentially catastrophic climate change, it is critical that we find methods to permanently sequester and store CO2. Inspired by the natural biomineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), one future goal of this project is to understand the mechanisms of CaCO3 mineralization in order to ultimately optimize a bioinspired hydrogel system, which produces high value industrial powders that consume CO2 as a feedstock. Along the way, we are developing a rheological technique to study mineral nucleation and growth events by measuring the modulations in mechanical properties of a hydrogel system during mineralization. Our initial system consists of a gelatin hydrogel matrix, which is preloaded with calcium ions, and an aqueous solution of carbonate ions, which are allowed to diffuse through the gel to initiate the mineralization process. In order to monitor how the growth of minerals affects the mechanical properties of the gel network, we measure the storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli of the system in situ. Future work will focus on modifying the properties of the minerals formed by changing the polymer used in the hydrogel network and adding other organic molecules into the system.

  12. European mineral statistics 2004-08 : a product of the World Mineral Statistics database

    Brown, T J; Idoine, N.E.; Bide, Tom; Mills, A.J.; Hobbs, S.F.


    European Mineral Statistics is the only up-to-date publication dedicated to statistical information about minerals and metals in Europe, and presented in a convenient form. It provides the essential background intelligence for any European minerals-related activities. Production, export and import tables are presented for all EU members and EU candidate countries, plus Norway and Switzerland, in two sections: •by individual country •by commodity, with bullets on salient features an...

  13. Bioleaching of serpentine group mineral by fungus Talaromyces flavus: application for mineral carbonation

    Li, Z.; Lianwen, L.; Zhao, L.; Teng, H.


    Many studies of serpentine group mineral dissolution for mineral carbonation have been published in recent years. However, most of them focus mainly on either physical and chemical processes or on bacterial function, rather than fungal involvement in the bioleaching of serpentine group mineral. Due to the excessive costs of the magnesium dissolution process, finding a lower energy consumption method will be meaningful. A fungal strain Talaromyces flavus was isolated from serpentinic rock of Donghai (China). No study of its bioleaching ability is currently available. It is thus of great significance to explore the impact of T. flavus on the dissolution of serpentine group mineral. Serpentine rock-inhabiting fungi belonging to Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Clavicipitaceae, Cosmospora, Fusarium, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Trichoderma were isolated. These strains were chosen on the basis of resistance to magnesium and nickel characterized in terms of minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC). Specifically, the strain Talaromyces flavus has a high tolerance to both magnesium (1 mol/L) and nickel (10 mM/L), and we examine its bioleaching ability on serpentine group mineral. Contact and separation experiments (cut-off 8 000-14 000 Da), as well as three control experiments, were set up for 30 days. At least three repeated tests were performed for each individual experiment. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the bioleaching ability of T. flavus towards serpentine group mineral is evident. 39.39 wt% of magnesium was extracted from lizardite during the bioleaching period in the contact experiment, which showed a dissolution rate at about a constant 0.126 mM/d before reaching equilibrium in 13 days. The amount of solubilized Mg from chrysotile and antigorite were respectively 37.79 wt% and 29.78 wt% in the contact experiment. These results make clear the influence of mineral structure on mineral bioleaching

  14. 30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL EXEMPTION FOR COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENTAL TO THE EXTRACTION OF OTHER MINERALS § 702.16 Stockpiling...

  15. Xinjiang Integrates Mineral Resources of 11 Major Mining Areas


    <正>According to reports,from this year,Xinjiang, a large mineral resource province,will implement mineral resource integration of 11 major mining areas involving minerals including coal, iron,copper and bentonite,so as to further adjust the structure of mineral exploitation and optimize the distribution of resources.

  16. 30 CFR 72.510 - Miner health training.


    ... the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, or from the authorized... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner health training. 72.510 Section 72.510... § 72.510 Miner health training. (a) Operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine...

  17. Ilmenite Mineral's Recovery from Beach Sand Tailings

    The mineral ilmenite is the major source of rutile for industrial use and is of interest to paint and fertiliser industries. Enormous unutilised tailing dams lie on the eastern coast of the South Africa. Although covered by a simulation of the original indigenous vegetation, these tailings are still ilmenite bearing and of economic value. Tailings emanating from beach sand mineral slimes dams of the Kwazulu-Natal area (South Africa) have been processed. Screening, flotation, spiral concentration and magnetic separation methods were used either separately or successively. The present work sheds light on alternative routes for the extraction of the ilmenite, from these tailings. It moreover points out the usefulness of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in the mineral processing product monitoring. Tailings from the beach sands were used in the present study after the economic industrial minerals zirconia, ilmenite and rutile had been extracted in previous mining operations. About 61% natural ilmenite recovery was observed in the flotation concentrate of a Humphrey Spiral concentrate while a 62% recovery of hematite was found in the flotation tailings. The combination of screening, spiral concentration and magnetic separation, and flotation yielded a product with the highest ilmenite and hematite concentration being 71% and 19%, respectively. A natural ilmenite mineral, containing 87% ilmenite and 13% hematite, could be produced and extracted from the tailings of the flotation process, collected subsequently to the spiral concentration and the initial screening.

  18. Mineral wealth and the economic transition: Kazakhstan

    The exploitation of mineral wealth can amplify the problems of the transition economies in three basic ways. First, the rebound of the real exchange rate that characterises a successful transition may be augmented by the capital inflow required to expand mineral production. This can cause both recession in the short-run and lower growth in the medium-term. Second, when the mineral revenues expand, the Dutch Disease effects may intensify the transition-related shrinkage of the non-mining tradable sector, thereby retarding economic diversification and rendering the economy vulnerable to external shocks. Third, a mineral boom tends to concentrate revenue on the government, which may use it to postpone difficult decisions on economic reform and/or dissipate the revenue due to weak financial markets and inadequate public accountability. Kazakhstan, like oil-rich Azerbaijan, is a late reformer and displays evidence of a faster transition rebound than other less resource-rich countries in the CIS do. However, Kazakhstan has two advantages over Azerbaijan. First, Kazakhstan has a more diversified mineral endowment with which to counter any trend towards single commodity specialization. Second, Kazakhstan is making a later start on oil expansion so that it can learn from the experience of Azerbaijan. Priorities for Kazakhstan are the continuation of prudent economic policies, the creation of institutions to enhance the transparency of the revenue flows, and the use of environmental accounting to provide a rationale for the deployment of the oil rents. (author)

  19. Photochemistry of Nitrate Adsorbed on Mineral Dust

    Gankanda, A.; Grassian, V. H.


    Mineral dust particles in the atmosphere are often associated with adsorbed nitrate from heterogeneous reactions with nitrogen oxides including HNO3 and NO2. Although nitrate ion is a well-studied chromophore in natural waters, the photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on mineral dust particles is yet to be fully explored. In this study, wavelength dependence of the photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on different model components of mineral dust aerosol has been investigated using transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Al2O3, TiO2 and NaY zeolite were used as model systems to represent non-photoactive oxides, photoactive semiconductor oxides and porous materials respectively, present in mineral dust aerosol. In this study, adsorbed nitrate is irradiated with 254 nm, 310 nm and 350 nm narrow band light. In the irradiation with narrow band light, NO2 is the only detectable gas-phase product formed from nitrate adsorbed on Al2O3 and TiO2. The NO2 yield is highest at 310 nm for both Al2O3 and TiO2. Unlike Al2O3 and TiO2, in zeolite, adsorbed nitrate photolysis to nitrite is observed only at 310 nm during narrow band irradiation. Moreover gas phase products were not detected during nitrate photolysis in zeolite at all three wavelengths. The significance of these differences as related to nitrate photochemistry on different mineral dust components will be highlighted.

  20. Impacts of Nickel Nanoparticles on Mineral Carbonation

    Marius Bodor


    Full Text Available This work presents experimental results regarding the use of pure nickel nanoparticles (NiNP as a mineral carbonation additive. The aim was to confirm if the catalytic effect of NiNP, which has been reported to increase the dissolution of CO2 and the dissociation of carbonic acid in water, is capable of accelerating mineral carbonation processes. The impacts of NiNP on the CO2 mineralization by four alkaline materials (pure CaO and MgO, and AOD and CC steelmaking slags, on the product mineralogy, on the particle size distribution, and on the morphology of resulting materials were investigated. NiNP-containing solution was found to reach more acidic pH values upon CO2 bubbling, confirming a higher quantity of bicarbonate ions. This effect resulted in acceleration of mineral carbonation in the first fifteen minutes of reaction time when NiNP was present. After this initial stage, however, no benefit of NiNP addition was seen, resulting in very similar carbonation extents after one hour of reaction time. It was also found that increasing solids content decreased the benefit of NiNP, even in the early stages. These results suggest that NiNP has little contribution to mineral carbonation processes when the dissolution of alkaline earth metals is rate limiting.

  1. Nitrogen mineralization of sewage sludges in soils

    Garau, M.A.; Felipo, M.T.; de Villa, M.C.R.

    In order to profit from recycling sewage sludge through the soil-plant system and avoid the hazards associated with excessive NO/sub 3//sup -/-N in soils, it is necessary to know the amount of mineralizable organic-N from sludge. The purpose of this study was to determine N-mineralization of two sewage sludges in two different soils, comparing leached and nonleached incubation procedures. The cumulative N mineralized during successive incubation periods increased linearly with incubation time and sludge incorporation rate. The mineralization process was more influenced by soil type than by rate and kind of sludge applied. The amount of mineralized-N was higher for the leaching procedure. This cumulative-N expressed as the percentage of applied organic-N was inversely dependent on sewage sludge rate added for the leached procedure and is independent of the rate for the nonleached. The N-mineralization rate was 0.0202 +/- 0.0011 and 0.0650 +/- 0.0068 d/sup -1/, respectively, for leached and nonleached procedures. The potentially mineralizable N increased with the sludge rate applied and was higher for aerobic sludge and neutral soil. In general, the leached method gave twofold higher values than the nonleached method. The net percentage of potentially mineralizable N vs. organic-N added was 43.0 +/- 7.8 and 27.7 +/- 4.0, respectively, for leached and nonleached procedures.

  2. Leukaemia and lymphoma among Czech uranium miners

    Tomasek, L.; Malatova, I. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)


    Leukaemia is one of the most sensitive cancers in relation to ionizing radiation. It is surprising that in studies of uranium miners, no risk of leukaemia in relation to cumulated radon exposure was observed (Darby et al, 1995). However, when the risk among Czech uranium miners was analyzed in dependence on duration of exposure, the trend was significant. These results were based on 10 cases (Tomasek, 1993). Since then the original cohort of 4320 miners has been extended by another cohort, now including nearly 10 000 uranium miners and the follow-up is longer by 10 years. The present report aims to analyze the risk of haemopoietic cancers in the Czech cohort accounting for both external and internal doses, similarly as reported by Jacobi and Roth (1995), and using available data on metal content and airborne particulates for dose estimates.The present results of follow-up show that increased risk of leukaemia among uranium miners is significantly associated with cumulated equivalent red bone marrow doses which is dominated by exposures to long lived alpha radionuclides in airborne particulates. The increased mortality is mainly observed decades after exposure and is consistent with estimated internal dose to red bone marrow. The estimated risk coefficient for leukaemia is consistent with results from other studies, however, further studies are needed to reduce uncertainty in the risk estimates. (N.C.)

  3. Cyanobacteria as Biocatalysts for Carbonate Mineralization

    Christer Jansson


    Full Text Available Microbial carbonate mineralization is widespread in nature and among microorganisms, and of vast ecological and geological importance. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that trigger and control processes such as calcification, i.e., mineralization of CO2 to calcium carbonate (CaCO3, is limited and literature on cyanobacterial calcification is oftentimes bewildering and occasionally controversial. In cyanobacteria, calcification may be intimately associated with the carbon dioxide-(CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM, a biochemical system that allows the cells to raise the concentration of CO2 at the site of the carboxylating enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco up to 1000-fold over that in the surrounding medium. A comprehensive understanding of biologically induced carbonate mineralization is important for our ability to assess its role in past, present, and future carbon cycling, interpret paleontological data, and for evaluating the process as a means for biological carbon capture and storage (CCS. In this review we summarize and discuss the metabolic, physiological and structural features of cyanobacteria that may be involved in the reactions leading to mineral formation and precipitation, present a conceptual model of cyanobacterial calcification, and, finally, suggest practical applications for cyanobacterial carbonate mineralization.

  4. Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures

    Tisato, Nicola; Torriani, Stefano F. F.; Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; de Waele, Jo; Tavagna, Maria Luisa; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.


    Helictites—an enigmatic type of mineral structure occurring in some caves—differ from classical speleothems as they develop with orientations that defy gravity. While theories for helictite formation have been forwarded, their genesis remains equivocal. Here, we show that a remarkable suite of helictites occurring in Asperge Cave (France) are formed by biologically-mediated processes, rather than abiotic processes as had hitherto been proposed. Morphological and petro-physical properties are inconsistent with mineral precipitation under purely physico-chemical control. Instead, microanalysis and molecular-biological investigation reveals the presence of a prokaryotic biofilm intimately associated with the mineral structures. We propose that microbially-influenced mineralization proceeds within a gliding biofilm which serves as a nucleation site for CaCO3, and where chemotaxis influences the trajectory of mineral growth, determining the macroscopic morphology of the speleothems. The influence of biofilms may explain the occurrence of similar speleothems in other caves worldwide, and sheds light on novel biomineralization processes.

  5. Influence of oil and mineral characteristics on oil-mineral interaction

    A laboratory study was conducted to simulate the process of oil-mineral interaction in seawater. Thirteen different crudes, emulsions and oil products were used in the study. The objective was to improve the fundamental understanding of the characteristics of oils and minerals that influence the process. The findings of an initial phase of studies based on the swirling flask and marine simulation procedures were also described. Oil content associated with flocs to oil and mineral characteristics were discussed. Emulsions were prepared at 10 degrees C by vigorously mixing the oil with excess artificial seawater in a Kilner jar using a high shear homogenizer. Topped oils were prepared by distillation to 250 degrees C. The biodegraded oil was prepared from the topped crude oil. Biodegradation was achieved over a 28 day period using natural seawater and naturally occurring hydrocarbon degraders. The relationships between oil concentration, oil density and mineral exchange capacity were determined. The study showed that greater oil concentrations in the water column could be expected with (1) the presence of mineral fines, (2) minerals with greater cation exchange rates, (3) minerals with finer sizes, and (4) oils of lower viscosity and density. It was determined that in coastal waters the viscosity of the oil/emulsion will likely be the main factor affecting oil-mineral interactions. The viscosity limit for allowing oil fines interaction is likely to be dependent on the energy in the coastal zone affected by the oil pollution. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs

  6. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.


    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  7. A Review of Mineral Resources and GIS Applications in Mineral Resource Assessment in Northeast China

    Zhou Yunxuan; Wang Lei; Liu Wansong; Xu Huiping; Sun Fengyue


    Northeast China is one of the regions in China that possesses a great abundance of mineral resources.Coal, petroleum, natural gas, gold, iron, magnesite, graphite, talc, molding sand, glass sand and some others account for large portion in reserves and yields of that in the whole country. The region faced also shortages of copper, molybdenum, oil shale, zirconium, tantalum, rare earth, and beryllium, although they have large reserves,but limited by economical and technical factors. Geological mapping and mineral exploration activities have been intensive. Only the north part of Daxinanling Mountains in the region leaves unexplored. GIS applications in mineral resource assessment in the region start not long. Databases for GIS applications are on the way of construction.Well - trained technical staff and expertise do not meet the demand.This article reviews the situation of mineral resources and GIS applications for mineral resource assessment in the region. Suggestions on multi - lateral cooperation and GIS training are also made.

  8. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  9. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991


    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  10. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992


    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  11. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1989


    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  12. Mineral lung burden of an urban population

    Paoletti, L.; Falchi, M.; Batisti, D.; Carrieri, M. P.; Petrelli, M. G.; Ciallella, C.; Donelli, G.

    A study was carried out on mineral lung burden in 85 autopsy cases who died accidentally. Subjects of both sexes aged from 15 to 70 years were selected from all the autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rome. These subjects were living in an urban area and were not affected by neoplasm diseases. All selected subjects were residing in Rome at the time of their death. Information on years of legal residence in urban areas, smoking habits and occupational history were obtained by interviews with relatives. Lung parenchyma samples were obtained from the right upper lobe. The mineral particulate matter present in the tissue samples was studied by means of analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) techniques: 16 mineral varieties and 22 metallic elements were identified. Smoke, age and residence seem to have influence on the lung burden.

  13. Radioactivity and the French uranium bearing minerals

    This special issue of Regne Mineral journal is entirely devoted to the French uranium mining industry. It comprises 4 parts dealing with: the uranium mining industry in France (history, uranium rush, deposits, geologic setting, prosperity and recession, situation in 1998, ore processing); radioactivity and the uranium and its descendants (discovery, first French uranium bearing ores, discovery of radioactivity, radium and other uranium descendants, radium mines, uranium mines, atoms, elements and isotopes, uranium genesis, uranium decay, isotopes in an uranium ore, spontaneous fission, selective migration of radionuclides, radon in mines and houses, radioactivity units, radioprotection standards, new standards and controversies, natural and artificial radioactivity, hazards linked with the handling and collecting of uranium ores, conformability with radioprotection standards, radioactivity of natural uranium minerals); the French uranium bearing minerals (composition, crystal structure, reference, etymology, fluorescence). (J.S.)

  14. State of the art and challenges in cave minerals studies

    Bogdan P. Onac; Paolo Forti


    The present note is an updated inventory of all known cave minerals as March 2011. After including the new minerals described since the last edition of the Cave Minerals of the World book (1997) and made the necessary corrections to incorporate all discreditations, redefinitions, or revalidation proposed by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclatures and Classification (CNMNC) of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA), we summed up 319 cave minerals, many of these only known from...

  15. Effects of Minerals on Human Health and Their Analysis Methods

    Orhan Kavak; Abdurrahman Dalgıç; Abdurrahman Senyigit


    Health effects of minerals depend on mineralogical structure and dimension ofinhaled dust. Diseases caused by minerals were known as only occupational diseases upto recently. However, many researchers pointed out that many diseases at various partsof body resulted from minerals. Minerals are naturally occurred solid particles whichhave a determined chemical and physical structure properties and interior crystalstructure. In mineral analyses basic disciplines such as chemistry, physics andmath...

  16. Wet High Intensity Magnetic Separation of Iron Minerals

    Shao, Y.; Veasey, T. J.; Rowson, N. A.


    Four different iron minerals were selected for study, and five size fractions of each mineral were prepared. The magnetic properties of these minerals were measured. The effect of particle size and magnetic susceptibility on wet high intensity magnetic separation was studied simultaneously. It was found that hematite—1 was a strongly paramagnetic mineral, and the effect of particle size in WHIMS was not significant. Goethite and limonite were weakly paramagnetic minerals, and could not be eff...

  17. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards

    Ingall, Ellery D.; Brandes, Jay A.; Diaz, Julia M.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Paterson,David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W. Crawford; Northrup, Paul


    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate mine...

  18. Utilization of milk minerals by Iberian suckling piglets

    Castellano, R; Aguinaga, M. A.; R. Nieto; AGUILERA, J.F.; Haro, A; I. Seiquer


    Little information is available concerning mineral metabolism in suckling piglets. The utilization of milk minerals and the mineral composition of Iberian (IB) suckling piglets were studied in two consecutive experiments at different ambient temperatures (trial 1, 27 ± 2°C; trial 2, 22 ± 2°C). Milk composition and the piglets’ performance were determined weekly over a 34 days lactation period and, at the end, body mineral contents were analyzed and mineral retention and bioavailability were c...

  19. Estimation of palaeohydrochemical conditions using carbonate minerals

    Amamiya, H.; Mizuno, T.; Iwatsuki, T.; Yuguchi, T.; Murakami, H.; Saito-Kokubu, Y.


    The long-term evolution of geochemical environment in deep underground is indispensable research subject for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, because the evolution of geochemical environment would impact migration behavior of radionuclides in deep underground. Many researchers have made efforts previously to elucidate the geochemical environment within the groundwater residence time based on the analysis of the actual groundwater. However, it is impossible to estimate the geochemical environment for the longer time scale than the groundwater residence time in this method. In this case, analysis of the chemical properties of secondary minerals are one of useful method to estimate the paleohydrochemical conditions (temperature, salinity, pH and redox potential). In particular, carbonate minerals would be available to infer the long-term evolution of hydrochemical for the following reasons; -it easily reaches chemical equilibrium with groundwater and precipitates in open space of water flowing path -it reflects the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater at the time of crystallization We reviewed the previous studies on carbonate minerals and geochemical conditions in deep underground and estimated the hydrochemical characteristics of past groundwater by using carbonate minerals. As a result, it was found that temperature and salinity of the groundwater during crystallization of carbonate minerals were evaluated quantitatively. On the other hand, pH and redox potential can only be understood qualitatively. However, it is suggested that the content of heavy metal elements such as manganese, iron and uranium, and rare earth elements in the carbonate minerals are useful indicators for estimating redox potential. This study was carried out under a contract with METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) as part of its R&D supporting program for developing geological disposal technology.

  20. Applications of PIXE to mineral characterization

    This article illustrates the application of the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to detailed documentation of mineral assemblages, with emphasis on base-metal ores. Some of the investigations aided by the PIXE laboratory at Guelph since 1993 include determinations of the distribution of minor and trace elements in magmatic Ni-Cu ores, volcanogenic massive sulphide Cu-Pb-Zn-(Ag-Au) ores and lode Au-(Ag) deposits. Minor elements of importance include possible by-products or co-products of metal refining, as well as deleterious impurities in mill-feed, e.g. Cd, In, Sn, As, Se, Te, Tl and Hg. Weathering products of primary sulphide mineralization, including tropical laterites and other oxidized assemblages, have been analysed successfully and can contain a wide range of minor elements which reflect the bedrock style of mineralization. The iron oxyhydroxide goethite, α-FeO(OH), contains trace levels of many elements, and in some cases 1 wt.% or more of base metals and arsenic, elements which are invisible in reflected-light microscopy. Other metals such as Ag are of sporadic occurrence in oxidized ores: they may be found as discrete mineral species, not incorporated into the dominant oxyhydroxides. A summary of findings from three base-metal deposits in Canada, the Philippines and Portugal serves to illustrate the manner in which PIXE data benefit our knowledge of metal distributions in metallic ores. PIXE can contribute to several facets of mineral-deposit research, such as: (1) the development of ore textures, and specifically the distribution of elements within zoned crystals, or between multiple generations of a particular mineral; (2) the location of precious metals, Ag being in general the simplest case; and (3) pinpointing elements that may have implications for ore genesis, environmental quality or metal refining, such as Cr, As and Se

  1. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Long, K. R.


    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  2. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.


    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  3. French mineral exploration, 1973-82

    Both private and government-controlled organizations play significant roles in French mineral exploration. This chapter reviews French exploration from 1973 to 1982, a period in which exploration expenditures increased significantly. It begins by examining aggregate exploration expenditures for the period, as well as the allocation of funds according to geographic area and mineral type, and then identifies several influences upon these expenditure trends. The chapter concludes by looking at the productivity of French exploration and making tentative international comparisons. French uranium exploration is detailed

  4. Minerals with metal-organic framework structures

    Huskić, Igor; Pekov, Igor V.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Friščić, Tomislav


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an increasingly important family of advanced materials based on open, nanometer-scale metal-organic architectures, whose design and synthesis are based on the directed assembly of carefully designed subunits. We now demonstrate an unexpected link between mineralogy and MOF chemistry by discovering that the rare organic minerals stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite exhibit structures found in well-established magnetic and proton-conducting metal oxalate MOFs. Structures of stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite, exhibiting almost nanometer-wide and guest-filled apertures and channels, respectively, change the perspective of MOFs as exclusively artificial materials and represent, so far, unique examples of open framework architectures in organic minerals.

  5. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica

    Talalay, Pavel


    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause

  6. Structure of chitosan gels mineralized by sorption

    Modrzejewska, Z.; Skwarczyńska, A.; Douglas, T. E. L.; Biniaś, D.; Maniukiewicz, W.; Sielski, J.


    The paper presents the structural studies of mineralized chitosan hydrogels. Hydrogels produced by using sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) as a neutralizing agent. Mineralization was performed method "post loading", which consisted in sorption to the gels structure Ca ions. In order to obtain - in the structure of gels - compounds similar to the hydroxyapatites present naturally in bone tissue, gels after sorption were modified in: pH 7 buffer and sodium hydrogen phosphate. In order to determine the structural properties of the gels, the following methods were used: infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transformation, FTIR, X-ray diffractometry, XRD, scanning electron microscopy, SEM.

  7. Industrialization and the demand for mineral commodities

    Stuermer, Martin


    What drives the long-term demand for mineral commodities? This paper provides empirical evidence on the long-run demand for mineral commodities since 1840. I extend the partial adjustment model to account for country-specific structures and technological change. I find that a one percent increase in manufacturing output leads to a 1.5 percent increase in the demand for aluminum and a one percent increase in the demand for copper. The estimated manufacturing output elasticities of demand for l...

  8. Radiological safety of bone mineral densitometry equipment

    Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease leading to increased risk of bone fractures. Bone mineral densitometry (BMD) is a well accepted clinical tool for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. There are several different modalities for BMD such as Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, Quantitative Ultrasound, Radiographic Absorptiometry and Quantitative Computerized Tomography. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is now well established as the method of choice for osteoporosis assessment. This study was conducted to assess the radiation dose to patients and staff from the standard scan modes

  9. Radioactive logging parameters for common minerals

    Edmundson, H.; Raymer, L.L.


    This paper presents a list of about seventy minerals encountered in sedimentary formations together with their associated radioactive logging parameters. A procedure to calculate the radioactive parameters is given, and exact details are furnished for all logs but the neutron, which requires extensive and complex computation. It is significant that without considering rare elements such as boron, the computed neutron porosities assuming a thermal detecting device are consistently higher in shales, micas and zeolites than with an epithermal detecting device. This confirms our experience in the field. It is hoped that this compilation will serve as a qualititative aid in gauging the effect of most common minerals on the usual radioactive logging devices.

  10. Radioactive logging parameters for common minerals

    This paper presents a list of about seventy minerals encountered in sedimentary formations together with their associated radioactive logging parameters. A procedure to calculate the radioactive parameters is given, and exact details are furnished for all logs but the neutron, which requires extensive and complex computation. It is significant that without considering rare elements such as boron, the computed neutron porosities assuming a thermal detecting device are consistently higher in shales, micas and zeolites than with an epithermal detecting device. This confirms our experience in the field. It is hoped that this compilation will serve as a qualititative aid in gauging the effect of most common minerals on the usual radioactive logging devices

  11. An Overview of Mineral Processing in China


    The latest progress in mineral processing in China is described. It is also pointed out that the existing techno logy can not meet the needs of economic development. The combined challenges of poor resources, economical benefits and environmental pollution issues require further research to upgrade the separation efficiency economically. The me thods of mineral processing should play a more important part in waste treatment such as wastewater treatment, the re mediation of contaminated soil and the recycling of wastes. Biomineral technology will be utilised in the near future.


    Zahm, Adam; Bucaro, Michael; Srinivas, Vickram; Shapiro, Irving M.; Adams, Christopher S.


    The goal of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that low pO2 regulates bone cell mineralization. MLO-A5 and MLO-Y4 cells were cultured in monolayer and alginate scaffolds in hypoxia (2% O2) or normoxia (20% O2). Reduction of the O2 tension from 20% to 2% resulted in reduced mineralization and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity of MLO-A5 cells in both monolayer and three-dimensional cultures. Similar changes in osteogenic activity were seen when these preosteocyte-like cells wer...

  13. Radioactive minerals - Multimedias strategies for their divulgation

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Aldano, Ana; Fonseca, Pedro; Cabral, Tiago; Nobre, José


    The region corresponding to Sortelha-Penalobo - Bendada, located deep in the transition zone between the Hesperian massif and the Cova da Beira in the central part of Portugal, more specifically in the Mountainous region of the province of Beira Alta, county Sabugal. This region is characterized by great mineral wealth combined with geomorphology of recognized landscape value. Under the scientific point of view, this region is the origin of the mineral sabugalite (HAl(UO2)4(PO4)4.16H2O) that was described by the famous American mineralogist Clifford Frondel (1907-2002) in the fifties of the 20th century. Uranium minerals of Sabugal region were also associated with the radioactivity studies made by the well-known French physicist Marie Curie (1867-1934). In 2007, U. Kolitsch et al described the Bendadaite (Fe (AsO4) 2 (OH) 2 • 4H2O), which corresponds to a new mineral from the group arthurite. The mineral wealth of this region is responsible for a rich history of mining and to highlight the importance until the 1990s the extraction of uranium minerals. The main uranium minerals extracted were the tobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 12 H2O), the metatobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 8 H 2 O), the autonite (Ca (UO2) 2 (PO4 ) 2 • 12H2O-10) and sabugalite (HAL (UO2) 4 (PO4) 4 16H2O). Due to the high radioactivity of these minerals, their handling becomes infeasible for disclosure purposes. An integrated and multidisciplinary museological strategy aims to access 3D images by QR codes, using multitouch as the primary means of interaction with the user, and can handle even the virtual samples, access various magnifications and enjoy explanations supplied by a mascot, in a fun way. All this framework and geological environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has a vital importance in the context of a strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and

  14. Cancer of the lung in uranium miners

    Cancer of the lung in uranium miners is due to cigarette smoking and high radon daughter product exposure in uranium mines. The incidence of oat cell cancer was very high (75 to 80%) when the miners were exposed to high levels of radiation (WLM). Exposure to these two carcinogens causes squamous cell metaplasia which is also due to upper respiratory inflammatory disease. The squamous metaplasia is not distinguishable as to cause, but when due to carcinogen, these cells persist over a longer period of time and become progressively more and more atypical until invasive neoplasia develops. This is the latent period and lasts about 10 to 15 years

  15. Provisional 2008 assessment of solid mineral fuels

    This article first comments data on solid mineral fuel consumption in France in 2008, i.e., the overall consumption, and the consumption by different sectors (energy production in coal plants, iron and steel industry, other industries, housing and office buildings). Then, it comments solid mineral fuel imports and their origins. It comments and explains the price evolution since 1999 (notably on the Antwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam market) in relationship with maritime transport price, availabilities and problems, and with the evolution of coal demand (notably in China) and oil prices. Finally, it briefly comments the French residual production and stocks

  16. Electromagnetic emission in mineral and rock dehydration

    Salnikov, V.; Popov, V.; Terre, D.


    The article considers regularities of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from minerals and rocks, with samples being heated in a vacuum to 20° C- 1000° C. The examples of electromagnetic emission correlation with electric conductivity, thermoluminescence and thermographic analysis during physic-chemical processes resulting from diagenesis, catagenesis and metagenesis have been provided.

  17. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    Huijgen, W.J.J.


    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  18. Geochemical evaluation of mineral precipitation and transformation

    Zhou, Lingli


    fluvial environment. The basement granite plots as A2-type indicative of emplacement in a post-collisional setting at ~1.4Ga, and the Nexø sandstone was deposited in a tectonic setting of passive margin at the early Cambrian. A mineral growth pattern on the surface of Al plate, which is similar to the...

  19. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...

  20. Heavy minerals : from 'Edelstein' to Einstein

    de Meijer, RJ


    Identification in 1982 on the Dutch Frisian Island of Ameland of beach sand with;ln enhanced level of natural radioactivity, due to concentrations of heavy minerals, inspired a multi-disciplinary research project. A joint research effort in geochemistry, sedimentology, hydrodynamics, solid-state phy

  1. 75 FR 58330 - Minerals Management: General


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management 43 CFR Part 3000 Minerals Management: General CFR Correction In Title 43 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1000 to End, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 331, in ]...

  2. New Mexico Known Mineral Deposit Areas

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all Known Mineral Deposit Areas in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  3. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.; Glasser, Fred P.


    Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations and...

  4. Registry of Mineral and Petroleum Titles

    Maclellan, I. M.; Kaizer, J. L.; McCulloch, P. D.; Ratcliffe, R.; Wenning, A. S. [Nova Scotia Dept. of Natural Resources, Halifax, NS (Canada)


    Activities of the Nova Scotia Registry of Mineral and Petroleum Titles are described, including statistical information about staking and mining activity in the province during 1999. In terms of activities, the Registry receives applications and issues licenses and leases for mineral and petroleum rights, receives statements of exploration expenditures and assessment reports that pertain to renewal of licenses and leases, maintains maps showing the disposition of lands under license or lease, and maintains a system of prospector registration. In addition, the Registry processes applications for underground gas storage rights and treasure trove rights and maintains a database of information concerning production and employment in Nova Scotia mines and quarries. At the end 1999 there were 230,660 hectares under exploration licence. Exploration expenditures, including engineering, economic and feasibility studies during 1999 totalled $4.2 million, mostly by junior mining companies searching for industrial mineral commodities. Mining activity during 1999 generated revenues of $340 million. Coal production dropped by 25 per cent, due mainly to the closure of the Phalen Mine. Gypsum production was up to 7.9 million tonnes; shipments of cement, barite and clay products also increased during 1999; salt production remained unchanged from 1998 with 842,000 tonnes. Production of construction aggregates totalled 10.6 million tonnes, down slightly from the year before. Mineral industry employment was roughly 2,500 persons, down by 24 per cent from 1998 levels, due primarily to the closure of the Phalen Mine.

  5. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author)

  6. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray

  7. Organic matter mineralization in marine systems

    Middelburg, J.J.; Vlug, T.; Van der Nat, F.J.


    Many of the reactions and biogeochemical processes that occur in the marine environment are related directly or indirectly to the mineralization of organic matter. Decomposition of organic matter is responsible for the recycling of essential nutrients, for the oxygen balance of the ocean and its sed

  8. Computer programmes for mineral processing presentation

    Krstev, Aleksandar; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana


    In this paper will be shown computer application of softwares Minteh-5, Minteh-6 and Cyclone in Visual Basic, Visual Studio for presentation of two-products for some closed circuits od grinding-clasifying processes. These methods make possibilities for appropriate, fast and sure presentation of some complex circuits in the mineral processing technologies.

  9. Lidar Methods for Observing Mineral Dust

    Nobuo SUGIMOTO; HUANG Zhongwei


    Lidar methods for observing mineral dust aerosols are reviewed. These methods include Mie scattering lidars, polarization lidars, Raman scattering lidars, high-spectral-resolution lidars, and fluorescence lidars. Some of the lidar systems developed by the authors and the results of the observations and applications are introduced. The largest advantage of the lidar methods is that they can observe vertical distribution of aerosols continuously with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Networks of ground-based lidars provide useful data for understanding the distribution and movement of mineral dust and other aerosols. The lidar network data are actually used for validation and assimilation of dust transport models, which can evaluate emission, transport, and deposition of mineral dust. The lidar methods are also useful for measuring the optical characteristics of aerosols that are essential to assess the radiative effects of aerosols. Evolution of the lidar data analysis methods for aerosol characterization is also reviewed. Observations from space and ground-based networks are two important approaches with the lidar methods in the studies of the effects of mineral dust and other aerosols on climate and the environment. Directions of the researches with lidar methods in the near future are discussed.

  10. Flotation of aluminosilicate minerals using alkylguanidine collectors

    GUAN Feng; ZHONG Hong; LIU Guang-yi; ZHAO Sheng-gui; XIA Liu-yin


    The flotation mechanism of aluminosilicate minerals using alkylguanidine collectors was studied through flotation experiments, Zeta potential measurements and FT-IR spectrum analysis. It is shown that kaolinite, illite and pyrophyllite all exhibit good floatability with alkylguanidines as collectors at pH 4-12. The flotation recoveries rise with the increase of the carbon chain length. Isoelectric point(IEP) is determined to be 3.5, 3.0 and 2.3 for kaolinite, illite and pyrophyllite, respectively. However, it is anomalous that the presence of cationic collectors has less influence on the negatively charged mineral surfaces. It is explained by the special structure of guanidine which is one of the strongest bases, having two -NH2 groups. One of them maybe interacts with minerals by electrostatic forces, and the other maybe forms hydrogen bonding with OH- ions on the aluminosilicate surfaces or in the aqueous solution, increasing the density of negative charge on the aluminosilicate surface and leading unpronounced positive charge to increase on the aluminosilicate. By combining the flotation tests, Zeta potential and FTIR measurements above, the interaction mechanism can be concluded. The simultaneous presence of cationic and neutral amine groups makes it possible for SAG cation to bind on three aluminosilicate minerals by both electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding. While in acidic medium, the interaction of the alkylguanidines on the aluminosilicate surfaces is mainly by means of electrostatic force and hydrogen bond; in the alkaline medium, it is by the way of electrostatic effect and hydrogen bond.

  11. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    Porwal, A.K.


    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based mi

  12. Rare earth elements and strategic mineral policy

    Kooroshy, J.; Korteweg, R.; Ridder, M. de


    Newspapers report almost daily on international tensions around ‘strategic’ or ‘critical’ minerals such as rare earth elements. The temporary freeze of rare earth exports from China to Japan in late 2010 in retaliation of the capture of a Chinese captain is but one example of the strategic use of no

  13. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.


    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  14. Recycling Ni from Contaminated and Mineralized Soils.

    Rare plant species accumulate potentially valuable concentrations of some metals. Alyssum murale readily accumulates over 2% Ni in aboveground dry matter when grown on Ni-mineralized serpentine soils in Oregon, allowing production of “hay” biomass with at least 400 kg Ni ha-1 with low levels of fer...

  15. Tannins in Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

    Jordan Rutledge


    Full Text Available This study provides an up to date review of tannins, specifically quebracho, in mineral processing and metallurgical processes. Quebracho is a highly useful reagent in many flotation applications, acting as both a depressant and a dispersant. Three different types of quebracho are mentioned in this study; quebracho “S” or Tupasol ATO, quebracho “O” or Tupafin ATO, and quebracho “A” or Silvafloc. It should be noted that literature often refers simply to “quebracho” without distinguishing a specific type. Quebracho is most commonly used in industry as a method to separate fluorite from calcite, which is traditionally quite challenging as both minerals share a common ion—calcium. Other applications for quebracho in flotation with calcite minerals as the main gangue source include barite and scheelite. In sulfide systems, quebracho is a key reagent in differential flotation of copper, lead, zinc circuits. The use of quebracho in the precipitation of germanium from zinc ores and for the recovery of ultrafine gold is also detailed in this work. This analysis explores the wide range of uses and methodology of quebracho in the extractive metallurgy field and expands on previous research by Iskra and Kitchener at Imperial College entitled, “Quebracho in Mineral Processing”.

  16. Mineral exploitation and development in Greenland

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    using immigrant and migrant labourers that work intensively while living in temporary quarters. The historic experiences of Greenland tell that a different, slower exploitation of mineral resources may contribute to social improvements and competence building thereby providing long-term improvements for...

  17. Mineral composition of some traditional Mexican teas.

    Laferriere, J E; Weber, C W; Kohlhepp, E A


    Teas of plant origin traditionally consumed by the Mountain Pima of Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed for mineral nutritional content. Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca, and Mg composition was determined for native teas made from shoots of Tagetes lucida, T. filifolia, Elytraria imbricata, and Holodiscus dumosus, and from root xylem of Ceanothus depressus and Phaseolus ritensis. Native uses of these teas are also described. PMID:1924192

  18. Explosion of Ultrahigh Pressure Minerals in Mantle

    BAI Wenji; YANG Jingsui; FANG Qingsong; YAN Binggang; ZHANG Zhongming


    @@ The microexplosion stucture of ultrahigh pressure minerals was found for the first time in podform chromitites within the mantle peridotite facies of Luobusa ophiolite along the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone.The explosion stuctures of high-energy silicate inclusions are commonly seen in thin sections (see figure).

  19. Molar volumes and densities of minerals

    Robie, Richard A.; Bethke, Philip M.


    These tables present critically chosen "best values" for the density and molar volume of selected mineral compounds. No attempt was made to be all-inclusive; rather we have tried to present data for chemically and physically well-defined phases for which the molar volume and/or density was knovvn to the order of 0. 2 percent.

  20. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources

    Showstack, Randy


    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: and

  1. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Kramer, Deborah A.


    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  2. Radiation safety in Australia's mineral sands industry

    This brochure is part of a training package aiming to explain in simple terms what radiation is, how it affects people's lives and how, in the specific case of the mineral sand industry, the risk of ill-effects from low-level radioactivity could be effectively guarded against by simple and easily followed safety precautions. ills

  3. Matrix--mineral relationships in enamel tissues.

    Fearnhead, R W


    A personal view of vertebrate enamels and their matrix-mineral relationships is given by first considering enamel types and speculating on the nature, distribution, formation and role of enamel protein. Not all the work consulted is mentioned in the text. The additional works are, however, included in the list of references. PMID:283133

  4. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners


    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  5. Minerals from Macedonia IV.Discrimination between some carbonate minerals by FTIR spectroscopy

    Jovanovski, Gligor; Stefov, Viktor; Shoptrajanov, Bojan; Boev, Blazo


    The use of FTIR spectroscopy to distinguish between some geologically im­portant carbonate minerals (calcite - CaCO3), aragonite - CaCO3, siderite - FeCO3, magnesite - MgCO3, and dolomite - CaMg(CO3)2 originating from Macedonia and to detect mineral impurities in them is considered. 1t was shown that the series of the studied isomorphous calcite type minerals is an ideal test case for the evaluating the in­fluence of the corresponding cation upon the band frequencies or the carbonate ...

  6. Organo-mineral interactions in Pseudomonas putida-birnessite assemblages: Impact on mineral reactivity

    Simanova, Anna; Kroll, Alexandra; Pena, Jasquelin


    The ability of microorganisms to precipitate biogenic birnessite nanoparticles is widely spread in the bacterial and fungal trees of life, with this process accounting largely for the formation of birnessite in nature. Birnessite minerals occur typically as nanoparticles that exhibit significant chemical and structural disorder. Furthermore, the mineral is embedded within a biomass matrix composed of microbial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, where the biomass not only provides reactive surfaces but can mediate electron transfer reactions. The overarching question guiding our research is: How do nanoscale properties and admixing with microbial biomass modify the reactivity of Mn oxide minerals? In this study, we investigate the biomass-birnessite composites of Pseudomonas putida GB-1 biomass and δ-MnO2 nanoparticles. We characterized the structure and composition of the mineral fraction using X-ray diffraction, Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and wet-chemical methods. To characterize the biomass fraction, we employed FTIR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography analysis of the extracellular polymeric substances. Finally, we measured Ni(II) sorption isotherms at pH 6 and Ni K-edge EXAFS spectra to determine the extent and mechanism of Ni sorption in the biomass-mineral composites and in biomass-only and mineral-only systems. This approach provided direct and indirect evidence for the extent of organo-mineral interactions in the composites, as well as a direct measure of sorption reactivity in the composites relative to biomass-only and mineral-only systems. We found that admixing of mineral nanoparticles with biomass reduced the reactivity of the edge sites of birnessite particles towards Ni(II) through the attachment of organic moieties to the mineral particles and/or modification of the assemblage surface charge properties. In addition, the interaction of biomass components with MnO2 particles leads to partial Mn(IV) reduction and

  7. Determination of helium in beryl minerals

    In order to obtain the diffusion coefficients of helium in beryl and phenacite samples at various temperatures, helium leak rates were measured in these minerals at these temperatures. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used to obtain helium leak rates and the gas flow was plotted against time. The gas quantity determined by MS was first obtained at various temperatures until no helium leak rate was detected. After that, these samples were irradiated with fast neutrons to produce helium which was measured again. This procedure was used to estimate the experimental error. The quantity of helium produced by interaction of gamma radiation with beryl minerals was theoretically calculated from the amount of thorium-232 at the neighbourhood of the samples. The quantity of helium produced in the minerals due to uranium and thorium decay was calculated using the amount of these heavy elements, and the results were compared with the amounts determined by MS. The amount of potassium-40 was determined in order to derive the quantity of argonium-40, since some workers found argonium in excess in these minerals. The quantity of helium in the beryl samples (s) was determined in the center and in the surface of the samples in order to obtain informations about the effectiveness of the Be(α, η) He reaction. Beryl and phenacite minerals were choosen in this research since they are opposite each other with respect to the helium contents. Both have beryllium in their compositon but beryl hold a large amount of helium while phenacite, in spite of having about three times more beryllium than beryl, do not hold the gas. (author)

  8. Biomarkers: how detect life on mineral matrix

    Fornaro, Teresa; Brucato, John Robert; Pucci, Amaranta; Baratta, Giuseppe; Branciamore, Sergio


    Life Marker Chip (LMC) is a bioanalytical instrument on board of the ESA Exomars mission to detect specific organic molecules that may be associated with life on Mars. Observation of possible biomarkers is critical for the understanding of prebiotic evolution and to detect signature of past and/or present life on other extraterrestrial body. Biomarkers usually are associated with mineral matrix, so it is necessary to investigate the nature of the interaction of organic molecules with minerals. Our approach is to combine physical-chemical analisys (adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, surface area measurement, etc.) with FTIR and Raman spectroscopy in order to clarify the kind of interaction at molecular level between biomarkers and minerals. In particular we focus our attention on nucleobases that are the precursor of genetic material (DNA, RNA) with several minerals (MgO, forsterite, TiO2, hydroxylapatite, olivine) that mimic extraterrestrial materials. A second objective was to investigate the desorption processes in order to optimize the experimental procedure for the detection of biomarkers in the contest of LMC. In this study we have evaluated the effect of several parameters such as sonication and temperature on the extraction efficiency. Moreover because the desorption process strongly depends on the chemical nature of organics and minerals and on their own interaction, we have also evaluated the capability of different solvent mixtures (water, methanol, etc.) with different polarity and the use of surfactant (Tween 80) to extract previously adsorbed biomolecules. The results obtained could contribute to improve the biomarker extraction procedure in the LMC experiment.

  9. Mineral and bone disorder after kidney transplantation.

    Taweesedt, Pahnwat T; Disthabanchong, Sinee


    After successful kidney transplantation, accumulated waste products and electrolytes are excreted and regulatory hormones return to normal levels. Despite the improvement in mineral metabolites and mineral regulating hormones after kidney transplantation, abnormal bone and mineral metabolism continues to present in most patients. During the first 3 mo, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and parathyroid hormone levels decrease rapidly in association with an increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production. Renal phosphate excretion resumes and serum calcium, if elevated before, returns toward normal levels. FGF-23 excess during the first 3-12 mo results in exaggerated renal phosphate loss and hypophosphatemia occurs in some patients. After 1 year, FGF-23 and serum phosphate return to normal levels but persistent hyperparathyroidism remains in some patients. The progression of vascular calcification also attenuates. High dose corticosteroid and persistent hyperparathyroidism are the most important factors influencing abnormal bone and mineral metabolism in long-term kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Bone loss occurs at a highest rate during the first 6-12 mo after transplantation. Measurement of bone mineral density is recommended in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate > 30 mL/min. The use of active vitamin D with or without bisphosphonate is effective in preventing early post-transplant bone loss. Steroid withdrawal regimen is also beneficial in preservation of bone mass in long-term. Calcimimetic is an alternative therapy to parathyroidectomy in KT recipients with persistent hyperparathyroidism. If parathyroidectomy is required, subtotal to near total parathyroidectomy is recommended. Performing parathyroidectomy during the waiting period prior to transplantation is also preferred in patients with severe hyperparathyroidism associated with hypercalcemia. PMID:26722650

  10. Mineral waste in the UK – Innovation, optimisation and recycling

    Mitchell, Clive


    Mineral waste is largely an unavoidable by-product of the extraction, processing and production of mineral-based products. The UK is well-endowed with mineral resources which have been worked for thousands of years resulting in millions of tonnes of mineral waste across the country. The most significant mineral resource worked was coal with more than 26,000 million tonnes of coal produced and 3600 million tonnes of waste rock. Other significant volumes of mineral waste were derived from m...

  11. Effect of Active Mineral on Load-Bearing Autoclaved Aerocrete

    彭苏萍; 王立刚


    Influence of ultrafine active mineral (DK mineral) on mechanical property of fly ash based load-bearing aerocrete was analyzed. The result shows that the addition of DK mineral in a suitable amount can enhance obviously the compressive strength of aerocrete. According to the SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses, the crystal shapes of hydration products are well developed and interlocked for samples containing DK mineral. Its microstructure is denser than that of the samples without DK mineral. Having a good activation, the DK mineral makes both the type and the quantity of hydrated products be obviously superior to that of the contrast sample.

  12. Studi Komposisi Mineral Tepung Batu Bukit Kamang Sebagai Bahan Baku Pakan Sumber Mineral



    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine mineral content of limestone originated from natural deposit of Bukit Kamang for feedstuff. Six samples were prepared and chemically analyzed. The first was limestone in meal form as a product of local milling industry. Another five samples were deposit components with different color of blackish, dark blue, blue, light blue and white. There was 21 kinds of mineral determined which were divided into 3 groups: macros (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl and S, trace minerals (Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co and Mo and toxic elements (As, F, Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. The results showed that Bukit Kamang’s limestone contained considerable high essential minerals of Ca, Se, Fe and Mn. The limestone consisted of 38%-40% Ca, 388 ppm Se, 295 ppm Fe and 205 ppm Mn. There were two toxic elements detected: Pb and Cd, but their concentration was found relatively low: 28 and 7 ppm, respectively.

  13. Geochemistry of clay minerals for uranium exploration in the Grants Mineral Belt, New Mexico

    Clay mineral chemistry can be used to address the problems of uranium transport and precipitation. This report examines some of the more conventional ideas and evaluates them in light of recent data and observations. 57 refs

  14. In vivo ectopic bone formation by devitalized mineralized stem cell carriers produced under mineralizing culture condition.

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Grzegorz; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan


    Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro-generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in order to produce devitalized, osteoinductive mineralized carriers for human periosteal-derived progenitors (hPDCs). For this, three medium formulations [i.e., growth medium only (BM1), with ascorbic acid (BM2), and with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone (BM3)] supplemented with calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (PO4 (3-)) ions simultaneously as mineralizing source were investigated. The results showed that, besides the significant impacts on enhancing cell proliferation (the highest in BM3 condition), the formulated mineralizing media differentially regulated the osteochondro-related gene markers in a medium-dependent manner (e.g., significant upregulation of BMP2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Wnt5a in BM2 condition). This has resulted in distinguished cell populations that were identifiable by specific gene signatures as demonstrated by the principle component analysis. Through devitalization, mineralized carriers with apatite crystal structures unique to each medium condition (by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis) were obtained. Quantitatively, BM3 condition produced carriers with the highest mineral and collagen contents as well as human-specific VEGF proteins, followed by BM2 and BM1 conditions. Encouragingly, all mineralized carriers (after reseeded with hPDCs) induced bone formation after 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in nude mice models, with BM2-carriers inducing the highest bone volume, and the lowest in the BM3 condition (as quantitated by nano-computed tomography

  15. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    Blake, Robert C.


    The overall aim of this project was to contribute to our fundamental understanding of proteins and biological processes under extreme environmental conditions. We sought to define the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that underlie biodegradative and other cellular processes in normal, extreme, and engineered environments. Toward that end, we sought to understand the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during respiration by bacteria on soluble iron and insoluble sulfide minerals. In accordance with these general aims, the specific aims were two-fold: To identify, separate, and characterize the extracellular biomolecules necessary for aerobic respiration on iron under strongly acidic conditions; and to elucidate the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble mineral substrates under harsh environmental conditions. The results of these studies were described in a total of nineteen manuscripts. Highlights include the following: 1. The complete genome of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 (type strain) was sequenced in collaboration with the DOE Joint Genome Institute; 2. Genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods were used to evaluate gene expression and in situ microbial activity in a low-complexity natural acid mine drainage microbial biofilm community. This was the first effort to successfully analyze a natural community using these techniques; 3. Detailed functional and structural studies were conducted on rusticyanin, an acid-stable electron transfer protein purified from cell-free extracts of At. ferrooxidans. The three-dimensional structure of reduced rusticyanin was determined from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear 15N- and 13C-edited NMR spectra. Concomitantly, the three-dimensional structure of oxidized rusticyanin was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 A by multiwavelength

  16. In Vivo Ectopic Bone Formation by Devitalized Mineralized Stem Cell Carriers Produced Under Mineralizing Culture Condition

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Gregory; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank; Schrooten, Jan


    Abstract Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro–generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in...

  17. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards

    Ingall, Ellery D., E-mail: [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0340 (United States); Brandes, Jay A. [Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, Georgia 31411 (United States); Diaz, Julia M. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0340 (United States); Jonge, Martin D. de; Paterson, David [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McNulty, Ian [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Elliott, W. Crawford [Department of Geosciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302-4105 (United States); Northrup, Paul [Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)


    Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectra are presented for a diverse set of 44 phosphate minerals. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate minerals rich in either magnesium, copper, lead, zinc or rare-earth elements; and (g) four uranium phosphate minerals. The identity of all minerals examined in this study was independently confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction. Minerals were distinguished using XANES spectra with a combination of pre-edge features, edge position, peak shapes and post-edge features. Shared spectral features were observed in minerals with compositions dominated by the same specific cation. Analyses of apatite-group minerals indicate that XANES spectral patterns are not strongly affected by variations in composition and crystallinity typical of natural mineral specimens.

  18. Mineral homeostasis and regulation of mineralization processes in the skeletons of sharks, rays and relatives (Elasmobranchii).

    Dean, Mason N; Ekstrom, Laura; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Ballantyne, Jim; Witten, P Eckhard; Riley, Cyrena; Habraken, Wouter; Omelon, Sidney


    Sharks, rays and other elasmobranch fishes are characterized by a skeletal type that is unique among living vertebrates, comprised predominantly of an unmineralized cartilage, covered by a thin outer layer of sub-millimeter, mineralized tiles called tesserae. The mineralized portion of the skeleton appears to grow only by apposition, adding material at the edges of each tessera; maintenance of non-mineralized joints between tesserae is therefore vital, with precise control of mineral deposition and inhibition at the many thousands of growth fronts in the skeleton. Yet, we have only scattered evidence as to how the elasmobranchs mineralize and grow their skeletons. In this review, we take an "environment to skeleton" approach, drawing together research from a vast range of perspectives to track calcium and phosphate from the typical elasmobranch habitats into and through the body, to their deposition at tesseral growth fronts. In the process, we discuss the available evidence for skeletal resorption capability, mineral homeostasis hormones, and nucleation inhibition mechanisms. We also outline relevant theories in crystal nucleation and typical errors in measurements of serum calcium and phosphate in the study of vertebrate biology. We assemble research that suggests consensus in some concepts in elasmobranch skeletal development, but also highlight the very large gaps in our knowledge, particularly in regards to endocrine functional networks and biomineralization mechanisms. In this way, we lay out frameworks for future directions in the study of elasmobranch skeletal biology with stronger and more comparative links to research in other disciplines and into other taxa. PMID:26546857

  19. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas


    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  20. Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake

    Eva Johansson


    Full Text Available In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K. Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved.

  1. Native Language Processing using Exegy Text Miner

    Compton, J


    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Architectures Testbed recently evaluated Exegy's Text Miner appliance to assess its applicability to high-performance, automated native language analysis. The evaluation was performed with support from the Computing Applications and Research Department in close collaboration with Global Security programs, and institutional activities in native language analysis. The Exegy Text Miner is a special-purpose device for detecting and flagging user-supplied patterns of characters, whether in streaming text or in collections of documents at very high rates. Patterns may consist of simple lists of words or complex expressions with sub-patterns linked by logical operators. These searches are accomplished through a combination of specialized hardware (i.e., one or more field-programmable gates arrays in addition to general-purpose processors) and proprietary software that exploits these individual components in an optimal manner (through parallelism and pipelining). For this application the Text Miner has performed accurately and reproducibly at high speeds approaching those documented by Exegy in its technical specifications. The Exegy Text Miner is primarily intended for the single-byte ASCII characters used in English, but at a technical level its capabilities are language-neutral and can be applied to multi-byte character sets such as those found in Arabic and Chinese. The system is used for searching databases or tracking streaming text with respect to one or more lexicons. In a real operational environment it is likely that data would need to be processed separately for each lexicon or search technique. However, the searches would be so fast that multiple passes should not be considered as a limitation a priori. Indeed, it is conceivable that large databases could be searched as often as necessary if new queries were deemed worthwhile. This project is concerned with evaluating the Exegy Text Miner installed in the

  2. Minerals as habitat: A special relationship between a microbe and its mineral

    Bennett, P. C.; Jones, A. A.


    For decades its been known that most of the subsurface microbial biomass is attached to mineral surfaces. But from there the assumption is often that the subsurface community is more or less homogeneously distributed within a steady-state habitat or redox environment, and that in a small volume of sediment, each mineral grain has the same community. We are finding however that this is not an accurate representation of the subsurface habitat in a polymineralic system. Each mineral type may support a unique community based on the nutrient and habitat requirements of the organism, and the nutrient and habitat potential of the mineral. In a variety of settings we have documented a relationship between colonization, community and mineralogy, typically due to the presence of a nutrient or critical geochemical characteristic. In an oil-contaminated aquifer we found that many tested minerals (e.g. olivine) support scant microbial attachment, some (e.g. quartz) have a consistent, thin, but diverse attached community, while some have a very rich appearing biofilm. Different alkali feldspars with otherwise identical chemistries will have clearly different biofilm densities due to the presence of trace P or Fe. On crystalline basalt different minerals sustain dramatically different biofilms, differentiated at the scale of a few microns. We have now documented that microbial populations from a mixed community, will, when offered a choice, select the mineral that is the best habitat. Biomat samples of a diverse mixed community from a sulfidic stream in Lower Kane Cave, Wyoming, USA were collected and inoculated into CDC biofilm growth chambers using artificial cave water with 0.8mM S2O3= as the growth medium. In each experiment the stirred reaction chamber holds 8 rods each with triplicate mineral disks,. The mixed mat sample was allowed to react, grow, and attach under a variety of conditions, and then the mineral disks were recovered and biofilm mass measured, and the biofilm

  3. Mars weathering analogs - Secondary mineralization in Antarctic basalts

    Berkley, J. L.


    Alkalic basalt samples from Ross Island, Antarctica, are evaluated as terrestrial analogs to weathered surface materials on Mars. Secondary alteration in the rocks is limited to pneumatolytic oxidation of igneous minerals and glass, rare groundmass clay and zeolite mineralization, and hydrothermal minerals coating fractures and vesicle surfaces. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages consist mainly of K-feldspar, zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite), calcite, and anhydrite. Low alteration rates are attributed to cold and dry environmental factors common to both Antarctica and Mars. It is noted that mechanical weathering (aeolian abrasion) of Martian equivalents to present Antarctic basalts would yield minor hydrothermal minerals and local surface fines composed of primary igneous minerals and glass but would produce few hydrous products, such as palagonite, clay or micas. It is thought that leaching of hydrothermal vein minerals by migrating fluids and redeposition in duricrust deposits may represent an alternate process for incorporating secondary minerals of volcanic origin into Martian surface fines.

  4. Opportunities for offshore mineral exploration in the Indian Ocean

    Desa, E.

    The Indian Ocean offers several opportunities for offshore mineral resources in the nearshore and coastal areas, the EEZs of different countries as well as the deep sea regions. The coastal and nearshore resources of heavy mineral placers are being...

  5. Characterization of Luminescent Minerals in CM2 Chondrite (Jbilet Winselwan)

    Kiku, Y. K.; Ohgo, S. O.; Nishido, H. N.


    We have characterized luminescent minerals of forsterite, diopside and spinel in the CM2 chondrite (Jbilet Winselwan) using SEM-CL and to discuss the formation of the luminescent minerals under aqueous conditions.

  6. Situation on the market of mineral fertilizers in 2008

    Arkadiusz Zalewski


    The article describes international and domestic supply-demand situation on the market of mineral fertilizers. The article also analyses factors which had an influence on the increase of mineral fertilizers prices.

  7. Mineralized Collagen: Rationale, Current Status, and Clinical Applications

    Zhi-Ye Qiu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the rationale for the in vitro mineralization process, preparation methods, and clinical applications of mineralized collagen. The rationale for natural mineralized collagen and the related mineralization process has been investigated for decades. Based on the understanding of natural mineralized collagen and its formation process, many attempts have been made to prepare biomimetic materials that resemble natural mineralized collagen in both composition and structure. To date, a number of bone substitute materials have been developed based on the principles of mineralized collagen, and some of them have been commercialized and approved by regulatory agencies. The clinical outcomes of mineralized collagen are of significance to advance the evaluation and improvement of related medical device products. Some representative clinical cases have been reported, and there are more clinical applications and long-term follow-ups that currently being performed by many research groups.

  8. Mineral Operations of Africa and the Middle East

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills , or...

  9. Refractory, Abrasive, and Other Industrial Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  10. The Surface Groups and Active Site of Fibrous Mineral Materials

    DONG Fa-qin; WAN Pu; FENG Qi-ming; SONG Gong-bao; PENG Tong-jiang; LI Ping; LI Guo-wu


    The exposed and transformed groups of fibrous brucite,wollastonite,chrysotile asbestos,sepiolite,palygorskite,clinoptilolite,crocidolite and diatomaceous earth mineral materials are analyzed by IR spectra after acid and alikali etching,strong mechanical and polarity molecular interaction.The results show the active sites concentrate on the ends in stick mineral materials and on the defect or hole edge in pipe mineral materials.The inside active site of mineral materials plays a main role in small molecular substance.The shape of minerals influence their distribution and density of active site.The strong mechanical impulsion and weak chemical force change the active site feature of minerals,the powder process enables minerals exposed more surface group and more combined types.The surface processing with the small polarity molecular or the brand of middle molecular may produce ionation and new coordinate bond,and change the active properties and level of original mineral materials.

  11. Rock and Mineral Bingo: Applying and Assessing Student Rock and Mineral Knowledge and Identification Skills

    Pound, K. S.


    A rock and mineral "Bingo" that is based on knowledge and identification skills (not luck) was developed to help teachers and introductory as well as more advanced-level students develop and improve rock and mineral identification skills. The game was initially designed to use a rock and mineral kit provided to all students in Lab Classes, but could be adapted for any suite of samples. The rock and mineral kits include 13 mineral samples (olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, muscovite, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, galena, gypsum, hematite, pyrite, calcite), 7 igneous rock samples (rhyolite, granite, andesite, diorite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite), 3 sedimentary rock samples (sandstone, shale, limestone), and 5 metamorphic rock samples (slate, mica schist, gneiss, marble, quartzite). The kit also includes a small magnifying glass, a streak plate and a tempered steel nail. The Bingo cards are composed of 9 squares ("questions") each. A total of 8 groups of questions have been developed to encompass introductory through more advanced levels. The question sets developed so far are: (a) General distinction between rocks and minerals; (b) Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (c) Mineral luster; (d) Mineral fracture and cleavage; (e) Mineral crystal form; (f) Mineral chemistry; (g) General mineralogy; (h) Geologic Context. Each square on the card is numbered (1-9). The same card is used for each group of questions. The questions are written on a separate set of small question cards that are color-coded (according to question set) and numbered. These cards are pulled out of the `bag' by the caller, and a copy of the question is posted for all to see. The players need to choose the sample from their collection that best fits the question or description given by the caller. The questions are set up so that some samples fit more than one answer, which requires the students to review their choices. The first person or group to win presents their board and

  12. Soil organic matter mineralization in frozen soils

    Harrysson Drotz, S.; Sparrman, T.; Schleucher, J.; Nilsson, M.; Öquist, M. G.


    Boreal forest soils are frozen for a large part of the year and soil organic matter mineralization during this period has been shown to significantly influence the C balance of boreal forest ecosystems. Mineralization proceeds through heterotrophic microbial activity, but the understanding of the environmental controls regulating soil organic matter mineralization under frozen conditions is poor. Through a series of investigations we have addressed this issue in order to elucidate to what extent a range of environmental factors control mineralization processes in frozen soils and also the microbial communities potential to oxidize organic substrates and grow under such conditions. The unfrozen water content in the frozen soils was shown to be an integral control on the temperature response of biogenic CO2 production across the freezing point of bulk soil water. We found that osmotic potential was an important contributor to the total water potential and, hence, the unfrozen water content of frozen soil. From being low and negligible in an unfrozen soil, the osmotic potential was found to contribute up to 70% of the total water potential in frozen soil, greatly influencing the volume of liquid water. The specific factors of how soil organic matter composition affected the unfrozen water content and CO2 production of frozen soil were studied by CP-MAS NMR. We concluded that abundance of aromatics and recalcitrant compounds showed a significant positive correlation with unfrozen water content and these were also the major soil organic fractions that similarly correlated with the microbial CO2 production of the frozen soils. Thus, the hierarchy of environmental factors controlling SOM mineralization changes as soils freeze and environmental controls elucidated from studies of unfrozen systems can not be added on frozen conditions. We have also investigated the potential activity of soil microbial communities under frozen conditions in order to elucidate temperature

  13. Mineral elements of some green vegetables

    Some of the mineral components of Allium porrum Linn, Brassica rapa and Medicago denticulata were studied. Extraction of minerals was carried out in three different ways (I) Ash solution was prepared and used for the determination of Na, K, Ca, P, Fe and Mg. (II) Perchloric acid extraction was employed for Na, K, Fe, Mg, Cu and Zinc. (III) Solvent extraction was used for Na and K. Determination of calcium was done titrimetrically, Na and K. Flame photometrically, P, Fe and Mg Spectrophotometrically, Cu and Zinc Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometrically. Allium porrum Linn was rich in Ca, K and Zinc, in Brassica rapa Fe, Mg and Na in Medicago denticalata P contents were greater. (author)

  14. A perspective on worldwide exploration for minerals

    The objective of this chapter is to provide as firm a factual basis as possible for debate about patterns of mineral exploration spending throughout the world, both geographically and over time. The data compiled for this purpose are presented in the chapter. After describing some of the major problems in gathering, arranging, and utilizing these data, the chapter focuses on a few of the many possible conclusions that can be drawn from them. The section summarize statistics on mineral exploration expenditures, discuss trends in these expenditures, consider aspects of exploration costs such as the relative effectiveness of expenditures in different parts of the world, and describe the roles of public and private organizations that are active in the various stages of exploration

  15. Clay minerals reactivity under thermal gradient

    The argillaceous materials properties could be favourable to the radioelements confinement in high activity and thermogenic nuclear waste disposal. This study relates to the transformations induced on these materials under thermal stress and the impact on their properties. The samples were collected in the vicinity of a natural analogue: a basaltic intrusion in an argillaceous formation (argillites of Laumiere, Aveyron, France). This volcanic event has functioned for an unreachable time in a laboratory. The study of the mixed-layered illite-smectite minerals (I-S), major minerals of these argillites, shows an illitisation at the basaltic intrusion contact. The thin and disturbed variation of an index of crystallinity of the I-S corresponds to the influence of the geological context. Laumiere highlighted determining parameters (smectite formation during hydrothermal alteration) which has influenced the evolution of argillaceous materials in thermal context. (author)

  16. Minerals from Morvan; Les mineraux du Morvan

    Bayle, L.D


    Morvan is a mountainous and wooded region of Bourgogne (Burgundy, France) which represents the NE end of the French Massif central. The geologic history of this area has been propitious to the setting up of numerous ore deposits: iron, fluor, manganese, lead, barium and uranium. Morvan is the cradle of the French uranium industry. This book presents, first, the geology, geodynamics and ore deposits of Morvan, the history of the discovery of autunite and the exploitation of uranium. The three uranium mining districts are reviewed with the list of uranium minerals. The uranium exploitation activity was abandoned in 1990. An overview of a dozen of fluorine, barytine, lead and silver-bearing ore deposits is presented as well. A summary of all other mineral species associated to the granitic, metamorphic and volcanic areas of the region is proposed. (J.S.)

  17. Malignant tumors in miners with pneumoconiosis

    Kohout, J. (Fakultni Nemocnice KUNZ, Pilsen (Czechoslovakia). Klinika Pracovniho Lekarstvi)


    Describes results of postmortem tumor analyses conducted on 207 miners from West Bohemian coal mines who died between 1964 and 1987. There were found to be 35 cases of lung cancer, 5 of stomach cancer, 5 of colon cancer, 2 of hepatoma, 4 of gall bladder cancer, 3 of pancreatic cancer, 2 of Grawitz kidney tumor, 2 of prostate cancer and 1 each of ductus choledochus cancer, urinary bladder cancer, thyroid gland cancer, chronic lymphadenosis, tonsil cancer, stomach lymphoma and intrathorax fascia fibroblastoma. Discusses possible causes of lung carcinomas in coal miners and gives results of radiation measurements made at the Dobre stesti coal mine, where radioactivity levels of 1.3 x 10{sup 4} MeV/l were recorded, leading to a recommendation that better ventilation be installed. Lung cancer was significantly more frequent in smokers. 28 refs.

  18. Silicate production and availability for mineral carbonation.

    Renforth, P; Washbourne, C-L; Taylder, J; Manning, D A C


    Atmospheric carbon dioxide sequestered as carbonates through the accelerated weathering of silicate minerals is proposed as a climate change mitigation technology with the potential to capture billions of tonnes of carbon per year. Although these materials can be mined expressly for carbonation, they are also produced by human activities (cement, iron and steel making, coal combustion, etc.). Despite their potential, there is poor global accounting of silicates produced in this way. This paper presents production estimates (by proxy) of various silicate materials including aggregate and mine waste, cement kiln dust, construction and demolition waste, iron and steel slag, and fuel ash. Approximately 7-17 billion tonnes are produced globally each year with an approximate annual sequestration potential of 190-332 million tonnes C. These estimates provide justification for additional research to accurately quantify the contemporary production of silicate minerals and to determine the location and carbon capture potential of historic material accumulations. PMID:21332128


    宋凡; 白以龙


    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, is a kind of composites of aragonite platelets sandwiched between organic materials. Its excellent mechanical properties are thought to stem from the microarchitecture that is traditionally described as a "brick and mortar" arrangement. In this paper, a new microstructure, referred to as mineral bridge in the biomineralization, is directly observed in the organic matrix layers (mortar) of nacre. This is an indication that the organic matrix layer of nacre should be treated as a three-dimensional interface and the microarchitecture of nacre ought to be considered as a "brick-bridge-mortar" structure rather than the traditional one. Experiments and analyses show that the mineral bridges not only improve the mechanical properties of the organic matrix layers but also play an important role in the pattern of the crack extension in nacre.

  20. Clay mineral variations near Pennsylvanian sandstone channels

    Large linear sandstone bodies in the Illinois Basin have been interpreted as representing fresh water river channels that flowed through generally marine to brackish Pennsylvanian deltaic environments; fresh water from such channels could have affected deposition of adjacent coal-bearing rocks. Low-sulfur coals are commonly associated with the sandstone bodies, which may also host petroleum, uranium, fresh water, or other resources. Thus techniques to locate such channels would be economically useful. Previous studies have shown that clay mineral distributions and bulk chemistries of clay-rich sediments are affected when fresh waters mix with sea water. Such changes associated laterally with freshwater channels might have caused distinctive clay mineral or chemical patterns to develop around the channels. Mineralogies and chemical compositions of more than 500 mudrock samples taken immediately above the springfield Coal Member of the Petersburg Formation from 52 sections located from channel margins to 63 miles distant were determined to discern patterns that could aid in finding channels

  1. Mineral exploration and development on public land

    Babcock, R.C. Jr.


    The issues of wilderness, surface use regulation, and mining law revision will have a dramatic impact on the socio-economic well-being of the West with an increase of exploration and mineral development on public lands unless there is better communication between the public and the government. These issues should be examined and assessed as a package rather than as either separate issues or as something to be ignored. Specific actions which can be taken without changing the laws or ownership patterns or without jeopardizing the country's mineral future are to: (1) rise above political harangue, (2) define the pertinent mining-related land-use problems, (3) establish current cost/benefit values, (4) recognize existing environmental protection, and (5) concentrate on developing an efficient and balanced land management system.

  2. Extracting Minerals from Seawater: An Energy Analysis

    Ugo Bardi


    Full Text Available The concept of recovering minerals from seawater has been proposed as a way of counteracting the gradual depletion of conventional mineral ores. Seawater contains large amounts of dissolved ions and the four most concentrated metal ones (Na, Mg, Ca, K are being commercially extracted today. However, all the other metal ions exist at much lower concentrations. This paper reports an estimate of the feasibility of the extraction of these metal ions on the basis of the energy needed. In most cases, the result is that extraction in amounts comparable to the present production from land mines would be impossible because of the very large amount of energy needed. This conclusion holds also for uranium as fuel for the present generation of nuclear fission plants. Nevertheless, in a few cases, mainly lithium, extraction from seawater could provide amounts of metals sufficient for closing the cycle of metal use in the economy, provided that an increased level of recycling can be attained.

  3. Heavy metal adsorption by sulphide mineral surfaces

    Jean, Gilles E.; Bancroft, G. Michael


    The adsorption of aqueous Hg 2+, Pb 2+, Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ complexes on a variety of sulphide minerals has been studied as a function of the solution pH and also as a function of the nature of the ligands in solution. Sulphide minerals are excellent scavengers for these heavy metals. The adsorption is strongly pH dependent, i.e. there is a critical pH at which the adsorption increases dramatically. The pH dependence is related to the hydrolysis of the metal ions. Indirect evidence suggests that the hydrolyzed species are adsorbed directly on the sulphide groups, probably as a monolayer. The results also suggest the presence of MCI n2- n species physisorbed on the adsorbed monolayer. A positive identification of the adsorbed species was not possible using ESCA/XPS.

  4. Kinetic Studies of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation and Xanthate Adsorption

    Mendiratta, Neeraj K.


    Sulfide minerals are a major source of metals; however, certain sulfide minerals, such as pyrite and pyrrhotite, are less desirable. Froth flotation is a commonly used separation technique, which requires the use of several reagents to float and depress different sulfide minerals. Xanthate, a thiol collector, has gained immense usage in sulfide minerals flotation. However, some sulfides are naturally hydrophobic and may float without a collector. Iron sulfides, such as pyrite and pyrrho...

  5. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.


    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fe...

  6. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Azrina Azlan; Hock Eng Khoo; Mohd Aizat Idris; Amin Ismail; Muhammad Rizal Razman


    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and m...

  7. Utilization of Mineral Wools as Alkali-Activated Material Precursor

    Juho Yliniemi; Paivo Kinnunen; Pasi Karinkanta; Mirja Illikainen


    Mineral wools are the most common insulation materials in buildings worldwide. However, mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable because of its fibrous nature and low density. In this paper, rock wool (RW) and glass wool (GW) were studied as alkali-activated material precursors without any additional co-binders. Both mineral wools were pulverized by a vibratory disc mill in order to remove the fibrous nature of the material. The pulverized mineral wools were then alkali-activated w...

  8. Characterization of cement composites with mineral additives

    Korat, Lidija


    Doctoral dissertation is aimed at characterizing cement composites with mineral additives representing the industrial waste material (fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag and biomass fly ash). Their usage can replace high cement shares in individual cases and is, however, favourable due to the production costs reduction and environment burden decrease, including the decreased emission of greenhouse gases as well as lower energy use. Cement composites (in fresh or hardened state)...

  9. Ice nucleation properties of mineral dusts

    Steinke, Isabelle


    Ice nucleation in clouds has a significant impact on the global hydrological cycle as well as on the radiative budget of the Earth. The AIDA cloud chamber was used to investigate the ice nucleation efficiency of various atmospherically relevant mineral dusts. From experiments with Arizona Test Dust (ATD) a humidity and temperature dependent ice nucleation active surface site density parameterization was developed to describe deposition nucleation at temperatures above 220 K. Based...

  10. Occupational asthma in a mineral analysis laboratory.

    Musk, A W; Peach, S.; Ryan, G.


    An epidemic of symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma in workers in a mineral analysis laboratory necessitating exposure to vapours of hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, nitric, perchloric, and sulphuric acid solutions was investigated. Variable airflow obstruction was confirmed by serial measurement of FEV1 in two subjects who showed 18% and 22% fall in FEV1 during a workshift. Of a workforce of 21 laboratory staff, 20 took part in a study of ventilatory capacity and bronchial reactivity. All b...

  11. Maturational Changes in Dentin Mineral Properties

    Verdelis, K.; Lukashova, L.; Wright, J. T.; Mendelsohn, R; Peterson, M. G. E.; Doty, S.; Boskey, A. L.


    In this study the changes in properties of the maturing mantle and circumpulpal dentin were quantitatively analyzed. Sections from six fetal bovine undecalcified incisors were used. Regions of mantle and circumpulpal dentin of sequential maturation stages were identified on spectroscopic images acquired by Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging. Spectroscopic parameters corresponding to mineral properties at these stages were analyzed and reported as a function of distance from the cervix of the ...

  12. Elementos de Minería.

    Herrera Herbert, Juan; Pla Ortiz de Urbina, Fernando


    Esta obra es una edición revisada y actualizada de una obra publicada algún tiempo antes y que aborda algunas facetas muy importantes que afectan a la industria minera moderna como son el drenaje de las explotaciones mineras y su afección a las aguas, la seguridad y salud en minería y, finalmente, las consideraciones medioambientales y el desarrollo minero sostenible.

  13. Arsenic Adsorption Onto Iron Oxides Minerals

    Aredes, S.; Klein, B.; Pawlik, M.


    The predominant form of arsenic in water is as an inorganic ion. Under different redox conditions arsenic in water is stable in the +5 and +3 oxidation states. Arsenic oxidation state governs its toxicity, chemical form and solubility in natural and disturbed environments. As (III) is found in anoxic environments such as ground water , it is toxic and the common species is the neutral form, H3AsO3. As (V) is found in aerobic conditions such as surface water, it is less toxic and the common species in water are: H2AsO4 - and HAsO4 {- 2}. The water pH determines the predominant arsenate or arsenite species, however, both forms of arsenic can be detected in natural water systems. Iron oxides minerals often form in natural waters and sediments at oxic-anoxic boundaries. Over time they undergo transformation to crystalline forms, such as goethite or hematite. Both As(V) and As(III) sorbs strongly to iron oxides, however the sorption behavior of arsenic is dependent on its oxidation state and the mineralogy of the iron oxides. Competition between arsenic and others ions, such fluoride, sulphate and phosphate also play a role. On the other hand, calcium may increase arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides. Electrokinetic studies and adsorption experiments were carried out in order to determine which conditions favour arsenic adsorption. Hematite, goethite and magnetite as iron based sorbents were used. Test were also conducted with a laterite soil rich in iron minerals. The focus of this study is to evaluate physical and chemical conditions which favour arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides minerals, the results contribute to an understanding of arsenic behaviour in natural and disturbed environments. Furthermore, results could contribute in developing an appropriate remediation technology for arsenic removal in water using iron oxides minerals.

  14. Application of Magstream in Mineral Sands Separation

    Kojovic, T.


    The Magstream separation process, developed by Intermagnetics General corporation, offers an alternative method for both laboratory and plant mineral separations. It is based on the concept of using a fluid whose effective density is magnetically derived. The separator can be applied to both purely gravimetric separation of non–magnetic materials and magnetic–gravimetric separation of paramagnetic material.The separation density can be easily adjusted by changing the speed of rotation or proc...

  15. Government Documents on Rare Earth Minerals

    Chapman, Bert


    Rare earth minerals contain unique chemical and physical properties such as lanthanum, are found in small concentrations, need extensive precise processes to separate, and are critical components of modern technologies such as laser guidance systems, personal electronics such as Blackberries, and satellites. The U.S. has some rare earth resources, but is heavily dependent on access to them from from Afghanistan, Bolivia, and China. Losing access to these resources would have significant econo...

  16. Modern control of mineral wool production process

    Stankov Stanko P.


    In this paper, the control of the plant for mineral wool production consisting of a number of the technological units of different sizes and complexity is considered. The application of modern equipment based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) configuration provides optimal control of technological process. Described supervisory and control system is consisting of a number of units doing decentralized distributed control of techno...

  17. Mineral resource of the month: aluminum

    Bray, E. Lee


    The article offers information on aluminum, a mineral resource which is described as the third-most abundant element in Earth's crust. According to the article, aluminum is the second-most used metal. Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish chemist, was the first to isolate aluminum in the laboratory. Aluminum is described as lightweight, corrosion-resistant and an excellent conductor of electricity and heat.

  18. Minerals in Afghanistan : the potential for gold

    Benham, Antony John; Coats, Stan


    Gold has been worked in Afghanistan for centuries from many areas including Takhar province in the north and from Ghazni, Zabul, and Kandahar provinces in the south-west of the country. Currently, gold is produced almost solely by artisanal miners working the Samti Placer Deposit in Takhar Province. Gold deposits and prospects are known in rocks of Proterozoic to Neogene age. Many styles of gold mineralisation occur, in particular skarn, vein-hosted, porphyry and alluvial...

  19. Uranium's transformation from mineral to fuel bundles

    Uranium undergoes chemical transformation phases before it can be used in the nuclear power plant. In first phase uranium is transformed from mineral to yellow cake, in which uranium is in the form of U3O8. After that comes conversion (U3O8-UF6) and enrichment (0.7%-3% U-235). Finally, uranium is converted in fuel fabrication to uranium dioxide, UO2, and fuel pellets are made

  20. Prospecting of industrial minerals: a geophysical approach

    Longo, Vittorio


    This work deals with the evaluation of the electrical resistivity method for the identification and characterization of industrial minerals deposits. The ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) technique is demonstratively applied to 4 different areas of the central and northern Sardinia. The research focused on clays, which generally have conductivity values greater than those of the host lithotypes. In this regard, a bentonite deposit close Ozieri (N-Sardinia) was investigated by 2D a...

  1. Histocompatibility antigens in coal miners with pneumoconiosis.

    Soutar, C A; Coutts, I.; Parkes, W R; Dodi, I. A.; Gauld, S; Castro, J E; Turner-Warwick, M


    Twenty-five histocompatibility antigens have been measured in 100 coal miners with pneumoconiosis attending a pneumoconiosis medical panel and the results compared with a panel of 200 normal volunteers not exposed to dust. Chest radiographs were read independently by three readers according to the ILO U/C classification. On a combined score, 40 men were thought to have simple pneumoconiosis and 60 men complicated pneumoconiosis. The number of antigens tested and associations between antigens ...

  2. Evaluation of mineralization processes for SRP wastes

    High level radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) consist of an insoluble sludge containing most of the actinides and fission products except cesium, and of a supernate (or soluble salt) containing most of the cesium. One option for long term management of these wastes is separation of the sludge and the cesium from a relatively nonradioactive residue followed by solidification and storage. Mineralization or a possible method of solidification were investigated. The study demonstrates the fixation of cesium in zeolite and aluminosilicate minerals and sludge reactions with sodium hydroxide and silica gel. Results of the study show that cesium removed from waste supernate can be fixed in zeolite; cesium leachability was approximately 4 x 10-8 g/(cm2-day). Sodalite and cancrinite can be prepared by reacting alkaline cesium-containing waste with kaolinite. Volume increases were up to 285 times that of the zeolite product, and leachabilities were at least 104 times that of the zeolite product. Leachabilities were not improved by firing sodalite and cancrinite at 10000C to form carnegieite and nepheline. Pollucite was produced by reaction of cesium with bentonite and kaolinite. However, not all the cesium reacted, and the product is a powder. Gamma doses of 1010 rads did not affect the cesium leachabilities or product volumes of the minerals. Simulated sludge is solidified, not mineralized, by reaction with NaOH and silica gel. The product is a hard, friable monolith occupying 2 to 5 times the original sludge volumes; preliminary strontium leachabilities were 5 x 10-7 g/(cm2-day). (U.S.)


    Perfilov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Pilipenko Anton Sergeevich; Pyataev Evgeniy Ravil’evich


    Creating an effective insulation envelope of the building is possible only using high-quality materials, preserving their characteristics both in the early stages of operation, and for the whole billing period. It is an important opportunity to assess the thermal insulation properties and predict its changes over time directly in the conditions of the construction site. The products based on mineral fibers (rock and glass wool, basalt fiber) are the most widely used type of insulating materia...

  4. Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium)

    Papp, John F.


    It’s not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium — also called columbium — and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

  5. Biomimetic mineralization: encapsulation in calcium carbonate shells

    Oliveira, Susana Costa de


    Calcium carbonate biomineralization is a self-assembly process that has been studied to be applied in the biomedical field to encapsulate biomolecules. Advantages of engineering mineral capsules include improved drug loading efficiencies and protection against external environment. However, common production methods result in heterogeneous capsules and subject biomolecules to heat and vibration which cause irreversible damage. To overcome these issues, a microfluidic device was designed, m...

  6. [Sarcopenia and bone mineral property with age].

    Ogawa, Sumito


    In order to maintain functional activities in the elderly, promotion of musculoskeletal care is important toward successful aging and healthy longevity. In practice, reduction of falls and fall-related injuries together with treatment of osteoporosis is important to keep activities of daily living. Recent findings suggest the possibility that there is a relationship between skeletal muscle and bone mineral property, represented by pathophysiological linkage between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. PMID:27461501

  7. Concrete with mineral and chemical addition

    In the article interpretation of basic result research of cement concrete on astringent with grind wastage flotation concrete florin ore. Prove that introduction the highest wastage in composition astringent in quantitative to 20% from the masses of cement allowed find physical-technical description of concrete. More elective is Mark that, complex introduction in composition of astringent wastage of production florin and chemical plasticizer that will do contribute to acceleration velocity of hydrate wedge mineral of cement and forming strong structure of concrete

  8. SPARC/osteonectin in mineralized tissue.

    Rosset, Emilie M; Bradshaw, Amy D


    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC/osteonectin/BM40) is one of the most abundant non-collagenous protein expressed in mineralized tissues. This review will focus on elucidating functional roles of SPARC in bone formation building upon results from non-mineralized cells and tissues, the phenotype of SPARC-null bones, and recent discoveries of human diseases with either dysregulated expression of SPARC or mutations in the gene encoding SPARC that give rise to bone pathologies. The capacity of SPARC to influence pathways involved in extracellular matrix assembly such as procollagen processing and collagen fibril formation as well as the capacity to influence osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast activity will be addressed. In addition, the potential for SPARC to regulate cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins by members of the transglutaminase family of enzymes is explored. Elucidating defined biological functions of SPARC in terms of bone formation and turnover are critical. Further insight into specific cellular mechanisms involved in the formation and homeostasis of mineralized tissues will lead to a better understanding of disease progression. PMID:26851678

  9. Atom probe tomography (APT) of carbonate minerals.

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Laiginhas, Fernando; Reinhard, David A; Prosa, Ty J; Martens, Rich L


    Atom probe tomography (APT) combines the highest spatial resolution with chemical data at atomic scale for the analysis of materials. For geological specimens, the process of field evaporation and molecular ion formation and interpretation is not yet entirely understood. The objective of this study is to determine the best conditions for the preparation and analysis by APT of carbonate minerals, of great importance in the interpretation of geological processes, focusing on the bulk chemical composition. Results show that the complexity of the mass spectrum is different for calcite and dolomite and relates to dissimilarities in crystalochemical parameters. In addition, APT bulk chemistry of calcite closely matches the expected stoichiometry but fails to provide accurate atomic percentages for elements in dolomite under the experimental conditions evaluated in this work. For both calcite and dolomite, APT underestimates the amount of oxygen based on their chemical formula, whereas it is able to detect small percentages of elemental substitutions in crystal lattices. Overall, our results demonstrate that APT of carbonate minerals is possible, but further optimization of the experimental parameters are required to improve the use of atom probe tomography for the correct interpretation of mineral geochemistry. PMID:26519815

  10. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi


    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  11. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A


    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed. PMID:22529137

  12. Thallium: a potential guide to mineral deposits

    A new method which is rapid and precise has been developed for the determination of Tl in geological materials at the ppb level. About 350 rocks from 4 mineralized areas in northeastern Washington and central Montana were analyzed for Tl by this method. Most of these rocks were also analyzed for SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, P2O5, MnO, Ag, As, Au, Ba, Co, Cu, F, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, Sb, Sn, Sr, Te, U, W, and Zn. The ore deposits of the areas studied include the uranium deposit of the Midnite mine. In all the mineralized areas there is significantly more Tl in hydrothermally altered rocks than in unaltered rocks. The very high abundance of Tl in the altered rocks of the North Moccasin gold district, and the significant positive correlations of Tl and K and Tl and Rb in the mineralized rocks of the other three areas suggest that Tl was concentrated in hydrothermal fluids. In altered rocks the average K/Rb and K/Tl ratios are lower, and the Rb/Sr and Tl/Sr ratios are higher. (orig.)

  13. Accelerating Mineral Carbonation Using Carbonic Anhydrase.

    Power, Ian M; Harrison, Anna L; Dipple, Gregory M


    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have gained considerable attention for their potential use in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies because they are able to catalyze rapidly the interconversion of aqueous CO2 and bicarbonate. However, there are challenges for widespread implementation including the need to develop mineralization process routes for permanent carbon storage. Mineral carbonation of highly reactive feedstocks may be limited by the supply rate of CO2. This rate limitation can be directly addressed by incorporating enzyme-catalyzed CO2 hydration. This study examined the effects of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) and CO2-rich gas streams on the carbonation rate of brucite [Mg(OH)2], a highly reactive mineral. Alkaline brucite slurries were amended with BCA and supplied with 10% CO2 gas while aqueous chemistry and solids were monitored throughout the experiments (hours to days). In comparison to controls, brucite carbonation using BCA was accelerated by up to 240%. Nesquehonite [MgCO3·3H2O] precipitation limited the accumulation of hydrated CO2 species, apparently preventing BCA from catalyzing the dehydration reaction. Geochemical models reproduce observed reaction progress in all experiments, revealing a linear correlation between CO2 uptake and carbonation rate. Data demonstrates that carbonation in BCA-amended reactors remained limited by CO2 supply, implying further acceleration is possible. PMID:26829491

  14. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr


    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  15. Nuclear methods in mineral exploration and production

    Nuclear techniques now provide the basis for rapid identification of about two-thirds of the earth's naturally occurring chemical elements. This book - written for earth scientists and engineers concerned with the exploration and recovery of these vital materials - describes the nuclear instruments suitable for use in the field, in the laboratory or as portable devices. This book will acquaint workers and students alike with the current state-of-the-art in nuclear instrumentation. It provides a comprehensive review of nuclear instruments currently in use in the field as down-hole probes, or in the mobile laboratory for exploration, recovery, beneficiation and production of minerals. The areas covered are: radiometry (uranium), x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation (treating a large number of diverse mineral constituents), well logging (hydrocarbons), and nuclear stimulation (of potential use for oil, gas, oil shale and recovery of certain minerals). Advantages and limitations of the methods are explained and a refresher nuclear physics background section is included

  16. Comparative mineral mapping in the Colorado Mineral Belt using AVIRIS and ASTER remote sensing data

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.


    This report presents results of interpretation of spectral remote sensing data covering the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt in central Colorado, USA, acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors. This study was part of a multidisciplinary mapping and data integration project at the U.S. Geological Survey that focused on long-term resource planning by land-managing entities in Colorado. The map products were designed primarily for the regional mapping and characterization of exposed surface mineralogy, including that related to hydrothermal alteration and supergene weathering of pyritic rocks. Alteration type was modeled from identified minerals based on standard definitions of alteration mineral assemblages. Vegetation was identified using the ASTER data and subdivided based on per-pixel chlorophyll content (depth of 0.68 micrometer absorption band) and dryness (fit and depth of leaf biochemical absorptions in the shortwave infrared spectral region). The vegetation results can be used to estimate the abundance of fire fuels at the time of data acquisition (2002 and 2003). The AVIRIS- and ASTER-derived mineral mapping results can be readily compared using the toggleable layers in the GeoPDF file, and by using the provided GIS-ready raster datasets. The results relating to mineral occurrence and distribution were an important source of data for studies documenting the effects of mining and un-mined, altered rocks on aquatic ecosystems at the watershed level. These studies demonstrated a high correlation between metal concentrations in streams and the presence of hydrothermal alteration and (or) pyritic mine waste as determined by analysis of the map products presented herein. The mineral mapping results were also used to delineate permissive areas for various mineral deposit types.

  17. Alteration of swelling clay minerals by acid activation

    Steudel, A.; Batenburg, L.F.; Fischer, H.R.; Weidler, P.G.; Emmerich, K.


    The bulk material of six dioctahedral and two trioctahedral swellable clay minerals was leached in H2SO4 and HCl at concentrations of 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 M at 80 °C for several hours. Alteration of the clay mineral structures was dependent on the individual character of each mineral (chemical composit

  18. 76 FR 63573 - Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals


    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and... conflict minerals originating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjoining countries. Roundtable... reporting regulations regarding the use of conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo...

  19. 28 CFR 0.68 - Delegation respecting mineral leasing.


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation respecting mineral leasing. 0... JUSTICE Environment and Natural Resources Division § 0.68 Delegation respecting mineral leasing. The.... 914, 30 U.S.C. 352, respecting the leasing of minerals on lands under the jurisdiction of...

  20. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.


    ... mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws...

  1. 30 CFR 48.26 - Experienced miner training.


    ... can take against these hazards, and the contents of the mine's HazCom program. Experienced miners who...) Such other courses as may be required by the District Manager based on circumstances and conditions at... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experienced miner training. 48.26 Section...

  2. 36 CFR 292.68 - Mineral material operations.


    ... the construction and maintenance of roads and other facilities within the SRNRA or the four excluded... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral material operations... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Mineral Materials § 292.68 Mineral...

  3. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards.

    Ingall, Ellery D; Brandes, Jay A; Diaz, Julia M; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W Crawford; Northrup, Paul


    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate minerals rich in either magnesium, copper, lead, zinc or rare-earth elements; and (g) four uranium phosphate minerals. The identity of all minerals examined in this study was independently confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction. Minerals were distinguished using XANES spectra with a combination of pre-edge features, edge position, peak shapes and post-edge features. Shared spectral features were observed in minerals with compositions dominated by the same specific cation. Analyses of apatite-group minerals indicate that XANES spectral patterns are not strongly affected by variations in composition and crystallinity typical of natural mineral specimens. PMID:21335905

  4. Hair Mineral Analysis and Behavior: An Analysis of 51 Studies.

    Rimland, Bernard; Larson, Gerald E.


    Fifty-one studies on the relationship between hair mineral levels and human behavior covered a variety of behavior, including learning disabilities, retardation, hyperactivity, autism, and behavior disorders. High levels of certain minerals (especially lead and cadmium) and low levels of other minerals (especially potassium and sodium) associated…

  5. Classification of Mineral Resources Associated and Accompanied with Coal Measures


    The paper discusses the concept of mineral resources associated with coal measures. A rational and scientific classification of such mineral resources becomes more necessary with the development of science and technology. A classification scheme is proposed based on compositions and physical properties and the utilization of these associated minerals.

  6. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Siddiquie, H. N.; Gujar, A. R.; Hashimi, N. H.; Valsangkar, A. B.

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits The humid tropical climate of some of the land areas bordering the Indian Ocean accelerates weathering of the source rocks. This coupled with the large river runoff and wave and current conditions favour the formation of a variety of placer deposits. The beach and offshore placer deposits of the Indian Ocean may be some of the largest in the world. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow banks and on the continental shelves and the oozes in the deep sea. A study of these deposits is needed to acquire a better understanding of their formation, turnover, regeneration rates and sustainable yields. The anthigenic deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the phosphorites and the polymetallic nodules. Occurrences of phosphorite deposits have been found both along continental margins (South Africa and Western India) and around seamounts (Eastern and Western Indian Ocean). The continental margins of South Africa, East Africa, Southern Arabia, Western India and the Andamans are marked by strong upwelling and provide non-depositional environments which are conducive to the formation of phosphorite. The polymetallic nodules in the Indian Ocean cover an area of 10-15. 10 6 km 2 and the resources are estimated to be about 1.5 .10 11 tonnes. A study of over 900 chemical analyses from 350 stations shows that the deposits in most of the basins are submarginal; in the Central Indian Ocean they are paramarginal (Ni + Cu + Co > 2.4% and concentrations > 5 kg.m -2). Most of the exploration for minerals even on the continental margins of the Indian Ocean has been carried out by the developed countries from outside the region and little work has been carried out by the countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The development of capabilities within the region for exploration of the mineral

  7. Niger Republic mineral planning : Part four Second volume : Main mineral substances specific study and their geological context

    This volume describes Niger Republic mineral substances capable of rising economic interest. After relating minerals occurrence , indices and deposits types, conclusions and recommendations have been made for mineral prospecting. Mineral substances described are : Copper, lead and zinc, molybdena, iron, manganese, titanium, vanadium, nickel and chrome ( cobalt and platinoid ), lithium, lignite, diamond and diverse substances rare earth, beryllium, silver, bismuth arsenic and antimony, barytine, alunite, talc and asbestos ( graphite and diatomite)

  8. Novel biological approaches to carbon mineralization

    Power, Ian; Kenward, Paul; Harrison, Anna; Dipple, Gregory; Raudsepp, Mati; Wilson, Siobhan; Southam, Gordon


    Innovative approaches for accelerating and manipulating fundamental geochemical processes are necessary to develop carbon mineralization as a viable strategy for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Mg-carbonate formation is of interest for both ex situ and in situ CO2 sequestration strategies1. Accordingly, we have investigated approaches to accelerate these water-rock reactions that produce Mg-carbonate minerals using biological approaches. For instance, CO2-limited conditions are encountered in many systems relevant to CO2 sequestration and represent a severe limitation on carbon mineralization. In carbonation experiments, the supply of CO2 was increased with the use of carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of aqueous CO2. The presence of carbonic anhydrase had a dramatic impact on carbonation rates of brucite [Mg(OH)2]2, a mineral of interest for carbon sequestration3. In a CO2-rich aqueous environment, cyanobacteria were able to induce hydrated Mg-carbonate precipitation in microcosm experiments through the alkalinization of their microenvironment and concentration of cations on their cell membranes, which also provide regularly spaced, chemically identical sites for mineral nucleation4. In both lines of investigation, the resulting precipitates were metastable hydrated Mg-carbonate minerals rather then magnesite [MgCO3], the most stable Mg-carbonate and therefore the preferred product forsequestering CO2. Consequently, we have investigated approaches to improve magnesite precipitation rate in these low temperature environments. Inopportunely, rates of magnesite precipitation are severely limited at temperatures below 60 ° C due to the strong hydration of Mg2+ ions in solution5. Yet, carboxyl functional groups (R-COOH) are able to cause desolvation of Mg2+ ions6,7. In microcosm experiments using polystyrene microspheres with a high density of carboxyl groups, we were able to precipitate magnesite at room temperature from slightly

  9. Pretreatment process for mineral analysis in FFH using INAA-method and evaluation of mineral intakes

    This study were aimed to set up the pre-treatment process for FFH and analyse Pretreatment processes for the analysis of food mineral contents by INAA were established according to FFH state using freeze-drying and homogenization. The Se contents showed higher precision with INAA-method than ICP-method. The content of Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co in FFH measured using INAA-method showed that the mineral contents in the amount of recommended intakes by manufacturer were not significantly different according to FFH type. The average Ca contents was the highest in Yousanguns > nutritional supplement> glucosamines. The average K content of FFH with one serving size were the highest in glucosamines>aloes> nutritional supplements. I content among FFH was the highest in nutritional supplements. The average Mg contents were highest in Chlorella-Spirurina and Aloes. The average Cu content of FFH was the highest in Yeasts. The contents of Fe, Zn and Se were the highest in nutritional supplements. The mineral contents in recommended intake amounts by manufacturer were over the maximum contents regulated by Korean FDA in some imported FFH products. their mineral contents of FFH using NAA-method and to assess the mineral intakes by FFH

  10. Pretreatment process for mineral analysis in FFH using INAA-method and evaluation of mineral intakes

    Lee, Ok Hee; Youn, Kyung Jin; Lee, Ji Bum; Kim, Mi Jin [Yongin University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    This study were aimed to set up the pre-treatment process for FFH and analyse Pretreatment processes for the analysis of food mineral contents by INAA were established according to FFH state using freeze-drying and homogenization. The Se contents showed higher precision with INAA-method than ICP-method. The content of Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co in FFH measured using INAA-method showed that the mineral contents in the amount of recommended intakes by manufacturer were not significantly different according to FFH type. The average Ca contents was the highest in Yousanguns > nutritional supplement> glucosamines. The average K content of FFH with one serving size were the highest in glucosamines>aloes> nutritional supplements. I content among FFH was the highest in nutritional supplements. The average Mg contents were highest in Chlorella-Spirurina and Aloes. The average Cu content of FFH was the highest in Yeasts. The contents of Fe, Zn and Se were the highest in nutritional supplements. The mineral contents in recommended intake amounts by manufacturer were over the maximum contents regulated by Korean FDA in some imported FFH products. their mineral contents of FFH using NAA-method and to assess the mineral intakes by FFH

  11. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  12. Study on Non-Collision Mineralizing Mechanism of Froth Cyclone

    董平; 许占贤; 周晓玲


    On the basis of the mineralizing mechanism of froth cyclone, this paper expounds that the froth cyclone flotation process is accomplished in a limited centrifugal field. The main feature of air bubble mineralizing in the froth cyclone is a synthetic mineralizing process, of which the non-collision mineralization of minute air bubble separated out dominates, supplemented with the collision mineralization. Moreover, this paper points out that the hydrophobic separated out and centrifugal force strengthen the selectivity of fine coal particle, accelerate the flotation speed and improve the slime recovery.

  13. Improving the cAnt-MinerPB Classification Algorithm

    Medland, Matthew; Otero, Fernando E. B.; Freitas, Alex A


    Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) has been successfully applied to the classification task of data mining in the form of Ant-Miner. A new extension of Ant-Miner, called cAnt-MinerPB, uses the ACO procedure in a different fashion. The main difference is that the search in cAnt-MinerPB is optimised to find the best list of rules, whereas in Ant-Miner the search is optimised to find the best individual rule at each step of the sequential covering, producing a list of best rules. We aim to improve cA...

  14. Characterization of uranium and thorium containing minerals by nuclear microscopy

    Radioactive minerals of the gneiss of Sopron Mountains were analysed by micro-PIXE method at the Debrecen scanning nuclear microprobe. Zircon and monazite minerals were identified with detectable amount of U and Th. Qualitative elemental maps and quantitative concentration data were obtained on 20 minerals. U and Th concentrations were between few 100 ppm and 10 wt%. The size of the minerals varied between few micrometers and 100 microns, the distribution of U and Th within the grains was inhomogeneous. These radioactive minerals occurred in veins enriched with Fe. (author)

  15. Current Picture for China’s Mineral Resource Availability



    Economic growth and structural change has caused China to consume an increasingly immense amount of mineral resources. This article is intended to present a fundamental picture of mineral resource shortages facing China through an in-depth analysis of mineral reserves, demand and supply as well as structure. We believe that China will continue to face a shortage of certain representative minerals resources in the foreseeable future. As a result, China has to rely on imports of such minerals to meet surging domestic demand.

  16. Uraniferous mineralizations in the Kuusamo Schist Belt, northeastern Finland

    The Kouveraara Co-Cu-Au mineralization was found in 1982 with the aid of a geophysical ground survey. This survey was connected with research on the Kouvervaara uranium mineralization in the Early Proterozoic Kuusamo Schist Belt, located just south of the Arctic Circle. In further work, using the Kouvervaara sulphide mineralization as a reference, six Co and Au bearing sulphide mineralizations were discovered, with the help of low altitude aerial geophysical techniques. The Co-Au mineralizations, hosted by the Sericite Quartzite Formation, occur within the hydrothermally altered zones. These zones consist of chloritization, carbonatization, sulphidization, sericitization and albitization, the latter being the most extensive. Excluding the Juomasuo mineralization, uranium is only a trace element in these mineralizations. Other characteristic trace elements are molybdenum and tungsten. The Sivakkaharju and Konttiaho Co-Au-U-Mo mineralizations were found by radiometric ground surveys carried out in 1985 and 1986. These hydrothermal mineralizations occur within brecciated quartz-albite-carbonate rocks and are good manifestations of the positive correlation between uranium and gold in the Kuusamo area. Compared with the other sulphide mineralizations, the Au, U, and Mo contents are remarkably high. Genetically, the mineralizations in the Kuusamo area are associated with deep seated fracture and fault zones, controlled by ancient intracontinental hot spot activity and continental rifting. (author). 31 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Hydrogeochemical tracing of mineral water in Jingyu County, Northeast China.

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili


    The east Jilin Province in China, Jingyu County has been explored as a potential for enriching mineral water. In order to assess the water quality and quantity, it is of crucial importance to investigate the origin of the mineral water and its flow paths. In this study, eighteen mineral springs were sampled in May and September of 2012, May and September of 2013, and May 2014 and the environment, evolvement, and reaction mechanism of mineral water formation were analysed by hydrochemical data analysis, geochemical modelling and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the investigated mineral water was rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, nitrate, total iron, silicate, and strontium, and mineral water ages ranged from 11.0 to more than 61.0 years. The U-shape contours of the mineral ages indicate a local and discrete recharge. The mineral compositions of the rocks were olivine, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, albite, and anorthite and were under-saturated in the mineral water. The origin of mineral water was from the hydrolysis of basalt minerals under a neutral to slightly alkaline and CO2-rich environment. PMID:26040975

  18. A Retrievable Mineral Microcosm for Examining Microbial Colonization and Mineral Precipitation at Seafloor Hydrothermal Vents

    Dunn, E. E.; Holloway, J. R.; Cary, S.; Voglesonger, K. M.; Ashbridge, D. A.; O'Day, P. A.


    Although seafloor hydrothermal vent environments are known to support thriving ecosystems, the microscale physical and chemical environment suitable for microbial colonization and the identity of pioneering organisms is unknown. Because of the fragility of young chimneys and their ephemeral nature, novel methods for sample retrieval and analysis are required. The mineral microcosm consists of four titanium mesh chambers containing crushed minerals mounted on a titanium base that allows for fluid flow through the chambers. The chambers can be filled with different minerals or mineral mixtures (or no minerals) to supply different substrates for microbial colonization and different local microenvironments as minerals react with the surrounding fluids. The device sets on top of an active hydrothermal vent for a period of days to weeks to allow colonization and mineral reaction. The mineral microcosm was deployed during the Atlantis/Alvin Extreme 2001 Cruise (Oct.- Nov.,2001) to 9° 50'N on the East Pacific Rise a total of three times, for ~ 24, ~ 96, and ~ 48 hours each. It was deployed in two different environments, twice in lower temperature (350°C).Seed minerals included sulfides, sulfates, magnetite, apatite, and quartz, both individually and in mixtures. In the first 24-hour deployment, dissolution of anhydrite but not sulfide minerals within the chambers indicated high temperatures in chamber interiors and rapid reaction rates. Temperatures measured on chamber exteriors before retrieval ranged from 4° -98°C. The 96-hour deployment on a hot vent (fluid ~370°C before deployment) resulted in extensive mineral precipitation and chimney growth inside the mineral chambers, on the outer surfaces of the chambers, and on the platform as a whole, creating micro-chimneys several centimeters tall. The young chimneys were mainly composed of pyrite with lesser amounts of chalcopyrite and sphalerite and with thin veneers of anhydrite on exterior surfaces in contact with

  19. Feasibility of classification of clay minerals by using PAS

    Honda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.


    After the nuclear power plant disaster, the evaluation of radioactive Cs kept in soil, especially in clay minerals and the elucidation of its movement are urgent subjects to promote decontamination. It is known that the extractable level of Cs depends on the sort of clay minerals. We tried to find the characteristics of clay minerals belonging to phillosilicate group using positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and the relationship between the results of PAS and the amounts of substantially extracted Cs from the clay minerals. The results showed that each clay mineral was found to be distinguishable from other clay minerals by PAS and the extraction rate of Cs was different among those clay minerals, however the direct correlation between the results of PAS and the extraction rates of Cs was not found.

  20. Distinct actions of strontium on mineral formation in matrix vesicles

    Matrix vesicles (MVs) are involved in the initial step of mineralization in skeletal tissues and provide an easily model to analyze the hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Sr stimulates bone formation and its effect was tested on MVs. Sr2+ (15-50 μM) in the mineralization medium containing MVs, 2 mM Ca2+ and 3.42 mM Pi, retarded HA formation. Sr2+ (1-5 mM) in the same medium-induced other types of mineral than HA and cancelled the ATP-, ADP- or PPi-induced retardation in the mineral formation. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of Sr2+ at a low dose (15-50 μM) is rather an inhibitor of bone resorption than an activator of mineral formation, while at high Sr2+ concentration (1-5 mM), mineral formation, especially other types of mineral than HA, is favored

  1. Hyperspectral remote sensing data maps minerals in Afghanistan

    King, Trude V. V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Johnson, Michaela R.


    Although Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including gold, silver, copper, rare earth elements, uranium, tin, iron ore, mercury, lead-zinc, bauxite, and industrial minerals, most have not been successfully developed or explored using modern methods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with cooperation from the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS) and support from the Department of Defense's Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) has used new imaging spectroscopy surface material maps to help refine the geologic signatures of known but poorly understood mineral deposits and identify previously unrecognized mineral occurrences. To help assess the potential mineral deposit types, the high-resolution hyperspectral data were analyzed to detect the presence of selected minerals that may be indicative of past mineralization processes. This legacy data set is providing tangible support for economic decisions by both the government of Afghanistan and other public and private sector parties interested in the development of the nation's natural resources.

  2. Clay mineral type effect on bacterial enteropathogen survival in soil.

    Brennan, Fiona P; Moynihan, Emma; Griffiths, Bryan S; Hillier, Stephen; Owen, Jason; Pendlowski, Helen; Avery, Lisa M


    Enteropathogens released into the environment can represent a serious risk to public health. Soil clay content has long been known to have an important effect on enteropathogen survival in soil, generally enhancing survival. However, clay mineral composition in soils varies, and different clay minerals have specific physiochemical properties that would be expected to impact differentially on survival. This work investigated the effect of clay materials, with a predominance of a particular mineral type (montmorillonite, kaolinite, or illite), on the survival in soil microcosms over 96 days of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Dublin, and Escherichia coli O157. Clay mineral addition was found to alter a number of physicochemical parameters in soil, including cation exchange capacity and surface area, and this was specific to the mineral type. Clay mineral addition enhanced enteropathogen survival in soil. The type of clay mineral was found to differentially affect enteropathogen survival and the effect was enteropathogen-specific. PMID:24035982

  3. Microscopic studies of uranium mineralization at Mentawa Area, Central Kalimantan

    In Mentawa areas there are indications that the U mineralization associated with tourmaline, quartz, sulfide minerals that fill the fracture aperture, on the rocks meta silt, and fill it with the direction of WNW - ESE, the thickness milli metric - centi metric with radioactivity 500-15000 c/s SPP 2 NF. The purpose of this study is to know the characters. para geneses and the process of formation of uranium minerals. The method used by microscopic observation of several examples of thin sections and polished sections of the previous research results. The study shows that uranium minerals are uraninite, associated with molybdenite, magnetite, rutile, ilmenite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, tourmaline, garnet, quartz and mineral pitchblende associated with arsenopyrite, hematite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, tourmaline, quartz till in cracks in rocks biotite and biotite schist. Mineral associations indicate that the process of formation of uranium mineralization occurs in three phases: pegmatites pneumatolitic, and hydrothermal alteration. (author)

  4. Intrinsic mineral labeling of edible plants: methods and uses

    The fate of minerals can be conveniently studied through intrinsic labeling techniques. The mineral of interest is biologically incorporated into the food in a form that can be distinguished analytically from the natural form of the element. Radiolabels have traditionally been used to study such problems as the uptake of minerals by plants, the gross and subcellular mineral distribution in plant tissues, the form and associations of the deposited mineral, and the bioavailability of minerals to animals and humans. The use of stable (nonradioactive) isotopes as a label offers the potential of safely studying bioavailability of minerals from individual foods in human population groups of all ages using foods processed in normal food handling and processing facilities. 114 references

  5. Accuracy in mineral identification: image spectral and spatial resolutions and mineral spectral properties

    L. Pompilio


    Full Text Available Problems related to airborne hyperspectral image data are reviewed and the requirements for data analysis applied to mineralogical (rocks and soils interpretation are discussed. The variability of mineral spectral features, including absorption position, shape and depth is considered and interpreted as due to chemical composition, grain size effects and mineral association. It is also shown how this variability can be related to well defined geologic processes. The influence of sensor noise and diffuse atmospheric radiance in classification accuracy is also analyzed.

  6. Mineralization of cellulose in frozen boreal soils

    Oquist, Mats G.; Segura, Javier; Sparrman, Tobias; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen


    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon. In boreal forests, the microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, soluble monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances ultimately depends on whether soil microorganisms can utilize and grow the more complex, polymeric constituents of SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). Freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.52 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.01 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming that cellulose can sustain also anabolic activity of the microbial populations under frozen conditions. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero, which involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of

  7. Mineral dust transport toward Hurricane Helene (2006)

    Schwendike, Juliane; Jones, Sarah C.; Vogel, Bernhard; Vogel, Heike


    This study investigates the transport of mineral dust from its source regions in West Africa toward the developing tropical cyclone Helene (2006) and diagnoses the resulting properties of the air influencing the tropical cyclonegenesis. The model system COSMO-ART (Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling-Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) in which the emission and transport of mineral dust as well as the radiation feedback are taken into account, was used. The emission of mineral dust between 9 and 14 September 2006 occurred in association with the relatively strong monsoon flow and northeasterly trade winds, with gust fronts of convective systems over land, and with the Atlantic inflow. Additionally, increased surface wind speed was linked to orographical effects at the Algerian Mountains, Atlas Mountains, and the Hoggar. The dust, as part of the Saharan air layer, is transported at low levels by the monsoon flow, the Harmattan, the northeasterly trade winds, and the monsoon trough, and is transported upward in the convergence zone between Harmattan and monsoon flow, in the baroclinic zone along the West African coastline, and by convection. At around 700 hPa the dust is transported by the African easterly jet. Dry and dust-free air is found to the north-northwest of the developing tropical depression due to descent in an anticyclone. Based on the model data, it was possible to distinguish between dry (from the anticyclone), dry and dusty (from the Harmattan and northeasterly trade winds), and dusty and moist air (from the monsoon flow and in the tropical depression due to convection).

  8. Accelerated enamel mineralization in Dspp mutant mice.

    Verdelis, Kostas; Szabo-Rogers, Heather L; Xu, Yang; Chong, Rong; Kang, Ryan; Cusack, Brian J; Jani, Priyam; Boskey, Adele L; Qin, Chunlin; Beniash, Elia


    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is one of the major non-collagenous proteins present in dentin, cementum and alveolar bone; it is also transiently expressed by ameloblasts. In humans many mutations have been found in DSPP and are associated with two autosomal-dominant genetic diseases - dentinogenesis imperfecta II (DGI-II) and dentin dysplasia (DD). Both disorders result in the development of hypomineralized and mechanically compromised teeth. The erupted mature molars of Dspp(-/-) mice have a severe hypomineralized dentin phenotype. Since dentin and enamel formations are interdependent, we decided to investigate the process of enamel onset mineralization in young Dspp(-/-) animals. We focused our analysis on the constantly erupting mouse incisor, to capture all of the stages of odontogenesis in one tooth, and the unerupted first molars. Using high-resolution microCT, we revealed that the onset of enamel matrix deposition occurs closer to the cervical loop and both secretion and maturation of enamel are accelerated in Dspp(-/-) incisors compared to the Dspp(+/-) control. Importantly, these differences did not translate into major phenotypic differences in mature enamel in terms of the structural organization, mineral density or hardness. The only observable difference was the reduction in thickness of the outer enamel layer, while the total enamel thickness remained unchanged. We also observed a compromised dentin-enamel junction, leading to delamination between the dentin and enamel layers. The odontoblast processes were widened and lacked branching near the DEJ. Finally, for the first time we demonstrate expression of Dspp mRNA in secretory ameloblasts. In summary, our data show that DSPP is important for normal mineralization of both dentin and enamel. PMID:26780724


    Air and water pollutants are generated during the conversion of naturally occurring minerals into suitable forms for use in chemical and fertilizer production. These minerals are barite, borates, fluorspar, lithium minerals, mineral pigments, phosphate rock, potash, salt, sodium ...

  10. Simulation of mineral deposits based on geostatistics

    The simulation of mineralization parameters as regionalized variables can be achieved with the aid of the turningbands method. Data produced by the simulation should have both the same histogram and the same variogram as the known real sample values. Distribution or variability characteristics of parameters (e.g. the grade) can then be investigated on a scale considerably smaller than that of the exploration grids. The results of simulation are important for both exploration and mine planning purposes. A practical application of this method is demonstrated in this article using data of a uranium deposit. (orig.)

  11. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.;


    Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations and...... experimental data are presented showing that C(3)A can hydrate at lower humidities than either C3S or C2S. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during exposure to water vapour is nucleation controlled. When C(3)A hydrates at low humidity, the characteristic hydration product is C(3)AH(6...

  12. Energy and Minerals for America's Future

    U.S. Geological Survey


    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on energy and minerals and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  13. Mineral Carbonation Employing Ultramafic Mine Waste

    Southam, G.; McCutcheon, J.; Power, I. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.


    Carbonate minerals are an important, stable carbon sink being investigated as a strategy to sequester CO2 produced by human activity. A natural playa (Atlin, BC, CAN) that has demonstrated the ability to microbially-accelerate hydromagnesite formation was used as an experimental model. Growth of microbial mats from Atlin, in a 10 m long flow-through bioreactor catalysed hydromagnesite precipitation under 'natural' conditions. To enhance mineral carbonation, chrysotile from the Clinton Creek Asbestos Mine (YT, CAN) was used as a target substrate for sulphuric acid leaching, releasing as much as 94% of the magnesium into solution via chemical weathering. This magnesium-rich 'feedstock' was used to examine the ability of the microbialites to enhance carbonate mineral precipitation using only atmospheric CO2 as the carbon source. The phototrophic consortium catalysed the precipitation of platy hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] accompanied by magnesite [MgCO3], aragonite [CaCO3], and minor dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O]. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy indicated that cell exteriors and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) served as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation. In many cases, entire cyanobacteria filaments were entombed in magnesium carbonate coatings, which appeared to contain a framework of EPS. Cell coatings were composed of small crystals, which intuitively resulted from rapid crystal nucleation. Excess nutrient addition generated eutrophic conditions in the bioreactor, resulting in the growth of a pellicle that sealed the bioreactor contents from the atmosphere. The resulting anaerobic conditions induced fermentation and subsequent acid generation, which in turn caused a drop in pH to circumneutral values and a reduction in carbonate precipitation. Monitoring of the water chemistry conditions indicated that a high pH (> 9.4), and relatively high concentrations of magnesium (> 3000 ppm), compared with the natural

  14. Methods for measuring bone tissue mineral status

    Advantages and disadvantages of different methods for measuring the bone tissue mineral content are considered. Radiogrammetry and radiographic densitometry (photodensitometry), one-photon absorptiometry, two-photon absorptiometry (TPA), computerized tomography (γ- and X-ray) are discussed. It was shown that computerized tomography was the most sensitive method though its cost and patient radiation doses were high. Two-photon bone densitometers (mainly based on 153Gd source) were most wide practised. Devices based in X-ray TPA supplant them lately. They are more complex in design but permit to reduce the time of examination due to increase in scanning rate and to improve the reproducibility. Moreover, they are ecologically pure

  15. High-temperature properties of mineral wool

    Augustesen, Maria; Ståhl, Kenny

    Thermal stability and thereby fire safety is an essential property of fibrous insulating materials for buildings. At the same time the viscosity is an important manufacturing property that may impair the thermal stability. This project aims at investigating the thermal stability of some mineral...... behaviour. Figure 1. Isothermal X-ray powder diffraction patterns collected at beamline 711, MAXLAB, Lund, using a Huber G670 Guinier camera. The sample was contained in a 0.5 mm quartz capillary, data were accumulated for 5 min per pattern at T = 1100 K and lambda = 1.2724 Å. Preliminary results show that...

  16. Data classification by Fuzzy Ant-Miner

    Mohamed Hamlich


    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an extension of classification algorithm based on ant colony algorithms to handle continuous valued attributes using the concepts of fuzzy logic. The ant colony algorithms transform continuous attributes into nominal attributes by creating clenched discrete intervals. This may lead to false predictions of the target attribute, especially if the attribute value history is close to the borders of discretization. Continuous attributes are discretized on the fly into fuzzy partitions that will be used to develop an algorithm called Fuzzy Ant-Miner. Fuzzy rules are generated by using the concept of fuzzy entropy and fuzzy fitness of a rule.

  17. Tree mineral nutrition is deteriorating in Europe

    Jonard, Mathieu; Fürst, Alfred; Verstraeten, Arne;


    European tree species, to identify growth-limiting nutrients and to assess changes in tree nutrition during the past two decades. We analysed the foliar nutrition data collected during 1992–2009 on the intensive forest monitoring plots of the ICP Forests programme. Of the 22 significant temporal trends......, has led to higher nutrient demand by trees. As the soil nutrient supply was not always sufficient to meet the demands of faster growing trees, this could partly explain the deterioration of tree mineral nutrition. The results suggest that when evaluating forest carbon storage capacity and when...

  18. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass;


    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...... Examination Survey 2007-2008. BMD at the middle phalanges of the second, third and fourth digits of the non-dominant hand was measured using RA (Alara MetriScan®). These data were merged with information on incident fractures retrieved from the Danish National Patient Registry comprising the International...

  19. Lung Cancer of the Uranium Miners

    Full text: 'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is the only world diversified mining company, which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The paper deals with the evaluation of the occupational morbidity of the PPMCA's miners depending on their work conditions. In order to evaluate radiological risks of the malignant neoplasm incidence, we used the available medical-dosimetry data being received over the Association life. Our study covers information of 584 miners. The main part of this group includes men (87%), involved in uranium mining (sinkers, timber-men, etc.). Women accounted 13%, being involved in subsidiary works. The highest mean external doses (20 - 40 mSv/year) got those, who worked in the mines over 1980-1983, but the number of this subgroup is small - 18 persons. Generally, mean doses over next years were about 5 mSv/year. However, almost each year, maximum doses above 20 mSv/year can be observed. Internal doses to men were 42.9 mSv on average, while those to women were 23.9 mSv. When generating the medical database, we collected data of 130 mail mines, employed to the PPMCA mines. Among all cases of the malignant neoplasm incidence of miners, the highest contribution is made by the lung cancer (46%); this is well above the national data (23.3 %). The second part is digestive tract cancer (the stomach, the lower lip, and pancreas), contributing 29 % in total, and the stomach cancer contributes 16 %. Depositions of these malignancies do not exceed the national data. The problem of the further work improvement of the miners to eliminate occupational lung disease in the uranium mining operations remains important to the present. Epidemiological and radio-ecological studies will help both regulators and operators to make more objective assessment of each specific situation and to determine

  20. The chemical composition of mineral trioxide aggregate

    Camilleri Josette


    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is composed of Portland cement, with 4:1 addition of bismuth oxide added so that the material can be detected on a radiograph. The cement is made up of calcium, silicon and aluminium. The main constituent phases are tricalcium and dicalcium silicate and tricalcium aluminate. There are two commercial forms of MTA, namely the grey and the white. The difference between the grey and the white materials is the presence of iron in the grey material, which makes up t...

  1. The Voest-Alpine surface miner


    The Voest-Alpine Surface Miner (VASM) is developed by Voest-Alpine Maschinenbau, Zeltweg, Australia. It is designed to be the excavation machine of an integrated continuous mining system which will cut, load and transfer the material from the face to a continuous haulage system composed of mobile transfer conveyors, shiftable or movable bench conveyors and stationary extendable out-of-the-pit conveyors. Voest-Alpine claims that more efficient and economical solutions in surface mining are provided by this new mining system. This paper also contains a brief description of the Voest-Alpine Pulse Cutting system (VAPCUT) which is a hydraulically activated cutting tool system. 5 figs.

  2. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    Sinding, Knud

    Even today, mineral property rights are allocated on what is essentially a first-come, first-serve or open access basis. Access to prospect and locate claims may be restricted in some areas such as national parks, but elsewhere a policy of open access is widely practised, albeit subject to a set of...... handle the other projects that are generated by the "gold rush" informational externalities created by the initial discovery. At the core of the problems of dealing with a gold rush situation is both the informational externality and an institutional framework which is not designed to deal with large...


    V. P. Buzulina


    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  4. Quantitative spectrographic determination of zirconium minerals

    The method described in the following report permits the quantitative determination of zirconium in minerals and rocks in a 0,02-100% of ZrO2 concentration rate. The excitation is carried out by a 10 ampere continuous current arc among carbon electrodes, and placing the sample in a crater of 2 mm depth. For low concentrations a dilution of the sample with the same weight as its own in carbon powder and with 1/25 of its weight of Co3O4 (internal patron) is carried out. Line Zr 2571,4, Co 2585,3 and Co 2587,2 are used. (Author) 6 refs

  5. Tannins in Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

    Jordan Rutledge; Corby G. Anderson


    This study provides an up to date review of tannins, specifically quebracho, in mineral processing and metallurgical processes. Quebracho is a highly useful reagent in many flotation applications, acting as both a depressant and a dispersant. Three different types of quebracho are mentioned in this study; quebracho “S” or Tupasol ATO, quebracho “O” or Tupafin ATO, and quebracho “A” or Silvafloc. It should be noted that literature often refers simply to “quebracho” without distinguishing a spe...


    Branko Salopek


    Full Text Available In mineral dressing the computer is tnostiy used for the simulation of operating, and design of new devices and processes. For that, the knowledge of the theory of the process proper as well as of the appropriate models by which the process is truly assessed is indispensable. In the paper, model parameters are classified and reliability of individual models valorized. Milling and classification models are described in more detail. By a plant example the application of a simulation model is shown (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. KeyPathwayMiner 4.0

    Alcaraz, Nicolas; Pauling, Josch; Batra, Richa;


    BACKGROUND: Over the last decade network enrichment analysis has become popular in computational systems biology to elucidate aberrant network modules. Traditionally, these approaches focus on combining gene expression data with protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Nowadays, the so...... release of KeyPathwayMiner (version 4.0) that is not limited to analyses of single omics data sets, e.g. gene expression, but is able to directly combine several different omics data types. Version 4.0 can further integrate existing knowledge by adding a search bias towards sub-networks that contain...

  8. Trace metals analysis in molybdenite mineral sample

    DC polarography and other related techniques, viz., DPP and DPASV have been successfully used for the simultaneous determination of trace metals in molybdenite mineral sample. The polarograms and voltammograms of sample solution have been recorded in 0.1 M (NH4)2 tartrate supporting electrolyte at two different pH values i.e., 2.7±0.1 and 9.0±0.1. The results indicate the presence of Cu2+, Mo6+, Cd2+, Ni2+, In3+, Fe3+ and W6+ metal ions in the sample. For the determination of tungsten(VI), 11 M HCl has been used as supporting electrolyte. Tungsten(VI) produces a well defined wave/peak with E1/2/Ep=-0.42V/-0.48V vs SCE in 11 M HCl. The quantitative analysis by the method of standard addition shows the mineral sample to have the following composition, Cu2+ ( 14.83), Mo6+ (253.70), Cd2+ (41.36), Ni2+ (16.08), In3+(3.06), Fe3+ (83.00)and W6+ (4.14 )mg/g of the sample. Statistical treatment of the observed voltammetric data reveals high accuracy and good precision of determination. The observed voltammetric results are comparable with those obtained using AAS method. (author)

  9. New thermoluminescence techniques for mineral exploration

    The thermoluminescence of carbonate host rock in the vicinity of known lead-zinc and lead-zinc-fluorite mineralization was reexamined for possible development as an exploration technique. The measurements were made with equipment for determining the thermoluminescence spectrum at closely spaced temperature intervals. Radiation-induced thermoluminescence was also measured. Samples were studied from five localities in Mexico, Southwest Africa, and the United States. Four thermoluminescence properties were found to vary with ''distance-from-ore'' in a systematic manner. These include the glow peak intensity and temperature and the emission spectrum peak energy and full width at half-maximum. For example, in both limestone and dolomite, the high-temperature glow peak intensities are low or negligible within the ore and as the distance from the contact increases the intensity rises rapidly to a maximum, or maxima, and then decreases irregularly to constant value slightly above that in the ore. Depending on the thickness of the ore, the thermoluminescence characteristics associated with the mineralization extended from ten to a hundred or so meters from the ore host rock contact. 5 figures

  10. Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles from mineral waste

    Kumar, Rohit [CSIR – Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751 013 (India); Sakthivel, R., E-mail: [CSIR – Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751 013 (India); Behura, Reshma; Mishra, B.K. [CSIR – Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751 013 (India); Das, D. [UGC-DAE Consortium, Kolkata (India)


    Highlights: • Mineral waste becomes a valuable source for the synthesis of magnetite. • Milling helps uniform mixing of reductant with iron ore tailings. • Magnetite nanoparticles exhibit saturation magnetization of 60 emu/g. • Ag coating induces antibacterial activity of magnetite. - Abstract: Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized from iron ore tailings – a mineral waste collected from the iron ore processing plant. Mechanical milling followed by chemical route is employed to obtain the magnetite nanoparticles from the waste. The magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the existence of a magnetite phase. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic (FE-SEM) pictures reveal that the particle size is below 100 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum shows a band at 570 cm{sup −1} for the Fe–O bond vibration. Vibrating Sample Magnetometric (VSM) study shows high saturation magnetization value of 60 emu/g at low applied magnetic field. Silver coated magnetite nanoparticles exhibits antibacterial property whereas bare magnetite does not.

  11. Mineral resources estimation based on block modeling

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Amri, Nur Ali


    The estimation in this paper uses three kinds of block models of nearest neighbor polygon, inverse distance squared and ordinary kriging. The techniques are weighting scheme which is based on the principle that block content is a linear combination of the grade data or the sample around the block being estimated. The case study in Pongkor area, here is gold-silver resource modeling that allegedly shaped of quartz vein as a hydrothermal process of epithermal type. Resources modeling includes of data entry, statistical and variography analysis of topography and geological model, the block model construction, estimation parameter, presentation model and tabulation of mineral resources. Skewed distribution, here isolated by robust semivariogram. The mineral resources classification generated in this model based on an analysis of the kriging standard deviation and number of samples which are used in the estimation of each block. Research results are used to evaluate the performance of OK and IDS estimator. Based on the visual and statistical analysis, concluded that the model of OK gives the estimation closer to the data used for modeling.

  12. Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles from mineral waste

    Highlights: • Mineral waste becomes a valuable source for the synthesis of magnetite. • Milling helps uniform mixing of reductant with iron ore tailings. • Magnetite nanoparticles exhibit saturation magnetization of 60 emu/g. • Ag coating induces antibacterial activity of magnetite. - Abstract: Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized from iron ore tailings – a mineral waste collected from the iron ore processing plant. Mechanical milling followed by chemical route is employed to obtain the magnetite nanoparticles from the waste. The magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the existence of a magnetite phase. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic (FE-SEM) pictures reveal that the particle size is below 100 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum shows a band at 570 cm−1 for the Fe–O bond vibration. Vibrating Sample Magnetometric (VSM) study shows high saturation magnetization value of 60 emu/g at low applied magnetic field. Silver coated magnetite nanoparticles exhibits antibacterial property whereas bare magnetite does not


    Perfilov Vladimir Aleksandrovich


    Full Text Available Creating an effective insulation envelope of the building is possible only using high-quality materials, preserving their characteristics both in the early stages of operation, and for the whole billing period. It is an important opportunity to assess the thermal insulation properties and predict its changes over time directly in the conditions of the construction site. The products based on mineral fibers (rock and glass wool, basalt fiber are the most widely used type of insulating materials in the domestic construction. Therefore, the operational stability valuation methods must be primarily created for this group of products. The methodology for assessing the thermal insulation properties includes two main components: testing equipment and methodology for assessing the operational stability. The authors tested the methodology of the accelerated testing and prediction of durability for mineral wool products of laminated, corrugated and volume-oriented structures. The test results give good convergence with the methods recommended by the building regulations. Application of thermal insulation materials are an effective way to form the thermal envelope of the building, reducing energy costs and increasing the durability of building structures. The material properties are determined by their structure, which is formed during the technological impacts.

  14. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel


    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  15. Mineralization of Zein Films by Biomimetic Process

    JIN Xiaoning; ZHANG Yanxiang; MA Ying; ZENG Sheng; WANG Shaozhen; MA Yalu


    The transparent or opaque zein film was prepared by a phase separation method with a zein ethanol aqueous solution. The circular zein film was self-assembled on the air-water interface. According to the images by scanning elec-tron microscopy, the upper surface of film is flat and smooth and the downward surface presents a complex reticulation structure of corn protein fiber. Zein film as a biomimetic mineralization template is used to synthesize calcium phosphate crystals by a bioinspired mineralization process. Randomly oriented apatite crystals appear on the both surfaces of zein film after immersion in 10´simulated body fluid, and the phase composition and morphology of the deposited calcium apatite are also distinguished from deposited location and immersion time. The phase transformation process from dical-cium phosphate dihydrate into hydroxyapatite (HAp) phase was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Based on the results by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the Ca/P ratio of the deposited apatite increases with the transformation from DCPD to HAp. The HAp/Zein films possess the excellent biodegradable structural features, and the coating of HAp crystallites has some potential applications for bone repair and regeneration.

  16. Dead Sea Minerals loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

    Dessy, Alberto; Kubowicz, Stephan; Alderighi, Michele; Bartoli, Cristina; Piras, Anna Maria; Schmid, Ruth; Chiellini, Federica


    Therapeutic properties of Dead Sea Water (DSW) in the treatment of skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and photo aging UV damaged skin have been well established. DSW is in fact rich in minerals such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc and strontium which are known to exploit anti-inflammatory effects and to promote skin barrier recovery. In order to develop a Dead Sea Minerals (DSM) based drug delivery system for topical therapy of skin diseases, polymeric nanoparticles based on Poly (maleic anhydride-alt-butyl vinyl ether) 5% grafted with monomethoxy poly(ethyleneglycol) 2000 MW (PEG) and 95% grafted with 2-methoxyethanol (VAM41-PEG) loaded with DSM were prepared by means of a combined miniemulsion/solvent evaporation process. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized in terms of dimension, morphology, biocompatibility, salt content and release. Cytocompatible spherical nanoparticles possessing an average diameter of about 300 nm, a time controlled drug release profile and a high formulation yield were obtained. PMID:21676600

  17. The role of process mineralogy in mineral beneficiation

    Economic feasibility of mineral beneficiation or ore extraction depends on a number of factors amongst which process mineralogy plays a significant role. Mineralogy influences comminution required to liberate the desired mineral. Physical property contrast between ore and gangue minerals influence process selection. Ore texture affects recovery. Rheological properties of the minerals in aqueous medium and the probable ionic composition of the slurry or leach liquor can be fairly predicted from mineralogy. The effect of mineralogy in mineral beneficiation and ore extraction with special reference to atomic minerals is discussed. Some typical case studies on mineral deposits hosting atomic and other minerals are presented and process flow-sheets are discussed keeping economics, by-product recovery and mineral conservation in perspective. These include the sandstone type uranium deposit of Domiasiat, Meghalaya, uranium deposits of Singhbhum Shear Zone, carbonatites of Sung Valley, Meghalaya and the cassiterite and columbite-tantalite bearing pegmatites of Bastar, Madhya Pradesh. It is also pointed out that process mineralogy bridges the gap between the mining geologist and the metallurgist and helps in obtaining maximum recovery of metallic or non-metallic minerals, from a given deposit. (author)

  18. Flotation Separating Rutile from Calcium and Silicon Gangue Miner-als


    Rutile separation from calcite, apatite and quartz by flotation was investigated. The results show that the rutile separation from calcium and silicon gangue minerals can be realized with alkyl-imino-bismethylene phosphoric acid (TF112) as a collector and sodium hexametaphosphate (SH) as a regulator.

  19. Proximate, mineral, and antinutrient compositions of indigenous Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pod accessions: implications for mineral bioavailability.

    Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Beyene, Fekadu; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar


    The promotion and consumption of indigenous vegetables could help to mitigate food insecurity and alleviate malnutrition in developing countries. Nutrient and antinutrient compositions of eight accessions of Okra Pods were investigated. Molar ratios and mineral bioavailability of Okra pod accessions were also calculated and compared to the critical values to predict the implications for mineral bioavailability. Proximate and mineral composition of Okra pod accessions were determined using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The result of the study revealed that the proximate composition (g/100 g) in dry weight basis was significantly (P potassium (122.59-318.20), zinc (3.83-6.31), phosphorus (25.62-59.72), and sodium (3.33-8.31) on dry weight bases. The Okra Pods of "OPA#6" accession contained significantly higher amounts of crude protein, total ash, crude fat, calcium, iron, and zinc than all other accessions evaluated in this study. The results of antinutrients analysis showed that, except phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents of all the accessions were significantly (P bioavailability of calcium, iron, and zinc in these accessions could be high. The results of the study revealed that Okra pod contain appreciable amount of vital nutrients like protein, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc and low in antinutrient contents with high mineral bioavailability. Therefore, increase in the production and consumption of these nutrient-rich indigenous Okra pods will help to supplement/formulate the diets and alleviate the problems associated with malnutrition in the country. PMID:27004112

  20. Depth distribution of 137Cs adsorption property of clay minerals influenced by mineral weathering

    Radiocesium adsorption potential of mica clay mineral can increase as it is weathered, because K depletion in mica interlayer sites generates new Cs selective sites. However, in soils weathered under field conditions, the increase in 137Cs adsorption potential associated with mineral weathering has not been observed extensively. We investigated four soil profiles from Japan and Thailand with different soil pH ranges (3.3-4.0, 4.2-4.3, 5.0-5.7, and 5.5-7.3). The solid/liquid distribution coefficients of Cs (CsKd) in clay (137Cs adsorption potential of mica clay minerals. In three soil profiles, CsKd value in clay was the largest at a surface horizon and was decreased with depth, whereas in the most acidic of Podzolic soil profile, it was the largest at B horizon. The large CsKd value in surface clays relative to deeper horizons were well associated with that of 2.0-1.0 μm clay fraction. We assumed that the 137Cs adsorption potential increased at surface horizons mainly because coarser clay micas were weathered and generated Cs selective sites. The exceptional result obtained in Podzolic soil profile suggests that too intensive weathering destruct mica structure and may decrease in Cs adsorption potential of mica clay minerals. (author)

  1. The significance of hair mineral analysis for assessing internal body burdens of environmental mineral pollutants

    Samples from 24 male corpses have been collected to study the correlation of minerals in hair to those in internal tissues (liver, kidney, lung and brain) by NAA. Positive correlations of As in hair to that in kidney and Se in hair to Se in liver, kidney and lung have been observed

  2. Mineral and Protein-Bound Water and Latching Action Control Mechanical Behavior at Protein-Mineral Interfaces in Biological Nanocomposites

    Pijush Ghosh


    Full Text Available The nacre structure consists of laminated interlocked mineral platelets separated by nanoscale organic layers. Here, the role of close proximity of mineral to the proteins on mechanical behavior of the protein is investigated through steered molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations indicate that energy required for unfolding protein in the proximity of mineral aragonite is several times higher than that for isolated protein in the absence of the mineral. Here, we present details of specific mechanisms which result in higher energy for protein unfolding in the proximity of mineral. At the early stage of pulling, peaks in the load-displacement (LD plot at mineral proximity are quantitatively correlated to the interaction energy between atoms involved in the latching phenomenon of amino acid side chain to aragonite surface. Water plays an important role during mineral and protein interaction and water molecules closer to the mineral surface are highly oriented and remain rigidly attached as the protein strand is pulled. Also, the high magnitude of load for a given displacement originates from attractive interactions between the protein, protein-bound water, and mineral. This study provides an insight into mineral-protein interactions that are predominant in biological nanocomposites and also provides guidelines towards design of biomimetic nanocomposites.

  3. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji


    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  4. Dynamic Model of Mineralization Enrichment and Its Applications


    This paper studies the chaos dynamic mechanism of the migration, enrichment and mineralization of elements in the crust. The research shows that the interaction of the nonlinear process in the geological environment is an essential factor for the uneven distribution of elements and the mineralization in the crust, determining the element contents and the fractal structure of the distribution of the large- and small-sized mineral deposits. The logistic map is a better mathematical model describing the behavior of the chaos dynamic. The parameter μ, i.e. , the mineralizing potential, is employed to divide the region into non-mineralization region or mineralization region.The value of the parameterμ in model (3) with true data (in Xinjiang Au tomatio region, China) is obtained with the statistical method. The forecasting results are generally in accordance with those obtained with other methods, for example, with the characteristic analysis.

  5. Uranium in minerals of metamorphism high facies rocks

    The relation of regularities of radioactive element distribution and concentration with mineral transformations in the course of metamorphism of chemogenic and terrigenous rocks of the basis. For uranium total low content in the majority of rock-forming minerals its concentration increases with the decrease of metamorphism. Uranium percentage in minerals of rock light fraction changes slightly (13.0-17.0%) in contrast to dark-coloured minerals (11.5-52.6%). It depends on the total content of uranium in the rock and, to lesser extent, on the content of minerals. The quantity of uranium in rocks increases due to dark-coloured minerals in formations of the granulitic facies (less for quartrites and considerably more for gneisses)

  6. Host minerals for uranium and thorium in the Cape granite

    The uranium and thorium in Cape granite reside chiefly in trace minerals. The principle host minerals differ much from pluton to pluton. The large composite Khubus pluton in the Richterveld is composed of a central body of syenite surrounded by various types of granite. The granites are usually very low in dark minerals. According to autoradiographic results, the bulk of the uranium and thorium in the Khubus pluton is situated in the zircon, rather than in the sphene, apatite and fluorite. In many intrusives of the Cape granite suite most of the uranium is situated in a single host mineral such a zircon, xenotime, sphene or even uraninte. The most important thorium host mineral is monazite. The radio-element host mineral spectrum is unique for each different intrusive

  7. Comparative Respiratory Morbidity of Former and Current US Coal Miners.

    Halldin, Cara N; Wolfe, Anita L; Laney, A Scott


    We compared the prevalence of respiratory disease in former and current US coal miners using chest radiographs and lung functions collected from 2009 to 2013 among miners of the Appalachian and Interior US coalfields. We calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) of pneumoconiosis and impaired lung function. Significantly higher prevalences of pneumoconiosis (PR = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 2.0) and impaired lung function were observed among former miners compared with active miners. Former miners continue to suffer negative health effects from occupational coal mine dust exposure. The respiratory health of active and former miners is a global concern because international coal production is projected to increase for decades to come. PMID:26469667

  8. Does crystallinity of extracted bone mineral increase over storage time?

    William Querido


    Full Text Available It was recently shown that the crystallinity of extracted bone mineral samples from the fin bones of zebrafish could increase over storage time. This would have implications in many studies in which the samples need to be stored until analysis. The aim of this study was to further evaluate if the crystallinity of extracted bone mineral increases over storage time. The extracted mineral was a biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures. The overall characterization of the mineral was done by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In order to evaluate possible changes in crystallinity over storage time, the same sample was analyzed by X-ray diffraction immediately after mineral extraction and after 18 months of storage. In conclusion, no statistically relevant changes were observed over storage time, although the occurrence of a slight increase in crystallinity could be discussed in the stored mineral sample.

  9. Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for α particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels

  10. Quantitative image of bone mineral content

    A dual energy subtraction system was constructed on an experimental basis for the quantitative image of bone mineral content. The system consists of a radiographing system and an image processor. Two radiograms were taken with dual x-ray energy in a single exposure using an x-ray beam dichromized by a tin filter. In this system, a film cassette was used where a low speed film-screen system, a copper filter and a high speed film-screen system were layered on top of each other. The images were read by a microdensitometer and processed by a personal computer. The image processing included the corrections of the film characteristics and heterogeneity in the x-ray field, and the dual energy subtraction in which the effect of the high energy component of the dichromized beam on the tube side image was corrected. In order to determine the accuracy of the system, experiments using wedge phantoms made of mixtures of epoxy resin and bone mineral-equivalent materials in various fractions were performed for various tube potentials and film processing conditions. The results indicated that the relative precision of the system was within ±4% and that the propagation of the film noise was within ±11 mg/cm2 for the 0.2 mm pixels. The results also indicated that the system response was independent of the tube potential and the film processing condition. The bone mineral weight in each phalanx of the freshly dissected hand of a rhesus monkey was measured by this system and compared with the ash weight. The results showed an error of ±10%, slightly larger than that of phantom experiments, which is probably due to the effect of fat and the variation of focus-object distance. The air kerma in free air at the object was approximately 0.5 mGy for one exposure. The results indicate that this system is applicable to clinical use and provides useful information for evaluating a time-course of localized bone disease. (author)

  11. Identification of clay minerals by infrared spectroscopy and discriminant analysis

    Ritz, Michal; Vaculíková, Lenka; Plevová, Eva


    Identification of clay minerals based on chemometric analysis of measured infrared (IR) spectra was suggested. IR spectra were collected using the diffuse reflection technique. Discriminant analysis and principal component analysis were used as chemometric methods. Four statistical models were created for separation and identification of clay minerals. More than 50 samples of various clay mineral standards from different localities were used for the creation of statistical models. The results...

  12. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles

    Shmuel Bentov; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jenny Tynyakov; Lilah Glazer; Amir Sagi


    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates speciali...

  13. Neogene and Quaternary clay minerals in the southern North Sea

    Adriaens, Rieko


    In this work it was demonstrated how the systematic quantitative analysis of clay minerals yields a better understanding of specific geologicaland stratigraphical issues. In the first part, a reliable and accurate method for the X-ray diffraction analysis of clay minerals, and glauconite minerals in particular, was established. Especially the decomposition and separate quantification of the 060-region in random oriented powder diffraction patterns was found a powerful tool for the characte...

  14. Identification of Clay Minerals by Infrared Spectroscopy and Discriminant Analysis

    Ritz, Michal; Vaculíková, Lenka; Plevová, Eva


    Identification of clay minerals based on chemometric analysis of measured infrared (IR) spectra was suggested. IR spectra were collected using the diffuse reflection technique. Discriminant analysis and principal component analysis were used as chemometric methods. Four statistical models were created for separation and identification of clay minerals. More than 50 samples of various clay mineral standards from different localities were used for the creation of statistical models. The results...

  15. Mineral assemblage of the Červený vrch locality

    Chvátal M


    Mineral assemblage was studied in shales and siltstones and the accompanying siliceous concretions of the Šárka Formation within the geological and palaeontological investigations of the temporary excavations made by the Skanska Company on the Červený vrch Hill in Prague-Vokovice, Czech Republic. Mineral identification was performed with the use of DRON-2.1 powder X-ray diffractometer (Institute of Geology, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague). M...

  16. Removal of mineral oil and wastewater pollutants using hard coal



    This study investigates the use of hard coal as an adsorbent for removal of mineral oil from wastewater. In order to determine the efficiency of hard coal as an adsorbent of mineral oil, process parameters such as sorption capacity (in static and dynamic conditions), temperature, pH, contact time, flow rate, and chemical pretreatment were evaluated in a series of batch and continuous flow experiments. There were significant differences in the mineral oil removal for various pH values examined...

  17. Radiation-induced defects in clay minerals : a review

    Allard, T.; Balan, Etienne; Calas, G.; Fourdrin, C.; Morichon, E.; Sorieul, S.


    Extensive information has been collected on radiation effects on clay minerals over the last 35 years, providing a wealth of information on environmental and geological processes. The fields of applications include the reconstruction of past radioelement migrations, the dating of clay minerals or the evolution of the physico-chemical properties under irradiation. The investigation of several clay minerals, namely kaolinite, dickite, montmorillonite, illite and sudoite, by Electron Paramagneti...

  18. Physics and chemistry of minerals under laser processing

    Kotova, O.; Leonenko, N.


    New experimental data of the influence of laser irradiation on the phase composition minerals of bauxite and red mud and their technological features have been represented. The mechanisms of formation of micro- and nanophases on mineral surfaces under the influence of laser irradiation were shown. It is underlined that changes of condition of surface atoms, concentration of metals, agglomeration of titanium minerals and new phase formation occurred under laser irradiation on bauxites and red mud.


    Philatov S. K.; Nikolaev N. N.


    Currently, for producers of mineral fertilizers one of the main tasks is the process of creating a supply chain of mineral fertilizers delivery to agricultural consumers, running on a «Just-in-time» way. The effective operation of such a supply chain has to be influenced by many factors, including: the technology of agricultural production, seasonality of agricultural work, the structure of the distribution channel of mineral fertilizers, the geographical features of consumers, the availabili...

  20. Complex mineral recovery from the copper flotation tailing

    Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj


    The generally concept of the carried out investigations is discovering an appropriate technological scheme of the possible complex mineral utilisation from the copper flotation tailing. The Bucim - mine laboratory investigations of the flotation tailing are based on the demands of the possible complex recovery from the useful present minerals or mineral components: CuFeS2; FeS2; Fe2O3; Fe3O4; Na-feldspar and K-feldspar; SiO2 etc.

  1. A Novel Mineral Flotation Process Using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Nagaoka, Toru; Ohmura, Naoya; Saiki, Hiroshi


    Oxidative leaching of metals by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has proven useful in mineral processing. Here, we report on a new use for T. ferrooxidans, in which bacterial adhesion is used to remove pyrite from mixtures of sulfide minerals during flotation. Under control conditions, the floatabilities of five sulfide minerals tested (pyrite, chalcocite, molybdenite, millerite, and galena) ranged from 90 to 99%. Upon addition of T. ferrooxidans, the floatability of pyrite was significantly suppres...

  2. Minor and trace elements in some meteoritic minerals.

    Allen, R. O., Jr.; Mason, B.


    Despite the information available (Mason, 1971) on trace elements in different types of meteorites, relatively little is known about the distribution of these elements among the individual mineral phases. The mineral phases including olivine, orthopyroxene, clinipyroxene, troilite, nickel-iron, plagioclase, chromite, and the phosphates were separated from several meteorites. The purified minerals were analyzed for trace and minor elements by spark source mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elements are classified as siderophile, lithophile, and chalcophile.

  3. The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects

    Assefa, Getaneh

    Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

  4. In Situ Mineralization of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Chitosan Hydrogel

    Wang Yongliang; Li Baoqiang; Zhou Yu; Jia Dechang


    Abstract Based on chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups of chitosan, in situ mineralization of magnetite nanoparticles in chitosan hydrogel under ambient conditions was proposed. The chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups in CS–Fe complex, which led to that chitosan hydrogel exerted a crucial control on the magnetite mineralization, was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The composition, morphology and size of the mineralized magnetite nanoparticles were ...

  5. Planning and Success of Mineral Exploration in the United States

    Rose, A.W.; Eggert, R.G.


    This paper examines three areas related to metallic mineral exploration in the United States: exploration success over time, the episodic nature of exploration activity for specific minerals, and exploration planning within large corporations. The gross value of metallic mineral discoveries, excluding uranium and iron, exhibits no clear upward or downward trend from 1955 to 1960 in the United States, although large short-term fluctuations in discovery values make discernment of a trend d...

  6. Geochemistry of clay minerals for uranium exploration in the Grants mineral belt, New Mexico

    Brookins, D. G.


    Clay mineralogy studies of ore rocks versus barren rocks in the Grants mineral belt, New Mexico, show that some combination of chlorite (rosette form), illite, mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite, (±Mg-montmorillonite) are penecontemporaneous with uranium minerals in trend ore; these same clay minerals plus kaolinite are related to the roll-type ore near the main redox front of the Grants mineral belt. Clay minerals from barren rocks are characterized by a greater abundance of Na-montmorillonite, kaolinite, and face-to-edge form chlorite. Chlorites from ore zones contain much more vanadium than do chlorites from barren rocks. Trend orr probably formed from southeasterly flowing waters following paleochannels in the Late Jurassic. These deposits are found almost entirely in reduced rocks, and organic carbon may have been an important reductant to remove U-V-U-V-Se-Mo from solution as carbonate from ore zones contains some organic carbon based on stable isotope studies. Uplift, remobilization, and reprecipitation of some of the trend ore resulted in the formation of redistributed ore, some of which possesses a roll-type geometry. Mineralization for the roll-type ore was apparently controlled by sulfide-sulfate equilibria at or near the main redox front in the Grants mineral belt. Trend and roll-type ore possess different assemblages of clay minerals and different trace element abundances. Laramide-age faults cut both trend ore and some roll-type ores. Stack ore is found in Laramide-age fault zones. Limited oxygen isotopic data from clay minerals collected from two mines at Ambrosia Lake in reduced rocks indicate probable preservation of ancient, formational waters and show no evidence of infiltration by young meteoric waters. This information, plus the pre-Laramide-age faults, suggest, but do not unequivocally prove, that the main redox front has been relatively stable since its formation, probably some time in the Cretaceous. Younger encroachment of the redox front

  7. Mineral Licks Attract Neotropical Seed-Dispersing Bats

    Unlike most terrestrial mammals, female bats must supply their offspring with all required nutrients until pups achieve virtually adult size, at which time they are able to fly and become independent. Access to nutrients may be especially challenging for reproductively active females in mineral-poor landscapes such as tropical rain forests. We hypothesized that pregnant and lactating females from tropical landscapes acquire essential nutrients from locally-available mineral licks. We captured ten times as many bats at mineral licks than at control sites in a lowland rain forest in eastern Ecuador. Among bats captured at mineral licks, the sex ratio was heavily biased toward females, and a significantly higher portion of females captured at these sites, compared to control sites, were reproductively active (pregnant and lactating). Enrichment of N15 in relation to N14 in wing tissue indicated that bats captured at mineral licks were mostly fruit-eating species. Given the high visitation rates of reproductive active females at mineral licks, it is likely that mineral licks are important for fruit-eating female bats as a mineral source during late pregnancy and lactation. By sustaining high population densities of fruit-eating bats that disperse seeds, mineral licks may have an indirect influence on local plant species richness.

  8. Mineral Licks Attract Neotropical Seed-Dispersing Bats

    Thomas H. Kunz


    Full Text Available Unlike most terrestrial mammals, female bats must supply their offspring with all required nutrients until pups achieve virtually adult size, at which time they are able to fly and become independent. Access to nutrients may be especially challenging for reproductively active females in mineral-poor landscapes such as tropical rainforests. We hypothesized that pregnant and lactating females from tropical landscapes acquire essential nutrients from locally-available mineral licks. We captured ten times as many bats at mineral licks than at control sites in a lowland rainforest in eastern Ecuador. Among bats captured at mineral licks, the sex ratio was heavily biased toward females, and a significantly higher portion of females captured at these sites, compared to control sites, were reproductively active (pregnant and lactating. Enrichment of N15 in relation to N14 in wing tissue indicated that bats captured at mineral licks were mostly fruit-eating species. Given the high visitation rates of reproductive active females at mineral licks, it is likely that mineral licks are important for fruit-eating female bats as a mineral source during late pregnancy and lactation. By sustaining high population densities of fruit-eating bats that disperse seeds, mineral licks may have an indirect influence on local plant species richness.

  9. Trace minerals in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Kasama, Richard K


    The kidneys are famously responsible for maintaining external balance of prevalent minerals, such as sodium, chloride, and potassium. The kidney's role in handling trace minerals is more obscure to most nephrologists. Similarly, the impact of kidney failure on trace mineral metabolism is difficult to anticipate. The associated dietary modifications and dialysis create the potential for trace mineral deficiencies and intoxications. Indeed, there are numerous reports of dialysis-associated mishaps causing mineral intoxication, notable for the challenge of assigning causation. Equally challenging has been the recognition of mineral deficiency syndromes, amid what is often a cacophony of multiple comorbidities that vie for the attention of clinicians who care for patients with chronic kidney disease. In this paper, I review a variety of minerals, some of which are required for maintenance of normal human physiology (the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's list of essential minerals), and some that have attracted attention in the care of dialysis patients. For each mineral, I will discuss its role in normal physiology and will review reported deficiency and toxicity states. I will point out the interesting inter-relationships between several of the elements. Finally, I will address the special concerns of aluminum and magnesium as they pertain to the dialysis population. PMID:21175832

  10. A materials science vision of extracellular matrix mineralization

    Reznikov, N.; Steele, J. A. M.; Fratzl, P.; Stevens, M. M.


    From an engineering perspective, skeletal tissues are remarkable structures because they are lightweight, stiff and tough, yet produced at ambient conditions. The biomechanical success of skeletal tissues is largely attributable to the process of biomineralization — a tightly regulated, cell-driven formation of billions of inorganic nanocrystals formed from ions found abundantly in body fluids. In this Review, we discuss nature's strategies to produce and sustain appropriate biomechanical properties in mineralizing (by the promotion of mineralization) and non-mineralizing (by the inhibition of mineralization) tissues. We review how perturbations of biomineralization are controlled over a continuum that spans from the desirable (or defective in disease) mineralization of the skeleton to pathological cardiovascular mineralization, and to mineralization of bioengineered constructs. A materials science vision of mineralization is presented with an emphasis on the micro- and nanostructure of mineralized tissues recently revealed by state-of-the-art analytical methods, and on how biomineralization-inspired designs are influencing the field of synthetic materials.

  11. Biologically controlled minerals as potential indicators of life

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E.


    Minerals can be produced and deposited either by abiotic or biologic means. Regardless of their origin, mineral crystals reflect the environment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and redox potential) present during crystal formation. Biologically-produced mineral crystals are grown or reworked under the control of their host organism and reflect an environment different from the abiotic environment. In addition, minerals of either biologic or abiotic origin have great longevities. For these reasons, biologically produced minerals have been proposed as biomarkers. Biomarkers are key morphological, chemical, and isotopic signatures of living systems that can be used to determine if life processes have occurred. Studies of biologically controlled minerals produced by the protist, Paramecium tetraurelia, were initiated since techniques have already been developed to culture them and isolate their crystalline material, and methods are already in place to analyze this material. Two direct crystalline phases were identified. One phase, whose chemical composition is high in Mg, was identified as struvite. The second phase, whose chemical composition is high in Ca, has not been previously found occurring naturally and may be considered a newly discovered material. Analyses are underway to determine the characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of minerals formed abiotically, but with the same chemical composition.

  12. Optimization method for quantitative calculation of clay minerals in soil

    Libo Hao; Qiaoqiao Wei; Yuyan Zhao; Zilong Lu; Xinyun Zhao


    Determination of types and amounts for clay minerals in soil are important in environmental, agricultural, and geological investigations. Many reliable methods have been established to identify clay mineral types. However, no reliable method for quantitative analysis of clay minerals has been established so far. In this study, an attempt was made to propose an optimization method for the quantitative determination of clay minerals in soil based on bulk chemical composition data. The fundamental principles and processes of the calculation are elucidated. Some samples were used for reliability verification of the method and the results prove the simplicity and efficacy of the approach.

  13. Lung cancer risk among Czech miners exposed to radon

    Studies of underground miners of uranium and other substances are at present the principal source of information on the effects of exposure to radon and its progeny. One of the largest such studies is that of uranium miners in West Bohemia (Jachymov). This study, sometimes referred to as the S cohort, was set up in 1970 by the late Josef Sevc. About ten years later, two further cohorts were delineated by him. One of uranium miners (N) who worked under improved conditions mostly in the Pribram mines, and the second one of burnt clay miners (L) located in the Rakovnik district. Brief characteristics of the cohorts are shown

  14. Heavy metal immobilization in mineral phases

    A successful waste form for toxic or radioactive metals must not only have the ability to chemically incorporate the elements but it must also be extremely stable in the geological environment. Thus, ceramic wasteforms are sought which mimic those minerals that have sequestered the hazardous metals for billions of years. One method for producing ceramics, metal organic deposition (MOD) is outstanding in its simplicity, versatility, and inexpensiveness. The major contribution that the MOD process can make to ceramic waste forms is the ability to mix the toxic metals at a molecular level with the elements which form the ceramic matrix. With proper choice of organic ligands, the inclusion of significant amounts of alkali metals in the ceramic and, hence, their detrimental effect on durability may be avoided. In the first stage of our research we identified thermally-unstable ligands which could fulfill the role of complexing toxic metal species and allowing their precipitation or extraction into nonaqueous solvents

  15. Nondestructive gamma activation analysis of mineral materials

    The basic problems are described related to the use of gamma activation analysis. The applicability was studied of instrumental gamma activation analysis (IGAA) in geology. A number of minerals, rocks, marine sediments and reference materials were studied. For irradiation a betatron and a microtron were used. The results show that IGAA allows the simultaneous determination of a number of trace elements at concentrations of tenths of ppm. The results are given of comparisons made of the analytical possibilities of microtron IGAA and reactor INAA in geology. Tables show the results of the application of IGAA, the main products and parameters of photoexcitation reactions and graphically represented are the gamma spectra of measured materials. (J.B.)

  16. Surface chemistry of mineral powders: 1

    Low surface areas of non-porous mineral and oxide powders have been determined by adsorption calorimetry to a precision of +-15 percent. Five standards with surface areas in the range 0.64 to 24.3 m2/g were examined to check the internal consistency of our method. Our surface area values agree within +-10 percent with supplied values, obtained by the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption technique at -196 deg C. The present technique is less time consuming than commercial systems and requires small sample size (< 1 g per run). Also, the technique works at 25 degrees C, rather than at -196 degrees C, and can be adapted for routine operation. Finally, the technique appears preferable to a relatively tedious gas-solid chromatographic method, which uses large samples (200 to 300 g), and yields values in poor agreement with BET results

  17. Clays and other minerals in prebiotic processes

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.


    Clays and other minerals have been investigated in context with prebiotic processes, mainly in polymerization of amino acids. It was found that peptides adsorbed on the clay, prior to polymerization, influence the reaction. The ratio between the amount of the peptides adsorbed and that of the clay is important for the yield as well as for the degrees of polymerization obtained. Adsorption prior to reaction produces a certain order in the aggregates of the clay particles which might induce better reaction results. Excess of added peptides disturbs this order and causes lesser degrees of polymerization. In addition to adsorption, clays are also able to occlude between their layers substances out of the environment, up to very high concentrations.

  18. Facility certification program for coal miners pneumoconiosis

    Public Law 91-173, often referred to as the Black Lung Law, called for a chest radiograph of all active coal miners at stated intervals. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health was responsible for carrying out the provisions of the law. Among other requirements was a provision for certification of radiological facilities where radiological examinations would be provide. A test object to be radiographed by each such facility was designed and sent to those facilities applying for certification. To date, 284 facilities have applied for certification of which 215 have been approved. A record has been kept of the number of times any approved facility submitted radiographs before approval. A complete listing of the types of equipment used, personnel qualifications and other pertinent data will be reported

  19. Mineral trioxide aggregate apexification: A novel approach.

    Purra, Aamir Rashid; Ahangar, Fayaz Ahmed; Chadgal, Sachin; Farooq, Riyaz


    The treatment of choice for necrotic teeth with immature root is apexification, which is induction of apical closure to produce more favorable conditions for conventional root canal filling. The most commonly advocated medicament is calcium hydroxide although recently considerable interest has been expressed in the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). MTA offers the option of a two-visit apexification procedure so that the fragile tooth can be restored immediately. However, difficulty in placing the material in the wide apical area requires the use of an apical matrix. Materials such as collagen, calcium sulfate, and hydroxyapatite have been used for this purpose. This article describes the use of resorbable suture material to form the apical matrix which offers many advantages over the contemporary materials. PMID:27563191

  20. The chemical composition of mineral trioxide aggregate.

    Camilleri, Josette


    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is composed of Portland cement, with 4:1 addition of bismuth oxide added so that the material can be detected on a radiograph. The cement is made up of calcium, silicon and aluminium. The main constituent phases are tricalcium and dicalcium silicate and tricalcium aluminate. There are two commercial forms of MTA, namely the grey and the white. The difference between the grey and the white materials is the presence of iron in the grey material, which makes up the phase tetracalcium alumino-ferrite. This phase is absent in white MTA. Hydration of MTA occurs in two stages. The initial reaction between tricalcium aluminate and water in the presence of calcium sulphate results in the production of ettringite. Tricalcium and dicalcium silicate react with water to produce calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide, which is leached out of the cement with time. PMID:20351970