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Sample records for adhesion-dependent cell edge

  1. An adhesion-dependent switch between mechanisms that determine motile cell shape.

    Erin L Barnhart

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Keratocytes are fast-moving cells in which adhesion dynamics are tightly coupled to the actin polymerization motor that drives migration, resulting in highly coordinated cell movement. We have found that modifying the adhesive properties of the underlying substrate has a dramatic effect on keratocyte morphology. Cells crawling at intermediate adhesion strengths resembled stereotypical keratocytes, characterized by a broad, fan-shaped lamellipodium, clearly defined leading and trailing edges, and persistent rates of protrusion and retraction. Cells at low adhesion strength were small and round with highly variable protrusion and retraction rates, and cells at high adhesion strength were large and asymmetrical and, strikingly, exhibited traveling waves of protrusion. To elucidate the mechanisms by which adhesion strength determines cell behavior, we examined the organization of adhesions, myosin II, and the actin network in keratocytes migrating on substrates with different adhesion strengths. On the whole, our results are consistent with a quantitative physical model in which keratocyte shape and migratory behavior emerge from the self-organization of actin, adhesions, and myosin, and quantitative changes in either adhesion strength or myosin contraction can switch keratocytes among qualitatively distinct migration regimes.

  2. Cell adhesion-dependent inactivation of a soluble protein kinase during fertilization in Chlamydomonas.

    Zhang, Y.; Luo, Y.; Emmett, K; Snell, W J

    1996-01-01

    Within seconds after the flagella of mt+ and mt- Chlamydomonas gametes adhere during fertilization, their flagellar adenylyl cyclase is activated several fold and preparation for cell fusion is initiated. Our previous studies indicated that early events in this pathway, including control of adenylyl cyclase, are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we describe a soluble, flagellar protein kinase activity that is regulated by flagellar adhesion. A 48-kDa, soluble flagellar...

  3. Cysteine protease activity of feline Tritrichomonas foetus promotes adhesion-dependent cytotoxicity to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Tolbert, M K; Stauffer, S H; Brand, M D; Gookin, J L

    2014-07-01

    Trichomonads are obligate protozoan parasites most renowned as venereal pathogens of the reproductive tract of humans and cattle. Recently, a trichomonad highly similar to bovine venereal Tritrichomonas foetus but having a unique tropism for the intestinal tract was recognized as a significant cause of colitis in domestic cats. Despite a high prevalence, worldwide distribution, and lack of consistently effective drugs for treatment of the infection, the cellular mechanisms of T. foetus pathogenicity in the intestinal tract have not been examined. The aims of this study were to determine the pathogenic effect of feline T. foetus on porcine intestinal epithelial cells, the dependence of T. foetus pathogenicity on adhesion of T. foetus to the intestinal epithelium, and the identity of mediators responsible for these effects. Using an in vitro coculture approach to model feline T. foetus infection of the intestinal epithelium, these studies demonstrate that T. foetus promotes a direct contact-dependent activation of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis signaling and progressive monolayer destruction. Moreover, these pathological effects were demonstrated to be largely dependent on T. foetus cell-associated cysteine protease activity. Finally, T. foetus cysteine proteases were identified as enabling cytopathic effects by promoting adhesion of T. foetus to the intestinal epithelium. The present studies are the first to examine the cellular mechanisms of pathogenicity of T. foetus toward the intestinal epithelium and support further investigation of the cysteine proteases as virulence factors in vivo and as potential therapeutic targets for ameliorating the pathological effects of intestinal trichomonosis. PMID:24752513

  4. Intercellular Adhesion-Dependent Cell Survival and ROCK-Regulated Actomyosin-Driven Forces Mediate Self-Formation of a Retinal Organoid.

    Lowe, Albert; Harris, Raven; Bhansali, Punita; Cvekl, Ales; Liu, Wei

    2016-05-10

    In this study we dissected retinal organoid morphogenesis in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cultures and established a convenient method for isolating large quantities of retinal organoids for modeling human retinal development and disease. Epithelialized cysts were generated via floating culture of clumps of Matrigel/hESCs. Upon spontaneous attachment and spreading of the cysts, patterned retinal monolayers with tight junctions formed. Dispase-mediated detachment of the monolayers and subsequent floating culture led to self-formation of retinal organoids comprising patterned neuroretina, ciliary margin, and retinal pigment epithelium. Intercellular adhesion-dependent cell survival and ROCK-regulated actomyosin-driven forces are required for the self-organization. Our data supports a hypothesis that newly specified neuroretina progenitors form characteristic structures in equilibrium through minimization of cell surface tension. In long-term culture, the retinal organoids autonomously generated stratified retinal tissues, including photoreceptors with ultrastructure of outer segments. Our system requires minimal manual manipulation, has been validated in two lines of human pluripotent stem cells, and provides insight into optic cup invagination in vivo. PMID:27132890

  5. Predicted solar cell edge radiation effects

    The Advanced Solar Cell Orbital Test (ASCOT) will test six types of solar cells in a high energy proton environment. During the design of the experiment a question was raised about the effects of proton radiation incident on the edge of the solar cells and whether edge radiation shielding was required. Historical geosynchronous data indicated that edge radiation damage is not detectable over the normal end of life solar cell degradation; however because the ASCOT radiation environment has a much higher and more energetic fluence of protons, considerably more edge damage is expected. A computer analysis of the problem was made by modeling the expected radiation damage at the cell edge and using a network model of small interconnected solar cells to predict degradation in the cell's electrical output. The model indicated that the deepest penetration of edge radiation was at the top of the cell near the junction where the protons have access to the cell through the low density cell/cover adhesive layer. The network model indicated that the cells could tolerate high fluences at their edge as long as there was high electrical resistance between the edge radiated region and the contact system on top of the cell. The predicted edge radiation related loss was less than 2% of maximum power for GaAs/Ge solar cells. As a result, no edge radiation protection was used for ASCOT

  6. Cell-Edge Multi-User Relaying with Overhearing

    Sun, Fan; Kim, Tae Min; Paulraj, Arogyaswami;

    2013-01-01

    Carefully designed protocols can turn overheard interference into useful side information to allow simultaneous transmission of multiple communication flows and increase the spectral efficiency in interference-limited regime. In this letter, we propose a novel scheme in a typical cell-edge scenario...

  7. Minimal model for spontaneous cell polarization and edge activity in oscillating, rotating and migrating cells

    Raynaud, Franck; Ambühl, Mark E.; Gabella, Chiara; Bornert, Alicia; Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B.

    2016-04-01

    How cells break symmetry and organize activity at their edges to move directionally is a fundamental question in cell biology. Physical models of cell motility commonly incorporate gradients of regulatory proteins and/or feedback from the motion itself to describe the polarization of this edge activity. These approaches, however, fail to explain cell behaviour before the onset of polarization. We use polarizing and moving fish epidermal cells as a model system to bridge the gap between cell behaviours before and after polarization. Our analysis suggests a novel and simple principle of self-organizing cell activity, in which local cell-edge dynamics depends on the distance from the cell centre, but not on the orientation with respect to the front-back axis. We validate this principle with a stochastic model that faithfully reproduces a range of cell-migration behaviours. Our findings indicate that spontaneous polarization, persistent motion and cell shape are emergent properties of the local cell-edge dynamics controlled by the distance from the cell centre.

  8. ICRF-driven convective cells in the tokamak edge plasma

    Recently, the authors have shown that the release of metal impurities during ICRF heating on JET could be explained by ion acceleration into the Faraday screen (FS) surface caused by rf sheaths, which form when local magnetic field is imperfectly aligned with the FS. The theory explained many of the dependences of the impurity data, including the virtual elimination of impurities with beryllium screens and dipole antenna phasing. The good agreement between the impurity generation model and experimental data can be taken as evidence of the relevance of rf sheaths to the scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma in tokamaks. A crucial physical point in sheath theory is that the requirement of no time-averaged current into the boundary leads to the rectification of the oscillating rf fields to produce a net time-averaged and spatially-varying potential and, hence, a DC electric field. Here, the authors investigate the possibility that the rectified sheath potential Φo can drive convective cells in the SOL which may explain the experimental observations of ICRF-enhanced edge transport on many tokamaks. Temperature (and sometimes density) profile flattening and induced DC electric fields in the SOL are often observed during ICRF heating on JET, particularly in monopole phasing. The attainment of the H-mode with ICRF heating alone is also sensitive to the phasing of the antenna. These observations suggest an rf-sheath related effect, as the magnitude of Φo is much larger in monopole phasing (∼1 kV near the FS). The authors speculate that enhanced edge cooling by rapid convection may account for the phasing sensitivity of the H-mode transition. In the present work, a modified convective cell equation for the SOL plasma is derived, which explicitly takes into account the finite length of the field lines and the appropriate sheath boundary condition for Jparallel

  9. The Edges of Pancreatic Islet β Cells Constitute Adhesive and Signaling Microdomains

    Erez Geron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic islet β cells are organized in rosette-like structures around blood vessels and exhibit an artery-to-vein orientation, but they do not display the typical epithelial polarity. It is unclear whether these cells present a functional asymmetry related to their spatial organization. Here, we identify murine β cell edges, the sites at which adjacent cell faces meet at a sharp angle, as surface microdomains of cell-cell adhesion and signaling. The edges are marked by enrichment of F-actin and E-cadherin and are aligned between neighboring cells. The edge organization is E-cadherin contact dependent and correlates with insulin secretion capacity. Edges display elevated levels of glucose transporters and SNAP25 and extend numerous F-actin-rich filopodia. A similar β cell edge organization was observed in human islets. When stimulated, β cell edges exhibit high calcium levels. In view of the functional importance of intra-islet communication, the spatial architecture of their edges may prove fundamental for coordinating physiological insulin secretion.

  10. Edge coating apparatus with movable roller applicator for solar cell substrates

    Pavani, Luca; Abas, Emmanuel

    2012-12-04

    A non-contact edge coating apparatus includes an applicator for applying a coating material on an edge of a solar cell substrate and a control system configured to drive the applicator. The control system may drive the applicator along an axis to maintain a distance with an edge of the substrate as the substrate is rotated to have the edge coated with a coating material. The applicator may include a recessed portion into which the edge of the substrate is received for edge coating. For example, the applicator may be a roller with a groove. Coating material may be introduced into the groove for application onto the edge of the substrate. A variety of coating materials may be employed with the apparatus including hot melt ink and UV curable plating resist.

  11. Cell edges accumulate gamma tubulin complex components and nucleate microtubules following cytokinesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Chris Ambrose

    Full Text Available Microtubules emanate from distinct organizing centers in fungal and animal cells. In plant cells, by contrast, microtubules initiate from dispersed sites in the cell cortex, where they then self-organize into parallel arrays. Previous ultrastructural evidence suggested that cell edges participate in microtubule nucleation but so far there has been no direct evidence for this. Here we use live imaging to show that components of the gamma tubulin nucleation complex (GCP2 and GCP3 localize at distinct sites along the outer periclinal edge of newly formed crosswalls, and that microtubules grow predominantly away from these edges. These data confirm a role for cell edges in microtubule nucleation, and suggest that an asymmetric distribution of microtubule nucleation factors contributes to cortical microtubule organization in plants, in a manner more similar to other kingdoms than previously thought.

  12. Dkk-1 Inhibits Intestinal Epithelial Cell Migration by Attenuating Directional Polarization of Leading Edge Cells

    Koch, Stefan; Capaldo, Christopher T.; Samarin, Stanislav; Nava, Porfirio; Neumaier, Irmgard; Skerra, Arne; Sacks, David B.; Parkos, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Wnt signaling pathways regulate proliferation, motility, and survival in a variety of human cell types. Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) is a secreted Wnt antagonist that has been proposed to regulate tissue homeostasis in the intestine. In this report, we show that Dkk-1 is secreted by intestinal epithelial cells after wounding and that it inhibits cell migration by attenuating the directional orientation of migrating epithelial cells. Dkk-1 exposure induced mislocalized activation of Cdc42 in migrating cells, which coincided with a displacement of the polarity protein Par6 from the leading edge. Consequently, the relocation of the microtubule organizing center and the Golgi apparatus in the direction of migration was significantly and persistently inhibited in the presence of Dkk-1. Small interfering RNA-induced down-regulation of Dkk-1 confirmed that extracellular exposure to Dkk-1 was required for this effect. Together, these data demonstrate a novel role of Dkk-1 in the regulation of directional polarization of migrating intestinal epithelial cells, which contributes to the effect of Dkk-1 on wound closure in vivo. PMID:19776352

  13. Edges of human embryonic stem cell colonies display distinct mechanical properties and differentiation potential

    Rosowski, Kathryn A.; Mertz, Aaron F.; Samuel Norcross; Dufresne, Eric R.; Valerie Horsley

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms that guide cell fate decisions during early human development, we closely examined the differentiation process in adherent colonies of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Live imaging of the differentiation process reveals that cells on the outer edge of the undifferentiated colony begin to differentiate first and remain on the perimeter of the colony to eventually form a band of differentiation. Strikingly, this band is of constant width in all colonies,...

  14. Spectral and energy efficiency analysis of uplink heterogeneous networks with small-cells on edge

    Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a tractable mathematical framework to analyze the spectral and energy efficiency of an operator initiated deployment of the small-cells (e.g., femtocells) where the small-cell base stations are deliberately positioned around the edge of the macrocell. The considered deployment facilitates the cell-edge mobile users in terms of their coverage, spectral, and energy efficiency and is referred to as cell-on-edge (COE) configuration. The reduction in energy consumption is achieved by considering fast power control where the mobile users transmit with adaptive power to compensate the path loss, shadowing and fading. In particular, we develop a moment generating function (MGF) based approach to derive analytical bounds on the area spectral efficiency and exact expressions for the energy efficiency of the mobile users in the considered COE configuration over generalized-K fading channels. Besides the COE configuration, the derived bounds are also shown to be useful in evaluating the performance of random small-cell deployments, e.g., uniformly distributed small-cells. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the improvements in spectral and energy efficiency of the COE configuration with respect to macro-only networks and other unplanned deployment strategies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Edge sealing for low cost stability enhancement of roll-to-roll processed flexible polymer solar cell modules

    Tanenbaum, David M.; Dam, Henrik Friis; Rösch, R.;

    2012-01-01

    Fully roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules were prepared, characterized, and laminated. Cell modules were cut from the roll and matched pairs were selected, one module with exposed cut edges, the other laminated again with the same materials and adhesive sealing fully around the cut...... edges. The edge sealing rim was 10 mm wide. Cell modules were characterized by periodic measurements of IV curves over extended periods in a variety of conditions, as well as by a variety of spatial imaging techniques. Data show significant stability benefits of the edge sealing process. The results...... of the imaging experiments show that the ingress of atmospheric reactants from the edges leads to degradation. In the case of edge sealed devices the same effects are observed but significantly slowed down. In particular, the fast nonlinear degradation is eliminated....

  16. Many-faced cells and many-edged faces in 3D Poisson–Voronoi tessellations

    Motivated by recent new Monte Carlo data we investigate a heuristic asymptotic theory that applies to n-faced 3D Poisson–Voronoi cells in the limit of large n. We show how this theory may be extended to n-edged cell faces. It predicts the leading order large-n behavior of the average volume and surface area of the n-faced cell, and of the average area and perimeter of the n-edged face. Such a face is shown to be surrounded by a toroidal region of volume n/λ (with λ the seed density) that is void of seeds. Two neighboring cells sharing an n-edged face are found to have their seeds at a typical distance that scales as n−1/6 and whose probability law we determine. We present a new data set of 4 × 109 Monte Carlo generated 3D Poisson–Voronoi cells, larger than any before. Full compatibility is found between the Monte Carlo data and the theory. Deviations from the asymptotic predictions are explained in terms of subleading corrections whose powers in n we estimate from the data. (paper)

  17. Many-faced cells and many-edged faces in 3D Poisson-Voronoi tessellations

    Hilhorst, H. J.; Lazar, E. A.

    2014-10-01

    Motivated by recent new Monte Carlo data we investigate a heuristic asymptotic theory that applies to n-faced 3D Poisson-Voronoi cells in the limit of large n. We show how this theory may be extended to n-edged cell faces. It predicts the leading order large-n behavior of the average volume and surface area of the n-faced cell, and of the average area and perimeter of the n-edged face. Such a face is shown to be surrounded by a toroidal region of volume n/λ (with λ the seed density) that is void of seeds. Two neighboring cells sharing an n-edged face are found to have their seeds at a typical distance that scales as n-1/6 and whose probability law we determine. We present a new data set of 4 × 109 Monte Carlo generated 3D Poisson-Voronoi cells, larger than any before. Full compatibility is found between the Monte Carlo data and the theory. Deviations from the asymptotic predictions are explained in terms of subleading corrections whose powers in n we estimate from the data.

  18. Iron speciation in human cancer cells by K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis

    Polgári, Zs.; Meirer, F.; Sasamori, S.; Ingerle, D.; Pepponi, G.; Streli, C.; Rickers, K.; Réti, A.; Budai, B.; Szoboszlai, N.; Záray, G.

    2011-03-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis in combination with synchrotron radiation induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) acquisition was used to determine the oxidation state of Fe in human cancer cells and simultaneously their elemental composition by applying a simple sample preparation procedure consisting of pipetting the cell suspension onto the quartz reflectors. XANES spectra of several inorganic and organic iron compounds were recorded and compared to that of different cell lines. The XANES spectra of cells, independently from the phase of cell growth and cell type were very similar to that of ferritin, the main Fe store within the cell. The spectra obtained after CoCl 2 or NiCl 2 treatment, which could mimic a hypoxic state of cells, did not differ noticeably from that of the ferritin standard. After 5-fluorouracil administration, which could also induce an oxidative-stress in cells, the absorption edge position was shifted toward higher energies representing a higher oxidation state of Fe. Intense treatment with antimycin A, which inhibits electron transfer in the respiratory chain, resulted in minor changes in the spectrum, resembling rather the N-donor Fe-α,α'-dipyridyl complex at the oxidation energy of Fe(III), than ferritin. The incorporation of Co and Ni in the cells was followed by SR-TXRF measurements.

  19. Iron speciation in human cancer cells by K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis in combination with synchrotron radiation induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) acquisition was used to determine the oxidation state of Fe in human cancer cells and simultaneously their elemental composition by applying a simple sample preparation procedure consisting of pipetting the cell suspension onto the quartz reflectors. XANES spectra of several inorganic and organic iron compounds were recorded and compared to that of different cell lines. The XANES spectra of cells, independently from the phase of cell growth and cell type were very similar to that of ferritin, the main Fe store within the cell. The spectra obtained after CoCl2 or NiCl2 treatment, which could mimic a hypoxic state of cells, did not differ noticeably from that of the ferritin standard. After 5-fluorouracil administration, which could also induce an oxidative-stress in cells, the absorption edge position was shifted toward higher energies representing a higher oxidation state of Fe. Intense treatment with antimycin A, which inhibits electron transfer in the respiratory chain, resulted in minor changes in the spectrum, resembling rather the N-donor Fe-α,α'-dipyridyl complex at the oxidation energy of Fe(III), than ferritin. The incorporation of Co and Ni in the cells was followed by SR-TXRF measurements.

  20. Alignment of muscle precursor cells on the vertical edges of thick carbon nanotube films

    Holt, Ian, E-mail: ian.holt@rjah.nhs.uk [Wolfson Centre for Inherited Neuromuscular Disease, RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Gestmann, Ingo, E-mail: Ingo.Gestmann@fei.com [FEI Europe B.V., Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 Eindhoven (Netherlands); Wright, Andrew C., E-mail: a.wright@glyndwr.ac.uk [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Glyndwr University, Plas Coch, Mold Rd, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    The development of scaffolds and templates is an essential aspect of tissue engineering. We show that thick (> 0.5 mm) vertically aligned carbon nanotube films, made by chemical vapour deposition, can be used as biocompatible substrates for the directional alignment of mouse muscle cells where the cells grow on the exposed sides of the films. Ultra high resolution scanning electron microscopy reveals that the films themselves consist mostly of small diameter (10 nm) multi-wall carbon nanotubes of wavy morphology with some single wall carbon nanotubes. Our findings show that for this alignment to occur the nanotubes must be in pristine condition. Mechanical wiping of the films to create directional alignment is detrimental to directional bioactivity. Larger areas for study have been formed from a composite of multiply stacked narrow strips of nanotubes wipe-transferred onto elastomer supports. These composite substrates appear to show a useful degree of alignment of the cells. Highlights: • Highly oriented muscle precursor cells grown on edges of carbon nanotube pads • Mechanical treatment of nanotube pads highly deleterious to cell growth on edges • Larger areas created from wipe-transfer of narrow strips of nanotubes onto elastomer supports • Very high resolution SEM reveals clues to aligned cell growth.

  1. Alignment of muscle precursor cells on the vertical edges of thick carbon nanotube films

    The development of scaffolds and templates is an essential aspect of tissue engineering. We show that thick (> 0.5 mm) vertically aligned carbon nanotube films, made by chemical vapour deposition, can be used as biocompatible substrates for the directional alignment of mouse muscle cells where the cells grow on the exposed sides of the films. Ultra high resolution scanning electron microscopy reveals that the films themselves consist mostly of small diameter (10 nm) multi-wall carbon nanotubes of wavy morphology with some single wall carbon nanotubes. Our findings show that for this alignment to occur the nanotubes must be in pristine condition. Mechanical wiping of the films to create directional alignment is detrimental to directional bioactivity. Larger areas for study have been formed from a composite of multiply stacked narrow strips of nanotubes wipe-transferred onto elastomer supports. These composite substrates appear to show a useful degree of alignment of the cells. Highlights: • Highly oriented muscle precursor cells grown on edges of carbon nanotube pads • Mechanical treatment of nanotube pads highly deleterious to cell growth on edges • Larger areas created from wipe-transfer of narrow strips of nanotubes onto elastomer supports • Very high resolution SEM reveals clues to aligned cell growth

  2. Edge-Modified Phosphorene Nanoflake Heterojunctions as Highly Efficient Solar Cells.

    Hu, Wei; Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Dai, Jun; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-03-01

    We propose to use edge-modified phosphorene nanoflakes (PNFs) as donor and acceptor materials for heterojunction solar cells. By using density functional theory based calculations, we show that heterojunctions consisting of hydrogen- and fluorine-passivated PNFs have a number of desired optoelectronic properties that are suitable for use in a solar cell. We explain why these properties hold for these types of heterojunctions. Our calculations also predict that the maximum energy conversion efficiency of these type of heterojunctions, which can be easily fabricated, can be as high as 20%, making them extremely competitive with other types of two-dimensional heterojunctions. PMID:26848505

  3. Edge sealing for low cost stability enhancement of roll-to-roll processed flexible polymer solar cell modules

    Tanenbaum, David M.; Dam, Henrik Friis; Rösch, R.; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Hoppe, Harald; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    Fully roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules were prepared, characterized, and laminated. Cell modules were cut from the roll and matched pairs were selected, one module with exposed cut edges, the other laminated again with the same materials and adhesive sealing fully around the cut ...... the imaging experiments show that the ingress of atmospheric reactants from the edges leads to degradation. In the case of edge sealed devices the same effects are observed but significantly slowed down. In particular, the fast nonlinear degradation is eliminated.......Fully roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules were prepared, characterized, and laminated. Cell modules were cut from the roll and matched pairs were selected, one module with exposed cut edges, the other laminated again with the same materials and adhesive sealing fully around the cut...... edges. The edge sealing rim was 10 mm wide. Cell modules were characterized by periodic measurements of IV curves over extended periods in a variety of conditions, as well as by a variety of spatial imaging techniques. Data show significant stability benefits of the edge sealing process. The results of...

  4. Collision probabilities for plate geometry cells with an approximate treatment of plate edge regions

    A method of allowing for plate edge effects in the calculation of the neutron flux in the plate geometry cells of zero power fast critical assemblies is developed and evaluated. Each layer contains a central region and an edge region and an approximate method for calculating the collision probabilities relating regions in different layers is developed. Collision probabilities are first calculated for a number of directions, i (having direction cosines, μi, relative to the normal to the plates). These are then combined with Gaussian weights, wi. Escape, collision and transmission probabilities for each layer are calculated assuming that the neutrons travel only in one type of material within the layer. These material types are the central region material, the edge region material and a mixture of the two (which depends on the material fractions within the layer and the angle, i). The fraction of the neutrons travelling in each material type depends on the angle and the layer material fractions. The method is compared with Monte Carlo calculations made for single energy groups, and is used to calculate a number of zero leakage plate geometry test zones for which measurements have been made in the ZEBRA facility. (author)

  5. Iron speciation in human cancer cells by K-Edge TXRF-XANES

    Complete text of publication follows. X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis in combination with Synchrotron Radiation induced Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) acquisition was used to determine the oxidation state of Fe in human cancer cells. The first measurements reported here were intended as a feasibility study which should i) show if the setup is sensitive enough to perform XANES measurements on the colon cancer cell samples and ii) lead to a new and proper sample preparation method which will ensure the stability of the oxidation state of Fe during sampling, sample treatment, storage, transport and analysis. As total reflection geometry offers very high sensitivities for elemental determination in X-ray fluorescence analysis these characteristics can be used to apply this set up for the speciation of minute amounts of metals in X-ray absorption experiments in the fluorescence mode. The advantage of the investigation using SR-TXRF-XANES is that the sample preparation can be reduced to a minimum: the cells available in a suspension can be directly pipetted in the Si reflectors, dried, inserted in the vacuum chamber and measured. The Fe K-Edge XANES measurements in fluorescence mode and grazing incidence geometry were carried out using the TXRF vacuum chamber setup at the beamline L at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB) at DESY. Human colon cancer cell line HT-29 as well as human breast cancer cell line ZR-75-1 and human fibrosarcoma cell line HT-1080 in different phases of the cell growth were prepared at the Department of Clinical Research, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary. When the cell growth was in log phase (exponential growth) the cells were treated with either CoCl2, NiCl2 or metamizole sodium. The aim was to gain information about the influence of these treatments on the cells relating to the Fe species. For comparison samples have also been taken during other characteristic phases of cell

  6. Modulation of adhesion-dependent cAMP signaling by echistatin and alendronate

    Fong, J. H.; Ingber, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    We measured intracellular cAMP levels in cells during attachment and spreading on different extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Increases in cAMP were observed within minutes when cells attached to fibronectin, vitronectin, and a synthetic RGD-containing fibronectin peptide (Petite 2000), but not when they adhered to another integrin alpha nu beta 3 ligand, echistatin. Because echistatin also inhibits bone resorption, we measured the effects of adding another osteoporosis inhibitor, alendronate, in this system. Alendronate inhibited the cAMP increase induced by ligands that primarily utilize integrin alpha nu beta 3 (vitronectin, Peptite 2000), but not by fibronectin which can also use integrin alpha 5 beta 1. These results show that cell adhesion to ECM can increase intracellular cAPM levels and raise the possibility that inhibitors of osteoporosis may act, in part, by preventing activation of this pathway by integrins.

  7. Band edge engineering of composite photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: As dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) transition from iodide/triiodide-based electrolytes to organometallic complex redox couples with higher rates of recombination with electrons in the semiconductor, there is a need for semiconductor nanostructures that can rapidly transport electrons out of the device while maintaining high surface areas for the semiconductor/dye/electrolyte interface. A previously reported composite, with TiO2 nanoparticles coating ZnO nanorods, met these criteria but suffered from a barrier to electron transfer from the TiO2 to the ZnO. Here, the band edge positions of the TiO2 and ZnO have been shifted by doping with Zr4+ and Co2+, respectively, to arrive at the desired energetic alignment. The materials were characterized using diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy and a three-electrode measurement of the open circuit photovoltage under bandgap excitation (OCV). The OCV measurement indicated that the doping moved the conduction band minimum of ZnO to a more positive potential than that of the TiO2, enabling electron transfer from dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles to the underlying ZnO nanorods for efficient charge collection. However, DSSC devices fabricated with the composite nanostructures did not show improved performance. This paper details a methodology for producing and measuring band-edge shifts along with the benefits and limitations thereof

  8. Edge restenosis: impact of low dose irradiation on cell proliferation and ICAM-1 expression

    Hannekum Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low dose irradiation (LDI of uninjured segments is the consequence of the suggestion of many authors to extend the irradiation area in vascular brachytherapy to minimize the edge effect. Atherosclerosis is a general disease and the uninjured segment close to the intervention area is often atherosclerotic as well, consisting of neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMC and quiescent monocytes (MC. The current study imitates this complex situation in vitro and investigates the effect of LDI on proliferation of SMC and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in MC. Methods Plaque tissue from advanced primary stenosing lesions of human coronary arteries (9 patients, age: 61 ± 7 years was extracted by local or extensive thrombendarterectomy. SMC were isolated and identified by positive reaction with smooth muscle α-actin. MC were isolated from buffy coat leukocytes using the MACS cell isolation kit. For identification of MC flow-cytometry analysis of FITC-conjugated CD68 and CD14 (FACScan was applied. SMC and MC were irradiated using megavoltage photon irradiation (CLINAC2300 C/D, VARIAN, USA of 6 mV at a focus-surface distance of 100 cm and a dose rate of 6 Gy min-1 with single doses of 1 Gy, 4 Gy, and 10 Gy. The effect on proliferation of SMC was analysed at day 10, 15, and 20. Secondly, total RNA of MC was isolated 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, and 4 h after irradiation and 5 μg of RNA was used in standard Northern blot analysis with ICAM-1 cDNA-probes. Results Both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were detected after irradiation of SMC with a dose of 1 Gy. At day 10 and 15 a significant antiproliferative effect was found; at day 20 after irradiation cell proliferation was significantly stimulated. Irradiation with 4 Gy and 10 Gy caused dose dependent inhibitory effects at day 10, 15, and 20. Expression of ICAM-1 in human MC was neihter inhibited nor stimulated by LDI. Conclusion Thus, the stimulatory effect of LDI on SMC

  9. Dkk-1 Inhibits Intestinal Epithelial Cell Migration by Attenuating Directional Polarization of Leading Edge Cells

    Koch, Stefan; Capaldo, Christopher T.; Samarin, Stanislav; Nava, Porfirio; Neumaier, Irmgard; Skerra, Arne; Sacks, David B; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2009-01-01

    Wnt signaling pathways regulate proliferation, motility, and survival in a variety of human cell types. Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) is a secreted Wnt antagonist that has been proposed to regulate tissue homeostasis in the intestine. In this report, we show that Dkk-1 is secreted by intestinal epithelial cells after wounding and that it inhibits cell migration by attenuating the directional orientation of migrating epithelial cells. Dkk-1 exposure induced mislocalized activation of Cdc42 in migrating c...

  10. Two-way cooperative AF relaying in spectrum-sharing systems: Enhancing cell-edge performance

    Xia, Minghua

    2012-09-01

    In this contribution, two-way cooperative amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying technique is integrated into spectrumsharing wireless systems to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users (SUs). In order to share the available spectrum resources originally dedicated to primary users (PUs), the transmit power of a SU is optimized with respect to the average tolerable interference power at primary receivers. By analyzing outage probability and achievable data rate at the base station and at a cell-edge SU, our results reveal that the uplink performance is dominated by the average tolerable interference power at primary receivers, while the downlink always behaves like conventional one-way AF relaying and its performance is dominated by the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These important findings provide fresh perspectives for system designers to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users in next-generation broadband spectrum-sharing wireless systems. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Stem cells, a two-edged sword: Risks and potentials of regenerative medicine

    2008-01-01

    The recent advancements in stem cell (SC) biology have led to the concept of regenerative medicine, which is based on the potential of SC for therapies aimed to facilitate the repair of degenerating or injured tissues. Nonetheless, prior to large scale clinical appli- cations, critical aspects need to be further addressed, including the long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of SC-based treatments. Most problematic among the risks of SC-based therapies, in addition to the pos- sible rejection or loss of function of the infused cells, is their potential neoplastic transformation. Indeed, SCs may be used to cure devastating diseases, but their specific properties of self-renewal and clonogenicity may render them prone to generate cancers. In this respect, 'Stemness' might be seen as a two-edged sword, its bright side being represented by normal SCs, its dark side by cancer SCs. A better understand- ing of SC biology will help fulfill the promise of regen- erative medicine aimed at curing human pathologies and fighting cancer from its roots.

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cells: A high temperature fuel cell on the edge to commercialization

    Bischoff, Manfred

    The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) technology has been developed in USA, Japan, Korea and Europe for many years. What has started about 30 years ago as an interesting laboratory object has now matured to a potential alternative to conventional power generation systems. Especially the combined heat and power (CHP) generation is an area, where MCFC power plants can be applied with great advantage, due to the high efficiencies which can be achieved. It was demonstrated by several manufacturers that in the sub-MW region MCFC power plants can reach electrical efficiencies of 47%. By making use of the heat generated by the system, total efficiencies of more than 80% can be achieved. The present paper will discuss some aspects of the development work going on with a focus on the role of the molten carbonate contained in the cells. An outlook will be given for the future prospects of this young technology in a changing energy market.

  13. A Silicon-Based Nanothin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Array with Edge Reinforced Support for Enhanced Thermal Mechanical Stability.

    Baek, Jong Dae; Yu, Chen-Chiang; Su, Pei-Chen

    2016-04-13

    A silicon-based micro-solid oxide fuel cell (μ-SOFC) with electrolyte membrane array embedded in a thin silicon supporting membrane, featuring a unique edge reinforcement structure, was demonstrated by utilizing simple silicon micromachining processes. The square silicon supporting membrane, fabricated by combining deep reactive ion etching and through-wafer wet etching processes, has thicker edges and corners than the center portion of the membrane, which effectively improved the mechanical stability of the entire fuel cell array during cell fabrication and cell operation. The 20 μm thick single crystalline silicon membrane supports a large number of 80 nm thick free-standing yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes. The fuel cell array was stably maintained at the open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.04 V for more than 30 h of operation at 350 °C. A high peak power density of 317 mW/cm(2) was obtained at 400 °C. During a rigorous in situ thermal cycling between 150 and 400 °C at a fast cooling and heating rate of 25 °C/min, the OCV of the μ-SOFC recovered to its high value of 1.07 V without any drop caused by membrane failure, which justifies the superior thermal stability of this novel cell architecture. PMID:26990604

  14. The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum cordatum at the edge of the salinity tolerance: The growth is slower but cells are larger

    Olenina, Irina; Vaičiukynas, Evaldas; Šulčius, Sigitas; Paškauskas, Ričardas; Verikas, Antanas; Gelžinis, Adas; Bačauskienė, Marija; Bertašiūtė, Vilma; Olenin, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examine how the projected climate change driven decrease in the Baltic Sea salinity can impact the growth, cell size and shape of the recently invaded dinoflagellate Prorocentrum cordatum. In laboratory treatments we mimicked salinity conditions at the edge of the mesohaline south-eastern Baltic and oligohaline-to-limnic Curonian Lagoon. We used an innovative computer-based method allowing detection of P. cordatum cells and quantitative characterization of cell contours in phytoplankton images. This method also made available robust indicators of the morphometric changes, which are not accessible for an expert studying cells under light microscope. We found that the salinity tolerance limit of P. cordatum ranges between 1.8 and 3.6, and that the mean cell size of its population is inversely proportional to both salinity and nutrient content. Under ambient south-eastern Baltic salinity (7.2) the nutrients were stimulating the growth of P. cordatum; while at the edge of its salinity tolerance the nutrient availability did not have such effect. We suggest that in the future Baltic the decline in salinity and increase in nutrient loads may result in larger cells of P. cordatum and extended duration of their presence in plankton, causing longer periods of algal blooms.

  15. Soft X-ray radiation effects on yeast cells with energies on and off the O K absorption edge by a soft X-ray microprobe

    The cell killing abilities of soft X-rays on and off the oxygen K-shell edges on yeast cells have been investigated using a micrometer soft X-ray microprobe from synchrotron radiation. The dose depositions at different X-ray energies in the cell were discussed. At the same time, the cells were irradiated by 60Co gamma-rays and the abilities in inducing yeast cell killing were compared with those produced by soft X-rays. The results showed that soft X-rays on and off the O K edge had higher ability of radiation damage than 60Co gamma-rays. The total killing abilities of the three soft X-rays on yeast cells were almost similar and the differences of the X-rays in inducing yeast cell killing on and off the O K edge were not obvious. (authors)

  16. Cutting edge: B220+CCR9- dendritic cells are not plasmacytoid dendritic cells but are precursors of conventional dendritic cells.

    Segura, Elodie; Wong, June; Villadangos, José A

    2009-08-01

    Mouse lymphoid organs contain two major subsets of dendritic cells (DC) that differ in their phenotype and functions: conventional DC (cDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC). Recently, it has been proposed that differential expression of CCR9 could distinguish functionally distinct pDC subsets. We show that B220(+)CCR9(-) DC do not express classical pDC markers and have a developmental origin different from that of pDC. Furthermore, B220(+)CCR9(-) DC do not secrete IFN-alpha in response to CpG and, unlike pDC, can efficiently present exogenous Ags. Our results demonstrate that B220(+)CCR9(-) DC do not represent a subset of pDC. After in vivo transfer, these cells down-regulate B220 expression and convert into the two major cDC subsets, showing that they are a developmental stage of cDC differentiation. PMID:19570827

  17. FGFR4 GLY388 isotype suppresses motility of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by EDG-2 gene repression.

    Stadler, Christiane Regina; Knyazev, Pjotr; Bange, Johannes; Ullrich, Axel

    2006-06-01

    Clinical investigations of an FGFR4 germline polymorphism, resulting in substitution of glycine by arginine at codon 388 (G388 to R388), have shown a correlation between FGFR4 R388 and aggressive disease progression in cancer patients. Here, we studied the differential effects of the two FGFR4 isotypes on cellular signalling and motility in the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell model. cDNA array analysis showed the ability of FGFR4 G388 to suppress expression of specific genes involved in invasiveness and motility. Further investigations concentrating on cell signalling and motility revealed an abrogation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent LPA-induced Akt activation and cell migration due to downregulation of the LPA receptor Edg-2 in FGFR4 G388-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, FGFR4 G388 expression attenuated the invasivity of the breast cancer cell line and decreased small Rho GTPase activity. We conclude that FGFR4 G388 suppresses cell motility of invasive breast cancer cells by altering signalling pathways and the expression of genes that are required for metastasis. Therefore, the positive effect of FGFR4 R388 on disease progression appears to result from a loss of the tumour suppressor activity displayed by FGFR4 G388 rather than the acquisition or enhancement of oncogenic potential. PMID:16109476

  18. The current distribution in an electrochemical cell. Part V. The determination of the depth of the current line penetration between the edges of the electrodes and the side walls of the cell

    TANJA M. KOSTIC

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for the calculation of the depth of the current line penetration between the edges of the electrodes and the side walls of the cell in a cell with plane parallel electrode arrangement is proposed. The method is verified by the calculation of the polarization curves for the cells in which the electrode edges do not touch the side walls of the cell. The agreement between the calculated and the measured values was fair.

  19. Color canals modification with canny edge detection and morphological reconstruction for cell nucleus segmentation and area measurement in normal Pap smear images

    Riana, Dwiza; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina; Widyantoro, Dwi H.; Mengko, Tati Latifah R.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a cell nucleus segmentation and area measurement of Pap smear images by means of modification of color canals with Canny edge detection and morphological reconstruction methods. Cell nucleus characterization plays an important role for classifying the degree of abnormality in cervical cancer. The aim of this work is to find the matched measurement method with the manual nucleus area measurement. In this work, we utilized pap smear single cell images from Herlev data bank in RGB mode. The cell images were selected from 90 normal class subjects that include: Normal Superficial, Normal Intermediate, and Normal Columnar classes. The nucleus of each cell image was cropped manually to localize from the cytoplasm. The color canals modification was performed on each cropped nucleus image by, first, separating each R, G, B, and grayscale canals, then implementing addition operation based on color canals (R+G+B, R+G, R+B, G+B, and grayscale). The Canny edge detection was applied on those modifications resulting in binary edge images. The nucleus segmentation was implemented on the edge images by performing region filling based on morphological reconstruction. The area property was calculated based on the segmented nucleus area. The nucleus area from the proposed method was verified to the existing manual measurement (ground truth) of the Herlev data bank. Based on thorough observation upon the selected color canals and Canny edge detection. It can be concluded that Canny edge detection with R+G+B canal is the most significant for all Normal classes (r 0,305, p-value 0.05). While for Normal Superficial and Normal Intermediate, Canny edge detection is significant for all RGB modifications with (r 0.414 - 0.817 range, , p-value 0.05), and for Normal Columnar, Canny edge detection is significant for R+B canal (r 0.505, p-value 0.05).

  20. Cutting Edge: Engineering Active IKKβ in T Cells Drives Tumor Rejection.

    Evaristo, César; Spranger, Stefani; Barnes, Sarah E; Miller, Michelle L; Molinero, Luciana L; Locke, Frederick L; Gajewski, Thomas F; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Acquired dysfunction of tumor-reactive T cells is one mechanism by which tumors can evade the immune system. Identifying and correcting pathways that contribute to such dysfunction should enable novel anticancer therapy design. During cancer growth, T cells show reduced NF-κB activity, which is required for tumor rejection. Impaired T cell-intrinsic NF-κB may create a vicious cycle conducive to tumor progression and further T cell dysfunction. We hypothesized that forcing T cell-intrinsic NF-κB activation might break this cycle and induce tumor elimination. NF-κB was activated in T cells by inducing the expression of a constitutively active form of the upstream activator IκB kinase β (IKKβ). T cell-restricted constitutively active IKKβ augmented the frequency of functional tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells and improved tumor control. Transfer of constitutively active IKKβ-transduced T cells also boosted endogenous T cell responses that controlled pre-established tumors. Our results demonstrate that driving T cell-intrinsic NF-κB can result in tumor control, thus identifying a pathway with potential clinical applicability. PMID:26903482

  1. Cutting Edge: Redox Signaling Hypersensitivity Distinguishes Human Germinal Center B Cells.

    Polikowsky, Hannah G; Wogsland, Cara E; Diggins, Kirsten E; Huse, Kanutte; Irish, Jonathan M

    2015-08-15

    Differences in the quality of BCR signaling control key steps of B cell maturation and differentiation. Endogenously produced H2O2 is thought to fine tune the level of BCR signaling by reversibly inhibiting phosphatases. However, relatively little is known about how B cells at different stages sense and respond to such redox cues. In this study, we used phospho-specific flow cytometry and high-dimensional mass cytometry (CyTOF) to compare BCR signaling responses in mature human tonsillar B cells undergoing germinal center (GC) reactions. GC B cells, in contrast to mature naive B cells, memory B cells, and plasmablasts, were hypersensitive to a range of H2O2 concentrations and responded by phosphorylating SYK and other membrane-proximal BCR effectors in the absence of BCR engagement. These findings reveal that stage-specific redox responses distinguish human GC B cells. PMID:26157177

  2. How Shigella Utilizes Ca2+ Jagged Edge Signals during Invasion of Epithelial Cells

    Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca2+ responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca2+ increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemic...

  3. Cutting Edge: Integrin α4 Is Required for Regulatory B Cell Control of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Glatigny, Simon; Wagner, Catriona A; Bettelli, Estelle

    2016-05-01

    The neutralization of integrin α4 (Itga4) is currently used as treatment in multiple sclerosis. Although most studies have focused on its function on lymphocyte migration to the CNS, we have uncovered the importance of Itga4 for the generation of regulatory B cells in peripheral immune organs and their control of pathogenic T cell response and CNS pathology. Our study underscores the importance of looking at the dual role of B cells in CNS autoimmunity and provides important perspectives regarding the efficacy and side effects associated with Itga4 neutralization and other B cell-targeting therapies. PMID:27016608

  4. Cutting Edge: Resident Memory CD8 T Cells Express High-Affinity TCRs.

    Frost, Elizabeth L; Kersh, Anna E; Evavold, Brian D; Lukacher, Aron E

    2015-10-15

    Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells serve as vanguards of antimicrobial host defense in nonlymphoid tissues, particularly at barrier epithelia and in organs with nonrenewable cell types (e.g., brain). In this study, we asked whether an augmented ability to sense Ag complemented their role as early alarms of pathogen invasion. Using mouse polyomavirus, we show that brain-resident mouse polyomavirus-specific CD8 T cells, unlike memory cells in the spleen, progressively increase binding to MHC class I tetramers and CD8 coreceptor expression. Using the two-dimensional micropipette adhesion-frequency assay, we show that TRM cells in brain, as well as in kidney, express TCRs with up to 20-fold higher affinity than do splenic memory T cells, whereas effector cells express TCRs of similar high affinity in all organs. Together, these data demonstrate that TRM cells retain high TCR affinity, which endows them with the high Ag sensitivity needed for front-line defense against infectious agents. PMID:26371252

  5. Cutting edge: Bcl6-interacting corepressor contributes to germinal center T follicular helper cell formation and B cell helper function.

    Yang, Jessica A; Tubo, Noah J; Gearhart, Micah D; Bardwell, Vivian J; Jenkins, Marc K

    2015-06-15

    CD4(+) germinal center (GC)-T follicular helper (Tfh) cells help B cells become long-lived plasma cells and memory cells. The transcriptional repressor Bcl6 plays a key role in GC-Tfh formation by inhibiting the expression of genes that promote differentiation into other lineages. We determined whether BCOR, a component of a Polycomb repressive complex that interacts with the Bcl6 BTB domain, influences GC-Tfh differentiation. T cell-targeted BCOR deficiency led to a substantial loss of peptide:MHC class II-specific GC-Tfh cells following Listeria monocytogenes infection and a 2-fold decrease following immunization with a peptide in CFA. The reduction in GC-Tfh cells was associated with diminished plasma cell and GC B cell formation. Thus, T cell-expressed BCOR is critical for optimal GC-Tfh cell differentiation and humoral immunity. PMID:25964495

  6. Cutting Edge: AhR Is a Molecular Target of Calcitriol in Human T Cells.

    Takami, Mariko; Fujimaki, Kotaro; Nishimura, Michael I; Iwashima, Makio

    2015-09-15

    The immunoregulatory functions of vitamin D have been well documented in various immunological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and asthma. IL-10 is considered a chief effector molecule that promotes the vitamin D-induced immunosuppressive states of T cells and accessory cells. In this article, we demonstrate that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), has a profound inhibitory effect on the development of human Th9, a CD4 T cell subset that is highly associated with asthma, in an IL-10-independent manner. Our data show that calcitriol represses the expression of BATF, a transcription factor essential for Th9, via suppressing the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor, without an increase in IL-10. The data show a novel link between vitamin D and two key transcription factors involved in T cell differentiation. PMID:26276877

  7. Cutting edge: membrane lymphotoxin regulates CD8(+) T cell-mediated intestinal allograft rejection.

    Guo, Z; Wang, J; Meng, L; Wu, Q; Kim, O; Hart, J; He, G; Zhou, P; Thistlethwaite, J R; Alegre, M L; Fu, Y X; Newell, K A

    2001-11-01

    Blocking the CD28/B7 and/or CD154/CD40 costimulatory pathways promotes long-term allograft survival in many transplant models where CD4(+) T cells are necessary for rejection. When CD8(+) T cells are sufficient to mediate rejection, these approaches fail, resulting in costimulation blockade-resistant rejection. To address this problem we examined the role of lymphotoxin-related molecules in CD8(+) T cell-mediated rejection of murine intestinal allografts. Targeting membrane lymphotoxin by means of a fusion protein, mAb, or genetic mutation inhibited rejection of intestinal allografts by CD8(+) T cells. This effect was associated with decreased monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig) and secondary lymphoid chemokine (SLC) gene expression within allografts and spleens respectively. Blocking membrane lymphotoxin did not inhibit rejection mediated by CD4(+) T cells. Combining disruption of membrane lymphotoxin and treatment with CTLA4-Ig inhibited rejection in wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that membrane lymphotoxin is an important regulatory molecule for CD8(+) T cells mediating rejection and suggest a strategy to avoid costimulation blockade-resistant rejection. PMID:11673481

  8. Cutting edge: neuronal recognition by CD8 T cells elicits central diabetes insipidus.

    Scheikl, Tanja; Pignolet, Béatrice; Dalard, Cécile; Desbois, Sabine; Raison, Danièle; Yamazaki, Masanori; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Bauer, Jan; Lassmann, Hans; Hardin-Pouzet, Hélène; Liblau, Roland S

    2012-05-15

    An increasing number of neurologic diseases is associated with autoimmunity. The immune effectors contributing to the pathogenesis of such diseases are often unclear. To explore whether self-reactive CD8 T cells could attack CNS neurons in vivo, we generated a mouse model in which the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is expressed specifically in CNS neurons. Transfer of cytotoxic anti-HA CD8 T cells induced an acute but reversible encephalomyelitis in HA-expressing recipient mice. Unexpectedly, diabetes insipidus developed in surviving animals. This robust phenotype was associated with preferential accumulation of cytotoxic CD8 T cells in the hypothalamus, upregulation of MHC class I molecules, and destruction of vasopressin-expressing neurons. IFN-γ production by the pathogenic CD8 T cells was necessary for MHC class I upregulation by hypothalamic neurons and their destruction. This novel mouse model, in combination with related human data, supports the concept that autoreactive CD8 T cells can trigger central diabetes insipidus. PMID:22504649

  9. Cdc42-dependent leading edge coordination is essential for interstitial dendritic cell migration

    Lammermann, Tim; Renkawitz, Jorg; Wu, Xunwei; Hirsch, Karin; Brakebusch, Cord; Sixt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Mature dendritic cells (DCs) moving from the skin to the lymph node are a prototypic example of rapidly migrating amoeboid leukocytes. Interstitial DC migration is directionally guided by chemokines, but independent of specific adhesive interactions with the tissue as well as pericellular...

  10. The histamine H4 receptor is a potent inhibitor of adhesion-dependent degranulation in human neutrophils.

    Dib, Karim; Perecko, Tomas; Jenei, Veronika; McFarlane, Cheryl; Comer, David; Brown, Vanessa; Katebe, Mwape; Scheithauer, Torsten; Thurmond, Robin L; Chazot, Paul L; Ennis, Madeleine

    2014-09-01

    The histamine H4 receptor regulates the inflammatory response. However, it is not known whether this receptor has a functional role in human neutrophils. We found that fMLP (1 μM), but not histamine (0.1-1 μM), induced Mac-1-dependent adhesion, polarization, and degranulation (release of lactoferrin). A pretreatment of neutrophils with histamine (0.001-1 μM) or JNJ 28610244 (0.1-10 μM), a specific H4 receptor agonist, led to inhibition of degranulation. Total inhibition of degranulation was obtained with 0.1 μM histamine and 10 μM JNJ 28610244. Furthermore, such inhibition by histamine of degranulation was reversed by JNJ 7777120 and JNJ 28307474, two selective H4 receptor antagonists. However, neither histamine nor the H4 receptor agonist JNJ 28610244 prevented fMLP-induced, Mac-1-dependent adhesion, indicating that the H4 receptor may block signals emanating from Mac-1-controlling degranulation. Likewise, engagement of the H4 receptor by the selective agonist JNJ 28610244 blocked Mac-1-dependent activation of p38 MAPK, the kinase that controls neutrophil degranulation. We also show expression of the H4 receptor at the mRNA level in ultrapure human neutrophils and myeloid leukemia PLB-985 cells. We concluded that engagement of this receptor by selective H4 receptor agonists may represent a good, therapeutic approach to accelerate resolution of inflammation. PMID:24799603

  11. Longitudinal Dependance Of Solsticial Hadley Cell Detected At The Edge Of The Massive Martian Erg

    Kuassivi, M

    2011-01-01

    Using public HIRISE images of MARS, I derive the wind directions at high Northern lattitudes, where many interesting eolian features are observed. BArchan dunes show prominent wind direction from the North indicating that they formed during the southern summer. But a few record consistent SE winds near the UTOPIA PLANITIA basin. The wind reversal is consistent with a local perturbation of the solsticial Hadley cell caused by geological depression.

  12. Edge-nitrogenated graphene nanoplatelets as high-efficiency counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Wang, Guiqiang; Zhang, Juan; Hou, Shuo; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Zengdian

    2016-05-01

    Edge-nitrogenated graphene nanoplatelets (ENGNPs) are prepared by a simple and eco-friendly mechanochemical pin-grinding process using flake graphite as the precursor in the presence of nitrogen and investigated as the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). SEM images and nitrogen adsorption analysis indicate an effective and spontaneous delamination of the pristine graphite into small graphene nanoplatelets by a mechanochemical pin-grinding process. The mechanochemical cracking of the graphitic C-C bond generates activated carbon sites that react directly with nitrogen at the broken edges. The resultant ENGNPs are deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by spray coating, and their electrocatalytic activities are investigated systemically in the I-/I3- redox electrolyte. Electrochemical measurements show that the ENGNP electrode possesses excellent electrocatalytic activity for the redox reaction of I-/I3- as evidenced by the low charge-transfer resistance at the interface of the electrode and electrolyte. Under 100 mW cm-2 illumination, the DSC with the optimized ENGNP counter electrode achieves a conversion efficiency of 7.69%, which is comparable to that of the device with Pt counter electrode.Edge-nitrogenated graphene nanoplatelets (ENGNPs) are prepared by a simple and eco-friendly mechanochemical pin-grinding process using flake graphite as the precursor in the presence of nitrogen and investigated as the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). SEM images and nitrogen adsorption analysis indicate an effective and spontaneous delamination of the pristine graphite into small graphene nanoplatelets by a mechanochemical pin-grinding process. The mechanochemical cracking of the graphitic C-C bond generates activated carbon sites that react directly with nitrogen at the broken edges. The resultant ENGNPs are deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by spray coating, and their electrocatalytic

  13. Curcumin as a double-edged sword for stem cells: dose, time and cell type-specific responses to curcumin

    Attari, Fatemeh; Zahmatkesh, Maryam; Aligholi, Hadi; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Gorji, Ali; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Khaksarian, Mojtaba; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background The beneficial effects of curcumin which includes its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cancer chemo-preventive properties have been identified. Little information is available regarding the optimal dose and treatment periods of curcumin on the proliferation rate of different sources of stem cells. Methods In this study, the effect of various concentrations of curcumin on the survival and proliferation of two types of outstanding stem cells which includes bone marrow stem cells (B...

  14. Edge Matters

    Earon, Ofri

    2013-01-01

    building. The research explores and develops the architectural characteristics of correlations between the resident, the singular unit, the building and the given location at the edge zone. It approaches the edge zone of the urban house as a platform for dynamic interactions between these behaviours. The...... following text includes the first draft of the first two chapters: introduction and theory. The chapters are not written completely, and some parts are written only as headlines. These headlines and other comments are marked in red. The text is on working progress and far from being finished, but it will be...

  15. Living edge

    Earon, Ofri

    2014-01-01

    “What is an edge? We can think about an edge as having been of two sorts. In one, it is a border. In the other, it is a boundary. A border is a zone of interaction where things meet and intersect. A boundary is a place where something ends” Architects and planners normally approach domestic borders...... the involved actors at the border. By doing so, the study underlines a forgotten, yet important, role of this edge zone – being a zone of commonality between the house and city, between indoors and outdoors, between the man at home and the man at the street. The city of Copenhagen promotes porous...... borders on the ground level, but there is a lack of recognition in the significance of communicative characters as well at the higher part of the edge. The city’s planning approach is “Consider urban life before urban space. Consider urban space before buildings” This urban strategy neglects the possible...

  16. A Particle-in-Cell Approach to Time Domain Simulations of the ICRF Edge Regions

    Traditional particle-in-cell / time-domain methods excel in situations of complex geometry, but are difficult to use in fusion plasma type problems, primarily because of explicit time-step algorithms that become numerically unstable when confronted with temporally or spatially unresolved physics, at high frequency and short scale-length, such as plasma oscillations and sheaths. We discuss an approach for a progressive treatment of these difficulties with carefully planned intermediate steps, each fully functional and useful in its own right. In our first year we plan to implement, in an implicit algorithm, the standard linear magnetized cold-plasma dielectric tensor in time-domain to treat the RF propagation. Particles will be pushed, but initially only for comparison purposes with the currents of the linear dielectric medium. This will permit cataloging of kinetic and non-linear departures from the linear model, while at the same time assuring numerical stability. The linear equations are identical to the fluid equations, and so subsequent upgrades involve relaxation of fluid linearity, and eventual feedback from particle information into the fluid quantities, and incorporation of new sheath boundary physics models

  17. Cutting Edge: ACVRL1 Signaling Augments CD8α+ Dendritic Cell Development.

    Verma, Rohit; Jaiswal, Hemant; Chauhan, Kuldeep Singh; Kaushik, Monika; Tailor, Prafullakumar

    2016-08-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are a collection of different subtypes, each of which is characterized by specific surface markers, gene-expression patterns, and distinct functions. Members of the IFN regulatory factor family play critical roles in DC development and functions. Recently, Irf8 was shown to activate TGF-β signaling, which led to exacerbated neuroinflammation in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model. We analyzed the effect of Irf8 on TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein pathway-specific genes in DCs and identified Acvrl1, a type I TGF-β superfamily receptor, as a gene strongly induced by Irf8 expression. Among various DC subtypes, Acvrl1 is differentially expressed in CD8α(+) DCs. ACVRL1 signaling augmented Irf8-directed classical CD8α(+) DC development. Irf8 expression is essential for plasmacytoid DC and CD8α(+) DC development, and this study demonstrates that ACVRL1 signaling plays a pivotal role whereby it suppresses plasmacytoid DC development while enhancing that of CD8α(+) DCs, thus contributing to DC diversity development. PMID:27421479

  18. EMA: a developmentally regulated cell-surface glycoprotein of CNS neurons that is concentrated at the leading edge of growth cones.

    Baumrind, N L; Parkinson, D; Wayne, D B; Heuser, J E; Pearlman, A L

    1992-08-01

    To identify cell-surface molecules that mediate interactions between neurons and their environment during neural development, we used monoclonal antibody techniques to define a developmentally regulated antigen in the central nervous system of the mouse. The antibody we produced (2A1) immunolabels cells throughout the central nervous system; we analyzed its distribution in the developing cerebral cortex, where it is expressed on cells very soon after they complete mitosis and leave the periventricular proliferative zone. Expression continues into adult life. The antibody also labels the epithelium of the choroid plexus and the renal proximal tubules, but does not label neurons of the peripheral nervous system in the dorsal root ganglia. In dissociated cell culture of embryonic cerebral cortex, 2A1 labels the surface of neurons but not glia. Immunolabeling of neurons in tissue culture is particularly prominent on the edge of growth cones, including filopodia and the leading edge of lamellipodia, when observed with either immunofluorescence or freeze-etch immunoelectron microscopy. Immunopurification with 2A1 of a CHAPS-extracted membrane preparation from brains of neonatal mice produces a broad (32-36 kD) electrophoretic band and a less prominent 70 kD band that are sensitive to N-glycosidase but not endoglycosidase H. Thus the 2A1 antibody recognizes a developmentally regulated, neuronal cell surface glycoprotein (or glycoproteins) with complex N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. We have termed the glycoprotein antigen EMA because of its prominence on the edge membrane of growth cones. EMA is similar to the M6 antigen (Lagenaur et al: J. Neurobiol. 23:71-88, 1992) in apparent molecular weight, distribution in tissue sections, and immunoreactivity on Western blots, suggesting that the two antigens are similar or identical. Expression of EMA is a very early manifestation of neuronal differentiation; its distribution on growth cones suggests a role in mediating the

  19. Actin filaments at the leading edge of cancer cells are characterized by a high mobile fraction and turnover regulation by profilin I.

    Gisela Lorente

    Full Text Available Cellular motility is the basis for cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In the case of breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among women, metastasis represents the most devastating stage of the disease. The central role of cellular motility in cancer development emphasizes the importance of understanding the specific mechanisms involved in this process. In this context, tumor development and metastasis would be the consequence of a loss or defect of the mechanisms that control cytoskeletal remodeling. Profilin I belongs to a family of small actin binding proteins that are thought to assist in actin filament elongation at the leading edge of migrating cells. Traditionally, Profilin I has been considered to be an essential control element for actin polymerization and cell migration. Expression of Profilin I is down-regulated in breast and various other cancer cells. In MDA-MB-231 cells, a breast cancer cell line, further inhibition of Profilin I expression promotes hypermotility and metastatic spread, a finding that contrasts with the proposed role of Profilin in enhancing polymerization. In this report, we have taken advantage of the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP of GFP-actin to quantify and compare actin dynamics at the leading edge level in both cancer and non-cancer cell models. Our results suggest that (i a high level of actin dynamics (i.e., a large mobile fraction of actin filaments and a fast turnover is a common characteristic of some cancer cells; (ii actin polymerization shows a high degree of independence from the presence of extracellular growth factors; and (iii our results also corroborate the role of Profilin I in regulating actin polymerization, as raising the intracellular levels of Profilin I decreased the mobile fraction ratio of actin filaments and slowed their polymerization rate; furthermore, increased Profilin levels also led to reduced individual cell velocity and directionality.

  20. Cutting edge: TNFR-shedding by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells inhibits the induction of inflammatory mediators.

    Mierlo, G.J. van; Scherer, H.U.; Hameetman, M.; Morgan, M.E.; Flierman, R.; Huizinga, T.W.J.; Toes, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells play an essential role in maintaining tolerance to self and nonself. In several models of T cell-mediated (auto) immunity, Treg cells exert protective effects by the inhibition of pathogenic T cell responses. In addition, Treg cells can modulate T cell-independent

  1. Analysis of the nitrogen K-edge x-ray absorption spectra of Zn-porphyrin/C{sub 70}-fulleren complex for solar cells

    Suchkova, S A; Soldatov, A [Southern Federal University, Sorge str. 5, 344090 Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Cudia, C Castellarin, E-mail: suchkova_sv@inbox.r [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A, s.s. 14 km 163.5 in Area Science Park, 34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    The atomic structure models of Zn-porphyrin/C{sub 70} multilayer for solar cells were examined. The local atomic structure of the Zn-porphyrin/C{sub 70} complex was refined with the use of previously published results [1]. Since near-edge spectral region (XANES) is sensitive to the three-dimensional atomic geometry, the theoretical analysis of the experimental XANES was performed on the basis of finite difference method (FDMnes 2008 program code). Some electronic properties of the complex were obtained from the DFT calculations performed by means of Amsterdam Density Functional program package.

  2. 外侧膝状体细胞对边缘的响应模型%Response of Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Cells to Edges

    任远

    2014-01-01

    Edges composing of stimuli of different intensities are common in both natural scenes and digital images.Edge detection is a basic step for machine visual systems,particularly machine biological visual systems.This paper establishes a model of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)cells in a primary visual pathway,describes the LGN cell response to edges,and provides feature representations for designing image processing approaches based on neural mechanism. According to physiological characteristics of retinal ganglion cells,the paper uses the classical model of difference of Gaussians to describe the LGN cell response to stimuli,and obtains a re-sponse function via reasonable simplifications.Through simple analyses,several mathematical properties of the response function are obtained,which agree with the physiological characteristics of neurons.By further simplifying the contrast of a stimulus,a normalized response function is obtained.Numeric experiments show that similarities exist between the function’s response curve and the physiological curve discovered in a previous neural science research,showing validity of the described model.%边缘检测是机器视觉系统与生物视觉系统处理视觉信息的基础阶段。为初级视觉通路中的外侧膝状体(LGN)细胞建立一个模型,描述其对边缘的响应,为构建基于神经机制的图像处理方法提供特征表征。根据神经节细胞感受野的生理特性,用经典的高斯差模型描述 LGN 细胞对刺激的响应,通过合理地简化得到相对简单的响应函数。通过简单数学分析,能够得到函数的几点数学性质,且这些性质都与神经元的生理特性相符。进一步简化刺激的对比度,得到归一化的响应函数。数值实验发现,函数的响应曲线和神经科学研究得到的生理曲线具有相似性,说明该数学模型的合理性。

  3. Cutting Edge: Distinct Glycolytic and Lipid Oxidative Metabolic Programs Are Essential for Effector and Regulatory CD4+ T Cell Subsets

    Ryan D Michalek; Gerriets, Valerie A.; Jacobs, Sarah R.; Macintyre, Andrew N.; MacIver, Nancie J.; Mason, Emily F.; Sullivan, Sarah A.; Nichols, Amanda G.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes can differentiate into effector T cell (Teff) or inducible regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets with specific immunological roles. We show that Teff and Treg require distinct metabolic programs to support these functions. Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells expressed high surface levels of the glucose transporter Glut1 and were highly glycolytic. Treg, in contrast, expressed low levels of Glut1 and had high lipid oxidation rates. Consistent with glycolysis and lipid oxidation p...

  4. Forest edge development

    Wiström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates design guidelines and management systems for the development of stationary forest edges with a graded profile in infrastructure and urban environments. The spatial restriction for the edge to move forward caused by human land use counteracts the natural dynamics and development patterns of graded forest edges. However graded forest edges with successively increasing height from the periphery to the interior of the forest edge are often seen as ideal as they supports ...

  5. Cutting Edge: MicroRNA-223 Regulates Myeloid Dendritic Cell-Driven Th17 Responses in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Ifergan, Igal; Chen, Siqi; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Stephen D

    2016-02-15

    Myeloid cells play a crucial role in the induction and sustained inflammation in neuroinflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis. miR-223, a myeloid cell-specific microRNA, is one of the most upregulated microRNAs in multiple sclerosis patients. We demonstrate that miR-223-knockout mice display significantly reduced active and adoptive-transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis that is characterized by reduced numbers of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and Th17 cells in the CNS. Knockout mDCs have increased PD-L1 and decreased IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 expression, as well as a reduced capacity to drive Th17, but not Th1, cell differentiation. Thus, miR-223 controls mDC-induced activation of pathologic Th17 responses during autoimmune inflammation. PMID:26783338

  6. Micro-abrasion package capture cell experiment on the trailing edge of LDEF: Impactor chemistry and whipple bumper shield efficiencies

    Fitzgerald, Howard J.; Yano, Hajime

    1995-01-01

    Four of the eight available double layer microparticle capture cells, flown as the experiment A0023 on the trailing (West) face of LDEF, have been extensively studied. An investigation of the chemistry of impactors has been made using SEM/EDX techniques and the effectiveness of the capture cells as bumper shields has also been examined. Studies of these capture cells gave positive EDX results, with 53 percent of impact sites indicating the presence of some chemical residues, the predominant residue identified as being silicon in varying quantities.

  7. The edges of graphene

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2013-03-01

    The edge of two dimensional (2D) graphene, as the surface of a three dimensional (3D) crystal, plays a crucial role in the determination of its physical, electronic and chemical properties and thus has been extensively studied recently. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the study of graphene edges, including edge formation energy, edge reconstruction, method of graphene edge synthesis and the recent progress on metal-passivated graphene edges and the role of edges in graphene CVD growth. We expect this review to provide a guideline for readers to gain a clear picture of graphene edges from several aspects, especially the catalyst-passivated graphene edges and their role in graphene CVD growth.

  8. The edges of graphene.

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2013-04-01

    The edge of two dimensional (2D) graphene, as the surface of a three dimensional (3D) crystal, plays a crucial role in the determination of its physical, electronic and chemical properties and thus has been extensively studied recently. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the study of graphene edges, including edge formation energy, edge reconstruction, method of graphene edge synthesis and the recent progress on metal-passivated graphene edges and the role of edges in graphene CVD growth. We expect this review to provide a guideline for readers to gain a clear picture of graphene edges from several aspects, especially the catalyst-passivated graphene edges and their role in graphene CVD growth. PMID:23420074

  9. Cutting Edge: B Cell-Intrinsic T-bet Expression Is Required To Control Chronic Viral Infection.

    Barnett, Burton E; Staupe, Ryan P; Odorizzi, Pamela M; Palko, Olesya; Tomov, Vesselin T; Mahan, Alison E; Gunn, Bronwyn; Chen, Diana; Paley, Michael A; Alter, Galit; Reiner, Steven L; Lauer, Georg M; Teijaro, John R; Wherry, E John

    2016-08-15

    The role of Ab and B cells in preventing infection is established. In contrast, the role of B cell responses in containing chronic infections remains poorly understood. IgG2a (IgG1 in humans) can prevent acute infections, and T-bet promotes IgG2a isotype switching. However, whether IgG2a and B cell-expressed T-bet influence the host-pathogen balance during persisting infections is unclear. We demonstrate that B cell-specific loss of T-bet prevents control of persisting viral infection. T-bet in B cells controlled IgG2a production, as well as mucosal localization, proliferation, glycosylation, and a broad transcriptional program. T-bet controlled a broad antiviral program in addition to IgG2a because T-bet in B cells was important, even in the presence of virus-specific IgG2a. Our data support a model in which T-bet is a universal controller of antiviral immunity across multiple immune lineages. PMID:27430722

  10. Composition analysis of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell microporous layer using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    George, Michael G.; Wang, Jian; Banerjee, Rupak; Bazylak, Aimy

    2016-03-01

    The novel application of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to the microporous layer (MPL) of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell is investigated. A spatially resolved chemical component distribution map is obtained for the MPL of a commercially available SGL 25 BC sample. This is achieved with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic analysis. Prior to analysis the sample is embedded in non-reactive epoxy and ultra-microtomed to a thickness of 100 nm. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), carbon particle agglomerates, and supporting epoxy resin distributions are identified and reconstructed for a scanning area of 6 μm × 6 μm. It is observed that the spatial distribution of PTFE is strongly correlated to the carbon particle agglomerations. Additionally, agglomerate structures of PTFE are identified, possibly indicating the presence of a unique mesostructure in the MPL. STXM analysis is presented as a useful technique for the investigation of chemical species distributions in the MPL.

  11. High-surface-area nanomesh graphene with enriched edge sites as efficient metal-free cathodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Yang, Wang; Xu, Xiuwen; Gao, Yalun; Li, Zhao; Li, Cuiyu; Wang, Wenping; Chen, Yu; Ning, Guoqing; Zhang, Liqiang; Yang, Fan; Chen, Shengli; Wang, Aijun; Kong, Jing; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-07-14

    Exploiting cost-effective and highly efficient counter electrodes (CEs) has been a persistent objective for practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we present an efficient CE by using pure three-dimensional (3D) nanomesh graphene frameworks (NGFs) which are synthesized via a template-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. The high-surface-area 3D NGFs associated with the enriched surface edge defects make it very efficient towards I3(-) reduction even without any Pt catalyst. More interestingly, by virtue of the interpenetrating graphene frameworks, the NGFs exhibit excellent electron conductivity, thus leading to facile charge transfer. Consequently, the DSSCs with pure NGFs as CEs display a power conversion efficiency of 7.32%, which is comparable to that of Pt as CEs (7.28%), thereby exhibiting great potential as low-cost and highly efficient CE materials for large-scale deployment of DSSCs. PMID:27328165

  12. Uncoupling and reactive oxygen species (ROS)--a double-edged sword for β-cell function? "Moderation in all things".

    Collins, Sheila; Pi, Jingbo; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav

    2012-12-01

    The ability of the mitochondrion to (a) manage fuel import to oxidize for adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) generation while (b) protecting itself and the cellular environment from electron leak, which can generate highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a delicate balancing act. ATP is the currency of the cell and as such serves a signaling function as a substrate partner to many kinases and ion channels. While various ROS species have been viewed as a dangerous and toxic group of molecules, it also has a role as a signal derived from mitochondria, as well as other enzymatic sources: a double-edged sword. Current efforts to understand the biochemical mechanisms affected by ROS as a signal--usually noted to be hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))--are exciting, but this duality of ROS effects also pose challenges in managing its levels to protect cells. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), UCP3, and the permeability transition pore have been integral to efforts to try to understand what role mitochondrial-derived ROS have in cells. In this piece we reflect on mitochondrial ROS and uncoupling proteins as signaling regulators. It seems that when it comes to ROS and uncoupling the proverb "Moderation in all things" is apt. PMID:23168277

  13. Stability of edge states and edge magnetism in graphene nanoribbons

    Kunstmann, Jens; Özdoğan, Cem; Quandt, Alexander; Fehske, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We critically discuss the stability of edge states and edge magnetism in zigzag edge graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs). We point out that magnetic edge states might not exist in real systems, and show that there are at least three very natural mechanisms - edge reconstruction, edge passivation, and edge closure - which dramatically reduce the effect of edge states in ZGNRs or even totally eliminate them. Even if systems with magnetic edge states could be made, the intrinsic magnetism would not be ...

  14. Edge-selenated graphene nanoplatelets as durable metal-free catalysts for iodine reduction reaction in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Ju, Myung Jong; Jeon, In-Yup; Kim, Hong Mo; Choi, Ji Il; Jung, Sun-Min; Seo, Jeong-Min; Choi, In Taek; Kang, Sung Ho; Kim, Han Seul; Noh, Min Jong; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are sufficiently active in Co(II)/Co(III) electrolytes but are not satisfactory in the most commonly used iodide/triiodide (I−/I3−) electrolytes. Thus, developing active and stable metal-free electrocatalysts in both electrolytes is one of the most important issues in DSSC research. We report the synthesis of edge-selenated graphene nanoplatelets (SeGnPs) prepared by a simple mechanochemical reaction between graphite and selenium (Se) powders, and their application to the counter electrode (CE) for DSSCs in both I−/I3− and Co(II)/Co(III) electrolytes. The edge-selective doping and the preservation of the pristine graphene basal plane in the SeGnPs were confirmed by various analytical techniques, including atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Tested as the DSSC CE in both Co(bpy)32+/3+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) and I−/I3− electrolytes, the SeGnP-CEs exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic performance with ultimately high stability. The SeGnP-CE–based DSSCs displayed a higher photovoltaic performance than did the Pt-CE–based DSSCs in both SM315 sensitizer with Co(bpy)32+/3+ and N719 sensitizer with I−/I3− electrolytes. Furthermore, the I3− reduction mechanism, which has not been fully understood in carbon-based CE materials to date, was clarified by an electrochemical kinetics study combined with density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green’s function calculations. PMID:27386557

  15. High-surface-area nanomesh graphene with enriched edge sites as efficient metal-free cathodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Yang, Wang; Xu, Xiuwen; Gao, Yalun; Li, Zhao; Li, Cuiyu; Wang, Wenping; Chen, Yu; Ning, Guoqing; Zhang, Liqiang; Yang, Fan; Chen, Shengli; Wang, Aijun; Kong, Jing; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-06-01

    Exploiting cost-effective and highly efficient counter electrodes (CEs) has been a persistent objective for practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we present an efficient CE by using pure three-dimensional (3D) nanomesh graphene frameworks (NGFs) which are synthesized via a template-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. The high-surface-area 3D NGFs associated with the enriched surface edge defects make it very efficient towards I3- reduction even without any Pt catalyst. More interestingly, by virtue of the interpenetrating graphene frameworks, the NGFs exhibit excellent electron conductivity, thus leading to facile charge transfer. Consequently, the DSSCs with pure NGFs as CEs display a power conversion efficiency of 7.32%, which is comparable to that of Pt as CEs (7.28%), thereby exhibiting great potential as low-cost and highly efficient CE materials for large-scale deployment of DSSCs.Exploiting cost-effective and highly efficient counter electrodes (CEs) has been a persistent objective for practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we present an efficient CE by using pure three-dimensional (3D) nanomesh graphene frameworks (NGFs) which are synthesized via a template-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. The high-surface-area 3D NGFs associated with the enriched surface edge defects make it very efficient towards I3- reduction even without any Pt catalyst. More interestingly, by virtue of the interpenetrating graphene frameworks, the NGFs exhibit excellent electron conductivity, thus leading to facile charge transfer. Consequently, the DSSCs with pure NGFs as CEs display a power conversion efficiency of 7.32%, which is comparable to that of Pt as CEs (7.28%), thereby exhibiting great potential as low-cost and highly efficient CE materials for large-scale deployment of DSSCs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM image, SAED image, cross-sectional SEM

  16. Unreacted PbI2 as a Double-Edged Sword for Enhancing the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Jacobsson, T Jesper; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Halvani Anaraki, Elham; Philippe, Bertrand; Stranks, Samuel D; Bouduban, Marine E F; Tress, Wolfgang; Schenk, Kurt; Teuscher, Joël; Moser, Jacques-E; Rensmo, Håkan; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2016-08-17

    Lead halide perovskites have over the past few years attracted considerable interest as photo absorbers in PV applications with record efficiencies now reaching 22%. It has recently been found that not only the composition but also the precise stoichiometry is important for the device performance. Recent reports have, for example, demonstrated small amount of PbI2 in the perovskite films to be beneficial for the overall performance of both the standard perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, as well as for the mixed perovskites (CH3NH3)x(CH(NH2)2)(1-x)PbBryI(3-y). In this work a broad range of characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photo electron spectroscopy (PES), transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS), UV-vis, electroluminescence (EL), photoluminescence (PL), and confocal PL mapping have been used to further understand the importance of remnant PbI2 in perovskite solar cells. Our best devices were over 18% efficient, and had in line with previous results a small amount of excess PbI2. For the PbI2-deficient samples, the photocurrent dropped, which could be attributed to accumulation of organic species at the grain boundaries, low charge carrier mobility, and decreased electron injection into the TiO2. The PbI2-deficient compositions did, however, also have advantages. The record Voc was as high as 1.20 V and was found in PbI2-deficient samples. This was correlated with high crystal quality, longer charge carrier lifetimes, and high PL yields and was rationalized as a consequence of the dynamics of the perovskite formation. We further found the ion migration to be obstructed in the PbI2-deficient samples, which decreased the JV hysteresis and increased the photostability. PbI2-deficient synthesis conditions can thus be used to deposit perovskites with excellent crystal quality but with the downside of grain boundaries enriched in organic species, which act as a barrier toward

  17. Edge physics Simulations

    X.Q. Xu; C.S. Chang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The plasma edge includes the pedestal, scrape-off, and divertor regions. A complete edge physics should deal with the plasma, atomic, and the plasma-wall interaction phenomena. The edge provides the source of plasma through ionization of the incoming neutral particles and source of impurity through the wall sputtering. Edge plasma sets a boundary condition for the core confinement physics. Importance of the edge plasma has been elevated to the top list of the ITER physics research needs due to the necessity of the self-organized plasma pedestal and its destruction by edge localized mode activities. Extrapolation of the present tokamak data base predicts that a sufficient pedestal height is a necessary condition for the success of ITER.

  18. Tasting edge effects

    Bocquet, L

    2006-01-01

    We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

  19. Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing

    Krebs, Frederik C. [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2009-04-15

    A complete polymer solar cell module prepared in the ambient atmosphere using all-solution processing with no vacuum steps and full roll-to-roll (R2R) processing is presented. The modules comprise five layers that were prepared on a 175-{mu}m flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrate with an 80-nm layer of transparent conducting indium-tin oxide (ITO). The ITO layer was first patterned by screen printing an etch resist followed by etching. The second layer was applied by either knife-over-edge (KOE) coating or slot-die coating a solution of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-nps) followed by curing. The second layer comprised a mixture of the thermocleavable poly-(3-(2-methylhexan-2-yl)-oxy-carbonyldithiophene) (P3MHOCT) and ZnO-nps and was applied by a modified slot-die coating procedure, enabling slow coating speeds with low viscosity and low surface tension ink solutions. The third layer was patterned into stripes and juxtaposed with the ITO layer. The fourth layer comprised screen-printed or slot-die-coated PEDOT:PSS and the fifth and the final layer comprised a screen-printed or slot-die-coated silver electrode. The final module dimensions were 28 cm x 32 cm and presented four individual solar cell modules: a single-stripe cell, a two-stripe serially connected module, a three-stripe serially connected module and finally an eight-stripe serially connected module. The length of the individual stripes was 25 cm and the width was 0.9 cm. With overlaps of the individual layers this gave a width of the active layer of 0.6 cm and an active area for each stripe of 15 cm{sup 2}. The performance was increased ten fold compared to mass-produced modules employing screen printing for all five layers of the device. The processing speeds employed for the R2R processed layers were in the range of 40-50 m h{sup -1}. Finally a comparison is made with the state of the art represented by P3HT-PCBM as the active layer and full R2R solution processing using slot-die coating

  20. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    Labrecque, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  1. Color image retrieval using edge and edge-spatial features

    Chaobing Huang; Quan Liu

    2006-01-01

    @@ A novel methodology to integrate edge feature and edge-spatial feature of an image is proposed. The edge feature is described by edge histogram of image, the edge-spatial feature is described by spatial distribution of pixels of identical edge value in the image. Experimental results show that the method can achieve better retrieval performance, especially for color natural images with more complex spatial layout.

  2. Theory of edge radiation

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2008-01-01

    We formulate a complete theory of Edge Radiation based on a novel method relying on Fourier Optics techniques. Similar types of radiation like Transition Undulator Radiation are addressed in the framework of the same formalism. Special attention is payed in discussing the validity of approximations upon which the theory is built. Our study makes consistent use of both similarity techniques and comparisons with numerical results from simulation. We discuss both near and far zone. Physical understanding of many asymptotes is discussed. Based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, we also discuss an analytical model to describe the presence of a vacuum chamber. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Finally, we consider the use of Edge Radiation as a tool for electron beam diagnostics. We discuss Coherent Edge Radiation, Extraction of Edge Radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long ...

  3. Adobe Edge Preview 3

    Grover, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Want to use an Adobe tool to design animated web graphics that work on iPhone and iPad? You've come to the right book. Adobe Edge Preview 3: The Missing Manual shows you how to build HTML5 graphics using simple visual tools. No programming experience? No problem. Adobe Edge writes the underlying code for you. With this eBook, you'll be designing great-looking web elements in no time. Get to know the workspace. Learn how Adobe Edge Preview 3 performs its magic.Create and import graphics. Make drawings with Edge's tools, or use art you designed in other programs.Work with text. Build menus, lab

  4. Memristive fuzzy edge detector

    Merrikh-Bayat, Farnood

    2011-01-01

    Fuzzy inference systems always suffer from the lack of efficient structures or platforms for their hardware implementation. In this paper, we tried to overcome this problem by proposing new method for the implementation of those fuzzy inference systems which use fuzzy rule base to make inference. To achieve this goal, we have designed a multi-layer neuro-fuzzy computing system based on the memristor crossbar structure by introducing some new concepts like fuzzy minterms. Although many applications can be realized through the use of our proposed system, in this study we show how the fuzzy XOR function can be constructed and how it can be used to extract edges from grayscale images. Our memristive fuzzy edge detector (implemented in analog form) compared with other common edge detectors has this advantage that it can extract edges of any given image all at once in real-time.

  5. Edge Effects and Huanglongbing

    Luo, W.; Anco, D J; Gottwald, T. R.; Irey, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), spread by a psyllid vector, is globally considered a major threat to commercial and sustainable citrus production. Better understanding of the vector-mediated patterns of HLB spread is essential to inform and maximize disease management. From previous studies, edge effects are a significant characteristic of the HLB pathosystem and have been observed predominately in larger plantings. In this study, we investigated 1) the impact of different edge classes and orientations,...

  6. Compressor leading edges

    Goodhand, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Compressor blades often have a small 'spike' in the surface pressure distribution at the leading edge. This may result from blade erosion, manufacture defects or compromises made in the original design process. In this thesis it is shown that these spikes will increase the loss generated by a blade only when they become large enough to initiate boundary layer transition at the leading edge through a separation bubble; this process increases profile loss by about 30%. A criterion is presen...

  7. The Edge supersonic transport

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  8. Edge detection depends on achromatic channel in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Zhou, Yanqiong; Ji, Xiaoxiao; Gong, Haiyun; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2012-10-01

    Edges represent important information in object recognition, and thus edge detection is crucial for animal survival. Various types of edges result from visual contrast, such as luminance contrast and color contrast. So far, the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying edge detection and the relationship between different edge information-processing pathways have been largely undemonstrated. In the present study, using a color light-emitting-diode-based Buridan's paradigm, we demonstrated that a blue/green demarcation is able to generate edge-orientation behavior in the adult fly. There is a blue/green intensity ratio, the so-called point of equal luminance, at which wild-type flies did not show obvious orientation behavior towards edges. This suggests that orientation behavior towards edges is dependent on luminance contrast in Drosophila. The results of mutants ninaE(17) and sev(LY3);rh5(2);rh6(1) demonstrated that achromatic R1-R6 photoreceptor cells, but not chromatic R7/R8 photoreceptor cells, were necessary for orientation behavior towards edges. Moreover, ectopic expression of rhodopsin 4 (Rh4), Rh5 or Rh6 could efficiently restore the edge-orientation defect in the ninaE(17) mutant. Altogether, our results show that R1-R6 photoreceptor cells are both necessary and sufficient for orientation behavior towards edges in Drosophila. PMID:22735352

  9. Cell-cell interactions impacts on the rate of swarm expansion and the edge shape of a colony swarming Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Amiri, Aboutaleb; Tierra, Giordano; Xu, Zhiliang; Shrout, Joshua; Alber, Mark

    Collective motion has been observed by several bacterial species including the pathogenic bacterium P. aeruginosa. A flagellum at the pole is known to generate a self-propulsion motion. However, the role of type IV pili (TFP), distributed on the cell membrane, during swarming needs to be investigated in more details. In this work we introduce a model that combines the hydrodynamic and biophysical interactions in order to study the impact of the TFP interactions on swarming behavior of the colony. The model describes the motion and interactions of rod-shaped self propelled bacteria inside a thin liquid film. It also includes the equations describing the production and diffusion of surfactant rhamnolipids that is responsible for extraction of water from substrate, and Marangoni driven expansion of the thin liquid film by altering the surface tension. We show that TFP interactions are responsible for slower expansion rate of colonies of TFP deficient mutants compared to wild type. Experimental observations were used to calibrate the model and verify the model assumptions and predictions.

  10. Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    -nm layer of transparent conducting indium–tin oxide (ITO). The ITO layer was first patterned by screen printing an etch resist followed by etching. The second layer was applied by either knife-over-edge (KOE) coating or slot-die coating a solution of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-nps) followed...

  11. A New Edge-directed Subpixel Edge Localization Method

    于新瑞; 徐威; 王石刚; 李倩

    2004-01-01

    Localization of the inspected chip image is one of the key problems with machine vision aided surface mount devices (SMD) and other micro-electronic equipments. This paper presents a new edge-directed subpixel edge localization method. The image is divided into two regions, edge and non-edge, using edge detection to emphasize the edge feature. Since the edges of the chip image are straight, they have straight-line characteristics locally and globally. First,the line segments of the straight edge are located to subpixel precision, according to their local straight properties, in a 3 × 3 neighborhood of the edge region. Second, the subpixel midpoints of the line segments are computed. Finally, the straight edge is fitted using the midpoints and the least square method, according to its global straight property in the entire edge region. In this way, the edge is located to subpixel precision. While fitting the edge, the irregular points are eliminated by the angles of the line segments to improve the precision. We can also distinguish different edges and their intersections using the angles of the line segments and distances between the edge points, then give the vectorial result of the image edge with high precision.

  12. Regulation of Localized Rac Activation in Leading Edge of Directed Migrating Cells%定向迁移细胞前沿Rac局部化激活的分子调控

    李友军; 罗孝勇; 郭向荣

    2013-01-01

    Rac activation is strongly regulated spacially and temporally in migrating cells, leading to the formation of specific cell protrusion-lamellipodia in leading edge of the cells and generating the pushing force to put the cells forward, but the molecular mechanism of positive regulation of localized Rac activation remains unclear. We propose that the phosphorylation of the intracellular α4 integrin inhibits the interaction of α4 with paxillin, thus the signaling pathway paxillin-GITl -PIX-PAK would be formed, leading to localized Rac activation in leading edge of the migrating cells. In the paper, western blotting clearly showed that the interactions accurately exist between the cytoskeleton proteins GIT1 and paxillin or PIX respectively. Fluorescent colocalization confirmed that the interactions between GIT1 and paxillin or PIX occur in the leading edge of the cells. Rac activation assay elucidated that Rac is in activated state (GTP-bound) under the stimulation of ECM fibronectin, suggesting that the signaling pathway paxillin-GITl -PIX-PAK led to Rac activation. The results built the experimental basis for the study of regulation mechanism on localized Rac activation in leading edge of directed migrating cells.%提出构想:当α4胞内区域磷酸化而抑制其与paxillin结合时,paxillin、GIT1与PIX、PAK形成信号分子复合物.由于PIX为Rac的转换分子,PAK为Rac的效应分子,构成了paxillin-GIT1-PIX-PAK信号转导通路,从而促使Rac在细胞前沿持续地局部化激活,导致片状足的形成,产生细胞向前扩展推动力.研究结果表明,GIT1与paxillin、PIX在活细胞中均存在强烈的相互作用,且这种相互作用可发生在细胞前沿.由于Rac的转换因子PIX(PAK-interacting exchange factor)在活细胞中往往与PAK相伴而行,因而,在细胞前沿,必定存在paxillin-GIT1-PIX-PAK的信号转导通路.在纤粘蛋白(fibronectin)刺激下,整合素α4诱导Rac蛋白处于激活状态(GTP-bound).

  13. On finite edge-primitive and edge-quasiprimitive graphs

    Giudici, Michael; Li, Cai Heng

    2009-01-01

    Many famous graphs are edge-primitive, for example, the Heawood graph, the Tutte--Coxeter graph and the Higman--Sims graph. In this paper we systematically analyse edge-primitive and edge-quasiprimitive graphs via the O'Nan--Scott Theorem to determine the possible edge and vertex actions of such graphs. Many interesting examples are given and we also determine all $G$-edge-primitive graphs for $G$ an almost simple group with socle $PSL(2,q)$.

  14. Evidence for heterophilic adhesion of embryonic retinal cells and neuroblastoma cells to substratum-adsorbed NCAM

    1992-01-01

    The adhesion of embryonic chicken retinal cells and mouse N2A neuroblastoma cells to purified embryonic chicken retinal NCAM adsorbed on a solid substratum was examined using a quantitative centrifugal adhesion assay. Both cell types adhered to NCAM and the adhesion was specifically inhibited by monovalent anti-NCAM antibody fragments. N2A cell adhesion depended on the amount of NCAM applied to the substratum, was cation independent, and was insensitive to treatment with the cytoskeletal pert...

  15. Canny Edge Detection using Verilog

    D Narayana Reddy*; , Mohan A R2; , Subhramanya Bhat3

    2014-01-01

    Edge detection is one of the key stages in image processing and objects identification. The Canny Edge Detector is one of the most widely used edge detection algorithm due to its good performance. Edge detection carries preprocessing step for many image processing algorithms such as image enhancement, image segmentation, tracking and image/video coding. Canny’s edge detection algorithm that results in significantly reduced memory requirements decreased latency and increased th...

  16. Edge effects in magnetoplasmas

    Suttorp, L G

    1995-01-01

    Edge effects in magnetized charged-particle systems are discussed with the help of a multiple-reflection expansion for the Green function. The profiles of the density and the electric current are determined both for the non-degenerate and the highly degenerate case. The asymptotic form of the profiles near the bulk is found to be exponentially decaying in both cases.

  17. Dictionary based Approach to Edge Detection

    Chandra, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Edge detection is a very essential part of image processing, as quality and accuracy of detection determines the success of further processing. We have developed a new self learning technique for edge detection using dictionary comprised of eigenfilters constructed using features of the input image. The dictionary based method eliminates the need of pre or post processing of the image and accounts for noise, blurriness, class of image and variation of illumination during the detection process itself. Since, this method depends on the characteristics of the image, the new technique can detect edges more accurately and capture greater detail than existing algorithms such as Sobel, Prewitt Laplacian of Gaussian, Canny method etc which use generic filters and operators. We have demonstrated its application on various classes of images such as text, face, barcodes, traffic and cell images. An application of this technique to cell counting in a microscopic image is also presented.

  18. Superpixel edges for boundary detection

    Moya, Mary M.; Koch, Mark W.

    2016-07-12

    Various embodiments presented herein relate to identifying one or more edges in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image comprising a plurality of superpixels. Superpixels sharing an edge (or boundary) can be identified and one or more properties of the shared superpixels can be compared to determine whether the superpixels form the same or two different features. Where the superpixels form the same feature the edge is identified as an internal edge. Where the superpixels form two different features, the edge is identified as an external edge. Based upon classification of the superpixels, the external edge can be further determined to form part of a roof, wall, etc. The superpixels can be formed from a speckle-reduced SAR image product formed from a registered stack of SAR images, which is further segmented into a plurality of superpixels. The edge identification process is applied to the SAR image comprising the superpixels and edges.

  19. Graphene edges; localized edge state and electron wave interference

    Enoki Toshiaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structure of massless Dirac fermion in the graphene hexagonal bipartite is seriously modified by the presence of edges depending on the edge chirality. In the zigzag edge, strongly spin polarized nonbonding edge state is created as a consequence of broken symmetry of pseudo-spin. In the scattering at armchair edges, the K-K’ intervalley transition gives rise to electron wave interference. The presence of edge state in zigzag edges is observed in ultra-high vacuum STM/STS observations. The electron wave interference phenomenon in the armchair edge is observed in the Raman G-band and the honeycomb superlattice pattern with its fine structure in STM images.

  20. The Transcultural Edge

    Ilaria Vanni

    2016-01-01

    Critical writing about transculturation has a long history in Latin American studies, and more recently the concept has been used to analyse the effects of globalization. This article takes as its point of departure the Latin American genealogy of the idea, and brings it together with the ecological notion of ‘edge’ intended as a transition area between different systems. By bringing transculturation and edge together this paper seeks to understand transculturation as a process in which human...

  1. Forest edges in boreal landscapes - factors affecting edge influence

    Jansson, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The boreal forest in Fennoscandia has been subjected to major loss and fragmentation of natural forests due to intensive forestry. This has resulted in that forest edges are now abundant and important landscape features. Edges have documented effects on the structure, function and biodiversity in forests. Edge influence on biodiversity is complex and depends on interactions between many local and regional factors. This thesis focuses on sharp forest edges and their potential to influence biod...

  2. Push-Edge and Slide-Edge: Scrolling by Pushing Against the Viewport Edge

    Malacria, Sylvain; Aceituno, Jonathan; Quinn, Philip; Casiez, Géry; Cockburn, Andy; ROUSSEL, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    International audience Edge-scrolling allows users to scroll a viewport while simultaneously dragging near or beyond a window’s edge. Common implementations rely on rate control, mapping the distance between the pointer and the edge of the viewport to the scrolling velocity. While ubiquitous in operating systems, edge-scrolling has received little attention, even though previous works suggest that (1) rate control may be suboptimal for isotonic pointing devices like mice and trackpads and ...

  3. Efficient edge domination in regular graphs

    Cardoso, Domingos M.; Cerdeira, J. Orestes; Delorme, Charles; Silva, Pedro C

    2008-01-01

    An induced matching of a graph G is a matching having no two edges joined by an edge. An efficient edge dominating set of G is an induced matching M such that every other edge of G is adjacent to some edge in M. We relate maximum induced matchings and efficient edge dominating sets, showing that efficient edge dominating sets are maximum induced matchings, and that maximum induced matchings on regular graphs with efficient edge dominating sets are efficient edge dominating sets. A ...

  4. Topological number of edge states

    Hashimoto, Koji; Kimura, Taro

    2016-05-01

    We show that the edge states of the four-dimensional class A system can have topological charges, which are characterized by Abelian/non-Abelian monopoles. The edge topological charges are a new feature of relations among theories with different dimensions. From this novel viewpoint, we provide a non-Abelian analog of the TKNN number as an edge topological charge, which is defined by an SU(2) 't Hooft-Polyakov BPS monopole through an equivalence to Nahm construction. Furthermore, putting a constant magnetic field yields an edge monopole in a noncommutative momentum space, where D-brane methods in string theory facilitate study of edge fermions.

  5. Topological Number of Edge States

    Hashimoto, Koji

    2016-01-01

    We show that the edge states of the four-dimensional class A system can have topological charges, which are characterized by Abelian/non-Abelian monopoles. The edge topological charges are a new feature of relations among theories with different dimensions. From this novel viewpoint, we provide a non-Abelian analogue of the TKNN number as an edge topological charge, which is defined by an SU(2) 't Hooft-Polyakov BPS monopole through an equivalence to Nahm construction. Furthermore, putting a constant magnetic field yields an edge monopole in a non-commutative momentum space, where D-brane methods in string theory facilitate study of edge fermions.

  6. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    MIAOLianying; LIUGuizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G).S E(G)is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S.The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xc(G),is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G.It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ,δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xcf(G),is the fractional matiching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hypereges the edge covers of G.In this paper,we study the relation between Xc(G) and δfor any graph G,and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ by the technique of graph coloring.For any graph G,we give an exact formula o Xcf(G),that is,Xcf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)},where λ(G)=minCS/S/2 and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.δ

  7. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    MIAO Lianying; LIU Guizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G). S _C E(G) is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S. The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'c(G) , is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G. It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ, δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'cf(G), is the fractional matching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hyperedges the edge covers of G. In this paper, we study the relation between X'c(G) and δ for any graph G, and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ by the technique of graph coloring. For any graph G, we give an exact formula of X'cf(G), that is, X'cf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)}, where λ(G)=min |C[S]|/[|S|/2]and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.

  8. Competing edge networks

    We introduce a model for a pair of nonlinear evolving networks, defined over a common set of vertices, subject to edgewise competition. Each network may grow new edges spontaneously or through triad closure. Both networks inhibit the other's growth and encourage the other's demise. These nonlinear stochastic competition equations yield to a mean field analysis resulting in a nonlinear deterministic system. There may be multiple equilibria; and bifurcations of different types are shown to occur within a reduced parameter space. This situation models competitive communication networks such as BlackBerry Messenger displacing SMS; or instant messaging displacing emails. -- Highlights: ► A model for edgewise-competing evolving network pairs is introduced. ► Defined competition equations yield to a mean field analysis. ► Multiple equilibrium states and different bifurcation types can occur. ► The system is sensitive to sparse initial conditions and near unstable equilibriums.

  9. Edge-on!

    2007-08-01

    Peering at Uranus's Rings as they Swing Edge-on to Earth for the First Time Since their Discovery in 1977 As Uranus coasts through a brief window of time when its rings are edge-on to Earth - a view of the planet we get only once every 42 years - astronomers peering at the rings with ESO's Very Large Telescope and other space or ground-based telescopes are getting an unprecedented view of the fine dust in the system, free from the glare of the bright rocky rings. They may even find a new moon or two. ESO PR Photo 37/07 ESO PR Photo 37/07 The Uranus System "ESO's VLT took data at the precise moment when the rings were edge-on to Earth," said Imke de Pater, of University of California, Berkeley who coordinated the worldwide campaign. She worked with two team members observing in Chile: Daphne Stam of the Technical University Delft in the Netherlands and Markus Hartung of ESO. The observations were done with NACO, one of the adaptive optics instruments installed at the VLT. With adaptive optics, it is possible to obtain images almost free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere. It is as if the 8.2-m telescope were observing from space. Observations were also done with the Keck telescope in Hawaii, the Hubble Space Telescope, and at the Palomar Observatory. "Using different telescopes around the world allows us to observe as much of the changes during the ring-plane crossing as possible: when Uranus sets as seen from the VLT, it can still be observed by the Keck," emphasised Stam. Uranus orbits the Sun in 84 years. Twice during a Uranian year, the rings appear edge-on to Earth for a brief period. The rings were discovered in 1977, so this is the first time for a Uranus ring-crossing to be observed from Earth. The advantage of observations at a ring-plane crossing is that it becomes possible to look at the rings from the shadowed or dark side. From that vantage point, the normally bright outer rings grow fainter because their centimetre- to metre-sized rocks obscure

  10. Edge remap for solids

    Kamm, James R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, Allen C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Young, Joseph G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  11. Edge phonons in black phosphorus.

    Ribeiro, H B; Villegas, C E P; Bahamon, D A; Muraca, D; Castro Neto, A H; de Souza, E A T; Rocha, A R; Pimenta, M A; de Matos, C J S

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  12. Edge colouring by total labellings

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.;

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...... two endvertices. We define χ (G) to be the smallest integer k for which G has an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This parameter has natural upper and lower bounds in terms of the maximum degree Δ of G : ⌈ (Δ + 1) / 2 ⌉ ≤ χ (G) ≤ Δ + 1. We improve the upper bound by 1 for every graph and prove χ (G...

  13. Activated R-Ras, Rac1, Pi 3-Kinase and Pkcε Can Each Restore Cell Spreading Inhibited by Isolated Integrin β1 Cytoplasmic Domains

    Berrier, Allison L.; Mastrangelo, Anthony M.; Downward, Julian; Ginsberg, Mark; LaFlamme, Susan E.

    2000-01-01

    Attachment of many cell types to extracellular matrix proteins triggers cell spreading, a process that strengthens cell adhesion and is a prerequisite for many adhesion-dependent processes including cell migration, survival, and proliferation. Cell spreading requires integrins with intact β cytoplasmic domains, presumably to connect integrins with the actin cytoskeleton and to activate signaling pathways that promote cell spreading. Several signaling proteins are known to regulate cell spread...

  14. Cutting Edge: IL-4, IL-21, and IFN-γ Interact To Govern T-bet and CD11c Expression in TLR-Activated B Cells.

    Naradikian, Martin S; Myles, Arpita; Beiting, Daniel P; Roberts, Kenneth J; Dawson, Lucas; Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Bengsch, Bertram; Linderman, Susanne L; Stelekati, Erietta; Spolski, Rosanne; Wherry, E John; Hunter, Christopher; Hensley, Scott E; Leonard, Warren J; Cancro, Michael P

    2016-08-15

    T-bet and CD11c expression in B cells is linked with IgG2c isotype switching, virus-specific immune responses, and humoral autoimmunity. However, the activation requisites and regulatory cues governing T-bet and CD11c expression in B cells remain poorly defined. In this article, we reveal a relationship among TLR engagement, IL-4, IL-21, and IFN-γ that regulates T-bet expression in B cells. We find that IL-21 or IFN-γ directly promote T-bet expression in the context of TLR engagement. Further, IL-4 antagonizes T-bet induction. Finally, IL-21, but not IFN-γ, promotes CD11c expression independent of T-bet. Using influenza virus and Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections, we show that these interactions function in vivo to determine whether T-bet(+) and CD11c(+) B cells are formed. These findings suggest that T-bet(+) B cells seen in health and disease share the common initiating features of TLR-driven activation within this circumscribed cytokine milieu. PMID:27430719

  15. Protease inhibitors as radioprotectors: a review of ''cutting-edge'' concepts in taming radiation-induced cell death executioners along the mouse GI tract

    What is now known in radiation biology is that tumor and normal cells after radiotherapy do not simply die as a result of the physiological chaos caused by DNA damage, but rather from a high-ordered triggering and implementation of a complex apoptosis program. The radiosensitivity of normal cells that surround the tumor target is a critical issue, which when successfully altered through the application of a radioprotector, would provide a wider therapeutic window to improve tumor kill. Logically, it is from this standpoint that radioprotection of normal tissues could be achieved by preventing the molecular cascades responsible for cell death itself. We demonstrate from this experiment the modulation of intestinal crypt radiosensitivities in ICR mice after whole-body exposure to 20 Gy gamma-radiation. Addition to protease inhibitors is aimed at blocking the protease executioner pathway during radiation-induced programmed cell death. The radiosensitive intestinal tissue microarchitecture is most intact in mice injected with 400 mg/gm body weight of antipain, an aspartic acid protease inhibitor. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), a metalloprotease inhibitor and chelating agent, and gamma-caproic acid (GACA), an inhibitor of fibrinogen, both fail to show promise as radioprotectors based on our intestinal microcolony model. In the light of our recent findings and the accumulation of recent molecular data on concerned protease machineries, a paradigm of radiation cell death in the intestinal system is discussed. (Author)

  16. Edge-edge interactions in stacked graphene nanoplatelets

    Cruz Silva, Eduardo [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio [ORNL; Jia, Xiaoting [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Dresselhaus, M [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Meunier, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies show the dynamics of small graphene platelets on larger graphene layers. The platelets move nearly freely to eventually lock in at well-defined positions close to the edges of the larger underlying graphene sheet. While such movement is driven by a shallow potential energy surface described by an interplane interaction, the lock-in position occurs by via edge-edge interactions of the platelet and the graphene surface located underneath. Here we quantitatively study this behavior using van der Waals density functional calculations. Local interactions at the open edges are found to dictate stacking configurations that are different from Bernal (AB) stacking. These stacking configurations are known to be otherwise absent in edge-free two-dimensional (2D) graphene. The results explain the experimentally observed platelet dynamics and provide a detailed account of the new electronic properties of these combined systems.

  17. Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges

    Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A.; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron-electron interactions in these localized states.

  18. High-efficiency screen-printed solar cell on edge-defined film-fed grown ribbon silicon through optimized rapid belt co-firing of contacts and high-sheet-resistance emitter

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Hilali, Mohamed M.; Nakayashiki, Kenta

    2004-04-01

    High-quality screen-printed contacts were achieved on a high-sheet-resistance emitter (˜100 Ω/sq.) using PV168 Ag paste and rapid co-firing in the belt furnace. The optimized co-firing cycle developed for a 100 Ω/sq. emitter produced 16.1% efficient 4 cm2 planar edge-defined film-fed grown (EFG) ribbon Si cells with a low series-resistance (0.8 Ω cm2), high fill factor of ˜0.77, along with very significant bulk lifetime enhancement from 3 to 100 μs. This represents the highest-efficiency screen-printed EFG Si cells with single-layer antireflection (AR) coating. These cells were fabricated using a simple process involving POCl3 diffusion for a high-sheet-resistance emitter, SiNx AR coating and rapid cofiring of Ag grid and Al-doped back-surface field in a conventional belt furnace. The rapid cofiring process also prevented junction shunting while maintaining very effective SiNx-induced hydrogen passivation of defects, resulting in an average bulk lifetime exceeding 100 μs.

  19. Rock Segmentation through Edge Regrouping

    Burl, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Rockster is an algorithm that automatically identifies the locations and boundaries of rocks imaged by the rover hazard cameras (hazcams), navigation cameras (navcams), or panoramic cameras (pancams). The software uses edge detection and edge regrouping to identify closed contours that separate the rocks from the background.

  20. Edge Detection Using Fuzzy Logic

    B. Govinda Lakshmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Edge detection is still difficult task in the image processing field. In this paper we implemented fuzzy techniques for detecting edges in the image. This algorithm also works for medical images. In this paper we also explained about Fuzzy inference system, which is more robust to contrast and lighting variations.

  1. Fission of Halving Edges Graphs

    Khovanova, Tanya; Yang, Dai

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an operation on halving edges graph that we call fission. Fission replaces each point in a given configuration with a small cluster of k points. The operation interacts nicely with halving edges, so we examine its properties in detail.

  2. Rapid clearance of epigenetic protein reporters from wound edge cells in Drosophila larvae does not depend on the JNK or PDGFR/VEGFR signaling pathways

    Anderson, Aimee E.; Galko, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The drastic cellular changes required for epidermal cells to dedifferentiate and become motile during wound closure are accompanied by changes in gene transcription, suggesting corresponding alterations in chromatin. However, the epigenetic changes that underlie wound-induced transcriptional programs remain poorly understood partly because a comprehensive study of epigenetic factor expression during wound healing has not been practical. To determine which chromatin modifying factors might con...

  3. Cutting edge: identification of the thymic stromal lymphopoietin-responsive dendritic cell subset critical for initiation of type 2 contact hypersensitivity.

    Kitajima, Masayuki; Ziegler, Steven F

    2013-11-15

    The cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been implicated in the initiation and progression of allergic inflammation through its ability to activate dendritic cells (DCs). However, the identity of the DC subset that responds to TSLP is not known. In this study we use a CCL17 reporter strain to identify the TSLP-responsive DC subset. In vitro, TSLP induced CD11b(high) DCs to express CCL17, to increase CCR7-mediated migration activity, and to drive Th2 differentiation of naive CD4 T cells. In vivo, following skin sensitization, we found that a subset of Ag-bearing CCL17(+)CD11b(high) migratory DCs, but not Ag-bearing CCL17(-) migratory DCs, in skin lymph nodes were capable of driving Th2 differentiation and were dramatically reduced in TSLPR-deficient mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TSLP activated a subset of CD11b(+) DCs in the skin to produce CCL17, upregulate CCR7, and migrate to the draining lymph node to initiate Th2 differentiation. PMID:24123684

  4. Edge magnetization in Bernal-stacked trilayer zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    Pérez, Juan Antonio Casao

    2016-06-01

    We have used a tight-binding Hamiltonian of an ABA-stacked trilayer zigzag graphene nanoribbon with β-alignment edges to study the edge magnetizations. Our model includes the effect of the intralayer next-nearest-neighbor hopping, the interlayer hopping responsible for the trigonal warping and the interaction between electrons, which is considered by a single band Hubbard model in the mean field approximation. Firstly, in the neutral system we analyzed the two magnetic states in which both edge magnetizations reach their maximum value; the first one is characterized by an intralayer ferromagnetic coupling between the magnetizations at opposite edges, whereas in the second state that coupling is antiferromagnetic. The band structure, the location of the edge-state bands and the local density of states resolved in spin are calculated in order to understand the origins of the edge magnetizations. We have also introduced an electron doping so that the number of electrons in the ribbon unit cell is higher than in neutral case. As a consequence, we have obtained magnetization steps and charge accumulation at the edges of the sample, which are caused by the edge-state flat bands.

  5. Spin-transfer-torque efficiency enhanced by edge-damage of perpendicular magnetic random access memories

    We numerically investigate the effect of magnetic and electrical damages at the edge of a perpendicular magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell on the spin-transfer-torque (STT) efficiency that is defined by the ratio of thermal stability factor to switching current. We find that the switching mode of an edge-damaged cell is different from that of an undamaged cell, which results in a sizable reduction in the switching current. Together with a marginal reduction of the thermal stability factor of an edge-damaged cell, this feature makes the STT efficiency large. Our results suggest that a precise edge control is viable for the optimization of STT-MRAM

  6. Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing

    The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length

  7. Improved performance of dye sensitized solar cells using Cu-doped TiO2 as photoanode materials: Band edge movement study by spectroelectrochemistry

    Zhou, Li; Wei, Liguo; Yang, Yulin; Xia, Xue; Wang, Ping; Yu, Jia; Luan, Tianzhu

    2016-08-01

    Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are prepared and used as semiconductor materials of photoanode to improve the performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable temperature spectroelectrochemistry study are used to characterize the influence of copper dopant with different concentrations on the band gap energies of TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared Cu-doped TiO2 semiconductor has avoided the formation of CuO during hydrothermal process and lowered the conduction band position of TiO2, which contribute to increase the short circuit current density of DSSCs. At the optimum Cu concentration of 1.0 at.%, the short circuit current density increased from 12.54 to 14.98 mA cm-2, full sun solar power conversion efficiencies increased from 5.58% up to 6.71% as compared to the blank DSSC. This showed that the presence of copper in DSSCs leads to improvements of up to 20% in the conversion efficiency of DSSCs.

  8. Fast tracking using edge histograms

    Rokita, Przemyslaw

    1997-04-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for tracking objects and objects boundaries. This algorithm was developed and applied in a system used for compositing computer generated images and real world video sequences, but can be applied in general in all tracking systems where accuracy and high processing speed are required. The algorithm is based on analysis of histograms obtained by summing along chosen axles pixels of edge segmented images. Edge segmentation is done by spatial convolution using gradient operator. The advantage of such an approach is that it can be performed in real-time using available on the market hardware convolution filters. After edge extraction and histograms computation, respective positions of maximums in edge intensity histograms, in current and previous frame, are compared and matched. Obtained this way information about displacement of histograms maximums, can be directly converted into information about changes of target boundaries positions along chosen axles.

  9. Arsenate reduction and methylation in the cells of Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1, Penicillium janthinellum SM-12F4, and Fusarium oxysporum CZ-8F1 investigated with X-ray absorption near edge structure

    Su, S.M., E-mail: shimingsu@163.com [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China); Zeng, X.B., E-mail: zengxb@ieda.org.cn [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China); Li, L.F.; Duan, R.; Bai, L.Y. [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China); Li, A.G.; Wang, J.; Jiang, S. [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fungal strains are capable of As(V) reduction and methylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As(V) reduction might be more easily processed than the methylation in fungal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As sequestration and speciation transformation might be the detoxification processes. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was introduced to directly analysis chemical species of arsenic (As) in the cells of Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1, Penicillium janthinellum SM-12F4, and Fusarium oxysporum CZ-8F1 capable of As accumulation and volatilisation. After exposure to As(V) of 500 mg L{sup -1} for 15 days, a total of 60.5% and 65.3% of the accumulated As in the cells of T. asperellum SM-12F1 and P. janthinellum SM-12F4, respectively, was As(III), followed by 31.3% and 32.4% DMA (dimethylarsinic acid), 8.3% and 2.3% MMA (monomethylarsonic acid), respectively. However, for F. oxysporum CZ-8F1, 54.5% of the accumulated As was As(III), followed by 37.8% MMA and 7.7% As(V). The reduction and methylation of As(V) formed As(III), MMA, and DMA as the primacy products, and the reduction of As(V) might be more easily processed than the methylation. These results will help to understanding the mechanisms of As detoxification and its future application in bioremediation.

  10. Flatband Engineering of Mobility Edges

    Danieli, Carlo; Bodyfelt, Joshua D.; Flach, Sergej

    2015-01-01

    Properly modulated flatband lattices have a divergent density of states at the flatband energy. Quasiperiodic modulations are known to host a metal insulator transition already in one space dimension. Their embedding into flatband geometries consequently allows for a precise engineering and fine tuning of mobility edges. We obtain analytic expressions for singular mobility edges for two flatband lattice examples. In particular, we engineer cases with arbitrarily small energy separations of mo...

  11. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2016-05-01

    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  12. Planar Maps in 4 bits/edge

    Curtis, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Existing planar map encodings neglect maps with loops. The presented scheme encodes any connected planar map in 4 bits/edge. Encoding and decoding time is O(edges). Implicit face/edge/vertex orderings and canonical encodings are discussed.

  13. Orientation Relationships between Ferrite and Cementite by Edge-to-edge Matching Principle

    Ning Zhong; Xiaodong Wang; Zhenghong Guo; Yonghua Rong

    2011-01-01

    The crystallographic features of pearlite were investigated by experiments and edge-to-edge matching principle. Two new orientation relationships between ferrite and cementite were determinated by selected area electron diffraction and then explained by our modified edge-to-edge matching method. The consistence of the experimental results with theoretical prediction confirms the practicability of the modified edge-to-edge matching model.

  14. Computation of Edge-Edge-Edge Events Based on Conicoid Theory for 3-D Object Recognition

    WU Chenye; MA Huimin

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a good viewpoint space partition is crucial in three dimensional (3-D) object rec-ognition on the approach of aspect graph. There are two important events depicted by the aspect graph ap-proach, edge-edge-edge (EEE) events and edge-vertex (EV) events. This paper presents an algorithm to compute EEE events by characteristic analysis based on conicoid theory, in contrast to current algorithms that focus too much on EV events and often overlook the importance of EEE events. Also, the paper provides a standard flowchart for the viewpoint space partitioning based on aspect graph theory that makes it suitable for perspective models. The partitioning result best demonstrates the algorithm's efficiency with more valu-able viewpoints found with the help of EEE events, which can definitely help to achieve high recognition rate for 3-D object recognition.

  15. Improved bound on facial parity edge coloring

    Lužar, Borut; Škrekovski, Riste

    2013-01-01

    A facial parity edge coloring of a 2-edge connected plane graph is an edge coloring where no two consecutive edges of a facial walk of any face receive the same color. Additionally, for every face f and every color c either no edge or an odd number of edges incident to f are colored by c. Czap, Jendrol', Kardo\\v{s} and Sotak showed that every 2-edge connected plane graph admits a facial parity edge coloring with at most 20 colors. We improve this bound to 16 colors.

  16. Decay patterns of edge states at reconstructed armchair graphene edges

    Park, Changwon; Ihm, Jisoon; Kim, Gunn

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the electronic structures of localized states at reconstructed armchair graphene edges. We consider graphene nanoribbons with two different edge types and obtain the energy band structures and charge densities of the edge states. By examining the imaginary part of the wave vector in the forbidden energy region, we reveal the decay behavior of the wave functions in graphene. The complex band structures of graphene in the armchair and zigzag directions are presented in the first-principles framework. G.K. acknowledges the support of the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education (Grant No. 2013R1A1A2009131) and the Priority Research Center Program (Grant No. 2010-0020207).

  17. On the edge: haptic discrimination of edge sharpness.

    Andy L Skinner

    Full Text Available The increasing ubiquity of haptic displays (e.g., smart phones and tablets necessitates a better understanding of the perceptual capabilities of the human haptic system. Haptic displays will soon be capable of locally deforming to create simple 3D shapes. This study investigated the sensitivity of our haptic system to a fundamental component of shapes: edges. A novel set of eight high quality shape stimuli with test edges that varied in sharpness were fabricated in a 3D printer. In a two alternative, forced choice task, blindfolded participants were presented with two of these shapes side by side (one the reference, the other selected randomly from the remaining set of seven and after actively exploring the test edge of each shape with the tip of their index finger, reported which shape had the sharper edge. We used a model selection approach to fit optimal psychometric functions to performance data, and from these obtained just noticeable differences and Weber fractions. In Experiment 1, participants performed the task with four different references. With sharpness defined as the angle at which one surface meets the horizontal plane, the four JNDs closely followed Weber's Law, giving a Weber fraction of 0.11. Comparisons to previously reported Weber fractions from other haptic manipulations (e.g. amplitude of vibration suggests we are sufficiently sensitive to changes in edge sharpness for this to be of potential utility in the design of future haptic displays. In Experiment 2, two groups of participants performed the task with a single reference but different exploration strategies; one was limited to a single touch, the other unconstrained and free to explore as they wished. As predicted, the JND in the free exploration condition was lower than that in the single touch condition, indicating exploration strategy affects sensitivity to edge sharpness.

  18. Edge-injective and edge-surjective vertex labellings

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Regen, F.;

    2010-01-01

    For a graph G = (V, E) we consider vertex-k-labellings f : V → {1,2, ,k} for which the induced edge weighting w : E → {2, 3,., 2k} with w(uv) = f(u) + f(v) is injective or surjective or both. We study the relation between these labellings and the number theoretic notions of an additive basis and a...... recent conjecture of Ivančo and Jendroł concerning edge-irregular total labellings for graphs that are sparse enough. © 2010 Societ y for Industrial and Applied Mathematics....

  19. Edges and Corners With Shearlets.

    Duval-Poo, Miguel A; Odone, Francesca; De Vito, Ernesto

    2015-11-01

    Shearlets are a relatively new and very effective multi-scale framework for signal analysis. Contrary to the traditional wavelets, shearlets are capable to efficiently capture the anisotropic information in multivariate problem classes. Therefore, shearlets can be seen as the valid choice for multi-scale analysis and detection of directional sensitive visual features like edges and corners. In this paper, we start by reviewing the main properties of shearlets that are important for edge and corner detection. Then, we study algorithms for multi-scale edge and corner detection based on the shearlet representation. We provide an extensive experimental assessment on benchmark data sets which empirically confirms the potential of shearlets feature detection. PMID:26353351

  20. Edge Double-Critical Graphs

    John J. Lattanzio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The vertex double-critical conjecture that the only vertex double-critical graph is the complete graph has remained unresolved for over forty years. The edge analogue of this conjecture has been proved. Approach: It was observed that if the chromatic number decreases by two upon the removal of a 2-matching, then the 2-matching comprises four vertices which determine an induced subgraph isomorphic to the complete graph on four vertices. This observation was generalized to t-matchings. Results: In this note, it has been shown that the only edge double-critical graph is the complete graph. Conclusion/Recommendations: An alternate proof that the only edge double-critical graph is the complete graph has been obtained. Moreover, the result has been obtained independently.

  1. Continued Growth on Graphene Edges

    Luo, Zhengtang

    Previously, we have shown that the large-size single crystal graphene can be obtained by suppressing the nucleation density during Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) growth. Here we demonstrate that the graphene single crystal can be amplified by a continued growth method. In this process, we used a mild oxidation step after the first-growth, which lead to the observed fromation of oxides at the vicinity of graphene edges, which allows the graphene growth at seed edges due to reduced activation energy. Consequently, we successful grown a secondary single-crystal graphene structures with the same lattice structure, orientation on the graphene edges. This amplification method would enable the production of graphene electronics with controlled properties.

  2. All-graphene edge contacts

    Jacobsen, Kåre Wedel; Falkenberg, Jesper Toft; Papior, Nick Rübner;

    2016-01-01

    Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures as a...... therange of 1-10 kΩμm which is comparable to the best contact resistance reportedfor edge-contacted graphene-metal contacts. We conclude that conductingall-carbon T-junctions should be feasible....

  3. The knife-edge chamber

    In this paper the design for a new technology for particle track detectors is described. Using standard IC fabrication techniques, a pattern of microscopic knife edges and field-shaping electrodes can be fabricated on a silicon substrate. The knife-edge chamber uniquely offers attractive performance for the track chambers required for SSC detectors, for which no present technology is yet satisfactory. Its features include: excellent radiation hardness (10 Mrad), excellent spatial resolution (∼20 μm), short drift time (20 ns), and large pulse height (1 mV)

  4. Geometric phase at graphene edge

    Choi, Sang-Jun; Park, Sunghun; Sim, H. -S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the scattering phase shift of Dirac fermions at graphene edge. We find that when a plane wave of a Dirac fermion is reflected at an edge of graphene, its reflection phase is shifted by the geometric phase resulting from the change of the pseudospin of the Dirac fermion in the reflection. The geometric phase is the Pancharatnam-Berry phase that equals the half of the solid angle on Bloch sphere determined by the propagation direction of the incident wave and also by the orientation an...

  5. Edge shape and comfort of rigid lenses.

    La Hood, D

    1988-08-01

    One of the main factors determining the comfort of a rigid contact lens is the shape of the edge. The comfort of four different contact lens edge shapes was assessed with four unadapted subjects in a randomized masked trial. Lenses with well rounded anterior edge profiles were found to be significantly more comfortable than lenses with square anterior edges. There was no significant difference in subjective comfort between a rounded and square posterior edge profile. The results suggest that the interaction of the edge with the eyelid is more important in determining comfort than edge effects on the cornea, when lenses are fitted according to a corneal alignment philosophy. PMID:3177585

  6. Design and Simulation of Canny Edge Detection

    D Narayana Reddy*; Vaijanath V.Yerigeri; Harish Sanu

    2014-01-01

    Edge is one of the prominent features in the image processing applications. The edge detection algorithm is carried out by using different methods. Canny edge algorithm is one of the well known edge detection algorithm. In proposed design, the canny edge detection algorithm is designed in verilog and simulated using the MATLAB and Modelsim. The input image is converted to text/pixel values using MATLAB and is stored in a new text file. Verilog with test bench program is used to as...

  7. Color Image Interpolation using Optimal Edge Detector

    R. Jansi; Asnath Victy Phamila; Amutha, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient image interpolation algorithm using optimal edge detector. The proposed interpolation algorithm is done in two steps. In the first step, the missing pixels with diagonal neighbors are interpolated and in the second step, the missing pixels with axial neighbors are interpolated. In both the steps classification of edge and smooth pixels is performed using canny edge detector. For the pixels classified as edge pixels, the direction of the edge is found using var...

  8. At the edge of intonation

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the 'edge of intonation' in a twofold sense. It focuses on utterance-final F0 movements and crosses the traditional segment-prosody divide by investigating the interplay of F0 and voiceless fricatives in speech production. An experiment was performed for German with fo...

  9. Edge classification for color constancy

    A. Gijsenij; T. Gevers; J. van de Weijer

    2008-01-01

    The goal of color constancy is to measure image colors despite differences in the color of the light source. Traditionally, the computational method of obtaining this ability is by using pixel values only. Recently, methods using edges instead of pixel values have been proposed. However, different e

  10. The Problem of the Edge.

    Faatz, Judith A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a field study in a local ecosystem which allows high school students to investigate the edge effect, where a meadow and a forest meet. Students measure soil moisture content, soil temperature, air temperature, relative humidity, wind intensity, and illumination level. Teachers can help students apply their findings to understand problems…

  11. Vertices of degree k in edge-minimal, k-edge-connected graphs

    Kingsford, Carl; Marçais, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Halin showed that every edge minimal, k-vertex connected graph has a vertex of degree k. In this note, we prove the analogue to Halin's theorem for edge-minimal, k-edge-connected graphs. We show there are two vertices of degree k in every edge-minimal, k-edge-connected graph.

  12. Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by edge density and matrix type

    Ecological edge effects are sensitive to landscape context. In particular, edge effects can be altered by matrix type and by the presence of other nearby edges. We experimentally altered patch configurations in an African savanna to determine how edge density and matrix type influence edge effect de...

  13. Edge detection based on directional space

    YUAN Wei-qi; LI De-sheng

    2006-01-01

    A new method for edge detection based on directional space is proposed.The principle is that:firstly,the directional differential space is set up in which the ridge edge pixels and valley edge pixels are abstracted with the help of the method of logical judgments along the direction of differential function,forming a directional roof edge map;secondly,step edge pixels are abstracted between the neighboring directional ridge edge and directional valley edge along the direction of differential function;finally,the ridge edge map,valley edge map and step edge map gained along different directions are combined into corresponding ridge edge map,valley edge map and step edge map.This method is different from classical algorithms in which the gray differential values of the mutual vertical direction are combined into one gradient value.The experiment of edge detection is made for the images of nature scenery,human body and accumulative raw material,whose result is compared with the one of classical algorithms and showing the robustness of the proposed method.

  14. Edge ambipolar potential in toroidal fusion plasmas

    Spizzo, G., E-mail: gianluca.spizzo@igi.cnr.it; Vianello, N.; Agostini, M.; Puiatti, M. E.; Scarin, P.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association and Istituto Gas Ionizzati del CNR, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy); White, R. B. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Abdullaev, S. S.; Schmitz, O. [Institut für Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany); Cavazzana, R. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy); Ciaccio, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli studi di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    A series of issues with toroidally confined fusion plasmas are related to the generation of 3D flow patterns by means of edge magnetic islands, embedded in a chaotic field and interacting with the wall. These issues include the Greenwald limit in Tokamaks and reversed-field pinches, the collisionality window for ELM mitigation with the resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in Tokamaks, and edge islands interacting with the bootstrap current in stellarators. Measurements of the 2D map of the edge electric field E{sup r}(r=a,θ,ϕ) in the RFX reversed-field pinch show that E{sup r} has the same helicity of the magnetic islands generated by a m/n perturbation: in fact, defining the helical angle u=mθ−nϕ+ωt, maps show a sinusoidal dependence as a function of u, E{sup r}=E{sup ~r}sin u. The associated E × B flow displays a huge convective cell with v(a)≠0 which, in RFX and near the Greenwald limit, determines a stagnation point for density and a reversal of the sign of E{sup r}. From a theoretical point of view, the question is how a perturbed toroidal flux of symmetry m/n gives rise to an ambipolar potential Φ=Φ{sup ~}sin u. On the basis of a model developed with the guiding center code ORBIT and applied to RFX and the TEXTOR tokamak, we will show that the presence of an m/n perturbation in any kind of device breaks the toroidal symmetry with a drift proportional to the gyroradius ρ, thus larger for ions (ρ{sub i} ≫ ρ{sub e}). Immediately, an ambipolar potential arises to balance the drifts, with the same symmetry as the original perturbation.

  15. Edge-on thick discs

    Kasparova, A.; Katkov, I.; Chilingarian, I.; Silchenko, O.; Moiseev, A.; Borisov, S.

    2016-06-01

    Although thick stellar discs are detected in nearly all edge-on disc galaxies, their formation scenarios still remain a matter of debate. Due to observational difficulties, there is a lack of information about their stellar populations. Using the Russian 6-m telescope BTA we collected deep spectra of thick discs in three edge-on early-type disc galaxies located in different environments: NGC4111 in a dense group, NGC4710 in the Virgo cluster, and NGC5422 in a sparse group. We see intermediate age (4 ‑ 5 Gyr) metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ ‑0.2 ‑ 0.0 dex) stellar populations in NGC4111 and NGC4710. On the other hand, NGC5422 does not harbour young stars, its only disc is thick and old (10 Gyr) and its α-element abundance suggests a long formation epoch implying its formation at high redshift. Our results prove the diversity of thick disc formation scenarios.

  16. EDGE-ORIENTED HEXAGONAL ELEMENTS

    Chao Yang; Jiachang Sun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two new nonconforming hexagonal elements are presented, which are based on the trilinear function space Q(3)1 and are edge-oriented, analogical to the case of the rotated Q1 quadrilateral element. A priori error estimates are given to show that the new elements achieve first-order accuracy in the energy norm and second-order accuracy in the L2 norm. This theoretical result is confirmed by the numerical tests.

  17. Edge effects and delamination failures

    Herakovich, C. T.

    1989-01-01

    The fundamental relationship between the morphology of a composite laminate and the resulting free edge effects is explored and related to delamination failures. Cross-ply, angle-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates are discussed in detail. It is shown that the local mismatch in elastic properties of adjacent layers and the global stacking sequence of a laminate both have a significant influence on the interlaminar stresses and delamination failures.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of an edge dislocation slipping on a cubic plane of Ni3Al

    The motion mechanism of an edge dislocation on a cubic plane of Ni3Al is studied in periodic simulation cells subjected to applied shear stress. The simulation results show that the motion of the edge dislocation is controlled by the complex Lomer–Cottrell lock mechanism. Using this locking–unlocking mechanism, we have given a perfect explanation to the very jerky motion of the edge dislocation, which has been experimentally observed for about 20 years

  19. Edge-driven microplate kinematics

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.; Gallo, David G.

    1993-01-01

    It is known from plate tectonic reconstructions that oceanic microplates undergo rapid rotation about a vertical axis and that the instantaneous rotation axes describing the microplate's motion relative to the bounding major plates are frequently located close to its margins with those plates, close to the tips of propagating rifts. We propose a class of edge-driven block models to illustrate how slip across the microplate margins, block rotation, and propagation of rifting may be related to the relative motion of the plates on either side. An important feature of these edge-driven models is that the instantaneous rotation axes are always located on the margins between block and two bounding plates. According to those models the pseudofaults or traces of disrupted seafloor resulting from the propagation of rifting between microplate and major plates may be used independently to approximately trace the continuous kinematic evolution of the microplate back in time. Pseudofault geometries and matching rotations of the Easter microplate show that for most of its 5 m.y. history, block rotation could be driven by the drag of the Nazca and Pacific plates on the microplate's edges rather than by a shear flow of mantle underneath.

  20. Leading Edge Device Aerodynamic Optimization

    Marius Gabriel COJOCARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leading edge devices are conventionally used as aerodynamic devices that enhance performances during landing and in some cases during takeoff. The need to increase the efficiency of the aircrafts has brought the idea of maintaining as much as possible a laminar flow over the wings. This is possible only when the leading edge of the wings is free from contamination, therefore using the leading edge devices with the additional role of shielding during takeoff. Such a device based on the Krueger flap design is aerodynamically analyzed and optimized. The optimization comprises three steps: first, the positioning of the flap such that the shielding criterion is kept, second, the analysis of the flap size and third, the optimization of the flap shape. The first step is subject of a gradient based optimization process of the position described by two parameters, the position along the line and the deflection angle. For the third step the Adjoint method is used to gain insight on the shape of the Krueger flap that will extend the most the stall limit. All these steps have been numerically performed using Ansys Fluent and the results are presented for the optimized shape in comparison with the baseline configuration.

  1. Nonreference Medical Image Edge Map Measure

    Karen Panetta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Edge detection is a key step in medical image processing. It is widely used to extract features, perform segmentation, and further assist in diagnosis. A poor quality edge map can result in false alarms and misses in cancer detection algorithms. Therefore, it is necessary to have a reliable edge measure to assist in selecting the optimal edge map. Existing reference based edge measures require a ground truth edge map to evaluate the similarity between the generated edge map and the ground truth. However, the ground truth images are not available for medical images. Therefore, a nonreference edge measure is ideal for medical image processing applications. In this paper, a nonreference reconstruction based edge map evaluation (NREM is proposed. The theoretical basis is that a good edge map keeps the structure and details of the original image thus would yield a good reconstructed image. The NREM is based on comparing the similarity between the reconstructed image with the original image using this concept. The edge measure is used for selecting the optimal edge detection algorithm and optimal parameters for the algorithm. Experimental results show that the quantitative evaluations given by the edge measure have good correlations with human visual analysis.

  2. Effect of shear stress on the expression of growth factors in endothelial cells around stent edge%切应力对支架边缘内皮细胞生长因子表达的影响

    王安才; 李利芳; 张步春; 白玲

    2007-01-01

    增生的原因之一.%BACKGROUND:Alterations in secondary hemodynamics around the stent edge can be caused by stent planted. Is there different effect of shear stress on platelet growth factors-A, B (PDGF-A, B) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) of endothelial cells around stent edge after stent planted?OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of shear stress on growth factors of endothelial cells around stent edge.DESIGN: Observational comparative study.SETTING: Department of Cardiology, Yijishan Hospital, Wannan Medical College; Laboratory of Biomechanics (National Laboratory), Medical College of Shanghai Jiao Tong University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Biomechanics, Medical College of Shanghai Jiaotong University from April to October 2006. The main reagents were detailed as follows: trypsin (Hyclon Company); M-199 medium (Gibco BRL Company); fetal bovine serum (Hangzhou Sijiqing Bioengineering Material Institute); aFGF, Heparin and Hepes (Sigma Company); thymide, Ⅷ factor monoclonal antibody (Rabbit anti-human),biotinylated horse anti-rabbit IgG and propidium lodide (Sigma Company); neonate belly band (Delivery Room of Shanghai the Fifth People's Hospital); trizol (Invitrogene Company); reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit (Fermentas Company); penicillin/streptomycin (AB/M), objective gene primer (Shanghai Bioengineering Company).METHODS: Traditional parallel-plate streaming cavity was modified into rectangular and gradient shear stress models;while static group was established at the same time. Two shear stress groups were subjected to 11.37 dyne/cm2 and 5.66-14.38 dyne/cm2 shear stress, respectively for 3 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The expressions of PDGF-A, B and bFGF mRNA of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) were measured by RT-PCR at different time points.RESULTS: Compared with static group, the maximal expression of PDGF-A, B and bFGF mRNA was reached peak at 3 hours in gradient shear stress group and this

  3. Edge plasma studies on the CASTOR tokamak

    as a formation of convective cells around the biased flux tube. In the edge plasma, the biasing causes a clear and reproducible transition to improved confinement, along with the formation of an edge transport barrier which is characterized by (i) a steepening of the time-averaged density gradient (ii) a reduction in recycling (iii) a substantial improvement of the global particle confinement. A creation of a strongly sheared radial electric field within the transport barrier is followed by an abrupt collapse of the potential and density gradients. The observed radial propagation of density structures and fast spikes of electron temperature immediately following the collapse indicate the ejection of hot dense plasma towards the wall. This process repeats with a frequency of about 10 kHz throughout the full biasing phase of the discharge. The diagnostic set allows us to verify that radial the momentum balance equation is respected during the collapse of the transport barrier. (author)

  4. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) REST Interface

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  5. A Fuzzy Set Approach for Edge Detection

    Pushpajit A. Khaire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is one of the most studied problems in image analysis, computer vision, pattern recognition etc. Edge detection is a discontinuity based approach used for image segmentation. In this paper, an edge detection using fuzzy set is proposed, where an image is considered as a fuzzy set and pixels are taken as elements of fuzzy set. The fuzzy approach converts the color image to a partially segmented image; finally an edge detector is convolved over the partially segmented image to obtain an edged image. The approach is implemented using MATLAB 7.11. (R2010b. For qualitative and quantitative comparison, BSD (Berkeley Segmentation Database images are used for experimentation. Performance parameters used are PSNR (dB and Performance ratio (PR of true to false edges. It has been shown that the proposed approach performs better than Canny’s edge detection algorithm under almost all scenarios. The proposed approach reduces false edge detection and double edges.

  6. Chemistry at the Edge of Graphene.

    Bellunato, Amedeo; Arjmandi Tash, Hadi; Cesa, Yanina; Schneider, Grégory F

    2016-03-16

    The selective functionalization of graphene edges is driven by the chemical reactivity of its carbon atoms. The chemical reactivity of an edge, as an interruption of the honeycomb lattice of graphene, differs from the relative inertness of the basal plane. In fact, the unsaturation of the pz orbitals and the break of the π conjugation on an edge increase the energy of the electrons at the edge sites, leading to specific chemical reactivity and electronic properties. Given the relevance of the chemistry at the edges in many aspects of graphene, the present Review investigates the processes and mechanisms that drive the chemical functionalization of graphene at the edges. Emphasis is given to the selective chemical functionalization of graphene edges from theoretical and experimental perspectives, with a particular focus on the characterization tools available to investigate the chemistry of graphene at the edge. PMID:26693841

  7. Evaluation of edge detectors using avarage risk

    Spreeuwers, L.J.; Heijden, van der F.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for evaluation of edge detectors, based on the average risk of a decision, is discussed. The average risk is a performance measure well-known in Bayesian decision theory. Since edge detection can be regarded as a compound decision making process, the performance of an edge detector is

  8. Edge and coupled core-edge transport modelling in tokamaks

    Recent advances in the theory and modelling of tokamak edge, scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas are described. The effects of the poloidal ExB drift on inner/outer divertor-plate asymmetries within a 1D analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experimental trends; above a critical v ExB, the model predicts transitions to supersonic SOL flow at the inboard midplane. 2D simulations show the importance of ExB flow in the private-flux region and of ∇ B-drifts. A theory of rough plasma-facing surfaces is given, predicting modifications to the SOL plasma. The parametric dependence of detached-plasma states in slab geometry has been explored; with sufficient pumping, the location of the ionization front can be controlled; otherwise only fronts near the plate or the X-point are stable. Studies with a more accurate Monte-Carlo neutrals model and a detailed non-LTE radiation-transport code indicate various effects are important for quantitative modelling. Detailed simulations of the DIII-D core and edge are presented; impurity and plasma flow are discussed and shown to be well modelled with UEDGE. (author)

  9. K-edge densitometer (KED)

    Sprinkle, J.K.; Hansen, W.J.

    1993-02-11

    In 1979, a K-edge densitometer (KED) was installed by the Safeguards Assay group from Los Alamos National Laboratory in the PNC reprocessing plant at Tokai-mura, Japan. It uses an active nondestructive assay technique, KED, to measure the plutonium concentration of the product solution. The measurement uncertainty of an assay depends on the count time chosen, but can be 0.5% or better. The computer hardware and software were upgraded in 1992. This manual describes the operation of the instrument, with an emphasis on the user interface to the software.

  10. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  11. Edge impact modeling on stiffened composite structures

    Ostré, Benjamin; Bouvet, Christophe; Minot, Clément; Aboissière, Jacky

    2015-01-01

    Finite Element Analysis of low velocity/low energy edge impact has been carried out on carbon fiber reinforced plastic structure. Edge impact experimental results were then compared to the numerical ‘‘Discrete Ply Model’’ in order to simulate the edge impact damage. This edge impact model is inspired to out-of-plan impact model on a laminate plate with addition of new friction and crushing behaviors. From a qualitative and quantitative point of view, this edge impact model reveals a relati...

  12. Image edge detection based on beamlet transform

    Li Jing; Huang Peikang; Wang Xiaohu; Pan Xudong

    2009-01-01

    Combining beamlet transform with steerable filters, a new edge detection method based on line gra-dient is proposed. Compared with operators based on point local properties, the edge-detection results with this method achieve higher SNR and position accuracy, and are quite helpful for image registration, object identification, etc. Some edge-detection experiments on optical and SAR images that demonstrate the significant improvement over classical edge operators are also presented. Moreover, the template matching result based on edge information of optical reference image and SAR image also proves the validity of this method.

  13. Topological edge states of bound photon pairs

    Gorlach, Maxim A

    2016-01-01

    We predict the existence of interaction-driven edge states of bound two-photon quasiparticles in a dimer periodic array of nonlinear optical cavities. Energy spectrum of photon pairs is dramatically richer than in the noninteracting case or in a simple lattice, featuring collapse and revival of multiple edge and bulk modes as well as edge states in continuum. Despite the unexpected breakdown of the Zak phase technique and the edge mixing of internal and center-of-mass motion we link the edge state existence to the two-photon quantum walk graph connectivity, thus uncovering the topological nature of the many-body problem in complex lattices.

  14. Edge states in Open Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chains

    Qin, Shaojin; Ng, Tai-Kai; Su, Zhao-Bin

    1995-01-01

    In this letter we report our results in investigating edge effects of open antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chains with spin magnitudes $S=1/2, 1,3/2,2$ using the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method initiated by White. For integer spin chains, we find that edge states with spin magnitude $S_{edge}=S/2$ exist, in agreement with Valence-Bond-Solid model picture. For half-integer spin chains, we find that no edge states exist for $S=1/2$ spin chain, but edge state exists in $S=3/...

  15. Hydroxyl induced edge magnetism and metallicity in armchair MoS2 nanoribbons

    Cheng, Xue-Mei; Wang, Xue-Feng; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Dong, Yao-Jun; Xu, Long

    2016-03-01

    Based on ab initio density functional theory, we demonstrate systematically how nonmagnetic semiconductor armchair MoS2 nanoribbons (AMoS2NRs) become magnetic or/and metallic when being edge-passivated by OH groups. Both the Mo and S edge atoms of an AMoS2NR can adsorb OH groups but an S atom can catch one OH group only when each of its neighbor Mo atoms has already been passivated by two. The AMoS2NR becomes edge magnetic in low passivation density and edge conductive in high density. In the case of uniform edge passivation, one or both of the edges usually become metallic and nonmagnetic if the number i of OH groups per primitive cell satisfies 1≤slant inanoribbon becomes magnetic semiconductor. For i=8 the nanoribbon become nonmagnetic semiconductor again.

  16. Edge plasma in snowflake divertor

    The snowflake divertor (Ryutov 2007, Phys. Plasmas 14, 064502) uses a 2nd order null of the poloidal magnetic field instead of the 1st order null used in the standard divertor. This leads to a number of interesting geometric properties such as stronger fanning of the poloidal flux, stronger magnetic shear in the edge region, larger radiating volume, and larger connection length in the scrape-off layer. These can potentially lead to new ways for alleviating heat loads on the divertor target plates. Discussion of properties of snowflake is presented, along with results of numerical modeling. Divertor leg volume is larger in snowflake than in the standard x-point configuration, which leads to larger fraction of radiated power in the divertor. This allows the snowflake to transition to a strongly detached plasma regime more easily than for the standard x-point. Besides, stronger shearing of the magnetic field in snowflake may be beneficial for controlling magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in the edge (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Quantum Manifestations of Graphene Edge Stress and Edge Instability: A First-Principles Study

    Huang, Bing; Liu,Miao; Su, Ninghai; Wu, Jian; Duan, Wenhui; Gu, Bing-Lin; LIU Feng

    2010-01-01

    We have performed first-principles calculations of graphene edge stresses, which display two interesting quantum manifestations absent from the classical interpretation: the armchair edge stress oscillates with a nanoribbon width, and the zigzag edge stress is noticeably reduced by spin polarization. Such quantum stress effects in turn manifest in mechanical edge twisting and warping instability, showing features not captured by empirical potentials or continuum theory. Edge adsorption of H a...

  18. Ca L2,3-edge XANES and Sr K-edge EXAFS study of hydroxyapatite and fossil bone apatite

    Zougrou, I. M.; Katsikini, M.; Brzhezinskaya, M.; Pinakidou, F.; Papadopoulou, L.; Tsoukala, E.; Paloura, E. C.

    2016-08-01

    Upon burial, the organic and inorganic components of hard tissues such as bone, teeth, and tusks are subjected to various alterations as a result of interactions with the chemical milieu of soil, groundwater, and presence of microorganisms. In this study, simulation of the Ca L 2,3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum of hydroxyapatite, using the CTM4XAS code, reveals that the different symmetry of the two nonequivalent Ca(1) and Ca(2) sites in the unit cell gives rise to specific spectral features. Moreover, Ca L 2,3-edge XANES spectroscopy is applied in order to assess variations in fossil bone apatite crystallinity due to heavy bacterial alteration and catastrophic mineral dissolution, compared to well-preserved fossil apatite, fresh bone, and geologic apatite reference samples. Fossilization-induced chemical alterations are investigated by means of Ca L 2,3-edge XANES and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and are related to histological evaluation using optical microscopy images. Finally, the variations in the bonding environment of Sr and its preference for substitution in the Ca(1) or Ca(2) sites upon increasing the Sr/Ca ratio is assessed by Sr K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy.

  19. Imaging edges of nanostructured graphene

    Kling, Jens; Cagliani, Alberto; Booth, T. J.;

    Graphene, as the forefather of 2D-materials, attracts much attention due to its extraordinary properties like transparency, flexibility and outstanding high conductivity, together with a thickness of only one atom. However, graphene also possesses no band gap, which makes it unsuitable for many...... electronic applications like transistors. It has been shown theoretically that by nanostructuring pristine graphene, e.g. with regular holes, the electronic properties can be tuned and a band gap introduced. The size, distance and edge termination of these “defects” influence the adaptability....... Such nanostructuring can be done experimentally, but especially characterization at atomic level is a huge challenge. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) is used to characterize the atomic structure of graphene. We optimized the imaging conditions used for the FEI Titan ETEM. To reduce the knock-on damage of the carbon atoms...

  20. Compact K-edge densitometer

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed, built, and is currently testing a compact K-edge densitometer for use by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. The unit, which can easily be moved from one location to another within a facility, is positioned outside a glovebox with the body of the instrument inserted into the glove. A fixture inside the glovebox fits around the body and positions a sample holder. A hand-held high-purity germanium detector powered by a battery pack and a Davidson portable multichannel analyzer (MCA) is used to measure the transmission through plutonium nitrate solutions at E/sub Y/ = 121.1 and 122.2 keV. The Davidson MCA is programmed to lead the user through the measurement procedure and perform all the data analyses. The instrument is currently installed at the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, where IAEA personnel are evaluating its accuracy, ease of operation, and safety. 5 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  1. Composite superconducting transition edge bolometer

    A composite far-infrared bolometer has been constructed that uses an aluminum film at the superconducting transition temperature of 1.3 K as the temperature-sensitive element. The film is evaporated on one edge of a 4 x 4-mm sapphire substrate, which is coated on the reverse side with an absorbing film of bismuth. The best bolometer has an electrical NEP of (1.7 +- 0.1) x 10-15 W Hz-1/2 at 2 Hz, and a specific detectivity D* of (1.1 +- 0.1) x 1014 cm W-1 Hz1/2. This measured electrical NEP is within a factor 2 of the fundamental thermal noise limit

  2. Bound on m-restricted Edge Connectivity

    Jian-ping Ou; Fu-ji Zhang

    2003-01-01

    An m-restricted edge cut is an edge cut that separates a connected graph into a disconnected one with no components having order less than m. m-restricted edge connectivity λm is the cardinality of a minimum m-restricted edge cut. Let G be a connected k-regular graph of order at least 2m that contains m-restricted edge cuts and X be a subgraph of G. Let( )(X) denote the number of edges with one end in X and the other not in X and ξm = min{( )(X): X is a connected vertex-induced subgraph of order m}. It is proved in this paper that if G has girth at least m/2 + 2, then λm ≤ξm. The upper bound of λm is sharp.

  3. Novel wavelet synthesis for edge detection

    This paper presents a novel wavelet synthesis approach based on scale multiplication of concordant detail bands coefficients of dyadic wavelet transform that highlights edge structure and suppresses noise in an image. The algorithm works on default threshold values for image denoising. However, to achieve optimality of edge detection, image decomposition level through wavelet transform is not unique and depends upon image resolution along with its structural parameters. Scale controls the significance of edges to be shown. High resolution images with thick edges support high level decomposition and vice versa. The paper presents a novel edge detection paradigm in which innovative wavelet synthesis of detail bands based on nearest neighborhood interpolation and wavelet scale correlation is conceived such that the reconstructed image fabricates its edge map. (author)

  4. Object detection using categorised 3D edges

    Kiforenko, Lilita; Buch, Anders Glent; Bodenhagen, Leon; Krüger, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    is made possible by the explicit use of edge categories in the feature descriptor. We quantitatively compare our approach with the state-of-the-art template based Linemod method, which also provides an effective way of dealing with texture-less objects, tests were performed on our own object dataset......In this paper we present an object detection method that uses edge categorisation in combination with a local multi-modal histogram descriptor, all based on RGB-D data. Our target application is robust detection and pose estimation of known objects. We propose to apply a recently introduced edge...... categorisation algorithm for describing objects in terms of its different edge types. Relying on edge information allow our system to deal with objects with little or no texture or surface variation. We show that edge categorisation improves matching performance due to the higher level of discrimination, which...

  5. Edge Detection for Pattern Recognition: A Survey

    James, Alex Pappachen

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the literature on the edge detection methods for pattern recognition that inspire from the understanding of human vision. We note that edge detection is one of the most fundamental process within the low level vision and provides the basis for the higher level visual intelligence in primates. The recognition of the patterns within the images relate closely to the spatiotemporal processes of edge formations, and its implementation needs a crossdisciplanry ap...

  6. Selective Electroless Silver Deposition on Graphene Edges

    Durhuus, D.; Larsen, M. V.; Andryieuski, Andrei;

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a method of electroless selective silver deposition on graphene edges or between graphene islands without covering the surface of graphene. Modifications of the deposition recipe allow for decoration of graphene edges with silver nanoparticles or filling holes in damaged graphene...... on silica substrate and thus potentially restoring electric connectivity with minimal influence on the overall graphene electrical and optical properties. The presented technique could find applications in graphene based transparent conductors as well as selective edge functionalization and can be extended...

  7. Edge and line detection of complicated and blurred objects

    Haugsdal, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This report deals with edge and line detection in pictures with complicated and/or blurred objects. It explores the alternatives available, in edge detection, edge linking and object recognition. Choice of methods are the Canny edge detection and Local edge search processing combined with regional edge search processing in the form of polygon approximation.

  8. A new fuzzy edge detection algorithm

    SunWei; XiaLiangzheng

    2003-01-01

    Based upon the maximum entropy theorem of information theory, a novel fuzzy approach for edge detection is presented. Firsdy, a definition of fuzzy partition entropy is proposed after introducing the concepts of fuzzy probability and fuzzy partition. The relation of the probability partition and the fuzzy c-partition of the image gradient are used in the algorithm. Secondly, based on the conditional probabilities and the fuzzy partition, the optimal thresholding is searched adaptively through the maximum fuzzy entropy principle, and then the edge image is obtained. Lastly, an edge-enhancing procedure is executed on the edge image. The experimental results show that the proposed approach performs well.

  9. An edge index for topological insulators

    Prodan, Emil

    2009-03-01

    Topological insulators display dissipationless currents flowing at the edges of the samples. These currents are associated to chiral edge modes, whose existence is intrinsically linked to the topology of the electronic states of the bulk. The edge modes can be easily investigated when the edges are smooth and have a periodicity, but as soon as the periodicity is absent, the problem becomes un-traceable by purely theoretical means. In my talk I will exemplify the use of non-commutative calculus to explore the properties, especially the stability of the edge modes. For example, using such techniques one can give a fairly elementary proof that the edge modes in Chern insulators survive even for a rough (random) edge. Similarly, for the Spin-Hall effect, one can define an observable and its associated current whose conductance remains quantized during various deformations of the Hamiltonian system. It turns out that in all cases, the edge conductance is given by the index of a Fredholm operator, which provides a new topological invariant linked directly to the edge rather than the bulk.

  10. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  11. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radical heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of gas puff imaging to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  12. Edges and Switches, Tunnels and Bridges

    Eppstein, David; Mumford, Elena; Speckmann, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    Edge casing is a well-known method to improve the readability of drawings of non-planar graphs. A cased drawing orders the edges of each edge crossing and interrupts the lower edge in an appropriate neighborhood of the crossing. Certain orders will lead to a more readable drawing than others. We formulate several optimization criteria that try to capture the concept of a "good" cased drawing. Further, we address the algorithmic question of how to turn a given drawing into an optimal cased drawing. For many of the resulting optimization problems, we either find polynomial time algorithms or NP-hardness results.

  13. Edges and Switches, Tunnels and Bridges

    Eppstein, D; Kreveld, van, MJ Marc; Mumford, E Elena; Speckmann, B Bettina

    2007-01-01

    Edge casing is a well-known method to improve the readability of drawings of non-planar graphs. A cased drawing orders the edges of each edge crossing and interrupts the lower edge in an appropriate neighborhood of the crossing. Certain orders will lead to a more readable drawing than others. We formulate several optimization criteria that try to capture the concept of a "good" cased drawing. Further, we address the algorithmic question of how to turn a given drawing into an optimal cased dra...

  14. A Gravitational Edge Detection for Multispectral Images

    Genyun Sun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational edge detection is one of the new edge detection algorithms that is based on the law of gravity. This algorithm assumes that each image pixel is a celestial body with a mass represented by its grayscale intensity and their interactions are based on the Newtonian laws of gravity. In this article, a multispectral version of the algorithm is introduced. The method uses gravitational techniques in combination with metric tensor to detect edges of multispectral images including color images. To evaluate the performances of the proposed algorithm, several experiments are performed. The experimental results confirm the efficiency of the multispectral gravitational edge detection.  

  15. Edge mode spectroscopy and imaging for film edge properties in magnetic nanostructures

    McMichael, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Lithography is an act of violence. Often, films are almost entirely obliterated by patterning, leaving only nanostructures behind with film edges that have borne the brunt of the damage, edges that carry with them the scars of energetic ion bombardment, reactive ions, liftoff and exposure to ambient conditions. In this talk, I will present a variation on ferromagnetic resonance force microscopy that can provide insight into the magnetic properties of film edges in magnetic nanostructures. The method relies on the non-uniformity of the magnetic field in patterned-film nanostructures that are magnetized in-plane, specifically, the low-field regions that form near where the magnetization is directed normal to the edge. In these regions, localized precession forms as trapped spin wave modes, and the resonance condition of these modes serves as an indicator of the edge properties. I will present modeling and measurements on a 500 nm diameter, 25 nm thick Permalloy disk to illustrate the method. Micromagnetic modeling of this disk predicts a main mode that is nearly uniform across the sample and three localized edge modes with higher resonance fields. The spectra measured with various tip positions and mode imaging are consistent with the modeling results. In addition to a strong center mode, three distinct edge modes are observed when the tip is near the disk edge. For a symmetric disk, the modeling predicts that the edge mode resonances are identical on the two opposite edges. However, the measured edge mode resonances on opposite edges of the disk are detected at different resonance fields, suggesting inhomogeneity of the edge properties. By rotating the applied field, we control the position of the localized edge mode along the edge of the disk and confirm that the edge mode resonance field has a strong angular dependence, showing that edge mode properties can vary significantly in a nominally circular disk.

  16. Introduction: Centering on the Edge

    Anne Dalke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available [First two paragraphs][T]here is growing resistance to embracing interdisciplinarity, in part because we are simply tired of hearing about it and in part because, in practice, it often requires attending the meetings of more than one department. Few are willing to concede that the reason we now need it so desperately stems from the mismatch between how we structured knowledge decades ago to create departments and how we organize it today. (Tartar, 2005, p. B2 As the international academic enterprise settles into the first decade of the twenty-first century, the future of our work is in flux. Academic specializations established a century ago no longer adequately reflect the growing points of human thought, and the opening of higher education to wider populations of students has challenged the relevance of traditional disciplines for future lives and careers. In this context, teachers and scholars have been rethinking the academic enterprise and the functions it serves for their students; new centers are being organized around what was once thought to mark the edge of knowledge-making. At Bryn Mawr College in the USA, where many of the contributors of this special issue teach, the Center for Science in Society has been an important locus for such restructuring.

  17. Yukawa Unification on the Edge

    Poh, Zijie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Yukawa unification in a three family SO(10) SUSY GUT. We perform a global $\\chi^2$ analysis and show that SUSY effects do not decouple even though the universal scalar mass parameter at the GUT scale, $m_{16}$, is found to lie between 15 and 30 TeV with the best fit given for $m_{16} \\approx 25$ TeV. Note, SUSY effects don't decouple since stops and bottoms have mass of order 5 TeV, due to RG running from $M_{GUT}$. The model has many testable predictions. Gauginos are the lightest sparticles and the light Higgs boson is very much Standard Model-like. The model is consistent with flavor and CP observables with the $BR(\\mu \\to e\\gamma)$ close to the experimental upper bound. With such a large value of $m_{16}$ we clearly cannot be considered "natural" SUSY nor are we "Split" SUSY. We are thus in the region in between or "SUSY on the Edge."

  18. Reduction in Edge-Ringing in Aberrated Images of Coherent Edge Objects by Multishaded Aperture

    Venkanna Mekala; Karuna Sagar Dasari

    2014-01-01

    The images of a straight edge in coherent illumination produced by an optical system with circular aperture and apodized with multiple filters have been studied. The most common problem encountered in the coherent-imaging techniques is the edge-ringing. To minimize the edge-ringing, multishaded aperture method has been proposed. Image intensity distribution curves are drawn and edge-ringing values are evaluated. The results are compared to that of the airy case with the use of single, double ...

  19. Edge Detection with Sub-pixel Accuracy Based on Approximation of Edge with Erf Function

    M. Hagara; P. Kulla

    2011-01-01

    Edge detection is an often used procedure in digital image processing. For some practical applications is desirable to detect edges with sub-pixel accuracy. In this paper we present edge detection method for 1-D images based on approximation of real image function with Erf function. This method is verified by simulations and experiments for various numbers of samples of simulated and real images. Results of simulations and experiments are also used to compare proposed edge detection scheme wi...

  20. Manoeuvring along the edge of breathlessness

    Jellington, Maria Omel; Overgaard, Dorthe; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    . Third, hermeneutical principles were used as all data were interpreted from the viewpoint of each theme. Results Three themes were identified: Manoeuvring along the edge; Dyspnoea within the pattern; and Dyspnoea outside the pattern. They were encompassed by the main finding: Manoeuvring along the edge...

  1. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables

  2. Comprehensive Infrared Image Edge detection Algorithm

    Abhishek Gudipalli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Edge detection is one of the most powerful image analysis tools for enhancing and detecting edges. Indeed, identifying and localizing edges are a low level task in a variety of applications such as 3-D reconstruction, shape recognition, image compression, enhancement, and restoration. This paper introduces a new algorithm for detecting edges based on color space models. In this RGB image is taken as an input image and transforming the RGB image to color models such as YUV, YCbCr and XYZ. The edges have been detected for each component in color models separately and compared with the original image of that particular model. In order to measure the quality assessment between images, SSIM (Structural Similarity Index Method and VIF (Visual Information Fidelity has been calculated. The results have shown that XYZ color model is having high SSIM value and VIF value. In the previous papers, edge detection based on RGB color model has low SSIM and VIF values. So by converting the images into different color models shows a significant improvement in detection of edges. Keywords: Edge detection, Color models, SSIM, VIF.

  3. Breaking graph symmetries by edge colourings

    Lehner, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The distinguishing index $D'(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the least number of colours needed in an edge colouring which is not preserved by any non-trivial automorphism. Broere and Pil\\'sniak conjectured that if every non-trivial automorphism of a countable graph $G$ moves infinitely many edges, then $D'(G) \\leq 2$. We prove this conjecture.

  4. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  5. On edge graceful labelings of disjoint unions of $2r$-regular edge graceful graphs

    Riskin, Adrian; Weidman, Georgia

    2006-01-01

    We prove that if $G$ is a $2r$-regular edge graceful $(p,q)$ graph with $(r,kp)=1$ then $kG$ is edge graceful for odd $k$. We also prove that for certain specific classes of $2r$-regular edge graceful graphs it is possible to drop the requirement that $(r,kp)=1$

  6. More results on oscillating edge-flames

    We examine a simple model of a side-anchored non-premixed edge-flame in order to gain insights into the oscillations that are sometimes observed in microgravity candle burning, flame-spread over liquids, etc. Previous results describe the role played by the Lewis number of the fuel, and the Damkoehler number, and here we examine both the effects of an on-edge and off-edge convective flow, and the effects of a heat sink. The on-edge flow and the heat sink tend to destabilize and the off-edge flow tends to stabilize, results consistent with our hypothesis regarding the genesis of the oscillations. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  7. Magnetism of zigzag edge phosphorene nanoribbons

    We have investigated, by means of ab initio calculations, the electronic and magnetic structures of zigzag edge phosphorene nanoribbons (ZPNRs) with various widths. The stable magnetic state was found in pristine ZPNRs by allowing the systems to be spin-polarized. The ground state of pristine ZPNRs prefers ferromagnetic order in the same edge but antiferromagnetic order between two opposite edges. The magnetism arises from the dangling bond states as well as edge localized π-orbital states. The presence of a dangling bond is crucial to the formation of the magnetism of ZPNRs. The hydrogenated ZPNRs get nonmagnetic semiconductors with a direct band gap. While, the O-saturated ZPNRs show magnetic ground states due to the weak P-O bond in the ribbon plane between the pz-orbitals of the edge O and P atoms.

  8. Cascading Edge Failures: A Dynamic Network Process

    Zhang, June

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the dynamics of edges in a network. The Dynamic Bond Percolation (DBP) process models, through stochastic local rules, the dependence of an edge $(a,b)$ in a network on the states of its neighboring edges. Unlike previous models, DBP does not assume statistical independence between different edges. In applications, this means for example that failures of transmission lines in a power grid are not statistically independent, or alternatively, relationships between individuals (dyads) can lead to changes in other dyads in a social network. We consider the time evolution of the probability distribution of the network state, the collective states of all the edges (bonds), and show that it converges to a stationary distribution. We use this distribution to study the emergence of global behaviors like consensus (i.e., catastrophic failure or full recovery of the entire grid) or coexistence (i.e., some failed and some operating substructures in the grid). In particular, we show that, depending on...

  9. Edge exchangeable models for network data

    Crane, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Exchangeable models for vertex labeled graphs cannot replicate the large sample behaviors of sparsity and power law degree distributions observed in many network datasets. Out of this mathematical impossibility emerges the question of how network data can be modeled in a way that reflects known empirical behaviors and respects basic statistical principles. We address this question by observing that edges, not vertices, act as the statistical units in most network datasets, making a theory of edge labeled networks more natural for most applications. Within this context we introduce the new invariance principle of {\\em edge exchangeability}, which unlike its vertex exchangeable counterpart can produce networks with sparse and/or power law structure. We characterize the class of all edge exchangeable network models and identify a particular two parameter family of models with suitable theoretical properties for statistical inference. We discuss issues of estimation from edge exchangeable models and compare our a...

  10. A synthesis for exactly 3-edge-connected graphs

    Kingsford, Carl; Marçais, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    A multigraph is exactly k-edge-connected if there are exactly k edge-disjoint paths between any pair of vertices. We characterize the class of exactly 3-edge-connected graphs, giving a synthesis involving two operations by which every exactly 3-edge-connected multigraph can be generated. Slightly modified syntheses give the planar exactly 3-edge-connected graphs and the exactly 3-edge-connected graphs with the fewest possible edges.

  11. Edge Detection with Sub-pixel Accuracy Based on Approximation of Edge with Erf Function

    M. Hagara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Edge detection is an often used procedure in digital image processing. For some practical applications is desirable to detect edges with sub-pixel accuracy. In this paper we present edge detection method for 1-D images based on approximation of real image function with Erf function. This method is verified by simulations and experiments for various numbers of samples of simulated and real images. Results of simulations and experiments are also used to compare proposed edge detection scheme with two often used moment-based edge detectors with sub-pixel precision.

  12. Elastically Deformable Side-Edge Link for Trailing-Edge Flap Aeroacoustic Noise Reduction

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); Moore, James B. (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Lin, John C. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Kahng, Seun K. (Inventor); Verden, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system is provided for reducing aeroacoustic noise generated by an aircraft having wings equipped with trailing-edge flaps. The system includes a plurality of elastically deformable structures. Each structure is coupled to and along one of the side edges of one of the trailing-edge flaps, and is coupled to a portion of one of the wings that is adjacent to the one of the side edges. The structures elastically deform when the trailing-edge flaps are deployed away from the wings.

  13. Edge states in a honeycomb lattice: effects of anisotropic hopping and mixed edges

    Dahal, Hari P.; Hu, Zi-Xiang; Sinitsyn, N. A.; YANG Kun; Balatsky, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    We study the edge states in graphene in the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the lattice. Most of the works done so far discuss the edge states in either zigzag or armchair edge graphene considering an isotropic electron hopping. In practice, graphene can have mixture of armchair and zigzag edges and the electron hopping can be anisotropic, which is the subject of this article. We predict that the mixed edges smear the enhanced local density of states (LDOS) at E=0 o...

  14. Modeling the ICRF-edge interaction in H-modes

    The understanding of the ICRF-edge plasma interaction has increased greatly in recent years. One important result has been the virtual elimination of ICRF-specific impurities during ICRF heating on JET. It has been shown that impurity release from ICRF antennas is an effect of rf sheaths. An rf-sheath model gives good agreement with JET impurity influx data and suggests a practical prescription for reducing impurities to negligible levels. Another important development, made possible by the reduction in impurities, was the achievement of H-modes induced by ICRF heating alone under conditions in which rf sheaths were expected to be robust (monopole phasing) and to be negligible (dipole phasing). It was found that the quality, duration and termination mechanism of the H-mode was different in the two cases. In this paper, the authors describe simulation results and experimental data which provide a possible explanation for the unique properties of the monopole ICRF H-mode. The simulation shows that the rf sheaths near the antenna drive large convective cells, which penetrate the SOL and cause enhanced edge transport. The edge convection is a good candidate to explain the reduction in quality of the highly-sheared, poloidally uniform H-mode transport barrier, and the resulting flattening of the SOL density and temperature profiles may explain the longer duration and the absence of a radiative collapse for the monopole H-mode. An analysis of JET data shows the existence of phasing-dependent ICRF-enhanced edge transport in agreement with the theoretical model. The 2D simulation results are discussed and compared with the available experimental data. This work suggest that ICRF antennas in monopole or FWCD phasing provide another practical means of biasing the edge plasma to control the global confinement, central density and impurity accumulation in H-mode operation

  15. The Hidden K-edge Signal in K-edge Imaging

    Bateman, Christopher J; de Ruiter, Niels J A; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H; Renaud, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    K-edge imaging is commonly used for viewing contrast pharmaceuticals in a variety of multi-energy x-ray imaging techniques, ranging from dual-energy and spectral computed tomography to fluoroscopy. When looking for the K-edge signal of a specific contrast, by taking measurements either side of the K-edge, it is found that the K-edge is not always observable for low concentrations. We have also observed that the ability to see the K-edge is unit dependent - a K-edge that is not observable in computed tomography (CT) reconstructed linear attenuation units can often be made visible by converting to Hounsfield units. This paper presents an investigation of this K-edge hiding phenomenon. We conclude that if a multi-energy x-ray measurement of any K-edge material contains a signal of any other material, then there will be a positive concentration of that K-edge material below which its K-edge cannot be observed without extracting the K-edge signal through means of basis decomposition. Mathematical descriptions of t...

  16. Background Modelling Using Edge-Segment Distributions

    Jaemyun Kim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose an edge‐segment‐based statistical background modelling algorithm to detect the moving edges for the detection of moving objects using a static camera. Traditional pixel intensity‐based background modelling algorithms face difficulties in dynamic environments since they cannot handle sudden changes in illumination. They also bring out ghosts when a sudden change occurs in the scene. To cope with this issue, intensity and noise robust edge‐based features have emerged. However, existing edge‐pixel‐based methods suffer from scattered moving edge pixels since they cannot utilize the shape. Moreover, traditional segment‐ based methods cannot handle edge shape variations and miss moving edges when they come close to the background edges. Unlike traditional approaches, our proposed method builds the background model from ordinary training frames that may contain moving objects. Furthermore, it does not leave any ghosts behind. Moreover, our method uses an automatic threshold for every background edge distribution for matching. This makes our approach robust to illumination change, camera movement and background motion. Experiments show that our method outperforms others and can detect moving edges efficiently despite the above mentioned difficulties.

  17. Auditing to the cutting edge

    Good, L.; Wirdzek, P.

    1999-07-01

    Equipment? System? Building? Campus? Neighborhood? Community? Region? What is to be audited and what needs to be corrected? Can the energy management professional decide, or should the customer? Over the last few decades, energy professionals have been evaluating energy use in order to balance clients' expenditures with acceptable levels of service. Traditionally, professional expertise and creativity have been limited more by budget than any other single element. Today, energy and the environment are tightly intertwined. In the future, effective energy management may not be possible without considering the relationships between them. Conversely, environmental protection cannot be achieved without considering energy production, distribution, and use. To this end, two powerful federal organizations, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), have been engaged in defining the interrelationships of these areas and fashioning national energy policies aimed at awakening Americans to these facts. Environmental demands are becoming a factor in efficiency equations. Energy management professionals should prepare a response. They will face demands for cutting-edge audits that reach further than giving utility power just a trim in the energy barber shop. Survival in the business of energy management will require a broader perspective. One need only look to current advertisements by national and international corporations which praise the environmental benefits of their products and even their places of business as cleaner than their competitors'. For the energy management professional then, energy diversity and source versus site considerations are opportunities to be identified in the audit process, in addition to replacement of inefficient equipment. The country is rich with technology choices, with documented experience, and with the knowledge to create systems that can mine deep savings. True, some have niche

  18. Edge- and Node-Disjoint Paths in P Systems

    Michael J. Dinneen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we continue our development of algorithms used for topological network discovery. We present native P system versions of two fundamental problems in graph theory: finding the maximum number of edge- and node-disjoint paths between a source node and target node. We start from the standard depth-first-search maximum flow algorithms, but our approach is totally distributed, when initially no structural information is available and each P system cell has to even learn its immediate neighbors. For the node-disjoint version, our P system rules are designed to enforce node weight capacities (of one, in addition to edge capacities (of one, which are not readily available in the standard network flow algorithms.

  19. Incoherent synchrotron emission of laser-driven plasma edge

    Serebryakov, D. A., E-mail: dmserebr@gmail.com; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarin Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    When a relativistically intense linearly polarized laser pulse is incident on an overdense plasma, a dense electron layer is formed on the plasma edge which relativistic motion results in high harmonic generation, ion acceleration, and incoherent synchrotron emission of gamma-photons. Here we present a self-consistent analytical model that describes the edge motion and apply it to the problem of incoherent synchrotron emission by ultrarelativistic plasma electrons. The model takes into account both coherent radiation reaction from high harmonics and incoherent radiation reaction in the Landau–Lifshitz form. The analytical results are in agreement with 3D particle-in-cell simulations in a certain parameter region that corresponds to the relativistic electronic spring interaction regime.

  20. Differential Search Algorithm Based Edge Detection

    Gunen, M. A.; Civicioglu, P.; Beşdok, E.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new method has been presented for the extraction of edge information by using Differential Search Optimization Algorithm. The proposed method is based on using a new heuristic image thresholding method for edge detection. The success of the proposed method has been examined on fusion of two remote sensed images. The applicability of the proposed method on edge detection and image fusion problems have been analysed in detail and the empirical results exposed that the proposed method is useful for solving the mentioned problems.

  1. Edge of Chaos and Genesis of Turbulence

    Chian, Abraham C -L; Rempel, Erico

    2013-01-01

    The edge of chaos is analyzed in a spatially extended system, modeled by the regularized long-wave equation, prior to the transition to permanent spatiotemporal chaos. In the presence of coexisting attractors, a chaotic saddle is born at the basin boundary due to a smooth-fractal metamorphosis. As a control parameter is varied, the chaotic transient evolves to well-developed transient turbulence via a cascade of fractal-fractal metamorphoses. The edge state responsible for the edge of chaos and the genesis of turbulence is an unstable travelling wave in the laboratory frame, corresponding to a saddle point lying at the basin boundary in the Fourier space.

  2. Adobe Edge Animate CC for dummies

    Rohde, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to build HTML5 mobile and web apps using Adobe's new Edge Animate CC Edge Animate CC is an approachable WYSIWYG alternative for leveraging the power of languages like HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript to design and develop for the web and mobile devices, even if you have no programming experience. Written by Michael Rohde, the book calls on this seasoned web developer's wealth of experience using Edge Animate CC, and a companion website includes all code from the book to help you apply what you learn as you go. Features an easy-to-use interface, with a propert

  3. Image Edge Extraction via Fuzzy Reasoning

    Dominquez, Jesus A. (Inventor); Klinko, Steve (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A computer-based technique for detecting edges in gray level digital images employs fuzzy reasoning to analyze whether each pixel in an image is likely on an edge. The image is analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis by analyzing gradient levels of pixels in a square window surrounding the pixel being analyzed. An edge path passing through the pixel having the greatest intensity gradient is used as input to a fuzzy membership function, which employs fuzzy singletons and inference rules to assigns a new gray level value to the pixel that is related to the pixel's edginess degree.

  4. Edge transport barriers in magnetic fusion plasmas

    The present level of understanding of the physics of the formation and sustainment of edge transport barriers in magnetically confined fusion plasmas is presented. The formation of edge transport barriers is studied through evolution of mechanisms which can suppress plasma turbulence and so reduce turbulent driven transport, such as E x B flow shear stabilization of turbulence. Comparisons of theoretical studies with experimental results are described including investigations of zonal flows, which are considered important for saturation and self-regulation of turbulence and turbulence-driven transport. Processes that affect the dynamics and spatial structure of the edge barrier are described with emphasis on the width of the transport barrier. (authors)

  5. Flat-band engineering of mobility edges

    Danieli, Carlo; Bodyfelt, Joshua D.; Flach, Sergej

    2015-06-01

    Properly modulated flat-band lattices have a divergent density of states at the flat-band energy. Quasiperiodic modulations are known to host a metal-insulator transition already in one space dimension. Their embedding into flat-band geometries consequently allows for a precise engineering and fine tuning of mobility edges. We obtain analytic expressions for singular mobility edges for two flat-band lattice examples. In particular, we engineer cases with arbitrarily small energy separations of mobility edge, zeroes, and divergencies.

  6. Edge-Disjoint Fibonacci Trees in Hypercube

    Indhumathi Raman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fibonacci tree is a rooted binary tree whose number of vertices admit a recursive definition similar to the Fibonacci numbers. In this paper, we prove that a hypercube of dimension h admits two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-2, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-4 and so on, as subgraphs. The result shows that an algorithm with Fibonacci trees as underlying data structure can be implemented concurrently on a hypercube network with no communication latency.

  7. Edge-Matching Problems with Rotations

    Ebbesen, Martin; Fischer, Paul; Witt, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Edge-matching problems, also called puzzles, are abstractions of placement problems with neighborhood conditions. Pieces with colored edges have to be placed on a board such that adjacent edges have the same color. The problem has gained interest recently with the (now terminated) Eternity II...... far. We show that some problems have polynomial time algorithms while others are NP-complete. Especially we show that allowing rotations in one-row puzzles makes the problem NP-hard. We moreover show that many commonly considered puzzles can be emulated by simple puzzles with quadratic pieces, so that...

  8. XMCD under pressure at the Fe K edge on the energy dispersive beamline of the ESRF

    Mathon, Olivier; Baudelet, Francois; Itié, Jean-Paul; Pasternak, Sébastien; Polian, Alain; Pascarelli, Sakura

    2004-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates the feasibility of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) at high pressure at the Fe-K edge on the ID24 energy dispersive beamline of the ESRF. In 3d transition metals, performing experiments at the hard X-ray K-edge rather than at the magnetically interesting soft X-ray L-edges represents, the only way to access the high pressure regime obtainable with Diamond Anvil Cells. The simultaneous availability of a local struct...

  9. Experimental observation of bulk and edge transport in photonic Lieb lattices

    Guzman-Silva, D; Bandres, M A; Rechtsman, M C; Weimann, S; Nolte, S; Segev, M; Szameit, A; Vicencio, R A

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the transport of light in the bulk and at the edge of photonic Lieb lattices, whose unique feature is the existence of a flat band representing stationary states in the middle of the band structure that can form localized bulk states. We find that transport in bulk Lieb lattices is significantly affected by the particular excitation site within the unit cell, due to overlap with the flat band states. Additionally, we demonstrate the existence of new edge states in anisotropic Lieb lattices. These states arise due to a virtual defect at the lattice edges and are not described by the standard tight-binding model.

  10. Conservative interpolation of edge and face data on n dimensional structured grids using differential forms

    Pletzer, Alexander; Fillmore, David

    2015-12-01

    Interpolation methods for edge and face centered data are described, which preserve line and area integrals under regridding. These interpolation methods complement the multilinear nodal and conservative interpolation methods, which are widely used in climate data processing and other areas. The presented interpolation schemes ensure that curl-free and divergence-free fields remain so after regridding. These edge and face conservative interpolation methods are suitable for general curvilinear structured grids, including those with singular points (poles). Support for masked (invalid) regions is implicitly provided by attaching (partial) line/surface integral field values to cell edges/faces.

  11. Impact of edge electric fields on particle transport and dynamics in tokamaks

    Three aspects of tokamak edge physics are addressed. Role of radial electric field and poloidal rotation at the L-H transition is investigated with the Monte Carlo code ASCOT. Ripple ions and their use in measuring edge electric field are studied. Generation of fast electrons and hot spots in the lower hybrid grill region by the RF electric field is investigated with particle-in-cell simulations. (author)

  12. Ergodic divertor impact on Tore Supra edge

    The present ergodic divertor experiments in Tore Supra have been devoted to benchmarking the operational regimes of the apparatus. Two major effects are reported: on the one hand, strong changes occur in the ergodized boundary layer (up to 20% of the minor radius), and on the other hand, the central plasma and especially the confinement is not directly affected, i.e. the observed modifications are induced by edge effects. The basic trends, which are recorded are a decrease of both the edge electronic temperature and the edge density gradient while the radiated power is increased at the very edge of the ergodic region. The latter feature is in agreement with the impurity line emission characterized by an increase of the peripheral lines with a strong decrease of the central lines. (orig.)

  13. Strain imaging by Bragg edge neutron transmission

    Santisteban, J R; Fitzpatrick, M E; Steuwer, A; Withers, P J; Daymond, M R; Johnson, M W; Rhodes, N; Schooneveld, E M

    2002-01-01

    The Bragg edges appearing in the transmitted time-of-flight spectra of polycrystalline materials have been recorded using a two-dimensional array of detectors. Subsequent analysis has enabled maps of the elastic strain to be produced.

  14. Fast Edge-Searching and Related Problems

    Yang, Boting

    Given a graph G = (V,E) in which a fugitive hides on vertices or along edges, graph searching problems are usually to find the minimum number of searchers required to capture the fugitive. In this paper, we consider the problem of finding the minimum number of steps to capture the fugitive. We introduce the fast edge-searching problem in the edge search model, which is the problem of finding the minimum number of steps (called the fast edge-search time) to capture the fugitive. We establish relations between the fast edge-search time and the fast search number. While the family of graphs whose fast search number is at most k is not minor-closed for any positive integer k ≥ 2, we show that the family of graphs whose fast edge-search time is at most k is minor-closed. We establish relations between the fast (edge-)searching and the node searching. These relations allow us to transform the problem of computing node search numbers to the problem of computing fast edge-search time or fast search numbers. Using these relations, we prove that the problem of deciding, given a graph G and an integer k, whether the fast (edge-)search number of G is less than or equal to k is NP-complete; and it remains NP-complete for Eulerian graphs. We also prove that the problem of determining whether the fast (edge-)search number of G is a half of the number of odd vertices in G is NP-complete; and it remains NP-complete for planar graphs with maximum degree 4. We present a linear time approximation algorithm for the fast edge-search time that always delivers solutions of at most (1+|V|-1/|E|+1) times the optimal value. This algorithm also gives us a tight upper bound on the fast search number of the graph. We also show a lower bound on the fast search number using the minimum degree and the number of odd vertices.

  15. Edge and core dynamics in harness

    Resistive kink oscillations in tokamak plasmas are usually treated as core localized events, yet there there are several mechanisms by which they may interact with the edge dynamics. This suggests that we may regulate edge oscillatory behaviour, or ELMs, by harnessing the natural or contrived sawtooth period and amplitude. In this work I investigate core-edge oscillatory entrainment through direct propagation of heat pulses, inductive coupling, and global higher order resonance effects. In the core of auxiliary heated tokamak plasmas the ineluctable rhythm of slow buildup and rapid conversion of potential energy governs electron and heat radial transport. The growth phase of the sawtooth is accompanied by significant reconnection, then during the collapse the temperature and density in the core fall dramatically. There is evidence from experiments in reversed field pinch devices that ensuing energy fluxes can affect flow shear and confinement at the edge. The basis for this study is the dynamical (BDS) model for edge plasma behavior that was derived from electrostatic resistive MHD equations. The BDS model reflects the major qualitative features of edge dynamics that have been observed, such as L-H transitions and associated ELMs, hysteresis, and spontaneous reversal of poloidal shear flow. Under poorly dissipative conditions the transient behavior of the model can exhibit period-doubling, blue-sky, homoclinic, and other exotic bifurcations. Thus we might ask questions such as: Is it possible to mode-lock the edge dynamics to the core sawteeth? Can we induce, or prevent, a change in direction of shear flow? What about MHD effects? Is core-edge communication one way or is there some feedback? In the simplest prototype for coupled core-edge dynamics I model the sawtooth crash as a periodic power input to the edge potential energy reservoir. This is effected by coupling the BDS model to the dynamical system u = u(1 - u2 - x2) - ωsx, x = x(1-u2 -x2) + ωsu, which has

  16. Magnetic quantum dots and magnetic edge states

    Starting with defining the magnetic edge state in a magnetic quantum dot, which becomes quite popular nowadays conjunction with a possible candidate for a high density memory device or spintronic materials, various magnetic nano-quantum structures are reviewed in detail. We study the magnetic edge states of the two dimensional electron gas in strong perpendicular magnetic fields. We find that magnetic edge states are formed along the boundary of the magnetic dot, which is formed by a nonuniform distribution of magnetic fields. These magnetic edge states circulate either clockwise or counterclockwise, depending on the number of missing flux quanta, and exhibit quite different properties, as compared to the conventional ones which are induced by electrostatic confinements in the quantum Hall system. We also find that a close relation between the quantum mechanical eigenstates and the classical trajectories in the magnetic dot. When a magnetic dot is located inside a quantum wire, the edge-channel scattering mechanism by the magnetic quantum dot is very different from that by electrostatic dots. Here, the magnetic dot is formed by two different magnetic fields inside and outside the dot. We study the ballistic edge-channel transport and magnetic edge states in this situation. When the inner field is parallel to the outer one, the two-terminal conductance is quantized and shows the features of a transmission barrier and a resonator. On the other hand, when the inner field is reversed, the conductance is not quantized and all channels can be completely reflected in some energy ranges. The difference between the above two cases results from the distinct magnetic confinements. We also describe successfully the edge states of magnetic quantum rings and others in detail

  17. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin

    2011-01-01

    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple conventions, they can be combined into one method of refinement. In the combined method, node refinement can be used to develop architectural aspects of a model and edge refinement to develop algorithmic aspect...

  18. Edge direction and the structure of networks

    Foster, Jacob G.; Foster, David V.; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2009-01-01

    Directed networks are ubiquitous and are necessary to represent complex systems with asymmetric interactions---from food webs to the World Wide Web. Despite the importance of edge direction for detecting local and community structure, it has been disregarded in studying a basic type of global diversity in networks: the tendency of nodes with similar numbers of edges to connect. This tendency, called assortativity, affects crucial structural and dynamic properties of real-world networks, such ...

  19. Directed Percolation with a Wall or Edge

    Frojdh, Per; Howard, Martin; Lauritsen, Kent B.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the effects of introducing a wall or edge into a directed percolation process. Scaling ansatzes are presented for the density and survival probability of a cluster in these geometries, and we make the connection to surface critical phenomena and field theory. The results of previous numerical work for a wall can thus be interpreted in terms of surface exponents satisfying scaling relations generalising those for ordinary directed percolation. New exponents for edge directed percola...

  20. Image Edge Detection Based on Oscillation

    FAN Hong; WANG Zhi-jie

    2005-01-01

    A new method for image edge detection based on a pulse neural network is proposed in this paper. The network is locally connected. The external input of each neuron of the network is gray value of the corresponding pixel. The synchrony of the neuron and its neighbors is detected by detection neurons. The edge of the image can be read off at minima of the total activity of the detection neurons.

  1. The perceptual contrast of impossible shadow edges

    Soranzo, Alessandro; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2009-01-01

    Luminance ratios along shadow edges remain the same even when they cross reflectance borders. According to Gilchrist (1988, Perception & Psychophysics 43 415 ^ 424) this so-called ratio-invariance property is a crucial factor in the perception of shadows. However, Soranzo and Agostini (2004, Perception 33 1359 ^ 1368) suggested that in some conditions (named `impossible shadows'), a luminance pattern might still be perceived as a shadow even if the ratio-invariance property along its edge ...

  2. Face analysis using curve edge maps

    Deboeverie, Francis; Veelaert, Peter; Philips, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic and real-time system for face analysis, usable in visual communication applications. In this approach, faces are represented with Curve Edge Maps, which are collections of polynomial segments with a convex region. The segments are extracted from edge pixels using an adaptive incremental linear-time fitting algorithm, which is based on constructive polynomial fitting. The face analysis system considers face tracking, face recognition and facial feature detectio...

  3. Acoustic metamaterial for subwavelength edge detection

    Molerón, Miguel; Daraio, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials have demonstrated the possibility to produce super-resolved images by restoring propagative and evanescent waves. However, for efficient information transfer, for example, in compressed sensing, it is often desirable to visualize only the fast spatial variations of the wave field (carried by evanescent waves), as the one created by edges or small details. Image processing edge detection algorithms perform such operation, but they add time and complexity to the ima...

  4. Integrated core-edge-divertor modeling studies

    An integrated calculation model for simulating the interaction of physics phenomena taking place in the plasma core, in the plasma edge and in the SOL and divertor of tokamaks has been developed and applied to study such interactions. The model synthesises a combination of numerical calculations (1) the power and particle balances for the core plasma, using empirical confinement scaling laws and taking into account radiation losses (2), the particle, momentum and power balances in the SOL and divertor, taking into account the effects of radiation and recycling neutrals, (3) the transport of feeling and recycling neutrals, explicitly representing divertor and pumping geometry, and (4) edge pedestal gradient scale lengths and widths, evaluation of theoretical predictions (5) confinement degradation due to thermal instabilities in the edge pedestals, (6) detachment and divertor MARFE onset, (7) core MARFE onsets leading to a H-L transition, and (8) radiative collapse leading to a disruption and evaluation of empirical fits (9) power thresholds for the L-H and H-L transitions and (10) the width of the edge pedestals. The various components of the calculation model are coupled and must be iterated to a self-consistent convergence. The model was developed over several years for the purpose of interpreting various edge phenomena observed in DIII-D experiments and thereby, to some extent, has been benchmarked against experiment. Because the model treats the interactions of various phenomena in the core, edge and divertor, yet is computationally efficient, it lends itself to the investigation of the effects of different choices of various edge plasma operating conditions on overall divertor and core plasma performance. Studies of the effect of feeling location and rate, divertor geometry, plasma shape, pumping and over 'edge parameters' on core plasma properties (line average density, confinement, density limit, etc.) have been performed for DIII-D model problems. A

  5. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION BASED ON EDGE DETECTION

    Chen, Xiaoming; Cheng, Wushan

    2015-01-01

    Relational Over the last two decades, the advances in computer vision and pattern recognition power have opened the door to new opportunity of automatic facial expression recognition system[1]. This paper use Canny edge detection method for facial expression recognition. Image color space transformation in the first place and then to identify and locate human face .Next pick up the edge of eyes and mouth's features extraction. Last we judge the facial expressions after compared wi...

  6. EDGE SENSING DEMOSAICING USING ADAPTIVE WEIGHTED INTERPOLATION

    Dev R. Newlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Demosaicing is a process of obtaining a full color image by interpolating the missing colors of an image captured from a digital still and video cameras that use a single-sensor array.The edges are not handled properly in the existing demosaicking methods. This study provides an effective demosaicing algorithm applying an adaptive weighted-edge interpolation to handle green pixels. Due to the introduction of adaptive threshold based on the high frequency information for the classification of edges and textures, the interpolation of edges is performed excellently. Adaptive weights depending on spatial and spectral correlation are assigned for interpolation on both edges and smooth region. A refinement scheme based on enhanced effective color interpolation is used to improve the red and blue interpolation to obtain better quality image. As compared with the latest demosaicing algorithms, the proposed algorithm produces the best average demosaicing performance both objectively and subjectively. This approach handles the edges in a proper way and reconstructs the color image with best peak signal to noise ratio.

  7. Understanding the dynamics of fractional edge states with composite fermions

    Chklovskii, Dmitri B.; Halperin, Bertrand I.

    1996-01-01

    Fractional edge states can be viewed as integer edge states of composite fermions. We exploit this to discuss the conductance of the fractional quantized Hall states and the velocity of edge magnetoplasmons.

  8. Edge-Fault-Tolerant Edge-Bipancyclicity of Bubble-Sort Graphs

    Xin Ping XU; Min XU; Jin JING

    2012-01-01

    The bubble-sort graph Bn is a bipartite graph.Kikuchi and Araki [Edge-bipancyclicity and edge-fault-tolerant bipancyclicity of bubble-sort graphs.Information Processing Letters,100,52-59 (2006)] have proved that Bn is edge-bipancyclic for n ≥ 5 and Bn - F is bipancyclic when n ≥ 4and |F| ≤ n - 3.In this paper,we improve this result by showing that for any edge set F of Bn with |F| ≤ n - 3,every edge of Bn - F lies on a cycle of every even length from 6 to n! for n ≥ 5 and every edge of Bn - F lies on a cycle of every even length from 8 to n! for n =4.

  9. A Shearlets-based Edge Identification Algorithem for Infrared Image

    Rui-bin ZOU; Cai-cheng SHI

    2013-01-01

    A shearlets-based edge identification algorithem for infrared image is proposed. The algorithem demonstrates the performance of edge detection based on shearlets, combines with the edge hysteresis thresholding, designs steps of edge detection, which is proper to use in infrared images.Simultaneously, with the advantage of edge geometric features provided by the shearlets, infrared image were extracted the direction information of edge of Infrared image, and classified. In computer simulations...

  10. Image edge detection based on adaptive weighted morphology

    Lihui Jiang; Yanying Guo

    2007-01-01

    A novel morphological edge detector based on adaptive weighted morphological operators is presented. It judges image edge and direction by adaptive weighted morphological structuring elements (SEs). If the edge direction exists, a big weight factor in SE is put; if it does not exist, a small weight factor in SE is put. Thus we can achieve an intensified edge detector. Experimental results prove that the new operator's performance dominates those of classical operators for images in edge detection, and obtains superbly detail edges.

  11. Edge State and Intrinsic Hole Doping in Bilayer Phosphorene

    Osada, Toshihito

    2014-01-01

    Using a simple LCAO model by Harrison, we have qualitatively studied the edge state of bilayer phosphorene, which is a unit structure of the layered crystal of black phosphorus. This model successfully reproduces the isolated edge state in the bulk gap in monolayer phosphorene. In bilayer phosphorene, however, it shows that edge states are almost buried in the valence band and there is no isolated midgap edge state at the zigzag edge. Since the buried edge state works as acceptor, holes are d...

  12. Losing your edge: climate change and the conservation value of range‐edge populations

    Evan M. Rehm; Olivas, Paulo; Stroud, James; Feeley, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Populations occurring at species' range edges can be locally adapted to unique environmental conditions. From a species' perspective, range‐edge environments generally have higher severity and frequency of extreme climatic events relative to the range core. Under future climates, extreme climatic events are predicted to become increasingly important in defining species' distributions. Therefore, range‐edge genotypes that are better adapted to extreme climates relative to core populat...

  13. Distance to edges, edge contrast and landscape fragmentation: interactions affecting farmland birds arounf forest plantations

    Fabião, António; Reino, Luís; Osborne, Patrick E.; Beja, Pedro; Morgado, Rui; Rotenberry, John T

    2009-01-01

    Afforestation often causes direct habitat losses for farmland birds of conservation concern, but it is uncertain whether negative effects also extend significantly into adjacent open land. Information is thus required on how these species react to wooded edges, and how their responses are affected by edge and landscape characteristics. These issues were examined in Mediterranean arable farmland, using bird counts at 0, 100, 200, 300 and >300 m from oak, pine and eucalyptus edge...

  14. Flap-edge aeroacoustic measurements and predictions

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M.

    2003-03-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a small aperture directional array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady-surface-pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that the prediction models capture much of the physics. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. The complexity of the directivity results demonstrate the strong role of edge source geometry and frequency in

  15. Plasma-materials interactions and edge-plasma physics research

    This report discusses the: Pisces Program; Pisces Facilities; Pisces Experiments: Materials and Surface Physics; Pisces Experiments: Edge Plasma Physics; and, Theoretical Analysis: Edge Plasma Behavior

  16. Hopfield neural network and its applications on image edge detection

    Yonghong Zhang(张永宏); Dejin Hu(胡德金); Kai Zhang(张凯); Junjie Xu(徐俊杰)

    2004-01-01

    A method of image edge detection using the Hopfield neural network (HNN) is proposed in this paper.The image edge parameters are introduced in detail, and the energy function of HNN is given based on the edge parameters. Tests on the image edge detection show that images detected by the proposed method have good edge closeness and true edge, at the same time it has good anti-noise performance. The image edge detection using HNN is better than that obtained by some other edge detection operators.

  17. Losing your edge: climate change and the conservation value of range-edge populations.

    Rehm, Evan M; Olivas, Paulo; Stroud, James; Feeley, Kenneth J

    2015-10-01

    Populations occurring at species' range edges can be locally adapted to unique environmental conditions. From a species' perspective, range-edge environments generally have higher severity and frequency of extreme climatic events relative to the range core. Under future climates, extreme climatic events are predicted to become increasingly important in defining species' distributions. Therefore, range-edge genotypes that are better adapted to extreme climates relative to core populations may be essential to species' persistence during periods of rapid climate change. We use relatively simple conceptual models to highlight the importance of locally adapted range-edge populations (leading and trailing edges) for determining the ability of species to persist under future climates. Using trees as an example, we show how locally adapted populations at species' range edges may expand under future climate change and become more common relative to range-core populations. We also highlight how large-scale habitat destruction occurring in some geographic areas where many species range edge converge, such as biome boundaries and ecotones (e.g., the arc of deforestation along the rainforest-cerrado ecotone in the southern Amazonia), can have major implications for global biodiversity. As climate changes, range-edge populations will play key roles in helping species to maintain or expand their geographic distributions. The loss of these locally adapted range-edge populations through anthropogenic disturbance is therefore hypothesized to reduce the ability of species to persist in the face of rapid future climate change. PMID:26664681

  18. Edge localized modes control by resonant magnetic perturbations

    The present work is dedicated to one of the most promising methods of control of the ELMs (Edge Localized Modes), based on a system of coils producing Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs). Our main objectives are, on the one hand, to improve the physical understanding of the mechanisms at play, and on the other hand to propose a concrete design of ELMs control coils for ITER. In order to calculate and analyze the magnetic perturbations produced by a given set of coils, we have developed the ERGOS code. The first ERGOS calculation was for the DIII-D ELMs control coils, the I-coils. It showed that they produce magnetic islands chains which overlap at the edge of the plasma, resulting in the ergodization of the magnetic field. We have then used ERGOS for the modelling of the experiments on ELMs control using the error field correction coils at JET and MAST. In the case of JET, we have shown the existence of a correlation between the mitigation of the ELMs and the ergodization of the magnetic field at the edge, in agreement with the DIII-D result. In order to design the ELMs control coils for ITER we have used ERGOS intensively, taking the case of the DIII-D I-coils as a reference. Three candidate designs came out, which we presented at the ITER Design Review, in 2007. Recently, the ITER management decided to provide a budget for building ELMs control coils, the design of which remains to be chosen between two of the three options that we proposed. Finally, in order to understand better the non-linear magnetohydrodynamics phenomena taking place in ELMs control by RMPs, we performed numerical simulations, in particular with the JOREK code for a DIII-D case. The simulations reveal the existence of convection cells induced at the edge by the magnetic perturbations, and the possible screening of the RMPs in presence of rotation

  19. Partnership for Edge Physics Simulation (EPSI)

    Schroder, Peter [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2015-02-11

    We propose to develop advanced simulation codes, based upon an extreme parallelism, first principles kinetic approach, to address the challenges associated with the edge region of magnetically confined plasmas. This work is relevant to both existing magnetic fusion facilities and essential for next-generation burning plasma experiments, such as ITER where success is critically dependent upon H-mode operation achieving an edge pedestal of sufficient height for good core plasma performance without producing deleterious large scale edge localized instabilities. The plasma edge presents a well-known set of multi-physics, multi-scale problems involving complex 3D magnetic geometry. Perhaps the greatest computational challenge is the lack of scale separation – temporal scales for drift waves, Alfven waves, ELM dynamics for example have strong overlap. Similar overlap occurs on the spatial scales for the ion poloidal gyro-radius, drift wave and pedestal width. The traditional approach of separating fusion problems into weakly interacting spatial or temporal domains clearly breaks down in the edge. A full kinetic model (full-f model) must be solved to understand and predict the edge physics including non-equilibrium thermodynamic issues arising from the magnetic topology (the open field lines producing a spatially sensitive velocity hole), plasma wall interactions, neutral and atomic physics. The plan here is to model these phenomena within a comprehensive first principles set of equations without the need for the insurmountable multiple-codes coupling issues by building on the XGC1 code developed under the SciDAC Proto-FSP Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (CPES). This proposal includes the critical participants in the XGC1 development. We propose enhancing the capability of XGC1 by including all the important turbulence physics contained in kinetic ion and electron electromagnetic dynamics, by extending the PIC technology to incorporate several positive features found

  20. Flap Edge Aeroacoustic Measurements and Predictions

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady surface pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that much of the physics is captured by the prediction models. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. Significantly, for each edge configuration, the spectra for different flow speeds, flap angles, and

  1. Image enhancement based on edge boosting algorithm

    Ngernplubpla, Jaturon; Chitsobhuk, Orachat

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a technique for image enhancement based on proposed edge boosting algorithm to reconstruct high quality image from a single low resolution image is described. The difficulty in single-image super-resolution is that the generic image priors resided in the low resolution input image may not be sufficient to generate the effective solutions. In order to achieve a success in super-resolution reconstruction, efficient prior knowledge should be estimated. The statistics of gradient priors in terms of priority map based on separable gradient estimation, maximum likelihood edge estimation, and local variance are introduced. The proposed edge boosting algorithm takes advantages of these gradient statistics to select the appropriate enhancement weights. The larger weights are applied to the higher frequency details while the low frequency details are smoothed. From the experimental results, the significant performance improvement quantitatively and perceptually is illustrated. It can be seen that the proposed edge boosting algorithm demonstrates high quality results with fewer artifacts, sharper edges, superior texture areas, and finer detail with low noise.

  2. Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.

    Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01

    The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

  3. Edge states of zigzag bilayer graphite nanoribbons

    Rhim, Jun-Won; Moon, Kyungsun

    2008-09-01

    The electronic structures of zigzag bilayer graphite nanoribbons (Z-BGNRs) with various ribbon widths N are studied within the tight binding approximation. Neglecting the inter-layer hopping amplitude γ4, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the other inter-layer hopping parameters, there exist two fixed Fermi points ± k* independent of the ribbon width with a peculiar energy dispersion near k* as ɛ(k)~ ± (k-k*)N. By investigating the edge states of Z-BGNRs, we notice that the trigonal warping of the bilayer graphene sheets is reflected in the edge state structure. With the inclusion of γ4, the above two Fermi points are not fixed but drift toward the vicinity of the Dirac point with increasing width N, as shown by the finite scaling method, and the peculiar dispersions change to parabolic ones. The edge magnetism of Z-BGNRs is also examined by solving the half-filled Hubbard Hamiltonian for the ribbon using the Hartree-Fock approximation. We have shown that within the same side of the edges, the edge spins are aligned ferromagnetically for the experimentally relevant set of parameters.

  4. Edge states of zigzag bilayer graphite nanoribbons

    Rhim, Jun-Won; Moon, Kyungsun [Department of Physics and Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kmoon@yonsei.ac.kr

    2008-09-10

    The electronic structures of zigzag bilayer graphite nanoribbons (Z-BGNRs) with various ribbon widths N are studied within the tight binding approximation. Neglecting the inter-layer hopping amplitude {gamma}{sub 4}, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the other inter-layer hopping parameters, there exist two fixed Fermi points {+-} k{sup *} independent of the ribbon width with a peculiar energy dispersion near k{sup *} as {epsilon}(k){approx} {+-} (k-k{sup *}){sup N}. By investigating the edge states of Z-BGNRs, we notice that the trigonal warping of the bilayer graphene sheets is reflected in the edge state structure. With the inclusion of {gamma}{sub 4}, the above two Fermi points are not fixed but drift toward the vicinity of the Dirac point with increasing width N, as shown by the finite scaling method, and the peculiar dispersions change to parabolic ones. The edge magnetism of Z-BGNRs is also examined by solving the half-filled Hubbard Hamiltonian for the ribbon using the Hartree-Fock approximation. We have shown that within the same side of the edges, the edge spins are aligned ferromagnetically for the experimentally relevant set of parameters.

  5. Spanwise visualization of the flow around a three-dimensional foil with leading edge protuberances

    Stanway, M. J.; Techet, A. H.

    2006-11-01

    Studies of model humpback whale fins have shown that leading edge protuberances, or tubercles, can lead to delayed stall and increased lift at higher angles of attack, compared to foils with geometrically smooth leading edges. Such enhanced performance characteristics could prove highly useful in underwater vehicles such as gliders or long range AUVs (autonomous underwater vehicles). In this work, Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is performed on two static wings in a water tunnel over a range of angles of attack. These three- dimensional, finite-aspect ratio wings are modeled after a humpback whale flipper and are identical in shape, tapered from root to tip, except for the leading edge. In one of the foils the leading edge is smooth, whereas in the other, regularly spaced leading edge bumps are machined to simulate the whale’s fin tubercles. Results from these PIV tests reveal distinct cells where coherent flow structures are destroyed as a result of the leading edge perturbations. Tests are performed at Reynolds numbers Re ˜ O(10^5), based on chordlength, in a recirculating water tunnel. An inline six-axis load cell is mounted to measure the forces on the foil over a range of static pitch angles. It is hypothesized that this spanwise breakup of coherent vortical structures is responsible for the delayed angle of stall. These quantitative experiments complement exiting qualitative studies with two dimensional foils.

  6. Localized Edge Vibrations and Edge Reconstruction by Joule Heating in Graphene Nanostructures

    Engelund, Mads; Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Jauho, Antti-Pekka;

    2010-01-01

    Control of the edge topology of graphene nanostructures is critical to graphene-based electronics. A means of producing atomically smooth zigzag edges using electronic current has recently been demonstrated in experiments [Jia et al., Science 323, 1701 (2009)]. We develop a microscopic theory for...

  7. Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier......-Stokes equations. It provides us possibilities to study details about noise generation mechanism. The formulation of the semi-empirical model is based on acoustic analogy and then curve-fitted with experimental data. Due to its high efficiency, such empirical relation is used for purpose of low noise airfoil...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc....

  8. Black phosphorus edges: a polarized Raman study

    Ribeiro, H.; Villegas, C.; Bahamon, D.; Castro Neto, A.; de Souza, E.; Rocha, A.; Pimenta, M.; de Matos, C.

    Black phosphorus (BP) has been recently exfoliated down to few-layer thicknesses revealing numerous interesting features such as a tunable direct bandgap. Ever since, demonstrations of BP electronic devices have bloomed, as well as studies of the electric, optical, mechanical and thermal properties of its bulk and few-layer forms. However, the edges of BP crystals have, so far, been poorly characterized, even though the terminations of layered crystals are known to possess a range of interesting properties. In this work, the edges of exfoliated BP flakes are characterized by polarized confocal Raman spectroscopy. We will present experimental Raman spectra at zigzag and armchair edges, as well as density functional theory calculations that explain the peculiarities of the experimental data. Fapesp, INCT/Nanocarbono, Fapemig, CNPq, MackPesquisa, Grid-Unesp, CENAPAD-SP, and NRF.

  9. Predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge

    Goessling, H. F.; Tietsche, S.; Day, J. J.; Hawkins, E.; Jung, T.

    2016-02-01

    Skillful sea ice forecasts from days to years ahead are becoming increasingly important for the operation and planning of human activities in the Arctic. Here we analyze the potential predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge in six climate models. We introduce the integrated ice-edge error (IIEE), a user-relevant verification metric defined as the area where the forecast and the "truth" disagree on the ice concentration being above or below 15%. The IIEE lends itself to decomposition into an absolute extent error, corresponding to the common sea ice extent error, and a misplacement error. We find that the often-neglected misplacement error makes up more than half of the climatological IIEE. In idealized forecast ensembles initialized on 1 July, the IIEE grows faster than the absolute extent error. This means that the Arctic sea ice edge is less predictable than sea ice extent, particularly in September, with implications for the potential skill of end-user relevant forecasts.

  10. Controllable edge feature sharpening for dental applications.

    Fan, Ran; Jin, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to sharpen blurred edge features in scanned tooth preparation surfaces generated by structured-light scanners. It aims to efficiently enhance the edge features so that the embedded feature lines can be easily identified in dental CAD systems, and to avoid unnatural oversharpening geometry. We first separate the feature regions using graph-cut segmentation, which does not require a user-defined threshold. Then, we filter the face normal vectors to propagate the geometry from the smooth region to the feature region. In order to control the degree of the sharpness, we propose a feature distance measure which is based on normal tensor voting. Finally, the vertex positions are updated according to the modified face normal vectors. We have applied the approach to scanned tooth preparation models. The results show that the blurred edge features are enhanced without unnatural oversharpening geometry. PMID:24741376

  11. Exploring topological edge states in photonic quasicrystals

    Baboux, F; Lemaître, A; Gomez, C; Galopin, E; Gratiet, L Le; Sagnes, I; Amo, A; Bloch, J; Akkermans, E

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the topological properties of quasiperiodic chains using cavity polaritons confined in a potential following the Fibonacci sequence. Edge states forming in the gaps of a fractal energy spectrum are imaged both in real and momentum space. These edge states periodically traverse the gaps when varying a structural degree of freedom $\\phi$ of the Fibonacci sequence. The period and direction of the traverses are directly related to the Chern numbers assigned to each gap by the gap-labeling theorem. Additionally, we show that the Chern numbers determine the spatial symmetry properties of the edge states. These results highlight the potential of cavity polaritons to emulate nontrivial topological properties in a controlled environment.

  12. Acoustic metamaterial for subwavelength edge detection

    Molerón, Miguel; Daraio, Chiara

    2015-08-01

    Metamaterials have demonstrated the possibility to produce super-resolved images by restoring propagative and evanescent waves. However, for efficient information transfer, for example, in compressed sensing, it is often desirable to visualize only the fast spatial variations of the wave field (carried by evanescent waves), as the one created by edges or small details. Image processing edge detection algorithms perform such operation, but they add time and complexity to the imaging process. Here we present an acoustic metamaterial that transmits only components of the acoustic field that are approximately equal to or smaller than the operating wavelength. The metamaterial converts evanescent waves into propagative waves exciting trapped resonances, and it uses periodicity to attenuate the propagative components. This approach achieves resolutions ~5 times smaller than the operating wavelength and makes it possible to visualize independently edges aligned along different directions.

  13. Mesh Simplification Using the Edge Attributes

    Il Dong Yun

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel technique for simplifying a triangulated surface at different levels of resolution. While most existing algorithms, based on iterative vertex decimation, employ the distance for error metric, the proposed algorithm utilizes an edge criterion for removing a vertex. An interior angle of a vertex is defined as the maximum value of all possible angles formed by combinations of edges connected to a vertex. Since the surface curvature examined with the interior angle provides more information for decision of vertex removal than the conventional distance measure, the proposed algorithm can approximate the surface with less computation. The height of a triangle, which is formed by the pair of edges, is also used for an additional constraint. The computational complexity can thus be greatly alleviated to logarithmic scale from the exponential scale required for the conventional algorithms, while yielding the comparable error level.

  14. AUTOMATED EDGE DETECTION USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Mohamed A. El-Sayed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The edge detection on the images is so important for image processing. It is used in a various fields of applications ranging from real-time video surveillance and traffic management to medical imaging applications. Currently, there is not a single edge detector that has both efficiency and reliability. Traditional differential filter-based algorithms have the advantage of theoretical strictness, but require excessive post-processing. Proposed CNN technique is used to realize edge detection task it takes the advantage of momentum features extraction, it can process any input image of any size with no more training required, the results are very promising when compared to both classical methods and other ANN based methods

  15. Edge effects in composites by moire interferometry

    Czarnek, R.; Post, D.; Herakovich, C.

    1983-01-01

    The very high sensitivity of moire interferometry has permitted the present edge effect experiments to be conducted at a low average stress and strain level, assuring linear and elastic behavior in the composite material samples tested. Sensitivity corresponding to 2450 line/mm moire was achieved with a 0.408 micron/fringe. Simultaneous observations of the specimen face and edge displacement fields showed good fringe definition despite the 1-mm thickness of the specimens and the high gradients, and it is noted that the use of a carrier pattern and optical filtering was effective in even these conditions. Edge effects and dramatic displacement gradients were confirmed in angle-ply composite laminates.

  16. Free edge effects in laminated composites

    Herakovich, C. T.

    1989-01-01

    The fundamental mechanics of free-edge effects in laminated fiber-reinforced composites is examined, reviewing the results of recent experimental and analytical investigations. The derivation of the governing equations for the basic problem is outlined, including the equilibrium and mismatch conditions and the elasticity formulation, and experimental data on axial displacement and shear strain in angle-ply laminates are summarized. Numerical predictions of free-edge deformation and interlaminar and through-thickness stress distributions are presented for cross-ply, angle-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates, and the mechanisms of edge damage and failure in angle-ply laminates are briefly characterized. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  17. Finding Well-Balanced Pairs of Edge-Disjoint Trees in Edge-Weighted Graphs

    Bang-Jensen, Jørgen; Goncalves, Daniel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2007-01-01

    the elements in Y (or equivalently, minimize the maximum of the two sums). In this paper we study the following generalization of the partition problem: given an edge-weighted graph G containing two edge-disjoint spanning trees. Find a pair of edge-disjoint spanning trees such that the maximum weight...... of these two trees is as small as possible. In the case when G is precisely the union of two trees this problem may be seen as a generalization of the partition problem in which we have added a graph structure to the numbers (through the edges) and the extra restriction that only the sets X and Y...... value of an optimal solution. We also show that the approach above may sometimes exclude all the optimal solutions. Both the partition problem and its generalization to the problem above on edge-disjoint spanning trees are special cases of the problem of finding, in a weighted matroid with two disjoint...

  18. The Role of T Helper (TH)17 Cells as a Double-Edged Sword in the Interplay of Infection and Autoimmunity with a Focus on Xenobiotic-Induced Immunomodulation

    Hemdan, Nasr Y.A.; Abu El-Saad, Ahmed M.; Ulrich Sack

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research in recent years suggests that exposure to xenobiotic stimuli plays a critical role in autoimmunity induction and severity and that the resulting response would be exacerbated in individuals with an infection-aroused immune system. In this context, heavy metals constitute a prominent category of xenobiotic substances, known to alter divergent immune cell responses in accidentally and occupationally exposed individuals, thereby increasing the susceptibility to autoimmunity an...

  19. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE

    Bagnasco, S.; Barbera, R.(Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università and Sezione INFN, Catania, Italy); Buncic, P.; Carminati, F.; Cerello, P.(Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy); Saiz, P.

    2003-01-01

    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Stora...

  20. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin

    2011-01-01

    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple conventions......, they can be combined into one method of refinement. In the combined method, node refinement can be used to develop architectural aspects of a model and edge refinement to develop algorithmic aspects. The two notions of refinement are grounded in previous work. Event-B is used as the foundation for our...

  1. Active-edge planar radiation sensors

    Kenney, C. J.; Segal, J.D.; Westbrook, E.; Parker, Sherwood; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Watts, S.; Morse, J

    2006-01-01

    Many systems in medicine, biology, high-energy physics, and astrophysics require large area radiation sensors. In most of these applications, minimizing the amount of dead area or dead material is crucial. We have developed a new type of silicon radiation sensor in which the device is active to within a few microns of the mechanical edge. Their perimeter is made by a plasma etcher rather than a diamond saw. Their edges can be defined and also passivated by growing, in an intermediate step, a ...

  2. Edge detection techniques for iris recognition system

    Nowadays security and authentication are the major parts of our daily life. Iris is one of the most reliable organ or part of human body which can be used for identification and authentication purpose. To develop an iris authentication algorithm for personal identification, this paper examines two edge detection techniques for iris recognition system. Between the Sobel and the Canny edge detection techniques, the experimental result shows that the Canny's technique has better ability to detect points in a digital image where image gray level changes even at slow rate

  3. Edge detection techniques for iris recognition system

    Tania, U. T.; Motakabber, S. M. A.; Ibrahimy, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays security and authentication are the major parts of our daily life. Iris is one of the most reliable organ or part of human body which can be used for identification and authentication purpose. To develop an iris authentication algorithm for personal identification, this paper examines two edge detection techniques for iris recognition system. Between the Sobel and the Canny edge detection techniques, the experimental result shows that the Canny's technique has better ability to detect points in a digital image where image gray level changes even at slow rate.

  4. Particle Size Estimation Based on Edge Density

    WANG Wei-xing

    2005-01-01

    Given image sequences of closely packed particles, the underlying aim is to estimate diameters without explicit segmentation. In a way, this is similar to the task of counting objects without directly counting them. Such calculations may, for example, be useful fast estimation of particle size in different application areas. The topic is that of estimating average size (=average diameter) of packed particles, from formulas involving edge density, and the edges from moment-based thresholding are used. An average shape factor is involved in the calculations, obtained for some frames from crude partial segmentation. Measurement results from about 80 frames have been analyzed.

  5. Active-edge planar radiation sensors

    Many systems in medicine, biology, high-energy physics, and astrophysics require large area radiation sensors. In most of these applications, minimizing the amount of dead area or dead material is crucial. We have developed a new type of silicon radiation sensor in which the device is active to within a few microns of the mechanical edge. Their perimeter is made by a plasma etcher rather than a diamond saw. Their edges can be defined and also passivated by growing, in an intermediate step, a field oxide on the side surfaces. In this paper, the basic architecture and results from a synchrotron beam test are presented

  6. Group edge choosability of planar graphs without adjacent short cycles

    Xin ZHANG; Liu, Guizhen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to introduce the group version of edge coloring and list edge coloring, and prove that all 2-degenerate graphs along with some planar graphs without adjacent short cycles is group $(\\Delta(G)+1)$-edge-choosable while some planar graphs with large girth and maximum degree is group $\\Delta(G)$-edge-choosable.

  7. Optimization of K-edge imaging with spectral CT

    He, Peng; Wei, Biao; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Spectral/multienergy CT has the potential to distinguish different materials by K-edge characteristics. K-edge imaging involves the two energy bins on both sides of a K-edge. The authors propose a K-edge imaging optimization model to determine these two energy bins.

  8. Natural domains for edge-degenerate differential operators

    Seiler, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    We study cone differential operators on the half-axis and edge-degenerate differential operators on a half-space. We construct subspaces of edge Sobolev spaces that can be considered as natural domains for edge-degenerate operators and indicate how they can be used in the study of boundary problems for edge-degenerate operators.

  9. Tilings of the Sphere by Edge Congruent Pentagons

    Cheuk, Ka Yue; Cheung, Ho Man; Yan, Min

    2013-01-01

    We study edge-to-edge tilings of the sphere by edge congruent pentagons, under the assumption that there are tiles with all vertices having degree 3. We develop the technique of neighborhood tilings and apply the technique to completely classify edge congruent earth map tilings.

  10. Physics-based edge evaluation for improved color constancy

    A. Gijsenij; T. Gevers; J. van de Weijer

    2009-01-01

    Edge-based color constancy makes use of image derivatives to estimate the illuminant. However, different edge types exist in real-world images such as shadow, geometry, material and highlight edges. These different edge types may have a distinctive influence on the performance of the illuminant esti

  11. A Note on Edge Guards in Art Galleries

    Nandakumar, R

    2011-01-01

    We examine the Art Gallery Problem with Edge Guards. We present a heuristic algorithm to arrange edge guards to guard only the inward side of the walls of any N-vertex simple polygonal gallery using at most roof (N/4) edge guards - a weakened version of Toussaint's conjecture on the number of edge guards that can guard an entire simple polygon

  12. Interplay between phosphoinositide lipids and calcium signals at the leading edge of chemotaxing ameboid cells☆

    Falke, Joseph J.; Ziemba, Brian P

    2014-01-01

    The chemotactic migration of eukaryotic ameboid cells up concentration gradients is among the most advanced forms of cellular behavior. Chemotaxis is controlled by a complex network of signaling proteins bound to specific lipids on the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane at the front of the cell, or the leading edge. The central lipid players in this leading edge signaling pathway include the phosphoinositides PI(4,5)P2 (PIP2) and PI(3,4,5)P3 (PIP3), both of which play multiple roles. ...

  13. Restricted Edge Connectivity of BinaryUndirected Kautz Graphs

    OUJian-ping

    2004-01-01

    A restricted edge cut is an edge cut of a connected graph whose removal resultsin a disconnected graph without isolated vertices. The size of a minimum restricted edge cutof a graph G is called its restricted edge connectivity, and is denoted by λ′(G). Let ξ(G) bethe minimum edge degree of graph G. It is known that λ′(G) ≤ξ(G) if G contains restrictededge cuts. Graph G is called maximal restricted edge connected if the equality holds in thethe preceding inequality. In this paper, undirected Kautz graph UK(2, n) is proved to bemaximal restricted edge connected if n ≥ 2.

  14. Edge Cut Domination, Irredundance, and Independence in Graphs

    Fenstermacher, Todd; Hedetniemi, Stephen; Laskar, Renu

    2016-01-01

    An edge dominating set $F$ of a graph $G=(V,E)$ is an \\textit{edge cut dominating set} if the subgraph $\\langle V,G-F \\rangle$ is disconnected. The \\textit{edge cut domination number} $\\gamma_{ct}(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum cardinality of an edge cut dominating set of $G.$ In this paper we study the edge cut domination number and investigate its relationships with other parameters of graphs. We also introduce the properties edge cut irredundance and edge cut independence.

  15. Outlier Edge Detection Using Random Graph Generation Models and Applications

    Zhang, Honglei; Gabbouj, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    Outliers are samples that are generated by different mechanisms from other normal data samples. Graphs, in particular social network graphs, may contain nodes and edges that are made by scammers, malicious programs or mistakenly by normal users. Detecting outlier nodes and edges is important for data mining and graph analytics. However, previous research in the field has merely focused on detecting outlier nodes. In this article, we study the properties of edges and propose outlier edge detection algorithms using two random graph generation models. We found that the edge-ego-network, which can be defined as the induced graph that contains two end nodes of an edge, their neighboring nodes and the edges that link these nodes, contains critical information to detect outlier edges. We evaluated the proposed algorithms by injecting outlier edges into some real-world graph data. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithms can effectively detect outlier edges. In particular, the algorithm based on the Prefe...

  16. Feature fusion method for edge detection of color images

    Ma Yu; Gu Xiaodong; Wang Yuanyuan

    2009-01-01

    A novel feature fusion method is proposed for the edge detection of color images. Except for the typical features used in edge detection, the color contrast similarity and the orientation consistency are also selected as the features. The four features are combined together as a parameter to detect the edges of color images. Experimental results show that the method can inhibit noisy edges and facilitate the detection for weak edges. It has a better performance than conventional methods in noisy environments.

  17. Emergent Properties of Patch Shapes Affect Edge Permeability to Animals

    Nams, Vilis O.

    2011-01-01

    Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1) find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as e...

  18. The edge engineering of topological Bi(111) bilayer

    Li, Xiao; Liu, Hai-Wen; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Fa; Feng, Ji

    2014-01-01

    A topological insulator is a novel quantum state, characterized by symmetry-protected non-trivial edge/surface states. Our first-principle simulations show the significant effects of the chemical decoration on edge states of topological Bi(111) bilayer nanoribbon, which remove the trivial edge state and recover the Dirac linear dispersion of topological edge state. By comparing the edge states with and without chemical decoration, the Bi(111) bilayer nanoribbon offers a simple system for asse...

  19. Tiling Problem: Convex Pentagons for Edge-to-Edge Monohedral Tiling and Convex Polygons for Aperiodic Tiling

    Sugimoto, Teruhisa

    2015-01-01

    We show that convex pentagons that can generate edge-to-edge monohedral tilings of the plane can be classified into exactly eight types. Using these results, it is also proved that no single convex polygon can be an aperiodic prototile without matching conditions other than "edge-to-edge."

  20. The role of T helper (TH)17 cells as a double-edged sword in the interplay of infection and autoimmunity with a focus on xenobiotic-induced immunomodulation.

    Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Abu El-Saad, Ahmed M; Sack, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research in recent years suggests that exposure to xenobiotic stimuli plays a critical role in autoimmunity induction and severity and that the resulting response would be exacerbated in individuals with an infection-aroused immune system. In this context, heavy metals constitute a prominent category of xenobiotic substances, known to alter divergent immune cell responses in accidentally and occupationally exposed individuals, thereby increasing the susceptibility to autoimmunity and cancer, especially when accompanied by inflammation-triggered persistent sensitization. This perception is learned from experimental models of infection and epidemiologic studies and clearly underscores the interplay of exposure to such immunomodulatory elements with pre- or postexposure infectious events. Further, the TH17 cell subset, known to be associated with a growing list of autoimmune manifestations, may be the "superstar" at the interface of xenobiotic exposure and autoimmunity. In this review, the most recently established links to this nomination are short-listed to create a framework to better understand new insights into TH17's contributions to autoimmunity. PMID:24151516

  1. The Role of T Helper (TH17 Cells as a Double-Edged Sword in the Interplay of Infection and Autoimmunity with a Focus on Xenobiotic-Induced Immunomodulation

    Nasr Y. A. Hemdan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research in recent years suggests that exposure to xenobiotic stimuli plays a critical role in autoimmunity induction and severity and that the resulting response would be exacerbated in individuals with an infection-aroused immune system. In this context, heavy metals constitute a prominent category of xenobiotic substances, known to alter divergent immune cell responses in accidentally and occupationally exposed individuals, thereby increasing the susceptibility to autoimmunity and cancer, especially when accompanied by inflammation-triggered persistent sensitization. This perception is learned from experimental models of infection and epidemiologic studies and clearly underscores the interplay of exposure to such immunomodulatory elements with pre- or postexposure infectious events. Further, the TH17 cell subset, known to be associated with a growing list of autoimmune manifestations, may be the “superstar” at the interface of xenobiotic exposure and autoimmunity. In this review, the most recently established links to this nomination are short-listed to create a framework to better understand new insights into TH17’s contributions to autoimmunity.

  2. Edge maps: Representing flow with bounded error

    Bhatia, Harsh

    2011-03-01

    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Many analysis techniques rely on computing streamlines, a task often hampered by numerical instabilities. Approaches that ignore the resulting errors can lead to inconsistencies that may produce unreliable visualizations and ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with linear maps defined on its boundary. This representation, called edge maps, is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. In spite of this error, all the streamlines computed using edge maps will be pairwise disjoint. Furthermore, our representation stores the error explicitly, and thus can be used to produce more informative visualizations. Given a piecewise-linear interpolated vector field, a recent result [15] shows that there are only 23 possible map classes for a triangle, permitting a concise description of flow behaviors. This work describes the details of computing edge maps, provides techniques to quantify and refine edge map error, and gives qualitative and visual comparisons to more traditional techniques. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  4. Nonlocal edge state transport in topological insulators

    Protogenov, Alexander P.; Verbus, Valery A.; Chulkov, Evgueni V.

    2013-11-01

    We use the N-terminal scheme for studying the edge-state transport in two-dimensional topological insulators. We find the universal nonlocal response in the ballistic transport approach. This macroscopic exhibition of the topological order offers different areas for applications.

  5. On the edge between tradition and innovation

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Nandhakumar, Joe

    2011-01-01

    investigate also how external pressure from a network, apparently supporting innovation, may instead create a conflicting system of values, compromising the emergence of a negotiation space and hindering the innovation process. Our study suggests that museum innovation is still unsettled, on the edge between...

  6. Reading Edge. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Reading Edge" is a middle school literacy program that emphasizes cooperative learning, goal setting, feedback, classroom management techniques, and the use of metacognitive strategy, whereby students assess their own skills and learn to apply new ones. The program is a component of the "Success for All"[superscript 2] ("SFA")[R] whole-school…

  7. Universality in edge-source diffusion dynamics

    Mortensen, Asger; Okkels, Fridolin; Bruus, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We show that in edge-source diffusion dynamics the integrated concentration N(t) has a universal dependence with a characteristic time scale tau=(A/P)(2)pi/(4D), where D is the diffusion constant while A and P are the cross-sectional area and perimeter of the domain, respectively. For the short...

  8. Students at the Edge of Space

    Kennon, Tillman; Roberts, Ed; Fuller, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Space travel, even low Earth orbit, is probably several years away for most of us; however, students and teachers can research the edge of space by participating in the BalloonSat program. BalloonSat is an offshoot of the Space Grant Consortium's very successful RocketSat program. The Arkansas BalloonSat program consists of teacher-initiated…

  9. Social Justice as a Pedagogy of Edge

    Sonu, Debbie J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses social justice as a "pedagogy of edge." She argues that educators hold the privilege to begin reframing the dialogue on social justice as a relation of all subjects and to dredge from within the meanings drawn and practices made in honor of justice. This may require a shift away from social justice as a…

  10. Time-resonant tokamak plasma edge instabilities?

    Webster, A. J.; Dendy, R. O.; Calderon, F. A.; Chapman, S. C.; Delabie, E.; Dodt, D.; Felton, R.; Todd, T. N.; Maviglia, F.; Morris, J.; Riccardo, V.; Alper, B.; Brezinsek, S.; Coad, P.; Likonen, J.; Rubel, M.; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2014-01-01

    For a two week period during the Joint European Torus 2012 experimental campaign, the same high confinement plasma was repeated 151 times. The dataset was analysed to produce a probability density function (pdf) for the waiting times between edge-localized plasma instabilities (ELMs). The result was

  11. Anomalous transport in the tokamak edge

    The tokamak edge has been studied with arrays of Langmuir and magnetic probes on the DITE and COMPASS-C devices. Measurements of plasma parameters such as density, temperature and radial magnetic field were taken in order to elucidate the character, effect on transport and origin of edge fluctuations. The tokamak edge is a strongly-turbulent environment, with large electrostatic fluctuation levels and broad spectra. The observations, including direct correlation measurements, are consistent with a picture in which the observed magnetic field fluctuations are driven by the perturbations in electrostatic parameters. The propagation characteristics of the turbulence, investigated using digital spectral techniques, appear to be dominated by the variation of the radial electric field, both in limiter and divertor plasmas. A shear layer is formed, associated in each case with the last closed flux surface. In the shear layer, the electrostatic wavenumber spectra are significantly broader. The predictions of a drift wave model (DDGDT) and of a family of models evolving from the rippling mode (RGDT group), are compared with experimental results. RGDT, augmented by impurity radiation effects, is shown to be the most reasonable candidate to explain the nature of the edge turbulence, only failing in its estimate of the wavenumber range. (Author)

  12. Edge Plasma Fluctuations Measurements In Fusion Experiments

    Schrittwieser, R.; Ionita, C.; Balan, P.; Varandas, C. A. F.; Figueiredo, H. F. C.; Silva, C.; Stöckel, Jan; Adámek, Jiří; Hron, Martin; Tichý, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Calderon, E.; Martines, E.; Van Oost, G.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Naulin, V.

    Bled : -, 2005, -. [Nuclear Energy for New Europe 2005. Bled (SI), 05.09.2005-08.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * edge plasma * plasma potential * fluctuations * turbulence Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  13. A note on electromagnetic edge modes

    Zuo, Fen

    2016-01-01

    We give an intuitive identification for the electromagnetic edge modes as virtual spinon and vison excitations in quantum spin liquids. As an example, we show how such an identification may reconcile the discrepancy on the logarithmic coefficient of the entanglement entropy on a sphere.

  14. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  15. Impurity transport in plasma edge turbulence

    Naulin, Volker; Priego Wood, Martin; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The turbulent transport of minority species/impurities is investigated in 2D drift-wave turbulence as well as in 3D toroidal drift-Alfven edge turbulence. The full effects of perpendicular and -- in 3D -- parallel advection are kept for the impurity species. Anomalous pinch effects are recovered and explained in terms of Turbulent EquiPartition (TEP)

  16. Edge control in CNC polishing, paper 2: simulation and validation of tool influence functions on edges.

    Li, Hongyu; Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Sayle, Andrew; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2013-01-14

    Edge mis-figure is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for manufacturing the segments of extremely large telescopes, which can dominate key aspects of performance. A novel edge-control technique has been developed, based on 'Precessions' polishing technique and for which accurate and stable edge tool influence functions (TIFs) are crucial. In the first paper in this series [D. Walker Opt. Express 20, 19787-19798 (2012)], multiple parameters were experimentally optimized using an extended set of experiments. The first purpose of this new work is to 'short circuit' this procedure through modeling. This also gives the prospect of optimizing local (as distinct from global) polishing for edge mis-figure, now under separate development. This paper presents a model that can predict edge TIFs based on surface-speed profiles and pressure distributions over the polishing spot at the edge of the part, the latter calculated by finite element analysis and verified by direct force measurement. This paper also presents a hybrid-measurement method for edge TIFs to verify the simulation results. Experimental and simulation results show good agreement. PMID:23388930

  17. Tangential 2-D Edge Imaging for GPI and Edge/Impurity Modeling

    Dr. Ricardo Maqueda; Dr. Fred M. Levinton

    2011-12-23

    Nova Photonics, Inc. has a collaborative effort at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This collaboration, based on fast imaging of visible phenomena, has provided key insights on edge turbulence, intermittency, and edge phenomena such as edge localized modes (ELMs) and multi-faceted axisymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE). Studies have been performed in all these areas. The edge turbulence/intermittency studies make use of the Gas Puff Imaging diagnostic developed by the Principal Investigator (Ricardo Maqueda) together with colleagues from PPPL. This effort is part of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) edge, scrape-off layer and divertor group joint activity (DSOL-15: Inter-machine comparison of blob characteristics). The edge turbulence/blob study has been extended from the current location near the midplane of the device to the lower divertor region of NSTX. The goal of this effort was to study turbulence born blobs in the vicinity of the X-point region and their circuit closure on divertor sheaths or high density regions in the divertor. In the area of ELMs and MARFEs we have studied and characterized the mode structure and evolution of the ELM types observed in NSTX, as well as the study of the observed interaction between MARFEs and ELMs. This interaction could have substantial implications for future devices where radiative divertor regions are required to maintain detachment from the divertor plasma facing components.

  18. Interplay between edge magnetic topology, pressure profile and blobs in the edge of RFX-mod

    The observation of the periodic pressure profile time oscillations in the edge region (0.93 p suggests a sort of regulation of the turbulent spatial scale, where Lp sets the radial dimension of the blobs. Moreover, the spatial scale regulation is confirmed by observing a linear scaling between the energy injection scale and the toroidal dimension of the edge coherent structures. On the other hand, the link between ∇Pe and turbulence level does not hold locally: the edge fluctuation level is higher in the toroidal region of lower edge pressure gradient. Hence if coherent structures are generated locally in the region of strongest ∇Pe, they flow and accumulate where ∇Pe is lower. (paper)

  19. EDGE2D modelling of edge profiles obtained in JET diagnostic optimized configuration

    Kallenbach, A [MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Andrew, Y [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham (United Kingdom); Beurskens, M [FOM-Rijnhuizen, Ass. Euratom-FOM, TEC (Netherlands); Corrigan, G [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham (United Kingdom); Eich, T [MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jachmich, S [ERM, Brussels (Belgium); Kempenaars, M [FOM-Rijnhuizen, Ass. Euratom-FOM, TEC (Netherlands); Korotkov, A [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham (United Kingdom); Loarte, A [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Matthews, G [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham (United Kingdom); Monier-Garbet, P [CEA Cadarache (France); Saibene, G [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Spence, J [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham (United Kingdom); Suttrop, W [MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    Nine type-I ELMy H-mode discharges in diagnostic optimized configuration in JET are analysed with the EDGE2D/NIMBUS package. EDGE2D solves the fluid equations for the conservation of particles, momentum and energy for hydrogenic and impurity ions, while neutrals are followed with the two-dimensional Monte Carlo module NIMBUS. Using external boundary conditions from the experiment, the perpendicular heat conductivities {chi}{sub i,e} and the particle transport coefficients D, v are varied until good agreement between code result and measured data is obtained. A step-like ansatz is used for the edge transport parameters for the outer core region, the edge transport barrier and the outer scrape-off layer. The time-dependent effect of edge localized modes on the edge profiles is simulated with an ad hoc ELM model based on the repetitive increase of the transport coefficients {chi}{sub i,e} and D. The values of the transport coefficients are matched to experimental data mapped to the outer midplane, in the course of which radial shifts of experimental profiles of the order of 1 cm caused by the accuracy limit of the equilibrium reconstruction are taken into account. Simulated divertor profiles obtained from the upstream transport ansatz and the experimental boundary conditions agree with measurements, except a small region localized at the separatrix strike points which is supposed to be affected by direct ion losses. The integrated analysis using EDGE2D modelling, although still limited by the marginal spatial resolution of individual diagnostics, allows the characterization of profiles in the edge/pedestal region and supplies additional information on the separatrix position. The steep density gradient zone inside the separatrix shrinks compared to the electron temperature with increasing density, indicating the effect of the neutral penetration depth becoming shorter than the region of reduced transport.

  20. Urbanization Impacts on Mammals across Urban-Forest Edges and a Predictive Model of Edge Effects

    Nélida R Villaseñor; Driscoll, Don A.; Martín A H Escobar; Philip Gibbons; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing den...

  1. Approximating the Edge Length of 2-Edge Connected Planar Geometric Graphs on a Set of Points

    Dobrev, Stefan; Krizanc, Danny; Morales-Ponce, Oscar; Stacho, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    Given a set $P$ of $n$ points in the plane, we solve the problems of constructing a geometric planar graph spanning $P$ 1) of minimum degree 2, and 2) which is 2-edge connected, respectively, and has max edge length bounded by a factor of 2 times the optimal; we also show that the factor 2 is best possible given appropriate connectivity conditions on the set $P$, respectively. First, we construct in $O(n\\log{n})$ time a geometric planar graph of minimum degree 2 and max edge length bounded by 2 times the optimal. This is then used to construct in $O(n\\log n)$ time a 2-edge connected geometric planar graph spanning $P$ with max edge length bounded by $\\sqrt{5}$ times the optimal, assuming that the set $P$ forms a connected Unit Disk Graph. Second, we prove that 2 times the optimal is always sufficient if the set of points forms a 2 edge connected Unit Disk Graph and give an algorithm that runs in $O(n^2)$ time. We also show that for $k \\in O(\\sqrt{n})$, there exists a set $P$ of $n$ points in the plane such th...

  2. Edge-to-edge matching - a new approach to the morphology and crystallography of precipitates

    An entirely new approach is taken to understanding the morphology and crystallography of partially coherent precipitates formed by diffusional processes 'edge-to-edge matching'. This approach is based on the simple, well founded result put forward by Shiflet and Van der Merwe [Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. 25A (1994) 1895] - namely that minimisation of interfacial energy results when rows of atoms match across the interface. The geometric conditions necessary to achieve this atom row matching are shown to be possible for a variety of lattice parameters in the fcc/bcc system provided there is edge-to-edge matching of planes containing these rows in each of the two phases. This new model does not rely on physical assumptions of dubious validity, such as the existence of a long-range correspondence. It also differs from the existing models in that it does not need to include the particular orientation relationship as part of the input data. Instead it is capable of predicting the orientation relationship from first principles. The development of the concepts behind edge-to-edge matching are described for the fcc/bcc system, predictions of orientation relationships and habit planes are made for a variety of different precipitates and shown to be in extremely good agreement with reported experimental results

  3. Independent component analysis of edge information for face recognition

    Karande, Kailash Jagannath

    2013-01-01

    The book presents research work on face recognition using edge information as features for face recognition with ICA algorithms. The independent components are extracted from edge information. These independent components are used with classifiers to match the facial images for recognition purpose. In their study, authors have explored Canny and LOG edge detectors as standard edge detection methods. Oriented Laplacian of Gaussian (OLOG) method is explored to extract the edge information with different orientations of Laplacian pyramid. Multiscale wavelet model for edge detection is also propos

  4. Edge Detection in Satellite Image Using Cellular Neural Network

    Osama Basil Gazi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a novel approach for edge detection in satellite images based on cellular neural networks. CNN based edge detector in used conjunction with image enhancement and noise removal techniques, in order to deliver accurate edge detection results, compared with state of the art approaches. Thus, considering the obtained results, a comparison with optimal Canny edge detector is performed. The proposed image processing chain deliver more details regarding edges than canny edge detector. The proposed method aims to preserve salient information, due to its importance in all satellite image processing applications.

  5. Edge Solitons in Nonlinear Photonic Topological Insulators

    Leykam, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We show theoretically that a photonic topological insulator can support edge solitons that are strongly self-localized and propagate unidirectionally along the lattice edge. The photonic topological insulator consists of a Floquet lattice of coupled helical waveguides, in a medium with local Kerr nonlinearity. The soliton behavior is strongly affected by the topological phase of the linear lattice. The topologically nontrivial phase gives a continuous family of solitons, while the topologically trivial phase gives an embedded soliton that occurs at a single power, and arises from a self-induced local nonlinear shift in the inter-site coupling. The solitons can be used for nonlinear switching and logical operations, functionalities that have not yet been explored in topological photonics. We demonstrate using solitons to perform selective filtering via propagation through a narrow channel, and using soliton collisions for optical switching.

  6. Edge-disjoint Hamiltonian cycles in hypertournaments

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a method for reducing k-tournament problems, for k >= 3, to ordinary tournaments, that is, 2-tournaments. It is applied to show that a k-tournament on n >= k + 1 + 24d vertices (when k >= 4) or on n >= 30d + 2 vertices (when k = 3) has d edge-disjoint Hamiltonian cycles if and only if...... it is d-edge-connected. Ironically, this is proved by ordinary tournament arguments although it only holds for k >= 3. We also characterizatize the pancyclic k-tournaments, a problem posed by Gutin and Yeo.(Our characterization is slightly incomplete in that we prove it only for n large compared to k...

  7. Electronic quantum teleportation in Hall edge channels

    Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bertoni, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We present a proposal for the quantum teleportation of electrons in an edge channel setup operating in the quantum Hall regime. Three qubits are used, each defined by the occupancy of a couple of edge channels connected to source and drains leads providing electrical control of initialization and readouts. Our scheme consists of two concatenated two-particle Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometers [Nederet al.}, Nature, 448, 333 (2007)] and, in analogy with quantum optics implementations, can be realized by means of linear quantum gates only, without relying on inter-electron Coulomb interaction. We show how the coincident detection of two carriers in couples of drains allows teleportation with a 50% success rate.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics in the Tokamak edge

    The nonlinear character of the Tokamak edge results from a unique combination of parameters, leading to a wide dynamical range for most processes. The energetically consistent gyrokinetic equilibrium is emphasised. Edge turbulence computed gyrokinetically exhibits energetic contact to mesoscale MHD and does not follow linear scaling. Gyrofluid studies show self consistent profiles, currents and flows which are kicked out of equilibrium to varying degree. L-mode turbulence and ELM crash phenomenology are both examples of energetic contact between turbulence and MHD, with opposite causality. The overall equilibrium is a statistical saturation rather than a state to which the plasma dissipatively converges (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. GSGG edge cladding development: Final technical report

    The objectives of this project have been: (1) Investigate the possibility of chemical etching of GSGG crystal slabs to obtain increased strength. (2) Design and construct a simplified mold assembly for casting cladding glass to the edges of crystal slabs of different dimensions. (3) Conduct casting experiments to evaluate the redesigned mold assembly and to determine stresses as function of thermal expansion coefficient of cladding glass. (4) Clad larger sizes of GGG slabs as they become available. These tasks have been achieved. Chemical etching of GSGG slabs does not appear possible with any other acid than H3PO4 at temperatures above 3000C. A mold assembly has been constructed which allowed casting cladding glass around the edges of the largest GGG slabs available (10 x 20 x 160 mm) without causing breakage through the annealing step

  10. Iris Localization Based on Edge Searching Strategies

    Wang Yong; Han Jiuqiang

    2005-01-01

    An iris localization scheme based on edge searching strategies is presented. First, the edge detection operator Laplacian-ofGaussian (LoG) is used to iris original image to search its inner boundary. Then, a circle detection operator is introduced to locate the outer boundary and its center, which is invariant of translation, rotation and scale. Finally, the method of curve fitting is developed in localization of eyelid. The performance of the proposed method is tested with 756 iris images from 108 different classes in CASIA Iris Database and compared with the conventional Hough transform method. The experimental results show that without loss of localization accuracy, the proposed iris localization algorithm is apparently faster than Hough transform.

  11. Absence of many-body mobility edges

    De Roeck, Wojciech; Huveneers, Francois; Müller, Markus; Schiulaz, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Localization transitions as a function of temperature require a many-body mobility edge in energy, separating localized from ergodic states. We argue that this scenario is inconsistent because local fluctuations into the ergodic phase within the supposedly localized phase can serve as mobile bubbles that induce global delocalization. Such fluctuations inevitably appear with a low but finite density anywhere in any typical state. We conclude that the only possibility for many-body localization to occur is lattice models that are localized at all energies. Building on a close analogy with a model of assisted two-particle hopping, where interactions induce delocalization, we argue why hot bubbles are mobile and do not localize upon diluting their energy. Numerical tests of our scenario show that previously reported mobility edges cannot be distinguished from finite-size effects.

  12. Multi-scale Regions from Edge Fragments

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    In this article we introduce a novel method for detecting multi-scale salient regions around edges using a graph based image compression algorithm. Images are recursively decomposed into triangles arranged into a binary tree using linear interpolation. The entropy of any local region of the image...... is inherent in the areas of the triangles and tree depth. We introduce twin leaves as nodes whose sibling share the same characteristics. Triangles corresponding to the twin leaves are filtered out from the binary tree. Graph connectivity is exploited to get clusters of triangles followed by ellipse...... fitting to estimate regions. Salient regions are thus formed as stable regions around edges. Tree hierarchy is then used to generate multi-scale regions. We evaluate our detector by performing image retrieval tests on our building database which shows that combined with Spin Images (Lazebnik et al., 2003...

  13. On thermal edge effects in composite laminates

    Herakovich, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a finite-element investigation of the combined influence of edge effects due to mechanical and thermal mismatch in composite laminates with free edges. Laminates of unidirectional boron/epoxy symmetrically bonded to sheets of aluminum and titanium were studied. It is shown that interlaminar thermal stresses may be more significant than the interlaminar stresses due to loading only. In addition, the stresses due to thermal mismatch may be of the same sign as those due to Poisson's mismatch or they may be of opposite sign depending upon material properties, stacking sequence, and direction of loading. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of thermal stresses in all-composite laminates.

  14. Stress and efficiency studies in edge-defined film-fed growth

    Kalejs, J.

    1986-01-01

    The progress was reviewed for stress and efficiency studies of edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) material. Effort was concentrated on the definition of condiitions that will reduce stress, on quantifying dislocation electrical activity and limits on solar cell efficiency, and on studying the effects of dopants on EFG characteristics.

  15. Edge effects on water droplet condensation

    Medici, Marie-Gabrielle; Mongruel, Anne; Royon, Laurent; Beysens, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    International audience In this study is investigated the effect of geometrical or thermal discontinuities on the growth of water droplets condensing on a cooled substrate. Edges, corners, cooled/non cooled boundaries can have a strong effect on the vapor concentration profile and mass diffusion around the drops. In comparison to growth in a pattern where droplets have to compete to catch vapor, which results in a linear water concentration profile directed perpendicularly to the substrate,...

  16. Combining geometric edge detectors for feature detection

    Heyvaert, Michaël; Van Hamme, David; Coppens, Jonas; Veelaert, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for the analysis and modeling of discrete edge filters, based on the notion of signed rays. This framework will allow us to easily deduce the geometric and localization properties of a family of first-order filters, and use this information to design custom filter banks for specific applications. As an example, a set of angle-selective corner detectors is constructed for the detection of buildings in video sequences. This clearly illustrates the merit of the theor...

  17. Community Detection Using Multilayer Edge Mixture Model

    Zhang, Han; Wang, Chang-Dong; Lai, Jian-Huang; PHILIP S. YU

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of complex systems can be modeled as networks with corresponding constraints on the edges and nodes, which have been extensively studied in recent years. Nowadays, with the progress of information technology, systems that contain the information collected from multiple perspectives have been generated. The conventional models designed for single perspective networks fail to depict the diverse topological properties of such systems, so multilayer network models aiming at describin...

  18. Edge plasma studies on the CASTOR tokamak

    Hron, Martin; Peleman, P.; Spolaore, M.; Martines, E.; Hronová-Bilyková, Olena; Dejarnac, Renaud; Devynck, P.; Brotánková, Jana; Sentkerestiová, Jana; Ďuran, Ivan; Gunn, J.; Stöckel, Jan; Van Oost, G.; Adámek, Jiří; van de Peppel, L.; Štěpán, Michal

    Krakow : Euratom - IPPLM Association, 2006 - (Zagorski, R.), - [IEA Large Tokamak IA Workshop on Edge Transport in Fusion plasmas. Kraków (PL), 11.09.2006-13.09.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * plasma * scrape-off layer * turbulence * interchange instability Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.etfp2006.ifpilm.waw.pl/presentations.html

  19. Edge Localized Mode Control in TCV

    Rossel, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Tokamak concept, based on magnetic confinement of a hydrogen plasma, is one of today's most promising paths to energy production by nuclear fusion. The experimental scenarios leading to the largest fusion rate are based on a high confinement plasma regime, the H-mode, in which the energy and particle confinement are enhanced by a transport barrier located at the plasma edge and forming a pedestal in the plasma pressure profile. In standard axisymm...

  20. Multiscale Edge Detection in the Corona

    Young, C. Alex; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are challenging objects to detect using automated techniques, due to their high velocity and diffuse, irregular morphology. A necessary step to automating the detection process is to first remove the subjectivity introduced by the observer used in the current, standard, CME detection and tracking method. Here we describe and demonstrate a multiscale edge detection technique that addresses this step and could serve as one part of an automated CME detection system....

  1. Resistive MHD in tokamak edge regions

    Several results on resistive MHD in tokamak edge regions, relevant to the H-mode transition, are presented: quasilinear drift tearing modes as an H-mode trigger; stabilization of drift tearing modes by sheared poloidal rotation; and the effect of sheared rotation on electrostatic drift resistive ballooning modes. Quasilinear drift tearing modes have a critical Δ'∼Te3/BT2, which might give a threshold similar to the observed scaling. The quasilinear regime is valid for island widths as large as the tearing layer width, which can be about 1-3 cm, for typical edge parameters. Cross field thermal conductivity has an essential role in maintaining quasilinear islands. Stabilization of the modes might trigger the H-mode, if destruction of magnetic surfaces around the separatrix increases edge transport, and shorts out a radial electric field. Because drift effects do not persist in the nonlinear regime, drift stabilization does not work for larger islands. Sheared rotation is an effective stabilization mechanism in both quasilinear and nonlinear regimes of the drift tearing mode. In the quasilinear regime, velocity shear increases the critical Δ'. The required velocity gradient to stabilize a nonlinear island is large, but experimental parameters appear adequate to provide stabilization. Sheared rotation also has a stabilizing effect on electrostatic resistive ballooning modes. Only the drift resistive ballooning mode survives above a critical edge Te. The linear growth rate of these modes is slowed by sheared rotation, when the poloidal velocity gradient exceeds the drift frequency. A resonance can occur when v'θ = ω*, giving a growth rate proportional to η1/2. For shorter wavelengths, the growth rate is not affected by the rotation

  2. Power loads to misaligned edges in COMPASS

    Dejarnac, Renaud; Corre, C.; Vondráček, Petr; Gardarein, J.-L.; Gauthier, E.; Gunn, J. P.; Horáček, Jan; Hron, Martin; Komm, Michael; Pánek, Radomír; Pitts, R. A.

    Aix-en-Provence : Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, 2015. [International Conference on PLASMA-FACING MATERIALS and COMPONENTS for FUSION APPLICATIONS/15./. Aix-en-Provence (FR), 18.05.2015-22.05.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Heat loads * limiter * leading edge * IR thermography Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://irfm.cea.fr/pfmc15/index.html

  3. Issues in Kinetic Edge Turbulence Simulation

    Parker, S. E.; Chen, Y.; Lang, J.

    2006-10-01

    Simulations of trapped electron modes are underway using GEM [1,2], a global electromagnetic gyrokinetic delta-f simulation with collisions. We report results with no temperature gradient so that ITG and ETG instabilities are not present. For typical weak density gradient core values, the CTEM is dominant. However, for steeper density gradient edge values, higher k drift-waves are most unstable [J. Lang this mtg.]. For the weaker density gradient core case, nonlinear simulations using GEM are routine. For the steeper gradient edge case, the nonlinear fluctuations are very high and a stationary state has not been obtained. More physics, e.g. profile variation and equilibrium ExB shear flow should be significantly stabilizing, and may make such simulations feasible using standard delta-f techniques. These features are fully implemented in GEM and research is ongoing. One approach to addressing the high fluctuation levels in the edge turbulence regime is the particle-continuum method [3]. A new scheme that periodically resets the particle weights, using a Maxwellian particle load is being tested in GEM [Y. Chen this mtg.] and will be discussed. [1] Y. Chen, S. Parker, J. Comput. Phys. 189 463 (2003). [2] Y. Chen, S. Parker, accepted, available on-line, J. Comput. Phys. (2006). [4] S. Vadlamani, S. Parker, Y. Chen and C. Kim, Comput. Phys. Comm. 164 209 (2004).

  4. Recent Advances in Plasma Edge Physics Theory

    Stacey, W. M.

    2015-11-01

    This presentation summarizes recent theory developments for interpreting plasma edge physics experiments in DIII-D. i) Radial and poloidal moment balance require that the radial particle flux be of a pinch-diffusive nature with the pinch representing the electromagnetic forces and external momentum input. Ion radial particle fluxes in experiment are found to be a smaller difference between large outward diffusion fluxes and inward pinch fluxes. When the pinch-diffusion relation is used in the continuity equation a new diffusion theory that preserves momentum balance is obtained. ii) The majority of thermalized ions and their energy cross the LCFS on ion loss orbits and are deposited in the SOL near the outboard midplane. The lost ions are predominantly ctr-current, producing a co-current intrinsic rotation of the remaining ions in the edge plasma. iii) While the contribution of the leading order parallel viscosity to toroidal momentum damping vanishes identically in axisymmetric plasmas, non-axisymmetric radial B-fields in the edge plasma enable parallel viscosity to enhance the damping of toroidal rotation. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-00ER54538, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  5. Cooled gas turbine blade edge flow analysis

    Mendonca, Marcio Teixeira de [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica Aeronautica ITA/IEM, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcio@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    The flow on the rotating blades of a turbine is unsteady due to the wake of the stator blade row upstream. This unsteadiness is a source of losses and complex flow structures on the rotor blade due to the variation on the turbulence levels and location of the boundary layer laminar to turbulent transition. Convective cooled blades often time have cooling air ejected at the trailing edge right at the blade wake. The present investigation presents an analysis of a canonical flow consistent with the flow topology found at the trailing edge of a gas turbine blade with coolant ejection. A hydrodynamic stability analysis is performed for the combined wake and jet velocity profiles given by a gaussian distribution representing the turbulent rms wake and a laminar jet superposed. The growth rate of any instability found on the flow is an indication of faster mixing, resulting in a reduction on the wake velocity defect and consequently on the complexity associated with it. The results show that increasing the Mach number or the three-dimensionality of the disturbances result in a reduction of the amplification rate. When the flow at the trailing edge is modified by a jet, the amplification rates are lower, but the range of unstable stream wise wavenumbers is larger. (author)

  6. Adaptive Edge-Oriented Shot Boundary Detection

    Lee MC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of video shot boundary detection using an adaptive edge-oriented framework. Our approach is distinct in its use of multiple multilevel features in the required processing. Adaptation is provided by a careful analysis of these multilevel features, based on shot variability. We consider three levels of adaptation: at the feature extraction stage using locally-adaptive edge maps, at the video sequence level, and at the individual shot level. We show how to provide adaptive parameters for the multilevel edge-based approach, and how to determine adaptive thresholds for the shot boundaries based on the characteristics of the particular shot being indexed. The result is a fast adaptive scheme that provides a slightly better performance in terms of robustness, and a five fold efficiency improvement in shot characterization and classification. The reported work has applications beyond direct video indexing, and could be used in real-time applications, such as in dynamic monitoring and modeling of video data traffic in multimedia communications, and in real-time video surveillance. Experimental results are included.

  7. A large scale knife-edge chamber

    To date, three different tracking detectors, Straw Tube Chamber, Silicon Strip Detector and Scintillation Fiber Detector, as well as their combinations, have been proposed for the SSC experiments. However all of them have their own problems as tracking detectors for use in very high luminosity experiment at the SSC. Scintillation fiber detector is excellent in its speed, spatial resolution and low occupancy. However the fatal problem is the readout devices. Questions on its radiation hardness have not yet been totally solved. As a solution to this challenge, a knife-edge chamber was proposed. The knife-edge chamber is essentially a multi-wire proportional chamber. This chamber has, however, a drawback which is shared with the silicon strip detector, i.e., the size of a single chamber is limited by that of the silicon wafer. Recently at KEK, a program has been started to overcome this problem. The KEK method is to make v-shape grooves on a metal plate, such as a nickel-plated steel, and to use the metal plate as a negative to make sharp-edged electrodes. After this process, there are two possibilities, which are under consideration at the moment. The first possibility is to use the electroforming technique. The second possibility is to use the plastic molding technique by using the machined metal plate as a negative. The KEK machine shop has recently built a high precision shaper machine to produce gratings for synchrotron radiation research. (N.K.)

  8. Emergent properties of patch shapes affect edge permeability to animals.

    Vilis O Nams

    Full Text Available Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1 find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2 generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight. When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance.

  9. Observation of unconventional edge states in 'photonic graphene'.

    Plotnik, Yonatan; Rechtsman, Mikael C; Song, Daohong; Heinrich, Matthias; Zeuner, Julia M; Nolte, Stefan; Lumer, Yaakov; Malkova, Natalia; Xu, Jingjun; Szameit, Alexander; Chen, Zhigang; Segev, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms, has been attracting much interest in recent years. Electrons therein behave as massless relativistic particles, giving rise to strikingly unconventional phenomena. Graphene edge states are essential for understanding the electronic properties of this material. However, the coarse or impure nature of the graphene edges hampers the ability to directly probe the edge states. Perhaps the best example is given by the edge states on the bearded edge that have never been observed-because such an edge is unstable in graphene. Here, we use the optical equivalent of graphene-a photonic honeycomb lattice-to study the edge states and their properties. We directly image the edge states on both the zigzag and bearded edges of this photonic graphene, measure their dispersion properties, and most importantly, find a new type of edge state: one residing on the bearded edge that has never been predicted or observed. This edge state lies near the Van Hove singularity in the edge band structure and can be classified as a Tamm-like state lacking any surface defect. The mechanism underlying its formation may counterintuitively appear in other crystalline systems. PMID:24193661

  10. Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Pigarov, Alexander

    2011-10-15

    The FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) project of Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program was aimed at providing a high-fidelity whole-tokamak modeling for the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program and ITER through coupling separate components for each of the core region, edge region, and wall, with realistic plasma particles and power sources and turbulent transport simulation. The project also aimed at developing advanced numerical algorithms, efficient implicit coupling methods, and software tools utilizing the leadership class computing facilities under Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR). The FACETS project was conducted by a multi-discipline, multi-institutional teams, the Lead PI was J.R. Cary (Tech-X Corp.). In the FACETS project, the Applied Plasma Theory Group at the MAE Department of UCSD developed the Wall and Plasma-Surface Interaction (WALLPSI) module, performed its validation against experimental data, and integrated it into the developed framework. WALLPSI is a one-dimensional, coarse grained, reaction/advection/diffusion code applied to each material boundary cell in the common modeling domain for a tokamak. It incorporates an advanced model for plasma particle transport and retention in the solid matter of plasma facing components, simulation of plasma heat power load handling, calculation of erosion/deposition, and simulation of synergistic effects in strong plasma-wall coupling.

  11. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Villaseñor, Nélida R; Driscoll, Don A; Escobar, Martín A H; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will

  12. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Nélida R Villaseñor

    Full Text Available With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula. We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1 habitat quality/preference, (2 species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3 spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This

  13. Graphs Whose Edge Set Can Be Partitioned into Maximum Matchings

    Khare, Niraj

    2013-01-01

    This article provides structural characterization of simple graphs whose edge-set can be partitioned into maximum matchings. We use Vizing's classification of simple graphs based on edge chromatic index.

  14. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies of graphite edges

    Niimi, Y; Kambara, H; Tagami, K; Tsukada, M; Fukuyama, H; Fukuyama, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the electronic local density of states (LDOS) near single step edges at the surface of exfoliated graphite. In scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, we observed the $(\\sqrt{3} \\times \\sqrt{3}) R 30^{\\circ}$ and honeycomb superstructures both extending over 3$-$4 nm either from the zigzag or armchair edge. Calculations based on a density-functional derived non-orthogonal tight-binding model show that these superstructures can coexist if the two types of edge admix each other in real graphite step edges. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements near the zigzag edge reveal a clear peak in the LDOS at an energy below the Fermi energy by 20 meV. No such a peak was observed near the armchair edge. We concluded that this peak corresponds to the "edge state" theoretically predicted for graphene ribbons, since a similar prominent LDOS peak due to the edge state is obtained by the first principles calculations.

  15. Edge State and Intrinsic Hole Doping in Bilayer Phosphorene

    Osada, Toshihito

    2015-01-01

    Using a simple LCAO model by Harrison, we have qualitatively studied the edge state of bilayer phosphorene, which is a unit structure of the layered crystal of black phosphorus. This model successfully reproduces the isolated edge state in the bulk gap in monolayer phosphorene. In bilayer phosphorene, however, it shows that edge states are almost buried in the valence band and there is no isolated midgap edge state at the zigzag edge. Since the buried edge state works as acceptor, holes are doped from the edge state into the bulk. This gives a possible explanation for p-type conduction in undoped black phosphorus. Under the vertical electric field, the intrinsic hole doping is reduced because a part of edge states move into the gap. These features of bilayer phosphorene might be better suited for device application.

  16. Upper bound of the third edge-connectivity of graphs

    WANG; Yingqian; LI; Qiao

    2005-01-01

    Let G be a simple connected graph of order n ≥ 6. The third edge-connectivity of G is defined as the minimum cardinality over all the sets of edges, if any, whose deletion disconnects G and every component of the resulting graph has at least 3 vertices. In this paper, we first characterize those graphs whose third-edge connectivity is well defined,then establish the tight upper bound for the third edge-connectivity.

  17. Acyclic Edge Coloring of Planar Graphs without Adjacent Triangles

    Dezheng XIE; Yanqing WU

    2012-01-01

    An acyclic edge coloring of a graph G is a proper edge coloring such that there are no bichromatic cycles.The acyclic edge chromatic number of a graph G is the minimum number k such that there exists an acyclic edge coloring using k colors and is denoted by x'a(G).In this paper we prove that x'a(G)≤ Δ(G)+ 5 for planar graphs G without adjacent triangles.

  18. M2-Edge Colorings Of Cacti And Graph Joins

    Czap Július

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An edge coloring φ of a graph G is called an M2-edge coloring if |φ(v| ≤ 2 for every vertex v of G, where φ(v is the set of colors of edges incident with v. Let 2(G denote the maximum number of colors used in an M2-edge coloring of G. In this paper we determine 2(G for trees, cacti, complete multipartite graphs and graph joins.

  19. The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats.

    Verboom, B.

    1998-01-01

    Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four hypothetical functions of edge habitats for bats were studied: foraging areas, shelter from wind, shelter from avian predators, and acoustical landmarks.Both wind and food abundance were found to affect the occur...

  20. Effect of Hydrofoil Trailing Edge Geometry on the Wake Dynamics

    Zobeiri, Amirreza

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of a hydrofoil trailing edge shape on the wake dynamic and its interaction with the mechanical structure is investigated. This would help better describe the physical reasons for vibration reduction when using oblique and Donaldson trailing edges in comparison to a truncated trailing edge and subsequently allow its further optimization. Thus, hydrofoils with oblique and Donaldson trailing edges are tested in a high-spe...

  1. Directed acyclic graphs with edge-specific bounds

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Tan, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    We give a definition of a bounded edge within the causal directed acyclic graph framework. A bounded edge generalizes the notion of a signed edge and is defined in terms of bounds on a ratio of survivor probabilities. We derive rules concerning the propagation of bounds. Bounds on causal effects in the presence of unmeasured confounding are also derived using bounds related to specific edges on a graph. We illustrate the theory developed by an example concerning estimating the effect of antih...

  2. Relaxation and edge reconstruction in integer quantum Hall systems

    Karzig, Torsten; Levchenko, Alex; Glazman, Leonid I.; von Oppen, Felix

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between the confinement potential and electron-electron interactions causes reconstructions of Quantum Hall edges. We study the consequences of this edge reconstruction for the relaxation of hot electrons injected into integer quantum Hall edge states. In translationally invariant edges, the relaxation of hot electrons is governed by three-body collisions which are sensitive to the electron dispersion and thus to reconstruction effects. We show that the relaxation rates are sign...

  3. Edge-clique graphs of cocktail parties have unbounded rankwidth

    Chang, Maw-Shang; Liu, Ching-Hao

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find a polynomial-time algorithm for the edge-clique cover problem on cographs we tried to prove that the edge-clique graphs of cographs have bounded rankwidth. However, this is not the case. In this note we show that the edge-clique graphs of cocktail party graphs have unbounded rankwidth.

  4. 12 CFR 211.5 - Edge and agreement corporations.

    2010-01-01

    ... and Q (12 CFR parts 204 and 217) in the same manner and to the same extent as if the Edge or agreement... (12 CFR part 204), and other Edge and agreement corporations; (3) Money-market instruments (including... (12 CFR 208.62). (l) Protection of customer information and consumer information. An Edge or...

  5. Edge-based correlation image registration for multispectral imaging

    Nandy, Prabal

    2009-11-17

    Registration information for images of a common target obtained from a plurality of different spectral bands can be obtained by combining edge detection and phase correlation. The images are edge-filtered, and pairs of the edge-filtered images are then phase correlated to produce phase correlation images. The registration information can be determined based on these phase correlation images.

  6. Bulk Versus Edge in the Quantum Hall Effect

    Kao, Y. -C.; Lee, D. -H.

    1996-01-01

    The manifestation of the bulk quantum Hall effect on edge is the chiral anomaly. The chiral anomaly {\\it is} the underlying principle of the ``edge approach'' of quantum Hall effect. In that approach, $\\sxy$ should not be taken as the conductance derived from the space-local current-current correlation function of the pure one-dimensional edge problem.

  7. 16 CFR 1211.12 - Requirements for edge sensors.

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from Global Engineering Documents... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for edge sensors. 1211.12... Requirements for edge sensors. (a) Normal operation test. (1) When installed on a representative door edge,...

  8. The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats.

    Verboom, B.

    1998-01-01

    Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four hypothetical fu

  9. AMOUNT OF FUTURE FOREST EDGE AT A 2 HECTARE SCALE

    Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest edge indicates a highly fragmented forest, which generally diminishes those economic and ecological values. EDGE2 is the percent of forest that is classified as edge using a 2 ha scale.

  10. AMOUNT OF FOREST EDGE AT A 2 HECTARE SCALE

    Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest edge indicates a highly fragmented forest, which generally diminishes those economic and ecological values. EDGE2 is the percent of forest that is classified as edge using a 2 ha scale.

  11. AMOUNT OF FUTURE FOREST EDGE AT A 65 HECTARE SCALE

    Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest edge indicates a highly fragmented forest, which generally diminishes those economic and ecological values. EDGE65 is the percent of forest that is classified as edge using a 65 ha scale.

  12. AMOUNT OF FOREST EDGE AT A 65 HECTARE SCALE

    Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest edge indicates a highly fragmented forest, which generally diminishes those economic and ecological values. EDGE65 is the percent of forest that is classified as edge using a 65 ha scale.

  13. Ehrlich-Schwoebel Effect for Organic Molecules: Direct Calculation of the Step Edge Barrier using Empirical Potentials

    Fendrich, Markus; Krug, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The step edge barrier of a prototypical organic semiconductor molecule, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracaboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) has been analysed by means of calculations based on emperical potentials. The minimum energy path (MEP) has been calculated for a single molecule on a substrate of three molecular layers between equivalent minimum energy positions within two neighboring unit cells. To determine the step edge barrier, we have calculated the MEP over a step to a fourth layer of molecules....

  14. Edge plasma density convection during ICRH on Tore Supra

    The 2D edge plasma density distribution around ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennae is studied experimentally and numerically in the tokamak Tore Supra (TS). A local density decrease in front of the loaded ICRH antenna ('pump-out' effect) is demonstrated by Langmuir probe measurements in a low recycling regime. An up-down asymmetry in the heat-flux and in the antenna erosion is also observed, and is associated with poloidal variations of the local density. These density redistributions are ascribed to an ExB convection process linked with RF-sheaths. To assess this interpretation, the 2D transport code CELLS was developed for modeling the density distribution near an antenna. The code takes into account perpendicular diffusion, parallel transport and convection in RF-sheath-driven potentials given by the 3D-antenna code ICANT. The strong density differences obtained in simulations reproduce up-down asymmetries of the heat fluxes. (authors)

  15. Are quantum spin Hall edge modes more resilient to disorder, sample geometry and inelastic scattering than quantum Hall edge modes?

    Mani, Arjun; Benjamin, Colin

    2016-04-01

    On the surface of 2D topological insulators, 1D quantum spin Hall (QSH) edge modes occur with Dirac-like dispersion. Unlike quantum Hall (QH) edge modes, which occur at high magnetic fields in 2D electron gases, the occurrence of QSH edge modes is due to spin-orbit scattering in the bulk of the material. These QSH edge modes are spin-dependent, and chiral-opposite spins move in opposing directions. Electronic spin has a larger decoherence and relaxation time than charge. In view of this, it is expected that QSH edge modes will be more robust to disorder and inelastic scattering than QH edge modes, which are charge-dependent and spin-unpolarized. However, we notice no such advantage accrues in QSH edge modes when subjected to the same degree of contact disorder and/or inelastic scattering in similar setups as QH edge modes. In fact we observe that QSH edge modes are more susceptible to inelastic scattering and contact disorder than QH edge modes. Furthermore, while a single disordered contact has no effect on QH edge modes, it leads to a finite charge Hall current in the case of QSH edge modes, and thus a vanishing of the pure QSH effect. For more than a single disordered contact while QH states continue to remain immune to disorder, QSH edge modes become more susceptible—the Hall resistance for the QSH effect changes sign with increasing disorder. In the case of many disordered contacts with inelastic scattering included, while quantization of Hall edge modes holds, for QSH edge modes a finite charge Hall current still flows. For QSH edge modes in the inelastic scattering regime we distinguish between two cases: with spin-flip and without spin-flip scattering. Finally, while asymmetry in sample geometry can have a deleterious effect in the QSH case, it has no impact in the QH case.

  16. Edge Simulation Laboratory Progress and Plans

    The Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) is a project to develop a gyrokinetic code for MFE edge plasmas based on continuum (Eulerian) techniques. ESL is a base-program activity of OFES, with an allied algorithm research activity funded by the OASCR base math program. ESL OFES funds directly support about 0.8 FTE of career staff at LLNL, a postdoc and a small fraction of an FTE at GA, and a graduate student at UCSD. In addition the allied OASCR program funds about 1/2 FTE each in the computations directorates at LBNL and LLNL. OFES ESL funding for LLNL and UCSD began in fall 2005, while funding for GA and the math team began about a year ago. ESL's continuum approach is a complement to the PIC-based methods of the CPES Project, and was selected (1) because of concerns about noise issues associated with PIC in the high-density-contrast environment of the edge pedestal, (2) to be able to exploit advanced numerical methods developed for fluid codes, and (3) to build upon the successes of core continuum gyrokinetic codes such as GYRO, GS2 and GENE. The ESL project presently has three components: TEMPEST, a full-f, full-geometry (single-null divertor, or arbitrary-shape closed flux surfaces) code in E, μ (energy, magnetic-moment) coordinates; EGK, a simple-geometry rapid-prototype code, presently of; and the math component, which is developing and implementing algorithms for a next-generation code. Progress would be accelerated if we could find funding for a fourth, computer science, component, which would develop software infrastructure, provide user support, and address needs for data handing and analysis. We summarize the status and plans for the three funded activities

  17. Leading-Edge Flutter of Supercavitating Hydrofoils

    Brennen, C.; Oey, K. T.; Babcock, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments and analysis of the phenomenon of leading-edge flutter which has been observed to occur for supercavitating hydrofoils. The experiments confirmed the existence of such a single-degree-of-freedom flutter involving chordwise bending and indicated that for long, natural (or vapor-filled) cavities the reduced flutter speed, [formula], was in the range 0.15 to 0.23. Secondary effects observed were the variation with the angle of attack (a minimum fl...

  18. Complexity of greedy edge-colouring

    Havet, Frédéric; Maia, Ana Karolinna; Yu, Min-Li

    2015-01-01

    International audience The Grundy index of a graph G = (V, E) is the greatest number of colours that the greedy edge-colouring algorithm can use on G. We prove that the problem of determining the Grundy index of a graph G = (V, E) is NP-hard for general graphs. We also show that this problem is polynomial-time solvable for caterpillars. More specifically, we prove that the Grundy index of a caterpillar is (G) or (G) + 1 and present a polynomial-time algorithm to determine it exactly.

  19. Fluctuations and power spectra in edge plasmas

    The high-frequency range of power spectra of turbulent fluctuating quantities measured at the edge of magnetized plasmas displays a variety of trends: from power laws with different spectral indices to exponential. We propose a model able to account for the whole phenomenology simply by tuning the distribution in the duration of the signal spikes. Comparisons with data from RFX-mod and Alcator C-Mod experiments are performed. An attempt to relate the statistics of the bursts with their generating mechanism is made.

  20. Evaporation and Step Edge Diffusion in MBE

    Schinzer, S.; Sokolowski, M.; Biehl, M.; Kinzel, W.

    1998-01-01

    Using kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations of a Solid-on-Solid model we investigate the influence of step edge diffusion (SED) and evaporation on Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). Based on these investigations we propose two strategies to optimize MBE-growth. The strategies are applicable in different growth regimes: during layer-by-layer growth one can reduce the desorption rate using a pulsed flux. In three-dimensional (3D) growth the SED can help to grow large, smooth structures. For this purpose t...

  1. Large Format Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Chervenak, J. A.; Adams, J. A.; Bandler, S. b.; Busch, S. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Porst, J. P.; Porter, F. S.; Ray, C.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a variety of superconducting transition edge sensor array designs for microcalorimetric detection of x-rays. Designs include kilopixel scale arrays of relatively small sensors (approximately 75 micron pitch) atop a thick metal heat sinking layer as well as arrays of membrane-isolated devices on 250 micron and up to 600 micron pitch. We discuss fabrication and performance of microstripline wiring at the small scales achieved to date. We also address fabrication issues with reduction of absorber contact area in small devices.

  2. Edge plasma fluctuations measurements in fusion experiments

    We report on investigations on electrostatic fluctuations in the edge plasma region which have been carried out during the last few years at several European fusion experiments. Various methods and probe arrangements have been used to determine fluctuations of the plasma potential, the electric field and the electron temperature. Investigations were under-taken in ISTTOK (Instituto Superior Tecnico TOKamak), Lisbon, Portugal, in CASTOR (Czech Academy of Science TORus), Prague, Czech Republic, and the TJ-II Flexible Heliac at CIEMAT in Madrid, Spain. (author)

  3. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ωpre∼x1/3ξ^ψ,in2/3n, with x position in radial direction, ξ^ψ,in strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number

  4. Utility bankruptcy: the view from the edge

    Several electric utilities are peering over the edge of an abyss. During the last six months, a number of utilities involved in nuclear power plant construction have run into major financial difficulties as their construction spending approached or exceeded their total assets. In several cases, bankruptcy has been proposed as a possible or even a desirable option in dealing with these difficulties. The question addressed in this article is the potential consequences of a utility bankruptcy, and the use of negotiation to allocate costs once bankruptcy is declared. 3 references, 1 table

  5. First-principles study of graphene edge properties and flake shapes

    Gan, Chee Kwan; Srolovitz, David J.

    2009-01-01

    We use density functional theory to determine the equilibrium shape of graphene flakes, through the calculation of the edge orientation dependence of the edge energy and edge stress of graphene nanoribbons. The edge energy is a nearly linear function of edge orientation angle; increasing from the armchair orientation to the zigzag orientation. Reconstruction of the zigzag edge lowers its energy to less than that of the armchair edge. The edge stress for all edge orientations is compressive, h...

  6. Green's function asymptotics near the internal edges of spectra of periodic elliptic operators. Spectral edge case

    Kuchment, Peter

    2012-06-21

    Precise asymptotics known for the Green\\'s function of the Laplace operator have found their analogs for periodic elliptic operators of the second order at and below the bottom of the spectrum. Due to the band-gap structure of the spectra of such operators, the question arises whether similar results can be obtained near or at the edges of spectral gaps. As the result of this work shows, this is possible at a spectral edge when the dimension d ≥ 3. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Three Dimensional Digital Image Processing using Edge Detectors

    John Schmeelk

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to three dimensional image edge detection and its relationship to partial derivatives, convolutions and wavelets. We are especially addressing the notion of edge detection because it has far reaching applications in all areas of research to include medical research. A patient can be diagnosed as having an aneurysm by studying an angiogram. An angiogram is the visual view of the blood vessels whereby the edges are highlighted through the implementation of edge detectors. This process is completed through convolution, wavelets and matrix techniques. Some illustrations included will be vertical, horizontal, Sobel and wavelet edge detectors.

  8. An image super-resolution method considering edge character

    Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) estimation is an important image super-resolution method. However, a clear edge is difficult to maintain. To address this problem, we analyze the causes of poor edge stability. We also present a method for reducing the smoothness of the edge, maintaining the smoothness of the soft regional area, and reducing pseudo noise to improve connected edge retention. The improved method fixes the iteration number and smoothing factor of the MAP estimation by using Gauss-Laplacian image edge extraction. Finally, the validity of this method is verified by its application to feature information recognition in remote sensing images

  9. A Proposed Method for Image Steganography using Edge Detection

    Sanyam Anand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a technique to hide the text data into the color images using edge detection method. The alteration in edges cannot be distinguished well so edges can hide more data without losing quality of an image. In this technique, Edges of an image are detected by scanning using 3x3 window and then text message is concealed in edges using first component alteration technique. The proposed scheme achieved high embedding capacity and high quality of encoded image.

  10. Zero-coupling-gap degenerate band edge resonators in silicon photonics.

    Burr, Justin R; Reano, Ronald M

    2015-11-30

    Resonances near regular photonic band edges are limited by quality factors that scale only to the third power of the number of periods. In contrast, resonances near degenerate photonic band edges can scale to the fifth power of the number periods, yielding a route to significant device miniaturization. For applications in silicon integrated photonics, we present the design and analysis of zero-coupling-gap degenerate band edge resonators. Complex band diagrams are computed for the unit cell with periodic boundary conditions that convey characteristics of propagating and evanescent modes. Dispersion features of the band diagram are used to describe changes in resonance scaling in finite length resonators. Resonators with non-zero and zero coupling gap are compared. Analysis of quality factor and resonance frequency indicates significant reduction in the number of periods required to observe fifth power scaling when degenerate band edge resonators are realized with zero-coupling-gap. High transmission is achieved by optimizing the waveguide feed to the resonator. Compact band edge cavities with large optical field distribution are envisioned for light emitters, switches, and sensors. PMID:26698725

  11. Electrostatic properties and active magnetic topology modification in the RFX-mod edge plasma

    A better understanding of the edge phenomena regulating plasma transport and turbulence is of primary importance for the whole fusion community. In particular, in reversed field pinches (RFPs) the edge properties are found to have a strong relation with the magnetic topology. The flexibility of the RFX-mod RFP experiment (Sonato et al 2003 Fusion Eng. Des. 66–68 161–8) enables exploring different topological regimes, and the insertion of a probe equipped with a two-dimensional array of electrostatic sensors allows the characterization of the outermost plasma regions (up to 10% of the minor radius). The electric field radial profiles and its dynamics are found to be highly influenced by the presence of edge magnetic islands modelled with a Field Line Tracing code (FLiT). When a helical perturbation is applied through the saddle coil feedback system a strong modification of the edge electrostatic properties is observed. The E × B velocity field results in a convective cell-like structure according to the externally imposed toroidal periodicity. Finally, an analysis of the long-range correlations in the floating potential fluctuations (measured by two toroidally separated probes) is presented and discussed along with the electric field measurements and the edge topology. (paper)

  12. Influence of a falling edge on high power microwave pulse combination

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua; Zhu, Qi; Xiao, Renzhen; Shao, Hao

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an explanation of the influence of a microwave falling edge on high-power microwave pulse combination. Through particle-in-cell simulations, we discover that the falling edge is the driving factor that limits the output power of the combined pulses. We demonstrate that the space charge field, which accumulates to become comparable to the E-field at the falling edge of the former pulse, will trap the electrons in the gas layer and decrease its energy to attain a high ionization rate. Hence, avalanche discharge, caused by trapped electrons, makes the plasma density to approach the critical density and cuts off the latter microwave pulse. An X-band combination experiment is conducted with different pulse intervals. This experiment confirms that the high density plasma induced by the falling edge can cut off the latter pulse, and that the time required for plasma recombination in the transmission channel is several microseconds. To ensure a high output power for combined pulses, the latter pulse should be moved ahead of the falling edge of the former one, and consequently, a beat wave with high peak power becomes the output by adding two pulses with normal amplitudes.

  13. Influence of edge on predator prey distribution and abundance

    Ferguson, Steven H.

    2004-03-01

    I investigated the effect of spatial configuration on distribution and abundance of invertebrate trophic groups by counting soil arthropods under boxes (21 × 9.5 cm) arranged in six different patterns that varied in the amount of edge (137-305 cm). I predicted fewer individuals from the consumer trophic group (Collembola) in box groups with greater amount of edge. This prediction was based on the assumption that predators (mites, ants, spiders, centipedes) select edge during foraging and thereby reduce abundance of the less mobile consumer group under box patterns with greater edge. Consumer abundance (Collembola) was not correlated with amount of edge. Among the predator groups, mite, ant and centipede abundance related to the amount of edge of box groups. However, in contrast to predictions, abundance of these predators was negatively correlated with amount of edge in box patterns. All Collembola predators, with the exception of ants, were less clumped in distribution than Collembola. The results are inconsistent with the view that predators used box edges to predate the less mobile consumer trophic group. Alternative explanations for the spatial patterns other than predator-prey relations include (1) a negative relationship between edge and moisture, (2) a positive relationship between edge and detritus decomposition (i.e. mycelium as food for the consumer group), and (3) a negative relationship between edge and the interstices between adjacent boxes. Landscape patterns likely affect microclimate, food, and predator-prey relations and, therefore, future experimental designs need to control these factors individually to distinguish among alternative hypotheses.

  14. Multiscale edge detection of noisy images using wavelets

    2007-01-01

    The classical edge detectors work fine with the high quality pictures, but often are not good enough for noisy images because they cannot distinguish edges of different significance. The paper presented a novel approach to multiscale edge detection for noisy images using wavelet transforms based on Lipschitz regularity coefficients and a cascade algorithm. The relationship between wavelet transform and Lipschitz regularity was establishod. The proposed wavelet based edge detection algorithm combined the coefficients of wavelet transforms along with a cascade algorithm which significantly improves the result. The comparison between the proposed method and the classical edge detectors was carried out. The algorithm was applied to various images and its performance was discussed. The results of edge detection of contaminated images using the proposed algorithm show that it works better than the classical edge detectors.

  15. Adaptively wavelet-based image denoising algorithm with edge preserving

    Yihua Tan; Jinwen Tian; Jian Liu

    2006-01-01

    @@ A new wavelet-based image denoising algorithm, which exploits the edge information hidden in the corrupted image, is presented. Firstly, a canny-like edge detector identifies the edges in each subband.Secondly, multiplying the wavelet coefficients in neighboring scales is implemented to suppress the noise while magnifying the edge information, and the result is utilized to exclude the fake edges. The isolated edge pixel is also identified as noise. Unlike the thresholding method, after that we use local window filter in the wavelet domain to remove noise in which the variance estimation is elaborated to utilize the edge information. This method is adaptive to local image details, and can achieve better performance than the methods of state of the art.

  16. Using new edges for anomaly detection in computer networks

    Neil, Joshua Charles

    2015-05-19

    Creation of new edges in a network may be used as an indication of a potential attack on the network. Historical data of a frequency with which nodes in a network create and receive new edges may be analyzed. Baseline models of behavior among the edges in the network may be established based on the analysis of the historical data. A new edge that deviates from a respective baseline model by more than a predetermined threshold during a time window may be detected. The new edge may be flagged as potentially anomalous when the deviation from the respective baseline model is detected. Probabilities for both new and existing edges may be obtained for all edges in a path or other subgraph. The probabilities may then be combined to obtain a score for the path or other subgraph. A threshold may be obtained by calculating an empirical distribution of the scores under historical conditions.

  17. Plasmons on the edge of MoS2 nanostructures

    Andersen, Kirsten; Jacobsen, Karsten W.; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2014-10-01

    Using ab initio calculations we predict the existence of one-dimensional (1D), atomically confined plasmons at the edges of a zigzag MoS2 nanoribbon. The strongest plasmon originates from a metallic edge state localized on the sulfur dimers decorating the Mo edge of the ribbon. A detailed analysis of the dielectric function reveals that the observed deviations from the ideal 1D plasmon behavior result from single-particle transitions between the metallic edge state and the valence and conduction bands of the MoS2 sheet. The Mo and S edges of the ribbon are clearly distinguishable in calculated spatially resolved electron energy loss spectrum owing to the different plasmonic properties of the two edges. The edge plasmons could potentially be utilized for tuning the photocatalytic activity of MoS2 nanoparticles.

  18. The unique chemical reactivity of a graphene nanoribbon's zigzag edge

    Jiang, D; Sumpter, B G; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, De-en; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2007-01-01

    The zigzag edge of a graphene nanoribbon possesses a unique electronic state that is near the Fermi level and localized at the edge carbon atoms. We investigate the chemical reactivity of these zigzag edge sites by examining their reaction energetics with common radicals from first principles. A "partial radical" concept for the edge carbon atoms is introduced to characterize their chemical reactivity, and the validity of this concept is verified by comparing the dissociation energies of edge-radical bonds with similar bonds in molecules. In addition, the uniqueness of the zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon is further demonstrated by comparing it with other forms of sp2 carbons, including a graphene sheet, nanotubes, and an armchair-edged graphene nanoribbon.

  19. Impurity penetration through the edge transport barrier

    Belo, P [EURATOM/IST Fusion Association, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Parail, V [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Corrigan, G [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Heading, D [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Houlberg, W [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Monier-Garbet, P [Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ongena, J [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas-Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Ecole Royale Militaire-B-1000 Brussels, Koninklijke Militaire School (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    The ELMs in H-mode plasmas manifest themselves as short bursts of increased edge transport, which expel energy and particles, including impurities from the plasma edge to the SOL and further towards target plates and limiters (Zohm H 1996 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 1213, Loarte A et al 2003 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 45 1549). ELMs are considered beneficial events with respect to impurities since they can prevent impurities from accumulating in the plasma core. JET has recently performed an experiment in which a controlled influx of noble gas impurities was successfully used in order to reduce the amplitude and frequency of type-I ELMs. An interesting correlation between the level of the main gas puffing and the radial redistribution of impurities has been found in this experiment: it was shown that impurities are contained near the separatrix in discharges with a relatively strong level of main gas puffing. Reduction of the puffing below a certain level leads to impurity accumulation in the core followed by thermal collapse. This paper describes the results of predictive modelling of impurity seeding experiments on JET using a coupling of the 1.5D core transport code JETTO (for the main ions) and 1D transport code SANCO (for impurities). Two sets of boundary conditions for the density and temperatures, which correspond to two different deuterium gas puffing rates, were used in the modelling. An explanation for the experimentally observed phenomenon is presented.

  20. Zeeman spectroscopy of tokamak edge plasmas

    Zeeman spectroscopy is a valuable tool both for diagnostic purposes, and for more fundamental studies of atomic and molecular processes in the boundary region of magnetically confined fusion plasmas (B ≅ 1 to 10 T). The method works well when the Zeeman (Paschen-Back) effect plays an important, or dominant, role in relation to other broadening mechanisms (Doppler, Stark, resonant excitation transfer) in determining the spectral line shape. For impurity species identification and temperature determination, Zeeman spectroscopy has advantages over charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy from highly excited radiator states, since spectral features practically unique to the species under investigation are analysed. It also provides useful information on probable mechanisms of line production (e.g. sputtering mechanisms, electron impact-induced dissociative excitation from molecules in the edge plasma), and on the temperature evolution of lower charge states in the process of convection inwards or diffusion outwards from the hotter plasma interior. Where different physical processes are responsible for different sections of the line profile -- especially in the case of hydrogen isotopes -- Zeeman spectroscopy can provide a set of characteristic temperatures for each section. The method is introduced in both passive and active spectroscopy, and general principles of the Zeeman effect are discussed with special reference to regimes of interest for the tokamak. Relevant physical processes (sputtering mechanisms, electron impact-induced dissociative excitation from molecules in the edge plasma, and ion-atom collisional heating mechanisms) are illustrated by sample spectra

  1. Edge states in confined active fluids

    Souslov, Anton; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    Recently, topologically protected edge modes have been proposed and realized in both mechanical and acoustic metamaterials. In one class of such metamaterials, Time-Reversal Symmetry is broken, and, to achieve this TRS breaking in mechanical and acoustic systems, an external energy input must be used. For example, motors provide a driving force that uses energy and, thus, explicitly break TRS. As a result, motors have been used as an essential component in the design of topological metamaterials. By contrast, we explore the design of topological metamaterials that use a class of far-from-equilibrium liquids, called polar active liquids, that spontaneously break TRS. We thus envision the confinement of a polar active liquid to a prescribed geometry in order to realize topological order with broken time-reversal symmetry. We address the design of the requisite geometries, for example a regular honeycomb lattice composed of annular channels, in which the active liquid may be confined. We also consider the physical character of the active liquid that, when introduced into the prescribed geometry, will spontaneously form the flow pattern of a metamaterial with topologically protected edge states. Finally, we comment on potential experimental realizations of such metamaterials.

  2. Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm

    Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1

  3. AFM method to detect differences in adhesion of silica bids to cancer and normal epithelial cells

    Sokolov, Igor; Iyer, Swaminathan; Gaikwad, Ravi; Woodworth, Craig

    2009-03-01

    To date, the methods of detection of cancer cells have been mostly based on traditional techniques used in biology, such as visual identification of malignant changes, cell growth analysis, specific ligand-receptor labeling, or genetic tests. Despite being well developed, these methods are either insufficiently accurate or require a lengthy complicated analysis. A search for alternative methods for the detection of cancer cells may be a fruitful approach. Here we describe an AFM study that may result in a new method for detection of cancer cells in vitro. Here we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study adhesion of single silica beads to malignant and normal cells cultured from human cervix. We found that adhesion depends on the time of contact, and can be statistically different for malignant and normal cells. Using these data, one could develop an optical method of cancer detection based on adhesion of various silica beads.

  4. A Practical Approach of Selecting the Edge Detector Parameters to Achieve a Good Edge Map of the Gray Image

    Akram A. Moustafa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: practical approach of detecting edge map was proposed. Approach: The methodology of this approach was presented and tested in order to select the best value of the operator, used to smooth and get the gradient, and the threshold value used to convert the gray gradient to binary edge map, so a practical value of the threshold and edge operator coefficient was investigated, these values used to calculate the gradient in order to get a better edge-map. Results: While increasing the value of C (constant C the first parameter in our practical approach of detecting the edge, we narrow the range of t and at the same time the value of the suitable t will be increased toward 1. Conclusion: This approach can be used to get the best edge map and to get a clear edge map, which can be used later in image segmentation and object extraction.

  5. Fast Edge Detection Based on the Combination of Fuzzy Subsets

    TuChengyuan; ZengYanjun; PeiWei; XieJian

    2005-01-01

    A fast edge detection method basing on the combination of fuzzy subsets is developed, in which the detection of an edge as a classification problem will be considered, partitioning the image into two portions: the edge portion and the non-edge portion. The latter one, as the main constituent of an image, consists of the object and its background. Removing the non-edge portion from an image, the remainder is nothing but the edge of this image. As far as the fuzziness of the edge of an image is concerned, some fuzzy operations can be made. In this paper, the gray level histogram is partitioned into several sub-regions, and some operations are performed with the associated fuzzy subsets corresponding to those sub-edges in the sub-regions on the gray-level-square-difference histogrmn, and the edge of this image is finally obtained. Practical examples in this paper illustrate that, the described method is simple and effective to achieve an ideal edge image.

  6. Green's function approach to edge states in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Farmanbar, Mojtaba; Amlaki, Taher; Brocks, Geert

    2016-05-01

    The semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides MX 2 show an abundance of one-dimensional metallic edges and grain boundaries. Standard techniques for calculating edge states typically model nanoribbons, and require the use of supercells. In this paper, we formulate a Green's function technique for calculating edge states of (semi-)infinite two-dimensional systems with a single well-defined edge or grain boundary. We express Green's functions in terms of Bloch matrices, constructed from the solutions of a quadratic eigenvalue equation. The technique can be applied to any localized basis representation of the Hamiltonian. Here, we use it to calculate edge states of MX 2 monolayers by means of tight-binding models. Aside from the basic zigzag and armchair edges, we study edges with a more general orientation, structurally modifed edges, and grain boundaries. A simple three-band model captures an important part of the edge electronic structures. An 11-band model comprising all valence orbitals of the M and X atoms is required to obtain all edge states with energies in the MX 2 band gap. Here, states of odd symmetry with respect to a mirror plane through the layer of M atoms have a dangling-bond character, and tend to pin the Fermi level.

  7. The Effect of Nozzle Trailing Edge Thickness on Jet Noise

    Henderson, Brenda; Kinzie, Kevin; Haskin, Henry

    2004-01-01

    The effect of nozzle trailing edge thickness on broadband acoustic radiation and the production of tones is investigated for coannular nozzles. Experiments were performed for a core nozzle trailing edge thickness between 0.38 mm and 3.17 mm. The on-set of discrete tones was found to be predominantly affected by the velocity ratio, the ratio of the fan velocity to the core velocity, although some dependency on trailing edge thickness was also noted. For a core nozzle trailing edge thickness greater than or equal to 0.89 mm, tones were produced for velocity ratios between 0.91 and 1.61. For a constant nozzle trailing edge thickness, the frequency varied almost linearly with the core velocity. The Strouhal number based on the core velocity changed with nozzle trailing edge thickness and varied between 0.16 and 0.2 for the core nozzles used in the experiments. Increases in broadband noise with increasing trailing edge thickness were observed for tone producing and non-tone producing conditions. A variable thickness trailing edge (crenellated) nozzle resulted in no tonal production and a reduction of the broadband trailing edge noise relative to that of the corresponding constant thickness trailing edge.

  8. Second Harmonic Generation in Scanning Probe Microscopy for Edge Localization

    HU Xiao-Gen; LI Yu-He; LIN Hao-Shan; WANG Dong-Sheng; QI Xin

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach of second harmonic generation for edge localization of nano-scale defects measurement,based on the impact of the oscillating tip on the sample that induces higher harmonics of the excitation frequency.The harmonic signals of tip motion are measured by the heterodyne interferornetry. The edge amplitude ratio for the edge characterization can be calculated by a mechanics model and the threshold of edge localization is experimentally determined by second harmonic profiles. This approach has been successfully utilized to measure the pitch of a standard sample. The results show that the second harmonic is sensitive to locating the edge of nano-scale defects with high accuracy.%@@ We present an approach of second harmonic generation for edge localization of nano-scale defects measurement,based on the impact of the oscillating tip on the sample that induces higher harmonics of the excitation frequency.The harmonic signals of tip motion are measured by the heterodyne interferometry.The edge amplitude ratio for the edge characterization can be calculated by a mechanics model and the threshold of edge localization is experimentally determined by second harmonic profiles.This approach has been successfully utilized to measure the pitch of a standard sample.The results show that the second harmonic is sensitive to locating the edge of nano-scale defects with high accuracy.

  9. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    Becoulet, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, DSM/DRFC, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: marina@drfc.cad.cea.fr; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, DSM/DRFC, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Counsell, G. [Euratom/UKAEA Association, Fusion Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R. [EFDA Close Support Unit, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P. [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, P.O. Box 85608 San Diego, CA (United States); Moyer, R. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla CA 92093 (United States); Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Kamiya, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun 311-0193 (Japan); Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rapp, J.; Perez, C. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Lang, P.; Chankin, A.; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W. [Association Euratom-IPP, MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching, D-85748 (Germany); Saarelma, S. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-TEKES Association, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Cowley, S. [Department of Physics, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Loennroth, J. [Euratom-Tekes, Helsinki Univ. of Technology, P.O. Box 2200, 02015 HUT (Finland); Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A. [ITER International Team, Mukouyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Federici, G. [ITER JWS Garching Co-center, Boltzmannstrae2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focussing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. Present experiment and theory pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q{sub 95} and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area and conductive energy losses in Type I ELMs. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type II, Grassy, QH, Type III in impurity seeded discharges at high {delta} ) and their relevance for ITER are reviewed. Recent studies of active control of ELMs using stochastic boundaries, small pellets and edge current generation are presented.

  10. Gabor wavelets for texture edge extraction

    Shao, Juliang; Foerstner, Wolfgang

    1994-08-01

    Textures in images have a natural order, both in orientation and multiple narrow-band frequency, which requires the user to employ multichannel local spatial/frequency filtering and orientation selectivity, and to have a multiscale characteristic. Each channel covers one part of a whole frequency domain, which indicates different information for the different texton. Gabor filter, as a near orthogonal wavelet used in this paper, has orientation selectivity, multiscale property, linear phase, and good localization both in spatial and frequency domains, which are suitable for texture analysis. Gabor filters are employed for clustering the similarity of the same type of textons. Gaussian filters are also used for detection of normal image edges. Then hybrid texture and nontexture gradient measurement is based on fusion of the difference of amplitude of the filter responses between Gabor and Gaussian filters at neighboring pixels by mainly using average squared gradient. Normalization, based on the noise response and based on maximum response, is computed.

  11. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    Guo, Z. B., E-mail: guozhipku@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Gwahangno 113, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Lu [SEEE, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang, X. G. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-15

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ω{sub pre}∼x{sup 1/3}ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in}{sup 2/3}n, with x position in radial direction, ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in} strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.

  12. Study of edge turbulence in tokamak plasmas

    The aim of this work is to propose a new frame to study turbulent transport in plasmas. In order to avoid the restraint of scale separability the forcing by flux is used. A critical one-dimension self-organized cellular model is developed. In keeping with experience the average transport can be described by means of diffusion and convection terms whereas the local transport could not. The instability due to interchanging process is thoroughly studied and some simplified equations are derived. The proposed model agrees with the following experimental results: the relative fluctuations of density are maximized on the edge, the profile shows an exponential behaviour and the amplitude of density fluctuations depends on ionization source strongly. (A.C.)

  13. Community Detection Using Multilayer Edge Mixture Model

    Zhang, Han; Lai, Jian-Huang; Yu, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of complex systems can be modeled as networks with corresponding constraints on the edges and nodes, which have been extensively studied in recent years. Nowadays, with the progress of information technology, systems that contain the information collected from multiple perspectives have been generated. The conventional models designed for single perspective networks fail to depict the diverse topological properties of such systems, so multilayer network models aiming at describing the structure of these networks emerge. As a major concern in network science, decomposing the networks into communities, which usually refers to closely interconnected node groups, extracts valuable information about the structure and interactions of the network. Unlike the contention of dozens of models and methods in conventional single-layer networks, methods aiming at discovering the communities in the multilayer networks are still limited. In order to help explore the community structure in multilayer networks, we...

  14. A dynamics investigation into edge plasma turbulence

    The present experimental work investigates plasma turbulence in the edge region of magnetized high-temperature plasmas. A main topic is the turbulent dynamics parallel to the magnetic field, where hitherto only a small data basis existed, especially for very long scale lengths in the order of ten of meters. A second point of special interest is the coupling of the dynamics parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. This anisotropic turbulent dynamics is investigated by two different approaches. Firstly, spatially and temporally high-resolution measurements of fluctuating plasma parameters are investigated by means of two-point correlation analysis. Secondly, the propagation of signals externally imposed into the turbulent plasma background is studied. For both approaches, Langmuir probe arrays were utilized for diagnostic purposes. (orig.)

  15. Introduction to Solid Edge(TM)

    Smith, John C.

    1997-01-01

    Solid Edge was conceived and developed to provide breakthrough levels of productivity for engineers and designers by providing tools focused on their daily work. This user-oriented approach led to a focus on five key areas: 1) assembly-focused design, 2) ease of use, 3) plug and play software, 4) superior part modeling, and 5) production drafting. Mechanical designers work primarily with assemblies of parts that together perform a useful function. The parts themselves are principally a consequence of the function of the assembly and the interrelationships between parts. Breakthroughs in productivity will come through a focus on making the design of assemblies easier, with enhanced part design a prerequisite to that. Enhancements already in development are part to part interaction, more assembly features applying to multiple parts, exploded assemblies, assembly playback, enhanced BOM, etc.

  16. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A

    1995-04-01

    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

  17. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  18. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focussing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. Present experiment and theory pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q95 and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area and conductive energy losses in Type I ELMs. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type II, Grassy, QH, Type III in impurity seeded discharges at high δ ) and their relevance for ITER are reviewed. Recent studies of active control of ELMs using stochastic boundaries, small pellets and edge current generation are presented

  19. Hermes: Global plasma edge fluid turbulence simulations

    Dudson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The transport of heat and particles in the relatively collisional edge regions of magnetically confined plasmas is a scientifically challenging and technologically important problem. Understanding and predicting this transport requires the self-consistent evolution of plasma fluctuations, global profiles and flows, but the numerical tools capable of doing this in realistic (diverted) geometry are only now being developed. Here a 5-field reduced 2-fluid plasma model for the study of instabilities and turbulence in magnetised plasmas is presented, built on the BOUT++ framework. This cold ion model allows the evolution of global profiles, electric fields and flows on transport timescales, with flux-driven cross-field transport determined self-consistently by electromagnetic turbulence. Developments in the model formulation and numerical implementation are described, and simulations are performed in poloidally limited and diverted tokamak configurations.

  20. Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography

    Jose Javier Conesa; Joaquín Otón; Michele Chiappi; Jose María Carazo; Eva Pereiro; Francisco Javier Chichón; Carrascosa, José L.

    2016-01-01

    We used soft X-ray three-dimensional imaging to quantify the mass of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) within whole cells, by exploiting the iron oxide differential absorption contrast. Near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography (NEASXT) combines whole-cell 3D structure determination at 50 nm resolution, with 3D elemental mapping and high throughput. We detected three-dimensional distribution of SPIONs within cells with 0.3 g/cm3 sensitivity, sufficient for detecting the ...

  1. Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography

    Conesa, Jose Javier; Otón, Joaquín; Chiappi, Michele; Carazo, Jose María; Pereiro, Eva; Chichón, Francisco Javier; Carrascosa, José L.

    2016-01-01

    We used soft X-ray three-dimensional imaging to quantify the mass of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) within whole cells, by exploiting the iron oxide differential absorption contrast. Near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography (NEASXT) combines whole-cell 3D structure determination at 50 nm resolution, with 3D elemental mapping and high throughput. We detected three-dimensional distribution of SPIONs within cells with 0.3 g/cm3 sensitivity, sufficient for detecting the density corresponding to a single nanoparticle. PMID:26960695

  2. Slope Edge Deformation and Permafrost Dynamics Along the Arctic Shelf Edge, Beaufort Sea, Canada

    Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Riedel, M.; Melling, H.

    2015-12-01

    The shelf of the Canadian Beaufort Sea is underlain by relict offshore permafrost that formed in the long intervals of terrestrial exposure during glacial periods. At the shelf edge the permafrost thins rapidly and also warms. This area has a very distinct morphology that we attribute to both the formation and degradation of ice bearing permafrost. Positive relief features include circular to oval shaped topographic mounds, up to 10 m high and ~50 m in diameter which occur at a density of ~6 per km2. Intermixed are circular topographic depressions up to 20 m deep. This topography was investigated using an autonomous underwater vehicle that provides 1 m horizontal resolution bathymetry and chirp profiles, a remotely operated vehicle to document seafloor textures, and sediment cores to sample pore waters. A consistent down-core freshening at rates of 14 to 96 mM Cl- per meter was found in these pore waters near the shelf edge. Downward extrapolation of these trends indicates water with ≤335 mM Cl- should occur at 2.3 to 22.4 m sub-seafloor depths within this shelf edge deformation band. Pore water with 335 mM Cl- or less freezes at -1.4°C. As bottom water temperatures in this area are persistently (<-1.4°C) cold and ground ice was observed in some core samples, we interpret the volume changes associated with mound formation are in part due to pore water freezing. Thermal models (Taylor et al., 2014) predict brackish water along the shelf edge may be sourced in relict permafrost melting under the adjacent continental shelf. Buoyant brackish water is hypothesized to migrate along the base of the relict permafrost, to emerge at the shelf edge and then refreeze when it encounters the colder seafloor. Expansion generated by the formation of ice-bearing permafrost generates the positive relief mounds and ridges. The associated negative relief features may be related to permafrost dynamics also. Permafrost dynamics may have geohazard implications that are unique to the

  3. Classes of 3-regular graphs that are (7, 2)-edge-choosable

    Cranston, Daniel W.; West, Douglas B.

    2008-01-01

    A graph is (7, 2)-edge-choosable if, for every assignment of lists of size 7 to the edges, it is possible to choose two colors for each edge from its list so that no color is chosen for two incident edges. We show that every 3-edge-colorable graph is (7, 2)-edge-choosable and also that many non-3-edge-colorable 3-regular graphs are (7, 2)-edge-choosable.

  4. Loops and multiple edges in modularity maximization of networks

    Cafieri, Sonia; Hansen, Pierre; Liberti, Leo

    2010-04-01

    The modularity maximization model proposed by Newman and Girvan for the identification of communities in networks works for general graphs possibly with loops and multiple edges. However, the applications usually correspond to simple graphs. These graphs are compared to a null model where the degree distribution is maintained but edges are placed at random. Therefore, in this null model there will be loops and possibly multiple edges. Sharp bounds on the expected number of loops, and their impact on the modularity, are derived. Then, building upon the work of Massen and Doye, but using algebra rather than simulation, we propose modified null models associated with graphs without loops but with multiple edges, graphs with loops but without multiple edges and graphs without loops nor multiple edges. We validate our models by using the exact algorithm for clique partitioning of Grötschel and Wakabayashi.

  5. Adaptive edge image enhancement based on maximum fuzzy entropy

    ZHANG Xiu-hua; YANG Kun-tao

    2006-01-01

    Based on the maximum fuzzy entropy principle,the edge image with low contrast is optimally classified into two classes adaptively,under the condition of probability partition and fuzzy partition.The optimal threshold is used as the classified threshold value,and a local parametric gray-level transformation is applied to the obtained classes.By means of two parameters representing,the homogeneity of the regions in edge image is improved.The excellent performance of the proposed technique is exercisable through simulation results on a set of test images.It is shown how the extracted and enhanced edges provide an efficient edge-representation of images.It is shown that the proposed technique possesses excellent performance in homogeneity through simulations on a set of test images,and the extracted and enhanced edges provide an efficient edge-representation of images.

  6. STUDY ON IMAGE EDGE PROPERTY LOCATION BASED ON FRACTAL THEORY

    2001-01-01

    A novel approach of printed circuit board(PCB)image locating is presentedBased on the rectangle mark image edge of PCB,the featur es is used to describe the image edge and the fractal properby of image edge is analyzedIt is proved that the rectangle mark image edge of PCB has some fracta l featuresA method of deleting unordinary curve noise and compensating the l ength of the fractal curve is put forward,which can get the fractal dimension value from one complex edge fractal property curveThe relation between the dim ension of the fractal curve and the turning angle of image can be acquired from an equation,as a result,the angle value of the PCB image is got exactlyA real image edge analysis result confirms that the method based on the fractal theory is a new powerful tool for angle locating on PCB and related image area

  7. Interaction of two edge dislocations in free-space propagation

    He De; Gao Zeng-Hui; Yan Hong-Wei; Lü Bai-Da

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies in detail the interaction of two edge dislocations nested in a Gaussian beam propagating in free space. It shows that in free-space propagation the edge dislocations are unstable and vanish, and two noncanonical vortices with opposite topological charge take place when off-axis distances c1 and c2 of two edge dislocations are nonzero, and the condition k2w80 + 32c1c2(w20 - 2c1c2)z2 > 0 is fulfilled (k-wave number, w0-waist width). A noncanonical vortex appears when one off-axis distance is zero. However, one edge dislocation is stable when two edge dislocations are perpendicular and one off-axis distance is zero. Two perpendicular edge dislocations both with zero off-axis distance are also stable. The analytical results are illustrated by numerical examples.

  8. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL...... methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST...... model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils...

  9. Edge Minority Heating Experiment in Alcator C-Mod

    S.J. Zweben; J.L. Terry; P. Bonoli; R. Budny; C.S. Chang; C. Fiore; G. Schilling; S. Wukitch; J. Hughes; Y. Lin; R. Perkins; M. Porkolab; the Alcator C-Mod Team

    2005-03-25

    An attempt was made to control global plasma confinement in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak by applying ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) power to the plasma edge in order to deliberately create a minority ion tail loss. In theory, an edge fast ion loss could modify the edge electric field and so stabilize the edge turbulence, which might then reduce the H-mode power threshold or improve the H-mode barrier. However, the experimental result was that edge minority heating resulted in no improvement in the edge plasma parameters or global stored energy, at least at power levels of radio-frequency power is less than or equal to 5.5 MW. A preliminary analysis of these results is presented and some ideas for improvement are discussed.

  10. Hardware Design and Simulation of Sobel Edge Detection Algorithm

    Sohag Kabir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hardware system for Sobel Edge Detection Algorithm is designed and simulated for a 128 pixel, 8-bit monochrome line-scan camera. The system is designed to detect objects as they move along a conveyor belt in a manufacturing environment, the camera will observe dark objects on a light conveyor belt. The edge detector is required to detect horizontal and vertical edges using Sobel edge detection method. The Sobel operator requires 3 lines and takes 3 pixels per line, thus using a 3×3 input block to process each pixel. The centre pixel of the 3×3 pixel block can be classified as an edge point or otherwise by thresholding the value from the operator. The FPGA based Sobel edge detector is designed and simulated using Altera Quartus II 8.1 web edition by targeting Cyclone II development boards.

  11. Influence of edge roughness on graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes

    The edge roughness effects of graphene nanoribbons on their application in resonant tunnelling diodes with different geometrical shapes (S, H and W) were investigated. Sixty samples for each 5%, 10% and 15% edge roughness conditions of these differently shaped graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes were randomly generated and studied. Firstly, it was observed that edge roughness in the barrier regions decreases the effective barrier height and thickness, which increases the broadening of the quantized states in the quantum well due to the enhanced penetration of the wave-function tail from the electrodes. Secondly, edge roughness increases the effective width of the quantum well and causes the lowering of the quantized states. Furthermore, the shape effects on carrier transport are modified by edge roughness due to different interfacial scattering. Finally, with the effects mentioned above, edge roughness has a considerable impact on the device performance in terms of varying the peak-current positions and degrading the peak-to-valley current ratio.

  12. A new Morphological Approach for Noise Removal cum Edge Detection

    M. Rama Bai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Edge detection is an important aspect in image processing. When a noisy image is presented for edge detection, the noise creates problem in the process of edge detection using conventional methods. One of the disadvantages of the conventional methods is that the noise is not removed automatically. The present paper proposes a novel approach for noise removal cum edge detection for both gray scale and binary images using morphological operations. Two images consisting of noise are processed and the effectiveness of the proposed approach is experimentally demonstrated. The results demonstrate that the proposed filter cum edge detector approach overcomes the deficiency of conventional methods and efficiently removes the noise and detects the edges.

  13. On the number of $K_4$-saturating edges

    Balogh, József; Liu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Let $G$ be a $K_4$-free graph, an edge in its complement is a $K_4$-\\emph{saturating} edge if the addition of this edge to $G$ creates a copy of $K_4$. Erd\\H{o}s and Tuza conjectured that for any $n$-vertex $K_4$-free graph $G$ with $\\lfloor n^2/4\\rfloor+1$ edges, one can find at least $(1+o(1))\\frac{n^2}{16}$ $K_4$-saturating edges. We construct a graph with only $\\frac{2n^2}{33}$ $K_4$-saturating edges. Furthermore, we prove that it is best possible, i.e., one can always find at least $(1+o...

  14. Fabrication of multilayer edge molecular electronics and spintronics devices

    Tyagi, Pawan

    2011-01-01

    Advancement of molecular devices will critically depend on the approach to establish electrical connections to the functional molecule(s). We produced a molecular device strategy which is based on chemically attaching of molecules between the two magnetic/nonmagnetic metallic electrodes along the multilayer edge(s) of a prefabricated tunnel junction. Here, we present the fabrication methodology for producing these multilayer edge molecular electronics/spintronics devices (MEMEDs/MEMSDs) and d...

  15. Edge irregular total labellings for graphs of linear size

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Miškuf, J.

    2009-01-01

    As an edge variant of the well-known irregularity strength of a graph G = (V, E) we investigate edge irregular total labellings, i.e. functions f : V ∪ E → {1, 2, ..., k} such that f (u) + f (u v) + f (v) ≠ f (u) + f (u v) + f (v) for every pair of different edges u v, u v ∈ E. The smallest...

  16. Edge Detection of Concrete Mesostructure Based on DIS Operator

    Feng, Bin; Xu, Zicheng; Xia, Jin; Jin, Shijie; Jin, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Aggregate edge detection is the basis of creating concrete mesoscale model, which is applied to analyze concrete mesoscale characteristics. A concrete digital image edge detection method using DIS operator is presented in this paper. Mean filter, multi-scale filter, and Gaussian filter are compared on the effect of concrete image noise reduction. Based on the result, Gaussian filter is the most optimum method to reduce image noise and remain aggregate edge distinct. Sobel operator, Laplacian ...

  17. Multiuser Resource Allocation for Mobile-Edge Computation Offloading

    You, Changsheng; Huang, Kaibin

    2016-01-01

    Mobile-edge computation offloading (MECO) offloads intensive mobile computation to clouds located at the edges of cellular networks. Thereby, MECO is envisioned as a promising technique for prolonging the battery lives and enhancing the computation capacities of mobiles. In this paper, we consider resource allocation in a MECO system comprising multiple users that time share a single edge cloud and have different computation loads. The optimal resource allocation is formulated as a convex opt...

  18. Mach-Zehnder interferometry of fractional quantum Hall edge states

    Levkivskyi, Ivan; Boyarsky, Alexey; Fröhlich, Jürg; Sukhorukov, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We propose direct experimental tests of the effective models of fractional quantum Hall edge states. We first recall a classification of effective models based on the requirement of anomaly cancellation and illustrate the general classification with the example of a quantum Hall fluid at filling factor 2/3. We show that, in this example, it is impossible to describe the edge states with only one chiral channel and that there are several inequivalent models of the edge states with two fields. ...

  19. Palm Print Edge Extraction Using Fractional Differential Algorithm

    Chunmei Chi; Feng Gao

    2014-01-01

    Algorithm based on fractional difference was used for the edge extraction of thenar palm print image. Based on fractional order difference function which was deduced from classical fractional differential G-L definition, three filter templates were constructed to extract thenar palm print edge. The experiment results showed that this algorithm can reduce noise and detect rich edge details and has higher SNR than traditional methods.

  20. Cue combination and color edge detection in natural scenes.

    Zhou, Chunhong; Mel, Bartlett W

    2008-01-01

    Biological vision systems are adept at combining cues to maximize the reliability of object boundary detection, but given a set of co-localized edge detectors operating on different sensory channels, how should their responses be combined to compute overall edge probability? To approach this question, we collected joint responses of red-green and blue-yellow edge detectors both ON- and OFF-edges using a human-labeled image database as ground truth (D. Martin, C. Fowlkes, D. Tal, & J. Malik, 2001). From a Bayesian perspective, the rule for combining edge cues is linear in the individual cue strengths when the ON-edge and OFF-edge joint distributions are (1) statistically independent and (2) lie in an exponential ratio to each other. Neither condition held in the color edge data we collected, and the function P(ON cues)-dubbed the "combination rule"-was correspondingly complex and nonlinear. To characterize the statistical dependencies between edge cues, we developed a generative model ("saturated common factor," SCF) that provided good fits to the measured ON-edge and OFF-edge joint distributions. We also found that a divisive normalization scheme derived from the SCF model transformed raw edge detector responses into values with simpler distributions that satisfied both preconditions for a linear combination rule. A comparison to another normalization scheme (O. Schwartz & E. Simoncelli, 2001) suggests that apparently minor details of the normalization process can strongly influence its performance. Implications of the SCF normalization scheme for cue combination in biological sensory systems are discussed. PMID:18484843

  1. Spin and edge channel dependent transport through quantum dots

    We investigate the influence of spin polarized currents and non-equilibrated edge channels on the transport properties of a single quantum dot. Polarized currents are realized by the manual depletion of edge channels in high magnetic fields via a metallic top gate covering the source contact in the system. We observe a suppression and enhancement in the conductance of the quantum dot dependent on the edge channel configuration in the leads.

  2. Spin and edge channel dependent transport through quantum dots

    Ridder, T; Rogge, M C; Haug, R J [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)], E-mail: ridder@nano.uni-hannover.de

    2008-11-12

    We investigate the influence of spin polarized currents and non-equilibrated edge channels on the transport properties of a single quantum dot. Polarized currents are realized by the manual depletion of edge channels in high magnetic fields via a metallic top gate covering the source contact in the system. We observe a suppression and enhancement in the conductance of the quantum dot dependent on the edge channel configuration in the leads.

  3. Non-perturbative models of intermittency in edge turbulence

    Anderson, Johan; Kim, Eun-Jin

    2009-01-01

    A theory of the probability distribution function (PDF) tails of the blob density in plasma edge turbulence is provided. A simplified model of the fast convective radial transport is used. The theoretically predicted PDF tails corroborate earlier measurements of edge transport, further confirming the strongly non-Gaussian feature of edge transport. It is found that increasing the cross sectional spatial scale length ($L_x$ and $L_y$) of the blob results in larger transport whereas increasing ...

  4. Shot-Noise Thermometry of the Quantum Hall Edge States

    Levkivskyi, Ivan; Sukhorukov, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    We use the nonequilibrium bosonization technique to investigate the effects of the Coulomb interaction on quantum Hall edge states at a filling factor ν=2, partitioned by a quantum point contact (QPC). We find that, due to the integrability of charge dynamics, edge states evolve to a nonequilibrium stationary state with a number of specific features. In particular, the noise temperature Θ of a weak backscattering current between edge channels is linear in voltage bias applied at the QPC, inde...

  5. Edge Preserving Image Coding For High Resolution Image Representation

    M. Nagaraju Naik; K. Kumar Naik; P. Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Image coding for high resolution representation, with projection edge smoothening is been proposed in this work. In past works it is observed that image projection in larger dimension carried out by imageinterpolation results in high stretching effects at bounding regions of the objects in an image. Though focus is made towards achieving high quality accuracy in image projection very less work is made towards preserving the edge regions. in this paper a approach towards preserving edge at the...

  6. Symmetric airfoil geometry effects on leading edge noise

    Gill, James; Zhang, Xin; Joseph, Phillip F.

    2013-01-01

    Computational aeroacoustic methods are applied to the modeling of noise due to interactions between gusts and the leading edge of real symmetric airfoils. Single frequency harmonic gusts are interacted with various airfoil geometries at zero angle of attack. The effects of airfoil thickness and leading edge radius on noise are investigated systematically and independently for the first time, at higher frequencies than previously used in computational methods. Increases in both leading edge ra...

  7. Inter-Edge interaction in the Quantum Hall Effect

    Oreg, Yuval; Finkel'stein, Alexander M.

    1995-01-01

    We consider effects of the interaction between electrons drifting along the opposite sides of a narrow sample under the conditions of the quantum Hall effect. A spatial variation of this interaction leads to backward scattering of collective excitations propagating along the edges. Experiments on propagation of the edge modes in samples with constrictions may give information about the strength of the inter-edge electron interaction in the quantum Hall regime.

  8. E2EDSM: An Edge-to-Edge Data Service Model for Mass Streaming Media Transmission

    He, Junfeng; Wang, Hui; He, Ningwu; Sun, Zhigang; Gong, Zhenghu

    Existing distributed content delivery systems like P2P applications may provide significant benefits for content providers and end users. However, they just shifted the considerable cost and burden to Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and well-behaved end users. In P2P applications, the amount of data served by each ISP and payment of many costly transit links are increasing, but the corresponding service revenue from the peer-hosted data services provided doesn’t return. In this paper, we present a novel Edge-to-Edge Data Service Model (E2EDSM) which aims to avoid transferring redundant data over the costly core transit links as well as improving the transmission efficiency of mass streaming media. E2EDSM describes a new way for ISP to take part in the processing of content distribution and makes an effort to achieve a winwin goal. Experimental results based on simulation show that E2EDSM achieves better network performance.

  9. Berry's Phase for Standing Wave Near Graphene Edge

    Sasaki, Ken-ichi; Wakabayashi, Katsunori; Enoki, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Standing waves near the zigzag and armchair edges, and their Berry's phases are investigated. It is suggested that the Berry's phase for the standing wave near the zigzag edge is trivial, while that near the armchair edge is non-trivial. A non-trivial Berry's phase implies the presence of a singularity in parameter space. We have confirmed that the Dirac singularity is absent (present) in the parameter space for the standing wave near the zigzag (armchair) edge. The absence of the Dirac singu...

  10. Linearity optimization of edge filter demodulators in FBGs

    LI Dong-sheng; SUI Qing-mei; CAO Yu-qiang

    2008-01-01

    A kind of electric circuit is improved to optimize the linearity of edge filter demodulators in FBG .By using a logarithm amplifier and an extraction operation,the linear range of optimized edge filter demodulators has been broadened effectively,and the requirement of optical filter's linear range has been reduced.Theoretical analyses and the simulation results indicated that the linear range of optimized edge filter demodulator's covers the whole transition region of the edge filter,while a strict linearity of the optical filter is not necessary.

  11. Upper embeddability,edge independence number and girth

    2009-01-01

    Combined with the edge-connectivity, this paper investigates the relationship between the edge independence number and upper embeddability. And we obtain the following result: Let G be a k-edge-connected graph with girth g. If α ’(G)≤((k-1)2+2) [g/2]+(1-(-1)n)/2((k-1)(k-2)+1)-1,where k =1, 2, 3, and α (G) denotes the edge independence number of G, then G is upper embeddable and the upper bound is best possible. And it has generalized the relative results.

  12. ON f-EDGE COVER-COLOURING OF SIMPLE GRAPHS

    Song Huimin; Liu Guizhen

    2005-01-01

    An f-edge cover-colouring of a graph G = (V, E) is an assignment of colours to the edges of G such that every colour appears at each vertex υ∈ V at least f(υ) times.The maximum number of colours needed to f-edge cover colour G is called the f-edge cover chromatic index of G, denoted by χfc(G). This paper gives that min[d(ν)-1/f(ν)] ≤χfc(G) ≤min[d(υ)/f(υ)].

  13. An Edge Rotation and Temperature Diagnostic on NSTX

    A new diagnostic for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is described whose function is to measure ion rotation and temperature at the plasma edge. The diagnostic is sensitive to C III, C IV, and He II intrinsic emission, covering a radial region of 15 cm at the extreme edge of the outboard midplane. Thirteen chords are distributed between toroidal and poloidal views, allowing the toroidal and poloidal rotation and temperature of the plasma edge to be simultaneously measured with 10 ms resolution. Combined with the local pressure gradient and the EFIT code reconstructed magnetic field profile, the edge flow gives a measure of the local radial electric field

  14. Vertex-Coloring 2-Edge-Weighting of Graphs

    Lu, Hongliang; Zhang, Cun-Quan

    2010-01-01

    A $k$-{\\it edge-weighting} $w$ of a graph $G$ is an assignment of an integer weight, $w(e)\\in \\{1,\\dots, k\\}$, to each edge $e$. An edge weighting naturally induces a vertex coloring $c$ by defining $c(u)=\\sum_{u\\sim e} w(e)$ for every $u \\in V(G)$. A $k$-edge-weighting of a graph $G$ is \\emph{vertex-coloring} if the induced coloring $c$ is proper, i.e., $c(u) \

  15. Measurement of Peeling Mode Edge Current Profile Dynamics

    Peeling modes, an instability mechanism underlying deleterious edge localized mode (ELM) activity in fusion-grade plasmas, are observed at the edge of limited plasmas in a low aspect ratio tokamak under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge∼0.1 MA/m2) and low magnetic field (B∼0.1 T). They generate edge-localized, electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n≤3 and amplitudes that scale strongly with measured Jedge/B instability drive, consistent with theory. ELM-like field-aligned, current-carrying filaments form from an initial current-hole Jedge perturbation that detach and propagate outward.

  16. Numerical studies of edge localized instabilities in tokamaks

    A new computational tool, edge localized instabilities in tokamaks equilibria (ELITE), has been developed to help our understanding of short wavelength instabilities close to the edge of tokamak plasmas. Such instabilities may be responsible for the edge localized modes observed in high confinement H-mode regimes, which are a serious concern for next step tokamaks because of the high transient power loads which they can impose on divertor target plates. ELITE uses physical insight gained from analytic studies of peeling and ballooning modes to provide an efficient way of calculating the edge ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability properties of tokamaks. This paper describes the theoretical formalism which forms the basis for the code

  17. A note on M_{2}-edge colorings of graphs

    Július Czap

    2015-01-01

    An edge coloring \\(\\varphi\\) of a graph \\(G\\) is called an \\(M_2\\)-edge coloring if \\(|\\varphi(v)|\\le2 \\) for every vertex \\(v\\) of \\(G\\), where \\(\\varphi(v)\\) is the set of colors of edges incident with \\(v\\). Let \\(K_2(G)\\) denote the maximum number of colors used in an \\(M_2\\)-edge coloring of \\(G\\). Let \\(G_1\\), \\(G_2\\) and \\(G_3\\) be graphs such that \\(G_1\\subseteq G_2\\subseteq G_3\\). In this paper we deal with the following question: Assuming that \\(K_2(G_1)=K_2(G_3)\\), does it hold ...

  18. The sharp edge: a frequent radiographic sign in neonatal pneumothorax

    The sharp edge sign, an unusually sharply defined silhouette of the heart and/or hemidiaphragm on frontal radiographs of the supine neonate, has been valuable in the initial recognition of pneumothorax. In a prospective study of 50 neonatal pneumothoraces, a sharp edge sign was present on the initial pneumothorax film 49 times. In seven of these, only the hemidiaphragm showed a sharp edge, while the heart margin was superimposed on the vertebral column. Greater awareness of the sharp edge sign would promote earlier recognition of neonatal pneumothorax. 6 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Simulations of Edge Current Driven Kink Modes with BOUT + + code

    Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.

    2013-10-01

    Edge kink modes (or peeling modes) play a key role in the ELMs. The edge kink modes are driven by peak edge current, which comes from the bootstrap current. We calculated sequences of equilibria with different edge current using CORSICA by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, with the 3-field BOUT + + code, we calculated the MHD instabilities driven by edge current. For linear low-n ideal MHD modes, BOUT + + results agree with GATO results. With the edge current increasing, the dominant modes are changed from high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes. The edge current provides also stabilizing effects on high-n ballooning modes. Furthermore, for edge current scan without keeping total current fixed, the increasing edge current can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes and cannot drive kink modes. The diamagnetic effect can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes, but has no effect on the low-n kink modes. Also, the nonlinear behavior of kink modes is analyzed. Work supported by China MOST grant 2013GB111000 and by China NSF grant 10975161. Also performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the (delta)-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

  1. Calculation of the Capture Edge in the OGMS Superconducting Separator

    Many ferromagnetic particles, that should be deflected, are captured on the wall of an OGMS (Open Gradient Magnetic Separation) separator. This ferromagnetic material influences magnetic and hydrodynamic conditions in the separator working area. The problem how to calculate the capture edge can be defined as the search for the geometry of a nonlinear system at known boundary conditions. The boundary conditions on the capture edge are the function of the capture edge geometry. The experimental results of the separation recovery are given. The capture edge calculation has been performed by FLUX 2D and the results are presented. (author)

  2. Modeling of Airfoil Trailing Edge Flap with Immersed Boundary Method

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2011-01-01

    The present work considers incompressible flow over a 2D airfoil with a deformable trailing edge. The aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with a trailing edge flap is numerically investigated using computational fluid dynamics. A novel hybrid immersed boundary (IB) technique is applied to...... simulate the moving part of the trailing edge. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique whereas the moving trailing edge flap is simulated with the immersed boundary method on a curvilinear mesh. The obtained...

  3. Two-Dimensionally Confined Topological Edge States in Photonic Crystals

    Barik, Sabyasachi; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters.

  4. Plasmons on the edge of MoS2 nanostructures

    Andersen, Kirsten; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    Using ab initio calculations we predict the existence of one-dimensional (1D), atomically confined plasmons at the edges of a zigzag MoS2 nanoribbon. The strongest plasmon originates from a metallic edge state localized on the sulfur dimers decorating the Mo edge of the ribbon. A detailed analysis of the dielectric function reveals that the observed deviations from the ideal 1D plasmon behavior result from single-particle transitions between the metallic edge state and the valence and conduct...

  5. Evidence for edge effects on multiple levels in tallgrass prairie

    Winter, M.; Johnson, D.H.; Faaborg, J.

    2000-01-01

    We tested how edges affect nest survival and predator distribution in a native tallgrass prairie system in southwestern Missouri using artificial nests, natural nests of Dickcissels (Spiza americana) and Henslow's Sparrows (Ammodramus henslowii), and mammal track stations. Survival of artificial nests was lower within 30 m of forest edge. Nesting success of Dickcissels and Henslow's Sparrows was lower within 50 m to a shrubby edge than at greater distances, whereas fates of nests were not related to distances to roads, agricultural fields, or forests. Evidence from clay eggs placed in artificial nests indicated that mid-sized carnivores were the major predators within 30 m of forest edges. Furthermore, mid-sized carnivores visited track stations most frequently within 50 m of forest edges. Because proximity of woody habitat explained more variation in nest survival and mammal activity than did fragment size, it appears that edge effects were more pronounced than area effects. Edge effects appeared to be caused mainly by greater exposure of nests to midsized carnivores. We argue that, based on edge avoidance behavior, 'grassland-interior' species such as the Henslow's Sparrow respond to edge effects mainly by a decrease in density, whereas habitat generalists such as the Dickcissel are affected mainly by a decrease in nesting success.

  6. Non-linear Heat Transport Modelling with Edge Localized Modes and Plasma Edge Control in Tokamaks

    Becoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Garbet, X.; Zwingman, W.; Nardon, E. [Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Moyer, R. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla CA (United States); Evans, T.; Leonard, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents a new approach for the modelling of the pedestal energy transport in the presence of Type I ELMs (edge localized mode) based on the linear ideal MHD code MISHKA coupled with the non-linear energy transport code TELM in a realistic tokamak geometry. The main mechanism of increased transport through the External Transport Barrier (ETB) in this model of ELMs is the increased convective flux due to the MHD velocity perturbation and an additional conductive flux due the radial perturbation of the magnetic field leading to a flattening of the pressure profile in the unstable zone. The typical Type I ELM time-cycle including the destabilization of the ballooning modes leading to the fast (200 {mu}s) collapse of the pedestal pressure followed by the edge pressure profile re-building on a diffusive time scale was reproduced numerically. The possible mechanism of Type I ELMs control using a stochastic plasma boundary created by external coils is modelled in the paper. In the stochastic layer the transverse transport is effectively increased by the magnetic field line diffusion. The modelling results for DIII-D experiment on Type I ELM suppression using the external perturbation from the I-coils demonstrated the possibility to decrease the edge pressure gradient just under the ideal ballooning limit, leading to the high confinement regime without Type I ELMs. (authors)

  7. Solvation effects on the band edge positions of photocatalysts from first principles

    Ping, Yuan; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Goddard, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The band edge positions of photocatalysts relative to the redox potentials of water play an important role in determining the efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells. These band positions depend on the structure of the solid–liquid interface, but direct ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of these interfaces, while expected to be accurate, are too computationally demanding for high-throughput materials screening. Thus rapid theoretical screening of new photocatalyst materials requires ...

  8. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    Bedoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Gonsell, G.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P.; Burell, H.; Moyer, R.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J.; Rapp, J.; Perez, C.; Lang, P.; Chankin, A.; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W.; Saarelma, S.; Cowley, S.; Lonnroth, J.; Kamiya, K.; Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A.; Federici, G

    2004-07-01

    modelling (JETTO) demonstrated that the edge plasma current increase in ramp-up phase can lead to the destabilization of peeling modes, in agreement with ideal MHD stability models. Experiments on TCV demonstrated the possibility of triggering ELMs with a frequency imposed by rapid vertical plasma displacements induced by control coils. This effect is attributed to the induction of an edge current and hence the destabilization of peeling modes. (authors)

  9. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focusing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM (energy localized mode) energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. The theoretical description of the most studied Type-I ELMs is progressing from linear MHD stability analysis for peeling and ballooning modes to the non-linear explosive models and transport codes. Present theories cannot predict the ELM size self-consistently, however they pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q95 and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area. The experimental data also suggest that the conductive energy losses in Type-I ELM can be controlled by working in specific plasma conditions. In particular, the existence of purely convective small Type-I ELMs regimes at high q95 (>4.5) with ΔWELM/Wped<5% was demonstrated in high triangularity (δ ∼ 0.5) plasmas in JET. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type-II, grassy, QH, Type-III in impurity seeded discharges at high δ and their relevance for ITER parameters are reviewed briefly. The absence of already developed ITER relevant high confinement scenarios with acceptable ELMs has motivated recent intensive experimental and theoretical studies of active control of ELMs. The possibility of suppression of Type-I ELMs in H-mode scenarios at constant confinement was demonstrated in DIII-D experiments with a stochastic boundary created by external coils. It has been demonstrated in AUG that small pellets can trigger Type-I ELMs with a frequency imposed by the pellet injector. Pellet induced ELMs are similar to the intrinsic Type-I ELMs with the same frequency. At the same time the confinement degradation due to the fuelling can be minimized with pellets small as compared to the gas injection. Recent plasma current ramp experiments (JET, COMPASS-D) and modelling (JETTO) demonstrated that the edge plasma

  10. [Microbes on the edge of global biosphere].

    Naganuma, T

    2000-12-01

    The search for life on the edge of global biosphere is a frontier to bridge conventional bio/ecology and exo/astrobiology. This communication reviews the foci of microbiological studies on the inhabitants of the selected "edges", i.e., deep-sea, deep subsurface and Antarctic habitats. The deep-sea is characterized as the no-light (non-photosynthetic) habitat, and the primary production is mostly due to the chemosynthetic autotrophy at the hydrothermal vents and methane-rich seeps. Formation of the chemosynthesis-dependent animal communities in the deep leads to the idea that such communities may be found in "ocean" of the Jovian satellite, Europa. The oxygen minimal layer (OML) in mid-water provides another field of deep-sea research. Modern OML is a relatively thin layer, found between the water depth of 200 and 1000 m, but was much thicker during the periods of oceanic anoxia events (OAEs) in the past. The history of oceanic biosphere is regarded as the cycle of OAE and non-OAE periods, and the remnants of the past OAEs may be seen in the modem OML. Anoxic (no-O2) condition is also characteristic of deep subsurface biosphere. Microorganisms in deep subsurface biosphere exploit every available oxidant, or terminal electron acceptor (TEA), for anaerobic respiration. Sulfate, nitrate, iron (III) and CO2 are the representative TEAs in the deep subsurface. Subsurface of hydrothermal vents, or sub-vent biosphere, may house brine (high salt) habitats and halophilic microorganisms. Some sub-vent halophiles were phylogenetically closely similar to the ones found in the Antarctic habitats which are extremely dry by the liophilizing climate. Below the 3000-4000 m-thick glacier on Antarctica, there have been >70 lakes with liquid water located. One of such sub-glacial lakes, Lake Vostok, has been a target of "life in extreme environments" and is about to be drill-penetrated for microbiological studies. These 'microbiological platforms' will provide new knowledge about the

  11. Modification of Edge Profiles, Edge Transport, and ELM Stability with Lithium in NSTX

    Full text: The use of lithium in NSTX has enabled access to a high pedestal pressure regime, one in which the core stability limits at high normalized beta are observed with no sign of ELMs. Research in such ELM suppressed or small ELM regimes is of increasing importance for ITER, which requires that the projected fractional stored energy drop per ELM be maintained below 0.3%. Following application of lithium onto graphite plasma-facing components in NSTX, ELMs were eliminated gradually through growing periods of quiescence, with the resulting pressure pedestal widths increasing substantially. The modification of the pressure profile originated mainly from reduced recycling and edge fueling, which relaxed the edge density profile gradients inside the separatrix, effectively shifting the profile inward by up to 2 - 3 cm. In contrast, the edge electron temperature profile was unaffected in the H-mode pedestal steep gradient region at constant plasma stored energy; however, the region of steep gradients extended radially inward by several cm following lithium coatings. Consequently, the pressure profile width increased substantially, with the peak post-lithium ELM-free discharge gradients comparable to the pre-lithium ELMy discharge gradients. Simulations of the measured edge profile changes with the SOLPS code indicated that both a reduction in recycling and a drop in the edge and SOL cross-field transport was required to match the post-lithium profiles. Calculations with the PEST and ELITE codes have confirmed that the post-lithium discharge pressure profiles were farther from the stability boundary than the reference pre-lithium discharges, which were relatively close to the kink/peeling boundary. Indeed low-n (n =1 - 5) pre-cursors were observed prior to the ELM crashes in the reference discharges, consistent with the PEST and ELITE predictions. The resulting post-lithium discharges were ELM-free with a 50% increase in normalized energy confinement, up to the

  12. Wisps in the outer edge of the Keeler Gap

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Arnault, Ethan G.

    2015-11-01

    Superposed upon the relatively smooth outer edge of the Keeler Gap are a system of "wisps," which appear to be ring material protruding inward into the gap, usually with a sharp trailing edge and a smooth gradation back to the background edge location on the leading side (Porco et al. 2005, Science). The radial amplitude of wisps is usually 0.5 to 1 km, and their azimuthal extent is approximately a degree of longitude (~2400 km). Wisps are likely caused by an interplay between Daphnis (and perhaps other moons) and embedded moonlets within the ring, though the details remain unclear.Aside from the wisps, the Keeler Gap outer edge is the only one of the five sharp edges in the outer part of Saturn's A ring that is reasonably smooth in appearance (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS), with occultations indicating residuals less than 1 km upon a possibly non-zero eccentricity (R.G. French, personal communication, 2014). The other four (the inner and outer edges of the Encke Gap, the inner edge of the Keeler Gap, and the outer edge of the A ring itself) are characterized by wavy structure at moderate to high spatial frequencies, with amplitudes ranging from 2 to 30 km (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS).We will present a catalogue of wisp detections in Cassini images. We carry out repeated gaussian fits of the radial edge location in order to characterize edge structure and visually scan those fitted edges in order to detect wisps. With extensive coverage in longitude and in time, we will report on how wisps evolve and move, both within an orbit period and on longer timescales. We will also report on the frequency and interpretation of wisps that deviate from the standard morphology. We will discuss the implications of our results for the origin and nature of wisps, and for the larger picture of how masses interact within Saturn's rings.

  13. Electrode effect for hydrodynamic plasma edge

    General turbulent diffusion processes of the light ions towards electrode in weakly ionized hydrodynamic plasma edge are analyzed. The system of equations for turbulent diffusion of the light ions towards electrode under certain boundary conditions (selective capture of the light negative ions on electrode's surface) is solved. On the other hand inside boundary layer there is a laminar layer near electrode's surface. Here, the kinetic diffusion is a main mechanism for diffusion of the light ions toward electrode. Over boundary layer the turbulent diffusion is a prevailing mechanism. As it stands, a new model for quasi boundary layer of diffusion is proposed and used for the general analysis of experimental results on negative charging of material surface in ionized air (Chalmers, Pasquill, Phillips and Gunn). Briefly, one can say that negative equilibrium potentials of electrode is proportional to logarithm of (N+/N-) ratio. From its slope we can obtain the thickness of quasi-boundary layer of diffusion, that is compatible with boundary layer thickness. On the other hand a turbulent double layer is defined. Its characteristic length is much longer than Debye length. The energy produced by electric field of diffusion comes from the chaotic energy of turbulent eddies. The electric field of diffusion and its current (called compensatory current) will balance the ionic fluxes towards electrode. (authors)

  14. Edge and color preserving single image superresolution

    Tang, Songze; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Lili

    2014-05-01

    Most existing superresolution (SR) techniques focus primarily on improving the quality in the luminance component of SR images, while paying less attention to the chrominance component. We present an edge and color preserving image SR approach. First, for the luminance channel, a heavy-tailed gradient distribution of natural images is investigated as an image prior. Then, an efficient optimization algorithm is developed to recover the latent high-resolution (HR) luminance component. Second, for the chrominance channels, we propose a two-stage framework for luminance-guided chrominance SR. In the first stage, since most of the shape and structural information is contained in the luminance channel, a simple Markov random field formulation is introduced to search the optimal direction for color local interpolation guided by HR luminance components. To further improve the quality of the chrominance channels, in the second stage, a nonlocal auto regression model is utilized to refine the initial HR chrominance. Finally, we combine the SR reconstructed luminance components with the generated HR chrominance maps to get the final SR color image. Systematic experimental results demonstrated that our method outperforms some state-of-the-art methods in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio, structural similarity, feature similarity, and the mean color errors.

  15. Edges and Diffractive Effects in Casimir Energies

    Kabat, Daniel; Nair, V P

    2010-01-01

    The prototypical Casimir effect arises when a scalar field is confined between parallel Dirichlet boundaries. We study corrections to this when the boundaries themselves have apertures and edges. We consider several geometries: a single plate with a slit in it, perpendicular plates separated by a gap, and two parallel plates, one of which has a long slit of large width, related to the case of one plate being semi-infinite. We develop a general formalism for studying such problems, based on the wavefunctional for the field in the gap between the plates. This formalism leads to a lower dimensional theory defined on the open regions of the plates or boundaries. The Casimir energy is then given in terms of the determinant of the nonlocal differential operator which defines the lower dimensional theory. We develop perturbative methods for computing these determinants. Our results are in good agreement with known results based on Monte Carlo simulations. The method is well suited to isolating the diffractive contri...

  16. Tempest Neoclassical Simulation of Fusion Edge Plasmas

    Xu, X. Q.; Xiong, Z.; Cohen, B. I.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorr, M.; Hittinger, J.; Kerbel, G. D.; Nevins, W. M.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2006-04-01

    We are developing a continuum gyrokinetic full-F code, TEMPEST, to simulate edge plasmas. The geometry is that of a fully diverted tokamak and so includes boundary conditions for both closed magnetic flux surfaces and open field lines. The code, presently 4-dimensional (2D2V), includes kinetic ions and electrons, a gyrokinetic Poisson solver for electric field, and the nonlinear Fokker-Planck collision operator. Here we present the simulation results of neoclassical transport with Boltzmann electrons. In a large aspect ratio circular geometry, excellent agreement is found for neoclassical equilibrium with parallel flows in the banana regime without a temperature gradient. In divertor geometry, it is found that the endloss of particles and energy induces pedestal-like density and temperature profiles inside the magnetic separatrix and parallel flow stronger than the neoclassical predictions in the SOL. The impact of the X-point divertor geometry on the self-consistent electric field and geo-acoustic oscillations will be reported. We will also discuss the status of extending TEMPEST into a 5-D code.

  17. Continuum Edge Gyrokinetic Theory and Simulations

    Xu, X Q; Xiong, Z; Dorr, M R; Hittinger, J A; Bodi, K; Candy, J; Cohen, B I; Cohen, R H; Colella, P; Kerbel, G D; Krasheninnikov, S; Nevins, W M; Qin, H; Rognlien, T D; Snyder, P B; Umansky, M V

    2007-01-09

    The following results are presented from the development and application of TEMPEST, a fully nonlinear (full-f) five dimensional (3d2v) gyrokinetic continuum edge-plasma code. (1) As a test of the interaction of collisions and parallel streaming, TEMPEST is compared with published analytic and numerical results for endloss of particles confined by combined electrostatic and magnetic wells. Good agreement is found over a wide range of collisionality, confining potential, and mirror ratio; and the required velocity space resolution is modest. (2) In a large-aspect-ratio circular geometry, excellent agreement is found for a neoclassical equilibrium with parallel ion flow in the banana regime with zero temperature gradient and radial electric field. (3) The four-dimensional (2d2v) version of the code produces the first self-consistent simulation results of collisionless damping of geodesic acoustic modes and zonal flow (Rosenbluth-Hinton residual) with Boltzmann electrons using a full-f code. The electric field is also found to agree with the standard neoclassical expression for steep density and ion temperature gradients in the banana regime. In divertor geometry, it is found that the endloss of particles and energy induces parallel flow stronger than the core neoclassical predictions in the SOL. (5) Our 5D gyrokinetic formulation yields a set of nonlinear electrostatic gyrokinetic equations that are for both neoclassical and turbulence simulations.

  18. Structure and Electronic Properties of Edge-Functionalized Armchair Boron Nitride Nanoribbons

    Lopez-Benzanilla, Alejandro [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We report a quantum mechanical description based on the density functional theory of the structures and electronic properties of armchair boron nitride nanoribbons (BNNRs) edge-terminated with O atoms and OH groups. The O edge termination was found to give a peroxide-like structure that is nonmagnetic and semiconducting with a bandgap of Eg= 2.8 eV. The O-terminated BNNR ribbon was stabilized bythe reduction of the peroxide groups with H atoms leading to a polyol-like structure. The two chains of hydrogen bonds created along the edges lead to alternating 5- and 7-membered rings and cause the ribbon to become nonplanar with rippled edges. Three configurations of different ripple periods and amplitudes were found with energy differences up to 2 eV per unit cell but with virtually the same bandgap of Eg = 4.2 eV. The hydrogen bond mediated ripples are characterized through the lone pair orbitals showing a local separation and a pair of rabbit-ears on the acceptor O atoms in 5- and 7-membered rings respectively dictated by the hydrogen bond lengths. Energy bands and total and projected density of states are discussed for both functionalizations to show their effects on altering the electronic properties of armchair BNNRs.

  19. Variable range of the RKKY interaction in edged graphene

    Duffy, J M; Gorman, P D; Power, S R;

    2014-01-01

    a combination of analytical and numerical Green function approaches. We consider both a semi-infinite sheet of graphene with a single armchair edge, and also quasi-one-dimensional armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). While we find signals of the bulk decay rate in semi-infinite graphene and signals...

  20. Super-edge-graceful Labelings of Some Cubic Graphs

    Wai Chee SHIU

    2006-01-01

    The notion of super-edge-graceful graphs was introduced by Mitchem and Simoson in 1994.However, few examples except trees are known. In this paper, we exhibit two classes of infinitely many cubic graphs which are super-edge-graceful. A conjecture is proposed.

  1. Roles of edge weights on epidemic spreading dynamics

    Zhan, Xiu-Xiu; Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Sun, Gui-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Epidemic spreading on complex networks has attracted much attention in recent years. A large number of studies have focused on investigating the impacts of network topology on spreading dynamics. However, the weighted network is very common in real systems, and we attempt to study the role of edge weights on epidemic spreading. In this work, the spreading process was presented as the SIS model and three edge-breaking strategies according to the weight of the SI links were performed simultaneously, which was used to illustrate the influence of the edge weights. Simulation results on three real networks showed the different spreading patterns of different edge-breaking strategies, which in turn indicated the influence of edge weights on the spreading process. Therefore we can take different measures at different periods according to the edge weights to impede the epidemic. In addition, the detailed analyses of relationship between the edge weight and the network structure was given to interpret the role of edge weights in the epidemic spreading process.

  2. Quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic operators

    Kellendonk, J

    2003-01-01

    For a magnetic Hamiltonian on a half-plane given as the sum of the Landau operator with Dirichlet boundary conditions and a random potential, a quantization theorem for the edge currents is proven. This shows that the concept of edge channels also makes sense in presence of disorder. Moreover, gaussian bounds on the heat kernel and its covariant derivatives are obtained.

  3. Edge decompositions of multigraphs into multi-2-paths

    Jan Kratochvil; Zbigniew Lonc; Mariusz Meszka; Zdzisław Skupień

    2004-01-01

    We establish the computational time complexity of the existence problem of a decomposition of an instance multigraph into isomorphic 3-vertex paths with multiple edges. If the two edge multiplicities are distinct, the problem is NPC; if mutually equal then polynomial.

  4. Optimizing 3D Triangulations to Recapture Sharp Edges

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2006-01-01

    sharp edges. The energy is minimized using edge swapping, and this can be done either in a greedy fashion or using simulated annealing. The latter is more costly, but effectively avoids local minima. The method has been used on a number of models. Particularly good results have been obtained on digital...

  5. Initial Edge Stability Observations in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    Bongard, M. W.; Battaglia, D. J.; Garstka, G. D.; Sontag, A. C.; Unterberg, E. A.

    2007-11-01

    Edge stability is an important consideration for design of fusion experiments, as transient heat loads generated by edge instabilities may damage the first wall. Such instabilities are now believed to include peeling (current driven) and ballooning (pressure driven) components. Peeling instability may be expected for high values of edge j||/B and low edge pressure gradient. This matches the operating space of Pegasus, with typical ˜100 kA/m^2, |B|˜ 0.01 T, and an L-mode edge. A new camera system has observed filamentary structures in the edge of nearly all ohmically-heated discharges. Ideal stability analysis of these discharges with DCON indicates marginal stability to resistive interchange for ψN>= 0.95. Modification of triangularity during startup is observed to delay instability onset. A plasma control system based on that used on DIII-D will allow study of the influence of plasma shaping on mode stability characteristics. An array of magnetic probes capable of insertion into the scrape-off layer and plasma edge is being developed to provide a local constraint on the edge current profile.

  6. Electron transport in edge-disordered graphene nanoribbons

    Saloriutta, Karri; Hancock, Y.; Karkkainen, Asta;

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio methods are used to study the spin-resolved transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) that have both chemical and structural edge disorder. Oxygen edge adsorbates on ideal and protruded ribbons are chosen as representative examples, with the protrusions forming the smallest...

  7. Ideal Stability of the Tokamak H--mode Edge Region

    Wilson, H. R.

    1998-11-01

    Tokamak performance is often controlled by stability of the edge plasma. Consistent with ``stiff'' transport models, the confinement in tokamak discharges is strongly correlated with the magnitude of the edge pressure pedestal which is limited by MHD stability. Furthermore, the high performance ELM-free H--modes are terminated by low toroidal mode number n, MHD modes driven by high edge pressure gradient, and edge current. We have evaluated low n modes using the δ W code GATO, and both high edge pressure gradient and high edge current density are found to destabilize the n=1, 2, and 3 ideal modes. We have included the self-consistent bootstrap current in the equilibria generation, and have completed a thorough survey of the effects of plasma shape and edge pressure profiles on the edge ballooning stability. The bootstrap current density helps to provide access to the second regime of stability, which is easier for: higher elongation, intermediate triangularity, larger aspect ratio, narrower pedestal width, and higher q_95. The intermediate n stability is being evaluated using a high-mode-number peeling/ ballooning mode model,(J.W. Connor, R.J. Hastie, H.R. Wilson, and R.L. Miller, Phys. Plasmas 5), 2687 (1998). where a critical role is played by the edge current density. This edge model describes the interaction of peeling mode (current driven) and ballooning mode (pressure driven) effects at high, but finite, mode number; a modified ballooning mode formalism is shown to be valid at the plasma edge. Based upon this edge model, a 2D eigenvalue code has been written to determine the stability of these modes for arbitrary shape cross sections, and edge pressure and current profiles including bootstrap current effects. This model suggests a power threshold for L--H transitions and provides a plausible explanation for an ELM cycle. Results will be presented for the pressure gradient and edge current density stability boundaries for a range of shapes and pedestal widths

  8. Investigating Actinide Molecular Adducts From Absorption Edge Spectroscopy

    Den Auwer, C.; Conradson, S.D.; Guilbaud, P.; Moisy, P.; Mustre de Leon, J.; Simoni, E.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-10-27

    Although Absorption Edge Spectroscopy has been widely applied to the speciation of actinide elements, specifically at the L{sub III} edge, understanding and interpretation of actinide edge spectra are not complete. In that sense, semi-quantitative analysis is scarce. In this paper, different aspects of edge simulation are presented, including semi-quantitative approaches. Comparison is made between various actinyl (U, Np) aquo or hydroxy compounds. An excursion into transition metal osmium chemistry allows us to compare the structurally related osmyl and uranyl hydroxides. The edge shape and characteristic features are discussed within the multiple scattering picture and the role of the first coordination sphere as well as contributions from the water solvent are described.

  9. Berry's phase for standing waves near graphene edge

    Standing waves near zigzag and armchair edges, and their Berry's phases, are investigated. It is suggested that the Berry's phase for the standing wave near the zigzag edge is trivial, while that near the armchair edge is nontrivial. A nontrivial Berry's phase implies the presence of a singularity in parameter space. We have confirmed that Dirac singularity is absent (present) in parameter space for the standing wave near the zigzag (armchair) edge. The absence of Dirac singularity has a direct consequence in the local density of states near the zigzag edge. The transport properties of graphene nanoribbons observed by recent numerical simulations and experiments are discussed from the point of view of Berry's phases for standing waves.

  10. Extreme edge-friendly indices of complete bipartite graphs

    Wai Chee Shiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Let G=(V,E be a simple graph. An edge labeling f:E to {0,1} induces a vertex labeling f^+:V to Z_2 defined by $f^+(vequiv sumlimits_{uvin E} f(uvpmod{2}$ for each $v in V$, where Z_2={0,1} is the additive group of order 2. For $iin{0,1}$, let e_f(i=|f^{-1}(i| and v_f(i=|(f^+^{-1}(i|. A labeling f is called edge-friendly if $|e_f(1-e_f(0|le 1$. I_f(G=v_f(1-v_f(0 is called the edge-friendly index of G under an edge-friendly labeling f. Extreme values of edge-friendly index of complete bipartite graphs will be determined.

  11. Removable Edges in Cycles of a k-Connected Graph

    Li Qiong XU; Xiao Feng GUO

    2011-01-01

    An edge e of a k-connected graph G is said to be a removable edge if G (-) e is still kconnected, where G (-) e denotes the graph obtained from G by deleting e to get G - e, and for any end vertex of e with degree k - I in G - e, say x, delete x, and then add edges between any pair of non-adjacent vertices in NG-e(x). The existence of removable edges of k-connected graphs and some properties of 3-connected graphs and 4-connected graphs have been investigated. In the present paper,we investigate some properties of k-connected graphs and study the distribution of removable edges on a cycle in a k-connected graph (k ≥ 4).

  12. NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF BEVELED TRAILING EDGE FLOW FIELDS

    MOSALLEM M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of flow past beveled trailing edges attached to flat plates have been investigated numerically and experimentally. The test models used in the present study were two 2D blunt-faced flat plates having asymmetric beveled trailing edges of angles 27° and 60°. The numerical simulation results display an asymmetric wake behind the 27° beveled trailing edge and von karmen street vortices behind the 60° beveled trailing edge. The flow visualization using cavitation technique showed the same observations of the numerical simulation. Therefore, it is obvious that the trailing edge geometry has a pronounced effect on the wake development and vortex shedding. Also, it is concluded that the cavitation phenomenon can be used as a visualization technique at high flow velocities.

  13. Edge Detection in Multispectral Images Based on Structural Elements

    Mehdi Ghasemi Naraghi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the first steps of feature extraction is edge detection. There are various methods for edge detection such as sobel operator, log method and canny operator. These methods have disadvantages such as create noise and discontinues edge and image smoothing. With the notice of the daily growth multi spectral images processing and describe of these images have become very important. Because of the existence of many details of these images, necessity to robust algorithms caused to present a method to extract featureof an object. In this article An improve method for edge detection has been purposed. In this method edge is detected by morphology’s operator and their combination and with the use of various structure elements of images in satellite and remote sensing.

  14. Edge states and phase diagram for graphene under polarized light

    Wang, Yi-Xiang; Li, Fuxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the topological phase transitions in graphene under the modulation of circularly polarized light, by analyzing the changes of edge states and its topological structures. A full phase diagram, with several different topological phases, is presented in the parameter space spanned by the driving frequency and light strength. We find that the high-Chern number behavior is very common in the driven system. While the one-photon resonance can create the chiral edge states in the π-gap, the two-photon resonance will induce the counter-propagating edge modes in the zero-energy gap. When the driving light strength is strong, the number and even the chirality of the edge states may change in the π-gap. The robustness of the edge states to disorder potential is also examined. We close by discussing the feasibility of experimental proposals.

  15. Edge detection of noisy images based on cellular neural networks

    Li, Huaqing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Hongyu; Li, Chaojie

    2011-09-01

    This paper studies a technique employing both cellular neural networks (CNNs) and linear matrix inequality (LMI) for edge detection of noisy images. Our main work focuses on training templates of noise reduction and edge detection CNNs. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, we derive a criterion for global asymptotical stability of a unique equilibrium of the noise reduction CNN. Then we design an approach to train edge detection templates, and this approach can detect the edge precisely and efficiently, i.e., by only one iteration. Finally, we illustrate performance of the proposed methodology from the aspect of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) through computer simulations. Moreover, some comparisons are also given to prove that our method outperforms classical operators in gray image edge detection.

  16. Strain-activated edge reconstruction of graphene nanoribbons

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2012-02-17

    The edge structure and width of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are crucial factors for the electronic properties. A combination of experiment and first-principles calculations allows us to determine the mechanism of the hexagon-hexagon to pentagon-heptagon transformation. GNRs thinner than 2 nm have been fabricated by bombardment of graphene with high-energetic Au clusters. The edges of the GNRs are modified in situ by electron irradiation. Tensile strain along the edge decreases the transformation energy barrier. Antiferromagnetism and a direct band gap are found for a zigzag GNR, while a fully reconstructed GNR shows an indirect band gap. A GNR reconstructed on only one edge exhibits ferromagnetism. We propose that strain is an effective method to tune the edge and, therefore, the electronic structure of thin GNRs for graphene-based electronics.

  17. Geometric gyrokinetic theory for edge plasmas

    It turns out that gyrokinetic theory can be geometrically formulated as a special case of a geometrically generalized Vlasov-Maxwell system. It is proposed that the phase space of the space-time is a seven-dimensional fiber bundle P over the four-dimensional space-time M, and that a Poincare-Cartan-Einstein 1-form γ on the seven-dimensional phase space determines a particle's worldline in the phase space. Through Liouville 6-form Ω and fiber integral, the 1-form γ also uniquely defines a geometrically generalized Vlasov-Maxwell system as a field theory for the collective electromagnetic field. The geometric gyrokinetic theory is then developed as a special case of the geometrically generalized Vlasov-Maxwell system. In its most general form, gyrokinetic theory is about a symmetry, called gyrosymmetry, for magnetized plasmas, and the 1-form γ again uniquely defines the gyrosymmetry. The objective is to decouple the gyrophase dynamics from the rest of the particle dynamics by finding the gyrosymmetry in γ. Compared to other methods of deriving the gyrokinetic equations, the advantage of the geometric approach is that it allows any approximation based on mathematical simplification or physical intuition to be made at the 1-form level, and yet the field theories still have the desirable exact conservation properties, such as phase space volume conservation and energy-momentum conservation if the 1-form does not depend on the space-time coordinate explicitly. A set of generalized gyrokinetic equations valid for the edge plasmas is then derived using this geometric method. This formalism allows large-amplitude, time-dependent background electromagnetic fields to be developed fully nonlinearly in addition to small-amplitude, short-wavelength electromagnetic perturbations. The fact that we adopted the geometric method in the present study does not necessarily imply that the major results reported here cannot be achieved using classical methods. What the geometric

  18. Edge-to-edge percutaneous repair of severe mitral regurgitation--state-of-the-art for Mitraclip® implantation

    Alegria-Barrero, Eduardo; Chan, Pak Hei; Paulo, Manuel; Duncan, Alison; Price, Susana; Moat, Neil; Di Mario, Carlo; Serra, Antoni; García, Eulogio; Franzen, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    MitraClip® therapy is a percutaneous edge-to-edge plication of the mitral leaflets, mimicking the Alfieri surgical technique. MitraClip® implantation is a safe procedure, and survival outcomes in high-surgical-risk patients are superior to historical controls. Despite these results, questions...

  19. Effect of gender on results of percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with MitraClip system

    Estévez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Settergren, Magnus; Winter, Reidar; Jacobsen, Per; Dall'Ara, Gianni; Sondergaard, Lars; Cheung, Gary; Pighi, Michele; Ghione, Matteo; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Moat, Neil E; Price, Susanna; Rosenberg, Tine Streit; Di Mario, Carlo; Franzen, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge regarding gender-specific results of percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in outcomes in a cohort of patients treated with MitraClip implantation. A multicenter registry of 173 patients treated with Mitra...... and effective treatment of MR in men and women....

  20. Forebody and leading edge vortex measurements using planar Doppler velocimetry

    Beutner, Thomas J.; Elliott, Gregory S.; Williams, Glenn W.; Baust, Henry D.; Crafton, Jim; Carter, Campbell D.

    2001-04-01

    The planar Doppler velocimetry (PDV) technique has been demonstrated by employing it in a large-scale wind tunnel to record velocity fields surrounding a model of a generic fighter plane. The PDV instrument employed here included the following: (i) a frequency monitoring system for measuring the laser frequency corresponding to each set of scattering images; (ii) two detector systems (each composed of two 16-bit CCD cameras), one viewing the model from the top of the wind tunnel and the second from the side; (iii) iodine vapour cells based on the starved-cell design, which eliminated the need for separate temperature control of the iodine reservoir; iv) a vibration-isolated, injection-seeded, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and (v) custom data acquisition software for linking the four cameras, the laser and the frequency monitor. The PDV instrument was validated by comparing the PDV-derived velocity to the known value in the empty wind tunnel. An error of about 1 m s-1 out of an 18.9 m s-1 velocity component was found; the image noise component (resulting primarily from the speckle effect) was found to be about 1 m s-1. In addition, as a result of laser-sheet impingement on the model surface, velocities near the model surfaces are biased by background scattering effects. Nonetheless, it has been shown that PDV can be used effectively to map velocity fields with high spatial resolution over complex model geometries. Frame-averaged velocity images recorded at four axial stations along the model have shown the formation of forebody and leading-edge vortices and their complex interaction in the presence of the wing flow field.