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Sample records for adh1a variation predisposes

  1. An Evaluation of Factors Predisposing Building Elements to Variation in Nigeria

    Babatunde, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has been consistently criticized for poor performance in attaining clients’ requirements. The study, thus, assessed the factors predisposing building elements to variation with a view to providing cost-design information that enhance construction project delivery, that is, on-time completion of project within budget. The building elements considered in this study include substructure, frame, upper floors, and roof. Data were collected using well-structured questionnaires administered on professionals in consulting firms, contracting firms, and client organizations in Lagos metropolis. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the analysis revealed nine factors through factor analysis that predispose substructure to variation, seven factors predispose frame, six factors predispose upper floors, and seven factors predispose roofs to variation during construction process in Nigeria.

  2. Variation in Telangiectasia Predisposing Genes Is Associated With Overall Radiation Toxicity

    Tanteles, George A. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Murray, Robert J.S. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Mills, Jamie [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Barwell, Julian [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chakraborti, Prabir [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Chan, Steve [Department of Clinical Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cheung, Kwok-Leung [Division of Breast Surgery, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ennis, Dawn [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Khurshid, Nazish [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Lambert, Kelly [Department of Breast Surgery, University Hospitals of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom); Machhar, Rohan; Meisuria, Mitul [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Osman, Ahmed; Peat, Irene [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Sahota, Harjinder [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Woodings, Pamela [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J., E-mail: cjt14@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: In patients receiving radiotherapy for breast cancer where the heart is within the radiation field, cutaneous telangiectasiae could be a marker of potential radiation-induced heart disease. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to cause heritable telangiectasia-associated disorders could predispose to such late, normal tissue vascular damage. Methods and Materials: The relationship between cutaneous telangiectasia as a late normal tissue radiation injury phenotype in 633 breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy was examined. Patients were clinically assessed for the presence of cutaneous telangiectasia and genotyped at nine SNPs in three candidate genes. Candidate SNPs were within the endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor, type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) genes, mutations in which cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene associated with ataxia-telangiectasia. Results: A total of 121 (19.1%) patients exhibited a degree of cutaneous telangiectasiae on clinical examination. Regression was used to examine the associations between the presence of telangiectasiae in patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, controlling for the effects of boost and known brassiere size (n=388), and individual geno- or haplotypes. Inheritance of ACVRL1 SNPs marginally contributed to the risk of cutaneous telangiectasiae. Haplotypic analysis revealed a stronger association between inheritance of a ATM haplotype and the presence of cutaneous telangiectasiae, fibrosis and overall toxicity. No significant association was observed between telangiectasiae and the coinheritance of the candidate ENG SNPs. Conclusions: Genetic variation in the ATM gene influences reaction to radiotherapy through both vascular damage and increased fibrosis. The predisposing variation in the ATM gene will need to be better defined to optimize it as a predictive marker for assessing radiotherapy late effects.

  3. Waste predisposal management

    All Member States have to a large or small extent nuclear activities that generate radioactive wastes. Hospitals, research in biomedicine or in agriculture, and some industrial applications, beside other large nuclear activities such as Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Research, generate unconditioned liquid or solid radioactive wastes that have to be treated, conditioned and stored prior final disposal. Countries with small nuclear activities require of organizations and infrastructure as to be able to manage, in a safe manner, the wastes that they generate. Predisposal management of radioactive waste is any step carried out to convert raw waste into a stable form suitable for the safe disposal, such as pre-treatment, treatment, storage and relevant transport. Transport of radioactive waste do not differ, in general, from other radioactive material and so are not considered within the scope of this fact sheet (Nevertheless the Agency, within the Nuclear Safety Department, has created a special Unit that might give advise Member States in this area). Predisposal management is comprised of a set of activities whose implementation may take some time. In most of the cases, safety issues and strategic and economical considerations have to be solved prior the main decisions are taken. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance for the management of radioactive waste at national and operating level, in the definition and/or implementation of the projects. The services could include, but are not limited to guidance in the definition of national waste management strategy and its implementation, definition of the most adequate equipment and practices taking into account specific Member State conditions, as well as assisting in the procurement, technical expertise for the evaluation of current status of operating facilities and practical guidance for the implementation of corrective actions, assistance in the definition of waste acceptance criteria for

  4. Emphysematous pancreatitis predisposed by Olanzapine

    Sukhen Samanta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old male presented to our intensive care unit with severe abdominal pain and was diagnosed as acute pancreatitis after 2 months of olanzapine therapy for bipolar disorder. His serum lipase was 900 u/L, serum triglyceride 560 mg/dL, and blood sugar, fasting and postprandial were 230 and 478 mg/dL, respectively on admission. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT of abdomen was suggestive of acute pancreatitis. Repeat CECT showed gas inside pancreas and collection in peripancreatic area and patient underwent percutaneous drainage and antibiotics irrigation through the drain into pancreas. We describe the rare case of emphysematous pancreatitis due to development of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and immunosuppression predisposed by short duration olanzapine therapy.

  5. Predisposal management of high level radioactive waste

    The objective of this safety guide is to provide guidance on predisposal management of high-level radioactive waste to meet the safety requirements spelt out in the safety code on 'management of radioactive waste'. This safety guide provides recommendations to the waste generator/manager at various stages in the predisposal management of high level radioactive waste for ensuring safety of the occupational workers, public and the environment

  6. What aspects of autism predispose to talent?

    Happé, Francesca; Vital, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the question, why are striking special skills so much more common in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) than in other groups? Current cognitive accounts of ASC are briefly reviewed in relation to special skills. Difficulties in ‘theory of mind’ may contribute to originality in ASC, since individuals who do not automatically ‘read other minds’ may be better able to think outside prevailing fashions and popular theories. However, originality alone does not confer talent. Executive dysfunction has been suggested as the ‘releasing’ mechanism for special skills in ASC, but other groups with executive difficulties do not show raised incidence of talents. Detail-focused processing bias (‘weak coherence’, ‘enhanced perceptual functioning’) appears to be the most promising predisposing characteristic, or ‘starting engine’, for talent development. In support of this notion, we summarize data from a population-based twin study in which parents reported on their 8-year-olds' talents and their ASC-like traits. Across the whole sample, ASC-like traits, and specifically ‘restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests’ related to detail focus, were more pronounced in children reported to have talents outstripping older children. We suggest that detail-focused cognitive style predisposes to talent in savant domains in, and beyond, autism spectrum disorders. PMID:19528019

  7. Recent developments in brain tumor predisposing syndromes.

    Johansson, Gunnar; Andersson, Ulrika; Melin, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    The etiologies of brain tumors are in the most cases unknown, but improvements in genetics and DNA screening have helped to identify a wide range of brain tumor predisposition disorders. In this review we are discussing some of the most common predisposition disorders, namely: neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2, schwannomatosis, rhabdoid tumor predisposition disorder, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin), tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau, Li-Fraumeni and Turcot syndromes. Recent findings from the GLIOGENE collaboration and the newly identified glioma causing gene POT1, will also be discussed. Genetics. We will describe these disorders from a genetic and clinical standpoint, focusing on the difference in clinical symptoms depending on the underlying gene or germline mutation. Central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Most of these disorders predispose the carriers to a wide range of symptoms. Herein, we will focus particularly on tumors affecting the CNS and discuss improvements of targeted therapy for the particular disorders. PMID:26634384

  8. [Depression in schizophrenia: diagnosis, epidemiology, predisposing factors].

    Stamouli, S

    2010-01-01

    the time and stabilizes around 8% in remitted patients. These frequencies may vary upwards depending on the definition of depression. One in four schizophrenic patients with depression presents with suicide ideation and therefore requires appropriate identification and management. As far as predisposing factors for the appearance of depression concerns, the existing data are inadequate and contradictory to extract safe conclusions and therefore further research is in line. PMID:22214874

  9. Predisposal management of radioactive waste. General safety requirements. Pt. 5

    The objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to establish, the requirements that must be satisfied in the predisposal management of radioactive waste. This publication sets out the objectives, criteria and requirements for the protection of human health and the environment that apply to the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and shutdown of facilities for the predisposal management of radioactive waste, and the requirements that must be met to ensure the safety of such facilities and activities. This Safety Requirements publication applies to the predisposal management of radioactive waste of all types and covers all the steps in its management from its generation up to its disposal, including its processing (pretreatment, treatment and conditioning), storage and transport. Such waste may arise from the commissioning, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities; the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education; the processing of materials that contain naturally occurring radionuclides; and the remediation of contaminated areas. The introduction of the document (Section 1) informs about its objective, scope and structure. The protection of human health and the environment is considered in Section 2 of this publication. Section 3 establishes requirements for the responsibilities associated with the predisposal management of radioactive waste. Requirements for the principal approaches to and the elements of the predisposal management of radioactive waste are established in Section 4. Section 5 establishes requirements for the safe development and operation of predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and safe conduct of activities. The Annex presents a discussion of the consistency of the safety requirements established in this publication with the fundamental safety principles

  10. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated w...... melanoma. In addition, we found the first mutation outside the exonuclease domain, p.(Gln520Arg), in a family with an extensive history of colorectal cancer.......Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family...

  11. Sleep Deprivation Predisposes Gujarati Indian Adolescents to Obesity

    Shaikh Wasim; Patel Minal; Singh S

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross-...

  12. Factors predisposing to a complicated initial febrile convulsion.

    Wallace, S J

    1975-01-01

    131 consecutive admissions to hospital for a first febrile convulsion were studied to find which factors predisposed to a complicated fit--defined as one lasting more than 30 minutes, unilateral, or repeated within the same illness. A significant excess of complicated attacks occurred where the age of onset was less than 16 months, where both family history of convulsive disorder and perinatal abnormality were present, and, in females only, where it was suspected that neurological disorder preceded the first fit. PMID:1220608

  13. Population testing for cancer predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations

    Wardle, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)–based testing. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the...

  14. Varus Gonarthrosis Predisposes to Varus Malalignment in TKA

    Heyse, Thomas J.; Decking, Ralf; Davis, Jack; Boettner, Friedrich; Laskin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Postoperative alignment is a predictor for long-term survival of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not preoperative deformities predispose to intraoperative malposition of TKA components. A retrospective radiographic analysis of 53 primary TKA cases was performed. Preoperative AP hip to ankle and lateral knee radiographs were compared with postoperative views to evaluate component positioning. The following angles were measured: the hip–knee–a...

  15. Ankle sprain: pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and management strategies

    Hubbard, Tricia J.; Wikstrom, Erik A.

    2010-01-01

    Tricia J Hubbard, Erik A WikstromUNC Charlotte, Department of Kinesiology, CharlotteAbstract: With the high percentage (up to 75%) of initial lateral ankle sprains (LAS) leading to repetitive sprains and chronic symptoms, it is imperative to better understand how best to treat and rehabilitate LAS events. The purpose of this paper is to review LAS pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and the current evidence regarding therapeutic modalities and exercises used in the treatment of LAS. Functi...

  16. Predisposal management of high level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    Radioactive waste is generated in the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants and in the use of radioactive material in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. The principles and requirements that govern the safety of the management of radioactive waste are presented in 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management', 'Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety' and 'Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, Including Decommissioning'. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established in Refs for the predisposal management of HLW. This Safety Guide applies to the predisposal management of HLW. For liquid HLW arising from the reprocessing of spent fuel the recommendations of this Safety Guide apply from when liquid waste from the first extraction process is collected for storage and subsequent processing. Recommendations and guidance on the storage of spent fuel, whether or not declared as waste, subsequent to its removal from the storage facility of a reactor are provided in Refs. For spent fuel declared as waste this Safety Guide applies to all activities subsequent to its removal from the storage facility of a reactor and prior to its disposal. Requirements pertaining to the transport of spent fuel, whether or not declared as waste, and of all forms of HLW are established. This Safety Guide provides recommendations on the safety aspects of managing HLW, including the planning, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of equipment or facilities for the predisposal management of HLW. It addresses the following elements: (a) The characterization and processing (i.e. pretreatment

  17. Anatomic Factors that May Predispose Female Athletes to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    Cheung, Edward C; Boguszewski, Daniel V; Joshi, Nirav B; Wang, Dean; McAllister, David R

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes are 2 to 10 times more likely to injure their anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) than male athletes. There has been greater recognition of this gender discrepancy because female participation in competitive athletics has increased. Previous investigators have divided risk factors into hormonal, neuromuscular response, and anatomic subgroups. Gender variation within these groups may help explain the higher incidence of ACL injury in women. The purpose of this article is to review research examining female-specific anatomy that may predispose women to ACL injury. Specifically, we discuss how women may have increased tibial and meniscal slopes, narrower femoral notches, and smaller ACL, which may place the ACL at risk from injury. These anatomic factors, combined with other female-specific risk factors, may help physicians and researchers better understand why women appear to be more prone to ACL injury. PMID:26359837

  18. Timing of predisposing factors is important in necrotic enteritis models.

    Van Waeyenberghe, Lieven; De Gussem, Maarten; Verbeke, Joren; Dewaele, Isabelle; De Gussem, Jeroen

    2016-06-01

    Since the ban of antimicrobial growth promotors, the importance of necrotic enteritis in broilers increases. Reliable and reproducible infection models are required for pathogenesis studies and product screening. Two major predisposing factors in necrotic enteritis models are fishmeal supplementation to feed and Eimeria infection. However, many unsolved issues regarding these predisposing factors still exist. Therefore, the influence of timepoint of fishmeal administration (onset on day 8 or day 18), timing of coccidiosis challenge (day 15 or day 19) and strain of coccidiosis challenge (field strain vs. commercial vaccine) on the induction of necrotic enteritis lesions was investigated. The birds were inoculated with Clostridium perfringens three times per day for four consecutive days (day 17 until day 20) and were scored for the presence of necrotic enteritis on days 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26. Supplementation of the diet with fishmeal from day 8 onwards increased the likelihood of necrotic enteritis compared to supplementation from day 18 onwards. Birds challenged on day 19 with coccidiosis were more likely to have necrotic enteritis on scoring days 23 and 24 compared to birds challenged on day 15. Differences on other scoring days were less pronounced. Finally, the strain of coccidiosis challenge had little influence on the induction of necrotic enteritis. Findings of this study can help researchers to set up successful necrotic enteritis infection models. PMID:26927291

  19. The prevalence of predisposing deformity in osteoarthritic hip joints

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Troelsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    population-based database of 4151 individuals, all of whom had a standard anteroposterior weight-bearing pelvic radiograph taken. Hip joints were classified according to type and degree of deformity. We defined hip osteoarthritis by a minimum joint space width of predisposing hip deformities in...... females of 62.4% and in males of 78.9%. Minor and major deformities showed the same prevalence. Both sexes had a comparable prevalence of minor and major hip joint deformity, except for pistol grip deformity, which was more prevalent in men. We concluded that 'idiopathic osteoarthritis' is uncommon, and...

  20. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    Mukesh Kr. Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10% and services (5.47%. Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents.

  1. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Kwartler, Callie S.; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M.; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M.; Majesky, Mark W.; Swindell, Eric C.; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3–/– mice with p53–/– mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26854927

  2. Sleep deprivation predisposes Gujarati Indian adolescents to obesity

    Shaikh Wasim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1. Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN and 2 Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF % , FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. Results: In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Conclusion : Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population.

  3. Ankle sprain: pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and management strategies

    Tricia J Hubbard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tricia J Hubbard, Erik A WikstromUNC Charlotte, Department of Kinesiology, CharlotteAbstract: With the high percentage (up to 75% of initial lateral ankle sprains (LAS leading to repetitive sprains and chronic symptoms, it is imperative to better understand how best to treat and rehabilitate LAS events. The purpose of this paper is to review LAS pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and the current evidence regarding therapeutic modalities and exercises used in the treatment of LAS. Functional rehabilitation, early mobilization with support, is the current standard of care for LAS. However, the high percentage of reinjury occurrence and development of chronic symptoms (up to 75% after a LAS, suggests the current standard of care may not be effective. Recent evidence has shown the need for more stringent immobilization to facilitate ligament healing and restoration of joint stability and function after a LAS. Additionally, the importance of adding adjunctive therapies, specifically joint mobilizations and balance training have been shown to improve function and decrease the incidence of reinjury after a LAS. Modifying current rehabilitation protocols to include protecting the ankle joint with stringent immobilization, and including joint mobilizations and balance training may be the first step to decreasing the incidence of short and long term ankle joint dysfunction.Keywords: rehabilitation, recurrent sprains, chronic ankle instability (CAI

  4. A functional variant in ERAP1 predisposes to multiple sclerosis.

    Franca Rosa Guerini

    Full Text Available The ERAP1 gene encodes an aminopeptidase involved in antigen processing. A functional polymorphism in the gene (rs30187, Arg528Lys associates with susceptibility to ankylosying spondylitis (AS, whereas a SNP in the interacting ERAP2 gene increases susceptibility to another inflammatory autoimmune disorder, Crohn's disease (CD. We analysed rs30187 in 572 Italian patients with CD and in 517 subjects suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS; for each cohort, an independent sex- and age-matched control group was genotyped. The frequency of the 528Arg allele was significantly higher in both disease cohorts compared to the respective control population (for CD, OR = 1.20 95%CI: 1.01-1.43, p = 0.036; for RRMS, OR = 1.26; 95%CI: 1.04-1.51, p = 0.01. Meta-analysis with the Wellcome Trust Cases Control Consortium GWAS data confirmed the association with MS (p(meta = 0.005, but not with CD. In AS, the rs30187 variant has a predisposing effect only in an HLA-B27 allelic background. It remains to be evaluated whether interaction between ERAP1 and distinct HLA class I alleles also affects the predisposition to MS, and explains the failure to provide definitive evidence for a role of rs30187 in CD. Results herein support the emerging concept that a subset of master-regulatory genes underlay the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.

  5. Predisposing factors of restless legs syndrome in pregnancy.

    Tunç, Tuğba; Karadağ, Yeşim Sücüllü; Doğulu, Funda; Inan, Levent E

    2007-04-15

    The occurrence of restless legs syndrome in pregnancy is well known. However, the mechanism of this association is unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify the factors that predispose women to have restless legs syndrome during pregnancy. A total of 146 pregnant women were included in the study. Patients were asked questions regarding demographic characteristics, complications of pregnancy, medical therapy (vitamin and iron intake), sleep disorders, muscle cramps, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Electroneurography, routine blood biochemistry tests, complete blood count, and thyroid function tests were performed and vitamin B12, folic acid, serum iron, iron-binding capacity, ferritin, iron saturation, prolactin, estradiol, and progesterone were measured. Of the participants, 38 were diagnosed as having restless legs syndrome. In women with restless legs syndrome, additional medical problems, night cramps, and excessive daytime sleepiness were more frequent. In women without restless legs syndrome, serum hemoglobin levels were significantly higher and the use of supplemental iron or vitamins was greater. Among the women with restless legs syndrome, progesterone levels were slightly higher but this difference was not statistically significant. In summary, in this study, lower hemoglobin levels and supplementation deficits of iron and vitamins were found be the risk factors for restless legs syndrome in pregnancy. PMID:17285614

  6. Allelic variation in CRHR1 predisposes to panic disorder : evidence for biased fear processing

    Weber, Heike; Richter, Jan; Straube, Benjamin; Lueken, Ulrike; Domschke, Katharina; Schartner, Christoph; Klauke, Benedikt; Baumann, Christian; Pané-Farré, Christiane; Jacob, Christian P; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Zwanger, Peter; Lang, Thomas; Fehm, Lydia; Jansen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This work is part of the German multicenter trial ‘Mechanisms of Action in CBT (MAC)’. The MAC study is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF; project no. 01GV0615) as part of the BMBF Psychotherapy Research Funding Initiative. The study was further supported by the DFG (Grant RE1632/5-1 and KFO 125 to AR; SFB TRR 58 Z02 to JD, PP and AR; C02 to JD and KD; DE357/4-1 to JD, AR, JR and AH; RTG 1256 to AR, JD and PP; IZKF-Würzburg Z-6 to HW).

  7. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred

    S. K. Sheetal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at −20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220. Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition and 12 h after parturition. Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control. Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.

  8. Urological complications after radical hysterectomy: Incidence rates and predisposing factors

    Likić-Lađević Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Radical hysterectomy is a surgical approach for stage Ib and IIa of cervical cancer. The incidence of intraoperative injuries of the bladder during radical hysterectomy ranges from 0.4-3.7%. The ureter can be crushed, caught in sutures, transsected, obstructed by angulation, or ischemic by the stippling or periureteric fascia. Vesicovaginal and ureterovaginal fistuls are reported to develop in 0.9-2% of patients after radical abdominal hysterectomy. Fistulas usually become manifested or visible at speculum examination within 14 days following the surgery. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence and predisposing factor of urological complications after radical hysterectomy. Methods. The study included a total of 536 patients with invasive stage Ib to IIb cancer of the cervix uteri who had underwent radical hysterectomy. The special elements considered were: the patient’s age; the International Federation of Ginecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage after pathohistology; duration of operation; the result of preoperative laboratory tests for diabetes, anemia, hypoproteinemia, or disorders of liver or kidney function; ASA status; postoperative surgical infection. Results. The average age of the patients with complications was 48.68 years. All patients with intraoperative ureteric and bladder injuries had statisticaly significant higher stage of disease and operation lasted more than in others without injury. We noticed 1.3% ureteral injuries and 1.49% bladder injuries, more than 50% of the patients with a previously mentioned injuries were operated on more than 3 hours. We found 2.61% vesicovaginal and 2.43% ureterovaginal fistuls. A total of 50% of the patients with bladder injury and vesicovaginal fistuls and 70% of the patients with ureterovaginal fistuls had diabetes mellitus. Postoperative infection of surgical site is a very important factor for the development of fistule. Half of the patients with vesicovaginal

  9. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) IN GENETICALLY PREDISPOSED RATS

    Rodent CVD models are increasingly used for understanding individual differences in susceptibility to environmental stressors such as air pollution. We characterized pathologies and a number of known human risk factors of CVD in genetically predisposed, male young adult Spontaneo...

  10. Diet- and colonization-dependent intestinal dysfunction predisposes to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    Sangild, Per T.; Siggers, Richard H.; Schmidt, Mette;

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims: Preterm birth and formula feeding are key risk factors associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants, but little is known about intestinal conditions that predispose to disease. Thus, structural, functional, and microbiologic indices were used to investigate the...

  11. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    Coban, Goekcen; Cifci, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  12. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  13. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome predisposing to non-WNT, non-SHH, group 3 medulloblastoma.

    Bourdeaut, Franck; Miquel, Catherine; Richer, Wilfrid; Grill, Jacques; Zerah, Michel; Grison, Camille; Pierron, Gaelle; Amiel, Jeanne; Krucker, Clementine; Radvanyi, Francois; Brugieres, Laurence; Delattre, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    Medulloblastomas (MB) are classified in four subgroups: the well defined WNT and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroups, and the less defined groups 3 and 4. They occasionally occur in the context of a cancer predisposition syndrome. While germline APC mutations predispose to WNT MB, germline mutations in SUFU, PTCH1, and TP53 predispose to SHH tumors. We report on a child with a Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) due to a germline deletion in CREBBP, who developed a MB. Biological profilings demonstrate that this tumor belongs to the group 3. RTS may therefore be the first predisposition syndrome identified for non-WNT/non-SHH MB. PMID:24115570

  14. Identifying Some Factors That Might Predispose Drug Abuse among Learners in a South African Township School

    Grobler, R.; Khatite, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study inquires into some of the factors that might predispose the use and abuse of drugs among secondary school learners in a township school. The objective of this research is to identify these factors and to offer a few suggestions on how the abuse may be prevented. A quantitative research strategy is used and a document analysis technique…

  15. Fat Oxidation in Black and White Youth: A Metabolic Phenotype Potentially Predisposing Black Girls to Obesity

    Lee, SoJung; Arslanian, Silva A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of obesity is higher in Blacks with racial divergence in adiposity in girls starting during adolescence. Our hypothesis is that in Black children, puberty associated increase in fat oxidation is diminished and could play a role in predisposing to fat accretion triggered during puberty. Thus, we examined the relationships between race, pubertal development, and postabsorptive fat oxidation in youth.

  16. Candidate colorectal cancer predisposing gene variants in Chinese early-onset and familial cases

    Zhang, J.X.; Fu, L.; Voer, R.M. de; Hahn, M.M.; Jin, P.; Lv, C.X.; Verwiel, E.T.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Kuiper, R.P.; Sheng, J.Q.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether whole-exome sequencing may serve as an efficient method to identify known or novel colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposing genes in early-onset or familial CRC cases. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in 23 Chinese patients from 21 families with non-polyposis CRC

  17. Interleukin-17 receptor polymorphism predisposes to primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation

    Somers, Jana; Ruttens, David; Verleden, Stijn; Vandermeulen, Elly; Piloni, Davide; Wauters, Els; Lambrechts, Diether; Vos, Robin; Verleden, Geert; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Van Raemdonck, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Primary graft dysfunction (PGD), with an incidence of 11% to 57%, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality within the first 30 days after lung transplantation (LTx). In this study, we postulate that recipient genetic variants in interleukin-17 and -23 receptor genes (IL-17R and IL-23R, respectively) may predispose LTx recipients to an increased risk for developing PGD.

  18. Astroglial c-Myc overexpression predisposes mice to primary malignant gliomas

    Jensen, Niels Aagaard; Pedersen, Karen-Marie; Lihme, Frederikke;

    2003-01-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are common human primary brain tumors that result from neoplastic transformation of astroglia or their progenitors. Here we show that deregulation of the c-Myc pathway in developing astroglia predisposes mice to malignant astrocytomas within 2-3 weeks of age. The genetically...

  19. Predisposal Management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste. Safety Guide

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established for the predisposal management of low and intermediate level waste. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety considerations; 5. Safety features for the predisposal management of LILW; 6. Record keeping and reporting; 7. Safety assessment; 8. Quality assurance; Annex I: Nature and sources of LILW from nuclear facilities; Annex II: Development of specifications for waste packages; Annex III: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external natural phenomena); Annex IV: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external human induced phenomena); Annex V: Postulated initiating events for consideration in a safety assessment (internal phenomena).

  20. A causal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: disentangling predisposed from acquired neural abnormalities.

    Admon, Roee; Milad, Mohammed R; Hendler, Talma

    2013-07-01

    Discriminating neural abnormalities into the causes versus consequences of psychopathology would enhance the translation of neuroimaging findings into clinical practice. By regarding the traumatic encounter as a reference point for disease onset, neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can potentially allocate PTSD neural abnormalities to either predisposing (pre-exposure) or acquired (post-exposure) factors. Based on novel research strategies in PTSD neuroimaging, including genetic, environmental, twin, and prospective studies, we provide a causal model that accounts for neural abnormalities in PTSD, and outline its clinical implications. Current data suggest that abnormalities within the amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex represent predisposing risk factors for developing PTSD, whereas dysfunctional hippocampal-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) interactions may become evident only after having developed the disorder. PMID:23768722

  1. Predisposing factors of Family Conflict and Elements for a Comfortable and Sustainable Family Life in Finland.

    Poudel, Komal

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Komal Poudel, Predisposing factors of Family Conflict and Elements for a Comfortable and Sustainable Family Life in Finland. Spring 2010, Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Jarvenpaa Unit, Degree program in Social Services. In the modern world, the family relationship seems to be vulnerable and it is the human factor that can make a change. It is a huge social problem in developed countries and has been increasing in developing countries as well. Unst...

  2. Predisposing factors in microbial keratitis: the significance of contact lens wear.

    Dart, J K

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-three patients consecutively admitted to Moorfields Eye Hospital for treatment of suspected microbial keratitis were examined to identify predisposing factors. The principal associations were pre-existing corneal disease (22 patients (41.5%] and contact lens wear (22 patients (41.5%]. In 13 cases (25%) contact lens wear was the only factor in patients with otherwise healthy eyes using contact lenses as an alternative to spectacles. Gram-negative keratitis was more frequent in the lens w...

  3. Levofloxacin-Induced Achilles Tendinitis in a Young Adult in the Absence of Predisposing Conditions

    Durey, Areum; Baek, Yong Soo; Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Kwangsoo; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Lee, Jin-Soo; Cheong, Moon-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) represent a major class of antimicrobials that have a high potential as therapeutic agents. Although FQs are generally safe for the use as antimicrobials, they may induce tendinopathic complications such as tendinitis and tendon rupture. A number of factors have been suggested to further predispose a patient to such injuries. Hitherto, a few published cases on tendon disorders have implicated levofloxacin, a more recently introduced FQ. Here, we report a patient with le...

  4. Exacerbated Mechanical Hyperalgesia in Rats with Genetically Predisposed Depressive Behavior: Role of Melatonin and NMDA Receptors

    Wang, Shuxing; Tian, Yinghong; Song, Li; Lim, Grewo; Tan, Yonghui; You, Zerong; Chen, Lucy; Mao, Jianren

    2012-01-01

    A connection between pain and depression has long been recognized in the clinical setting; however, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we showed that mechanical hyperalgesia induced by unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation was exacerbated in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with genetically predisposed depressive behavior. Reciprocally, TMJ inflammation enhanced depressive behavior such that a lower nociceptive threshold correlated with a higher score of depressive behavior ...

  5. Predisposing Factors of Complicated Deep Neck Infection: An Analysis of 158 Cases

    Lee, Joon-Kyoo; Kim, Hee-Dae; Lim, Sang-Chul

    2007-01-01

    Both the introduction of antibiotics and improvements in oral hygiene have made deep neck infections occur less frequently today than in the past. Nevertheless, the complications from these infections are often life-threatening. The purpose of this article was to review the clinical findings of deep neck infections and identify the predisposing factors of these complications. The present study reviewed 158 cases of deep neck infections between the years of 1995 to 2004, 23 of which had life-t...

  6. Exploring genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus and their association with indicators of socioeconomic status

    Schmidt, Börge; Dragano, Nico; Scherag, André; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Background The relevance of disease-related genetic variants for the explanation of social inequalities in complex diseases is unclear and empirical analyses are largely missing. The aim of our study was to examine whether genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus are associated with socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort. Methods We genotyped 11 selected diabetes-related single nucleotide polymorphisms in 4655 participants (age 45-75 years) of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall stu...

  7. Predisposing factors to lateral ankle injury in male comrades marathon runners

    J. Hiemstra; Naidoo, N

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: More than two million people experience ankle ligament traumaeach year in the United States. Half of these are severe ligament sprains, however verylittle is known about the factors that predispose individuals to these injuries. The purpose of this study, (which was conducted as an undergraduate research project),was to find a correlation between the characteristics of height, weight and limbdominance and lateral ankle ligament injuries. Method: A  retrospective study was conduc...

  8. An exploratory study of predisposing factors for eating disorders in adolescent girls

    Mokbel, Carine

    1988-01-01

    Research efforts in the area of eating disorders have been numerous and varied. However, few studies have investigated the existence of specific predisposing factors that could render a young female adolescent more susceptible to developing an eating disorder. The present study was attempted in an effort to fill this knowledge gap. One hundred and fifty nine, 12 to 14 year old female students not known as having an eating disorder, were surveyed at a public school in Roanoke County, Virginia....

  9. Recurrent microdeletions at 15q11.2 and 16p13.11 predispose to idiopathic generalized epilepsies

    de Kovel, Carolien G F; Trucks, Holger; Helbig, Ingo;

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic generalized epilepsies account for 30% of all epilepsies. Despite a predominant genetic aetiology, the genetic factors predisposing to idiopathic generalized epilepsies remain elusive. Studies of structural genomic variations have revealed a significant excess of recurrent microdeletions...... at 1q21.1, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 in various neuropsychiatric disorders including autism, intellectual disability and schizophrenia. Microdeletions at 15q13.3 have recently been shown to constitute a strong genetic risk factor for common idiopathic generalized epilepsy...... syndromes, implicating that other recurrent microdeletions may also be involved in epileptogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of five microdeletions at the genomic hotspot regions 1q21.1, 15q11.2, 16p11.2, 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 on the genetic risk to common idiopathic generalized epilepsy...

  10. Predisposal management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    Radioactive waste is generated in the generation of electricity in nuclear power reactors and in the use of radioactive material in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. The principles and requirements that govern the safety of the management of radioactive waste are presented in 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management', 'Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety' and 'Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, Including Decommissioning'. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established in Refs for the predisposal management of LLW. This Safety Guide deals with the safety issues associated with the predisposal management of LLW from nuclear fuel cycle facilities, large research and development installations and radioisotope production facilities. This includes all steps and activities in the management of waste, from its initial generation to its final acceptance at a waste disposal facility or the removal of regulatory control. The predisposal management of radioactive waste includes decommissioning. The term 'decommissioning' encompasses both the process of decommissioning a facility and the management of the waste that results (prior to its disposal). Recommendations on the process of decommissioning are provided in Refs. Recommendations on the management of the waste resulting from decommissioning are included in this Safety Guide. Although the mining and milling of uranium and thorium ores is part of the nuclear fuel cycle, the management of the operational waste (e.g. waste rock, tailings and effluent treatment waste) from these activities is not within the scope of this Safety Guide. The LLW that is

  11. Maternal air pollution exposure induces fetal neuroinflammation and predisposes offspring to obesity in aduthood in a sex-specific manner

    Emerging evidence suggests environmental chemical exposures during critical windows of development may contribute to the escalating prevalence of obesity. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal air pollution exposure would predispose the offspring to weight gain in adulthood. Pre...

  12. Technical Note: Assessing predictive capacity and conditional independence of landslide predisposing factors for shallow landslide susceptibility models

    S. Pereira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the landslide predisposing factors' combination using a bivariate statistical model that best predicts landslide susceptibility. The best model is one that has simultaneously good performance in terms of suitability and predictive power and has been developed using variables that are conditionally independent. The study area is the Santa Marta de Penaguião council (70 km2 located in the Northern Portugal.

    In order to identify the best combination of landslide predisposing factors, all possible combinations using up to seven predisposing factors were performed, which resulted in 120 predictions that were assessed with a landside inventory containing 767 shallow translational slides. The best landslide susceptibility model was selected according to the model degree of fitness and on the basis of a conditional independence criterion. The best model was developed with only three landslide predisposing factors (slope angle, inverse wetness index, and land use and was compared with a model developed using all seven landslide predisposing factors.

    Results showed that it is possible to produce a reliable landslide susceptibility model using fewer landslide predisposing factors, which contributes towards higher conditional independence.

  13. Genetic Variation in Renal Expression of Folate Receptor 1 (Folr1) Gene Predisposes Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats to Metabolic Syndrome

    Pravenec, Michal; Kožich, V.; Krijt, J.; Sokolová, J.; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, Jan; Šimáková, Miroslava; Škop, V.; Trnovská, J.; Kazdová, L.; Kajiya, T.; Wang, J. M.; Kurtz, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2016), s. 335-341. ISSN 0194-911X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-09283S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH12061; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood pressure * cysteine * folate receptor 1 * metabolic syndrome X * rats * inbred SHR Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 6.480, year: 2014

  14. The Predisposing Factors between Dental Caries and Deviations from Normal Weight

    Amandeep Chopra; Nanak Chand Rao; Nidhi Gupta; Shelja Vashisth; Manav Lakhanpal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI), diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school...

  15. A case of native valve endocarditis caused by Burkholderia cepacia without predisposing factors

    Han Seong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infective endocarditis is rarely caused by Burkholderia cepacia. This infection is known to occur particularly in immunocompromised hosts, intravenous heroin users, and in patients with prosthetic valve replacement. Most patients with Burkholderia cepacia endocarditis usually need surgical treatment in addition to antimicrobial treatment. Case Presentation Here, we report the case of a patient who developed Burkholderia cepacia-induced native valve endocarditis with consequent cerebral involvement without any predisposing factors; she was successfully treated by antimicrobial agents only. Conclusion In this report, we also present literature review of relevant cases.

  16. Renal resistance and long-term blood pressure in individuals genetically predisposed for essential hypertension

    Buus, Niels H; Mulvany, Michael J; Eiskjær, Hans; Christensen, Kent L; Skov, Karin

    2016-01-01

    follow-up period in offspring of parents both diagnosed with essential hypertension. METHODS: Based on renal plasma flow (p-aminohippurate clearance) and glomerular filtration rate (Cr-EDTA clearance) RA was calculated according to the model originally established by Gomez. Following baseline......AIM: Young individuals genetically predisposed for essential hypertension have increased renal vascular resistance. We evaluated whether 1 year of angiotensin II receptor blockade decreases afferent arteriolar resistance (RA) and induces a sustained blood pressure (BP) reduction during a 10-year...

  17. Anatomic variation and orgasm: Could variations in anatomy explain differences in orgasmic success?

    Emhardt, E; Siegel, J; Hoffman, L

    2016-07-01

    Though the public consciousness is typically focused on factors such as psychology, penis size, and the presence of the "G-spot," there are other anatomical and neuro-anatomic differences that could play an equal, or more important, role in the frequency and intensity of orgasms. Discovering these variations could direct further medical or procedural management to improve sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to review the available literature of anatomical sexual variation and to explain why this variation may predispose some patients toward a particular sexual experience. In this review, we explored the available literature on sexual anatomy and neuro-anatomy. We used PubMed and OVID Medline for search terms, including orgasm, penile size variation, clitoral variation, Grafenberg spot, and benefits of orgasm. First we review the basic anatomy and innervation of the reproductive organs. Then we describe several anatomical variations that likely play a superior role to popular known variation (penis size, presence of g-spot, etc). For males, the delicate play between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems is vital to achieve orgasm. For females, the autonomic component is more complex. The clitoris is the primary anatomical feature for female orgasm, including its migration toward the anterior vaginal wall. In conclusions, orgasms are complex phenomena involving psychological, physiological, and anatomic variation. While these variations predispose people to certain sexual function, future research should explore how to surgically or medically alter these. Clin. Anat. 29:665-672, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26916103

  18. Androgen excess produces systemic oxidative stress and predisposes to beta-cell failure in female mice.

    Suhuan Liu

    Full Text Available In women, excess production of the male hormone, testosterone (T, is accompanied by insulin resistance. However, hyperandrogenemia is also associated with beta-cell dysfunction and type 2 diabetes raising the possibility that androgen receptor (AR activation predisposes to beta-cell failure. Here, we tested the hypothesis that excess AR activation produces systemic oxidative stress thereby contributing to beta-cell failure. We used normal female mice (CF and mice with androgen resistance by testicular feminization (Tfm. These mice were exposed to androgen excess and a beta-cell stress induced by streptozotocin (STZ. We find that following exposure to T, or the selective AR-agonist dehydrotestosterone (DHT, CF mice challenged with STZ, which are normally protected, are prone to beta-cell failure and insulin-deficient diabetes. Conversely, T-induced predisposition to beta-cell failure is abolished in Tfm mice. We do not observe any proapoptotic effect of DHT alone or in the presence of H(2O(2 in cultured mouse and human islets. However, we observe that exposure of CF mice to T or DHT provokes systemic oxidative stress, which is eliminated in Tfm mice. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women; excess activation of AR by testosterone may provoke systemic oxidative stress. In the presence of a prior beta-cell stress, this may predispose to beta-cell failure.

  19. Trematode infections in pregnant ewes can predispose to mastitis during the subsequent lactation period.

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Spanos, S A; Mitsoura, A; Ptochos, S; Gougoulis, D A; Barbagianni, M S; Kyriazakis, I; Fthenakis, G C

    2014-02-01

    Objective was to investigate if trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis and/or metritis. We used 80 trematode-infected ewes: primigravidae in group P-A and multigravidae in M-A remained untreated, primigravidae in P-B and multigravidae in M-B were drenched with netobimin and multigravidae in M-C were given rafoxanide. We collected faecal samples for parasitological examination, blood samples for β-hydroxybutyrate concentration measurement and uterine content, teat duct material and milk samples for bacteriological examination. We found significant differences in blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations between M-A, M-B and M-C during pregnancy (P ⩽ 0.002). We did not observe significant differences between groups regarding development of metritis (P>0.83). We found that for M-A, M-B and M-C ewes, respectively, median time to first case of mastitis was 5.75, 21 and 6.75 days after lambing (P = 0.003) and incidence risk of mastitis was 0.308, 0.069 and 0.222 (P = 0.047). We postulate that trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis; perhaps, increased β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentrations adversely affect mammary cellular defences. This is the first report associating parasitic infections with mastitis in sheep. PMID:24331730

  20. Bayesian analysis of uncertainty in predisposing and triggering factors for landslides hazard assessment

    Sandric, I.; Petropoulos, Y.; Chitu, Z.; Mihai, B.

    2012-04-01

    The landslide hazard analysis models takes into consideration both predisposing and triggering factors combined into a Bayesian temporal network with uncertainty propagation. The model uses as predisposing factors the first and second derivatives from DEM, the effective precipitations, runoff, lithology and land use. The latter is expressed not as land use classes, as for example CORINE, but as leaf area index. The LAI offers the advantage of modelling not just the changes from different time periods expressed in years, but also the seasonal changes in land use throughout a year. The LAI index was derived from Landsat time series images, starting from 1984 and up to 2011. All the images available for the Panatau administrative unit in Buzau County, Romania, have been downloaded from http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov, including the images with cloud cover. The model is run in a monthly time step and for each time step all the parameters values, a-priory, conditional and posterior probability are obtained and stored in a log file. The validation process uses landslides that have occurred during the period up to the active time step and checks the records of the probabilities and parameters values for those times steps with the values of the active time step. Each time a landslide has been positive identified new a-priory probabilities are recorded for each parameter. A complete log for the entire model is saved and used for statistical analysis and a NETCDF file is created

  1. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: do predisposing risk factors make a difference in MRI appearance?

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological entity, characterized by typical neurological deficits, distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, and a usually benign clinical course. Although frequently seen in association with hypertensive conditions, many other predisposing factors, notably cytotoxic and immunosuppressant drugs have been associated with PRES. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the MR appearance of PRES according to various risk factors. Thirty consecutive patients with clinical and MRI findings consistent with PRES were included. We identified 24 patients with hypertension-related conditions, including 14 patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia, and six patients without hypertension, in whom PRES was associated with exposition to neurotoxic substances. Lesion distribution, extent of disease, and number of affected brain regions were compared between patients with PRES with and without hypertension, and patients with PRES with and without preeclampsia-eclampsia, respectively. No statistically significant differences in distribution of lesions and extent of disease were observed between patients with PRES with or without hypertension, and patients with or without preeclampsia-eclampsia, respectively. The number of affected brain regions was significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia (p = 0.046), and the basal ganglia region was more frequently involved in these patients (p = 0.066). Apart from a significant higher number of involved brain regions and a tendency for basal ganglia involvement in patients with PRES associated with preeclampsia-eclampsia, the MRI appearance of patients with PRES does not seem to be influenced by predisposing risk factors. (orig.)

  2. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: do predisposing risk factors make a difference in MRI appearance?

    Mueller-Mang, Christina; Mang, Thomas; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Pirker, Agnes [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Klein, Katharina [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vienna (Austria); Prchla, Christine [SMZ-Ost Danube Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-06-15

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological entity, characterized by typical neurological deficits, distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, and a usually benign clinical course. Although frequently seen in association with hypertensive conditions, many other predisposing factors, notably cytotoxic and immunosuppressant drugs have been associated with PRES. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the MR appearance of PRES according to various risk factors. Thirty consecutive patients with clinical and MRI findings consistent with PRES were included. We identified 24 patients with hypertension-related conditions, including 14 patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia, and six patients without hypertension, in whom PRES was associated with exposition to neurotoxic substances. Lesion distribution, extent of disease, and number of affected brain regions were compared between patients with PRES with and without hypertension, and patients with PRES with and without preeclampsia-eclampsia, respectively. No statistically significant differences in distribution of lesions and extent of disease were observed between patients with PRES with or without hypertension, and patients with or without preeclampsia-eclampsia, respectively. The number of affected brain regions was significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia (p = 0.046), and the basal ganglia region was more frequently involved in these patients (p = 0.066). Apart from a significant higher number of involved brain regions and a tendency for basal ganglia involvement in patients with PRES associated with preeclampsia-eclampsia, the MRI appearance of patients with PRES does not seem to be influenced by predisposing risk factors. (orig.)

  3. Primary Otomycosis in the Indian Subcontinent: Predisposing Factors, Microbiology, and Classification

    Sampath Chandra Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define otomycosis and determine the predisposing factors and microbiology in primary otomycosis. Study Design. Prospective study of two years and review of the literature. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology in a coastal city in India. Patients. 150 immunocompetent individuals of whom 100 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of otomycosis are considered as the study group and 50 consecutive patients with no otomycosis are considered as the control group. Results and Observations. Instillation of coconut oil (42%, use of topical antibiotic eardrops (20%, and compulsive cleaning of external ear with hard objects (32% appeared to be the main predisposing factors in otomycosis. Aspergilli were the most common isolates (80% followed by Penicillium (8%, Candida albicans (4%, Rhizopus (1%, and Chrysosporium (1%, the last being reported for the first time in otomycosis. Among aspergilli, A. niger complex (38% was the most common followed by A. fumigatus complex (27% and A. flavus complex (15%. Bacterial isolates associated with fungi in otomycosis were S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Proteus spp. In 42% of healthy external ears fungi were isolated. Conclusion. Aspergillus spp. were the most common fungi isolated, followed by Penicillium. Otomycotic ears are often associated with bacterial isolates when compared to normal ears. Fungi are also present in a significant number of healthy external auditory canals and their profiles match those in cases of otomycosis. The use of terms “primary” and “secondary” otomycosis is important to standardize reporting.

  4. Anatomic Variations of the Paranasal Sinuses on CT Scan Images

    AR. Talaiepour; Sazgar AA; A. Bagheri

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Variation in paranasal sinus anatomy as shown on computed tomographic scans is of potential significance for it may pose risks during surgery or predispose to certain pathologic conditions.Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the relative frequency and concurrence of variations in paranasal sinus anatomy in a given population and to compare the results with previous investigations conducted on different populations.Materials and Methods: All patients over 16 year...

  5. General control nonderepressible 2 deletion predisposes to asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in mice.

    Phillipson-Weiner, Lindsey; Mirek, Emily T; Wang, Yongping; McAuliffe, W Geoffrey; Wek, Ronald C; Anthony, Tracy G

    2016-06-01

    Treatment with the antileukemic agent asparaginase can induce acute pancreatitis, but the pathophysiology remains obscure. In the liver of mice, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) kinase general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) is essential for mitigating metabolic stress caused by asparaginase. We determined the consequences of asparaginase treatment on the pancreata of wild-type (WT, GCN2-intact) and GCN2-deleted (ΔGcn2) mice. Mean pancreas weights in ΔGcn2 mice treated with asparaginase for 8 days were increased (P Pap)] were elevated in asparaginase-treated ΔGcn2, but not WT, mice. These data indicate that loss of GCN2 predisposes the exocrine pancreas to a maladaptive ER stress response and autophagy during asparaginase treatment and represent a genetic basis for development of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis. PMID:26968207

  6. Poverty as a predisposing factor of illness tendencies in sugar cane workers.

    Rossi Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla; Palucci Marziale, Maria Helena; Cruz Robazzi, Maria Lucia do Carmo

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory research based on the Social Ecological Theory aimed to study the health promotion of 39 people working in the harvest of the sugarcane in São Paulo, Brazil. The objectives were to identify the individual, social and environmental factors predisposing the workers to illnesses. The data were collected through direct observation of the labor activity and a questionnaire. The main individual determinant factors were physical effort and hectic work rhythm, and among the environmental factors, intense solar radiation, dust, soot and the presence of venomous animals were highlighted. The conditions of life and work reflect the poverty of these individuals and are the main social determinants of illness. The interaction of these factors can cause respiratory, cutaneous, musculoskeletal problems, occupational accidents. Thus, eradicating poverty and improving work conditions are fundamental for the health promotion of these workers. PMID:17934578

  7. SIMPLIFYING CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING HLA-DQ ALLELES DETERMINATION BY THE REAL TIME PCR METHOD

    Nicole SELLESKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Genetic susceptibility is associated with two sets of alleles, DQA1*05 - DQB1*02 and DQA1*03 - DQB1*03:02, which code for class II MHC DQ2 and DQ8 molecules, respectively. Approximately 90%-95% of celiac patients are HLA-DQ2 positive, and half of the remaining patients are HLA-DQ8 positive. In fact, during a celiac disease diagnostic workup, the absence of these specific DQA and DQB alleles has a near perfect negative predictive value. Objective Improve the detection of celiac disease predisposing alleles by combining the simplicity and sensitivity of real-time PCR (qPCR and melting curve analysis with the specificity of sequence-specific primers (SSP. Methods Amplifications of sequence-specific primers for DQA1*05 (DQ2, DQB1*02 (DQ2, and DQA1*03 (DQ8 were performed by the real time PCR method to determine the presence of each allele in independent reactions. Primers for Human Growth Hormone were used as an internal control. A parallel PCR-SSP protocol was used as a reference method to validate our results. Results Both techniques yielded equal results. From a total of 329 samples the presence of HLA predisposing alleles was determined in 187 (56.8%. One hundred fourteen samples (61% were positive for a single allele, 68 (36.3% for two alleles, and only 5 (2.7% for three alleles. Conclusion Results obtained by qPCR technique were highly reliable with no discordant results when compared with those obtained using PCR-SSP.

  8. Studies on the Predisposing Factors of Protein Energy Malnutrition Among Pregnant Women in a Nigerian Community

    Okwu GN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries and affects mostly infants, young children, pregnant and lactating mothers. This study was carried on some of the factors that predispose pregnant women to PEM and hence identify groups at greater risk. A total of 1387 pregnant women (910 in the urban area and 477 in the rural areas were recruited for the study. Anthropometric indices of weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI of the pregnant women were measured and semi structured questionnaires were used to elicit information on possible predisposing factors such as age, level of education, parity, child spacing etc. Results obtained showed that the mean weight and height of the rural pregnant women, were significantly (p<0.0001 lower than those of the urban pregnant women. The mean BMI of the rural subjects, was also significantly (p< 0.0027 lower than that of the urban subjects. Analysis of the effect of age showed that the younger age category (24 years and below had significantly (p<0.0001 lower mean BMI and higher prevalence of PEM while the effect of level of education showed significantly (p<0006 lower mean BMI and higher PEM prevalence among the less educated (no formal and primary education. Those with parity of two, one and primipara showed significantly (p<0.0175 lower mean BMI while child spacing did not have any significant effect on both mean BMI and prevalence of PEM. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations made on how to tackle the problem.

  9. Predisposing factors to lateral ankle injury in male comrades marathon runners

    J. Hiemstra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than two million people experience ankle ligament traumaeach year in the United States. Half of these are severe ligament sprains, however verylittle is known about the factors that predispose individuals to these injuries. The purpose of this study, (which was conducted as an undergraduate research project,was to find a correlation between the characteristics of height, weight and limbdominance and lateral ankle ligament injuries. Method: A  retrospective study was conducted on 114 ultra distance runners whoparticipated in the 2006 Comrades Marathon. During race registration, the runners’ height and weight were measuredafter answering a questionnaire regarding their training. Results: 114 runners responded to the questionnaire. From this cohort, 38 (33.3% had sustained previous lateral ankle injuries. Of these 38 injuries, 47.4% of the injuries occurred on the runner’s dominant limb and 36.8% occurred on thenon-dominant side. 15.8% of the runners sustained previous ankle injuries to both ankles. There was a low negative correlation coefficient of 0.24 with regards to weight as a risk factor. This indicated that the power of the correlationwas 5.93%. The study demonstrates that there is no correlation between an increase in weight and an increase in theincidence of ankle injury. The correlation coefficient indicated a low correlation between an increase in height and the incidence of ankle injury. However, the power of the correlation at 18.37% makes inaccurate any attempt to predict the height at which a runner would be at most risk for lateral ankle injury. Conclusion: Height and weight are not risk factors predisposing subjects to lateral ankle injury. In addition, the studyillustrated that there was no effect of limb dominance on the incidence of lateral ankle injury.

  10. CvADH1, a member of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, is inducible by gibberellin and sucrose in developing watermelon seeds.

    Kim, Joonyul; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jinwon; Yim, Jieun; An, Gynheung

    2003-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed formation, we selected a seed-preferential gene (CvADH1) from the ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. RNA blot analysis and in situ localization showed that CvADH1 was preferentially expressed in the nucellar tissue. The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase in Forsythia intermedia, and 3beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase in Digitalis lanata. We investigated gene-expression levels in seeds from both normally pollinated fruits and those made parthenocarpic via N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea treatment, the latter of which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcripts of CvADH1 rapidly started to accumulate from about the pre-heart stage in normal seeds, they were not detectable in the parthenocarpic seeds. Treating the parthenogenic fruit with GA(3) strongly induced gene expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that the CvADH1 gene is induced in maternal tissues by signals made in the zygotic tissues, and that gibberellin might be one of those signals. We also observed that CvADH1 expression was induced by sucrose in the parthenocarpic seeds. Therefore, we propose that the CvADH1 gene is inducible by gibberellin, and that sucrose plays an important role in the maternal tissues of watermelon during early seed development. PMID:12552151

  11. Common variants at the MHC locus and at chromosome 16q24.1 predispose to Barrett's esophagus

    Su, Zhan; Gay, Laura J.; Strange, Amy; Palles, Claire; Band, Gavin; Whiteman, David C.; Lescai, Francesco; Langford, Cordelia; Nanji, Manoj; Edkins, Sarah; van der Winkel, Anouk; Levine, David; Sasieni, Peter; Bellenguez, Celine; Howarth, Kimberley; Freeman, Colin; Trudgill, Nigel; Tucker, Art T.; Pirinen, Matti; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.; Peters, Wilbert H.; Reynolds, John V.; Kelleher, Dermot P.; McManus, Ross; Grabsch, Heike; Prenen, Hans; Bisschops, Raf; Krishnadath, Kausila; Siersema, Peter D.; van Baal, Jantine W. P. M.; Middleton, Mark; Petty, Russell; Gillies, Richard; Burch, Nicola; Bhandari, Pradeep; Paterson, Stuart; Edwards, Cathryn; Penman, Ian; Vaidya, Kishor; Ang, Yeng; Murray, Iain; Patel, Praful; Ye, Weimin; Mullins, Paul; Wu, Anna H.; Bird, Nigel C.; Dallal, Helen; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Murray, Liam J.; Koss, Konrad; Bernstein, Leslie; Romero, Yvonne; Hardie, Laura J.; Zhang, Rui; Winter, Helen; Corley, Douglas A.; Panter, Simon; Risch, Harvey A.; Reid, Brian J.; Sargeant, Ian; Gammon, Marilie D.; Smart, Howard; Dhar, Anjan; McMurtry, Hugh; Ali, Haythem; Liu, Geoffrey; Casson, Alan G.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rutter, Matt; Tawil, Ashref; Morris, Danielle; Nwokolo, Chuka; Isaacs, Peter; Rodgers, Colin; Ragunath, Krish; MacDonald, Chris; Haigh, Chris; Monk, David; Davies, Gareth; Wajed, Saj; Johnston, David; Gibbons, Michael; Cullen, Sue; Church, Nicholas; Langley, Ruth; Griffin, Michael; Alderson, Derek; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah E.; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Anderson, Mark; Brooks, Claire; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas; Trynka, Gosia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Atherfold, Paul; Nicholson, Anna M.; Gellatly, Nichola L.; Glancy, Deborah; Cooper, Sheldon C.; Cunningham, David; Lind, Tore; Hapeshi, Julie; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Brown, Julia; Love, Sharon; Attwood, Stephen; MacGregor, Stuart; Watson, Peter; Sanders, Scott; Ek, Weronica; Harrison, Rebecca F.; Moayyedi, Paul; de Caestecker, John; Barr, Hugh; Stupka, Elia; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Peltonen, Leena; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Tomlinson, Ian; Donnelly, Peter; Jankowski, Janusz A. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia, and it strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumor with a very poor prognosis. We report the first genome-wide association study on Barrett'

  12. The predisposing factors between dental caries and deviations from normal weight

    Amandeep Chopra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI, diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810 in Panchkula district, Haryana was considered. Child demographic details and diet history for 5 days was recorded. Data regarding dental caries status was collected using World Health Organization (1997 format. BMI was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system for BMI. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test and binomial regression developed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0. Results: The mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT score was found to be 1.72 with decayed, missing, and filled teeth to be 1.22, 0.04, and 0.44, respectively. When the sample was assessed based on type of diet, it was found that vegetarians had higher mean DMFT (1.72 as compared to children having mixed diet. Overweight children had highest DMFT (3.21 which was followed by underweight (2.31 and obese children (2.23. Binomial regression revealed that females were 1.293 times at risk of developing caries as compared to males. Fair and poor Simplified-Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S showed 3.920 and 4.297 times risk of developing caries as compared to good oral hygiene, respectively. Upper high socioeconomic status (SES is at most risk of developing caries. Underweight, overweight, and obese are at 2.7, 2.5, and 3 times risk of developing caries as compared to children with normal BMI, respectively. Conclusion: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two

  13. High-novelty-preference rats are predisposed to compulsive cocaine self-administration.

    Belin, David; Berson, Nadège; Balado, Eric; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique

    2011-02-01

    Sensation/novelty-seeking is amongst the best markers of cocaine addiction in humans. However, its implication in the vulnerability to cocaine addiction is still a matter of debate, as it is unclear whether this trait precedes or follows the development of addiction. Sensation/novelty-seeking trait has been identified in rats on the basis of either novelty-induced locomotor activity (high-responder (HR) trait) or novelty-induced place preference (high-novelty-preference trait (HNP)). HR and HNP traits have been associated with differential sensitivity to psychostimulants. However, it has recently been demonstrated that HR rats do not develop compulsive cocaine self-administration (SA) after protracted exposure to the drug, thereby suggesting that at least one dimension of sensation/novelty seeking in the rat is dissociable from the vulnerability to switch from controlled to compulsive cocaine SA. We therefore investigated whether HNP, as measured as the propensity to choose a new environment in a free choice procedure, as opposed to novelty-induced locomotor activity, predicts the vulnerability to, and the severity of, addiction-like behavior for cocaine. For this, we identified HR/LR rats and HNP/LNP rats before any exposure to cocaine. After 60 days of cocaine SA, each rat was given an addiction score based on three addiction-like behaviors (persistence of responding when the drug is signaled as not available, high breakpoint under progressive ratio schedule and resistance to punishment) that resemble the clinical features of drug addiction, namely inability to refrain from drug seeking, high motivation for the drug and compulsive drug use despite adverse consequences. We show that, as opposed to HR rats, HNP rats represent a sub-population predisposed to compulsive cocaine intake, displaying higher addiction scores than LNP rats. This study thereby provides new insights into the factors predisposing to cocaine addiction, supporting the hypothesis that addiction

  14. Polymicrogyric Cortex may Predispose to Seizures via Abnormal Network Topology: An fMRI Connectomics Study.

    Sethi, Moksh; Pedersen, Mangor; Jackson, Graeme D

    2016-03-01

    Polymicrogyria is a significant malformation of cortical development with a high incidence of epilepsy and cognitive deficits. Graph theoretic analysis is a useful approach to studying network organization in brain disorders. In this study, we used task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from four patients with polymicrogyria and refractory epilepsy. Gray matter masks from structural MRI data were parcellated into 1,024 network nodes. Functional "connectomes" were obtained based on fMRI time series between the parcellated network nodes; network analysis was conducted using clustering coefficient, path length, node degree, and participation coefficient. These graph metrics were compared between nodes within polymicrogyric cortex and normal brain tissue in contralateral homologous cortical regions. Polymicrogyric nodes showed significantly increased clustering coefficient and characteristic path length. This is the first study using functional connectivity analysis in polymicrogyria-our results indicate a shift toward a regular network topology in polymicrogyric nodes. Regularized network topology has been demonstrated previously in patients with focal epilepsy and during focal seizures. Thus, we postulate that these network alterations predispose to seizures and may be relevant to cognitive deficits in patients with polymicrogyria. PMID:26763051

  15. A cancer-predisposing "hot spot" mutation of the fumarase gene creates a dominant negative protein.

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Olivero, Martina; Perro, Mario; Brière, Jean Jacques; Rustin, Pierre; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2008-02-15

    The Fumarase (Fumarate Hydratase, FH) is a tumor suppressor gene whose germline heterozygous mutations predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). The FH gene encodes an enzyme of the Krebs cycle, functioning as a homotetramer and catalyzing the hydration of fumarate to malate. Among the numerous FH mutations reported so far, the R190H missense mutation is the most frequent in HLRCC patients. Here we show the functional analyses of the R190H, in comparison to the better characterized E319Q mutation. We first expressed wild-type and mutated proteins in FH deficient human skin fibroblasts, using lentiviral vectors. The wild-type transgene was able to restore the FH enzymatic activity in cells, while the R190H- and E319Q-FH were not. More interestingly, when the same transgenes were expressed in normal, FH-proficient cells, only the R190H-FH reduced the endogenous FH enzymatic activity. By enforcing the expression of equal amount of wild-type and R190H-FH in the same cell, we showed that the mutated FH protein directly inhibited enzymatic activity by nearly abrogating the FH homotetramer formation. These data demonstrate the dominant negative effect of the R190H missense mutation in the FH gene and suggest that the FH tumor-suppressing activity might be impaired in cells carrying a heterozygous mutation. PMID:17960613

  16. Childhood CT scans and cancer risk: impact of predisposing factors for cancer on the risk estimates.

    Journy, N; Roué, T; Cardis, E; Le Pointe, H Ducou; Brisse, H; Chateil, J-F; Laurier, D; Bernier, M-O

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the role of cancer predisposing factors (PFs) on the associations between paediatric computed tomography (CT) scan exposures and subsequent risk of central nervous system (CNS) tumours and leukaemia. A cohort of children who underwent a CT scan in 2000-2010 in 23 French radiology departments was linked with the national childhood cancers registry and national vital status registry; information on PFs was retrieved through hospital discharge databases. In children without PF, hazard ratios of 1.07 (95% CI 0.99-1.10) for CNS tumours (15 cases) and 1.16 (95% CI 0.77-1.27) for leukaemia (12 cases) were estimated for each 10 mGy increment in CT x-rays organ doses. These estimates were similar to those obtained in the whole cohort. In children with PFs, no positive dose-risk association was observed, possibly related to earlier non-cancer mortality in this group. Our results suggest a modifying effect of PFs on CT-related cancer risks, but need to be confirmed by longer follow-up and other studies. PMID:26878249

  17. Induced resistance in tomato by SAR activators during predisposing salinity stress

    Matthew Francis Pye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant activators are chemicals that induce disease resistance. The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA is a crucial signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR, and SA-mediated resistance is a target of several commercial plant activators, including Actigard (1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-thiocarboxylic acid-s-methyl-ester, BTH and Tiadinil (N-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl-4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxamide, TDL. BTH and TDL were examined for their impact on abscisic acid (ABA-mediated, salt-induced disease predisposition in tomato seedlings. A brief episode of salt stress to roots significantly increased the severity of disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst and Phytophthora capsici relative to non-stressed plants. Root treatment with TDL induced resistance to Pst in leaves and provided protection in both non-stressed and salt-stressed seedlings in WT and highly susceptible NahG plants. Non-stressed and salt-stressed ABA-deficient sitiens mutants were highly resistant to Pst. Neither TDL nor BTH induced resistance to root infection by P. capsici, nor did they moderate the salt-induced increment in disease severity. Root treatment with these plant activators increased the levels of ABA in roots and shoots similar to levels observed in salt-stressed plants. The results indicate that SAR activators can protect tomato plants from bacterial speck disease under predisposing salt stress, and suggest that some SA-mediated defense responses function sufficiently in plants with elevated levels of ABA.

  18. Licence applications for low and intermediate level waste predisposal facilities: A manual for operators

    This publication covers all predisposal waste management facilities and practices for receipt, pretreatment (sorting, segregation, characterization), treatment, conditioning, internal relocation and storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, including disused sealed radioactive sources. The publication contains an Annex presenting the example of a safety assessment for a small radioactive waste storage facility. Facilities dealing with both short lived and long lived low and intermediate level waste generated from nuclear applications and from operation of small nuclear research reactors are included in the scope. Processing and storage facilities for high activity disused sealed sources and sealed sources containing long lived radionuclides are also covered. The publication does not cover facilities processing or storing radioactive waste from nuclear power plants or any other industrial scale nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Disposal facilities are excluded from the scope of this publication. Authorization process can be implemented in several stages, which may start at the site planning and the feasibility study stage and will continue through preliminary design, final design, commissioning, operation and decommissioning stages. This publication covers primarily the authorization needed to take the facility into operation

  19. Haploinsufficiency of the ESCRT Component HD-PTP Predisposes to Cancer

    Sanaz Manteghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT drive cell surface receptor degradation resulting in attenuation of oncogenic signaling and pointing to a tumor suppressor function. Here, we show that loss of function of an ESCRT protein (HD-PTP encoded by the PTPN23 gene, located on the tumor suppressor gene cluster 3p21.3 drives tumorigenesis in vivo. Indeed, Ptpn23+/− loss predisposes mice to sporadic lung adenoma, B cell lymphoma, and promotes Myc-driven lymphoma onset, dissemination, and aggressiveness. Ptpn23+/−-derived tumors exhibit an unaltered remaining allele and maintain 50% of HD-PTP expression. Consistent with the role of HD-PTP in attenuation of integrin recycling, cell migration, and invasion, hemizygous Ptpn23+/− loss increases integrin β1-dependent B cell lymphoma survival and dissemination. Finally, we reveal frequent PTPN23 deletion and downregulation in human tumors that correlates with poor survival. Altogether, we establish HD-PTP/PTPN23 as a prominent haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene preventing tumor progression through control of integrin trafficking.

  20. Perceptions of predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in same-sex parents.

    Ross, Lori E; Steele, Leah; Sapiro, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women are choosing to have children in the context of same-sex relationships or as "out" lesbian or bisexual individuals. This study used qualitative methods to assess perceived predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) women. Two focus groups with LGBQ women were conducted: 1) biological parents of young children and 2) nonbiological parents of young children or whose partners were currently pregnant. Three major themes emerged. Issues related to social support were primary, particularly related to disappointment with the lack of support provided by members of the family of origin. Participants also described issues related to the couple relationship, such as challenges in negotiating parenting roles. Finally, legal and policy barriers (e.g., second parent adoption) were identified as a significant source of stress during the transition to parenthood. Both lack of social support and relationship problems have previously been identified as risk factors for perinatal depression in heterosexual women, and legal and policy barriers may represent a unique risk factor for this population. Therefore, additional study of perinatal mental health among LGBQ women is warranted. PMID:16260356

  1. Predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection

    Fatemeh Beiraghdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection. In this prospective cohort study, 176 children with documented urinary tract infection were categorized into four groups: ≤1 year old, 1-2 years old, 2-7 years and 7-14 years old. Ultrasonography and Technetium-99 m-DMSA scan were used to detect the possible abnormalities. Infants under 12 months old presented as the most common group for renal scarring (27 cases, 52.9%, and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR was diagnosed in 29 cases (56.8%. Fifteen (41.67% children between the ages of one and two years had renal scar, and VUR was detected in half of the patients. In the third group, 36.3%, and in fourth group, 41.6% of the patients had renal scar. Also, 38.6% in group three and 50% in the final group had VUR. A co-incidental finding that was observed in this study was the high incidence of pseudohypoaldesteronism (PHA in our patients: in 39.2% of the children in group one, 22.2% in group two and 4% in group three. In group four however, none of the patients had PHA. Risk of scar formation with urinary tract infection (UTI was higher in the younger age group and in those with recurrent UTIs.

  2. A BAP1 mutation in a Danish family predisposes to uveal melanoma and other cancers.

    Lauren G Aoude

    Full Text Available Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1 have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor development and germline BAP1 mutation suggesting a possible phenotypic characteristic of BAP1 mutation carriers. Though there have been many types of cancer associated with germline BAP1 mutation, the full spectrum of disease association is yet to be ascertained. Here we describe a Danish family with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual with uveal melanoma. This mutation was carried by several other family members with melanoma or various cancers. The finding expands on the growing profile of BAP1 as an important uveal and cutaneous melanoma tumor suppressor gene and implicates its involvement in the development of lung, and stomach cancer.

  3. Discrete deposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on a titanium implant with predisposing substrate microtopography accelerated osseointegration

    Nishimura, Ichiro [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Huang Yuhong [Chemat Technology, Incorporated, Northridge, CA (United States); Butz, Frank [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ogawa, Takahiro [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lin, Audrey [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Chiachien Jake [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-06-20

    We report here a new versatile method to deposit discrete hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on a titanium (Ti) implant with predisposing substrate microtopography, which exhibited an unexpectedly robust biological effect. Commercially pure Ti substrates were treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, on which HA nanoparticles (20 nm) were deposited and chemically bonded to TiO{sub 2}. The HA deposition rate was linearly related to the treatment time and HA nanoparticles were deposited on up to 50% of the substrate surface. As a result, the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles generated novel 20-40 nm nanotopography on the Ti substrate with microtopography that was smooth (turned) or roughened by double acid etching (DAE). The experimental implants with or without HA nanoparticles were surgically placed in rat femur and an implant push-in test was performed after two weeks of healing. The deposition of HA nanoparticles on the DAE surface increased the mechanical withstanding load by 129% and 782% as compared to the control DAE and turned implants, respectively. Micro-computed tomography-based 3D bone morphometry revealed equivalent bone volumes around the DAE implant with or without HA nanoparticles. These data suggest that the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles accelerates the early osseointegration process, likely through increased shear bonding strengths.

  4. Discrete deposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on a titanium implant with predisposing substrate microtopography accelerated osseointegration

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Huang, Yuhong; Butz, Frank; Ogawa, Takahiro; Lin, Audrey; Wang, Chiachien Jake

    2007-06-01

    We report here a new versatile method to deposit discrete hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on a titanium (Ti) implant with predisposing substrate microtopography, which exhibited an unexpectedly robust biological effect. Commercially pure Ti substrates were treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, on which HA nanoparticles (20 nm) were deposited and chemically bonded to TiO2. The HA deposition rate was linearly related to the treatment time and HA nanoparticles were deposited on up to 50% of the substrate surface. As a result, the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles generated novel 20-40 nm nanotopography on the Ti substrate with microtopography that was smooth (turned) or roughened by double acid etching (DAE). The experimental implants with or without HA nanoparticles were surgically placed in rat femur and an implant push-in test was performed after two weeks of healing. The deposition of HA nanoparticles on the DAE surface increased the mechanical withstanding load by 129% and 782% as compared to the control DAE and turned implants, respectively. Micro-computed tomography-based 3D bone morphometry revealed equivalent bone volumes around the DAE implant with or without HA nanoparticles. These data suggest that the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles accelerates the early osseointegration process, likely through increased shear bonding strengths.

  5. Discrete deposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on a titanium implant with predisposing substrate microtopography accelerated osseointegration

    We report here a new versatile method to deposit discrete hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on a titanium (Ti) implant with predisposing substrate microtopography, which exhibited an unexpectedly robust biological effect. Commercially pure Ti substrates were treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, on which HA nanoparticles (20 nm) were deposited and chemically bonded to TiO2. The HA deposition rate was linearly related to the treatment time and HA nanoparticles were deposited on up to 50% of the substrate surface. As a result, the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles generated novel 20-40 nm nanotopography on the Ti substrate with microtopography that was smooth (turned) or roughened by double acid etching (DAE). The experimental implants with or without HA nanoparticles were surgically placed in rat femur and an implant push-in test was performed after two weeks of healing. The deposition of HA nanoparticles on the DAE surface increased the mechanical withstanding load by 129% and 782% as compared to the control DAE and turned implants, respectively. Micro-computed tomography-based 3D bone morphometry revealed equivalent bone volumes around the DAE implant with or without HA nanoparticles. These data suggest that the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles accelerates the early osseointegration process, likely through increased shear bonding strengths

  6. CDKN2A and BAP1 germline mutations predispose to melanoma and mesothelioma.

    Betti, M; Aspesi, A; Biasi, A; Casalone, E; Ferrante, D; Ogliara, P; Gironi, L C; Giorgione, R; Farinelli, P; Grosso, F; Libener, R; Rosato, S; Turchetti, D; Maffè, A; Casadio, C; Ascoli, V; Dianzani, C; Colombo, E; Piccolini, E; Pavesi, M; Miccoli, S; Mirabelli, D; Bracco, C; Righi, L; Boldorini, R; Papotti, M; Matullo, G; Magnani, C; Pasini, B; Dianzani, I

    2016-08-10

    BAP1 germline mutations predispose to a cancer predisposition syndrome that includes mesothelioma, cutaneous melanoma, uveal melanoma and other cancers. This co-occurrence suggests that these tumors share a common carcinogenic pathway. To evaluate this hypothesis, we studied 40 Italian families with mesothelioma and/or melanoma. The probands were sequenced for BAP1 and for the most common melanoma predisposition genes (i.e. CDKN2A, CDK4, TERT, MITF and POT1) to investigate if these genes may also confer susceptibility to mesothelioma. In two out of six families with both mesothelioma and melanoma we identified either a germline nonsense mutation (c.1153C > T, p.Arg385*) in BAP1 or a recurrent pathogenic germline mutation (c.301G > T, p.Gly101Trp) in CDKN2A. Our study suggests that CDKN2A, in addition to BAP1, could be involved in the melanoma and mesothelioma susceptibility, leading to the rare familial cancer syndromes. It also suggests that these tumors share key steps that drive carcinogenesis and that other genes may be involved in inherited predisposition to malignant mesothelioma and melanoma. PMID:27181379

  7. Incisional Hernia in Women: Predisposing Factors and Management Where Mesh is Not Readily Available

    E Agbakwuru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background / Aim: Incisional hernia is still relatively common in our practice. The aim of the studywas to identify risk factors associated with incisional hernia in our region. The setting is the ObafemiAwolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria during a period when prostheticmesh was not readily available. Patients and Methods: All the women who presented with incisionalhernia between 1996 and 2005 were prospectively studied using a standard form to obtaininformation on pre-hernia (index operations and possible predisposing factors. They all had opensurgical repair and were followed up for 18-60 months. Results: Forty-four women were treatedduring study period. The index surgeries leading to the hernias were emergency caesarian section26/44 (59.1%, emergency exploratory laparotomy 6/44 (13.6%, and elective surgeries 12/44(27.3%. Major associated risk factors were the use of wrong suture materials for fascia repair, midlineincisions, wound sepsis, and overweight. Conclusion: For elective surgeries, reduction of weightshould be encouraged when appropriate, and transverse incisions are preferred. Absorbable sutures,especially chromic catgut, should be avoided in fascia closure. Antibiotics should be used forcomplicated obstetric cases.

  8. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses at multislice computed tomography: what to look for

    Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de; Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda [Clinica de Medicina Nuclear e Radiologia de Maceio (Medradius), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Setor de Tomografia Computadorizada; Arraes, Fabiana Maia Nobre Rocha [Clinica Sinus, Maceio, AL (Brazil); Padilha, Igor Gomes; Farias, Lucas de Padua Gomes de; Jatoba, Mayara Stephanie de Araujo; Andrade, Anna Carolina Mendonca de; Padilha, Bruno Gomes [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Multislice computed tomography is currently the imaging modality of choice for evaluating paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures. Such a method has been increasingly utilized in the assessment of anatomical variations, allowing their accurate identification with high anatomical details. Some anatomical variations may predispose to sinusal diseases, constituting areas of high risk for injuries and complications during surgical procedures. Therefore, the recognition of such variations is critical in the preoperative evaluation for endoscopic surgery. (author)

  9. MC1R variants predisposing to concomitant primary cutaneous melanoma in a monozygotic twin pair

    Pellegrini Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concomitant primary cutaneous melanoma in monozygotic twins has been reported in only two pairs but in neither of them genetic analysis was performed. Two high-penetrance susceptibility genes, CDKN2A and CDK4 and one low-penetrance gene, MC1R, are well-defined genetic risk factors for melanoma. MITF has been recently identified as a novel intermediate risk melanoma-predisposing gene. Case presentation We describe the extraordinary occurrence of a primary cutaneous invasive melanoma in two 44-year-old identical, female twins, on the same body site within 30 days of each other and report for the first time the genetic analysis of melanoma susceptibility genes in both twins. Data on characteristics of the twins were collected through a standardized questionnaire and skin examination. Exons 1α, 1β, 2 and 3 of CDKN2A, exon 2 of CDK4, the entire open reading frame of MC1R and the recently described MITF c.952 G > A (p.Glu318Lys variant were investigated by direct sequencing. Sequencing analysis of the high-penetrance susceptibility genes showed no changes in CDKN2A and in exon 2 of the CDK4 gene. Both patients were heterozygous for the same CDKN2A UTR c.*29C > G variant. Interestingly, the same two heterozygous variants of the MC1R were identified in both twins: the c.451C > T (p.Arg151Cys and the c.456C > A (p.Tyr152* variants. Neither patient showed the c.952 G > A (p.Glu318Lys substitution in the MITF gene. Conclusions Identification of two high-risk MC1R variants in our identical twins in the absence of CDKN2A and CDK4 mutations highlights the contribution of low penetrance genes, such as MC1R, in melanoma susceptibility.

  10. CARDIAC RUPTURE IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: INCIDENCE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS (15 YEAR FOLLOW-UP

    V. A. Shulman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the incidence of cardiac rupture (CR in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI as well as predisposing factors during 15-year follow-up.Material and methods. 1453 patients with acute MI who were admitted to Krasnoyarsk cardiological center during 1989, 1993 and 2003 years were studied. All patients were divided into three groups: group I - 447 patients, who were on treatment in 1989, group II - 475 patients of 1993, and group III – 531 patients of 2003. There were no differences in groups on patient sex, location and depth of MI, previous MI, arrhythmias, heart failure and diabetes mellitus.Results. CR was found in 18 of 447 patients (4% of group I (1989, in 16 of 475 patients (3,4% of group II (1993 and in 10 of 531 patients (1,9% of group 3 (2003, (p1,3 <0,05. Incidence of CR significantly decreased from 1989 to 2003 in female patients (7,2%; 5,7% and 1,6% in 1989, 1993 and 2003, respectively; p1,3 < 0,01, p2,3 < 0,05. Incidence of CR in male patients didn’t changed (2,5%, 1,8% and 2,1%, respectively. The average blood pressure (BP during the first day of MI in female patients was higher than this in male ones in 1989 and 1993. There were no significant differences in BP between women and men in 2003. Heart rate (HR during the first day of MI in female patients was higher than this in male patients in 1989. However in 1993 and 2003 there were no differences in HR between women and men. MI therapy more often included betablockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, intravenous nitrates, statins, thrombolythics and anticoagulants in 2003 than in 1989 and 1993.Conclusion. Effective BP and HR control is the most effective way to prevent CR in patients with MI.

  11. Disruption of Vitamin D and Calcium Signaling in Keratinocytes Predisposes to Skin Cancer

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Jiang, Yan; Nguyen, Thai; Oda, Yuko; Tu, Chia-ling

    2016-01-01

    1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the active metabolite of vitamin D, and calcium regulate epidermal differentiation. 1,25(OH)2D exerts its effects through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor in the nuclear hormone receptor family, whereas calcium acts through the calcium sensing receptor (Casr), a membrane bound member of the G protein coupled receptor family. We have developed mouse models in which the Vdr and Casr have been deleted in the epidermis (epidVdr−∕− and epidCasr−∕−). Both genotypes show abnormalities in calcium induced epidermal differentiation in vivo and in vitro, associated with altered hedgehog (HH) and β–catenin signaling that when abnormally expressed lead to basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and trichofolliculomas, respectively. The Vdr−∕− mice are susceptible to tumor formation following UVB or chemical carcinogen exposure. More recently we found that the keratinocytes from these mice over express long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) oncogenes such as H19 and under express lncRNA tumor suppressors such as lincRNA-21. Spontaneous tumors have not been observed in either the epidVdr−∕− or epidCasr−∕−. But in mice with epidermal specific deletion of both Vdr and Casr (epidVdr−∕−/epidCasr−∕− [DKO]) tumor formation occurs spontaneously when the DKO mice are placed on a low calcium diet. These results demonstrate important interactions between vitamin D and calcium signaling through their respective receptors that lead to cancer when these signals are disrupted. The roles of the β–catenin, hedgehog, and lncRNA pathways in predisposing the epidermis to tumor formation when vitamin D and calcium signaling are disrupted will be discussed. PMID:27462278

  12. Fumonisins affect the intestinal microbial homeostasis in broiler chickens, predisposing to necrotic enteritis.

    Antonissen, Gunther; Croubels, Siska; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Devreese, Mathias; Verlinden, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Antlinger, Birgit; Novak, Barbara; Martel, An; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi. This study aimed to investigate the effect of these feed contaminants on the intestinal morphology and microbiota composition, and to evaluate whether FBs predispose broilers to necrotic enteritis. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into a group fed a control diet, and a group fed a FBs contaminated diet (18.6 mg FB1+FB2/kg feed). A significant increase in the plasma sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in the FBs-treated group (0.21 ± 0.016) compared to the control (0.14 ± 0.014) indicated disturbance of the sphingolipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, villus height and crypt depth of the ileum was significantly reduced by FBs. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed a shift in the microbiota composition in the ileum in the FBs group compared to the control. A reduced presence of low-GC containing operational taxonomic units in ileal digesta of birds exposed to FBs was demonstrated, and identified as a reduced abundance of Candidatus Savagella and Lactobaccilus spp. Quantification of total Clostridium perfringens in these ileal samples, previous to experimental infection, using cpa gene (alpha toxin) quantification by qPCR showed an increase in C. perfringens in chickens fed a FBs contaminated diet compared to control (7.5 ± 0.30 versus 6.3 ± 0.24 log10 copies/g intestinal content). After C. perfringens challenge, a higher percentage of birds developed subclinical necrotic enteritis in the group fed a FBs contaminated diet as compared to the control (44.9 ± 2.22% versus 29.8 ± 5.46%). PMID:26394675

  13. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb Mouse.

    Brian Becknell

    Full Text Available Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI. Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/- mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI.Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice.Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42% and struvite bladder stones (31% by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys.CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice.

  14. Astroglia overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 predispose co-cultured PC12 cells to oxidative injury.

    Song, Linyang; Song, Wei; Schipper, Hyman M

    2007-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and pathologic iron deposition in the substantia nigra pars compacta of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin, is upregulated in affected PD astroglia and may contribute to abnormal mitochondrial iron sequestration in these cells. To determine whether glial HO-1 hyper-expression is toxic to neuronal compartments, we co-cultured dopaminergic PC12 cells atop monolayers of human (h) HO-1 transfected, sham-transfected, or non-transfected primary rat astroglia. We observed that PC12 cells grown atop hHO-1 transfected astrocytes, but not the astroglia themselves, were significantly more susceptible to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM)-induced death (assessed by nuclear ethidium monoazide bromide staining and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence microscopy) relative to control preparations. In the experimental group, PC12 cell death was attenuated significantly by the administration of the HO inhibitor, SnMP (1.5 microM), the antioxidant, ascorbate (200 microM), or the iron chelators, deferoxamine (400 microM), and phenanthroline (100 microM). Exposure to conditioned media derived from HO-1 transfected astrocytes also augmented PC12 cell killing in response to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM) relative to control media. In PD brain, overexpression of HO-1 in nigral astroglia and accompanying iron liberation may facilitate the bioactivation of dopamine to neurotoxic free radical intermediates and predispose nearby neuronal constituents to oxidative damage. PMID:17526019

  15. Mutations in complement regulatory proteins predispose to preeclampsia: a genetic analysis of the PROMISSE cohort.

    Jane E Salmon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or antiphospholipid antibodies (APL Ab--autoimmune conditions characterized by complement-mediated injury--is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia and miscarriage. Our previous studies in mice indicate that complement activation targeted to the placenta drives angiogenic imbalance and placental insufficiency. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use PROMISSE, a prospective study of 250 pregnant patients with SLE and/or APL Ab, to test the hypothesis in humans that impaired capacity to limit complement activation predisposes to preeclampsia. We sequenced genes encoding three complement regulatory proteins--membrane cofactor protein (MCP, complement factor I (CFI, and complement factor H (CFH--in 40 patients who had preeclampsia and found heterozygous mutations in seven (18%. Five of these patients had risk variants in MCP or CFI that were previously identified in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, a disease characterized by endothelial damage. One had a novel mutation in MCP that impairs regulation of C4b. These findings constitute, to our knowledge, the first genetic defects associated with preeclampsia in SLE and/or APL Ab. We confirmed the association of hypomorphic variants of MCP and CFI in a cohort of non-autoimmune preeclampsia patients in which five of 59 were heterozygous for mutations. CONCLUSION: The presence of risk variants in complement regulatory proteins in patients with SLE and/or APL Ab who develop preeclampsia, as well as in preeclampsia patients lacking autoimmune disease, links complement activation to disease pathogenesis and suggests new targets for treatment of this important public health problem. STUDY REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00198068.

  16. A novel recurrent mutation in MITF predisposes to familial and sporadic melanoma

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Woods, Susan L.; Boyle, Glen M.; Aoude, Lauren G.; MacGregor, Stuart; Zismann, Victoria; Gartside, Michael; Cust, Anne E.; Haq, Rizwan; Harland, Mark; Taylor, John C.; Duffy, David L.; Holohan, Kelly; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Palmer, Jane M.; Bonazzi, Vanessa; Stark, Mitchell S.; Symmons, Judith; Law, Matthew H.; Schmidt, Christopher; Lanagan, Cathy; O’Connor, Linda; Holland, Elizabeth A.; Schmid, Helen; Maskiell, Judith A.; Jetann, Jodie; Ferguson, Megan; Jenkins, Mark A.; Kefford, Richard F.; Giles, Graham G.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Aitken, Joanne F.; Hopper, John L.; Whiteman, David C.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.; Newton-Bishop, Julia A.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mann, Graham J.; Bishop, D. Timothy; Tsao, Hensin; Trent, Jeffrey M.; Fisher, David E.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Brown, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    So far, two familial melanoma genes have been identified, accounting for a minority of genetic risk in families. Mutations in CDKN2A account for approximately 40% of familial cases1, and predisposing mutations in CDK4 have been reported in a very small number of melanoma kindreds2. To identify other familial melanoma genes, here we conducted whole-genome sequencing of probands from several melanoma families, identifying one individual carrying a novel germline variant (coding DNA sequence c.G1075A; protein sequence p.E318K; rs149617956) in the melanoma-lineage-specific oncogene microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Although the variant co-segregated with melanoma in some but not all cases in the family, linkage analysis of 31 families subsequently identified to carry the variant generated a log odds ratio (lod) score of 2.7 under a dominant model, indicating E318K as a possible intermediate risk variant. Consistent with this, the E318K variant was significantly associated with melanoma in a large Australian case–control sample. Likewise, it was similarly associated in an independent case–control sample from the United Kingdom. In the Australian sample, the variant allele was significantly over-represented in cases with a family history of melanoma, multiple primary melanomas, or both. The variant allele was also associated with increased naevus count and non-blue eye colour. Functional analysis of E318K showed that MITF encoded by the variant allele had impaired sumoylation and differentially regulated several MITF targets. These data indicate that MITF is a melanoma-predisposition gene and highlight the utility of whole-genome sequencing to identify novel rare variants associated with disease susceptibility. PMID:22080950

  17. 痤疮易感基因的研究进展%Predisposing genes in acne

    杨小燕; 何黎

    2011-01-01

    痤疮是发生于毛囊皮脂腺的一种慢性炎症性疾病,发病机制尚不完全清楚.目前认为,主要与雄激素、皮脂分泌增多、毛囊导管的异常角化、痤疮丙酸杆菌感染、外界因素、机体的免疫反应和遗传有关.近年来研究表明,痤疮是一种多基因遗传病,尤其是重型痤疮与遗传密切相关.CYP11α、CYP17、CYP1A1、雄激素受体基因、CYP21等基因被认为是痤疮易感基因.因此,探讨痤疮的易感基因,对痤疮尤其是重型痤疮的早期诊断、治疗和预防具有重要意义.%Acne is a common chronic inflammatory disease affecting hair follicles and sebaceous glands with unclear pathogenesis. It is a multifactorial disease and several pathogenetic factors have been identified, including the increase of androgen and sebum excretion, follicular hyperkeratinization, infection with Propionibacterium acnes, external factors, innate immunity, genetics, etc. Latest studies have indicated that acne is a polygenic disease and there is a particularly close correlation between severe acne and heredity. Many predisposing genes have been discovered for acne, including human CYP11α gene, CYP17 gene, CYP1A1gene, androgen receptor gene, CYP21 gene, etc. Therefore, the investigation into susceptible genes for acne may be beneficial to the early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of severe acne.

  18. Early severe inflammatory responses to uropathogenic E. coli predispose to chronic and recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Thomas J Hannan

    Full Text Available Chronic infections are an increasing problem due to the aging population and the increase in antibiotic resistant organisms. Therefore, understanding the host-pathogen interactions that result in chronic infection is of great importance. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of chronic bacterial cystitis. We establish that introduction of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC into the bladders of C3H mice results in two distinct disease outcomes: resolution of acute infection or development of chronic cystitis lasting months. The incidence of chronic cystitis is both host strain and infectious dose-dependent. Further, development of chronic cystitis is preceded by biomarkers of local and systemic acute inflammation at 24 hours post-infection, including severe pyuria and bladder inflammation with mucosal injury, and a distinct serum cytokine signature consisting of elevated IL-5, IL-6, G-CSF, and the IL-8 analog KC. Mice deficient in TLR4 signaling or lymphocytes lack these innate responses and are resistant, to varying degrees, to developing chronic cystitis. Treatment of C3H mice with the glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone prior to UPEC infection also suppresses the development of chronic cystitis. Finally, individuals with a history of chronic cystitis, lasting at least 14 days, are significantly more susceptible to redeveloping severe, chronic cystitis upon bacterial challenge. Thus, we have discovered that the development of chronic cystitis in C3H mice by UPEC is facilitated by severe acute inflammatory responses early in infection, which subsequently are predisposing to recurrent cystitis, an insidious problem in women. Overall, these results have significant implications for our understanding of how early host-pathogen interactions at the mucosal surface determines the fate of disease.

  19. Adipocyte Hypertrophy, Inflammation and Fibrosis Characterize Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Healthy, Non-Obese Subjects Predisposed to Type 2 Diabetes

    A M Josefin Henninger; Björn Eliasson; Jenndahl, Lachmi E.; Ann Hammarstedt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The adipose tissue is important for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and adipose tissue dysfunction has been proposed as an underlying cause. In the present study we investigated presence of adipocyte hypertrophy, and gene expression pattern of adipose tissue dysfunction in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, non-obese subjects predisposed to type 2 diabetes compared to matched control subjects with no known genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes. ...

  20. Population testing for cancer predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in the Ashkenazi-Jewish community: a randomized controlled trial

    Manchanda, R.; Loggenberg, K.; Sanderson, S.; Burnell, M.; Wardle, J; Gessler, S.; Side, L.; Balogun, N.; Desai, R; Kumar, A.; Dorkins, H.; Wallis, Y; Chapman, C; Taylor, R.; Jacobs, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)–based testing. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the population ...

  1. Predisposing Factors for Mucormycosis in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus; An Experience of 21 Years in Southern Iran

    Sarvestani, Amene S.; Gholamreza Pishdad; Shahram Bolandparvaz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and predisposing factors of mucormycosis in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a Shiraz referral centers.Methods: This retrospective case control study, reviewed the medical records of 162 patients with pathologically confirmed diagnosis of mucormycosis hospitalized in two major Shiraz University hospitals during the last 21 years. For each diabetic patient, two patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) matched for age, sex and the date of admissio...

  2. Perinatal iron deficiency predisposes the developing rat hippocampus to greater injury from mild to moderate hypoxia-ischemia

    Rao, Raghavendra; Tkac, Ivan; Townsend, Elise L.; Ennis, Kathleen; Gruetter, Rolf; Georgieff, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampus is injured in both hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and perinatal iron deficiency that are co-morbidities in infants of diabetic mothers and intrauterine growth restricted infants. We hypothesized that preexisting perinatal iron deficiency predisposes the hippocampus to greater injury when exposed to a relatively mild HI injury. Iron-sufficient and iron-deficient rats (hematocrit 40% lower and brain iron concentration 55% lower) were subjected to unilateral HI injury of 15, 30, or 45 min...

  3. Upper respiratory tract diseases in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus): prevalence in 20 European zoos and possible predisposing factors

    Zimmermann, N.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic upper respiratory tract diseases are severe problems in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, P. pygmaeus), but the etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. This study recorded the prevalence of such diseases in captive European orangutans (201 animals; 20 zoos) and investigated possible predisposing factors. Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus) showed chronic respiratory signs (13.8% of all animals) significantly more often than Sumatran (P. abelii; 3.6%), and male animals more often (15.8%) t...

  4. Characterization of Proteinuria in Dogue de Bordeaux Dogs, a Breed Predisposed to a Familial Glomerulonephropathy: A Retrospective Study

    Trumel, Catherine; Smets, Pascale M. Y.; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Aresu, Luca; Daminet, Sylvie; Concordet, Didier; Palanche, Florence; Peeters, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Dogue de Bordeaux dog has been reported to be predisposed to a familial glomerulonephropathy that displays some morphological modifications reported in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Prevalence of quantitatively abnormal renal proteinuria was recently reported to be 33% in this breed. The nature of the proteinuria was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis and determinations of urinary markers (urinary retinol-binding protein, urinary N-acetyl-beta-glucosamini...

  5. Do founder mutations characteristic of some cancer sites also predispose to pancreatic cancer?

    Lener, Marcin R; Scott, Rodney J; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Baszuk, Piotr; Cybulski, Cezary; Wiechowska-Kozłowska, Anna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Kładny, Józef; Pietrzak, Sandra; Soluch, Agnieszka; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Understanding of the etiology and risk of pancreatic cancer (PaCa) is still poorly understood. This study evaluated the prevalence of 10 Polish founder mutations in four genes among PaCa patients and assessed their possible association with the risk of disease in Poland. In the study 383 PaCa patients and 4,000 control subjects were genotyped for founder mutations in: BRCA1 (5382insC, 4153delA, C61G), CHEK2 (1100delC, IVS2 + 1G > A, del5395, I157T), NBS1 (657del5) and PALB2 (509_510delGA, 172_175delTTGT). A statistically significant association between the 657del5 mutation and an increased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed for NBS1 gene. The Slavic NBS1 gene mutation (657delACAAA) was detected in 8 of 383 (2.09%) unselected cases compared with 22 of 4,000 (0.55%) controls (OR: 3.80, p = 0.002). The PALB2 509_510delGA and 172_175delTTGT mutations combined were seen in 2 (0.52%) unselected cases of PaCa and in 8 (0.20%) of 4,000 controls (OR: 2.61, p = 0.49). For BRCA1, the three mutations combined were detected in 4 of 383 (1.04%) PaCa patients and in 17 of 4,000 (0.42%) controls (OR: 2.46, p = 0.20). CHEK2 mutations were not associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer (OR: 1.11, p = 0.72). The founder mutation in NBS1 (657del5) was associated with an increased risk of PaCa in heterozygous carriers, indicating that this mutation appears to predispose to cancer of the pancreas. By identifying pancreatic cancer risk groups, founder mutation testing in Poland should be considered for people at risk for PaCa. PMID:27038244

  6. Absence of the predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with overreaching and overtraining in physical fitness centers

    Carolina Ackel-D'Elia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the well-known predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining syndrome in physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. METHOD: A questionnaire consisting of 13 question groups pertaining to either predisposing factors (1-7 or signs and symptoms (8-13 was given to 413 subjects. The general training schedule of the volunteers was characterized by workout sessions of 2.18 ± 0.04 h for a total of 11.0 ± 0.3 h/week for 33 ± 2 months independent of the type of exercise performed (walking, running, spinning, bodybuilding and stretching. A mean score was calculated ranging from 1 (completely absent to 5 (severe for each question group. A low occurrence was considered to be a question group score lower than 4, which was observed in all 13 question groups. RESULTS: The psychological evaluation by POMS Mood State Questionnaire indicated a normal non-inverted iceberg. The hematological parameters, creatine kinase activity, cortisol, total testosterone and free testosterone concentrations were within the normal ranges for the majority of the volunteers selected for this analysis (n = 60. CONCLUSION: According to the questionnaire score analysis, no predisposing factors or signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining were detected among the members of physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. This observation was corroborated by the absence of any significant hematological or stress hormone level alterations in blood analyses of the majority of the selected volunteers (n = 60.

  7. Two necrotic enteritis predisposing factors, dietary fishmeal and Eimeria infection, induce large changes in the caecal microbiota of broiler chickens.

    Wu, Shu-Biao; Stanley, Dragana; Rodgers, Nicholas; Swick, Robert A; Moore, Robert J

    2014-03-14

    It is widely established that a high-protein fishmeal supplemented starter diet and Eimeria infection can predispose birds to the development of clinical necrotic enteritis symptoms following Clostridium perfringens infection. However, it has not been clearly established what changes these treatments cause to predispose birds to succumb to necrotic enteritis. We analysed caecal microbiota of 4 groups of broilers (n=12) using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons: (1) control chicks fed a control diet, (2) Eimeria infected chicks fed control diet, (3) chicks fed fishmeal supplemented diet and lastly (4) both fishmeal fed and Eimeria infected chicks. We found that the high-protein fishmeal diet had a strong effect on the intestinal microbiota similar to the previously reported effect of C. perfringens infection. We noted major changes in the prevalence of various lactobacilli while the total culturable Lactobacillus counts remained stable. The Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, unknown Clostridiales and Lactobacillaceae families were most affected by fishmeal with increases in a number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that had previously been linked to Crohn's disease and reductions in OTUs known to be butyrate producers. Eimeria induced very different changes in microbiota; Ruminococcaceae groups were reduced in number and three unknown Clostridium species were increased in abundance. Additionally, Eimeria did not significantly influence changes in pH, formic, propionic or isobutyric acid while fishmeal induced dramatic changes in all these measures. Both fishmeal feeding and Eimeria infection induced significant changes in the gut microbiota; these changes may play an important role in predisposing birds to necrotic enteritis. PMID:24522272

  8. Neonatal Bacterial Colonization Predispose to Lower Respiratory Infections in Early Childhood

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa

    2014-01-01

    , the variation has been explained by environmental exposures such as day care attendance, breastfeeding, crowding, siblings, tobacco smoke exposure, low socioeconomic status, and male sex, but these risk factors only explain a minor proportion of the variation. Confidence in the results is hampered by...... association between neonatal airway colonization and risk of the LRI in a validated study cohort, and whether a possible association could be reflected in the early immune response to airway pathogens. In study I we aimed to ascertain the quality of information on child’s health, including asthma, allergy...... characterized by perturbed production of several cytokines, rather than production of one specific cytokine, and was independent of concurrent asthma. This suggests that children at risk of future LRI present a distinct systemic immune response upon exposure to common airway pathogens in early life, possibly...

  9. Factors Predisposing to Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in Children of Pre-School Age in the City of Zagreb, Croatia

    Lulić-Dukić, O.; Jurić, H.; Dukić, W.; Glavina, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a c...

  10. SYN2 is an autism predisposing gene: loss-of-function mutations alter synaptic vesicle cycling and axon outgrowth.

    Corradi, Anna; Fadda, Manuela; Piton, Amélie; Patry, Lysanne; Marte, Antonella; Rossi, Pia; Cadieux-Dion, Maxime; Gauthier, Julie; Lapointe, Line; Mottron, Laurent; Valtorta, Flavia; Rouleau, Guy A; Fassio, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio; Cossette, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been identified, many of which are implicated in synaptic function. This 'synaptic autism pathway' notably includes disruption of SYN1 that is associated with epilepsy, autism and abnormal behavior in both human and mice models. Synapsins constitute a multigene family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins (SYN1-3) present in the majority of synapses where they are implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. Synapsins I and II, the major Syn isoforms in the adult brain, display partially overlapping functions and defects in both isoforms are associated with epilepsy and autistic-like behavior in mice. In this study, we show that nonsense (A94fs199X) and missense (Y236S and G464R) mutations in SYN2 are associated with ASD in humans. The phenotype is apparent in males. Female carriers of SYN2 mutations are unaffected, suggesting that SYN2 is another example of autosomal sex-limited expression in ASD. When expressed in SYN2  knockout neurons, wild-type human Syn II fully rescues the SYN2 knockout phenotype, whereas the nonsense mutant is not expressed and the missense mutants are virtually unable to modify the SYN2 knockout phenotype. These results identify for the first time SYN2  as a novel predisposing gene for ASD and strengthen the hypothesis that a disturbance of synaptic homeostasis underlies ASD. PMID:23956174

  11. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol predisposes for the development of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Timbermont, Leen; Verlinden, Marc; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Hessenberger, Sabine; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (PClostridium perfringens. In conclusion, feed contamination with DON at concentrations below the European maximum guidance level of 5,000 µg/kg feed, is a predisposing factor for the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens. PMID:25268498

  12. Variational MCMC

    De Freitas, Nando; Hojen-Sorensen, Pedro; Jordan, Michael I.; Russell, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new class of learning algorithms that combines variational approximation and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. Naive algorithms that use the variational approximation as proposal distribution can perform poorly because this approximation tends to underestimate the true variance and other features of the data. We solve this problem by introducing more sophisticated MCMC algorithms. One of these algorithms is a mixture of two MCMC kernels: a random walk Metropolis kernel ...

  13. Ansa Pancreatica: A Case Report of a Type of Ductal Variation in a Patient with Idiopathic Acute Recurrent Pancreatitis

    Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jung Yup; Kim, Myeong Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Ansa pancreatica is a rare type of pancreatic ductal variation. Recently, ansa pancreatic has been considered as a predisposing factor in patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, no previously published report in Korea has described ansa pancreatica. We report a case of acute recurrent pancreatitis with ansa pancreatica, which was revealed on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

  14. Need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral determinants of access to preventative care in Argentina: analysis of the national survey of risk factors.

    Eiman Jahangir

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Health care utilization is an important step to disease management, providing opportunities for prevention and treatment. Anderson's Health Behavior Model has defined utilization by need, predisposing, and enabling determinants. We hypothesize that need, predisposing, and enabling, highlighting behavioral factors are associated with utilization in Argentina. METHODS: We performed a logistic regression analysis of the 2005 and 2009 Argentinean Survey of Risk Factors, a cohort of 41,392 and 34,732 individuals, to explore the association between need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral factors to blood pressure measurement in the last year. RESULTS: In the 2005 cohort, blood pressure measurement was associated with perception of health, insurance coverage, basic needs met, and income. Additionally, female sex, civil state, household type, older age groups, education, and alcohol use were associated with utilization. The 2009 cohort showed similar associations with only minor differences between the models. CONCLUSIONS: We explored the association between utilization of clinical preventive services with need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral factors. While predisposing and need determinants are associated with utilization, enabling factors such as insurance coverage provides an area for public intervention. These are important findings where policies should be focused to improve utilization of preventive services in Argentina.

  15. Variational analysis

    Rockafellar, R Tyrrell

    1998-01-01

    From its origins in the minimization of integral functionals, the notion of 'variations' has evolved greatly in connection with applications in optimization, equilibrium, and control. It refers not only to constrained movement away from a point, but also to modes of perturbation and approximation that are best describable by 'set convergence', variational convergence of functions and the like. This book develops a unified framework and, in finite dimension, provides a detailed exposition of variational geometry and subdifferential calculus in their current forms beyond classical and convex analysis. Also covered are set-convergence, set-valued mappings, epi-convergence, duality, maximal monotone mappings, second-order subderivatives, measurable selections and normal integrands. The changes in this 3rd printing mainly concern various typographical corrections, and reference omissions that came to light in the previous printings. Many of these reached the authors' notice through their own re-reading, that of th...

  16. Variational principles

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  17. Isolated Streptococcus agalactiae tricuspid endocarditis in elderly patient without known predisposing factors: Case report and review of the literature.

    Abid, Leila; Charfeddine, Salma; Kammoun, Samir

    2016-04-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) tricuspid infective endocarditis is a very rare clinical entity. It affects intravenous drug users, pregnant, postpartum women, and the elderly. We report the case of a 68-year-old patient without known predisposing factors who presented a GBS tricuspid endocarditis treated by penicillin and aminoglycosides with no response. The patient was operated with a good evolution. Our case is the 25th reported in the literature. GBS disease is increasing in the elderly and is mainly associated to comorbid conditions. Tricuspid infective endocarditis with Group B streptococcus predominantly presents as a persistent fever with respiratory symptoms due to pulmonary embolism. Therefore, it requires a medicosurgical treatment and close follow-up. PMID:27053903

  18. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB1/kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-γ mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-α. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB1 contaminated food or feed

  19. Lung infarction following pulmonary embolism. A comparative study on clinical conditions and CT findings to identify predisposing factors

    Kirchner, J.; Obermann, A.; Stueckradt, S.; Tueshaus, C. [General Hospital Hagen (Germany). Radiology; Goltz, J.; Kickuth, R. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Radiology; Liermann, D. [University Hospital Marienhospital Herne (Germany). Radiology

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to identify factors predisposing to lung infarction in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We performed a retrospective analysis on 154 patients with the final diagnosis of PE being examined between January 2009 and December 2012 by means of a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner. The severity of clinical symptoms was defined by means of a clinical index with 4 classes. The pulmonary clot load was quantified using a modified severity index of PE as proposed by Miller. We correlated several potential predictors of pulmonary infarction such as demographic data, pulmonary clot burden, distance of total vascular obstruction and pleura, the presence of cardiac congestion, signs of chronic bronchitis or emphysema with the occurrence of pulmonary infarction. Computed tomography revealed 78 areas of pulmonary infarction in 45/154 (29.2%) patients. The presence of infarction was significantly higher in the right lung than in the left lung (p < 0.001). We found no correlation between pulmonary infarction and the presence of accompanying malignant diseases (r=-0.069), signs of chronic bronchitis (r=-0.109), cardiac congestion (r=-0.076), the quantified clot burden score (r=0.176), and the severity of symptoms (r=-0.024). Only a very weak negative correlation between the presence of infarction and age (r=-0.199) was seen. However, we could demonstrate a moderate negative correlation between the distance of total vascular occlusion and the occurrence of infarction (r=-0.504). Neither cardiac congestion nor the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction are main factors predisposing to pulmonary infarction in patients with PE. It seems that a peripheral total vascular obstruction more often results in infarction than even massive central clot burden.

  20. A Multifactorial Analysis of the Extent to Which Eimeria and Fishmeal Predispose Broiler Chickens to Necrotic Enteritis.

    Rodgers, Nicholas J; Swick, Robert A; Geier, Mark S; Moore, Robert J; Choct, Mingan; Wu, Shu-Biao

    2015-03-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important infectious disease in chickens. Predisposing factors play critical roles both in disease outbreaks in the field and in models for experimental induction of disease. Systematic manipulation and study of predisposing factors help to optimize methods for the experimental reproduction of disease. The nature of such factors may play a confounding role in challenge models and, therefore, warrant investigation to determine their importance in industry-relevant NE reproduction models. In the present study, we examined the roles of dietary fishmeal inclusion, Eimeria inoculation (E), and Clostridium perfringens challenge (C) on broiler growth performance and induction of NE infection. The results showed that E, preceding C, greatly increased the severity of NE induced in broiler chickens, but fishmeal addition played only a marginal role in the challenge model. Bird performance was significantly affected by all three factors during the 35-day experimental period. Fishmeal increased body weight, but statistically significant effects of fishmeal were not observed on feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake. Both Eimeria and C. perfringens significantly reduced body weight gain and feed intake. E but not C led to significantly poorer FCR. These findings indicate that dietary fishmeal may be removed from the model to allow the performance results of challenged chicks to be equivalent to the performance of chicks in the field. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that an NE challenge model without fishmeal is valid and removes bird performance bias in the model introduced by feeding high fishmeal diets, refining the model to facilitate the yield of more commercially relevant results. PMID:26292532

  1. Lung infarction following pulmonary embolism. A comparative study on clinical conditions and CT findings to identify predisposing factors

    The aim of this study was to identify factors predisposing to lung infarction in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We performed a retrospective analysis on 154 patients with the final diagnosis of PE being examined between January 2009 and December 2012 by means of a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner. The severity of clinical symptoms was defined by means of a clinical index with 4 classes. The pulmonary clot load was quantified using a modified severity index of PE as proposed by Miller. We correlated several potential predictors of pulmonary infarction such as demographic data, pulmonary clot burden, distance of total vascular obstruction and pleura, the presence of cardiac congestion, signs of chronic bronchitis or emphysema with the occurrence of pulmonary infarction. Computed tomography revealed 78 areas of pulmonary infarction in 45/154 (29.2%) patients. The presence of infarction was significantly higher in the right lung than in the left lung (p < 0.001). We found no correlation between pulmonary infarction and the presence of accompanying malignant diseases (r=-0.069), signs of chronic bronchitis (r=-0.109), cardiac congestion (r=-0.076), the quantified clot burden score (r=0.176), and the severity of symptoms (r=-0.024). Only a very weak negative correlation between the presence of infarction and age (r=-0.199) was seen. However, we could demonstrate a moderate negative correlation between the distance of total vascular occlusion and the occurrence of infarction (r=-0.504). Neither cardiac congestion nor the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction are main factors predisposing to pulmonary infarction in patients with PE. It seems that a peripheral total vascular obstruction more often results in infarction than even massive central clot burden.

  2. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children.

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2-6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weight (Δweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity. Milk may be a good alternative to sugary drinks with regard to weight management among young obesity-predisposed children. PMID:26328600

  3. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis during pregnancy and postpartum: a case-control study

    GAO Hui; YANG Bao-jun; JIN Li-ping; JIA Xiao-fang

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous investigations have demonstrated a relatively low incidence of stroke among young women,though both pregnancy and delivery can substantially increase the risk.Cerebral venous thrombosis may manifest different characteristics during pregnancy and postpartum as a result of their specific physiological statuses.This study aimed to identify the clinical manifestations,diagnosis,treatment,and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis during pregnancy and postpartum.Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 22 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis who were assigned to either group A (during pregnancy) or group B (during postpartum).The relevant risk factors,initiation and development of the disease,clinical presentations,diagnosis,treatment,and prognosis were compared between the two stages.Results Cerebral venous thrombosis occurred during both pregnancy and postpartum,but was more common postpartum.Patients in group A had a longer hospitalization period than those in group B.Confirmed predisposing factors in 85.7% of patients of group A were dehydration,infection,and underlying cerebrovascular disorders.No obvious predisposing factors were identified in group B.The most frequent symptom was headache,with epileptic seizures,hemiparalysis and aphasia being less frequent symptoms.Focal neurological symptoms (P=0.022) and cerebral infarction (P=0.014) occurred more frequently in group A than in group B.Anticoagulation therapy proved to be safe for cerebral venous thrombosis patients during puerperium,regardless of parenchymal hemorrhage.However,more attention should be paid to spontaneous in-site placental hemorrhage in pregnant patients.Both groups had similar prognoses (P=1.000),with 36.3% patients suffering from consequential dysfunction or recurrent intracranial hypertension.Delayed diagnosis was associated with a poorer prognosis.Conclusions Cerebral venous thrombosis manifests different clinical characteristics during pregnancy and

  4. Genome-wide association and fine mapping of genetic loci predisposing to colon carcinogenesis in mice.

    Liu, Pengyuan; Lu, Yan; Liu, Hongbo; Wen, Weidong; Jia, Dongmei; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2012-01-01

    To identify the genetic determinants of colon tumorigenesis, 268 male mice from 33 inbred strains derived from different genealogies were treated with azoxymethane (AOM; 10 mg/kg) once a week for six weeks to induce colon tumors. Tumors were localized exclusively within the distal colon in each of the strains examined. Inbred mouse strains exhibit a large variability in genetic susceptibility to AOM-induced colon tumorigenesis. The mean colon tumor multiplicity ranged from 0 to 38.6 (mean = 6.5 ± 8.6) and tumor volume ranged from 0 to 706.5 mm(3) (mean = 87.4 ± 181.9) at 24 weeks after the first dose of AOM. AOM-induced colon tumor phenotypes are highly heritable in inbred mice, and 68.8% and 71.3% of total phenotypic variation in colon tumor multiplicity and tumor volume, respectively, are attributable to strain-dependent genetic background. Using 97,854 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of AOM-induced colon tumorigenesis and identified a novel susceptibility locus on chromosome 15 (rs32359607, P = 6.31 × 10(-6)). Subsequent fine mapping confirmed five (Scc3, Scc2, Scc12, Scc8, and Ccs1) of 16 linkage regions previously found to be associated with colon tumor susceptibility. These five loci were refined to less than 1 Mb genomic regions of interest. Major candidates in these loci are Sema5a, Fmn2, Grem2, Fap, Gsg1l, Xpo6, Rabep2, Eif3c, Unc5d, and Gpr65. In particular, the refined Scc3 locus shows high concordance with the human GWAS locus that underlies hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. These findings increase our understanding of the complex genetics of colon tumorigenesis, and provide important insights into the pathways of colorectal cancer development and might ultimately lead to more effective individually targeted cancer prevention strategies. PMID:22127497

  5. Genetic variations of bile salt transporters as predisposing factors for drug-induced cholestasis, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and therapeutic response of viral hepatitis

    Stieger, B; Geier, A.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Drug-induced cholestasis, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and viral hepatitis are acquired forms of liver disease. Cholestasis is a pathophysiologic state with impaired bile formation and subsequent accumulation of bile salts in hepatocytes. The bile salt export pump (BSEP) (ABCB11) is the key export system for bile salts from hepatocytes. AREAS COVERED: This article provides an introduction into the physiology of bile formation followed by a summary of the current knowled...

  6. Anatomical Variations of Anterior Osteomeatal Complex in Patients With Chronic Sinusitis

    Sarafraz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Identifying predisposing factors for chronic sinusitis is very important. Objectives Anatomical variation of the lateral nasal wall has been investigated in several studies and it has been suggested as a predisposing factor for sinusitis. Patients and Methods In this case-control study, 74 patients who were diagnosed with chronic sinusitis (the case group based on clinical criteria and CT scan were entered into the study and 74 patients without chronic sinusitis were considered as the control group. CT scans of all patients were reviewed by a radiologist to interpret and evaluate anatomic variations of anterior osteomeatal complex including nasal deviation, concha bullosa, agger nasi, lateralized uncinate, Haller’s cells, paradoxical middle turbinate, and maxillary hypoplasia. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test with SPSS software version 18. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Results showed that the most common sinus involved was maxillary sinus. Among anatomic variations, septal deviation and concha bullosa were associated with chronic sinusitis (P < 0.01 and P < 0.032, respectively. Conclusions Among anatomic variations, septal deviation and concha bullosa are predisposing factors for chronic sinusitis and we recommend that patients with chronic sinusitis be treated by surgical procedures.

  7. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in patients with and without predisposing habits in glossal and extra-glossal site: An institutional experience in South India

    K Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We report our cohort of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC patients with or without predisposing habits in glossal and extraglossal sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of OSCC cases over a period of 13.75 years from the archives of Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. Demographic details, site, details of habits, and grade of OSCC were retrieved. Social Package for Social Service version 17.0 was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and comparison of mean were employed appropriately. RESULTS: There were 151 OSCC cases, of which 60.9% (92/151 were males, 21.2% (32/151 were aged ≤40 years and 27.82% (42/151 occurred in the tongue. The glossal to extraglossal site ratio was 1:2.6. Predisposing habits were present in 52.4% of glossal OSCC and 82.6% with extra-glossal sites (P = 0.000. Besides tobacco, exclusive areca nut chewing was observed in 15.23% (23/151 patients. Thirty-nine (25.8% belonged to non-tobacco, non-areca nut, non-alcohol (NTND group with male to female ratio was1:3. DISCUSSION: In our cohort, 112 of 151 OSCC (74.8% had at least one predisposing habit. Chewing of areca nut alone was a predisposing habit by itself. In addition, there was a small, subset of cases that were not associated with history of any habits. This study brings to focus the subsets of OSCC predisposed by areca nut and NTND, that needs to be studied further.

  8. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Disease Predisposes to More Severe Infection with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: Protective Effects of Andrographolide.

    Tan, W S Daniel; Peh, Hong Yong; Liao, Wupeng; Pang, Chu Hui; Chan, Tze Khee; Lau, Suk Hiang; Chow, Vincent T; Wong, W S Fred

    2016-05-27

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with many maladies, one of which is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the disease progresses, patients are more prone to develop COPD exacerbation episodes by bacterial infection, particularly to nontypeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHi) infection. The present study aimed to develop a CS-exposed mouse model that increases inflammation induced by NTHi challenge and investigate the protective effects of andrographolide, a bioactive molecule with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata. Female BALB/c mice exposed to 2 weeks of CS followed by a single intratracheal instillation of NTHi developed increased macrophage and neutrophil pulmonary infiltration, augmented cytokine levels, and heightened oxidative damage. Andrographolide effectively reduced lung cellular infiltrates and decreased lung levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, CXCL1/KC, 8-OHdG, matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and MMP-9. The protective actions of andrographolide on CS-predisposed NTHi inflammation might be attributable to increased nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and decreased Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) repressor function, resulting in enhanced gene expression of antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Taken together, these findings strongly support a therapeutic potential for andrographolide in preventing lung inflammation caused by NTHi in cigarette smokers. PMID:27104764

  9. Germline loss-of-function mutations in LZTR1 predispose to an inherited disorder of multiple schwannomas.

    Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Xie, Jing; Liu, Ying F; Poplawski, Andrzej B; Gomes, Alicia R; Madanecki, Piotr; Fu, Chuanhua; Crowley, Michael R; Crossman, David K; Armstrong, Linlea; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Bergner, Amanda; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Blumenthal, Andrea L; Daniels, Molly S; Feit, Howard; Gardner, Kathy; Hurst, Stephanie; Kobelka, Christine; Lee, Chung; Nagy, Rebecca; Rauen, Katherine A; Slopis, John M; Suwannarat, Pim; Westman, Judith A; Zanko, Andrea; Korf, Bruce R; Messiaen, Ludwine M

    2014-02-01

    Constitutional SMARCB1 mutations at 22q11.23 have been found in ∼50% of familial and schwannomatosis cases. We sequenced highly conserved regions along 22q from eight individuals with schwannomatosis whose schwannomas involved somatic loss of one copy of 22q, encompassing SMARCB1 and NF2, with a different somatic mutation of the other NF2 allele in every schwannoma but no mutation of the remaining SMARCB1 allele in blood and tumor samples. LZTR1 germline mutations were identified in seven of the eight cases. LZTR1 sequencing in 12 further cases with the same molecular signature identified 9 additional germline mutations. Loss of heterozygosity with retention of an LZTR1 mutation was present in all 25 schwannomas studied. Mutations segregated with disease in all available affected first-degree relatives, although four asymptomatic parents also carried an LZTR1 mutation. Our findings identify LZTR1 as a gene predisposing to an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of multiple schwannomas in ∼80% of 22q-related schwannomatosis cases lacking mutation in SMARCB1. PMID:24362817

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study of Golden Retrievers Identifies Germ-Line Risk Factors Predisposing to Mast Cell Tumours.

    Maja L Arendt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Canine mast cell tumours (CMCT are one of the most common skin tumours in dogs with a major impact on canine health. Certain breeds have a higher risk of developing mast cell tumours, suggesting that underlying predisposing germ-line genetic factors play a role in the development of this disease. The genetic risk factors are largely unknown, although somatic mutations in the oncogene C-KIT have been detected in a proportion of CMCT, making CMCT a comparative model for mastocytosis in humans where C-KIT mutations are frequent. We have performed a genome wide association study in golden retrievers from two continents and identified separate regions in the genome associated with risk of CMCT in the two populations. Sequence capture of associated regions and subsequent fine mapping in a larger cohort of dogs identified a SNP associated with development of CMCT in the GNAI2 gene (p = 2.2x10-16, introducing an alternative splice form of this gene resulting in a truncated protein. In addition, disease associated haplotypes harbouring the hyaluronidase genes HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3 on cfa20 and HYAL4, SPAM1 and HYALP1 on cfa14 were identified as separate risk factors in European and US golden retrievers, respectively, suggesting that turnover of hyaluronan plays an important role in the development of CMCT.

  11. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled...... extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink...... intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results of this...

  12. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  13. Adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation and fibrosis characterize subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, non-obese subjects predisposed to type 2 diabetes.

    A M Josefin Henninger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adipose tissue is important for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and adipose tissue dysfunction has been proposed as an underlying cause. In the present study we investigated presence of adipocyte hypertrophy, and gene expression pattern of adipose tissue dysfunction in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, non-obese subjects predisposed to type 2 diabetes compared to matched control subjects with no known genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes. METHOD: Seventeen healthy and non-obese subjects with known genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes (first-degree relatives, FDRs and 17 control subjects were recruited. The groups were matched for gender and BMI and had similar age. Glucose tolerance was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity was calculated using HOMA-index. Blood samples were collected and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies obtained for gene expression analysis and adipocyte cell size measurement. RESULTS: Our findings show that, in spite of similar age, BMI and percent body fat, FDRs displayed adipocyte hypertrophy, as well as higher waist/hip ratio, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR and serum triglycerides. Adipocyte hypertrophy in the FDR group, but not among controls, was associated with measures of impaired insulin sensitivity. The adipocyte hypertrophy was accompanied by increased inflammation and Wnt-signal activation. In addition, signs of tissue remodeling and fibrosis were observed indicating presence of early alterations associated with adipose tissue dysfunction in the FDRs. CONCLUSION: Genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, adipocyte hypertrophy and other markers of adipose tissue dysfunction. A dysregulated subcutaneous adipose tissue may be a major susceptibility factor for later development of type 2 diabetes.

  14. Prevalence and predisposing factors regarding intestinal parasitic infections among rural primary school pupils at Minia Governorate, Egypt

    Fatma A.A. Ibrahium

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide. This study aims to assess prevalence of parasitic infections among rural primary school pupils at Minia Governorate, Egypt, and to identify relevant predisposing factors of the school and pupils to intestinal parasitic infections. A total of 264 pupils out of 1053, aged 6-12 years, were randomly selected for parasitological investigation and the school was inspected on site for sanitary facilities and conditions of hygiene, as well as the conditions of hygiene of the pupils. The pupils were examined for ova, cysts and/or larvae of intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formal-ether concentration techniques. Inspection of sanitary facilities and the conditions of hygiene of the school, as well pupil's conditions of hygiene, were carried out through observation checklists. Findings revealed the following intestinal parasites: Entamoeba coli (in 19.3% of pupils, Ascaris lumbricoides (3.8%, Hymenolepiasis nana (12.5%, Enterobious vermicularis (5.7% and Giardia lamblia (12.5%, with varying percentages between male and female pupils, and a highly statistical association between pupil sex and type of parasites (P<0.001. Unapproved sanitary facilities and conditions of hygiene of the school and pupils were observed. Many intestinal parasitic infections among the primary school pupils were found. Unapproved and low inventory school sanitary facilities were observed, in addition to poor conditions of hygiene of pupils which may play a crucial role in these infections. The school facilities and sanitary conditions, especially the quality of water in the toilets, should be improved. Pupils and school personnel have a real need for health education about modes of transmission and preventive methods of intestinal parasitic infections.

  15. Predisposing genes for vitiligo%白癜风易感基因的研究进展

    彭吕娇; 康晓静

    2014-01-01

    白癜风是一种获得性色素脱失性皮肤疾病,其发病机制复杂.近年来研究表明,白癜风是一种多基因遗传病,尤其是泛发性白癜风与遗传密切相关.在近年研究中,认为谷胱甘肽巯基转移酶基因、过氧化氢酶基因、Toll样受体家族基因、酪氨酸酶基因、盘状结构域受体基因、人类白细胞抗原等位基因和超氧化物歧化酶基因等是白癜风易感基因.探讨白癜风的易感基因为进一步阐明其发病机制提供依据,对白癜风尤其是泛发性白癜风的早期诊断、治疗、预防具有重要作用.%Vitiligo is an acquired dermatosis characterized principally by skin depigmentation with complex pathogenesis.Recent studies have indicated that vitiligo is a polygenic disease,and generalized vitiligo is particularly closely related to heredity.Many predisposing genes have been discovered for vitiligo,including the glutathione S-transferase gene,Catalase gene,Toll-like receptor gene family,tyrosinase gene,discoidin domain receptor 1 gene,human leukocyte antigen alleles,superoxide dismutase gene,etc.To study the susceptible genes for vitiligo may provide a basis for the elucidation of vitiligo pathogenesis,and greatly benefit the early diagnosis,treatment and prevention of vitiligo,especially generalized vitiligo.

  16. Serological evidence of brucellosis among predisposed patients with pyrexia of unknown origin in the north eastern Nigeria.

    Baba, M M; Sarkindared, S E; Brisibe, F

    2001-08-01

    Brucellosis is the zoonosis of world wide distribution and common cause of economic loss and ill health among animals and human populations. Patients with pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) who were predisposed to brucellosis through rearing of animals and consumption of different animal products were tested for presence of Brucella abortus antibodies using Rose Bengal and serum agglutination antigens. Twenty six (5.2%) of the 500 patients had B. abortus antibody. The high titres of 320, 640 and 1280 obtained in the sera of patients in this study are suggestive of the endemicity of the disease in this environment. No significant difference in age and sex distribution of brucella antibody prevalence was observed. Similarly, spatial distribution of brucella antibody in different locations was not statistically significant. Although higher serological prevalence was noted in children and students than in other populations examined, the difference in prevalence between the various occupational groups was not significant. Animal handling activities including rearing are not important factors in the prevalence of brucellosis. However, among the rearers, the highest prevalence (20%) was observed among cattle handlers followed in decreasing order of prevalence by goat rearers (10%), mixed sheep and cattle rearers (9%), mixed sheep and goat rearers (8%), and 4% among each of sheep rearers and non rearers of animals. In addition, consumers of yoghurt and fresh goat milk had higher prevalence (20%) than consumers of other milk products. However, brucella antibody prevalence between consumers and non-consumers of animal products was not significantly different. The high economic loss and public health implications of brucellosis necessitates the need for effective surveillance as well as appropriate preventive and control measure among human and animal populations. PMID:11505741

  17. Macrophages and dendritic cells emerge in the liver during intestinal inflammation and predispose the liver to inflammation.

    Yohei Mikami

    Full Text Available The liver is a physiological site of immune tolerance, the breakdown of which induces immunity. Liver antigen-presenting cells may be involved in both immune tolerance and activation. Although inflammatory diseases of the liver are frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, the underlying immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we report two murine models of inflammatory bowel disease: RAG-2(-/- mice adoptively transferred with CD4(+CD45RB(high T cells; and IL-10(-/- mice, accompanied by the infiltration of mononuclear cells in the liver. Notably, CD11b(-CD11c(lowPDCA-1(+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs abundantly residing in the liver of normal wild-type mice disappeared in colitic CD4(+CD45RB(high T cell-transferred RAG-2(-/- mice and IL-10(-/- mice in parallel with the emergence of macrophages (Mφs and conventional DCs (cDCs. Furthermore, liver Mφ/cDCs emerging during intestinal inflammation not only promote the proliferation of naïve CD4(+ T cells, but also instruct them to differentiate into IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro. The emergence of pathological Mφ/cDCs in the liver also occurred in a model of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis under specific pathogen-free conditions, but was canceled in germ-free conditions. Last, the Mφ/cDCs that emerged in acute DSS colitis significantly exacerbated Fas-mediated hepatitis. Collectively, intestinal inflammation skews the composition of antigen-presenting cells in the liver through signaling from commensal bacteria and predisposes the liver to inflammation.

  18. Clinical profile, predisposing factors, and associated co-morbidities of children with cerebral palsy in South India

    Vykuntaraju K Gowda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common physical disorder of children. Causes like jaundice and birth injury though are decreasing; complications resulting from the survival of low birth weight babies are replacing some of the older etiologies. Hence, this study was planned. Objectives: The objective was to study the clinical patterns, predisposing factors, and co-morbidities in children with CP. Materials and Methods: The present study is a hospital based prospective study conducted from January 2012 to January 2013 in children presenting to neurodevelopmental clinic at a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Hundred cases with clinical features suggestive of CP were included in the study. Cases were evaluated by history, clinical examination, and necessary investigations. Results: Results of the study showed 81% of spastic, 12% of hypotonic, 5% of dystonic, and 2% of mixed CP cases. The mean age of presentation was 2 year, 2 month, and male to female ratio of 1:2. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH was the most common antenatal complication observed in 6%. Four percent had neonatal sepsis and 19% were born premature. Associated co-morbidities were mental retardation (55%, seizure disorder (46%, visual problems (26%, hearing problems (19%, and failure to thrive (47%. Discussion: Sex distribution observed in our study was male to female ratio of 1.2, which was comparable with a multicenter study in Europe. PIH was observed in 6% of cases, which was comparable with prior studies. Birth asphyxia was observed in 43% of cases. Eighty-one percent of the cases constituted a spastic variety of CP which was comparable to other studies. Conclusion: Perinatal asphyxia was the important etiological factor. We found preventable intranatal causes (60% and antenatal causes (20% forming a significant proportion. Co-morbidities were significantly observed in our study.

  19. Analysis of adverse events and predisposing factors in voluntary and replacement whole blood donors: A study from north India

    Naveen Agnihotri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of awareness and community motivation, compounded with fragmented blood transfusion services in our country, Often leads to shortage of blood. Donor recruitment and retention are essential for ensuring adequate blood supply. However, adverse events (AEs in donors have a negative impact on donor return. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to assess the frequency of AEs in whole blood donors and analyze the predisposing factors for AEs. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on allogeneic whole blood donors over a period of 14 months, i.e., from January 2002 to February 2003. A total of 37,896 donors were monitored for any AEs: 22587 (59.6% were voluntary donors (VD and 15,309 (40.4% were replacement donors (RD. Results: Overall reaction rate was 2.5% with vasovagal reactions constituting 63.5% and hematomas 35.0% of all reactions. Vasovagal reactions showed a significant association with young age, lower weight, first time donation status, female gender, and nature of blood donation camps. Amongst male donors, RDs had more reactions (P=0.03 than VDs. Majority of donors (85% with vasovagal reactions admitted to some fear or anxiety prior to donation. Hematoma formation occurred significantly more when less trained staff performed phlebotomy. Conclusion: Donor safety is an essential prerequisite to increase voluntary blood donation. AE analysis helps in identifying the blood donors at risk of donor reactions and adopting appropriate donor motivational strategies, pre-donation counseling, and care during and after donation.

  20. Can Certain Genotypes Predispose to Poor Asthma Control in Children? A Pharmacogenetic Study of 9 Candidate Genes in Children with Difficult Asthma

    Basima Almomani; Hawwa, Ahmed F; Millership, Jeffrey S; Liam Heaney; Isabella Douglas; McElnay, James C.; Shields, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that patients with difficult asthma have an increased frequency of certain genotypes that predispose them to asthma exacerbations and poor asthma control. Methods: A total of 180 Caucasian children with confirmed asthma diagnosis were selected from two phenotypic groups; difficult (n = 112) versus mild/moderate asthma (n = 68) groups. All patients were screened for 19 polymorphisms in 9 candidate genes to evaluate their association with difficult asthma. Ke...

  1. Are environmental conditions predisposing to calcium-deficiency rickets in developing countries? : A community-based case study from rural Kaduna, northern Nigeria

    Hartmann, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-deficiency rickets (CDR) is a metabolic bone disease in children that is characterized by impaired mineralization and severe bone deformities. As CDR is often an endemic phenomenon that is almost exclusively restricted to tropical areas, environmental conditions are currently considered to be a possible predisposing factor for the CDR. Apart from a lack of macronutrients and micronutrients, an oversupply of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the soil-plant pathway of the CDR areas i...

  2. Incidence, predisposing factors, management and survival following cardiac arrest due to subarachnoid haemorrhage: a review of the literature

    Skrifvars Markus B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The prevalence of cardiac arrest among patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage [SAH], and the prevalence of SAH as the cause following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest [OHCA] or in-hospital cardiac arrest [IHCA] is unknown. In addition it is unclear whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] and post-resuscitation care management differs, and to what extent this will lead to meaningful survival following cardiac arrest [CA] due to SAH. Aim We reviewed the literature in order to describe; 1.The prevalence and predisposing factors of CA among patients with SAH 2.The prevalence of SAH as the cause of OHCA or IHCA and factors characterising CPR 3.The survival and management of SAH patients with CA. Material and methods The following sources, PubMed, CinAHL and The Cochrane DataBase were searched using the following Medical Subheadings [MeSH]; 1. OHCA, IHCA, heart arrest and 2. subarachnoid haemorrhage. Articles containing relevant data based on the abstract were reviewed in order to find results relevant to the proposed research questions. Manuscripts in other languages than English, animal studies, reviews and case reports were excluded. Results A total of 119 publications were screened for relevance and 13 papers were included. The prevalence of cardiac or respiratory arrest among all patients with SAH is between 3-11%, these patients commonly have a severe SAH with coma, large bleeds and evidence of raised intracerebral pressure on computed tomography scans compared to those who did not experience a CA. The prevalence of patients with SAH as the cause of the arrest among OHCA cases vary between 4 to 8% among those who die before hospital admission, and between 4 to 18% among those who are admitted. The prevalence of SAH as the cause following IHCA is low, around 0.5% according to one recent study. In patients with OHCA survival to hospital discharge is poor with 0 to 2% surviving. The initial rhythm is commonly asystole or

  3. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69±2.0 and 1.11±2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the pulmonary

  4. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69{+-}2.0 and 1.11{+-}2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the

  5. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria: Predisposing conditions and clinical characteristics of six cases and a review of 63 cases in the literature.

    Kim, Chung-Jong; Kim, Uh-Jin; Kim, Hong Bin; Park, Sang Won; Oh, Myoung-Don; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Nam Joong

    2016-07-01

    Background Several case series have reported on clinical and radiographic characteristics of patients with vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). However, only a few patients were included, and systematic reviews are still lacking. The aim of this study was to update and summarise the pre-disposing conditions, clinical and radiographic characteristics of such cases due to NTM. Methods In this study, a systematic review was conducted of the English-language literature from 1961-2014 to investigate the pre-disposing conditions and characteristics of cases of VO due to NTM. Also, six additional cases diagnosed in the study hospitals were described; these cases are included in an analysis of a total of 69 cases of NTM VO. Results The most common species, regardless of the presence of HIV co-infection, was M. avium Complex followed by M. xenopi. Ten cases with HIV infection had a median CD4 lymphocyte count of 320/mm(3) (range = 41-465/mm(3)) at the time of diagnosis of NTM VO. The VO in the cases with HIV infections occurred at an earlier age and more often involved the thoracic spine than in the cases without HIV infection. Pre-disposing trauma or surgery was reported in 14.5% (10/69) of the cases. A variety of immunosuppressive diseases were observed in 49.3% of the patients, including the 10 with HIV infections and corticosteroids were used in 27.5% of the cases. Surgery was performed in 67.6% and improvement was reported in 80.6%. Conclusion NTM should be considered in immunocompromised patients with indolent VO without confirmation of tuberculosis. PMID:27002256

  6. Frequency of different types of precocious puberty, determining the predisposing factor and need to treatment in children - Emam Hospital (1993-2000

    Moayeri H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed in order to detect the frequency of different types of precocious puberty, predisposing factors and to show which group of patients need to treatment. Materials and Methods: In this study, 74 patients who referred to pediatric endocrine clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital and private office from 1993-2000 were assessed. A complete history was taken and physical examination was done in all patients by pediatrics endocrinologist. Bone age was done in all patients and specific hormonal tests were measured in some of them. Results: Among 74 patients, 50 cases (67.6 percent were female and 24 cases (32.4 percent were male. The age of the patients was between 0.8-10 years old with mean 5.37 year. 75 percent of male patients had central (complete precocious puberty and 25 percent had peripheral (incomplete precocious puberty. 40 percent of female patients had central precocious puberty, 46 percent had premature telarche, 8 percent had premature pubarche, 2 percent had premature menarche and 4 percent had other kinds of precocious puberty (one case with hypothyroidism and one case with Mccune-Albright syndrome. 10 percent of female patients with central precocious puberty had predisposing factor and 90 percent of them were idiopathic. 38.8 percent of male patients with central precocious puberty had predisposing factor and 61.2 percent of them were idiopathic. 100 percent of male patients with peripheral precocious puberty had congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. 38 percent of female patients and 100 percent of male patients needed to treatment. Conclusion: According to this study and references, precocious puberty in female usually benign but in male patients it should be evaluated thoroughly because they usually have a serious disorder which needs treatment.

  7. Tumor-mimicking large vegetation attached to the tricuspid valve without predisposing factors: A case report on CT and echocardiographic findings

    Bae, Jung Min; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Hwang, Hye Won; Kim, Jung Sun; Kim, Wook Sung; Peck, Kyong Ran; Park, Sung Ji [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report the CT and echocardiographic findings of a tumor-mimicking large vegetation attached to the tricuspid valve (TV) of a 45-year-old man without predisposing factors. Echocardiography revealed a mobile homogeneous echogenic mass attached to the TV. Cardiac CT showed a 4.5 × 2.3 cm irregular low-density mass with scant enhancement in the right ventricle. Based on clinical findings of fever, positive blood culture results for Streptococcus viridans, and pathologic confirmation of the lesion, a diagnosis of infective endocarditis and vegetation was made.

  8. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop...... and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess child stress by the SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD) score and the Prosocial Behavior (PSB) score. Height and weight were measured, and BMI z-scores were calculated. RESULTS: A direct, but non-significant linear trend was found between SDQ-TD score and BMI z...

  9. Calculus of variations

    Elsgolc, L E; Stark, M

    1961-01-01

    Calculus of Variations aims to provide an understanding of the basic notions and standard methods of the calculus of variations, including the direct methods of solution of the variational problems. The wide variety of applications of variational methods to different fields of mechanics and technology has made it essential for engineers to learn the fundamentals of the calculus of variations. The book begins with a discussion of the method of variation in problems with fixed boundaries. Subsequent chapters cover variational problems with movable boundaries and some other problems; sufficiency

  10. An Obesity-Predisposing Variant of the FTO Gene Regulates D2R-Dependent Reward Learning.

    Sevgi, Meltem; Rigoux, Lionel; Kühn, Anne B; Mauer, Jan; Schilbach, Leonhard; Hess, Martin E; Gruendler, Theo O J; Ullsperger, Markus; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Brüning, Jens C; Tittgemeyer, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are linked to obesity. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms by which these genetic variants influence obesity, behavior, and brain are unknown. Given that Fto regulates D2/3R signaling in mice, we tested in humans whether variants in FTO would interact with a variant in the ANKK1 gene, which alters D2R signaling and is also associated with obesity. In a behavioral and fMRI study, we demonstrate that gene variants of FTO affect dopamine (D2)-dependent midbrain brain responses to reward learning and behavioral responses associated with learning from negative outcome in humans. Furthermore, dynamic causal modeling confirmed that FTO variants modulate the connectivity in a basic reward circuit of meso-striato-prefrontal regions, suggesting a mechanism by which genetic predisposition alters reward processing not only in obesity, but also in other disorders with altered D2R-dependent impulse control, such as addiction. Significance statement: Variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are associated with obesity. Here we demonstrate that variants of FTO affect dopamine-dependent midbrain brain responses and learning from negative outcomes in humans during a reward learning task. Furthermore, FTO variants modulate the connectivity in a basic reward circuit of meso-striato-prefrontal regions, suggesting a mechanism by which genetic vulnerability in reward processing can increase predisposition to obesity. PMID:26354923

  11. The fate of (13)C-labelled and non-labelled inulin predisposed to large bowel fermentation in rats.

    Butts, Christine A; Paturi, Gunaranjan; Tavendale, Michael H; Hedderley, Duncan; Stoklosinski, Halina M; Herath, Thanuja D; Rosendale, Douglas; Roy, Nicole C; Monro, John A; Ansell, Juliet

    2016-04-20

    The fate of stable-isotope (13)C labelled and non-labelled inulin catabolism by the gut microbiota was assessed in a healthy rat model. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned to diets containing either cellulose or inulin, and were fed these diets for 3 days. On day (d) 4, rats allocated to the inulin diet received (13)C-labelled inulin. The rats were then fed the respective non-labelled diets (cellulose or inulin) until sampling (d4, d5, d6, d7, d10 and d11). Post feeding of (13)C-labelled substrate, breath analysis showed that (13)C-inulin cleared from the host within a period of 36 hours. Faecal (13)C demonstrated the clearance of inulin from gut with a (13)C excess reaching maximum at 24 hours (d5) and then declining gradually. There were greater variations in caecal organic acid concentrations from d4 to d6, with higher concentrations of acetic, butyric and propionic acids observed in the rats fed inulin compared to those fed cellulose. Inulin influenced caecal microbial glycosidase activity, increased colon crypt depth, and decreased the faecal output and polysaccharide content compared to the cellulose diet. In summary, the presence of inulin in the diet positively influenced large bowel microbial fermentation. PMID:26778667

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Soldiers 2.5 Years after Military Deployment in Afghanistan: The Role of Personality Traits as Predisposing Risk Factors

    Janne Hellerup Nielsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N = 445. Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevalence of 9.2% in the total sample 2.5 years after homecoming. Using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman¡'s rho significant relationships were identified between pre-existing personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness with development of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years after homecoming, however, a number of additional cofounders were identified.

  13. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppression: does venooclusive disease predispose to cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients already at risk?

    Welling JD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available John D Welling, Ahmad B Tarabishy, John ChristoforidisDepartment of Ophthalmology, Havener Eye Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis remains the most common opportunistic ocular infection in immunocompromised patients. Patients with immunocompromising diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, inherited immunodeficiency states, malignancies, and those on systemic immunosuppressive therapy, are known to be at risk. Recently, it has been suggested that patients undergoing intravitreal injection of immunosuppressive agents may also be predisposed. One previous case report speculated that there may be an additional risk for CMV retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with venoocclusive disease. This case study presents a case of CMV retinitis following central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppressants.Keywords: cytomegalovirus retinitis, central retinal vein occlusion, immunosuppression, solid organ transplant, venous stasis, risk factor

  14. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene polymorphism as a predisposing factor for phenytoin intoxication in tuberculous meningitis or tuberculoma patients having seizures - A pilot study

    Adole, Prashant S.; Kharbanda, Parampreet S.; Sharma, Sadhna

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Simultaneous administration of phenytoin and isoniazid (INH) in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) or tuberculoma patients with seizures results in higher plasma phenytoin level and thus phenytoin intoxication. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) enzyme catalyses two acetylation reactions in INH metabolism and NAT2 gene polymorphism leads to slow and rapid acetylators. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of allelic variants of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene as a predisposing factor for phenytoin toxicity in patients with TBM or tuberculoma having seizures, and taking INH and phenytoin simultaneously. Methods: Sixty patients with TBM or tuberculoma with seizures and taking INH and phenytoin simultaneously for a minimum period of seven days were included in study. Plasma phenytoin was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. NAT2 gene polymorphism was studied using restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele specific PCR. Results: The patients were grouped into those having phenytoin intoxication and those with normal phenytoin level, and also classified as rapid or slow acetylators by NAT2 genotyping. Genotypic analysis showed that of the seven SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of NAT2 gene studied, six mutations were found to be associated with phenytoin intoxication. For rs1041983 (C282T), rs1799929 (C481T), rs1799931 (G857A), rs1799930 (G590A), rs1208 (A803G) and rs1801280 (T341C) allelic variants, the proportion of homozygous mutant was higher in phenytoin intoxicated group than in phenytoin non-intoxicated group. Interpretation & conclusions: Homozygous mutant allele of NAT2 gene at 481site may act as a predisposing factor for phenytoin intoxication among TBM or tuberculoma patients having seizures. PMID:27488001

  15. Studying Variation in Tunes

    Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in music can be caused by different phenomena: conscious, creative manipulation of musical ideas; but also unconscious variation during music recall. It is the latter phenomenon that we wish to study: variation which occurs in oral transmission, in which a melody is taught without the help

  16. Variation of fundamental constants

    Flambaum, V V

    2006-01-01

    We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant alpha, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feschbach resonance.

  17. Asynchronous Variational Integrators

    Lew, A.; Marsden, J. E.; Ortiz, M.; West, M

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new class of asynchronous variational integrators (AVI) for nonlinear elastodynamics. The AVIs are distinguished by the following attributes: (i) The algorithms permit the selection of independent time steps in each element, and the local time steps need not bear an integral relation to each other; (ii) the algorithms derive from a spacetime form of a discrete version of Hamilton’s variational principle. As a consequence of this variational structure, the algorith...

  18. Calculus of variations

    Gelfand, I M

    2000-01-01

    Based on a series of lectures given by I. M. Gelfand at Moscow State University, this book actually goes considerably beyond the material presented in the lectures. The aim is to give a treatment of the elements of the calculus of variations in a form both easily understandable and sufficiently modern. Considerable attention is devoted to physical applications of variational methods, e.g., canonical equations, variational principles of mechanics, and conservation laws.The reader who merely wishes to become familiar with the most basic concepts and methods of the calculus of variations need on

  19. Desrama, crescimento e predisposição à podridão-do-lenho em Acacia mangium Pruning on growth and heartrot predisposing in Acacia mangium

    Helio Tonini

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A desrama é um procedimento que aumenta o valor e a qualidade da madeira. Entretanto, se realizada de forma inadequada pode reduzir o crescimento e constituir fator de predisposição à podridão-do-lenho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da intensidade e época da desrama sobre o crescimento inicial e incidência de árvores com ferimentos não cicatrizados de Acacia mangium. Foi instalado um experimento em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e cinco tratamentos: testemunha (sem desrama; desrama de troncos múltiplos e galhos a 50 e 70% da altura, em época de baixa e alta pluviosidade. As avaliações de crescimento e presença de ferimentos não cicatrizados foram feitas seis meses depois da aplicação dos tratamentos. A época e a intensidade de desrama, quando efetuadas aos 8 e 13 meses, não afetaram o crescimento em diâmetro e altura. Houve boa cicatrização de ferimentos em árvores desramadas oito meses depois do plantio, em época de baixa pluviosidade, independentemente da intensidade. Árvores desramadas aos 13 meses depois do plantio, em época de alta pluviosidade, demonstraram predisposição à podridão-do-lenho.Pruning increases quality and economic value of the wood. Inadequate pruning procedures, however, interfere negatively on growth and consist on a predisposing factor to heartrot. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of intensity and season of pruning on initial growth and on incidence of Acacia mangium trees with non-occluded wounds. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with three replicates and five treatments: control (without pruning; pruning and singling at 50 and 70% of total height, in low and high precipitation season. Growth evaluations and the presence of non-occluded wounds were performed six months after treatments application. The season and intensity of pruning operations did not influence height and diameter growth. Efficient wound

  20. The Variational Fair Autoencoder

    C. Louizos; K. Swersky; Y. Li; M. Welling; R. Zemel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the problem of learning representations that are invariant to certain nuisance or sensitive factors of variation in the data while retaining as much of the remaining information as possible. Our model is based on a variational autoencoding architecture with priors that encourage indep

  1. Loss of PKBβ/Akt2 predisposes mice to ovarian cyst formation and increases the severity of polycystic ovary formation in vivo

    David F. Restuccia

    2012-05-01

    Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages and decrease fertility. In particular, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, in which multiple follicular cysts develop, affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age and can result in infertility. Current non-invasive treatments for PCOS can resolve cysts and restore fertility, but unresponsive patients must undergo severe ovarian wedge resection and resort to in vitro fertilization. PCOS is related to the deregulation of leutinizing hormone (LH signaling at various levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and resultant hyperproduction of androgens. Because insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are observed in 50–70% of individuals with PCOS, deregulated insulin signaling in the ovary is considered an important factor in the disease. Here we report that aged mice specifically lacking the PKBβ (also known as Akt2 isoform that is crucial for insulin signaling develop increased testosterone levels and ovarian cysts, both of which are also observed in insulin-resistant PCOS patients. Young PKBβ knockout mice were used to model PCOS by treatment with LH and exhibited a cyst area that was threefold greater than in controls, but without hyperinsulinemia. Thus, loss of PKBβ might predispose mice to ovarian cysts independently of hyperactive insulin signaling. Targeted therapeutic augmentation of specific PKBβ signaling could therefore provide a new avenue for the treatment and management of ovarian cysts.

  2. Ensembl variation resources

    Marin-Garcia Pablo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics. Description The Ensembl project provides comprehensive and integrated variation resources for a wide variety of chordate genomes. This paper provides a detailed description of the sources of data and the methods for creating the Ensembl variation databases. It also explores the utility of the information by explaining the range of query options available, from using interactive web displays, to online data mining tools and connecting directly to the data servers programmatically. It gives a good overview of the variation resources and future plans for expanding the variation data within Ensembl. Conclusions Variation data is an important key to understanding the functional and phenotypic differences between individuals. The development of new sequencing and genotyping technologies is greatly increasing the amount of variation data known for almost all genomes. The Ensembl variation resources are integrated into the Ensembl genome browser and provide a comprehensive way to access this data in the context of a widely used genome bioinformatics system. All Ensembl data is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org and from the public MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org.

  3. Theory of conjectural variations

    Jean-Marie, Alain

    2004-01-01

    We have witnessed in recent years a revival of Conjectural Variations in Game Theory. This reincarnation of an old idea, using a dynamic point of view, aims at combining the adequacy with facts to the requirements of a firmly grounded theory. This book presents, for the first time, a comprehensive account of conjectural variations equilibria in their static inceptions, featuring new comparative results of equilibria with regard to efficiency. It then describes several advances in Dynamic Game Theory, allowing to understand Conjectural Variations Equilibria as dynamic equilibria. The question o

  4. Evaluation of molecular genetic variation associated with deep venous thrombosis in lower limb fractures in traumatic patients

    Ali Tabrizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetic variation in multiple genes associated with hemostasis and thrombosis is well documented to impact the rates of future venous thromboembolism; in addition, trauma and orthopedic surgery in lower limb and immobilization are important factors in increasing the incidence of thrombosis. Gene mutation can be predisposing factor for thrombosis in traumatic patients under anti-coagulant agent prophylaxis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the different gene mutations in these patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the sample consisted of 53 patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT and 32 traumatic patients without thrombosis as the control group. Two groups matched together according to sex, age, weight, and medications. DNA analysis for mutation of multivariate of genes in thrombosis was studied. Results: Regarding gene variations, there was statistically significant difference only in Prothrombin (Factor II, G20210A between the patients with thrombosis and control group (P = 0.01. But, there was no difference between two groups considering other gene mutations. Mutation of Prothrombin gene (G20210A was a predictive factor for thrombosis with odds ratio of 1.1 (CI 0.3-1.9. Conclusion: According to the outcomes resulted from this study, genetic mutation in Prothrombin (Factor II [G20210A] is one of the most important genetic variations involved in traumatic patients with DVT despite prophylaxis. Genetic mutation in Prothrombin appears to be predisposing factor for thrombosis associated with trauma.

  5. Quantum variational calculus

    Malinowska, Agnieszka B

    2014-01-01

    This Brief puts together two subjects, quantum and variational calculi by considering variational problems involving Hahn quantum operators. The main advantage of its results is that they are able to deal with nondifferentiable (even discontinuous) functions, which are important in applications. Possible applications in economics are discussed. Economists model time as continuous or discrete. Although individual economic decisions are generally made at discrete time intervals, they may well be less than perfectly synchronized in ways discrete models postulate. On the other hand, the usual assumption that economic activity takes place continuously, is nothing else than a convenient abstraction that in many applications is far from reality. The Hahn quantum calculus helps to bridge the gap between the two families of models: continuous and discrete. Quantum Variational Calculus is self-contained and unified in presentation. It provides an opportunity for an introduction to the quantum calculus of variations fo...

  6. Variational Inequalities with Applications

    Sofonea, Mircea

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by stimulating problems in contact mechanics, emphasizing antiplane frictional contact with linearly elastic and viscoelastic materials, this book focuses on the essentials with respect to the qualitative aspects of several classes of variational inequalities (VIs)

  7. Variational principles in physics

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  8. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  9. Variational time integrators

    Lew, A.; Marsden, J. E.; Ortiz, M.; West, M

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and further develop the subject of variational integration algorithms as it applies to mechanical systems of engineering interest. In particular, the conservation properties of both synchronous and asynchronous variational integrators (AVIs) are discussed in detail. We present selected numerical examples which demonstrate the excellent accuracy, conservation and convergence characteristics of AVIs. In these tests, AVIs are found to result in substantial ...

  10. Chromatic variations suppress suprathreshold brightness variations.

    Kingdom, Frederick A A; Bell, Jason; Gheorghiu, Elena; Malkoc, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    Most objects in natural scenes are suprathreshold in both color (chromatic) and luminance contrast. How salient is each dimension? We have developed a novel method employing a stimulus similar to that used by B. C. Regan and J. D. Mollon (1997) who studied the relative saliencies of the two chromatic cardinal directions. Our stimuli consist of left- and right-oblique modulations of color and/or luminance defined within a lattice of circles. In the "separated" condition, the two modulations were presented separately as forced-choice pairs, and the task was to indicate which was more salient. In the "combined" condition, the two orthogonal-in-orientation modulations were added, and the task was to indicate the more salient orientation. The ratio of color to luminance contrast at the PSE was calculated for both conditions. Across color directions, 48% more luminance contrast relative to color contrast was required to achieve a PSE in the "combined" compared to the "separated" condition. A second experiment showed that the PSE difference was due to the luminance being masked by the color, rather than due to superior color grouping. We conclude that suprathreshold brightness variations are masked by suprathreshold color variations. PMID:20884478

  11. Variation in Metaphor Variation in Metaphor

    Zóltan Kövecses

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Cognitive linguists have so far paid a great deal of attention to the emarkable universality of many conceptual metaphors. However, their theories fail to account for the equally impressive diversity of metaphorical conceptualization both across and within cultures. The present paper is an attempt to lay down the foundations of a theory of metaphor that is capable of simultaneously accounting for both universality and variation in metaphor.

     

    Cognitive linguists have so far paid a great deal of attention to the emarkable universality of many conceptual metaphors. However, their theories fail to account for the equally impressive diversity of metaphorical conceptualization both across and within cultures. The present paper is an attempt to lay down the foundations of a theory of metaphor that is capable of simultaneously accounting for both universality and variation in metaphor.

  12. A novel unstable duplication upstream of HAS2 predisposes to a breed-defining skin phenotype and a periodic fever syndrome in Chinese Shar-Pei dogs.

    Mia Olsson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation with no known pathogenic or autoimmune cause. In humans, several genes have been implicated in this group of diseases, but the majority of cases remain unexplained. A similar periodic fever syndrome is relatively frequent in the Chinese Shar-Pei breed of dogs. In the western world, Shar-Pei have been strongly selected for a distinctive thick and heavily folded skin. In this study, a mutation affecting both these traits was identified. Using genome-wide SNP analysis of Shar-Pei and other breeds, the strongest signal of a breed-specific selective sweep was located on chromosome 13. The same region also harbored the strongest genome-wide association (GWA signal for susceptibility to the periodic fever syndrome (p(raw = 2.3 × 10⁻⁶, p(genome = 0.01. Dense targeted resequencing revealed two partially overlapping duplications, 14.3 Kb and 16.1 Kb in size, unique to Shar-Pei and upstream of the Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (HAS2 gene. HAS2 encodes the rate-limiting enzyme synthesizing hyaluronan (HA, a major component of the skin. HA is up-regulated and accumulates in the thickened skin of Shar-Pei. A high copy number of the 16.1 Kb duplication was associated with an increased expression of HAS2 as well as the periodic fever syndrome (p < 0.0001. When fragmented, HA can act as a trigger of the innate immune system and stimulate sterile fever and inflammation. The strong selection for the skin phenotype therefore appears to enrich for a pleiotropic mutation predisposing these dogs to a periodic fever syndrome. The identification of HA as a major risk factor for this canine disease raises the potential of this glycosaminoglycan as a risk factor for human periodic fevers and as an important driver of chronic inflammation.

  13. Fatores predisponentes das complicações incisionaisde laparotomias medianas em eqüinos Predisposal factors to incisional complications of ventral midline laparotomies in horses

    Geane Maciel Pagliosa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available As complicações incisionais após laparotomia mediana em eqüinos têm prevalência de 35 a 87,5% e levam a aumento no período de convalescença ou mesmo ao óbito. Os fatores predisponentes destas complicações são pouco abordados na literatura médica eqüina e são inerentes ao paciente, ao ato cirúrgico, à anestesia e ao período pós-operatório. Considerações sobre os cuidados no pré-operatório, tamanho da incisão, roupa do cirurgião, escolha do fio cirúrgico e as condições clínicas e comportamentais do eqüino são salientadas entre os fatores predisponentes que, quando bem conhecidos, podem ser melhor administrados, no sentido de minimizar as complicações incisionais na laparotomia mediana.Incisional complications after equine midline laparotomy have an incidence of 35 to 87.5% and lead an increase in the convalescence period or to death. Predisposed factors to these complications are little approached in the equine medicine literature and consist of inherent factors to the patient, surgery, anesthesia and postoperative period. Preoperative cares, size of the incision, surgeon clothes, the choice of the suture material and equine clinical and behaviour conditions may be considered and well known in order to decrease the incisional complications after the midline laparotomy.

  14. Strain and cocaine-induced differential opioid gene expression may predispose Lewis but not Fischer rats to escalate cocaine self-administration.

    Valenza, Marta; Picetti, Roberto; Yuferov, Vadim; Butelman, Eduardo R; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in gene expression of opioid system components induced by extended access (18 h) cocaine self-administration and to determine the impact of genetic background in the vulnerability to escalate cocaine intake. Comparing two inbred rat strains, we previously reported that Lewis rats progressively escalated cocaine consumption compared to Fischer rats, in a new translational model of intravenous cocaine self-administration, which included 14 sessions of 18-h operant sessions in which rats were allowed to select the cocaine unit dose to self-administer. We compare here Fischer and Lewis rats in the gene expression of endogenous opioid peptides (Pomc, Penk, Pdyn) and cognate receptors (Oprm, Oprk and Oprd) in reward-related brain regions, after exposure to either cocaine self-administration or yoked-saline, in the aforementioned translational paradigm. We performed a correlation analysis between the mRNA level, found in the Dorsal Striatum (DS), Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell and core respectively, and individual cocaine intake. Our findings show that the gene expression of all the aforementioned opioid genes exhibit strain-dependent differences in the DS, in absence of cocaine exposure. Also, different strain-specific cocaine-induced mRNA expression of Oprm and Oprk was found in DS. Only few differences were found in the ventral parts of the striatum. Moreover, gene expression level of Pdyn, Penk, Oprk, and Oprm in the DS was significantly correlated with cocaine intake only in Fischer rats. Overall, these data shed light on potential genetic differences which may predispose of subjects to initiate and escalate cocaine consumption. PMID:26777278

  15. A novel quantitative hemolytic assay coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis enabled early diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and identified unique predisposing mutations in Japan.

    Yoko Yoshida

    Full Text Available For thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs, the diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS is made by ruling out Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC-associated HUS and ADAMTS13 activity-deficient thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP, often using the exclusion criteria for secondary TMAs. Nowadays, assays for ADAMTS13 activity and evaluation for STEC infection can be performed within a few hours. However, a confident diagnosis of aHUS often requires comprehensive gene analysis of the alternative complement activation pathway, which usually takes at least several weeks. However, predisposing genetic abnormalities are only identified in approximately 70% of aHUS. To facilitate the diagnosis of complement-mediated aHUS, we describe a quantitative hemolytic assay using sheep red blood cells (RBCs and human citrated plasma, spiked with or without a novel inhibitory anti-complement factor H (CFH monoclonal antibody. Among 45 aHUS patients in Japan, 24% (11/45 had moderate-to-severe (≥50% hemolysis, whereas the remaining 76% (34/45 patients had mild or no hemolysis (<50%. The former group is largely attributed to CFH-related abnormalities, and the latter group has C3-p.I1157T mutations (16/34, which were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. Thus, a quantitative hemolytic assay coupled with RFLP analysis enabled the early diagnosis of complement-mediated aHUS in 60% (27/45 of patients in Japan within a week of presentation. We hypothesize that this novel quantitative hemolytic assay would be more useful in a Caucasian population, who may have a higher proportion of CFH mutations than Japanese patients.

  16. Analysis of predisposing factors of idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane%特发性黄斑视网膜前膜的易感因素分析

    祖媛媛; 刘铁城

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the predisposing factors of idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane, and provide clinical guidance for prevention and early diagnosis of idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane.Methods Clinical data about 80 patients (80 eyes) with idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane admitted to our hospital from April 2013 to April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The 80 eyes with idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane were served as the observation group and the normal eyes (n=80) of the 80 patients were served as the function control group. Another 80 patients (160 eyes) without idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane who admitted to our hospital were served as the control group.Results The best corrected visual acuity of the observation group was below 1.0, 14 eyes in the function control group showed best corrected visual acuity below 1.0, and 9 eyes in the control group showed best corrected visual acuity below 1.0. The best corrected visual acuity of observation group was worse than that of function control group and control group with statistically significant differences (P0.05). There were 51 cases with diabetes and 59 cases with hyperlipidaemia in the observation group, which was more than control group with statistically significant differences (P0.05).观察组与对照组的年龄及性别组成差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).观察组患有糖尿病51例,高脂血症59例,较对照组患病人数多,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 糖尿病和高脂血症是特发性黄斑前膜的易感因素.

  17. Investigation of the Association Between Bone Mineral Density and Predisposing Factors in Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women in a Sample of Patients From Gaziantep and Trabzon

    Ercan Madenci

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the association between the bone mineral density and risk factors predisposing to osteoporosis as well as impact of regional factors on bone mineral density by comparing the data obtained from patients who lived in Gaziantep (a province in the south east of this country and Trabzon (a province in the north east of this country. Included in the study were 318 patients, of whom 162 were from Gaziantep and 156 from Trabzon. Bone mineral density of the patients was measured with DEXA, and those who had a t score below (-2.0 SD on bone mineral density measurement in the back and hip regions were included in the study. An osteoporosis follow up questionnaire that was modified from MEDOS study questionnaire was filled. The patients who lived in Gaziantep were fatter than those who lived in Trabzon (p0.05. The bone mineral density (L2-4 femur (total and Wards triangle of the patients who lived in Trabzon was significantly lower than in Gaziantep (p0.05. White skin color and high tea consumption were more common in the second group (p<0.001. Some parameters like dark or wheat skin and black eye color, birth and abortion rate, and sun bathing habis were more common in the first group (p<0.001. In conclusion, fist and cost effective option to estimate whether the patient carries a high risk is to evaluate the place where the patient lives as well the habits and traditions. The proceeding bone mineral density measurement will help to diagnose the disease. We believe that this approach will help not only for early diagnosis of osteoporosis but also useful economically.

  18. Can certain genotypes predispose to poor asthma control in children? A pharmacogenetic study of 9 candidate genes in children with difficult asthma.

    Basima Almomani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that patients with difficult asthma have an increased frequency of certain genotypes that predispose them to asthma exacerbations and poor asthma control. METHODS: A total of 180 Caucasian children with confirmed asthma diagnosis were selected from two phenotypic groups; difficult (n = 112 versus mild/moderate asthma (n = 68 groups. All patients were screened for 19 polymorphisms in 9 candidate genes to evaluate their association with difficult asthma. KEY RESULTS: The results indicated that LTA4H A-9188>G, TNFα G-308>A and IL-4Rα A1727>G polymorphisms were significantly associated with the development of difficult asthma in paediatric patients (pC, IL-4Rα T1570>C and IL-4Rα A1727>G and CA haplotype of TNFα C-863>A and TNFα G-308>A polymorphisms which were significantly associated with difficult asthma in children (p = 0.04 and p = 0.018, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The study revealed multiple SNPs and haplotypes in LTA4H, TNFα and IL4-Rα genes which constitute risk factors for the development of difficult asthma in children. Of particular interest is the LTA4H A-9188>G polymorphism which has been reported, for the first time, to have strong association with severe asthma in children. Our results suggest that screening for patients with this genetic marker could help characterise the heterogeneity of responses to leukotriene-modifying medications and, hence, facilitate targeting these therapies to the subset of patients who are most likely to gain benefit.

  19. Behaviour patterns which may predispose to HIV infection or further transmission and possible intervention strategy in the City of Harare. Part II.

    Moyo, I M; Ray, C S; Chisvo, D; Gumbo, N; Low, A; Katsumbe, T M; Mbengeranwa, O L

    1993-11-01

    The proportion of people with AIDS is increasing rapidly in Zimbabwe. Several strategies have been adopted to check the further spread of the disease. This paper discusses the behaviour patterns which may predispose to HIV infection and possible intervention strategies that may be taken in the City of Harare. Over a third (33.9 pc, n = 1,526) of the married respondents reported that they were living separately from their spouses. There was a high proportion (76.6 pc, n = 564) of single respondents who admitted to engaging in premarital sex. Fifteen pc of total respondents were engaging in casual sex. The proportion of single respondents (31.2 pc) engaging in casual sex was higher than among the married (11.1 pc). More single respondents (10.9 pc) had been paid for sex than the married (4.1 pc) whilst the proportion that had been paid for sex was similar for the single (21.2 pc) and the married (22.9 pc). The median age for starting sex was 17 years (range = three to 26) for the single and 18 years (range = four to 35) for the married respondents. Sixteen pc stated that they had an STD in 1989. Condom usage was low with only 9.2 pc always using a condom. Forty eight pc of the married respondents who have engaged in casual sexual relationships never use condoms. The main source of information on AIDS/HIV was the radio (74 pc). Most parents (66 pc) had not talked about AIDS to their children. PMID:8055550

  20. Methodology for Safety Assessment Applied to Predisposal Waste Management. Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) 2004–2010)

    Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) (2004–2010) The IAEA’s progamme on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) focused on approaches and mechanisms for application of safety assessment methodologies for the predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts, which have since been incorporated into IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSG-3, Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. In 2005, an initial specification was developed for the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) software tool to apply the SADRWMS flowcharts. In 2008, an in-depth application of the SAFRAN tool and the SADRWMS methodology was carried out on the predisposal management facilities of the Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology Radioactive Waste Management Centre (TINT Facility). This publication summarizes the content and outcomes of the SADRWMS programme. The Chairman’s Report of the SADRWMS Project and the Report of the TINT test case are provided on the CD-ROM which accompanies this report

  1. Methodology for Safety Assessment Applied to Predisposal Waste Management. Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) 2004–2010). Companion CD-ROM

    Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) (2004–2010) The IAEA’s progamme on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) focused on approaches and mechanisms for application of safety assessment methodologies for the predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts, which have since been incorporated into IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSG-3, Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. In 2005, an initial specification was developed for the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) software tool to apply the SADRWMS flowcharts. In 2008, an in-depth application of the SAFRAN tool and the SADRWMS methodology was carried out on the predisposal management facilities of the Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology Radioactive Waste Management Centre (TINT Facility). This publication summarizes the content and outcomes of the SADRWMS programme. The Chairman’s Report of the SADRWMS Project and the Report of the TINT test case are provided on this CD-ROM which accompanies the report

  2. Mediterranean sea level variations.

    Vigo, I.; Sánchez Reales, J. M.; García, D.; Chao, B. F.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we report an updated study of the sea level variations for the Mediterranean sea for the period from October 1992 to January 2008. The study addresses two mayor issues: (i)The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface height (SSH) from radar altimetry measurements (from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) + Jason-1, etc.). We use EOF analysis to explain most of its interannual variation, and how the different basins interact. (ii) The analysis of dynamics and balance of water mass transport for the whole period. We estimate the steric SSH by combining the steric SSH estimated from temperature and salt profiles simulated by the ECCO model with time-variable gravity (TVG) data (from GRACE) for the Mediterranean Sea. The estimated steric SSH together with the SSH obtained from altimetry allow for a more realistic estimation of the water mass variations in the Mediterranean for the whole period.

  3. Variation and Synthetic Speech

    Miller, C; Massey, N; Miller, Corey; Karaali, Orhan; Massey, Noel

    1997-01-01

    We describe the approach to linguistic variation taken by the Motorola speech synthesizer. A pan-dialectal pronunciation dictionary is described, which serves as the training data for a neural network based letter-to-sound converter. Subsequent to dictionary retrieval or letter-to-sound generation, pronunciations are submitted a neural network based postlexical module. The postlexical module has been trained on aligned dictionary pronunciations and hand-labeled narrow phonetic transcriptions. This architecture permits the learning of individual postlexical variation, and can be retrained for each speaker whose voice is being modeled for synthesis. Learning variation in this way can result in greater naturalness for the synthetic speech that is produced by the system.

  4. Essential Variational Poisson Cohomology

    De Sole, Alberto; Kac, Victor G.

    2012-08-01

    In our recent paper "The variational Poisson cohomology" (2011) we computed the dimension of the variational Poisson cohomology {{{H}^bullet_K({V})}} for any quasiconstant coefficient ℓ × ℓ matrix differential operator K of order N with invertible leading coefficient, provided that {{{V}}} is a normal algebra of differential functions over a linearly closed differential field. In the present paper we show that, for K skewadjoint, the {{{Z}}} -graded Lie superalgebra {{{H}^bullet_K({V})}} is isomorphic to the finite dimensional Lie superalgebra {{widetilde{H}(Nell,S)}} . We also prove that the subalgebra of "essential" variational Poisson cohomology, consisting of classes vanishing on the Casimirs of K, is zero. This vanishing result has applications to the theory of bi-Hamiltonian structures and their deformations. At the end of the paper we consider also the translation invariant case.

  5. Asynchronous Variational Contact Mechanics

    Vouga, Etienne; Tamstorf, Rasmus; Grinspun, Eitan

    2010-01-01

    An asynchronous, variational method for simulating elastica in complex contact and impact scenarios is developed. Asynchronous Variational Integrators (AVIs) are extended to handle contact forces by associating different time steps to forces instead of to spatial elements. By discretizing a barrier potential by an infinite sum of nested quadratic potentials, these extended AVIs are used to resolve contact while obeying momentum- and energy-conservation laws. A series of two- and three-dimensional examples illustrate the robustness and good energy behavior of the method.

  6. CT characterization of developmental variations of the paranasal sinuses in cystic fibrosis

    Purpose: To describe variations of paranasal sinus development in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and in non-CF patients examined for inflammatory sinonasal disease. We focused on anatomic variants that predispose to orbital and cerebral penetration during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), e.g. hypoplasia of the maxillary sinus and low ethmoid roof. Material and Methods: One hundred and sixteen CF patients (3-54 years, median 18) and 136 control patients (7-51 years, median 31) were examined with coronal CT of the paranasal sinuses. CF patients were grouped according to number of confirmed mutations: CF-2 (n=70), CF-1 (n=32), CF-0 (n=14). CT images were evaluated with respect to paranasal sinus development, pneumatization variants and bony variants. Results: Frontal sinus aplasia and maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinus hypoplasia were markedly more frequent in CF-2 than in control patients. No CF-2 patient had pneumatization variants such as Haller cells or concha bullosa. Low ethmoid roof was seen in 30% of CF-2 children, but in no control children. CF-1 and CF-0 groups had prevalences of aplasia and hypoplasia intermediate to that of CF-2 and control patients. Conclusion: Genetically verified CF patients had less developed sinuses, lacked pneumatization variants, and more often had anatomic variants that predispose to complications during FESS. Normally developed sinuses and pneumatization variants in some genetically unverified CF patients (CF-1, CF-0) suggest that these patients may be erroneously diagnosed

  7. Prior antimicrobial therapy in the hospital and other predisposing factors influencing the usage of antibiotics in a pediatric critical care unit

    Tsorva Athina

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether prior antimicrobial therapy is an important risk factor for extended antimicrobial therapy among critically ill children. To evaluate other predisposing factors influencing the usage of antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU setting. To examine the relationship between the extent of antimicrobial treatment and the incidence of nosocomial infections and outcome. Methods This prospective observational cohort study was conducted at a university-affiliated teaching hospital (760 beds in Athens. Clinical data were collected upon admission and on each consecutive PICU day. The primary reason for PICU admission was recorded using a modified classification for mutually exclusive disease categories. All administered antibiotics to the PICU patients were recorded during a six-month period. Microbiological and pharmacological data were also collected over this period. The cumulative per patient and the maximum per day numbers of administered antibiotics, as well as the duration of administration were related to the following factors: Number of antibiotics which the patients were already receiving the day before admission, age groups, place of origin, the severity of illness, the primary disease and its complications during the course of hospitalization, the development of nosocomial infections with positive cultures, the presence of chronic disease or immunodeficiency, various interventional techniques (mechanical ventilation, central catheters, and PICU outcome. Results During a six-month period 174 patients were admitted to the PICU and received antibiotics for a total of 950 days (62.3% of the length of stay days. While in PICU, 34 patients did not receive antimicrobial treatment (19.5%, 69 received one antibiotic (39.7%, 42 two (24.1%, 17 three (9.8%, and 12 more than three (6.9%. The number of antibiotics prescribed in PICU or at discharge did not differ from that at

  8. Natural 14C variations

    This thesis deals with the natural variations in the atmospheric 14C activity, their geophysical origin and their impact on radiocarbon dating. Studies confirm the idea that one is dealing with a mechanism of a certain regularity. The correlation between a 14C variation during the Little Ice Age and the absence of sunspots on the solar surface suggest the sun to be responsible for some kind of modulation of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum. The background of a changing natural 14C level is relevant when studying the antropogenic perturbation of the atmospheric 14C concentration by the addition of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion. The results presented point to a Suess effect over the past 150 years of about 20 per thousand, but also show a local dilution effect. If this local effect is present over large continental parts of the Northern Hemisphere this will put limits to the use of tree ring 14C measurements for testing carbon reservoir models. Finally the influence of 14C variations upon the interpretations of 14C dates for archaeological and geological purposes has been investigated. It is shown that care must be taken especially in the interpretation of highly accurate 14C data of material only covering a few years of growth. One geological example illustrates that 14C variations can easily be interpretated as alternating fast and slow rises of the sea level. (Auth.)

  9. Variational transition state theory

    Truhlar, D.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  10. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  11. Bounded variation and around

    Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José

    2013-01-01

    This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.

  12. Variation and Linguistic Theory.

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This volume presents principles and models for describing language variation, and introduces a time-based, dynamic framework for linguistic description. The book first summarizes some of the problems of grammatical description encountered from Saussure through the present and then outlines possibilities for new descriptions of language which take…

  13. Diurnal variations of Titan

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  14. Classifying Measures of Biological Variation

    Gregorius, Hans-Rolf; Gillet, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Biological variation is commonly measured at two basic levels: variation within individual communities, and the distribution of variation over communities or within a metacommunity. We develop a classification for the measurement of biological variation on both levels: Within communities into the categories of dispersion and diversity, and within metacommunities into the categories of compositional differentiation and partitioning of variation. There are essentially two approaches to characte...

  15. The variational Poisson cohomolgy

    De Sole, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the validity of the so called Lenard-Magri scheme of integrability of a bi-Hamiltonian PDE can be established if one has some precise information on the corresponding 1st variational Poisson cohomology for one of the two Hamiltonian operators. In the first part of the paper we explain how to introduce various cohomology complexes, including Lie superalgebra and Poisson cohomology complexes, and basic and reduced Lie conformal algebra and Poisson vertex algebra cohomology complexes, by making use of the corresponding universal Lie superalebra or Lie conformal superalgebra. The most relevant are certain subcomplexes of the basic and reduced Poisson vertex algebra cohomology complexes, which we identify (non-canonically) with the generalized de Rham complex and the generalized variational complex. In the second part of the paper we compute the cohomology of the generalized de Rham complex, and, via a detailed study of the long exact sequence, we compute the cohomology of the generalized var...

  16. Automatic Differentiation Variational Inference

    Kucukelbir, Alp; Tran, Dustin; Ranganath, Rajesh; Gelman, Andrew; Blei, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic modeling is iterative. A scientist posits a simple model, fits it to her data, refines it according to her analysis, and repeats. However, fitting complex models to large data is a bottleneck in this process. Deriving algorithms for new models can be both mathematically and computationally challenging, which makes it difficult to efficiently cycle through the steps. To this end, we develop automatic differentiation variational inference (ADVI). Using our method, the scientist on...

  17. Planar theory made variational

    Jackson, A.D.; Lande, A.; Smith, R.A.

    1985-04-08

    Within the framework of boson parquet-diagram summations in perturbation theory, we show analytically that several simple approximations lead inevitably to the radial distribution function g(r) which would be obtained with the Jastrow hypernetted-chain variational method. This is the first derivation of the Jastrow result from perturbation theory. Without mentioning pair correlation functions, we have a clear interpretation of g(r) and the structure function, S(k), in terms of diagram sums.

  18. Planar theory made variational

    Within the framework of boson parquet-diagram summations in perturbation theory, we show analytically that several simple approximations lead inevitably to the radial distribution function g(r) which would be obtained with the Jastrow hypernetted-chain variational method. This is the first derivation of the Jastrow result from perturbation theory. Without mentioning pair correlation functions, we have a clear interpretation of g(r) and the structure function, S(k), in terms of diagram sums

  19. Canonical variate regression.

    Luo, Chongliang; Liu, Jin; Dey, Dipak K; Chen, Kun

    2016-07-01

    In many fields, multi-view datasets, measuring multiple distinct but interrelated sets of characteristics on the same set of subjects, together with data on certain outcomes or phenotypes, are routinely collected. The objective in such a problem is often two-fold: both to explore the association structures of multiple sets of measurements and to develop a parsimonious model for predicting the future outcomes. We study a unified canonical variate regression framework to tackle the two problems simultaneously. The proposed criterion integrates multiple canonical correlation analysis with predictive modeling, balancing between the association strength of the canonical variates and their joint predictive power on the outcomes. Moreover, the proposed criterion seeks multiple sets of canonical variates simultaneously to enable the examination of their joint effects on the outcomes, and is able to handle multivariate and non-Gaussian outcomes. An efficient algorithm based on variable splitting and Lagrangian multipliers is proposed. Simulation studies show the superior performance of the proposed approach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in an [Formula: see text] intercross mice study and an alcohol dependence study. PMID:26861909

  20. 老年人趾甲真菌病易感因素分析%A clinical analysis of the predisposing factors for toenail onychomycosis in the elderly

    杨敏; 鲍迎秋; 常建民

    2009-01-01

    mellitus are predisposing factors for toenail onychomycosis in the elderly.

  1. Late gestation over- and undernutrition predispose for visceral adiposity in response to a post-natal obesogenic diet, but with differential impacts on glucose-insulin adaptations during fasting in lambs

    Khanal, Prabhat; Husted, Sanne Vinter; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen;

    2014-01-01

    : Thirty-six twin-pregnant ewes were fed a NORM (fulfilling 100% of daily requirements for energy and protein), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH diet (150% of energy and 110% of protein requirements) during the last 6 weeks of gestation (term = 147 days). Post-natally, the twin lambs were subjected to a high...... plasma glucose, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride and lactate combined with abdominal obesity. Peri-renal fat appeared to be a particular target of a high-fat diet post-natally. Conclusion: Both prenatal under- and overnutrition predisposed for abdominal adiposity, apparently by...

  2. Introduction to global variational geometry

    Krupka, Demeter

    2015-01-01

    The book is devoted to recent research in the global variational theory on smooth manifolds. Its main objective is an extension of the classical variational calculus on Euclidean spaces to (topologically nontrivial) finite-dimensional smooth manifolds; to this purpose the methods of global analysis of differential forms are used. Emphasis is placed on the foundations of the theory of variational functionals on fibered manifolds - relevant geometric structures for variational principles in geometry, physical field theory and higher-order fibered mechanics. The book chapters include: - foundations of jet bundles and analysis of differential forms and vector fields on jet bundles, - the theory of higher-order integral variational functionals for sections of a fibred space, the (global) first variational formula in infinitesimal and integral forms- extremal conditions and the discussion of Noether symmetries and generalizations,- the inverse problems of the calculus of variations of Helmholtz type- variational se...

  3. Copy number variations in alternative splicing gene networks impact lifespan.

    Joseph T Glessner

    Full Text Available Longevity has a strong genetic component evidenced by family-based studies. Lipoprotein metabolism, FOXO proteins, and insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathways in model systems have shown polygenic variations predisposing to shorter lifespan. To test the hypothesis that rare variants could influence lifespan, we compared the rates of CNVs in healthy children (0-18 years of age with individuals 67 years or older. CNVs at a significantly higher frequency in the pediatric cohort were considered risk variants impacting lifespan, while those enriched in the geriatric cohort were considered longevity protective variants. We performed a whole-genome CNV analysis on 7,313 children and 2,701 adults of European ancestry genotyped with 302,108 SNP probes. Positive findings were evaluated in an independent cohort of 2,079 pediatric and 4,692 geriatric subjects. We detected 8 deletions and 10 duplications that were enriched in the pediatric group (P=3.33×10(-8-1.6×10(-2 unadjusted, while only one duplication was enriched in the geriatric cohort (P=6.3×10(-4. Population stratification correction resulted in 5 deletions and 3 duplications remaining significant (P=5.16×10(-5-4.26×10(-2 in the replication cohort. Three deletions and four duplications were significant combined (combined P=3.7×10(-4-3.9×10(-2. All associated loci were experimentally validated using qPCR. Evaluation of these genes for pathway enrichment demonstrated ~50% are involved in alternative splicing (P=0.0077 Benjamini and Hochberg corrected. We conclude that genetic variations disrupting RNA splicing could have long-term biological effects impacting lifespan.

  4. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  5. The P9 pocket of HLA-DQ2 (non-Aspbeta57) has no particular preference for negatively charged anchor residues found in other type 1 diabetes-predisposing non-Aspbeta57 MHC class II molecules

    Quarsten, H; Paulsen, G; Johansen, B H;

    1998-01-01

    Susceptibility and resistance to type 1 diabetes are associated with MHC class II alleles that carry non-Asp and Asp at residue 57 of their beta chain respectively. The effect of Asp or non-Aspbeta57 may relate to a differential ability of distinct class II molecules to bind specific immuno......-pathogenic peptides. Recent studies in man and mouse have revealed that some type 1 diabetes-predisposing non-Aspbeta57 class II molecules (i.e. DQ8, DR4Dw15 and I-Ag7) preferentially bind peptides with a negatively charged anchor residue at P9. It has been suggested that this is a common feature of type 1 diabetes......-predisposing class II molecules. The molecular explanation for such a phenomenon could be that class II beta chains with Aspbeta57 form a salt bridge between Aspbeta57 and a conserved Arg of the a chain, whereas in non-Aspbeta57 molecules the Arg is unopposed and free to interact with negatively charged P9 peptide...

  6. Dynamics of nonholonomic systems from variational principles embedded variation identity

    Nondeterminacy of dynamics, i.e., the nonholonomic or the vakonomic, fundamental variational principles, e.g., the Lagrange-d'Alembert or Hamiltonian, and variational operators, etc., of nonholonomic mechanical systems can be attributed to the non-uniqueness of ways how to realize nonholonomic constraints. Making use of a variation identity of nonholonomic constraints embedded into the Hamilton's principle with the method of Lagrange undetermined multipliers, three kinds of dynamics for the nonholonomic systems including the vakonomic and nonholonomic ones and a new one are obtained if the variation is respectively reduced to three conditional variations: vakonomic variation, Hoelder's variation and Suslov's variation, defined by the identity. Therefore, different dynamics of nonholonomic systems can be derived from an integral variational principle, utilizing one way of embedding constraints into the principle, with different variations. It is verified that the similar embedding of the identity into the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle gives rise to the nonholonomic dynamics but fails to give the vakonomic one unless the constraints are integrable.

  7. On the Variational Problems without Having Desired Variational Symmetries

    Mehdi Nadjafikhah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We will have an attempt to present a method for constructing variational problems without having a desired one-parameter transformation group as a variational symmetry. For this, we use the notation of μ-symmetry which was introduced by Giuseppe Gaeta and Paola Morando in 2004. Moreover, our given method enabled us to solve those constructed variational problems using μ-symmetries.

  8. FROG - Fingerprinting Genomic Variation Ontology.

    E Abinaya

    Full Text Available Genetic variations play a crucial role in differential phenotypic outcomes. Given the complexity in establishing this correlation and the enormous data available today, it is imperative to design machine-readable, efficient methods to store, label, search and analyze this data. A semantic approach, FROG: "FingeRprinting Ontology of Genomic variations" is implemented to label variation data, based on its location, function and interactions. FROG has six levels to describe the variation annotation, namely, chromosome, DNA, RNA, protein, variations and interactions. Each level is a conceptual aggregation of logically connected attributes each of which comprises of various properties for the variant. For example, in chromosome level, one of the attributes is location of variation and which has two properties, allosomes or autosomes. Another attribute is variation kind which has four properties, namely, indel, deletion, insertion, substitution. Likewise, there are 48 attributes and 278 properties to capture the variation annotation across six levels. Each property is then assigned a bit score which in turn leads to generation of a binary fingerprint based on the combination of these properties (mostly taken from existing variation ontologies. FROG is a novel and unique method designed for the purpose of labeling the entire variation data generated till date for efficient storage, search and analysis. A web-based platform is designed as a test case for users to navigate sample datasets and generate fingerprints. The platform is available at http://ab-openlab.csir.res.in/frog.

  9. Single-Nucleotide Variations in Cardiac Arrhythmias: Prospects for Genomics and Proteomics Based Biomarker Discovery and Diagnostics

    Ayman Abunimer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a large contributor to causes of early death in developed countries. Some of these conditions, such as sudden cardiac death and atrial fibrillation, stem from arrhythmias—a spectrum of conditions with abnormal electrical activity in the heart. Genome-wide association studies can identify single nucleotide variations (SNVs that may predispose individuals to developing acquired forms of arrhythmias. Through manual curation of published genome-wide association studies, we have collected a comprehensive list of 75 SNVs associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Ten of the SNVs result in amino acid changes and can be used in proteomic-based detection methods. In an effort to identify additional non-synonymous mutations that affect the proteome, we analyzed the post-translational modification S-nitrosylation, which is known to affect cardiac arrhythmias. We identified loss of seven known S-nitrosylation sites due to non-synonymous single nucleotide variations (nsSNVs. For predicted nitrosylation sites we found 1429 proteins where the sites are modified due to nsSNV. Analysis of the predicted S-nitrosylation dataset for over- or under-representation (compared to the complete human proteome of pathways and functional elements shows significant statistical over-representation of the blood coagulation pathway. Gene Ontology (GO analysis displays statistically over-represented terms related to muscle contraction, receptor activity, motor activity, cystoskeleton components, and microtubule activity. Through the genomic and proteomic context of SNVs and S-nitrosylation sites presented in this study, researchers can look for variation that can predispose individuals to cardiac arrhythmias. Such attempts to elucidate mechanisms of arrhythmia thereby add yet another useful parameter in predicting susceptibility for cardiac diseases.

  10. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  11. Do Copy Number Changes in CACNA2D2, CACNA2D3, and CACNA1D Constitute a Predisposing Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease?

    Villela, Darine; Suemoto, Claudia K.; Pasqualucci, Carlos A.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Rosenberg, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is now being recognized to be a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Data from the literature, in particular the association between AD and polymorphism that interfere with Ca2+ homeostasis indicates the presence of genetic factors in this process; further, presenilins mutations, which are known to cause the familial form of AD, are involved in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ stores. Here, we wish to draw attention to rare DNA copy number variations identified in two subjects with late-onset AD that led to partial or full duplication of genes that encode different subunits of the same type of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels; these duplications of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel genes is consistent with the critical role of calcium signaling in molecular processes underlying memory as has been demonstrated by several studies. PMID:27379157

  12. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  13. Anatomical variations in the brachial plexus roots: implications for diagnosis of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Leonhard, Vanessa; Smith, Riley; Caldwell, Gregory; Smith, Heather F

    2016-07-01

    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) is the most common type of TOS. Typically it results from impingement of the neurovasculature as it passes between the anterior and middle scalene muscles; this classic anatomical relationship being the foundation of clinical diagnosis. Positional testing relies on vascular compromise occurring when the subclavian artery is compressed in this space. This study describes several anatomical variations observed in this relationship. Sixty-five cadavers (35m/30f) were assessed to determine the frequency and extent of brachial plexus branching variants. A total of thirty-one variations from "classic" anatomy were observed (47.7%). In two specimens (3.1%), the entire superior trunk coursed completely anterior to the anterior scalene in a position of relative vulnerability. In 27 instances, a portion of or the entire superior trunk pierced the anterior scalene muscle, and in two, the middle trunk also pierced the muscle belly. Interestingly, while two bilateral branching variations were observed, the majority occurred unilaterally, and almost exclusively on the left side. There were no sex differences in frequency. The high frequency of these variations and their potential to predispose patients to neurogenic TOS suggest that current diagnostic methods may be insufficient in clinical diagnosis. Due to lack of vascular compromise, patients with the piercing variant would not display positive signs on the traditional positional tests. The use of ultrasound to determine the route of the brachial plexus could determine whether this variation is present in patients who suffer from TOS symptoms but lack a diagnosis based on traditional positional testing. PMID:27133185

  14. Genotype–phenotype relationship of F7 R353Q polymorphism and plasma factor VII coagulant activity in Asian Indian families predisposed to coronary artery disease

    Jayashree Shanker; Ganapathy Perumal; Arindam Maitra; Veena S. Rao; B. K. Natesha; Shibu John; Sridhar Hebbagodi; Vijay V. Kakkar

    2009-12-01

    Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the role of R353Q polymorphism in the F7 gene in 139 Indian families with CAD, comprising of 222 affected subjects, 105 unaffected subjects and 126 affected sibling pairs. Plasma per cent FVIIc activity (FVII.c activity) differed significantly across R353Q genotype ($P \\lt 0.0001$). Frequency of subjects with RR and QQ genotypes were higher in 4th quartile and 1st quartile of FVII.c activity, respectively ($P \\lt 0.0001$). F7 R353Q SNP was able to explain up to 7% of variation in FVII.c activity by regression analysis and an additive genetic component of variance of 28.04% by heritability analysis. Quantitative trait loci analysis showed suggestive linkage evidence of F7 SNP with per cent FVII.c activity (LOD score $-1.82$; $P = 0.002$). Individuals with RR and RQ genotypes carried an OR of 2.071 (95% c.i. = 1.506–2.850) and 2.472 (95% c.i. = 1.679–3.641), respectively, towards CAD risk. There was significant correlation of FVII.c activity with lipid markers, particularly among those with RR and RQ genotype after covariate adjustment. In conclusion, the F7 R353Q SNP appears to moderately influence plasma FVII.c activity and risk of CAD in Indians.

  15. A Theory of Harmonic Variations

    de Piro, Tristram

    2014-01-01

    We consider a class of "harmonic variations" for nonsingular curves, obtained as asymptotic degenerations along bitangents. On a geometric level, we obtain an attractive relationship between the class and the genus of $C$. The distribution of class points in pairs across nonsingular curves with such variations, further suggests applications to understanding covalent bonding in terms of shared electrons.

  16. Colony Variation in Staphylococcus lugdunensis

    Leung, Michael J.; Nuttall, Nichalas; Pryce, Todd M.; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Pearman, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is being increasingly reported as a pathogen with an outcome resembling that of S. aureus rather than coagulase-negative staphylococci. Recent local isolates exhibited colonial variation that delayed identification and interpretation of clinical significance. Until now previous descriptions have not emphasized colonial variation as an important identifying characteristic of S. lugdunensis.

  17. Polymorphisms in the pituitary growth hormone gene and its receptor associated with coronary artery disease in a predisposed cohort from India

    Arindam Maitra; Jayashree Shanker; Debabrata Dash; Prathima R. Sannappa; Shibu John; Pratibha Siwach; Veena S. Rao; H. Sridhara; Vijay V. Kakkar

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the promoter polymorphisms of the pituitary growth hormone gene (GH1) and exon 3 deletion polymorphism (GHRd3) in its receptor gene (GHR) in 299 angiographically proven patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 231 asymptomatic controls enrolled in the ongoing Indian Atherosclerosis Research Study. Real time PCR based analysis of the GHR variant showed significant association of the GHRd3 deletion allele with CAD (OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.30–0.76, $P = 0.0014$) and a dominant model of inheritance (Akaike information criterion = 482). The deletion allele showed significant association with high plasma HDL-c levels ($P = 0.001$). Sequencing of the proximal promoter region of GH1 revealed 12 novel polymorphisms and a TAGA haplotype constituted by the functional SNPs rs2005171, rs11568828, rs2005172 and rs6171, that showed significant association with CAD alone (adjusted OR of 3.31 (95% CI = 1.33–8.29, $P = 0.011$) and in CAD patients with diabetes ($P = 0.019$). Mean standardized height was associated with three of the four haplotype-tagging SNPs in the cohort ($P \\leq 0.03$). Eleven of the 12 polymorphic promoter SNPs contributed to 14.7% of variation in height in females in the whole dataset ($P = 0.029$). CAD patients with history of stroke exhibited marginally significantly lower mean height as compared to rest of the cohort ($P \\lt 0.006$). In conclusion, genetic polymorphisms in the GHR gene and its ligand, GH1, may modulate the risk of CAD in the Asian Indian population.

  18. Variational and quasi-variational inequalities in mechanics

    Kravchuk, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    The essential aim of the present book is to consider a wide set of problems arising in the mathematical modelling of mechanical systems under unilateral constraints. In these investigations elastic and non-elastic deformations, friction and adhesion phenomena are taken into account. All the necessary mathematical tools are given: local boundary value problem formulations, construction of variational equations and inequalities, and the transition to minimization problems, existence and uniqueness theorems, and variational transformations (Friedrichs and Young-Fenchel-Moreau) to dual and saddle-point search problems. Important new results concern contact problems with friction. The Coulomb friction law and some others are considered, in which relative sliding velocities appear. The corresponding quasi-variational inequality is constructed, as well as the appropriate iterative method for its solution. Outlines of the variational approach to non-stationary and dissipative systems and to the construction of the go...

  19. Statistics, Uncertainty, and Transmitted Variation

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-05

    The field of Statistics provides methods for modeling and understanding data and making decisions in the presence of uncertainty. When examining response functions, variation present in the input variables will be transmitted via the response function to the output variables. This phenomenon can potentially have significant impacts on the uncertainty associated with results from subsequent analysis. This presentation will examine the concept of transmitted variation, its impact on designed experiments, and a method for identifying and estimating sources of transmitted variation in certain settings.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of copy number variation in type 1 diabetes.

    Britney L Grayson

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D tends to cluster in families, suggesting there may be a genetic component predisposing to disease. However, a recent large-scale genome-wide association study concluded that identified genetic factors, single nucleotide polymorphisms, do not account for overall familiality. Another class of genetic variation is the amplification or deletion of >1 kilobase segments of the genome, also termed copy number variations (CNVs. We performed genome-wide CNV analysis on a cohort of 20 unrelated adults with T1D and a control (Ctrl cohort of 20 subjects using the Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 in combination with the Birdsuite copy number calling software. We identified 39 CNVs as enriched or depleted in T1D versus Ctrl. Additionally, we performed CNV analysis in a group of 10 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T1D. Eleven of these 39 CNVs were also respectively enriched or depleted in the Twin cohort, suggesting that these variants may be involved in the development of islet autoimmunity, as the presently unaffected twin is at high risk for developing islet autoimmunity and T1D in his or her lifetime. These CNVs include a deletion on chromosome 6p21, near an HLA-DQ allele. CNVs were found that were both enriched or depleted in patients with or at high risk for developing T1D. These regions may represent genetic variants contributing to development of islet autoimmunity in T1D.

  1. Representing Term Variation in lemon

    Montiel-Ponsoda, Elena; Aguado de Cea, G.; McCrae, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution our objective is to define term variation, analyze the state of the art, and propose a new classification of term variants according to our representation purposes in lemon, a lexiconontology model to enrich ontologies with linguistic descriptions.

  2. Quality of Variational Trial States

    Lucha, Wolfgang; Lucha, Wolfgang; Schoberl, Franz F.

    1999-01-01

    Besides perturbation theory (which clearly requires the knowledge of the exact unperturbed solution), variational techniques represent the main tool for any investigation of the eigenvalue problem of some semibounded operator H in quantum theory. For a reasonable choice of the employed trial subspace of the domain of H, the lowest eigenvalues of H usually can be located with acceptable precision whereas the trial-subspace vectors corresponding to these eigenvalues approximate, in general, the exact eigenstates of H with much less accuracy. Accordingly, various measures for the accuracy of the approximate eigenstates derived by variational techniques are scrutinized. In particular, the matrix elements of the commutator of the operator H and (suitably chosen) different operators with respect to degenerate approximate eigenstates of H obtained by variational methods are proposed as new criteria for the accuracy of variational eigenstates. These considerations are applied to precisely that Hamiltonian for which t...

  3. Stochastic Annealing for Variational Inference

    Gultekin, San; Zhang, Aonan; Paisley, John

    2015-01-01

    We empirically evaluate a stochastic annealing strategy for Bayesian posterior optimization with variational inference. Variational inference is a deterministic approach to approximate posterior inference in Bayesian models in which a typically non-convex objective function is locally optimized over the parameters of the approximating distribution. We investigate an annealing method for optimizing this objective with the aim of finding a better local optimal solution and compare with determin...

  4. An Overview of Variational Integrators

    Lew, Adrian; Marsden, Jerrold E.; Ortiz, Michael; West, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey some recent advances in variational integrators for both finite dimensional mechanical systems as well as continuum mechanics. These advances include the general development of discrete mechanics, applications to dissipative systems, collisions, spacetime integration algorithms, AVI’s (Asynchronous Variational Integrators), as well as reduction for discrete mechanical systems. To keep the article within the set limits, we will only trea...

  5. Variational Gaussian Process Dynamical Systems

    Damianou, Andreas C.; Titsias, Michalis K.; Lawrence, Neil D.

    2011-01-01

    High dimensional time series are endemic in applications of machine learning such as robotics (sensor data), computational biology (gene expression data), vision (video sequences) and graphics (motion capture data). Practical nonlinear probabilistic approaches to this data are required. In this paper we introduce the variational Gaussian process dynamical system. Our work builds on recent variational approximations for Gaussian process latent variable models to allow for nonlinear dimensional...

  6. Coupled Dark Energy field variation

    García-Zúñiga, Roberto Carlos; Izquierdo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    The variation of the dark energy field is found under the assumption that the dark energy is parametric and interacts with the cold dark matter. Considering that the variation of the field could not exceed the Planck mass, we obtain bounds on the coupling and adiabatic coefficients. Three parameterizations of the adiabatic coefficients are considered and two coupling terms where the energy flows from dark energy to dark matter, or the other way around.

  7. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator

  8. Investigation of the initial symptom, onset time and predisposing factors of acute cerebral haemorrhage%急性出血性脑血管疾病相关因素分析

    曹非; 骆芳; 胡波; 魏桂荣; 许辉; 菜敬杰

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the initial symptoms, onset time and predisposing factors of acute cerebral haemorrhage in order to more effectively prevent cerebral haemorrhage. Methods 728 cases with acute cerebral haemorrhage were collected in recent 8 years. The initial symptoms,onset time and predisposing factors of all the patients were investigated. Results Acute cerebral haemorrhage in 582 caces (79.9%) occurred at time between 6am and 18pm and 146 cases (20%) at night. The main predisposing causes of acute cerebral haemorrhage were the playing of chess, cards and mahjong (16.1%), quarrels (12.8%), overwork (11.7%), alcoholism (7.2%) and so on. The most common initial symptom was hemianesthesia, accounting for 16.2%, others were vertigo (13.0%), headache ( 11.4%), amaurosis fugax ( 9.3%), speech ambiguity ( 8.6%) and transitory visual disturbance (7.9%). Conclusions The preventive measures of cerebral haemorrhage should be focused on daytime, especially in the morning. Sixteen locations where the cerebral haemorrhage is prone to happen should be paid more attention to by the patients with hypertension and the medical staff. Thirteen symptoms,such as hemianesthesia and vertigo,are the aurae of cerebral haemorrhage.%目的 调查急性脑出血患者首发症状、发病时间和诱因,旨在更有效预防脑出血发病.方法 搜集调查近8年728例脑出血患者临床资料,分析其首发症状、发病时问和诱因. 结果 6:00~18:00发病582例占79.9%.18:00~6:00发病146例,占20.0%.脑出血发病第1位诱因是麻将棋牌,达117例,占16.1%,其次分别为争吵93例(12.8%),过劳85例(11.7%),酗酒53例(7.2%)等.首发症状最多见的足偏身麻木,118例,占16.2%;其次为突发眩晕,其他排列顺序依次为:头痛、一过性黑朦、言语含糊、短暂性视力障碍. 结论 脑出血发病预防重点应放在白天,尤其是上午;16种脑出血好发诱因应引起高血压患者和医务人员的重视,偏身麻木、眩晕等13

  9. Is there much variation in variation? Revisiting statistics of small area variation in health services research

    Ibáñez Berta

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of Small Area Variation Analysis for policy-making contrasts with the scarcity of work on the validity of the statistics used in these studies. Our study aims at 1 determining whether variation in utilization rates between health areas is higher than would be expected by chance, 2 estimating the statistical power of the variation statistics; and 3 evaluating the ability of different statistics to compare the variability among different procedures regardless of their rates. Methods Parametric bootstrap techniques were used to derive the empirical distribution for each statistic under the hypothesis of homogeneity across areas. Non-parametric procedures were used to analyze the empirical distribution for the observed statistics and compare the results in six situations (low/medium/high utilization rates and low/high variability. A small scale simulation study was conducted to assess the capacity of each statistic to discriminate between different scenarios with different degrees of variation. Results Bootstrap techniques proved to be good at quantifying the difference between the null hypothesis and the variation observed in each situation, and to construct reliable tests and confidence intervals for each of the variation statistics analyzed. Although the good performance of Systematic Component of Variation (SCV, Empirical Bayes (EB statistic shows better behaviour under the null hypothesis, it is able to detect variability if present, it is not influenced by the procedure rate and it is best able to discriminate between different degrees of heterogeneity. Conclusion The EB statistics seems to be a good alternative to more conventional statistics used in small-area variation analysis in health service research because of its robustness.

  10. Variational principle for quasibound states

    A minimum-variance principle for quasibound states is defined and utilized to investigate the corresponding energy resonances. The variational principle yields simultaneously a resonance energy E and a square-integrable wave function phi, such that minimum variance is obtained for arbitrary variations of a restricted class of square-integrable functions as well as with respect to variations of E. It is further shown that the optimum energy E0 obtained from this method can simultaneously be written as an expectation value of the actual Hamiltonian with respect to phi = phi (E0). The example of the Stark effect in the hydrogen atom is studied. It is shown that the variationally obtained resonance energy coincides with the real part of the complex pole of the m function of Weyl, related to the Green's function of the system under consideration. It is also shown that the corresponding numerical application of the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method only gives meaningful results for field intensities below 0.06 a.u., as compared with the ''exact'' results of Hehenberger, McIntosh, and Brandas

  11. Kernels and ranges in the variational formalism

    An extension of the concept of variational derivative is introduced which allows one to derive an integral identity in the variational formalism. It is applied to characterize the kernel and range of the variational derivative and the divergence operator. (Auth.)

  12. Variational Lie derivative and cohomology classes

    Palese, Marcella; Winterroth, Ekkehart

    2011-07-01

    We relate cohomology defined by a system of local Lagrangian with the cohomology class of the system of local variational Lie derivative, which is in turn a local variational problem; we show that the latter cohomology class is zero, since the variational Lie derivative `trivializes' cohomology classes defined by variational forms. As a consequence, conservation laws associated with symmetries of the second variational derivative of a local variational problem are globally defined.

  13. Solid mechanics a variational approach

    Dym, Clive L

    2013-01-01

    Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems.  Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...

  14. Constrained variational calculus: the second variation (part I)

    Massa, Enrico; Pagani, Enrico; Luria, Gianvittorio

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a direct continuation of arXiv:0705.2362 . The Hamiltonian aspects of the theory are further developed. Within the framework provided by the first paper, the problem of minimality for constrained calculus of variations is analyzed among the class of differentiable curves. A necessary and sufficient condition for minimality is proved.

  15. Storm surge variational assimilation model

    Shi-li HUANG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To eliminate errors caused by uncertainty of parameters and further improve capability of storm surge forecasting, the variational data assimilation method is applied to the storm surge model based on unstructured grid with high spatial resolution. The method can effectively improve the forecasting accuracy of storm surge induced by typhoon through controlling wind drag force coefficient parameter. The model is first theoretically validated with synthetic data. Then, the real storm surge process induced by the TC 0515 typhoon is forecasted by the variational data assimilation model, and results show the feasibility of practical application.

  16. A variational formulation of electrodynamics

    De Nicola, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    We present a variational formulation of electrodynamics using de Rham even and odd differential forms. Our formulation relies on a variational principle more complete than the Hamilton principle and thus leads to field equations with external sources and permits the derivation of the constitutive relations. We interpret a domain in space-time as an odd de Rham 4-current. This permits a treatment of different types of boundary problems in an unified way. In particular we obtain a smooth transition to the infinitesimal version by using a current with a one point support.

  17. Structure variations of carbonizing lignin

    The studied lignin is a by-product of the process of ethanol production from eucaliptus. It was heat-treated under inert atmosphere conditions at increasing temperatures from 300C up to 2400C. The structural variations were studied by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The bulk and 'real' density of the compacted materials have also been determined as functions of the final temperature. These experimental results enabled us to establish a mechanism of structure variation based on the formation of a turbostratic graphite-like and porous structure within the initially amorphous lignin matrix. (Author)

  18. Common variations in ALG9 are not associated with bipolar I disorder: a family-based study

    Bacanu Silviu-Alin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mannosyltransferase gene (ALG9, DIBD1 at chromosome band 11q23 was previously identified to be disrupted by a balanced chromosomal translocation t(9;11(p24;q23 co-segregating with bipolar affective disorder in a small family. Inborn ALG9 deficiency (congenital disorders of glycosylation type IL is associated with progressive microcephaly, seizures, developmental delay, and hepatomegaly. It is unknown whether common variations of ALG9 predispose to bipolar affective disorder. Methods We tested five polymorphic markers spanning ALG9 (three intragenic and one upstream microsatellite repeats and one common missense variation, V289I (rs10502151 for their association with bipolar I disorder in two pedigree series. The NIMH (National Institute of Mental Health pedigrees had a total of 166 families showing transmissions to 250 affected offspring, whereas The PITT (The University of Pittsburgh pedigrees had a total of 129 families showing transmissions to 135 cases. We used transmission disequilibrium test for the association analyses. Results We identified three common and distinct haplotypes spanning the ALG9 gene. We found no statistically-significant evidence of transmission disequilibrium of marker alleles or multi-marker haplotypes to the affected offspring with bipolar I disorder. Conclusion These results suggest that common variations in ALG9 do not play a major role in predisposition to bipolar affective disorder.

  19. Variation

    2001-01-01

    Veränderung (lat. variatio) einer melodisch oder harmonisch feststehenden Gestalt als epochen- und stilübergreifendes Kompositionsprinzip und im engeren Sinn als eigenständige, an ein (präexistentes) Thema gebundene Form.

  20. Variational approach for quarkonium potentials

    A variational method based on Coulomb and harmonic oscillator trial functions has been investigated in the context of single and superposition of power potentials which are commonly used for quarkonium systems. Ground state energies being upper bounds are calculated and emerge surprisingly close to their exact values considering the simplicity of the method

  1. Sea level and climate variations

    Oerlemans, J.

    1985-01-01

    Review paper, ESA Symposium on Application of Satellite Data to Climate Modelling. Alpbach (Austria) Sea level is an essential component of the climate system, on which many human activities in the coastal zone depend. Climate variations leading to changes in relative sea level are discussed, with

  2. Variational integrators in plasma physics

    To a large extent, research in plasma physics is concerned with the description and analysis of energy and momentum transfer between different scales and different kinds of waves. In the numerical modelling of such phenomena it appears to be crucial to describe the transfer processes preserving the underlying conservation laws in order to prevent physically spurious solutions. In this work, special numerical methods, so called variational integrators, are developed for several models of plasma physics. Special attention is given to conservation properties like conservation of energy and momentum. By design, variational integrators are applicable to all systems that have a Lagrangian formulation. Usually, equations of motion are derived by Hamilton's action principle and then discretised. In the application of the variational integrator theory, the order of these steps is reversed. At first, the Lagrangian and the accompanying variational principle are discretised, such that discrete equations of motion can be obtained directly by applying the discrete variational principle to the discrete Lagrangian. The advantage of this approach is that the resulting discretisation automatically retains the conservation properties of the continuous system. Following an overview of the geometric formulation of classical mechanics and field theory, which forms the basis of the variational integrator theory, variational integrators are introduced in a framework adapted to problems from plasma physics. The applicability of variational integrators is explored for several important models of plasma physics: particle dynamics (guiding centre dynamics), kinetic theory (the Vlasov-Poisson system) and fluid theory (magnetohydrodynamics). These systems, with the exception of guiding centre dynamics, do not possess a Lagrangian formulation to which the variational integrator methodology is directly applicable. Therefore the theory is extended by linking it to Ibragimov's theory of

  3. Geometric constrained variational calculus. III: The second variation (Part II)

    Massa, Enrico; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    The problem of minimality for constrained variational calculus is analyzed within the class of piecewise differentiable extremaloids. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional based on a family of local gauge transformations of the original Lagrangian is proposed. The necessity of pursuing a local adaptation process, rather than the global one described in [1] is seen to depend on the value of certain scalar attributes of the extremaloid, here called the corners’ strengths. On this basis, both the necessary and the sufficient conditions for minimality are worked out. In the discussion, a crucial role is played by an analysis of the prolongability of the Jacobi fields across the corners. Eventually, in the appendix, an alternative approach to the concept of strength of a corner, more closely related to Pontryagin’s maximum principle, is presented.

  4. Factors identifying pigs predisposed to tail biting

    Beattie, V. E.; Breuer, K.; O Connell, N. E.; Sneddon, I. A.; Mercer, J. T.; Rance, K. A.; Sutcliffe, M. E. M.; Edwards, S A

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 5% of pigs slaughtered in the UK have been tail-bitten, leading to welfare and production issues. Tail biting is sporadic and not all pigs tail bite. The aim of this study was to identify factors that are common in pigs that perform tail-biting behaviour, and that might be used in a predictive way to identify such animals. The behaviour of 159 pigs was observed in the post-weaning period. Pigs were weaned at 4 weeks of age. In the week prior to weaning and at 6 weeks of age each...

  5. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  6. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Results: Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Conclusions: Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD. PMID:21976868

  7. Can antioxidants predispose to cancer recurrence?

    Krishnananda Prabhu; Gummadi Maheshwar Reddy; Anjali Rao

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To measure and compare pre-and post-treatment levels of serum total glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in stage IV cervical cancer patients and erythrocytic glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasma ceruloplasmin (CP) and total GST in stage IV oral cancer patients and to correlate with the response to treatment during a two year follow-up period in respective cancer groups. Methods:Thirty-four biopsy-proven stage IV oral cancer and cervical cancer patients (n=17 in each group) who underwent same mode of treatment were chosen for this study. Erythrocytic MDA and GSH, CP and serum total GST were measured in all patients before the onset of treatment, and the GST level was only measured in cervical cancer patients after radiotherapy. The levels were compared with their respective prognosis in 2 years. Results:Oral cancer patients with higher pretreatment levels of GSH, CP and GST came with cancer recurrence within 2 years after the onset of treatment. Cervical cancer patients with higher post radiotherapy levels of serum total GST had higher recurrence tate. Conclusions:This study indicates there may be a role for these antioxidant parameters namely GST, GSH, CP in assessment of long term survival and prognosis of cancer patients.

  8. Variation of Parameters in Differential Equations (A Variation in Making Sense of Variation of Parameters)

    Quinn, Terry; Rai, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    The method of variation of parameters can be found in most undergraduate textbooks on differential equations. The method leads to solutions of the non-homogeneous equation of the form y = u[subscript 1]y[subscript 1] + u[subscript 2]y[subscript 2], a sum of function products using solutions to the homogeneous equation y[subscript 1] and…

  9. Comparing variation across European countries

    Thygesen, Lau C; Baixauli-Pérez, Cristobal; Librero-López, Julián;

    2015-01-01

    units of analysis in the estimation of systematic variation in three countries. METHODS: Hospital discharges for six conditions (congestive heart failure, short-term complications of diabetes, hip fracture, knee replacement, prostatectomy in prostate cancer and percutaneous coronary intervention......) produced in Denmark, England and Portugal in 2008 and 2009 were allocated to both original geographical units and new ad hoc areas. New areas were built using Ward's minimum variance methods. The impact of the new areas on variability was assessed using Kernel distribution curves and different statistic...... inhabitants vs. 7% in Denmark and 5% in England. Point estimates for Extremal Quotient and Interquartile Interval Ratio were lower in the three countries, particularly in less prevalent conditions. In turn, the Systematic Component of Variation and Empirical Bayes statistic were slightly lower in more...

  10. Variational Integrators for Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics

    Kraus, Michael; Grasso, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws are described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify...

  11. Bernoulli Variational Problem and Beyond

    Lorz, Alexander

    2013-12-17

    The question of \\'cutting the tail\\' of the solution of an elliptic equation arises naturally in several contexts and leads to a singular perturbation problem under the form of a strong cut-off. We consider both the PDE with a drift and the symmetric case where a variational problem can be stated. It is known that, in both cases, the same critical scale arises for the size of the singular perturbation. More interesting is that in both cases another critical parameter (of order one) arises that decides when the limiting behaviour is non-degenerate. We study both theoretically and numerically the values of this critical parameter and, in the symmetric case, ask if the variational solution leads to the same value as for the maximal solution of the PDE. Finally we propose a weak formulation of the limiting Bernoulli problem which incorporates both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. Diurnal variation of depressive symptoms

    Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal variation of depressive symptoms appears to be part of the core of depression. Yet longitudinal investigation of an individual's pattern regularity, relation to clinical state, and clinical improvement reveals little homogeneity. Morning lows, afternoon slump, evening worsening - all can occur during a single depressive episode. Mood variability, or the propensity to produce mood swings, appears to be the characteristic that most predicts capacity to respond to treatment. Laboratory s...

  13. Regular Variation and Smile Asymptotics

    Benaim, Shalom; Friz, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We consider risk-neutral returns and show how their tail asymptotics translate directly to asymptotics of the implied volatility smile, thereby sharpening Roger Lee's celebrated moment formula. The theory of regular variation provides the ideal mathematical framework to formulate and prove such results. The practical value of our formulae comes from the vast literature on tail asymptotics and our conditions are often seen to be true by simple inspection of known results.

  14. Global Stress Variation over Time

    Yi, H.; Lu, Z.; Wen, L.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how stress changes over time is important as it is related to studies of earthquake triggering and mantle rheology. We calculate stress variation at the Earth's surface on the global scale from 2003 to 2014, resultant from several major physical forces acting on the Earth. The physical forces we considered include the surface loading due to terrestrial water storage (TWS), force associated with post-glacial rebound (PGR) and tidal loading (including solid tide and ocean tide). The stress change associated with TWS is calculated in this way: we infer TWS from monthly gravity field of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), in which gravity variation associated with PGR has been removed; we then estimate stress change at the Earth's surface as the elastic response of the GRACE-inferred TWS change. The stress change associated with PGR is calculated as the rate of viscoelastic stress change responding to ice loading from ICE-5G model. And, tidal stress is calculated as the elastic response of the Earth to the traction forces of the Sun and the Moon (solid tide) and to the loading of ocean tide. The total stress change is the sum of the stress changes associated with these three types of forces. As first result, in the study period from 2003 to 2014, the radial normal stress variation exhibits a prominent decreasing trend in southern Africa and Queen Maud Land of Antarctica, an increasing trend in Alaska of the US (United States), Greenland and Marie Byrd Land of Antarctica, and strong annual cycles in southern Africa and Alaska of the US. We will present the geographical distribution of global stress variation from 2003 to 2014 and discuss its possible implications.

  15. Discussion on Predisposing Factors of Patients with Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes and Pregnancy Outcome%未足月胎膜早破患者易发因素分析及妊娠结局探讨

    张珊珊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the main predisposing factors of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), and observe the outcomes of mother and infant, so as to provide evidence for clinical prevention and treatment. Methods 117 cases of PPROM patients hospitalized from January 2013 to March 2015 were selected as observation group, 112 cases of normal puerpera at the same period were selected as control group, to observe and compare the related predisposing factors of PPROM and pregnancy outcomes. Results The percentage of vaginitis/cervicitis history, abortion history, uterine scar, fetal abnormalities, diabetes/pregnancy-induced hypertension and sexual life of the observation group was 27.35% (32/117), 23.93% (28/117), 11.11% (13/117), 15.38% (18/117), 12.82% (15/117) and 10.26%(12/117) respectively, significantly higher than that of the control group, respectively (P0.05). 观察组阴道顺产率、 阴道助产率和剖宫产率分别为19.66% (23/117)、 39.32% (46/117) 和41.03%(48/117), 与对照组比较, 差异具有统计学意义 (P<0.05). 观察组新生儿窒息、 新生儿肺炎、 产后出血、 产褥感染、 绒毛膜羊膜炎、 呼吸窘迫综合征 (NRDS)、 早产和围生儿死亡的发生率分别为17.95% (21/117)、 7.69% (9/117)、 12.82% (15/117)、22.22% (26/117)、 8.55% (10/117)、 15.38% (18/117)、 94.87% (111/117) 和5.13% (6/117), 均高于对照组, 差异均具有统计学意义 (P<0.05). 观察组新生儿体重和Apgar评分分别为 (1 788.20±276.54) g和 (7.39±0.60) 分, 均低于对照组, 差异具有统计学意义 (P<0.05). 观察组产妇分娩后住院天数为 (9.62±0.63) d, 显著长于对照组, 差异具有统计学意义 (P <0.05).结论 未足月胎膜早破 (PPROM) 患者的易感因素复杂, 阴道炎宫颈炎史、 引产流产史、 瘢痕子宫、 胎位异常、 糖尿病/妊高征和性生活等均可引发, PPROM新生儿并发症较多, 临床上应重视PPROM妊娠前检查和保健,

  16. Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

  17. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to permanent anterior teeth and its relation with predisposing risk factors among 8-13 years school children of Vadodara city: An epidemiological study

    M C Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: dental trauma is an irreversible pathology that after occurrence is characterized by life-long debilitating effects. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of anterior teeth fracture and their association with predisposing factors such as lip coverage, molar relationship, overjet, and variables such as age, sex, cause, and place of trauma. Materials and Methods: an epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out among 3708 school children aged 8-13 years in the Vadodara city. All children completed a questionnaire related to history of trauma to their anterior teeth after which they were examined for lip competence, Angle′s molar relationship amount of overjet and nature of trauma sustained. The results were statistically analyzed using the prevalence test, Chi-square test, and Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio. Results: the prevalence of traumatic injuries was 8.79% and the ratio of boys: girl′s was 1.28:1. Inadequate lip coverage group sustained about five times more injuries than the adequate lip coverage group (P = 0.000, OR= 5.407. The maximum traumatic injuries were seen in children having Angle Class II Div 1 molar relationship and/or overjet greater than 5.5 mm and was statistically significant (P<0.05. Maximum number of injuries occurred at 9 years of age. The most predominant injuries were enamel fractures, the most common place for occurrence was home and fall against object, the most frequent cause. Conclusion: the prevalence of dental injuries in the Vadodara city is high and it has a great potential to be considered as an emerging public health problem.

  18. Variation of Vitamin D in Cow’s Milk and Interaction with β-Lactoglobulin

    Carmen Gigliotti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is the collective name for a group of closely related lipids, whose main biological function is to maintain serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range by enhancing the efficiency of the small intestine to absorb these minerals from the diet. We used a commercially available ELISA method for the determination of vitamin D in bovine milk. Individual milk samples from two different Italian Friesian herds were analysed. The enzyme immunoassay method used was confirmed as a useful tool to measure the vitamin D in the milk as it greatly reduces the time required to perform the conventional HPLC analysis. An interesting variation was found among individual animals that may be associated with management factors and specific genetic effects. A relationship was highlighted between vitamin D and the genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin, the main bovine whey protein which is involved in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules such as retinol and vitamin D. The relatively high content of vitamin D in most milk samples suggests an opportunity to improve the natural content of vitamin D in milk either by acting on the herd management or selecting individuals genetically predisposed to produce milk with a higher vitamin D content.

  19. Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Cravens, T. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-06-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1000 and 1300 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from eight close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Although there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ˜700 cm-3 below ˜1300 km. Such a plateau is a combined result of significant depletion of light ions and modest depletion of heavy ones on Titan's nightside. We propose that the distinctions between the diurnal variations of light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through “fast” ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through “slow” electron dissociative recombination. The strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes suggests a scenario in which the ions created on Titan's dayside may survive well to the nightside. The observed asymmetry between the dawn and dusk ion density profiles also supports such an interpretation. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effect of ion survival associated with solid body rotation alone as well as superrotating horizontal winds. For long-lived ions, the predicted diurnal variations have similar general characteristics to those observed. However, for short-lived ions, the model densities on the nightside are significantly lower than the observed values. This implies that electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be an additional and important contributor to the densities of the short-lived ions observed on Titan's nightside.

  20. Genetic variation in dieback resistance

    Lobo, Albin; Hansen, Jon Kehlet; McKinney, Lea Vig;

    2014-01-01

    -eastern Zealand, Denmark, and confirmed the presence of substantial genetic variation in ash dieback susceptibility. The average crown damage increased in the trial from 61% in 2009 to 66% in 2012 and 72% in 2014, while the estimated heritability was 0.42 in both 2009 and 2012 but increased to 0.53 in 2014....... Genetic correlation between assessments was 0.88 between 2009 and 2012 and 0.91 between 2009 and 2014, suggesting fairly good possibilities for early selection of superior genotypes in the presence of high infection levels in the trial. The level of crown damage had strong negative effect on growth and...

  1. Quadratic Variation by Markov Chains

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Horel, Guillaume

    We introduce a novel estimator of the quadratic variation that is based on the the- ory of Markov chains. The estimator is motivated by some general results concerning filtering contaminated semimartingales. Specifically, we show that filtering can in prin- ciple remove the effects of market...... microstructure noise in a general framework where little is assumed about the noise. For the practical implementation, we adopt the dis- crete Markov chain model that is well suited for the analysis of financial high-frequency prices. The Markov chain framework facilitates simple expressions and elegant analyti...

  2. Induced polygenic variation in lentils

    In a study at the Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwa Vidyalay, India microsperma and macrosperma types of lentil seeds were irradiated with 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kR of gamma rays to study the nature and magnitude of induced variation in various polygenic traits in both lentil types. Data were recorded for seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, number of pods/plant, 100-seed weight, plant height, time to 50% flowering (days), and time to maturity (days). A sufficient genetic variability was induced for most polygenic traits in both lentil types. However, macrosperma type was found more radio-sensitive

  3. Systematic variations in divergence angle

    Okabe, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Practical methods for quantitative analysis of radial and angular coordinates of leafy organs of vascular plants are presented and applied to published phyllotactic patterns of various real systems from young leaves on a shoot tip to florets on a flower head. The constancy of divergence angle is borne out with accuracy of less than a degree. It is shown that apparent fluctuations in divergence angle are in large part systematic variations caused by the invalid assumption of a fixed center and/or by secondary deformations, while random fluctuations are of minor importance.

  4. Variational Recurrent Auto-Encoders

    Fabius, Otto; van Amersfoort, Joost R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model that combines the strengths of RNNs and SGVB: the Variational Recurrent Auto-Encoder (VRAE). Such a model can be used for efficient, large scale unsupervised learning on time series data, mapping the time series data to a latent vector representation. The model is generative, such that data can be generated from samples of the latent space. An important contribution of this work is that the model can make use of unlabeled data in order to facilitate supervised...

  5. Variational collocation on finite intervals

    Amore, Paolo; Cervantes, Mayra; Fernández, Francisco M.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, we study a set of functions, defined on an interval of finite width, which are orthogonal and which reduce to the sinc functions when the appropriate limit is taken. We show that these functions can be used within a variational approach to obtain accurate results for a variety of problems. We have applied them to the interpolation of functions on finite domains and to the solution of the Schrödinger equation, and we have compared the performance of the present approach with others.

  6. The God Allusion : Individual Variation in Agency Detection, Mentalizing and Schizotypy and Their Association with Religious Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Pearce, Eiluned

    2016-06-01

    It has previously been suggested that the historically and geographically widespread persistence of religious beliefs occurs because it is a by-product of normal cognitive processes, ones which first evolved to confer survival advantages in the social domain. If this theory holds, then it is likely that inter-individual variation in the same biases may predict corresponding variation in religious thoughts and behaviors. Using an online questionnaire, 298 participants answered questions regarding their tendency to detect agency, the degree to which they displayed schizotypal traits, their ability to understand the emotions and motivations of others ("mentalizing"), and their religious beliefs and behaviors. Path analysis suggests that mentalizing, agency detection, and schizotypal thinking were each independently related to religiosity. Furthermore, schizotypal thinking and agency detection were highly interrelated with one another, whereas mentalizing was not. Although the degree to which an individual engages with religious or spiritual beliefs will be influenced by their cultural and historical context, this paper helps to elucidate the interplay between various cognitive processes that might predispose some individuals but not others toward holding such beliefs in the first place. PMID:27023357

  7. SYSTEM OF GENERALIZED VECTOR VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Fang Yaping; Huang Nanjing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce and study system of generalized vector variational inequalities. Under suitable conditions, the existence of solutions for system of generalized vector variational inequalities is presented by Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.

  8. Origins of variation in conducted vasomotor responses

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Welsh, Donald G.; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    variation. Using a computational approach that allows for introduction of structural and electrophysiological heterogeneity, we systematically tested variations in both arteriolar electrophysiology and modes of stimuli. Within the same vessel, our simulations show that conduction efficacy is influenced by...

  9. Racial variations in obstetric practice.

    Cauchi, M N

    1986-05-01

    This study involves a retrospective analysis of 453 pregnant persons, with the aim of comparing certain disorders of pregnancy as well as infant and placental parameters in various racial groups within the same community. Significant variations were seen in the mean age of the patients, age at first pregnancy, frequency distribution of first pregnancy, infant weight as well as gravida: parity ratio. There was a 3-fold increase in incidence of preeclampsia in the Australian-born population compared to other racial groups. Mild anaemias (haemoglobin less than 11.5 g/dl) were found in up to 61% of the Australian-born population compared to 32% of the other racial groups; however, more significant degrees of anaemia were more commonly found in certain ethnic groups (e.g. Greek 16%, Italian 15%, Australian-born 6%). These studies emphasize that overall incidence studies in a polyglot population can have very limited meaning, and that greater attention must be paid to the actual racial variations within a population. PMID:3464247

  10. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  11. Cytoplasmic genetic variation and extensive cytonuclear interactions influence natural variation in the metabolome

    Joseph, Bindu; Corwin, Jason A.; Li, Baohua;

    2013-01-01

    affects phenotypic variation. This showed that the cytoplasmic variation had effects similar to, if not larger than, the largest individual nuclear locus. Inclusion of cytoplasmic variation into the genetic model greatly increased the explained phenotypic variation. Cytoplasmic genetic variation was a...... central hub in the epistatic network controlling the plant metabolome. This epistatic influence manifested such that the cytoplasmic background could alter or hide pairwise epistasis between nuclear loci. Thus, cytoplasmic genetic variation plays a central role in controlling natural variation in...... metabolomic networks. This suggests that cytoplasmic genomes must be included in any future analysis of natural variation....

  12. Variations of images to increase their visibility

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The calculus of variations applied to the image processing requires some numerical models able to perform the variations of images and the extremization of appropriate actions. To produce the variations of images, there are several possibilities based on the brightness maps. Before a numerical model, I propose an experimental approach, based on a tool of Gimp, GNU Image Manipulation Program, in order to visualize how the image variations can be. After the discussion of this tool, which is abl...

  13. Quantum Annealing for Variational Bayes Inference

    Sato, Issei; Kurihara, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents studies on a deterministic annealing algorithm based on quantum annealing for variational Bayes (QAVB) inference, which can be seen as an extension of the simulated annealing for variational Bayes (SAVB) inference. QAVB is as easy as SAVB to implement. Experiments revealed QAVB finds a better local optimum than SAVB in terms of the variational free energy in latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA).

  14. Importance of Local Structural Variations on Recrystallization

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Lin, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yubin; Zhang, Y.H.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of local variations in the deformation microstructure on subsequent recrystallization are discussed and illustrated by three examples. The three examples consider local variations on different length scales and are: 1. Effects of local variations in the deformation microstructure on the f...

  15. Serous carcinomatous component championed by heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) predisposing to metastasis and recurrence in stage I uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumor.

    Zhang, Lei; Shimizu, David; Killeen, Jeffrey L; Honda, Stacey A; Lu, Di; Stanoyevitch, Alexander; Lin, Fritz; Wang, Beverly; Monuki, Edwin S; Carbone, Michele

    2016-07-01

    The stage I uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumor (MMMT) shows different potential for progression. We reason that MMMTs with high-grade carcinomatous component and positivity for HB-EGF are prone to recurrence/metastasis in the early stage. A retrospective clinical and histopathologic review with immunohistochemical staining for HB-EGF, EGFR, and integrin-α5 was performed for 62 surgically staged MMMT cases. Recurrence/metastasis (RM) is 6/18 (33%) in stage I disease. Of all the clinicopathologic variables and biomarkers analyzed for stage I MMMT, serous carcinomatous component (83% [5/6] versus 17% [1/12], P = .0015) and HB-EGF expression (100% [6/6] versus 50% [6/12], P=.0339) were significantly different between groups with RM and without RM. The presence of serous carcinoma in all stages was 83% (5/6) in stage I with RM, 8% (1/12) in stage I without RM, 20% (1/5) in stage II, 36.4% (8/22) in stage III and 64.7% (11/17) in stage IV; this was paralleled by HB-EGF expression of 100% (6/6), 50% (6/12), 40% (2/5), 50% (11/22) and 71% (12/17) with a correlation coefficient r=0.9131 (P=.027). HB-EGF and integrin-α5 were highly expressed in MMMTs bearing serous carcinoma component, compared to endometrioid and unclassifiable/miscellaneous subtypes (84.6%/47.6%/33.3%, P=.025 for HB-EGF; and 61.5%/42.9%/20.0%, P=.021 for integrin-α5). The EGFR positivity was comparable among the three subtypes (48.1%, 47.6% and 26.7%, P=.326). This study indicates that serous carcinomatous component championed by expression of HB-EGF predisposes to recurrence/metastasis in stage I MMMT. This process might involve integrin-α5 and does not seem to require overexpression of EGFR. Further study is required. PMID:26980026

  16. Non-differentiable variational principles

    Cresson, Jacky

    2005-07-01

    We develop a calculus of variations for functionals which are defined on a set of non-differentiable curves. We first extend the classical differential calculus in a quantum calculus, which allows us to define a complex operator, called the scale derivative, which is the non-differentiable analogue of the classical derivative. We then define the notion of extremals for our functionals and obtain a characterization in term of a generalized Euler-Lagrange equation. We finally prove that solutions of the Schrödinger equation can be obtained as extremals of a non-differentiable variational principle, leading to an extended Hamilton's principle of least action for quantum mechanics. We compare this approach with the scale relativity theory of Nottale, which assumes a fractal structure of space-time.Résumé (Principes variationnels non différentiable). Nous développons un calcul des variations pour des fonctionnelles définies sur un ensemble de courbes non différentiables. Pour cela, nous étendons le calcul différentiel classique, en calcul appelé calcul quantique, qui nous permet de définir un opérateur à valeur complexes, appelé dérivée d'échelle, qui est l'analogue non différentiable de la dérivée usuelle. On définit alors la notion d'extremale pour ces fonctionnelles pour lesquelles nous obtenons une caractérisation via une équation d'Euler-Lagrange généralisée. On prouve enfin que les solutions de l'équation de Schrödinger peuvent s'obtenir comme solution d'un problème variationnel non différentiable, étendant ainsi le principe de moindre action de Hamilton au cadre de la mécanique quantique. On discute enfin la connexion entre ce travail et la théorie de la relativité d'échelle développée par Nottale, et qui suppose une structure fractale de l'espace-temps.

  17. Variation of the latissimus dorsi

    Ishani P Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical muscle variation of latissimus dorsi - the axillary arch is represented by the muscular or fibromuscular slip detached from the anteroinferior border of the musculus latissimus dorsi passing over the axilla under the axillary fascia crossing the medial side of the brachial plexus to continue as a septum intermusculare mediale brachii distally to the medial epicondyle of humerus. The full extent of the muscle is rarely present. Slips of muscle extend from the latissimus dorsi at the inferior angle of scapula to insert into pectoralis major (Langer, coracobrachilis, biceps or coracoid process forming what is described as a common variant - the muscular axillary arch. We report three cases of variants of latissimus dorsi, one of which has not been reported in the literature before.

  18. Reasoning about Variation: Student Voice

    Jackie Reid

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports one recent study that was part of a project investigating tertiary students’ understanding of variation. These students completed a questionnaire prior to, and at the end of, an introductory statistics course and this paper focuses on interviews of selected students designed to determine whether more information could have been gathered about the students’ reasoning. Clarification during interviews reinforced researcher interpretation of responses. Prompting assisted students to develop better quality responses but probing was mostly useful for assisting students to re-express reasoning already presented. Cognitive conflict situations proved challenging. The diversity of activities identified by students as assisting the development of their understanding provides a challenge for educators in planning teaching sequences. Both educators and researchers need to listen to students to better understand the development of reasoning.

  19. Equilibrium models and variational inequalities

    Konnov, Igor

    2007-01-01

    The concept of equilibrium plays a central role in various applied sciences, such as physics (especially, mechanics), economics, engineering, transportation, sociology, chemistry, biology and other fields. If one can formulate the equilibrium problem in the form of a mathematical model, solutions of the corresponding problem can be used for forecasting the future behavior of very complex systems and, also, for correcting the the current state of the system under control. This book presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts in economics, including several models from related sciences.- Presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts and also the present state of investigations in this field- Describes static and dynamic input-output models, Walras, Cassel-Wald, spatial price, auction market, oligopolistic equilibrium models, transportation and migration equilibrium models- Covers the basics of theory and solution methods both for the complementarity and variational inequality probl...

  20. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    Zeng, Li

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. Variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying this principle to planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From it, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of error propagation from equation of state to mass-radius relation, and a form of virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  1. Variational Approach and Deformed Derivatives

    Weberszpil, José

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Nether current, are worked out.

  2. Some Variations on Maxwell's Equations

    Ascoli, G A; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Goldin, Gerald A.

    2006-01-01

    In the first sections of this article, we discuss two variations on Maxwell's equations that have been introduced in earlier work---a class of nonlinear Maxwell theories with well-defined Galilean limits (and correspondingly generalized Yang-Mills equations), and a linear modification motivated by the coupling of the electromagnetic potential with a certain nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In the final section, revisiting an old idea of Lorentz, we write Maxwell's equations for a theory in which the electrostatic force of repulsion between like charges differs fundamentally in magnitude from the electrostatic force of attraction between unlike charges. We elaborate on Lorentz' description by means of electric and magnetic field strengths, whose governing equations separate into two fully relativistic Maxwell systems---one describing ordinary electromagnetism, and the other describing a universally attractive or repulsive long-range force. If such a force cannot be ruled out {\\it a priori\\/} by known physical ...

  3. Fisher Algorithm: Variations And Applications

    Adegoke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Fisherface (Linear Discriminant Analysis methods, its different modifications as applied to feature extraction in face recognition. Researchers showed that Fisher algorithm, though it performs better than PCA, Eigenface and some other fundamental methods, computational complexity, enormous hardware resources usage are inhibitors to its implementation. Different versions or adaptations of Fisher algorithm had been developed, and applied to face recognition and validated using some of the available public face databases. If fisher algorithm and its various variations had so marvelously helped in face recognition, application of this effective dimensionality reduction method can be applied to research area of iris recognition system. This will in return enhance performance of biometric systems in its application to computer security and surveillance.

  4. Flux Variation of Cosmic Muons

    Ramesh, Nepal; Martin, Clayton; Bachri, Abdel

    2012-01-01

    In the current paper, we analyzed the variation of cosmic radiation flux with elevation, time of the year and ambient temperature with the help of a portable cosmic muon detector, the construction of which was completed by a team from Southern Arkansas University (SAU) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Cosmic muons and gamma rays traverse two synchronized scintillators connected to two photomultiplier tubes (PMT) via light guides, and generate electronic pulses which we counted using a Data Acquisition Board (DAQ). Because muons are the product of collisions between high-energy cosmic rays and atmospheric nuclei, and therefore shower onto earth, the scintillators were arranged horizontally for detection. The elevation measurements were recorded at different locations, starting from 60 feet below sea-level at the Underground Radiation Counting Laboratory at Johnson Space Center, TX, to 4200 feet at Mt. Hamilton, CA. Intermediate locations included sea-level Galveston Bay, TX, and Mt. Magazine, A...

  5. Variational approach and deformed derivatives

    Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved ​Noether current is worked out.

  6. Turbidity variations at Hanford since July 1974

    Spectral turbidity coefficients derived from multiwavelength sunphotometer measurements obtained from July 1974 to December 1976 have been analyzed for seasonal and weekly variations. Weak biannual variations in turbidity are apparent in the data. Day-to-day variations, however, can be much larger than the coefficients for the fitted biannual terms. Consequently, it now appears that observed variations in turbidity at Hanford are related to the synoptic meteorology with a smaller, superimposed seasonality of dust and smoke sources. Turbidity variations are also independent of the day of the week

  7. Some Variational Principles for Coupled Thermoelasticity

    Francesco Marotti de Sciarra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear thermoelasticity of type II proposed by Green and Naghdi is considered. The thermoelastic structural model is formulated in a quasistatic range, and the related thermoelastic variational formulation in the complete set of state variables is recovered. Hence a consistent framework to derive all the variational formulations with different combinations of the state variables is provided, and a family of mixed variational formulations, with different combinations of state variables, is provided starting from the general variational formulation. A uniqueness condition is provided on the basis of a suitable variational formulation.

  8. Variational methods for field theories

    Four field theory models are studied: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2 + 1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1 + 1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1 + 1) dimensions, and the (1 + 1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path-integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. This includes a better quantitative agreement for the string tensions in the two approaches. Free field theory is used as a laboratory for a new variational blocking-truncation approximation, in which the high-frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background modes (Boron-Oppenheimer approximation). This ''adiabatic truncation'' method gives very accurate results for ground-state energy density and correlation functions. Various adiabatic schemes, with one variable kept per site and then two variables per site, are used. For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. A connection is established with the vortex Coulomb gas of the Euclidean path integral approach. The approximations used are taken from the realms of statistical mechanics (mean field approximation, transfer-matrix methods) and of quantum mechanics (iterative blocking schemes). In developing blocking schemes based on continuous variables, problems due to the periodicity of the model were solved. Our results exhibit an order-disorder phase transition. The transfer-matrix method is used to find a good (non-blocking) trial ground state for the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field in (1 + 1) dimensions

  9. Environmental variation, stochastic extinction, and competitive coexistence.

    Adler, Peter B; Drake, John M

    2008-11-01

    Understanding how environmental fluctuations affect population persistence is essential for predicting the ecological impacts of expected future increases in climate variability. However, two bodies of theory make opposite predictions about the effect of environmental variation on persistence. Single-species theory, common in conservation biology and population viability analyses, suggests that environmental variation increases the risk of stochastic extinction. By contrast, coexistence theory has shown that environmental variation can buffer inferior competitors against competitive exclusion through a storage effect. We reconcile these two perspectives by showing that in the presence of demographic stochasticity, environmental variation can increase the chance of extinction while simultaneously stabilizing coexistence. Our stochastic simulations of a two-species storage effect model reveal a unimodal relationship between environmental variation and coexistence time, implying maximum coexistence at intermediate levels of environmental variation. The unimodal pattern reflects the fact that the stabilizing influence of the storage effect accumulates rapidly at low levels of environmental variation, whereas the risk of extinction due to the combined effects of environmental variation and demographic stochasticity increases most rapidly at higher levels of variation. Future increases in environmental variation could either increase or decrease an inferior competitor's expected persistence time, depending on the distance between the present level of environmental variation and the optimal level anticipated by this theory. PMID:18817458

  10. Accommodating variation: dialects, idiolects, and speech processing.

    Kraljic, Tanya; Brennan, Susan E; Samuel, Arthur G

    2008-04-01

    Listeners are faced with enormous variation in pronunciation, yet they rarely have difficulty understanding speech. Although much research has been devoted to figuring out how listeners deal with variability, virtually none (outside of sociolinguistics) has focused on the source of the variation itself. The current experiments explore whether different kinds of variation lead to different cognitive and behavioral adjustments. Specifically, we compare adjustments to the same acoustic consequence when it is due to context-independent variation (resulting from articulatory properties unique to a speaker) versus context-conditioned variation (resulting from common articulatory properties of speakers who share a dialect). The contrasting results for these two cases show that the source of a particular acoustic-phonetic variation affects how that variation is handled by the perceptual system. We also show that changes in perceptual representations do not necessarily lead to changes in production. PMID:17803986

  11. How variation between individuals affects species coexistence.

    Hart, Simon P; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Although the effects of variation between individuals within species are traditionally ignored in studies of species coexistence, the magnitude of intraspecific variation in nature is forcing ecologists to reconsider. Compelling intuitive arguments suggest that individual variation may provide a previously unrecognised route to diversity maintenance by blurring species-level competitive differences or substituting for species-level niche differences. These arguments, which are motivating a large body of empirical work, have rarely been evaluated with quantitative theory. Here we incorporate intraspecific variation into a common model of competition and identify three pathways by which this variation affects coexistence: (1) changes in competitive dynamics because of nonlinear averaging, (2) changes in species' mean interaction strengths because of variation in underlying traits (also via nonlinear averaging) and (3) effects on stochastic demography. As a consequence of the first two mechanisms, we find that intraspecific variation in competitive ability increases the dominance of superior competitors, and intraspecific niche variation reduces species-level niche differentiation, both of which make coexistence more difficult. In addition, individual variation can exacerbate the effects of demographic stochasticity, and this further destabilises coexistence. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for emerging empirical interests in the effects of intraspecific variation on species diversity. PMID:27250037

  12. Genetic background of phenotypic variation

    2007-01-01

    A noteworthy feature of the living world is its bewildering variability. A key issue in several biological disciplines is the achievement of an understanding of the hereditary basis of this variability. Two opposing, but not necessarily irreconcilable conceptions attempt to explain the underlying mechanism. The gene function paradigm postulates that phenotypic variance is generated by the polymorphism in the coding sequences of genes. However, comparisons of a great number of homologous gene and protein sequences have revealed that they predominantly remained functionally conserved even across distantly related phylogenic taxa. Alternatively, the gene regulation paradigm assumes that differences in the cis-regulatory region of genes do account for phenotype variation within species. An extension of this latter concept is that phenotypic variability is generated by the polyrnorphism in the overall gene expression profiles of gene networks.In other words, the activity of a particular gene is a system property determined both by the cis-regulatory sequences of the given genes and by the other genes of a gene network, whose expressions vary among individuals, too. Novel proponents of gene function paradigm claim that functional genetic variance within the coding sequences of regulatory genes is critical for the generation of morphological polymorphism. Note, however, that these developmental genes play direct regulatory roles in the control of gene expression.

  13. Temporal Variations in Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, N. J.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Hammel, H. B.; dePater, I.; Noll, K.; Wong, M.; Clarke, J.; Sanchez-Levega, A.; Orton, G. S.; Gonzaga, S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Jupiter has undergone many atmospheric changes from storms turning red to global. cloud upheavals, and most recently, a cornet or asteroid impact. Yet, on top of these seemingly random changes events there are also periodic phenomena, analogous to observed Earth and Saturn atmospheric oscillations. We will present 15 years of Hubble data, from 1994 to 2009, to show how the equatorial tropospheric cloud deck and winds have varied over that time, focusing on the F953N, F41 ON and F255W filters. These filters give leverage on wind speeds plus cloud opacity, cloud height and tropospheric haze thickness, and stratospheric haze, respectively. The wind data consistently show a periodic oscillation near 7-8 S latitude. We will discuss the potential for variations with longitude and cloud height, within the calibration limits of those filters. Finally, we will discuss the role that large atmospheric events, such as the impacts in 1994 and 2009, and the global upheaval of 2007, have on temporal studies, This work was supported by a grant from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program. HST observational support was provided by NASA through grants from Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract NAS5-26555.

  14. On Quadratic Variation of Martingales

    Rajeeva L Karandikar; B V Rao

    2014-08-01

    We give a construction of an explicit mapping $$\\Psi: D([0,∞),\\mathbb{R})→ D([0,∞),\\mathbb{R}),$$ where $D([0,∞), \\mathbb{R})$ denotes the class of real valued r.c.l.l. functions on $[0,∞)$ such that for a locally square integrable martingale $(M_t)$ with r.c.l.l. paths, $$\\Psi(M.())=A.()$$ gives the quadratic variation process (written usually as $[M,M]_t$) of $(M_t)$. We also show that this process $(A_t)$ is the unique increasing process $(B_t)$ such that $M_t^2-B_t$ is a local martingale, $B_0=0$ and $$\\mathbb{P}(( B)_t=[( M)_t]^2, 0 < ∞)=1.$$ Apart from elementary properties of martingales, the only result used is the Doob’s maximal inequality. This result can be the starting point of the development of the stochastic integral with respect to r.c.l.l. martingales.

  15. PLURILINGUAL COMPETENCE, STYLES AND VARIATION

    Jyrki Kalliokoski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores plurilingual competence in respect to language proficiency, language education and pluri- and multilingualism. The notion of communicative competence was introduced by Hymes (1972 as a reaction to chomskyan view of language as an autonomous system. Hymes’ notion of communicative competence originally included plurilingualism. The concept of communicative competence was quickly adopted to applied linguistics but the idea of a linguistic repertoire consisting of the competencies of linguistic varieties was not imported to SLA or language testing. The Hymesian perspective to plurilingualism as an essential dimension of communicative competence was revived in the Common European Framework (CEFR. However,the practice of applying the CEFR has mostly neglected the dimension on plurilingualism and plurilingual competence. The focus in the use of the CEFR has been on the different areas of language skills within one single language at a time, while the application of plurilingual practices has gained very little attention. The Hymesian notion of communicative competence has lived on in the sociolinguistic research tradition, especially within interactional sociolinguistics. The present paper relates the notion of plurilingual competence to its hymesian origin, to recent trends in plurilingual and pluricultural education, and to the sociolinguistic study of style and linguistic variation in multilingual communities. The article uses Finnish L2 data to show how plurilingual competence is used as an interactional resource.From the perspective of language learning, plurilingual competence enables speakers with different linguistic backgrounds to use their shared linguistic repertoire in order to ensure smooth interaction and achieve mutual understanding.

  16. Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Predisposing Factors:Etiological Investigation and Analysis in 72 Inpatients%原发性肝癌患者72例病因相关因素的调查与分析

    王冰心; 郭凤英; 王建文; 龚利军

    2001-01-01

    The results of an etiological analysis on predisposing factors of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in 72 in-patients with regard to age, service, educational stratification, personality, distribution of work and leisure ,life style ,diseased condition and treatment before onset showed that prevalence of primary hepatocellular carcinoma was negatively correlated with increasing age, and that incidences were higher in males than in females;in office workers with higher educational background than in farmers;in persons who preferred hot, salty or pungent foods;in those who abused cigarettes and alcohol ; had more social appointments and lacked sufficient sleep;in persons who failed to seek timely medical help, and in introverts and bigots after they had contracted hepatitis. Therefore, how to enhance awareness of the disease, intensify prevention and raise individual health care ability in hepatitis patients has become problems of great concern. We suggest that patients with liver diseases should undergo regular physical check-up, distribute work and leisure,adopt good life styles,have a correct attitude toward disease,and maintain a good psychotic status ,all of which are beneficial to enhancing immunity of the body, thus speeding recovery and helping achieve psychosomatic well being.%通过对72例住院原发性肝癌病例与病因相关因素的调查分析,从年龄、职业、文化层次、性格、劳逸、生活习惯以及发病前病程、治疗等综合资料表明:肝癌流行程度与发病年龄呈反比,发病趋于年轻;男性发病率高于女性;具有一定学历干部的发病率大于农民;喜食咸热或带刺激性食品对本病恢复不利;患肝炎后,吸烟喝酒多、应酬多、得不到充分休息睡眠、未及时治疗和性格内向偏执的病人其肝癌的发病率也偏高。因此,如何提高肝癌的防病意识和手段,提高肝炎病人自我保健能力,是我们值得关心的课题。本文提

  17. Synchronous Lagrangian variational principles in General Relativity

    Cremaschini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The problem of formulating synchronous variational principles in the context of General Relativity is discussed. Based on the analogy with classical relativistic particle dynamics, the existence of variational principles is pointed out in relativistic classical field theory which are either asynchronous or synchronous. The historical Einstein-Hilbert and Palatini variational formulations are found to belong to the first category. Nevertheless, it is shown that an alternative route exists which permits one to cast these principles in terms of equivalent synchronous Lagrangian variational formulations. The advantage is twofold. First, synchronous approaches allow one to overcome the lack of gauge symmetry of the asynchronous principles. Second, the property of manifest covariance of the theory is also restored at all levels, including the symbolic Euler-Lagrange equations, with the variational Lagrangian density being now identified with a $4-$scalar. As an application, a joint synchronous variational principle...

  18. Procedural facade variations from a single layout

    Bao, Fan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a framework to generate many variations of a facade design that look similar to a given facade layout. Starting from an input image, the facade is hierarchically segmented and labeled with a collection of manual and automatic tools. The user can then model constraints that should be maintained in any variation of the input facade design. Subsequently, facade variations are generated for different facade sizes, where multiple variations can be produced for a certain size. Computing such new facade variations has many unique challenges, and we propose a new algorithm based on interleaving heuristic search and quadratic programming. In contrast to most previous work, we focus on the generation of new design variations and not on the automatic analysis of the input\\'s structure. Adding a modeling step with the user in the loop ensures that our results routinely are of high quality. © 2013 ACM.

  19. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was moderate. Long chain fatty acids had moderate heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd was high. Several genomic regions (QTL) with effect on short and medium chain, long chain, or both types of fat...

  20. DNA fingerprinting and minisatellite variation of swans

    Meng, Anming

    1990-01-01

    Genetic variation in natural populations of four species of swans (Cygnus bewickii, Cygnus olor, Cygnus buccinator and Cygnus cygnus) has been investigated by examining minisatellite loci using human DNA fingerprinting probes pSPT19.6 and pSPT18.15. It has been found that swan minisatellites are highly variable. However, the degree of variation depends on the population structure and species. Bewick's Swans at Slimbridge have the highest degree of minisatellite variation, Whooper Swans at Cae...

  1. Size variation of fossil rodent populations

    Freudenthal, M.; Cuenca Bescos, G.

    1984-01-01

    Pearson's coefficient of variation is in general not applicable in palaeontology, due to the heterogeneity of samples. The heterogeneity may be due to the mixing of two species, mixture of material from various biotopes, or from a relatively large time span. A new coefficient of variation is proposed, based on the range of the sample. This coefficient may be used to estimate the degree of variation of a sample, and to decide whether it is homogeneous. Its application is tested empirically on ...

  2. Measuring human salivary amylase copy number variation

    Dhar, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Copy number variations represent large scale genomic alterations varying from 1kb to 3Mb and are proposed as a driving force for genome evolution and variation. One such locus exhibiting copy number variation and genome evolution is salivary amylase, which is responsible for the digestion of starch in the human parotid glands. It was reported that since human salivary amylase gene (AMY1) copy numbers are correlated positively with protein levels, and also due to the correlation of high gene c...

  3. Varying Alpha: New Constraints from Seasonal Variations

    Barrow, John D

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the constraints obtained from new atomic clock data on the possible time variation of the fine structure `constant' and the electron-proton mass ratio and show how they are strengthened when the seasonal variation of Sun's gravitational field at the Earth's surface is taken into account. We compare these bounds with those obtainable from tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle and high-redshift observations of quasar absorption spectra consistent with time variations in the fine structure constant.

  4. Models of Solar Irradiance Variations: Current Status

    Natalie A. Krivova; Sami K. Solanki

    2008-03-01

    Regular monitoring of solar irradiance has been carried out since 1978 to show that solar total and spectral irradiance varies at different time scales. Whereas variations on time scales of minutes to hours are due to solar oscillations and granulation, variations on longer time scales are driven by the evolution of the solar surface magnetic field. Here the most recent advances in modelling of solar irradiance variations on time scales longer than a day are briefly reviewed.

  5. Variational Inequalities in Critical-State Problems

    Prigozhin, Leonid

    2004-01-01

    Similar evolutionary variational inequalities appear as convenient formulations for continuous quasistationary models for sandpile growth, formation of a network of lakes and rivers, magnetization of type-II superconductors, and elastoplastic deformations. We outline the main steps of such models derivation and try to clarify the origin of this similarity. New dual variational formulations, analogous to mixed variational inequalities in plasticity, are derived for sandpiles and superconductors.

  6. Diurnal Variations in Human Pulmonary Function

    Medarov, Boris I.; Pavlov, Valentin A.; Rossoff, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary function has circadian modulations. Variations in human pulmonary function during the daytime hours (diurnal variations) remain to be well characterized. Discerning these variations will contribute to better understanding the relationship between biorhythms and lung physiology and to improving clinical management of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of pulmonary function variability during the usual daytime hours in a population of patients ref...

  7. A Paradigm for Eliciting Story Variation

    Fisseni, Bernhard; Lawrence, Faith

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of story variation, whether motivated by cultural currents or other factors, is important for applications of formal models of narrative such as story generation or story retrieval. We present the first stage of an experiment to elicit natural narrative variation data suitable for evaluation with respect to story similarity, to qualitative and quantitative analysis of story variation, and also for data processing. We also present few prelimary results from the first stage of...

  8. Simplified Variational Principles for Barotropic Magnetohydrodynamics

    Yahalom, Asher; Lynden-Bell, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Variational principles for magnetohydrodynamics were introduced by previous authors both in Lagrangian and Eulerian form. In this paper we introduce simpler Eulerian variational principles from which all the relevant equations of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics can be derived. The variational principle is given in terms of six independent functions for non-stationary barotropic flows and three independent functions for stationary barotropic flows. This is less then the seven variables which a...

  9. Morphometric variation among the Central Indian populations

    Gautam, Rajesh K.; Dipak K. Adak,; Pal, M.; P. Bharati

    2013-01-01

    Data on 8 anthropometric characters of 6663 adult males belonging to 22 caste groups, distributed in 38 districts of Central India were taken for present investigation, to study the morphometric variation. Cephalic index, nasal Index, Generalized Mahalanobis distances and its size and shape components were computed and dendrograms were drawn. Comparison of coefficient of variations shows that there exists variation in nasal breadth, nasal length, weight and hence in nasal index. But no marked...

  10. Spectrum characteristics of geoelectric field variation

    YE Qing; DU Xue-bin; ZHOU Ke-chang; LI Ning; MA Zhan-hu

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum characteristics of geoelectric diurnal variation and geoelectric storm have been identified by maximum entropy method, based on geoelectric data from seven stations in the Chinese mainland, including Jiayuguan, Changli and Chongming. The study shows that, in geoelectric diurnal variation, the amplitude of the 12 h semidiurnal wave is the largest, followed in turn by the 24~25 h diurnal wave and the 8 h periodic wave; Geoelectric storm usually occurs in a large-scale space, whose spectrum values are higher than those of geoelectric diurnal variation by 2~3 orders of magnitude. A preliminary interpretation is presented for the generative mechanism of predominant waves in geoelectric field variation.

  11. Genetic variations in multiple myeloma I

    Vangsted, A.; Klausen, T.W.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    variability in a population. The complex interplay between environment and genes for the development of cancer may therefore be influenced by genetic variations. A genetic variation may change the function of the gene, and if the genetic variation is associated with the risk of disease, that particular gene......Few risk factors have been established for the plasma cell disorder multiple myeloma, but some of these like African American ethnicity and a family history of B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases suggest a genetic component for the disease. Genetic variation represents the genetic basis of...

  12. Extensive Variation in Chromatin States Across Humans

    Kasowski, M.

    2013-10-17

    The majority of disease-associated variants lie outside protein-coding regions, suggesting a link between variation in regulatory regions and disease predisposition. We studied differences in chromatin states using five histone modifications, cohesin, and CTCF in lymphoblastoid lines from 19 individuals of diverse ancestry. We found extensive signal variation in regulatory regions, which often switch between active and repressed states across individuals. Enhancer activity is particularly diverse among individuals, whereas gene expression remains relatively stable. Chromatin variability shows genetic inheritance in trios, correlates with genetic variation and population divergence, and is associated with disruptions of transcription factor binding motifs. Overall, our results provide insights into chromatin variation among humans.

  13. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates. PMID:2118182

  14. Antimicrobial price variation: Conundrum of medical profession!

    Rataboli P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacoeconomics plays a pivotal role in clinical practice. High medicine prices can adversely affect a patient′s finances and compliance. The Indian pharmaceutical industry has become a cornucopia of medicines with wide variation in prices for the same medicine marketed under different brand names. Price list of available antimicrobial brands was procured from a commercial drug directory. Average price of widely prescribed oral antimicrobials was found and price variation between different brands was calculated. The variation in medicine prices was found to be from 95% lower to more than 350% higher than the average price. Implications of price variation in clinical practice are discussed and remedial measures suggested.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA variation analysis in cervical cancer.

    Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Bhat, Samatha; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Mallya, Sandeep; Bhat, Manoj; Pandey, Deeksha; Kushtagi, Pralhad; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Gopinath, P M; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2014-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in non-malignant and malignant cervical tissue samples. We have identified 229 and 739 variations non-malignant and malignant tissues respectively distributed over 321 locations in the D-loop (50 in non-malignant and 166 in malignant; 216 variations), coding region (139 in non-malignant and 455 in malignant; 594 variations) tRNA and rRNA genes (39 in non-malignant and 119 in malignant; 158 variations). Besides, 77 novel and 34 various other disease associated variations were identified in non-malignant and malignant samples. A total of 236 tumor specific variations in 201 locations representing 30.1% in D-loop, 59.3% in coding regions and 10.6% in RNA genes were also identified. Our study shows that D loop (in 67 locations) is highly altered followed by ND5 (35 locations) region. Moreover, mtDNA alterations were significantly higher in malignant samples by two tailed Fisher's exact test (P≤0.05) with decreased mtDNA copy numbers. Bioinformatic analysis of 59 non-synonymous changes predicted several variations as damaging leading to decreased stability of the proteins. Taken together, mtDNA is highly altered in cervical cancer and functional studies are needed to be investigated to understand the consequence of these variations in cervical carcinogenesis and their potential application as biomarkers. PMID:23851045

  16. Study on Somaclonal Variation of Spring Wheat

    JIANG Shu-mei; HU Shang-lian; LI Wen-xiong

    2004-01-01

    Somaclonal variation of calli and regenerated plants of spring wheat ware detected by using technique RAPD in the study. Calli at different culture stages and regenerated plants derived from young spikes and immature embryos were used as materials. Molecular variation could be reflected from electrophoresis patternof RAPD fragments at different culture stage in calli, and in regenerated plants derived from different explants, even no phenotype variations were found. Somaclonal variation in calli and in regenerated plants appeared regularly: A higher frequency of variation in hybrids F2 was detected than that of the cultivar that is stable genetically. High variation frequency of RAPD fragments appeared in calli when cultured 75 days. The identical variations of RAPD fragments were observed in calli and in the regenerated plants induced from different genotype or explants. The variation frequency detected is higher in regenerated plants than that of in calli. RAPD could be applied easily and simply to determine variation in level of DNA at each stage cultured in vitro.

  17. Parkinson's disease and mitochondrial gene variations

    Andalib, Sasan; Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common disorder of the central nervous system in the elderly. The pathogenesis of PD is a complex process, with genetics as an important contributing factor. This factor may stem from mitochondrial gene variations and mutations as well as from nuclear gene variations...... and mutations. More recently, a particular role of mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested, arising from mitochondrial DNA variations or acquired mutations in PD pathogenesis. The present review summarizes and weighs the evidence in support of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations as important...

  18. Duality in optimization and variational inequalities

    Goh, Cj

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive volume covers a wide range of duality topics ranging from simple ideas in network flows to complex issues in non-convex optimization and multicriteria problems. In addition, it examines duality in the context of variational inequalities and vector variational inequalities, as generalizations to optimization. Duality in Optimization and Variational Inequalities is intended for researchers and practitioners of optimization with the aim of enhancing their understanding of duality. It provides a wider appreciation of optimality conditions in various scenarios and under different assumptions. It will enable the reader to use duality to devise more effective computational methods, and to aid more meaningful interpretation of optimization and variational inequality problems.

  19. Temporal variations in rainwater methanol

    Felix, J. D.; Jones, S. B.; Avery, G. B.; Willey, J. D.; Mead, R. N.; Kieber, R. J.

    2014-10-01

    This work reports the first comprehensive analysis of methanol concentrations in rainwater. Methanol concentrations measured in 49 rain events collected between 28 August 2007 and 10 July 2008 in Wilmington, NC, USA, ranged from below the detection limit of 6 nM to 9.3 μM with a volume-weighted average concentration of 1 ± 0.2 μM. Methanol concentrations in rainwater were up to ~200 times greater than concentrations reported previously in marine waters, indicating wet deposition as a potentially significant source of methanol to marine waters. Assuming that these methanol concentrations are an appropriate proxy for global methanol rainwater concentrations, the global methanol wet deposition sink is estimated as 20 Tg yr-1, which implies that previous methanol budgets underestimate removal by precipitation. Methanol concentrations in rainwater did not correlate significantly with H+, NO3-, and NSS, which suggests that the dominant source of the alcohol to rainwater is not anthropogenic. However, methanol concentrations were strongly correlated with acetaldehyde, which has a primarily biogenic input. The methanol volume-weighted concentration during the summer (2.7 ± 0.9 μM) was ~3 times that of the winter (0.9 ± 0.2 μM), further promoting biogenic emissions as the primary cause of temporal variations of methanol concentrations. Methanol concentrations peaked in rainwater collected during the time period 12 p.m.-6 p.m. Peaking during this period of optimal sunlight implies a possible relationship with photochemical methanol production, but there are also increases in biogenic activity during this time period. Rain events with terrestrial origin had greater concentrations than those of marine origin, demonstrating the significance of the continental source of methanol in rainwater.

  20. Heritable epigenetic variation among maize inbreds.

    Steve R Eichten

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic variation describes heritable differences that are not attributable to changes in DNA sequence. There is the potential for pure epigenetic variation that occurs in the absence of any genetic change or for more complex situations that involve both genetic and epigenetic differences. Methylation of cytosine residues provides one mechanism for the inheritance of epigenetic information. A genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in two different genotypes of Zea mays (ssp. mays, an organism with a complex genome of interspersed genes and repetitive elements, allowed the identification and characterization of examples of natural epigenetic variation. The distribution of DNA methylation was profiled using immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by hybridization to a high-density tiling microarray. The comparison of the DNA methylation levels in the two genotypes, B73 and Mo17, allowed for the identification of approximately 700 differentially methylated regions (DMRs. Several of these DMRs occur in genomic regions that are apparently identical by descent in B73 and Mo17 suggesting that they may be examples of pure epigenetic variation. The methylation levels of the DMRs were further studied in a panel of near-isogenic lines to evaluate the stable inheritance of the methylation levels and to assess the contribution of cis- and trans- acting information to natural epigenetic variation. The majority of DMRs that occur in genomic regions without genetic variation are controlled by cis-acting differences and exhibit relatively stable inheritance. This study provides evidence for naturally occurring epigenetic variation in maize, including examples of pure epigenetic variation that is not conditioned by genetic differences. The epigenetic differences are variable within maize populations and exhibit relatively stable trans-generational inheritance. The detected examples of epigenetic variation, including some without tightly linked genetic

  1. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  2. Predicting global variation in infectious disease severity

    Jensen, Per Moestrup; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Understanding the underlying causes for the variation in case-fatality-ratios (CFR) is important for assessing the mechanism governing global disparity in the burden of infectious diseases. Variation in CFR is likely to be driven by factors such as population genetics...

  3. Hamiltonian and Variational Linear Distributed Systems

    Rapisarda, P.; Trentelman, H.L.

    2002-01-01

    We use the formalism of bilinear- and quadratic differential forms in order to study Hamiltonian and variational linear distributed systems. It was shown that a system described by ordinary linear constant-coefficient differential equations is Hamiltonian if and only if it is variational. In this pa

  4. Item versus System Learning: Explaining Free Variation.

    Ellis, Rod

    1999-01-01

    Provides an explanation for the existence of free variation in learner language. Argues that interlanguage is best conceptualized as sets of loose lexical networks that are gradually reorganized into a system or systems. Free variation arises when learners add items to those they have already acquired and before they analyze these items and…

  5. Size variation of fossil rodent populations

    Freudenthal, M.; Cuenca Bescos, G.

    1984-01-01

    Pearson's coefficient of variation is in general not applicable in palaeontology, due to the heterogeneity of samples. The heterogeneity may be due to the mixing of two species, mixture of material from various biotopes, or from a relatively large time span. A new coefficient of variation is propose

  6. Size variation in Middle Pleistocene humans.

    Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M; Lorenzo, C; Gracia, A; Martínez, I; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E

    1997-08-22

    It has been suggested that European Middle Pleistocene humans, Neandertals, and prehistoric modern humans had a greater sexual dimorphism than modern humans. Analysis of body size variation and cranial capacity variation in the large sample from the Sima de los Huesos site in Spain showed instead that the sexual dimorphism is comparable in Middle Pleistocene and modern populations. PMID:9262474

  7. Varying Constants: Constraints from Seasonal Variations

    Shaw, Douglas J

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the constraints obtained from new atomic clock data on the possible time variation of the fine structure `constant' and the electron-proton mass ratio and show how they are strengthened when the seasonal variation of Sun's gravitational field at the Earth's surface is taken into account.

  8. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)

  9. A Fitting Robot for Variational Analysis

    Cais, A Ó; Mahbub, S; Williams, T

    2008-01-01

    We develop a robot algorithm to maximise the number of distinct states reliably extracted from correlator data using the variational analysis method. The robot explores the variational parameter space and attempts to remove, as far as possible, the human element from the fitting of the subsequent orthogonalised data.

  10. Exploring Duopoly Markets with Conjectural Variations

    Julien, Ludovic A.; Musy, Olivier; Saïdi, Aurélien W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate competitive firm behaviors in a two-firm environment assuming linear cost and demand functions. By introducing conjectural variations, they capture the different market structures as specific configurations of a more general model. Conjectural variations are based on the assumption that each firm believes…

  11. Stochastic Variational Approach to Minimum Uncertainty States

    Illuminati, F.; Viola, L.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials.

  12. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    Illuminati, F; Illuminati, F; Viola, L

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials.

  13. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)

    1995-05-21

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)

  14. Variation in animal response to different toxicants

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The variation in response of different lots of male Swiss albino mice to pyrolysis effluents from surgical cotton and from bisphenol A polycarbonate, and to pure carbon monoxide, is discussed. The variation appeared to be less with the pyrolysis gases from polycarbonate than with pure carbon monoxide.

  15. Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation

    Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-20

    We derive two formulae relating the variation in closed orbit in a storage ring to variations in quadrupole strength, neglecting nonlinear and dispersive effects. These formulae correct results previously reported [1,2,3]. We compare the results of the formulae applied to the ATF with simulations using MAD, and consider their application to beam-based alignment.

  16. Caval variations in neurologically diseased patients

    The import of the cavum variation and its prevalence rate in healthy individuals is still not clear, likewise in neurologically diseased patients. To evaluate the frequency and pattern of caval variations in neurologically diseased patients. The presence or absence of the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), cavum vergae (CV), or cavum velum interpositum (CVI) was reviewed from successive cranial computerized tomography (CT) images of patients who were aged 6 months and above. Two hundred and seventeen cranial CT images were reviewed. At least a cavum variation was noted in 130 (59.9%) of the CT scan images reviewed. The CV, CVI, and CSP were noted in 86 (39.6%), 53 (24.4%), and 50 images (23%), respectively. Caval multiplicity was noted in 102 patients (47%). There was no significant difference in the rate of occurrence of cavum variations in patients with congenital brain diseases and acquired brain conditions (P = 0.484), neither was there a significant difference in the frequency of cavum variation in children aged older than 6 months compared to adults (P = 0.101). Cava variations are relatively common in neurological brain diseases. Patients with congenital brain diseases did not have a higher frequency of cava variation when compared with those that had acquired lesions. The most common type of cavum variation noted in this study was the vergae variety, while the CSP is the rarest

  17. Cosmic Time Variation of the Gravitational Constant

    Tomaschitz, R

    2000-01-01

    A pre-relativistic cosmological approach to electromagnetism and gravitation is explored that leads to a cosmic time variation of the fundamental constants. Space itself is supposed to have physical substance, which manifests by its permeability. The scale factors of the permeability tensor induce a time variation of the fundamental constants. Atomic radii, periods, and energy levels scale in cosmic time, which results in dispersionless redshifts without invoking a space expansion. Hubble constant and deceleration parameter are reviewed in this context. The time variation of the gravitational constant at the present epoch can be expressed in terms of these quantities. This provides a completely new way to restrain the deceleration parameter from laboratory bounds on the time variation of the gravitational constant. This variation also affects the redshift dependence of angular diameters and the surface brightness, and we study in some detail the redshift scaling of the linear sizes of radio sources. The effec...

  18. Variation Tolerant On-Chip Interconnects

    Nigussie, Ethiopia Enideg

    2012-01-01

    This book presents design techniques, analysis and implementation of high performance and power efficient, variation tolerant on-chip interconnects.  Given the design paradigm shift to multi-core, interconnect-centric designs and the increase in sources of variability and their impact in sub-100nm technologies, this book will be an invaluable reference for anyone concerned with the design of next generation, high-performance electronics systems. Provides comprehensive, circuit-level explanation of high-performance, energy-efficient, variation-tolerant on-chip interconnect; Describes design techniques to mitigate problems caused by variation; Includes techniques for design and implementation of self-timed on-chip interconnect, delay variation insensitive communication protocols, high speed signaling techniques and circuits, bit-width independent completion detection and process, voltage and temperature variation tolerance.                          

  19. Variations of images to increase their visibility

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The calculus of variations applied to the image processing requires some numerical models able to perform the variations of images and the extremization of appropriate actions. To produce the variations of images, there are several possibilities based on the brightness maps. Before a numerical model, I propose an experimental approach, based on a tool of Gimp, GNU Image Manipulation Program, in order to visualize how the image variations can be. After the discussion of this tool, which is able to strongly increase the visibility of images, the variations and a possible functional for the visibility are proposed in the framework of a numerical model. The visibility functional is analogous to the fringe visibility of the optical interference.

  20. Variational inequalities and frictional contact problems

    Capatina, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Variational Inequalities and Frictional Contact Problems contains a carefully selected collection of results on elliptic and evolutionary quasi-variational inequalities including existence, uniqueness, regularity, dual formulations, numerical approximations and error estimates ones. By using a wide range of methods and arguments, the results are presented in a constructive way, with clarity and well justified proofs. This approach makes the subjects accessible to mathematicians and applied mathematicians. Moreover, this part of the book can be used as an excellent background for the investigation of more general classes of variational inequalities. The abstract variational inequalities considered in this book cover the variational formulations of many static and quasi-static contact problems. Based on these abstract results, in the last part of the book, certain static and quasi-static frictional contact problems in elasticity are studied in an almost exhaustive way. The readers will find a systematic and uni...

  1. 肺癌患者肺部感染的易感因素与病原菌分析%Predisposing factors and pathogen analysis of pulmonary infection in patients with lung cancer

    叶建明; 方兴; 谭海栋

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对收治的肺癌患者的病例调查研究,对其肺部感染的易感因素、病原菌及其耐药性进行研究分析,为肺癌患者肺部感染预防和治疗提供依据。方法对医院2011年7月-2013年6月收治的肺癌且发生肺部感染的患者共62例,在住院后第2天,采集患者的痰液送至实验室进行细菌、真菌的培养,采用K-B法分离的菌株进行耐药性分析,数据均由Excel软件以及SPSS13.0软件进行处理。结果对62例患者采取的151份符合标准的痰液进行微生物培养,共检测出74株病原菌,真菌占43.24%,革兰阳性菌占9.46%,革兰阴性菌占47.30%,革兰阴性菌中肺炎克雷伯菌比例最高,真菌中的白色假丝酵母菌比例最高,肺炎克雷伯菌对氨苄西林的耐药率为100.0%,对环丙沙星无耐药性;阴沟肠杆菌对头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢唑林的耐药率均为100.0%;鲍氏不动杆菌对头孢唑林的耐药率为100.0%,对头孢他啶无耐药性;铜绿假单胞菌对氨苄西林、头孢唑林的耐药率均为100.0%;金黄色葡萄球菌对青霉素的耐药率为100.0%。结论对肺癌患者肺部感染进行积极的预防和控制,加强对引起肺癌患者肺部感染病原菌的监测,为医护人员对患者进行治疗、使用抗菌药物时提供参考依据,降低肺癌患者肺部感染率,提高治疗效果。%OBJECTIVE To analyze predisposing factors ,pathogens and drug resistance for lung infection through case study of patients with lung cancer so as to provide reference for prevention and treatment of lung infection in patients with lung cancer .METHODS A total of 62 patients who had lung infection during hospitalization from Jul .2011 to Jun .2013 for lung cancer were selected .At two days after admission ,the sputum from the patients were delivered to the laboratory for bacteria and fungi culture .Analysis of drug resistance

  2. Onsager's Variational Principle in Soft Matter Dynamics

    Doi, Masao

    2012-02-01

    It is shown that Onsager's variational principle gives us a unified frame-work in discussing various dynamics of soft matter such as diffusion, rheology and their coupling. The variational principle gives kinetic equations which satisfy Onsager's reciprocal relation. With many examples, it is shown that the kinetic equations are usually written as non-linear partial differential equations for state variables and can describe various non-linear and non-equilibrium phenomena in soft matter. The physics underlying the variational principle is discussed.

  3. Practice Variation in Public Sector Internal Auditing

    Arena, Marika; Jeppesen, Kim Klarskov

    2016-01-01

    the interplay between actors’ contemporary embeddedness in professional systems and the focal social system as a relevant source of practice variation. In this respect, the case of IA can contribute to previous studies of practice variation in the field of management accounting, shedding some light on......This article aims to analyze the rise of practice variations in public sector internal auditing (IA), giving special attention to the role of agents’ embeddedness in multiple institutional arrangements. IA's trends of development and the characteristics of the public sector context, in fact, make...

  4. Developing variations: : An analytical and historical perspective

    Sirman, Berk

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Berk Sirman: Developing Variations – An Analytical and Historical Perspective. Uppsala Universitet: Institutionen för musikvetenskap, uppsats för 60 p., 2006. Developing variations is a term by Arnold Schönberg that is coined to describe constant modification of motives and ideas in a theme, or possibly throughout the whole work. This is thought to be superior to exact repetitions. Developing variations was used by Schönberg to analyze the music of Brahms, whose compositions represen...

  5. Variation After Response in Quantum Monte Carlo

    Neuscamman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method for modeling electronically excited states that overcomes a key failing of linear response theory by allowing the underlying ground state ansatz to relax in the presence of an excitation. The method is variational, has a cost similar to ground state variational Monte Carlo, and admits both open and periodic boundary conditions. We present preliminary numerical results showing that, when paired with the Jastrow antisymmetric geminal power ansatz, the variation-after-response formalism delivers accuracies for valence and charge transfer single excitations on par with equation of motion coupled cluster, while surpassing even this very high-level method's accuracy for excitations with significant doubly excited character.

  6. Variations of biorhythm composition in healthy people

    Aptikaeva, O. I.; Gamburtsev, A. G.; Stepanova, S. I.

    2010-12-01

    We have investigated variations in the spectral composition of some physiological characteristics (heart rate, sublingual temperature, potassium renal excretion, and respiratory rate). It has been shown that, in regular social and domestic conditions, the human responses to permanently changing external influences are different and depend on their individual adaptation ability. Some test subjects show a prevalence of the major circadian rhythm in the rhythmic composition of physiological characteristics, which stays almost unchanged under significant variations in external factors; other test subjects are characterized by a rapid change in the rhythmic composition following variations, for example, of solar activity; for a third type of test subject, this change occurs with a significant time delay.

  7. Variational calculus with constraints on general algebroids

    Variational calculus on a vector bundle E equipped with a structure of a general algebroid is developed, together with the corresponding analogs of Euler-Lagrange equations. Constrained systems are introduced in the variational and geometrical settings. The constrained Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for analogs of holonomic, vakonomic and nonholonomic constraints. This general model covers the majority of first-order Lagrangian systems which are present in the literature and reduces to the standard variational calculus and the Euler-Lagrange equations in classical mechanics for E = TM

  8. NO TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-4

    Petrucci, R.; Schwartz, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jofré, E.; Cúneo, V.; Gómez, M. [CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Martínez, C. [Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2013-12-20

    We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or R{sub P} /R {sub *}. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54 s.

  9. Variations on the Two Envelopes Problem

    Tsikogiannopoulos, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    There are many papers written on the Two Envelopes Problem that usually study some of its variations. In this paper we will study and compare the most significant variations of the problem. We will see the correct decisions for each player and we will show the mathematics that supports them. We will point out some common mistakes in these calculations and we will explain why they are incorrect. Whenever an amount of money is revealed to the players in some variation, we will make our calculations based on the revealed amount, something that is not achieved in other papers.

  10. Contingent negative variation of mood disorder patients

    Yingzhi Lu; Wenbin Zong; Qingtao Ren; Jinyu Pu; Jun Chen; Juan Li; Xingshi Chen; Yong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on brain-evoked potential and contingent negative variation (CNV) in mood disorder remain controversial. To date, no CNV difference between unipolar and bipolar depression has been reported. Brain-evoked potentials were measured in the present study to analyze CNV in three subtypes of mood disorder (mania, unipolar depression, and bipolar depression), and these results were compared with normal controls. In the mania group, CNV amplitude B was greater than in controls, and the depression group exhibited lower CNV amplitude B and smaller A-S'2 area, and prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency. The CNV comparison between unipolar and bipolar depression found that the prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency was only in unipolar depression. These results suggest that prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency is a characteristic of unipolar depression, and CNV amplitude change is a state characteristic of mood disorder patients.

  11. Variational Perturbation Theory for Markov Processes

    Kleinert, Hagen; Pelster, Axel; Mihai V. Putz

    2002-01-01

    We develop a convergent variational perturbation theory for conditional probability densities of Markov processes. The power of the theory is illustrated by applying it to the diffusion of a particle in an anharmonic potential.

  12. Epigenetic variation, phenotypic heritability, and evolution

    Furrow, Robert E.; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2014-01-01

    families. The potential importance of this interaction, recognized in classical studies of the genetic epidemiology of complex diseases and other quantitative characters, has reemerged in studies of the effects of epigenetic modifications, their variation, and their transmission between generations....

  13. Variation Principle for a Linear Potential

    CASAUBON, Juan Ignacio; BUEP, Juan Pablo COSENTINO and Adrián Hugo

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the student to the Quantum Mechanic linear potential (constant force) using new variation wave functions for the ground state and the first excited one. This approach use simple wave functions to describe the exact Airy solution.

  14. Solar gravitational energy and luminosity variations

    Fazel, Z; Lefebvre, S; Ajabshirizadeh, A; Pireaux, S; 10.1016/j.newst.2007.05.003

    2009-01-01

    Due to non-homogeneous mass distribution and non-uniform velocity rate inside the Sun, the solar outer shape is distorted in latitude. In this paper, we analyze the consequences of a temporal change in this figure on the luminosity. To do so, we use the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) as an indicator of luminosity. Considering that most of the authors have explained the largest part of the TSI modulation with magnetic network (spots and faculae) but not the whole, we could set constraints on radius and effective temperature variations (dR, dT). However computations show that the amplitude of solar irradiance modulation is very sensitive to photospheric temperature variations. In order to understand discrepancies between our best fit and recent observations of Livingston et al. (2005), showing no effective surface temperature variation during the solar cycle, we investigated small effective temperature variation in irradiance modeling. We emphasized a phase-shift (correlated or anticorrelated radius and irradianc...

  15. Concentration variation of radon in the room

    The study was carried out to determine the variation of radon concentration in the room. Radon detector used was solid nuclear tracks detector (SSNTD) LR-115. From this result, suitable points to make radon measurement was determined

  16. Geographic Variation in Medicare Spending Dashboard

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Geographic Variation Dashboards present Medicare fee-for-service per-capita spending at the state and county level in an interactive format. We calculated the...

  17. Medicare Geographic Variation - Public Use File

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Geographic Variation Public Use File provides the ability to view demographic, utilization and quality indicators at the state level (including...

  18. Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variat...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variation State-Level Characteristics Matter, published in Volume 3, Issue 4, of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  19. A new class of variational equation problems

    2003-01-01

    Applying an analysis method to a group of multivariable equations, a new class of variational equations are proved. This method is more concise and more direct than the others. This result can be applied to some stochastic control models.

  20. Fixed point theory, variational analysis, and optimization

    Al-Mezel, Saleh Abdullah R; Ansari, Qamrul Hasan

    2015-01-01

    ""There is a real need for this book. It is useful for people who work in areas of nonlinear analysis, optimization theory, variational inequalities, and mathematical economics.""-Nan-Jing Huang, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China

  1. [Variation im heutigen Deutsch...] / Laura Tidrike

    Tidrike, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Variation im heutigen Deutsch : Perspektiven für den Sprachunterricht / hrsg. v. Eva Neuland. Frankfurt am Main : Lang, 2006. (Sprache - Kommunikation - Kultur. Soziolinguistische Beiträge ; Vol. 4)

  2. Population effects of increased climate variation

    Drake, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Global circulation models predict and numerous observations confirm that anthropogenic climate change has altered high-frequency climate variability. However, it is not yet well understood how changing patterns of environmental variation will affect wildlife population dynamics and other ecological processes. Theory predicts that a population's long-run growth rate is diminished and the chance of population extinction is increased as environmental variation increases. This results from the fa...

  3. Introduction to the calculus of variations

    Sagan, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Excellent text provides basis for thorough understanding of the problems, methods and techniques of the calculus of variations and prepares readers for the study of modern optimal control theory. Treatment limited to extensive coverage of single integral problems in one and more unknown functions. Carefully chosen variational problems and over 400 exercises. ""Should find wide acceptance as a text and reference.""-American Mathematical Monthly. 1969 edition. Bibliography.

  4. Variational time discretization of geodesic calculus

    Rumpf, Martin; Wirth, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    We analyze a variational time discretization of geodesic calculus on finite- and certain classes of infinite-dimensional Riemannian manifolds. We investigate the fundamental properties of discrete geodesics, the associated discrete logarithm, discrete exponential maps, and discrete parallel transport, and we prove convergence to their continuous counterparts. The presented analysis is based on the direct methods in the calculus of variation, on $\\Gamma$-convergence, and on weighted finite ele...

  5. Variations in government contract in Malaysia

    Jaspal Singh Nachatar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of construction works means that it is hardly possible to complete a project without changes to the plans or the construction process itself. There can only be a minority of contracts of any size in which the subject matter when completed is identical in every respect with what was contemplated at the outset. As such, variations are inevitable in even the best-planned contracts. This study is attempted to examine the ways a variation was formed in law and project, in finding out whether the Standard Form of Contract used in Malaysia particularly the government Public Works Department (PWD form has been utilized to the best level in variation cases. Additionally, this study examined the benefits of variations to parties in contract and also provides suggestions and assumptions in an effort to contribute solutions to issues and problem detected. The research methodology used in this study was an extensive review of relevant literature, case study, empirical questionnaires and structured interviews and general observations based on experience and surroundings. The academic study approach incorporated stages such as initial understanding, data and information gathering, analysis of data, findings and conclusion and general suggestions in the study. The major findings of this study, among others, revealed that the existences of variations are common in projects. The main cause of variations was due to client request because of inadequate project objectives for the designer to develop comprehensive design. Besides, the analysis pointed out that the government form of contract the Public Works Department (PWD 203/203A can help in overcoming projects with variation because of the clear defined procedure. This study also found that proper planning and coordination at tender stage can minimize the risk of ‘unwanted’ variations. In conclusion, this study recommended that future research should be done in design and build based contract

  6. On the use of antithetic variates

    Milgram, M.S.

    2001-07-01

    The use of antithetic variates as a variance reduction method is investigated by numerical experimentation. It is found that if variance reduction is not carefully defined, it can go undetected. With this caveat in mind, it is shown that antithetic variates can reduce variance up to a point. The phenomenon of spontaneous correlation is identified as the cause of failure. The surprising result that it can pay to use non-scoring histories is demonstrated. A total energy deposition problem is studied. (orig.)

  7. Gaussian Copula Variational Autoencoders for Mixed Data

    Suh, Suwon; Choi, Seungjin

    2016-01-01

    The variational autoencoder (VAE) is a generative model with continuous latent variables where a pair of probabilistic encoder (bottom-up) and decoder (top-down) is jointly learned by stochastic gradient variational Bayes. We first elaborate Gaussian VAE, approximating the local covariance matrix of the decoder as an outer product of the principal direction at a position determined by a sample drawn from Gaussian distribution. We show that this model, referred to as VAE-ROC, better captures t...

  8. Variational calculus with constraints on general algebroids

    Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Variational calculus on a vector bundle E equipped with a structure of a general algebroid is developed, together with the corresponding analogs of Euler-Lagrange equations. Constrained systems are introduced in the variational and in the geometrical setting. The constrained Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for analogs of holonomic, vakonomic and nonholonomic constraints. This general model covers majority of first-order Lagrangian systems which are present in the literature and reduces t...

  9. Variations in national management accounting approaches

    Amat, Oriol; Blake, John; Oliveras, Ester

    1999-01-01

    During the 1990's studies of management accounting practices in Europe and in Latin America have given us data on 23 countries. In this paper we use this data to identify five distinct aspects of national management accounting culture being: 1. The influence of regulations on official recommendations; 2. The source of management accountants; 3. Influence from one country to another; 4. Variations in use of specific techniques; 5. Variations in the objectives of the...

  10. Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens.

    Barbour, A. G.; Restrepo, B I

    2000-01-01

    Several pathogens of humans and domestic animals depend on hematophagous arthropods to transmit them from one vertebrate reservoir host to another and maintain them in an environment. These pathogens use antigenic variation to prolong their circulation in the blood and thus increase the likelihood of transmission. By convergent evolution, bacterial and protozoal vector-borne pathogens have acquired similar genetic mechanisms for successful antigenic variation. Borrelia spp. and Anaplasma marg...

  11. Discrete Total Variation: New Definition and Minimization

    Condat, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new definition for the gradient field of a discrete image, defined on a twice finer grid. The differentiation process from the image to its gradient field is viewed as the inverse operation of linear integration, and the proposed mapping is nonlinear. Then, we define the total variation of an image as the l1 norm of its gradient field amplitude. This new definition of the total variation yields sharp edges and has better isotropy than the classical definition.

  12. Evolutionary problems driven by variational inequalities

    Liu, Zhenhai; Zeng, Shengda; Motreanu, Dumitru

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we introduce the differential system obtained by mixing an evolution equation and a variational inequality ((EEVI), for short). First, by using KKM theorem and monotonicity arguments, we prove the superpositional measurability and upper semicontinuity for the solution set of a general variational inequality. Then we establish that the solution set of (EEVI) is nonempty and compact. Our approach is based on the theory of semigroups, Filippov implicit function lemma and fixed point theory for set-valued mappings.

  13. Genetic variation and pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea.

    Vlugt-Bergmans, van der, C.J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a fungal pathogen of more than 200 hosts including a wide variety of economically important crops. Although many ecological and physiological studies on this destructive pathogen have been reported, not much is known about the molecular basis of the interaction of this pathogen with its various host plants. This thesis describes the use of molecular techniques to study the genetic variation and pathogenicity of B. cinerea.Genetic variation among ten strains of B. cinerea w...

  14. Variational Principle underlying Scale Invariant Social Systems

    Hernando, A.; A. Plastino

    2012-01-01

    MaxEnt's variational principle, in conjunction with Shannon's logarithmic information measure, yields only exponential functional forms in straightforward fashion. In this communication we show how to overcome this limitation via the incorporation, into the variational process, of suitable dynamical information. As a consequence, we are able to formulate a somewhat generalized Shannonian Maximum Entropy approach which provides a unifying "thermodynamic-like" explanation for the scale-invarian...

  15. Emergent Gravity from an Augmented Variational Principle

    Tuveri, Matteo; Ferraris, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A direct and non-trivial link between Padmanabhan's entropy used in emergent gravity and standard GR action is established. To do that, Augmented Variational Principles (AVP) will be used. We shall discuss how this link accounts for the details of the variation of Padmanabhan's action based on gravitational entropy. It will also clarify the role of the background metric and its non-dynamical role.

  16. Managing Cultural Variation in Software Process Improvement

    Müller, Sune Dueholm; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    The scale and complexity of change in software process improvement (SPI) are considerable and managerial attention to organizational culture during SPI can therefore potentially contribute to successful outcomes. However, we know little about the impact of variations in organizational subculture on...... CMMI level 2 as planned, ASY struggled to implement even modest improvements. To explain these differences, we analyzed the underlying organizational culture within ISY and ASY using two different methods for subculture assessment. The study demonstrates how variations in culture across software...

  17. Genetic Variations in Vesicoureteral Reflux Sequelae

    Hains, David S.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common condition in children. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) represents a common associated condition with childhood UTI. UTI susceptibility appears to have a genetic component based on family and UTI cohort studies. Targeted analysis of innate immune system genetic variations indicate that these variations are important in UTI susceptibility. In this overview, we discuss how current cohorts and genetic strategies can be implemented to discover new susceptibi...

  18. Genetic Variations in Vesicoureteral Reflux Sequelae.

    Hains, David S; Schwaderer, Andrew L

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common condition in children. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) represents a common associated condition with childhood UTI. UTI susceptibility appears to have a genetic component based on family and UTI cohort studies. Targeted analysis of innate immune system genetic variations indicate that these variations are important in UTI susceptibility. In this overview, we discuss how current cohorts and genetic strategies can be implemented to discover new susceptibility loci in patients with UTI. PMID:26848692

  19. Exploring subdomain variation in biomedical language

    Séaghdha Diarmuid Ó

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of Natural Language Processing (NLP technology to biomedical texts have generated significant interest in recent years. In this paper we identify and investigate the phenomenon of linguistic subdomain variation within the biomedical domain, i.e., the extent to which different subject areas of biomedicine are characterised by different linguistic behaviour. While variation at a coarser domain level such as between newswire and biomedical text is well-studied and known to affect the portability of NLP systems, we are the first to conduct an extensive investigation into more fine-grained levels of variation. Results Using the large OpenPMC text corpus, which spans the many subdomains of biomedicine, we investigate variation across a number of lexical, syntactic, semantic and discourse-related dimensions. These dimensions are chosen for their relevance to the performance of NLP systems. We use clustering techniques to analyse commonalities and distinctions among the subdomains. Conclusions We find that while patterns of inter-subdomain variation differ somewhat from one feature set to another, robust clusters can be identified that correspond to intuitive distinctions such as that between clinical and laboratory subjects. In particular, subdomains relating to genetics and molecular biology, which are the most common sources of material for training and evaluating biomedical NLP tools, are not representative of all biomedical subdomains. We conclude that an awareness of subdomain variation is important when considering the practical use of language processing applications by biomedical researchers.

  20. Networks of spatial genetic variation across species

    Fortuna, Miguel A.; Albaladejo, Rafael G.; Fernández, Laura; Aparicio, Abelardo; Bascompte, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Spatial patterns of genetic variation provide information central to many ecological, evolutionary, and conservation questions. This spatial variability has traditionally been analyzed through summary statistics between pairs of populations, therefore missing the simultaneous influence of all populations. More recently, a network approach has been advocated to overcome these limitations. This network approach has been applied to a few cases limited to a single species at a time. The question remains whether similar patterns of spatial genetic variation and similar functional roles for specific patches are obtained for different species. Here we study the networks of genetic variation of four Mediterranean woody plant species inhabiting the same habitat patches in a highly fragmented forest mosaic in Southern Spain. Three of the four species show a similar pattern of genetic variation with well-defined modules or groups of patches holding genetically similar populations. These modules can be thought of as the long-sought-after, evolutionarily significant units or management units. The importance of each patch for the cohesion of the entire network, though, is quite different across species. This variation creates a tremendous challenge for the prioritization of patches to conserve the genetic variation of multispecies assemblages. PMID:19861546

  1. Cryptic variation in the human mutation rate.

    Alan Hodgkinson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The mutation rate is known to vary between adjacent sites within the human genome as a consequence of context, the most well-studied example being the influence of CpG dinucelotides. We investigated whether there is additional variation by testing whether there is an excess of sites at which both humans and chimpanzees have a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP. We found a highly significant excess of such sites, and we demonstrated that this excess is not due to neighbouring nucleotide effects, ancestral polymorphism, or natural selection. We therefore infer that there is cryptic variation in the mutation rate. However, although this variation in the mutation rate is not associated with the adjacent nucleotides, we show that there are highly nonrandom patterns of nucleotides that extend approximately 80 base pairs on either side of sites with coincident SNPs, suggesting that there are extensive and complex context effects. Finally, we estimate the level of variation needed to produce the excess of coincident SNPs and show that there is a similar, or higher, level of variation in the mutation rate associated with this cryptic process than there is associated with adjacent nucleotides, including the CpG effect. We conclude that there is substantial variation in the mutation that has, until now, been hidden from view.

  2. Genomic pathology of SLE-associated copy-number variation at the FCGR2C/FCGR3B/FCGR2B locus.

    Mueller, Michael; Barros, Paula; Witherden, Abigail S; Roberts, Amy L; Zhang, Zhou; Schaschl, Helmut; Yu, Chack-Yung; Hurles, Matthew E; Schaffner, Catherine; Floto, R Andres; Game, Laurence; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz; Wilson, Richard K; Graves, Tina A; Eichler, Evan E; Cook, H Terence; Vyse, Timothy J; Aitman, Timothy J

    2013-01-10

    Reduced FCGR3B copy number is associated with increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The five FCGR2/FCGR3 genes are arranged across two highly paralogous genomic segments on chromosome 1q23. Previous studies have suggested mechanisms for structural rearrangements at the FCGR2/FCGR3 locus and have proposed mechanisms whereby altered FCGR3B copy number predisposes to autoimmunity, but the high degree of sequence similarity between paralogous segments has prevented precise definition of the molecular events and their functional consequences. To pursue the genomic pathology associated with FCGR3B copy-number variation, we integrated sequencing data from fosmid and bacterial artificial chromosome clones and sequence-captured DNA from FCGR3B-deleted genomes to establish a detailed map of allelic and paralogous sequence variation across the FCGR2/FCGR3 locus. This analysis identified two highly paralogous 24.5 kb blocks within the FCGR2C/FCGR3B/FCGR2B locus that are devoid of nonpolymorphic paralogous sequence variations and that define the limits of the genomic regions in which nonallelic homologous recombination leads to FCGR2C/FCGR3B copy-number variation. Further, the data showed evidence of swapping of haplotype blocks between these highly paralogous blocks that most likely arose from sequential ancestral recombination events across the region. Functionally, we found by flow cytometry, immunoblotting and cDNA sequencing that individuals with FCGR3B-deleted alleles show ectopic presence of FcγRIIb on natural killer (NK) cells. We conclude that FCGR3B deletion juxtaposes the 5'-regulatory sequences of FCGR2C with the coding sequence of FCGR2B, creating a chimeric gene that results in an ectopic accumulation of FcγRIIb on NK cells and provides an explanation for SLE risk associated with reduced FCGR3B gene copy number. PMID:23261299

  3. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Anttila, Jani; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni; Ruokolainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens. PMID:26710238

  4. Phenotypic Variation in infants, not adults, reflects genotypic variation among chimpanzees and bonobos

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce De León, Marcia S; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2014-01-01

    Studies comparing phenotypic variation with neutral genetic variation in modern humans have shown that genetic drift is a main factor of evolutionary diversification among populations. The genetic population history of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees and bonobos, is now equally well documented, but phenotypic variation among these taxa remains relatively unexplored, and phenotype-genotype correlations are not yet documented. Also, while the adult phenotype is typically used as a...

  5. Intrapopulation genome size variation in D. melanogaster reflects life history variation and plasticity.

    Lisa L Ellis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We determined female genome sizes using flow cytometry for 211 Drosophila melanogaster sequenced inbred strains from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, and found significant conspecific and intrapopulation variation in genome size. We also compared several life history traits for 25 lines with large and 25 lines with small genomes in three thermal environments, and found that genome size as well as genome size by temperature interactions significantly correlated with survival to pupation and adulthood, time to pupation, female pupal mass, and female eclosion rates. Genome size accounted for up to 23% of the variation in developmental phenotypes, but the contribution of genome size to variation in life history traits was plastic and varied according to the thermal environment. Expression data implicate differences in metabolism that correspond to genome size variation. These results indicate that significant genome size variation exists within D. melanogaster and this variation may impact the evolutionary ecology of the species. Genome size variation accounts for a significant portion of life history variation in an environmentally dependent manner, suggesting that potential fitness effects associated with genome size variation also depend on environmental conditions.

  6. Prostate Contouring Variation: Can It Be Fixed?

    Purpose: To assess whether an education program on CT and MRI prostate anatomy would reduce inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variation among experienced radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Three patient CT and MRI datasets were selected. Five radiation oncologists contoured the prostate for each patient on CT first, then MRI, and again between 2 and 4 weeks later. Three education sessions were then conducted. The same contouring process was then repeated with the same datasets and oncologists. The observer variation was assessed according to changes in the ratio of the encompassing volume to intersecting volume (volume ratio [VR]), across sets of target volumes. Results: For interobserver variation, there was a 15% reduction in mean VR with CT, from 2.74 to 2.33, and a 40% reduction in mean VR with MRI, from 2.38 to 1.41 after education. A similar trend was found for intraobserver variation, with a mean VR reduction for CT and MRI of 9% (from 1.51 to 1.38) and 16% (from 1.37 to 1.15), respectively. Conclusion: A well-structured education program has reduced both inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variations. The impact was greater on MRI than on CT. With the ongoing incorporation of new technologies into routine practice, education programs for target contouring should be incorporated as part of the continuing medical education of radiation oncologists.

  7. VARIATIONS OF SOLAR ROTATION AND SUNSPOT ACTIVITY

    The continuous wavelet transformation is used to study the temporal variations of the rotational cycle length of daily sunspot numbers from 1849 January 1 to 2010 February 28, from a global point of view. The rotational cycle length of the Sun is found to have a secular trend, which statistically shows a linear decrease by about 0.47 days during the time interval considered. The empirical mode decomposition analysis of the temporal variations of the rotational cycle length shows an acceleration trend for the surface rotation rate from cycles 11 to 19, but a deceleration trend from the beginning of cycle 20 onward. We cannot determine whether the rotation rate around the maximum times of the Schwable cycles should be faster or slower than that around the minimum times, implying no Schwable cycle in the long-term variations of rotation. The results obtained are compared to those from the literature. It is inferred that the variation of the rotational cycle length may be related to the variation of sunspot activity in the long run.

  8. Smart variations: Functional substructures for part compatibility

    Zheng, Youyi

    2013-05-01

    As collections of 3D models continue to grow, reusing model parts allows generation of novel model variations. Naïvely swapping parts across models, however, leads to implausible results, especially when mixing parts across different model families. Hence, the user has to manually ensure that the final model remains functionally valid. We claim that certain symmetric functional arrangements (sFarr-s), which are special arrangements among symmetrically related substructures, bear close relation to object functions. Hence, we propose a purely geometric approach based on such substructures to match, replace, and position triplets of parts to create non-trivial, yet functionally plausible, model variations. We demonstrate that starting even from a small set of models such a simple geometric approach can produce a diverse set of non-trivial and plausible model variations. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Seasonal variation of febrile convulsion in Japan.

    Tsuboi, T; Okada, S

    1984-05-01

    The 6-year incidence rates of febrile convulsions in all 3-year-old children in Fuchu (covering 95% of children, number examined 17,044) was 8.2%. The incidence was higher in boys than in girls (9.0%: 7.5%, P less than 0.001). The incidence rates varied with the month and year of birth, but the variations observed were slight. Two peak appearances of seasonal variation of the first febrile convulsion were found in November-January and in June-August. The former could be interpreted as a tendency to winter virus infection of the upper respiratory tract in children. The other peak in summer could be explained as a tendency to gastrointestinal infection. Liability to febrile convulsion was influenced by the age of children and by the seasonal variations of febrile illness, but not by the season of birth. PMID:6464667

  10. Temporal Variation of the Hemispheric Solar Rotation

    Xie, J -L; Xu, J -C

    2011-01-01

    The daily sunspot numbers of the whole disk as well as the northern and southern hemispheres from January 1, 1945 to December 31, 2010 are used to investigate the temporal variation of the rotational cycle length through the continuous wavelet transformation analysis method. The auto-correlation function analysis of daily hemispheric sunspot numbers shows that the southern hemisphere rotates faster than the northern hemisphere. The results obtained from the wavelet transformation analysis are: there exists no direct relationship between the variation trend of the rotational cycle length and the variation trend of solar activity in the two hemispheres; the rotational cycle length of both hemispheres has no significant period appearing at the 11 years, but has significant period of about 7.6 years. Analysis concerning the solar cycle dependence of the rotational cycle length shows that in the whole disk and the northern hemisphere acceleration seems to appear before the minimum time of solar activity. Furthermo...

  11. Seasonal variation in leisure time physical activity.

    Uitenbroek, D G

    1993-06-01

    In this paper seasonal variation in leisure time physical activity for exercise is studied and quantified with regard to several popular exercise activities and taking the respondents gender, occupational status, and age into consideration. The analysis concerns data collected by telephone in Scotland between January 1989 and March 1992. Data from 7,202 male and 9,284 female respondents is used in the analysis; cosinor analysis using GLIM is applied. Considerable seasonal variation was found affecting both outdoor and indoor activities. During the peak phase in July, 32% of the respondents reported exercising for at least 20 min three or more times during the previous week, in the winter period this decreased to 23%. Older respondents were found to exercise more later in the year and also showed seasonal variation to a larger extent than younger respondents. This is particularly so for those respondents who exercise at a relatively high frequency. PMID:8321115

  12. Geographical localisation of the geomagnetic secular variation

    Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Directly observed changes in Earth’s magnetic field occur most prominently at low latitudes beneath the Atlantic hemisphere, while the Pacific is comparatively quiet. This striking hemispheric asymmetry in geomagnetic secular variation is a consequence of the geographical localisation of intense...... control from either, or both, the inner-core boundary and the core-mantle boundary. In addition to presenting an Earth-like magnetic field morphology, these new numerical models also reproduce the morphology and localization of geomagnetic secular variation. In our models, the conservation of the angular...... thermochemical boundary control distorts this gyre (the strongest distortion being obtained with inner core heterogeneous control) and localises the field changes in a hemispherical longitudinal sector. The two effects combine to recreate the observed localisation of geomagnetic secular variation in both...

  13. Stochastic Variations of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    The generalized anisotropic diffusion tensor, streams and drift velocities of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for the three dimensional Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) have been analysed. Stochastic and regular changes of GCR, especially 11-year and 27-day variations have been studied. It is stressed that in seventies the generalized anisotropic diffusion tensor has been rarely used due to lack of the direct evidence of the latitudinal component of the IMF. However, now this tensor must be largely used as far as the experimental data and theoretical investigations show the existence of the latitudinal component of the IMF, i.e. heliospheric magnetic field is three-dimensional. The nature of the 11-year variation of GCR is critically considered. It is concluded that the general mechanism of the 11-year variation of GCR must be the change of the structure of the stochastic IMF. Particularly the effective size of the irregularities of the IMF responsible for the diffusion of GCR increases in the minima epochs of solar activity with respect to the maxima epochs. Thus, the different character of the diffusion of GCR in different epochs of solar activity is the general mechanism of 11-year variation of GCR. The temporal changes of the energy spectrum of the 11-year variations of GCR versus the solar activity, namely soft energy spectrum in the maxima epochs and hard one in the minima epochs, conform this conclusion. The modelling and experimental investigations show that the amplitude of the 27-day variations of GCR is greater about 1.5 times in the period of the q A>0 solar magnetic cycle than in the period of the solar magnetic cycle q A<0, which is not yet well explained according to the modern theory of GCR modulation. (author)

  14. The orbit and variations of δ Sagittae

    Pugh, T.; Gray, David F.; Griffin, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Radial-velocity observations spanning more than a century are used to produce a reliable orbit of the δ Sagittae system. We find an orbital period of 3703.7 ± 1.5 d and a semi-amplitude of 7.73 ± 0.05 km s-1. In addition, we find quasi-periodic variations with time-scales in the range of 550-750 d and a typical amplitude of 1 km s-1. The phase and amplitude are both irregular, sometimes changing very abruptly. We consider pulsation, rotational modulation and convection as possible causes of the variations, finally favouring convection.

  15. Delay Variation Model with Two Service Queues

    Filip Rezac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay in VoIP technology is very unpleasant issue and therefore a voice packets prioritization must be ensured. To maintain the high call quality a maximum information delivery time from the sender to the recipient is set to 150 ms. This paper focuses on the design of a mathematical model of end-to-end delay of a VoIP connection, in particular on a delay variation. It describes all partial delay components and mechanisms, their generation, facilities and mathematical formulations. A new approach to the delay variation model is presented and its validation has been done by experimention.

  16. Research on Variation of Bamboo Density

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo as an important biological resource has become an alternative to wood gradually,but the variation in mechanical properties leads to difficulty in its use to some extent.So deep understanding of the nature in bamboo is needed to satisfy the utilization effectively.As we have known,the density is one of mechanical properties of bamboo.Therefore,this paper studied the variation in bamboo density with the weighing method.The results showed that the density decreases gradually from the outer to the inn...

  17. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali

    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry of...... features in texture images leads to significant improvements in localization of these features, when textures undergo geometrical transformations. Accurate localization of features in the presense of unkown deformations is a crucial property for texture characterization methods, and we intend to expoit...

  18. Variations in government contract in Malaysia

    Jaspal Singh Nachatar; Abdul Aziz Hussin; Abdelnaser Omran

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of construction works means that it is hardly possible to complete a project without changes to the plans or the construction process itself. There can only be a minority of contracts of any size in which the subject matter when completed is identical in every respect with what was contemplated at the outset. As such, variations are inevitable in even the best-planned contracts. This study is attempted to examine the ways a variation was formed in law and project, in finding ou...

  19. Variation in terminology: capoeira in Belo Horizonte

    César Nardelli Cambraia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study we analyzed the variation in the terminology of capoeira in Belo Horizonte. The terms referring to 69 videotaped movements of capoeira were collected from 10 informants (5 men and 5 women, aged between 25 and 32 years, capoeira teachers. As a result we obtained 294 different terms whose patterns of variation are distributed among 15 types. We tested the hypothesis that the figurative terms tend to be replaced by non-figurative ones, and it was confirmed by the collected data. This trend was the result of a search for transparency in terminology, making the terms more descriptive in relation to capoeira’s movements.

  20. The variational subspace valence bond method

    Fletcher, Graham D. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    The variational subspace valence bond (VSVB) method based on overlapping orbitals is introduced. VSVB provides variational support against collapse for the optimization of overlapping linear combinations of atomic orbitals (OLCAOs) using modified orbital expansions, without recourse to orthogonalization. OLCAO have the advantage of being naturally localized, chemically intuitive (to individually model bonds and lone pairs, for example), and transferrable between different molecular systems. Such features are exploited to avoid key computational bottlenecks. Since the OLCAO can be doubly occupied, VSVB can access very large problems, and calculations on systems with several hundred atoms are presented.

  1. A search for transit timing variation

    Maciejewski, G; Raetz, St; Errmann, R; Kramm, U; Schmidt, T O B

    2010-01-01

    Photometric follow-ups of transiting exoplanets (TEPs) may lead to discoveries of additional, less massive bodies in extrasolar systems. This is possible by detecting and then analysing variations in transit timing of transiting exoplanets. In 2009 we launched an international observing campaign, the aim of which is to detect and characterise signals of transit timing variation (TTV) in selected TEPs. The programme is realised by collecting data from 0.6--2.2-m telescopes spread worldwide at different longitudes. We present our observing strategy and summarise first results for WASP-3b with evidence for a 15 Earth-mass perturber in an outer 2:1 orbital resonance.

  2. Solar cycle and seasonal variations of the solar an lunar daily variations of total electron content at lunping

    The solar and lunar daily variations of the ionospheric total electron content observed at Lunping, which lies close to the crest zone of the so-called equatorial anomaly, were analyzed by Chapman-Miller method. The lunisolar diurnal variation L1 and lunar semidiurnal variation L2 were found to have significant seasonal variations, with amplitude increasing steadily from summer to winter. The hours for L1 and L2 variations to attain their respective maximum values also increase steadily from summer to winter. The seasonal variation of the semidiurnal variation l2 was found to be explainable by the additional fountain effect caused by the similar seasonal variation of the lunar semidiurnal electric field induced at the equatorial region. However, the seasonal variation of the lunisolar variation L1 was found not to be explainable by the additional fountain effect. Seasonal variations for the harmonic components of the solar daily variation were found and described

  3. Variation in day surgery among Dutch hospitals: the development of a theoretical model to explain variations.

    Kroneman, M.; Oort, M. van; Groenewegen, P.; Jong, D. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is providing a first step in explaining variations in day surgery rates among Dutch hospitals. A theoretical model was set up to explain variations based on diffusion theory and environmental characteristics. We tried to test our model by means of routinely collected data from

  4. Seasonal variation of heat consumption in greenhouses

    Nielsen, O.F.; Amsen, M.G.; Strøm, J.S.

    The concept of dynamic variation is introduced as a method to visualize the dynamic fluctuations of heat consumption and thermal climate in greenhouses. The feasibility of the concept is illustrated by describing effects of different greenhouse designs. Engineering data on design heat consumption...

  5. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    Bendixen Christian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs, which represent a significant source of genetic diversity in mammals, have been shown to be associated with phenotypes of clinical relevance and to be causative of disease. Notwithstanding, little is known about the extent to which CNV contributes to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb. About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental duplications, while 30% encompass genes, of which the majority is involved in environmental response. About 10% of the human orthologous of these genes are associated with human disease susceptibility and, hence, may have important phenotypic consequences. Conclusions Together, this analysis provides a useful resource for assessment of the impact of CNVs regarding variation in bovine health and production traits.

  6. Genetic variations in multiple myeloma II

    Vangsted, A.; Klausen, T.W.; Vogel, U.

    2012-01-01

    Association studies on genetic variation to treatment effect may serve as a predictive marker for effect of treatment and can also uncover biological pathways behind drug effect. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been studied in relation to high-dose treatment (HDT), thalidomide- and...... advantage because SNP analysis required large number of patients. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S....

  7. Variations on a theme of Grothendieck

    Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael

    Grothendieck and Harder proved that every principal bundle over the projective line with split reductive structure group (and trivial over the generic point) can be reduced to a maximal torus. Furthermore, this reduction is unique modulo automorphisms and the Weyl group. In a series of six variat...

  8. Functional characterization of variations on regulatory motifs.

    Michal Lapidot

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs regulate gene expression through specific interactions with short promoter elements. The same regulatory protein may recognize a variety of related sequences. Moreover, once they are detected it is hard to predict whether highly similar sequence motifs will be recognized by the same TF and regulate similar gene expression patterns, or serve as binding sites for distinct regulatory factors. We developed computational measures to assess the functional implications of variations on regulatory motifs and to compare the functions of related sites. We have developed computational means for estimating the functional outcome of substituting a single position within a binding site and applied them to a collection of putative regulatory motifs. We predict the effects of nucleotide variations within motifs on gene expression patterns. In cases where such predictions could be compared to suitable published experimental evidence, we found very good agreement. We further accumulated statistics from multiple substitutions across various binding sites in an attempt to deduce general properties that characterize nucleotide substitutions that are more likely to alter expression. We found that substitutions involving Adenine are more likely to retain the expression pattern and that substitutions involving Guanine are more likely to alter expression compared to the rest of the substitutions. Our results should facilitate the prediction of the expression outcomes of binding site variations. One typical important implication is expected to be the ability to predict the phenotypic effect of variation in regulatory motifs in promoters.

  9. Variational Algorithms for Test Particle Trajectories

    Ellison, C. Leland; Finn, John M.; Qin, Hong; Tang, William M.

    2015-11-01

    The theory of variational integration provides a novel framework for constructing conservative numerical methods for magnetized test particle dynamics. The retention of conservation laws in the numerical time advance captures the correct qualitative behavior of the long time dynamics. For modeling the Lorentz force system, new variational integrators have been developed that are both symplectic and electromagnetically gauge invariant. For guiding center test particle dynamics, discretization of the phase-space action principle yields multistep variational algorithms, in general. Obtaining the desired long-term numerical fidelity requires mitigation of the multistep method's parasitic modes or applying a discretization scheme that possesses a discrete degeneracy to yield a one-step method. Dissipative effects may be modeled using Lagrange-D'Alembert variational principles. Numerical results will be presented using a new numerical platform that interfaces with popular equilibrium codes and utilizes parallel hardware to achieve reduced times to solution. This work was supported by DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  10. Numeral Variation in New Zealand Sign Language

    McKee, David; McKee, Rachel; Major, George

    2011-01-01

    Lexical variation abounds in New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) and is commonly associated with the introduction of the Australasian Signed English lexicon into Deaf education in 1979, before NZSL was acknowledged as a language. Evidence from dictionaries of NZSL collated between 1986 and 1997 reveal many coexisting variants for the numbers from one…

  11. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR PARAMETERIZED VARIATIONAL INEQUALITY PROBLEMS

    Li Fei

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents sensitivity analysis for parameterized variational inequality problems (VIP). Under appropriate assumption, it is shown that the perturbed solution to parameterized VIP is existent, unique, continuous and differentiable with respect to perturbation parameter. In the case of differentiability, we derive the equations forcalculating the derivative of solution variables with respect to the perturbation parameters.

  12. Sources of Variation in Creep Testing

    Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Creep rupture is an important material characteristic for the design of rocket engines. It was observed during the characterization of GRCop-84 that the complete data set had nearly 4 orders of magnitude of scatter. This scatter likely confounded attempts to determine how creep performance was influenced by manufacturing. It was unclear if this variation was from the testing, the material, or both. Sources of variation were examined by conducting tests on identically processed specimens at the same specified stresses and temperatures. Significant differences existed between the five constant-load creep frames. The specimen temperature was higher than the desired temperature by as much as 43 C. It was also observed that the temperature gradient was up to 44 C. Improved specimen temperature control minimized temperature variations. The data from additional tests demonstrated that the results from all five frames were comparable. The variation decreased to 1/2 order of magnitude from 2 orders of magnitude for the baseline data set. Independent determination of creep rates in a reference load frame closely matched the creep rates determined after the modifications. Testing in helium tended to decrease the sample temperature gradient, but helium was not a significant improvement over vacuum.

  13. Variational Principles For BS Dimension of Subsets

    Wang, Chenwei; Chen, Ercai

    2011-01-01

    We redefine BS-dimension for Caratheodory structure by packing method. We have the same dimension properties with respect to the cover method and check the Bowen's equation for the new dimension as well. Besides, we consider the relation between the new BS-dimension and upper and lower BS-density respectively. We extend the variational principles of entropy to BS dimension.

  14. Cosmic ray anisotropy and its time variations

    Cosmic ray anisotropy is analysed on the base of the data of the worldwide network of neutron monitors for the period of 1958-1972. 11-year variation of anisotropy phase and amplitude is investigated. Three-dimensional cosmic ray anisotropy in interplanetary space is calculated. (orig./WBU)

  15. Massless quantum electrodynamics: a variational study

    The variational method was used to study the probable existence of a compound vacuum in quantum electrodynamics. An Ansatz containing a condensate of electron-positron pairs was investigated and an optimization equation for the condensate wave function found. (L.C.J.A.)

  16. Periodic and recurrent variations of cosmic rays

    The new results achieved in the field of periodic and recurrent variations of the intensity of 109 to 1013 eV cosmic rays are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to developments in understanding the fluctuations of corotation-type anisotropies as well as to the structure of the heliosphere and its temporal changes. (author)

  17. A Variational Characterization of the Catenoid

    Bernstein, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we use a result of Osserman and Schiffer \\cite{OS} to give a variational characterization of the catenoid. Namely, we show that subsets of the catenoid minimize area within a geometrically natural class of minimal annuli. To the best of our knowledge, this fact has gone unremarked upon in the literature.

  18. Decomposing Firm-level Sales Variation

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    We measure the contribution of firm-specific effects to overall sales variation within a destination and find it remarkably low. Our empirical decomposition is structurally motivated by a heterogeneity model of exporting involving destination-specific, firm-specific, and firm-destination-specific...

  19. The Biconnection Variational Principle for General Relativity

    Tamanini, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    A recently proposed variational approach for general relativity where, in addition to the metric tensor, two independent affine connections enter the action as dynamical variables, is revised. Field equations always reduce to the Einstein field equations for any dependence of the matter action upon an independent connection.

  20. Cultural variations in emotion: A review.

    B. Mesquita; N.H. Frijda

    1992-01-01

    The psychological and anthropological literature on cultural variations in emotions is reviewed. The literature has been interpreted within the framework of a cognitive-process model of emotions. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were identified in each phase of the emotion process; s

  1. On variational features of vortex flows

    Berdichevsky, V. L.

    2008-09-01

    Ideal incompressible fluid is a Hamiltonian system which possesses an infinite number of integrals, the circulations of velocity over closed fluid contours. This allows one to split all the degrees of freedom into the driving ones and the “slave” ones, the latter to be determined by the integrals of motions. The “slave” degrees of freedom correspond to “potential part” of motion, which is driven by vorticity. Elimination of the “slave” degrees of freedom from equations of ideal incompressible fluid yields a closed system of equations for dynamics of vortex lines. This system is also Hamiltonian. The variational principle for this system was found recently (Berdichevsky in Thermodynamics of chaos and order, Addison-Wesly-Longman, Reading, 1997; Kuznetsov and Ruban in JETP Lett 67, 1076 1081, 1998). It looks striking, however. In particular, the fluid motion is set to be compressible, while in the least action principle of fluid mechanics the incompressibility of motion is a built-in property. This striking feature is explained in the paper, and a link between the variational principle of vortex line dynamics and the least action principle is established. Other points made in this paper are concerned with steady motions. Two new variational principles are proposed for steady vortex flows. Their relation to Arnold’s variational principle of steady vortex motion is discussed.

  2. A global reference for human genetic variation

    Auton, Adam; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; M. Altshuler, David;

    2015-01-01

    The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals ...

  3. Fundamental quadratic variational principle underlying general relativity

    The fundamental result of Lanczos is used in a new type of quadratic variational principle whose field equations are the Einstein field equations together with the Yang-Mills type equations for the Riemann curvature. Additionally, a spin-2 theory of gravity for the special case of the Einstein vacuum is discussed

  4. Eigen elastic mechanics and its variation principle

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental equations and the corresponding boundary condition of elastic mechanics under mechanical representation are given by using the conception of eigen space and elastic variation principle. It is proved theoretically that the solution of anisotropic elastic mechanics consists of modal ones, which are obtained respectively from the modal equation of the different subspaces. A simple application is also given.

  5. Geomagnetic Core Field Secular Variation Models

    Gillet, N.; Lesur, V.; Olsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    (regularisation) affect the result of the ill-posed geomagnetic inverse problem. We show how data quality, frequency and selection procedures govern part of the temporal changes in the secular variation norms and spectra, which are sometimes difficult to dissociate from true changes of the core state. We...... assimilation) reduces the non-uniqueness of the geomagnetic inverse problem....

  6. Variational Principle for Optimal Accelerated Neutralized Flow

    Minimizing the energy deposited in the electron current in neutralized flows, such as in the Hall thruster, is examined. Modifying the electron current along the channel by inserting emitting electrodes, can enhance the efficiency. By employing variational methods, an optimal electron current distribution is found. The efficiency enhancement due to this effect, however, is shown to be small

  7. Range-based estimation of quadratic variation

    Christensen, Kim; Podolskij, Mark

    This paper proposes using realized range-based estimators to draw inference about the quadratic variation of jump-diffusion processes. We also construct a range-based test of the hypothesis that an asset price has a continuous sample path. Simulated data shows that our approach is efficient, the...

  8. Range-based estimation of quadratic variation

    Christensen, Kim; Podolskij, Mark

    In this paper, we propose using realized range-based estimation to draw inference about the quadratic variation of jump-diffusion processes. We also construct a new test of the hypothesis that an asset price has a continuous sample path. Simulated data shows that our approach is efficient, the test...

  9. Variational principle of relativistic perfect fluid

    Ootsuka, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Erico; Yahagi, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    We reformulate the relativistic perfect fluid system on curved space-time. Using standard variables, the velocity field $u$,energy density $\\rho$ and pressure $p$, the covariant Euler-Lagrange equation is obtained from variational principle. This leads to the Euler equation and the equation of continuity in reparametrization invariant form.

  10. Minimum variation guidance laws for interceptor missiles

    Weiss, M.; Shima, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to guidance law design using linear quadratic optimal control theory, minimizing throughout the engagement the variation of the control input as well as the integral control effort. The guidance law is derived for arbitrary order missile dynamics and target maneu

  11. Explaining Variation in Child Labor Statistics

    Dillon, Andrew; Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Serneels, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Child labor statistics are critical for assessing the extent and nature of child labor activities in developing countries. In practice, widespread variation exists in how child labor is measured. Questionnaire modules vary across countries and within countries over time along several dimensions, including respondent type and the structure of the questionnaire. Little is known about the eff...

  12. Dirichlet Form of Product of Variational Fractals

    刘源

    2003-01-01

    Much effort has gone into constructing Dirichlet forms to define Laplacians on self-similar sets. However, the results have only been successful on p.c.f. (post critical finite) fractals. We prove the existence of a Dirichlet form on a class of non-p.c.f. sets that are the product of variational fractals.

  13. Regional variation in electroconvulsive therapy use.

    Dunne, R

    2011-03-01

    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most powerful treatment for depression, substantial variability in use has been described in Ireland. The Mental Health Commission collects usage data from approved centres but does not include home addresses or independent sector patients. Therefore, estimates of regional variation cannot be accurate, e.g. 145 (35% of total) independent sector patients were omitted from their 2008 analysis. When public and independent sector patients are combined inter-regional variation for 2008 is more than halved (chi-squared decreased from 83 to 30), with Western region contributing most to variation (chi-squared = 43). Ratio of ECT programmes to depressed admissions correlated negatively with rate for depressed admissions (r = -0.53, p = 0.01), while depressed admission numbers correlated with acute beds per area (r = 0.68, p = 0.001). Regional variation in ECT is less than previously reported; service factors probably account for much of this with smaller centres admitting severely ill patients more likely to require ECT.

  14. Variational principles for a relativistic stochastic mechanics

    An extension to the relativistic case of the stochastic variational principles both of Lagrangian and Eulerian type is proposed. The action used is the mean classical action evaluated on the paths of relativistic covariant diffusions. The resulting equations of motion are the relativistic stochastic Lagrange equations

  15. VariOtator, a Software Tool for Variation Annotation with the Variation Ontology.

    Schaafsma, Gerard C P; Vihinen, Mauno

    2016-04-01

    The Variation Ontology (VariO) is used for describing and annotating types, effects, consequences, and mechanisms of variations. To facilitate easy and consistent annotations, the online application VariOtator was developed. For variation type annotations, VariOtator is fully automated, accepting variant descriptions in Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) format, and generating VariO terms, either with or without full lineage, that is, all parent terms. When a coding DNA variant description with a reference sequence is provided, VariOtator checks the description first with Mutalyzer and then generates the predicted RNA and protein descriptions with their respective VariO annotations. For the other sublevels, function, structure, and property, annotations cannot be automated, and VariOtator generates annotation based on provided details. For VariO terms relating to structure and property, one can use attribute terms as modifiers and evidence code terms for annotating experimental evidence. There is an online batch version, and stand-alone batch versions to be used with a Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD) download file. A SOAP Web service allows client programs to access VariOtator programmatically. Thus, systematic variation effect and type annotations can be efficiently generated to allow easy use and integration of variations and their consequences. PMID:26773573

  16. REGION-WISE VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND GENERALIZED VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES ON LARGE STRAIN FOR CONSOLIDATION THEORY

    LUO Xiao-hui; LI Yong-le; LUO Xin

    2005-01-01

    The difference of constitutive character and large deformation as to soil mass are basic questions to analyze deformational feature. According to the description method of limited deformation, the large deformation consolidation equations of soil mass were created and its variational principles were rigorously testified. The regionwise variational principles of consolidation theory were deduced using sub-structure continuous condition of region-wise. Quoting the method of Lagrangian multiplier operator, generalized variational principles of region-wise of large deformation consolidation in the nonconstrained condition were created and approved.

  17. Three-dimensional structures of the three human class I alcohol dehydrogenases

    Niederhut, Monica S.; Gibbons, Brian J.; Perez-Miller, Samantha; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    In contrast with other animal species, humans possess three distinct genes for class I alcohol dehydrogenase and show polymorphic variation in the ADH1B and ADH1C genes. The three class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes share ∼93% sequence identity but differ in their substrate specificity and their developmental expression. We report here the first three-dimensional structures for the ADH1A and ADH1C*2 gene products at 2.5 and 2.0 Å, respectively, and the structure of the ADH1B*1 gene produ...

  18. EXACT SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION

    Dr.G.S.David Sam Jayakumar; A.Sulthan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the sampling distribution of sample coefficient of variation from the normal population. We have derived the relationship between the sample coefficient of variation, standard normal and chi-square variate. We have derived density function of the sample coefficient of variation in terms of the confluent hyper-geometric distribution. Moreover, the first two moments of the distribution are derived and we have proved that the sample coefficient of variation (cv...

  19. Hybrid Iterative Scheme for Triple Hierarchical Variational Inequalities with Mixed Equilibrium, Variational Inclusion, and Minimization Constraints

    Lu-Chuan Ceng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and analyze a hybrid iterative algorithm by combining Korpelevich's extragradient method, the hybrid steepest-descent method, and the averaged mapping approach to the gradient-projection algorithm. It is proven that, under appropriate assumptions, the proposed algorithm converges strongly to a common element of the fixed point set of finitely many nonexpansive mappings, the solution set of a generalized mixed equilibrium problem (GMEP, the solution set of finitely many variational inclusions, and the solution set of a convex minimization problem (CMP, which is also a unique solution of a triple hierarchical variational inequality (THVI in a real Hilbert space. In addition, we also consider the application of the proposed algorithm to solving a hierarchical variational inequality problem with constraints of the GMEP, the CMP, and finitely many variational inclusions.

  20. Solar Wind Variation with the Cycle

    I. S. Veselovsky; A. V. Dmitriev; A. V. Suvorova; M. V. Tarsina

    2000-09-01

    The cyclic evolution of the heliospheric plasma parameters is related to the time-dependent boundary conditions in the solar corona. "Minimal" coronal configurations correspond to the regular appearance of the tenuous, but hot and fast plasma streams from the large polar coronal holes. The denser, but cooler and slower solar wind is adjacent to coronal streamers. Irregular dynamic manifestations are present in the corona and the solar wind everywhere and always. They follow the solar activity cycle rather well. Because of this, the direct and indirect solar wind measurements demonstrate clear variations in space and time according to the minimal, intermediate and maximal conditions of the cycles. The average solar wind density, velocity and temperature measured at the Earth's orbit show specific decadal variations and trends, which are of the order of the first tens per cent during the last three solar cycles. Statistical, spectral and correlation characteristics of the solar wind are reviewed with the emphasis on the cycles.

  1. A variational theory of nuclear matter. III

    Developments in a variational theory of nuclear matter for treating v6 homework potentials that include central, spin, isospin and tensor operators are reported. The central, spin, isospin and tensor correlations are parametrized by their range d, and the magnitudes of the non-central correlations. Integral equations are used to sum Fermi hypernetted chain, and single operator chain diagrams. All commutators required to evaluate the energy from the operator chain functions are treated exactly, and the energy is found to have a minimum with respect to variations in all parameters. Results of calculations with v6 models based on the Reid and Bethe-Johnson potentials are reported. A crude estimate of the effect of the spin-orbit potentials on nuclear matter binding energy indicates that it could be significant. (Auth.)

  2. Seasonal variations of volcanic eruption frequencies

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Do volcanic eruptions have a tendency to occur more frequently in the months of May and June? Some past evidence suggests that they do. The present study, based on the new eruption catalog of Simkin et al.(1981), investigates the monthly statistics of the largest eruptions, grouped according to explosive magnitude, geographical latitude, and year. At the 2-delta level, no month-to-month variations in eruption frequency are found to be statistically significant. Examination of previously published month-to-month variations suggests that they, too, are not statistically significant. It is concluded that volcanism, at least averaged over large portions of the globe, is probably not periodic on a seasonal or annual time scale.

  3. Diurnal variations of tropical cyclone precipitationin

    Wu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Using 15 years of satellite-measured precipitation data and tropical cyclone (TC) information, this study estimates the diurnal variations of TC precipitation in its inner core and outer rainbands. It is found that for both weak (tropical storms to category 1 TCs) and strong (categories 2-5 TCs) storms over all six TC basins, the TC precipitation reaches its daily maximum in the morning, but the mean rain rate and diurnal variations are larger in the inner core than in the outer rainbands. With increasing radial distance from the TC center, the diurnal amplitude of precipitation decreases, and the peak time appears progressively later. The outward propagation of diurnal signals from the TC center dominates as an internal structure of the TC convective systems. For all basins examined, the diurnal precipitation maximum within the inner core of a strong storm occurs earlier than the maximum observed in non-TC precipitation; the same result is not found for the outer rainbands.

  4. Circadian variation in the pharmacokinetics of verapamil

    Jespersen, C M; Frederiksen, M; Hansen, J F;

    1989-01-01

    Circadian variation in the metabolism of verapamil was investigated in 10 patients with stable angina pectoris during treatment with sustained-release verapamil 360 mg at 08.00 h or 22.0 h. No major difference in exercise parameters was found. During the evening dosage schedule a significantly...... greater bioavailability (AUC) and a prolonged time to peak concentration was found. During the night (24.00 h-06.00 h) the half-life of verapamil was significantly longer than during the day (16.00 h-22.00 h). These differences in pharmacokinetics may be due to reduced hepatic blood flow at night...... or to circadian variation in hepatic microsomal metabolism....

  5. Variational analysis of the deconfinement phase transition

    We study the deconfining phase transition in 3+1 dimensional pure SU(N) Yang-Mills theory using a gauge invariant variational calculation. We generalize the variational ansatz to mixed states (density matrices) and minimize the free energy. For N ≥ 3 we find a first order phase transition with the transition temperature of Tc ≅450 MeV. Below Tc the Polyakov loop has vanishing expectation value, while above Tc , its average value is nonzero. According to the standard lore this corresponds to the deconfining transition. Within the accuracy of our approximation the entropy of the system in the low temperature phase vanishes. The latent heat is not small but, rather, is of the order of the nonperturbative vacuum energy. (author)

  6. Fine structure constant variation or spacetime anisotropy?

    Recent observations on the quasar absorption spectra supply evidence for the variation of the fine structure constant α. In this paper, we propose another interpretation of the observational data on the quasar absorption spectra: a scenario with spacetime inhomogeneity and anisotropy. Maybe the spacetime is characterized by the Finsler geometry instead of the Riemann one. The Finsler geometry admits fewer symmetries than the Riemann geometry does. We investigate the Finslerian geodesic equations in the Randers spacetime (a special Finsler spacetime). It is found that the cosmological redshift in this spacetime deviates from the one in general relativity. The modification term to the redshift could be generally revealed as a monopole plus dipole function of spacetime locations and directions. We suggest that this modification corresponds to the spatial monopole and dipole of α variation in the quasar absorption spectra. (orig.)

  7. Latitudinal variation of the solar photospheric intensity

    Rast, Mark P; Meisner, Randle W

    2007-01-01

    We have examined images from the Precision Solar Photometric Telescope (PSPT) at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) in search of latitudinal variation in the solar photospheric intensity. Along with the expected brightening of the solar activity belts, we have found a weak enhancement of the mean continuum intensity at polar latitudes (continuum intensity enhancement $\\sim0.1 - 0.2%$ corresponding to a brightness temperature enhancement of $\\sim2.5{\\rm K}$). This appears to be thermal in origin and not due to a polar accumulation of weak magnetic elements, with both the continuum and CaIIK intensity distributions shifted towards higher values with little change in shape from their mid-latitude distributions. Since the enhancement is of low spatial frequency and of very small amplitude it is difficult to separate from systematic instrumental and processing errors. We provide a thorough discussion of these and conclude that the measurement captures real solar latitudinal intensity variations.

  8. Variational methods in relativistic quantum mechanics

    Esteban, Maria J; séré, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This review is devoted to the study of stationary solutions of linear and nonlinear equations from relativistic quantum mechanics, involving the Dirac operator. The solutions are found as critical points of an energy functional. Contrary to the Laplacian appearing in the equations of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac operator has a negative continuous spectrum which is not bounded from below. This has two main consequences. First, the energy functional is strongly indefinite. Second, the Euler-Lagrange equations are linear or nonlinear eigenvalue problems with eigenvalues lying in a spectral gap (between the negative and positive continuous spectra). Moreover, since we work in the space domain R^3, the Palais-Smale condition is not satisfied. For these reasons, the problems discussed in this review pose a challenge in the Calculus of Variations. The existence proofs involve sophisticated tools from nonlinear analysis and have required new variational methods which are now applied to other problems.

  9. Multiple integrals in the calculus of variations

    Morrey, Charles B

    1966-01-01

    From the reviews: "…the book contains a wealth of material essential to the researcher concerned with multiple integral variational problems and with elliptic partial differential equations. The book not only reports the researches of the author but also the contributions of his contemporaries in the same and related fields. The book undoubtedly will become a standard reference for researchers in these areas. …The book is addressed mainly to mature mathematical analysts. However, any student of analysis will be greatly rewarded by a careful study of this book." M. R. Hestenes in Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications "The work intertwines in masterly fashion results of classical analysis, topology, and the theory of manifolds and thus presents a comprehensive treatise of the theory of multiple integral variational problems." L. Schmetterer in Monatshefte für Mathematik "The book is very clearly exposed and contains the last modern theory in this domain. A comprehensive bibliography ends the book...

  10. Natural climate variations in a geological perspective

    The climate is constantly changing, and it has been changing throughout the geological history of the Earth. These natural changes have shown a variability with frequencies from millions of years to just a few hundreds or tens of years. Some of the variations have been rather dramatic - shifting from globally uniform and hot climates to regular ice ages - whereas other changes have been less spectacular. All natural climate variations have an impact on the physical and biological systems of the Earth - and on mankind and culture during the last hundred thousand years. In this chapter we shall discuss the natural climate changes that has taken place during the geological history of the Earth and comment on the impact of these changes on the cultural evolution of mankind with special emphasis on Greenland. (LN)

  11. On Variational Data Assimilation in Continuous Time

    Bröcker, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Variational data assimilation in continuous time is revisited. The central techniques applied in this paper are in part adopted from the theory of optimal nonlinear control. Alternatively, the investigated approach can be considered as a continuous time generalisation of what is known as weakly constrained four dimensional variational assimilation (WC--4DVAR) in the geosciences. The technique allows to assimilate trajectories in the case of partial observations and in the presence of model error. Several mathematical aspects of the approach are studied. Computationally, it amounts to solving a two point boundary value problem. For imperfect models, the trade off between small dynamical error (i.e. the trajectory obeys the model dynamics) and small observational error (i.e. the trajectory closely follows the observations) is investigated. For (nearly) perfect models, this trade off turns out to be (nearly) trivial in some sense, yet allowing for some dynamical error is shown to have positive effects even in th...

  12. A search for transit timing variation

    Kramm U.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Photometric follow-ups of transiting exoplanets (TEPs may lead to discoveries of additional, less massive bodies in extrasolar systems. This is possible by detecting and then analysing variations in transit timing of transiting exoplanets. In 2009 we launched an international observing campaign, the aim of which is to detect and characterise signals of transit timing variation (TTV in selected TEPs. The programme is realised by collecting data from 0.6-2.2-m telescopes spread worldwide at different longitudes. We present our observing strategy and summarise first results for WASP-3b with evidence for a 15 Earth-mass perturber in an outer 2:1 orbital resonance.

  13. Temporal variations in free core nutation period

    Jianqiao Xu; Heping Sun

    2009-01-01

    Based on the nearly diurnal resonance in the tidal gravity observations, the temporal variations in period of the Earth's free core nutation (FCN) are investigated by using the tidal gravity observations of 18-year duration recorded continu-ously with a superconducting gravimeter (SG) at Brussels. The effects of the global oceanic tide loading and local barometric pressure on the SG observations have been removed by using eleven high-precision global digital models of oceanic tides and barometric pressure measurements recorded simultaneously at the same site. The results indicate that there exist decade-scale variations in the FCN period. The results should be further confirmed by the measurements using other space-based geodetic techniques (such as the very long baseline interferometry) and the SG observations from globally distributed stations.

  14. Solar Interior Rotation and its Variation

    Howe Rachel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the development of observational understanding of the interior rotation of the Sun and its temporal variation over approximately forty years, starting with the 1960s attempts to determine the solar core rotation from oblateness and proceeding through the development of helioseismology to the detailed modern picture of the internal rotation deduced from continuous helioseismic observations during solar cycle 23. After introducing some basic helioseismic concepts, it covers, in turn, the rotation of the core and radiative interior, the “tachocline” shear layer at the base of the convection zone, the differential rotation in the convection zone, the near-surface shear, the pattern of migrating zonal flows known as the torsional oscillation, and the possible temporal variations at the bottom of the convection zone. For each area, the article also briefly explores the relationship between observations and models.

  15. Asymptotic Behaviour of Total Generalised Variation

    Papafitsoros, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. The recently introduced second order total generalised variation functional TGV2 β,α has been a successful regulariser for image processing purposes. Its definition involves two positive parameters α and β whose values determine the amount and the quality of the regularisation. In this paper we report on the behaviour of TGV2 β,α in the cases where the parameters α, β as well as their ratio β/α becomes very large or very small. Among others, we prove that for sufficiently symmetric two dimensional data and large ratio β/α, TGV2 β,α regularisation coincides with total variation (TV) regularization

  16. Long-term variations of solar activity

    2007-01-01

    Using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram we analyzed two sunspot series: the one over the past 11000 years at the 10-year interval based upon the survey data of 14C concentration in tree-rings, reconstructed by Solanki et al.; and the sunspot number over the past 7000 years, derived from geomagnetic variations by Usoskin et al. We found the periods and quasi-periods in solar activity, such as about 225, 352, 441, 522 and 561 a, and near 1000 and 2000 a. An approach of wavelet transform was applied to check the two sunspot time series, with emphasis on investigating time-varying characteristics in the long-term fluctuations of solar activity. The results show that the lengths and amplitudes of the periods have changed with time, and large variations have taken place during some periods.

  17. Climatic variations and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Basil M.N. Saeed; Alyaa Farouk Omari

    2016-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is probably the most common diagnosis at vertigo clinics. Seasonal cycles of several human illnesses could be attributed variously to changes in atmospheric or weather conditions. In this retrospective study, patients with BPPV from January 2010 to December 2012 were studied, and their charts were reviewed. Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in patients' numbers among different months of the year. Also there is a significant statistical correlation between the numbers of patients with climatic variations especially the temperature. The present paper discusses the possible explanations for these results which confirms the seasonal variations in BPPV, together with a review of literature to view the possible associations with other disorders that causes such sea-sonality.

  18. A Rare Variation of the Heterotaxy Syndrome

    Alper Dilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotaxy syndrome is a rare, complex, and confusing type of the situs anomalies. It is not possible to estimate the degree of lateralization, isomerism, and rotational variation in these types of cases. Heart and abdominal organ anatomy is specific to the individual, and it should be defined specifically on the basis of each case due to possible cardiac and extracardiac surgical interventions in patients with heterotaxy syndrome. Here, we present our findings obtained from a 58-year-old female patient with heterotaxy syndrome. The main components of this rare variation consist of right-hand-sided aorta, aortic arc, cardiac apex, gall bladder and left-hand-sided inferior vena cava, stomach, and spleen (polysplenia, 3 foci according to the midline. Besides, the components include left-dominant liver, right-hand-sided large intestines, and left-hand-sided small intestines.

  19. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    Fadista, João; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik;

    2010-01-01

    to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation...... in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs) being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb) of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb). About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental...

  20. Impact of retinoic acid exposure on midfacial shape variation and manifestation of holoprosencephaly in Twsg1 mutant mice

    Charles J. Billington

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Holoprosencephaly (HPE is a developmental anomaly characterized by inadequate or absent midline division of the embryonic forebrain and midline facial defects. It is believed that interactions between genes and the environment play a role in the widely variable penetrance and expressivity of HPE, although direct investigation of such effects has been limited. The goal of this study was to examine whether mice carrying a mutation in a gene encoding the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP antagonist twisted gastrulation (Twsg1, which is associated with a low penetrance of HPE, are sensitized to retinoic acid (RA teratogenesis. Pregnant Twsg1+/− dams were treated by gavage with a low dose of all-trans RA (3.75 mg/kg of body weight. Embryos were analyzed between embryonic day (E9.5 and E11.5 by microscopy and geometric morphometric analysis by micro-computed tomography. P19 embryonal carcinoma cells were used to examine potential mechanisms mediating the combined effects of increased BMP and retinoid signaling. Although only 7% of wild-type embryos exposed to RA showed overt HPE or neural tube defects (NTDs, 100% of Twsg1−/− mutants exposed to RA manifested severe HPE compared to 17% without RA. Remarkably, up to 30% of Twsg1+/− mutants also showed HPE (23% or NTDs (7%. The majority of shape variation among Twsg1+/− mutants was associated with narrowing of the midface. In P19 cells, RA induced the expression of Bmp2, acted in concert with BMP2 to increase p53 expression, caspase activation and oxidative stress. This study provides direct evidence for modifying effects of the environment in a genetic mouse model carrying a predisposing mutation for HPE in the Twsg1 gene. Further study of the mechanisms underlying these gene-environment interactions in vivo will contribute to better understanding of the pathogenesis of birth defects and present an opportunity to explore potential preventive interventions.

  1. Y-Chromosome Variation in Hominids: Intraspecific Variation Is Limited to the Polygamous Chimpanzee

    Gabriele Greve; Evguenia Alechine; Pasantes, Juan J.; Christine Hodler; Wolfram Rietschel; Robinson, Terence J.; Werner Schempp

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that the Y-specific ampliconic fertility genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) and CDY (chromodomain protein Y) varied with respect to copy number and position among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In comparison, seven Y-chromosomal lineages of the bonobo (Pan paniscus), the chimpanzee's closest living relative, showed no variation. We extend our earlier comparative investigation to include an analysis of the intraspecific variation of these genes in go...

  2. Pulse pressure variation and systolic pressure variation in mechanically ventilated children

    Johnny Nurman; Antonius H. Pudjiadi; Arwin AP. Akib

    2011-01-01

    Background In mechanically ventilated patients, changes in breathing patterns may affect the preload, causing stroke volume fluctuation. Pulse pressure variation (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) are dynamic means of the hemodynamic monitoring in ventilated patients. No study on PPV and SPV in children has been reported to date. Objective To study changes in PPV and SPV values in mechanically ventilated children. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was done at the Pedia...

  3. Y-Chromosome Variation in Hominids: Intraspecific Variation Is Limited to the Polygamous Chimpanzee

    Greve, Gabriele; Alechine, Evguenia; Pasantes, Juan J.; Hodler, Christine; Rietschel, Wolfram; Robinson, Terence J; Schempp, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that the Y-specific ampliconic fertility genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) and CDY (chromodomain protein Y) varied with respect to copy number and position among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In comparison, seven Y-chromosomal lineages of the bonobo (Pan paniscus), the chimpanzee's closest living relative, showed no variation. We extend our earlier comparative investigation to include an analysis of the intraspecific variation of these genes in gor...

  4. Identifying Genetic Variation for Alcohol Dependence

    Agrawal, Arpana; Bierut, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are using various strategies to identify the genes that may be associated with alcoholism. The initial efforts primarily relied on candidate gene and linkage studies; more recently, however, modern advances in genotyping have resulted in widespread use of genome-wide association studies for alcohol dependence. The key findings of the earlier studies were that variations (i.e., polymorphisms) in the DNA sequences of the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (i.e., the ADH1B gene)...

  5. Variational multiscale models for charge transport

    Wei, Guo-Wei; Zheng, Qiong; Chen, Zhan; Xia, Kelin

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a few variational multiscale models for charge transport in complex physical, chemical and biological systems and engineering devices, such as fuel cells, solar cells, battery cells, nanofluidics, transistors and ion channels. An essential ingredient of the present models, introduced in an earlier paper (Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 72, 1562-1622, 2010), is the use of differential geometry theory of surfaces as a natural means to geometrically separate the macroscopic ...

  6. A variational calculation for the charmonium

    The non-relativistic approximation for the cc sub(-) system is considered in order to study the J/PSI family spectrum and some other properties of these resonances such as hadronic, leptonic, and electric dipole transition widths. The potential used is phenomenological, with a spin dependent part, of the types square root and linear. The Schrodinger equation is solved with the variational method where the configuration space is spanned by a set of harmonic oscillator wave functions. (Author)

  7. Epidemiology of hip fracture: Worldwide geographic variation

    Dinesh K Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major health problem, especially in elderly populations, and is associated with fragility fractures at the hip, spine, and wrist. Hip fracture contributes to both morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The demographics of world populations are set to change, with more elderly living in developing countries, and it has been estimated that by 2050 half of hip fractures will occur in Asia. This review conducted using the PubMed database describes the incidence of hip fracture in different regions of the world and discusses the possible causes of this wide geographic variation. The analysis of data from different studies show a wide geographic variation across the world, with higher hip fracture incidence reported from industrialized countries as compared to developing countries. The highest hip fracture rates are seen in North Europe and the US and lowest in Latin America and Africa. Asian countries such as Kuwait, Iran, China, and Hong Kong show intermediate hip fracture rates. There is also a north-south gradient seen in European studies, and more fractures are seen in the north of the US than in the south. The factors responsible of this variation are population demographics (with more elderly living in countries with higher incidence rates and the influence of ethnicity, latitude, and environmental factors. The understanding of this changing geographic variation will help policy makers to develop strategies to reduce the burden of hip fractures in developing countries such as India, which will face the brunt of this problem over the coming decades.

  8. Cultural Variations In Learning And Learning Styles

    Pegah OMIDVAR,, Putra University, MALAYSIA; Bee Hoon TAN,

    2012-01-01

    The need for cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between culture and learning style is becoming increasingly important because of the changing cultural mix of classrooms and society at large. The research done regarding the two variables is mostly quantitative. This review summarizes results of the existing research on cultural variations in learning styles. Limitations of the existing studies are discussed and some suggestion for future research is proposed.

  9. Variational approach to the modulational instability.

    Rapti, Z; Kevrekidis, P G; Smerzi, A; Bishop, A R

    2004-01-01

    We study the modulational stability of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation using a time-dependent variational approach. Within this framework, we derive ordinary differential equations (ODE's) for the time evolution of the amplitude and phase of modulational perturbations. Analyzing the ensuing ODE's, we rederive the classical modulational instability criterion. The case (relevant to applications in optics and Bose-Einstein condensation) where the coefficients of the equation are time dependent, is also examined. PMID:14995759

  10. Variational principle for large N matrix models

    We derive a variational principle for large N matrix models. The partition function and vacuum green functions are determined by the principle of minimization of a free energy. The Schwinger-Dyson equations are the conditions for the free energy to be an extremum. We obtain a parametric representation for the greens functions and ground state energy. The parameter is a change of variable that transforms a reference theory to the one of interest

  11. Reduced Variation in Drosophila Simulans Mitochondrial DNA

    Ballard, JWO.; Hatzidakis, J.; Karr, T L; Kreitman, M

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the evolutionary dynamics of infection of a Drosophila simulans population by a maternally inherited insect bacterial parasite, Wolbachia, by analyzing nucleotide variability in three regions of the mitochondrial genome in four infected and 35 uninfected lines. Mitochondrial variability is significantly reduced compared to a noncoding region of a nuclear-encoded gene in both uninfected and pooled samples of flies, indicating a sweep of genetic variation. The selective sweep of...

  12. HOSPITAL VARIATION IN MISSED NURSING CARE

    Kalisch, Beatrice J.; Tschannen, Dana; Lee, Hyunhwa; Friese, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of nursing care across hospitals is variable, and this variation can result in poor patient outcomes. One aspect of quality nursing care is the amount of necessary care omitted. This paper reports on the extent and type of nursing care missed and the reasons for missed care. The MISSCARE Survey was administered to nursing staff (n = 4086) who provide direct patient care in ten acute care hospitals. Missed nursing care patterns, as well as reasons for missing care (labor resources, mat...

  13. Managing Cultural Variation in Software Process Improvement

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Müller, Sune Dueholm; Mathiassen, Lars

    CMMI level 2 as planned, ASY struggled to implement even modest improvements. To explain these differences, we analyzed the underlying organizational culture within ISY and ASY using two different methods for subculture assessment. The study demonstrates how variations in culture across software...... organizations can have important implications for SPI outcomes. Furthermore, it provides insights into how software managers can practically assess subcultures to inform decisions about and help prepare plans for SPI initiatives....

  14. Variations of alpha in space and time

    We study inhomogeneous cosmological variations in the fine structure 'constant' α in Friedmann universes. Inhomogeneous motions of the scalar field driving changes in α display spatial oscillations that decrease in amplitude with increasing time. The inhomogeneous evolution quickly approaches that found for exact Friedmann universes. We prove a theorem to show that oscillations of α in time (or redshift) cannot occur in Friedmann universes in the Bekenstein-Sandvik-Barrow-Magueijo theories considered here

  15. Optimal Control of Evolution Mixed Variational Inclusions

    Alduncin, Gonzalo, E-mail: alduncin@geofisica.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Departamento de Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Geofísica (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    Optimal control problems of primal and dual evolution mixed variational inclusions, in reflexive Banach spaces, are studied. The solvability analysis of the mixed state systems is established via duality principles. The optimality analysis is performed in terms of perturbation conjugate duality methods, and proximation penalty-duality algorithms to mixed optimality conditions are further presented. Applications to nonlinear diffusion constrained problems as well as quasistatic elastoviscoplastic bilateral contact problems exemplify the theory.

  16. Variation principles for modeling in resource economics

    Bazhanov, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    A technique for the construction of the model of nonrenewable resources depletion is offered. The approach is based on the assumption of the fulfillment of a variation principle. The model adequacy is examined with respect to world oil extraction data from 1859 to 2005. The possibilities of the use of the model in forecasting problems and in construction of the path of extraction, satisfying the intergenerational justice principle are discussed. Empirical justification of the hypothesis of th...

  17. Diaphasic variation and change in French pronouns

    Hansen, Anita Berit

    The French pronominal paradigm demonstrates a colloquial variation between expressing the 1st person plural as on and as nous (On est 19 dans ma classe meaning the same as Nous sommes 19 dans ma classe). This use of definite on is stigmatized by some as working class and incorrect and seen as a...... look into their other uses of on, in search of an explanation of the increasing popularity of this pronoun in French....

  18. Dust Emissivity Variations In the Milky Way

    Paradis, D.; Bernard, J. -Ph.; Meny, C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. Dust properties appear to vary according to the environment in which the dust evolves. Previous observational indications of these variations in the far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter (submm) spectral range are scarce and limited to specific regions of the sky. To determine whether these results can be generalised to larger scales, we study the evolution in dust emissivities from the FIR to millimeter (mm) wavelengths, in the atomic and molecular interstellar medium (ISM), along the G...

  19. Automated Variational Inference in Probabilistic Programming

    Wingate, David; Weber, Theophane

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for approximate inference in probabilistic programs, based on a stochastic gradient for variational programs. This method is efficient without restrictions on the probabilistic program; it is particularly practical for distributions which are not analytically tractable, including highly structured distributions that arise in probabilistic programs. We show how to automatically derive mean-field probabilistic programs and optimize them, and demonstrate that our persp...

  20. Antidepressant drugs: evaluation of price variation

    Bhumika Jayantilal Patel

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Price variation was wide for antidepressant drugs. Generic drug prescribing can decrease the expenditure of patient on the drug. Prescribers should be provided updated knowledge of the cost of different drugs. Modifications in pharmaceutical policy are required, and prices of the drug should be controlled in effective way for all the drugs. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 432-437

  1. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer

  2. Asymptotic behaviour of total generalised variation

    Papafitsoros, Konstantinos; Valkonen, Tuomo

    2015-01-01

    The recently introduced second order total generalised variation functional $\\mathrm{TGV}_{\\beta,\\alpha}^{2}$ has been a successful regulariser for image processing purposes. Its definition involves two positive parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ whose values determine the amount and the quality of the regularisation. In this paper we report on the behaviour of $\\mathrm{TGV}_{\\beta,\\alpha}^{2}$ in the cases where the parameters $\\alpha, \\beta$ as well as their ratio $\\beta/\\alpha$ becomes very l...

  3. Total Variation Denoising using Iterated Conditional Expectation

    Louchet, Cécile; Moisan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new variant of the celebrated Total Variation image denoising model of Rudin, Osher and Fatemi, which provides results very similar to the Bayesian posterior mean variant (TV-LSE) while showing a much better computational efficiency. This variant is based on an iterative procedure which is proved to converge linearly to a fixed point satisfying a marginal conditional mean property. The implementation is simple, provided numerical precision issues are correctly handled. Experiment...

  4. Levels and Variations of Violation in Rape.

    Canter, David V.; Reddy, Stephen; Alison, Laurence; Bennell, Craig

    2001-01-01

    This chapter investigates the variations in crime scene behaviour revealed in a sample of victim statements in cases of stranger sexual assault. Building on previous findings by Canter and Heritage (1990), and Canter (1994), it was hypothesised that there existed a scale of differing levels of violation by the offender. This scale, based upon actions in the offence, ranged from personal violation, through to physical violation and finally, at the most extreme level, sexual violation. Offences...

  5. Temporal variation of hemispheric solar rotation

    Jing-Lan Xie; Xiang-Jun Shi; Jing-Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    The daily sunspot numbers of the whole disk as well as the northern and southern hemispheres from 1945 January 1 to 2010 December 31 are used to investigate the temporal variation of rotational cycle length through the continuous wavelet transformation analysis method.Auto-correlation function analysis of daily hemispheric sunspot numbers shows that the southern hemisphere rotates faster than the northern hemisphere.The results obtained from the wavelet transformation analysis are that no direct relationship exists between the variation trend of the rotational cycle length and the solar activity in the two hemispheres and that the rotational cycle length of both hemispheres has no significant period appearing at 11 yr,but has a significant period of about 7.6 yr.Analysis concerning the solar cycle dependence of the rotational cycle length shows that acceleration seems to appear before the minimum time of solar activity in the whole disk and the northern hemisphere,respectively.Furthermore,the cross-correlation study indicates that the rotational cycle length of the two hemispheres has different phases,and that the rotational cycle length of the whole disk as well as the northern and southern hemispheres,also has phase shifts with corresponding solar activity.In addition,the temporal variation of the north-south (N- S) asymmetry of the rotational cycle length is also studied.This displays the same variation trend as the N-S asymmetry of solar activity in a solar cycle,as well as in the considered time interval,and has two significant periods of 7.7 and 17.5 yr.Moreover,the rotational cycle length and the N-S asymmetry of solar activity are highly correlated.It is inferred that the northern hemisphere should rotate faster at the beginning of solar cycle 24.

  6. Service Variation Model in Customer Relationships

    Stathopoulou, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the variations of customer relationships across different types of services and it contributes the existing knowledge of service marketing in three main ways. First, it identifies and brings together a coherent and exhaustive set of drivers that can explain repeat purchase behaviours. Second, it identifies the relational bonds which can strengthen or weaken service relationships and repurchase intentions through different service actions. Third, drawing on Theory of Plann...

  7. Inter-species variation in bone mineral

    Beckett, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Bone is a complex heterogeneous composite material with organic and inorganic components. The inorganic component; bone mineral, is a poorly crystalline, non-stoichiometric form of calcium hydroxylapatite. A model for the general structure and composition of bone mineral has been established within the literature. However, the nature and extent of variation in bone mineral composition and structure has, to date, been poorly understood. This situation also applies to the general response of bo...

  8. Review on Translation as Adaptive Variation

    ZHOU Xiao-han

    2014-01-01

    Translation as Adaptive Variation originally is Professor Ma Xiao’s doctoral dissertation, providing a novel perspective and a theoretical concept for translation researchers. It will firstly have a review on the book, explaining Professor Ma’s theory in details and pointing out the key concepts, then analysis it’s significance to translation theory and study. Furthermore, several weakness may be presented for future improving.

  9. Variational calculations on the hydrogen molecular ion

    Taylor, J. M.; Yan, Zong-Chao; Dalgarno, A.; Babb, J. F.

    1998-01-01

    We present high-precision non-relativistic variational calculations of bound vibrational-rotational state energies for the $H_2^+$ and $D_2^+$ molecular ions in each of the lowest electronic states of $\\Sigma_g$, $\\Sigma_u$, and $\\Pi_u$ symmetry. The calculations are carried out including coupling between $\\Sigma$ and $\\Pi$ states but without using the Born-Oppenheimer or any adiabatic approximation. Convergence studies are presented which indicate that the resulting energies for low-lying le...

  10. Accurate variational forms for multiskyrmion configurations

    Jackson, A.D.; Weiss, C.; Wirzba, A.; Lande, A.

    1989-04-17

    Simple variational forms are suggested for the fields of a single skyrmion on a hypersphere, S/sub 3/(L), and of a face-centered cubic array of skyrmions in flat space, R/sub 3/. The resulting energies are accurate at the level of 0.2%. These approximate field configurations provide a useful alternative to brute-force solutions of the corresponding Euler equations.

  11. Balance Systems and the Variational Bicomplex

    Serge Preston

    2011-01-01

    In this work we show that the systems of balance equations (balance systems) of continuum thermodynamics occupy a natural place in the variational bicomplex formalism. We apply the vertical homotopy decomposition to get a local splitting (in a convenient domain) of a general balance system as the sum of a Lagrangian part and a complemental ''pure non-Lagrangian'' balance system. In the case when derivatives of the dynamical fields do not enter the constitutive relations of the balance system,...

  12. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    Lee, Won Hong; Hwang, Seon Moon [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon Ha [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer.

  13. Variational methods in steady state diffusion problems

    Classical variational techniques are used to obtain accurate solutions to the multigroup multiregion one dimensional steady state neutron diffusion equation. Analytic solutions are constructed for benchmark verification. Functionals with cubic trial functions and conservational lagrangian constraints are exhibited and compared with nonconservational functionals with respect to neutron balance and to relative flux and current at interfaces. Excellent agreement of the conservational functionals using cubic trial functions is obtained in comparison with analytic solutions

  14. Variational global analysis of satellite temperature soundings

    Halem, M.; Kalnay, E.

    1983-01-01

    A variational spherical harmonic analysis is developed for the production of global geopotential height and geostropic wind fields from the TIROS-N spacecraft's temperature sounding profiles. This scheme is based on Tykhonov's (1964) regularization method, and the smoothing parameter is determined by cross validation. The scheme is noted to be stable and computationally efficient, and it does not depend on a priori information. Its applications to three-dimensional temperature retrievals and to four-dimensional spectral analyses are illustrated.

  15. The variational Bayes approximation in Bayesian filtering

    Šmídl, Václav; Quinn, A.

    Bryan : IEEE, 2006, s. 1-4. ISBN 1-4244-0469-X. [IEEE International Conference on Acoustics , Speech and Signal Processing. Toulouse (FR), 14.05.2006-19.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100750401; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : variational Bayes * Bayesian filtering Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  16. Geographic variation in gorilla limb bones.

    Jabbour, Rebecca S; Pearman, Tessa L

    2016-06-01

    Gorilla systematics has received increased attention over recent decades from primatologists, conservationists, and paleontologists. Studies of geographic variation in DNA, skulls, and teeth have led to new taxonomic proposals, such as recognition of two gorilla species, Gorilla gorilla (western gorilla) and Gorilla beringei (eastern gorilla). Postcranial differences between mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei) and western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) have a long history of study, but differences between the limb bones of the eastern and western species have not yet been examined with an emphasis on geographic variation within each species. In addition, proposals for recognition of the Cross River gorilla as Gorilla gorilla diehli and gorillas from Tshiaberimu and Kahuzi as G. b. rex-pymaeorum have not been evaluated in the context of geographic variation in the forelimb and hindlimb skeletons. Forty-three linear measurements were collected from limb bones of 266 adult gorillas representing populations of G. b. beringei, Gorilla beringei graueri, G. g. gorilla, and G. g. diehli in order to investigate geographic diversity. Skeletal elements included the humerus, radius, third metacarpal, third proximal hand phalanx, femur, tibia, calcaneus, first metatarsal, third metatarsal, and third proximal foot phalanx. Comparisons of means and principal components analyses clearly differentiate eastern and western gorillas, indicating that eastern gorillas have absolutely and relatively smaller hands and feet, among other differences. Gorilla subspecies and populations cluster consistently by species, although G. g. diehli may be similar to the eastern gorillas in having small hands and feet. The subspecies of G. beringei are distinguished less strongly and by different variables than the two gorilla species. Populations of G. b. graueri are variable, and Kahuzi and Tshiaberimu specimens do not cluster together. Results support the possible influence of

  17. Identifying Thematic Variations in SDSS research.

    Chen, Chaomei; Ibekwe-Sanjuan, Fidelia; Sanjuan, Eric; Vogeley, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is the largest ongoing sky survey. It regularly makes data releases to the astronomical community. From a macroscopic point of view, a profound question is: what is the role of SDSS data releases in the evolution of the relevant scientific fields? In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach by combining statistical, information-theoretical, and symbolic methods for text data analysis and show how this combined approach can distinguish thematic variat...

  18. Ethnic variation in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis.

    Anna K Coussens

    Full Text Available Distinct phylogenetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB cause disease in patients of particular genetic ancestry, and elicit different patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion when cultured with human macrophages in vitro. Circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of these inflammatory mediators might therefore be expected to vary significantly between tuberculosis patients of different ethnic origin. Studies to characterise such variation, and to determine whether it relates to host or bacillary factors, have not been conducted. We therefore compared circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of 43 inflammatory mediators and 14 haematological parameters (inflammatory profile in 45 pulmonary tuberculosis patients of African ancestry vs. 83 patients of Eurasian ancestry in London, UK, and investigated the influence of bacillary and host genotype on these profiles. Despite having similar demographic and clinical characteristics, patients of differing ancestry exhibited distinct inflammatory profiles at presentation: those of African ancestry had lower neutrophil counts, lower serum concentrations of CCL2, CCL11 and vitamin D binding protein (DBP but higher serum CCL5 concentrations and higher antigen-stimulated IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-12 secretion. These differences associated with ethnic variation in host DBP genotype, but not with ethnic variation in MTB strain. Ethnic differences in inflammatory profile became more marked following initiation of antimicrobial therapy, and immunological correlates of speed of elimination of MTB from the sputum differed between patients of African vs. Eurasian ancestry. Our study demonstrates a hitherto unappreciated degree of ethnic heterogeneity in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis patients that associates primarily with ethnic variation in host, rather than bacillary, genotype. Candidate immunodiagnostics and immunological biomarkers of response to antimicrobial therapy

  19. Variational Asymptotic Micromechanics Modeling of Composite Materials

    Tang, Tian

    2008-01-01

    The issue of accurately determining the effective properties of composite materials has received the attention of numerous researchers in the last few decades and continues to be in the forefront of material research. Micromechanics models have been proven to be very useful tools for design and analysis of composite materials. In the present work, a versatile micromechanics modeling framework, namely, the Variational Asymptotic Method for Unit Cell Homogenization (VAMUCH), has been invented a...

  20. Polarization and Variations of BL Lacertae Objects

    Fan, J.H.; Cheng, K. S.; Zhang, L.

    1999-01-01

    BL Lacertae objects are an extreme subclass of AGNs showing rapid and large-amplitude variability, high and variable polarization, and core-dominated radio emissions. If a strong beaming effect is the cause of the extreme observation properties, one would expect that these properties would be correlated with each other. Based on the relativistic beaming model, relationships between the polarization and the magnitude variation in brightness, as well as the core- dominance parameter are derived...